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Technical feasibility of centrifugal techniques for evaluating hazardous waste migration

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Technical feasibility of centrifugal techniques for evaluating hazardous waste migration
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Goforth, Gary F. E., 1956-
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xi, 122 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Acceleration ( jstor )
Centrifugation ( jstor )
Conductivity ( jstor )
Hydraulic conductivity ( jstor )
Hydraulics ( jstor )
Moisture content ( jstor )
Pressure ( jstor )
Soil samples ( jstor )
Soils ( jstor )
Surgical suction ( jstor )
Centrifugation ( lcsh )
Fluid dynamics ( lcsh )
Waste disposal in the ground ( lcsh )
City of Madison ( local )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1986.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 112-116).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Gary F.E. Goforth.

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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY OF CENTRIFUGAL TECHNIQUES
FOR EVALUATING HAZARDOUS WASTE MIGRATION














By

Gary F. E. Goforth


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1986















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I am grateful to each member of my research committee for their

individual contributions. The guidance and support over the past 5

years of Drs. Jim Heaney and Wayne Huber have been very helpful to my

professional and academic career development. The enthusiasm and

direction provided by Dr. Frank Townsend during the day-to-day

adventures in the laboratory were instrumental in the success of this

project. The resources and experiences of Drs. Dinesh Shah and Jim

Davidson were called upon and generously provided during the course of

this inter-disciplinary research project.

Comments and suggestions of numerous individuals at the University

of Florida have contributed to this project and are collectively

acknowledged and appreciated. Dr. Siresh Rao furnished valuable

information on contaminant migration as well as imparted natural

enthusiasm for research. The experience and assistance of Dr. Dave

Bloomquist was invaluable in resolving daily mechanical and design

problems. The ideas and laboratory assistance provided by Rob Vicevich

are appreciated. The guidance of Pete Michel in the Engineering Machine

Shop was indispensable during the fabrication of the permeameters.

The continual encouragement from my entire family is sincerely

appreciated. I am especially indebted to my wife, Karen, for all the

sacrifices she has made during the course of this research, as well as

for preparation of the manuscript.









This investigation was part of the University of Florida research

project No. 124504050, funded by the U. S. Air Force, Capt. Richard

Ashworth, Ph.D., Technical Officer and Dr. Paul Thompson, Project

Manager, Engineering Services Center, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida.

The support of the Water Resources Engineering Group, directed by

Dr. Michael Palermo, of the U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment

Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, is greatly appreciated.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... ii

LIST OF TABLES .... vi

LIST OF FIGURES .... .. ..... vii

KEY TO SYMBOLS USED IN TEXT .... ix

ABSTRACT .. .. x

CHAPTERS

I INTRODUCTION .... .. .. 1

Scope 1
Objectives .. 2

II BACKGROUND .... .. .. 5

Contaminant Migration .. .. .. 5
Advection ...... .. ........... 10
Flow in Unsaturated Media ................. 14
Immiscible Fluid Flow 17
Methods of Prediction .... .. 19

III CENTRIFUGE THEORY .... .. ... 25

Historical Use of Centrifugation .. ... 25
University of Florida Centrifuge Equipment ... 31
Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics in a Centrifuge 31
Dimensional Analysis .... 43

IV TESTING PROGRAM ......... 46

Objectives .. .. 46
Materials 48
Testing Equipment ..... .. .. 53
Bench Testing Procedures ... .. .... 66
Centrifuge Testing Procedures .... ... 68
Unsaturated Testing .. 69
Data Analysis .. 77









V RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ... 84

Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Tests .... .85
Unsaturated Soil Tests ... 100
Discussion .. 105

VI CONCLUSIONS ... ...... 107

VII RECOMMENDATIONS ....................... 111

REFERENCES .. 112

APPENDIX DERIVATION OF VARIABLE HEAD PERMEABILITY EQUATIONS 117

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ... .122















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1. Classification of the Top 216 Installation Restoration
Program Sites by Type of Waste Area 2

2. Fundamental Relationships Between the Potential Gradient and
Hydraulic Conductivity .... 12

3. Field Methods of Estimating Hydraulic Conductivity .. 21

4. Laboratory Methods of Estimating Hydraulic Conductivity 22

5. Advantages of Centrifugal Modeling. ... 33

6. Limitations of Centrifugal Modeling .... .33

7. Summary of Scaling Relationships for Centrifugal Modeling 45

8. Summary of Permeability Testing Matrix .... 47

9. Comparison Between Properties of JP-4, Decane and Water 49

10. Characteristics of the Sand Used in the Testing Program 51

11. Characteristics of the Clay Used in the Testing Program 52

12. Evaluation of Laboratory Tests for Determining Unsaturated
Hydraulic Conductivity ... .. 70

13. Summary of Simulated Drainage Test Results ... .105















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

1. Flow Pattern of a Soluble Contaminant Beneath a Waste Source 7

2. Transport Processes of a Soluble Contaminant Within a Soil
Volume ............ 8

3. Radial Movement of Moisture in a Uniformly Dry Soil 16

4. Flow Pattern of an Insoluble Contaminant Beneath a Waste
Source .... 18

5. Number of Journal Articles on Centrifuge Applications .... 32

6. Schematic of the U. F. Geotechnical Centrifuge ... 34

7. Photograph of the U. F. Geotechnical Centrifuge ... 35

8. Definition Sketch for Analysis of Forces Acting on a Fluid
Volume in a Centrifuge .... 37

9. Hydrostatic Equilibrium in the Centrifuge .... .40

10. Definition Sketch of Soil Volume in a Centrifuge ... 41

11. Moisture Retention Curves for the Sand, Sand/Clay and Clay
Samples .... .. 54

12. Photograph of a Commercial Triaxial Apparatus ... 56

13. Comparison of Confining Stress Profiles .... 58

14. Schematic of Apparatus Used in the Saturated Hydraulic
Conductivity Tests .... 61

15. Photograph of the Saturated Conductivity Apparatus Attached to
the Centrifuge Arm a) Front View; b) Rear View ...... 62

16. Time History of the Suction Gradient During Drainage Test 74

17. Schematic of the Proposed Test Apparatus for the Instantaneous
Profile Method. ... 76

18. Definition Sketch for the Variable Head Permeability Equation -
Bench Test .... .. 79









19. Definition Sketch for the Variable Head Permeability Equation -
Centrifuge Test .. .. 81

20. Hydraulic Energy Profile During the Variable Head Test 86

21. Permeability of Water Through Sand as a Function of Pore
Volume ... ..... 88

22. Permeability of Water Through Sand as a Function of Initial
Gradient ... ... 88

23. Comparison of Centrifuge and Bench Results of Permeability of
Water through Sand .... ..... 89

24. Comparison of Centrifuge and Bench Results of Permeability of
Decane through Sand ... 91

25. Permeability of Decane Through Sand as a Function of Initial
Gradient ... ... 91

26. Comparison of Centrifuge and Bench Results of Permeability of
Water through Sand/Clay .... 93

27. Comparison of Permeability of Water Through Sand/Clay as a
Function of Acceleration Level .. 93

28. Comparison of the Permeabilities of Decane and Water Through
Sand/Clay a) Sample 1; b) Sample 2 .... 94

29. Permeability of Decane Through Sand/Clay as a Function of
Initial Gradient a) Sample 1; b) Sample 2 ... 96

30. Comparison of the Permeabilities of Decane and Water Through
Clay; Initial Water Content 29% a) Sample 1; b) Sample 2 98

31. Comparison of the Permeabilities of Decane and Water Through
Clay; Initial Water Content 327 a) Sample 1; b) Sample 2 99

32. Characteristics of the Sand Used in the Drainage Simulations
a) Hydraulic Conductivity; b) Moisture Retention
Characteristic ... ..... 102

33. Comparison of Drainage Sequence in a Soil Sample a) Bench
Simulation Results; b) Centrifuge Simulation Results .... .103

34. Comparison of the Pressure Profiles in a Soil Sample a) Bench
Simulation Results; b) Centrifuge Simulation Results .... .104


viii
















KEY TO SYMBOLS USED IN TEXT


ar
A,a
b
C
c
D
d
f
g
H
HL
ha
J
K
k
L
M
N
n
e
P


Pe
q
Re
r
S
a
t
u
V
v
w
X
z


acceleration acting on control mass
cross-sectional area
contact angle
solute concentration
minor energy loss coefficient
hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient
representative length
friction factor
acceleration due to gravity
total hydraulic energy
energy loss between two points
air entry pressure
convective-dispersive solute flux
hydraulic conductivity
intrinsic permeability
representative length
representative mass
ratio of model to prototype acceleration
nominal porosity of soil
volumetric water content
pressure
mass density
Peclet number
specific discharge
Reynolds number
representative radius
sum of source/sink components
surface tension
representative time
dynamic (absolute) viscosity
average fluid velocity
kinematic viscosity
angular velocity
ratio of prototype to model length
representative elevation


(L/T2)
(L2)
(rad)
(M/L2)
dimensionlesss)
(L2/T)
(L)
dimensionlesss)
(L/T2)



(L)
(M/L2T)

(L2)
(L)
(M)
dimensionlesss)
dimensionlesss)
(L3/L3)
(M/LT2)
(M/L3)
dimensionlesss)
(L/T)
dimensionlesss)
(L)
(M/L2T)
(M/T2)
(T)
(M/TL)
(L/T)
(L2/T)
(rad/T)
dimensionlesss)
(L)
















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY OF CENTRIFUGAL TECHNIQUES
FOR EVALUATING HAZARDOUS WASTE MIGRATION

By

Gary F. E. Goforth

May 1986


Chairman: Dr. James P. Heaney
Cochairman: Dr. Frank C. Townsend
Major Department: Environmental Engineering Sciences



This study was designed and executed to assess the technical

feasibility of using centrifugal techniques to predict the transport

characteristics of hazardous waste through soil. Advection is generally

the major mechanism of contaminant migration from a waste source. For

soluble contaminants, advection occurs within the aqueous phase. For

immiscible fluid contaminants, such as the jet fuel JP-4, migration

rates are often independent of the rates of water movement. Advection in

saturated and unsaturated soils can be predicted from physical models or

from measurements of the hydraulic conductivity in conjunction with

knowledge of existing hydraulic gradients.

A flexible wall permeameter was designed and utilized for

determining saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil samples in the

centrifuge and on the laboratory bench. Fundamental relationships of









hydrodynamic pressure distribution and fluid kinematics within a soil

volume undergoing radial acceleration were derived and verified during

the study. Reagent grade decane was utilized as a surrogate for JP-4

jet fuel. Estimates of the hydraulic conductivity for water and decane

were obtained in sand, sand/clay and 100 percent kaolinite samples.

Testing conducted in the centrifuge reproduced bench test results,

including the deviation from Darcy's law observed in the sand samples

above a gradient of ten. A possible benefit of centrifugal techniques

for saturated soils was the more accurate reproduction of soil stresses

within the sample.

Several laboratory techniques to determine the unsaturated

hydraulic conductivity as a function of soil moisture content were

evaluated. The instantaneous profile method (IPM) was selected as the

technique which would be most conducive to adaptation for use in the

centrifuge. An apparatus was designed and fabricated for conducting the

IPM tests on the laboratory bench and in the centrifuge. Computer

results indicated that a significant decrease in the testing time and a

greater range of moisture contents can be realized by conducting the IPM

test in the centrifuge. However, the use of the centrifuge for

physical modeling of unsaturated phenomena, such as leachate from a

waste pit, offers no advantage over laboratory bench models because of

the dominance of soil moisture suction gradients over gravity gradients

in unsaturated soils.














CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


Scope

The assessment of local and regional impacts on groundwater

resources due to leachate of hazardous wastes from confined disposal

areas and accidental spills necessitates the prediction of contaminant

migration. In general, either a physical or numerical model can be

applied to depict the mass transport phenomena.

Tyndall Air Force Base was considering the construction of a

large-scale centrifuge for structural, geotechnical and environmental

research applications. The U.S. Department of Defense Installation and

Restoration Program has identified over 200 high priority hazardous

waste sites at Air Force facilities which require mitigative measures

(Heaney, 1984). Categories of waste sources are presented in Table 1.

Of significant concern is the transport characteristics of jet fuel JP-4

through soil. A laboratory research study was designed and executed to

evaluate the feasibility of using centrifugal techniques to determine

hazardous waste migration characteristics. The utilization of a

centrifuge may offer several advantages over traditional physical

modeling apparatus as well as provide the dual capability of performing

as a laboratory instrument capable of testing material properties. The

centrifugal techniques were evaluated on the following criteria:

1. Can they significantly shorten the testing period?

2. Can they reduce the uncertainty associated with estimates of








Table 1. Classification of the Top 216 Installation
Restoration Program Sites by Type of Waste Area

Type of Waste Area Number in Percent in
Top 216 Top 216


Landfills 61 28.2

Surface impoundments, lagoons,
beds and waste pits 57 26.4

Leaks and spills 43 19.9

Fire training areas 28 13.0

Drainage areas 16 7.4

Other 11 5.1

TOTAL 216 100.0

Source: Heaney, 1984


hydraulic conductivity of soil samples?

3. How do the costs compare with conventional techniques?


Objectives

The objective of this study was to assess the technical feasibility

of using a large-scale centrifuge for determining migration rates and

characteristics of hazardous wastes. Centrifugal techniques for

evaluating hazardous waste migration include physical modeling and

material properties testing. While physical modeling has been

successfully conducted under l-g conditions on the laboratory bench,

gravity-dominated phenomena can be accelerated within a centrifuge,

thereby providing an additional scaling factor and attendant reduction

in testing time. Several geotechnical applications have demonstrated the

feasibility of centrifugal modeling for such gravity-dominated phenomena

as sedimentation and consolidation (Bloomquist and Townsend, 1984;









Mikasa and Takada, 1984). An additional advantage of centrifugal

modeling is the accurate reproduction of effective stresses in the

scaled down soil profile as a result of the greater acceleration force

acting on the soil particles. To fully utilize the potential of physical

modeling in the centrifuge, the fundamental relationships of radial

acceleration, hydraulic pressures and pore fluid kinematics within the

centrifuge soil sample needed to be developed and verified. The

execution of concurrent bench and centrifuge hydraulic conductivity

testing provided the opportunity to investigate these fundamental fluid

flow properties as well as allowed the direct assessment of the

feasibility of material properties testing within the centrifuge. The

objective of the laboratory research program was to develop centrifugal

testing methods for determining saturated and unsaturated hydraulic

conductivity of soil samples. The testing program encompassed

1. design, fabrication and analysis of permeameters for use in the

centrifuge;

2. execution of hydraulic conductivity tests in a 1-g environment

to provide a benchmark to compare centrifuge results;

3. derivation of the appropriate equations of motion for fluid flow

in a centrifuge;

4. execution of hydraulic conductivity tests in the centrifuge at

various accelerations;

5. comparison of centrifuge results with 1-g test result; and

6. (if necessary) modification of the centrifuge device, testing

procedures and/or data analysis based on results of the comparison.

A secondary goal of the project was to establish the theoretical and

practical operating limits of centrifugal techniques. The flow and





4


storage characteristics of commercially available n-decane were

evaluated during the course of this study as a surrogate for JP-4.

Results of the testing program will serve as the foundation for

subsequent research in the area of centrifugal modeling of hazardous

waste migration.















CHAPTER II
BACKGROUND


Contaminant Migration

Predicting the migration of jet fuel and its derivatives from

storage areas is a challenging problem. Fluid flow will occur in both

partially saturated and fully saturated soil. Material storage and

transport can be dominated by either the lateral movement of vapors

(Reichmuth, 1984), the advection and dispersion of soluble fractions

within percolating water (Schwille, 1984), interfacial phenomena

occurring between the fuel and the soil matrix, e.g., adsorption and

biodegradation (Borden et al., 1984) or a variety of theological

phenomena associated with multiple phase (e.g, air-water-oil) flow

systems, including the pure advection of the water insoluble fractions.

The cumulative mass transport from the waste source to the water

table and/or a downstream water resource is sensitive to site-specific

advective, dispersive and reactive properties of the soil-fluid system.

In lieu of collecting extensive site-specific data to describe the

transport phenomena, a conservative estimate is often initially

presented which considers only advective transport. The efforts of the

current study are hence directed at techniques for estimating the

advective properties of jet fuel in unsaturated and saturated soil.

Contaminant migration within the soil profile is a complex

phenomenon, reflecting the chemical diversity of contaminants as well as

the variety and heterogeneity of the geohydrologic regimes and soil








matrices encountered. Nonetheless, predictions of the travel rates and

directions of contaminant movement can be formalized based on

generalized transport phenomena. The movement of a soluble contaminant

will in general be governed by the flux of water through the soil

profile. Below a disposal area this fluid movement may resemble the

pattern depicted in Figure 1. Figure 2 presents a schematic of a porous

soil volume through which a solute is passing. Basically, four

fundamental transport phenomena account for all significant movement of

a solute within a soil profile:

1. Advection refers to the movement of a solute by virtue of its

entrainment within the bulk fluid.

2. Mechanical dispersion is the flux of a solute which results from

nonuniform pore fluid velocities, i.e., due to flow path tortuosity

and dead-end channels, the velocities within typical soil volumes

are not uniformly distributed.

3. Molecular diffusion is the movement of a solute solely on the basis

of concentration gradients. Because of their similar influence on

solute movement, mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion are

often represented by a single term referred to as hydrodynamic

dispersion.

4. Source/sink phenomena, including adsorption. Adsorption phenomena

encompass a variety of interactions of the solute with the surfaces

of the soil matrix. Source/sink phenomena are influenced by many

factors, including soil and bulk fluid pH, the ionic nature of the

soil and solute, and the surface characteristics of the soil.

These phenomena are significant to varying degrees, entirely specific to

the site characteristics. For example, in the transport of




























































Figure 1. Flow Pattern of a Soluble Contaminant Beneath a Waste Source































-
-- 3 --












LEGEND
1. ADVECTION
2. MECHANICAL DISPERSION
3. MOLECULAR DIFFUSION
4. ADSORPTION PHENOMENA









Figure 2. Transport Processes of a Soluble Contaminant Within a Soil
Volume








a low concentration of a nonionic compound through uniformly graded

coarse sand, the advection term would dominate the material transport;

molecular diffusion would be insignificant due to relatively large pore

fluid velocities and the small concentration gradients of the solute;

adsorption phenomena may also be insignificant due to the relatively

large advection component, nonionic nature of the solute and small

specific surface area of the soil. At the other extreme, the movement

of a high concentration of a cationic solute through a thick clay

landfill liner would be governed less by advection and more by

adsorption and diffusion phenomena. The mass transport of a contaminant

can be expressed quantitatively as a composite of these elements

(Davidson et al., 1983)

J = -D 0 dC + qC + S (1)
dz

where J = convective-dispersive solute flux per unit cross-sectional
area (M/L2T);

D = hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient (L2/T);

e = volumetric soil water content (L3/L3);

dC = solute concentration gradient in the z direction (M/L4);
dz
q specific discharge, i.e., the volumetric discharge of bulk
fluid per unit cross-sectional area (L/T);

C = solute concentration (M/L3); and

S = sum of the source/sink components (M/L2T).

The advective component, qC, can be further expanded as

qC = C [-K(e) dH] (2)
dz
where K(e) hydraulic conductivity, which is dependent on the water
content; and

dH E hydraulic potential gradient in the z direction
dz

which explicitly relates the mass transport of a solute to the hydraulic










conductivity and the gradient. In addition, the magnitude of the

hydraulic conductivity is important not only for the advection of a

solute but also for the kinetics of the other components as well. The

hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient in most natural soils with uniform

porosities is dependent on the pore fluid velocity as is the reaction

time for adsorption and other source/sink phenomena (Rao and Jessup,

1983). The relative magnitudes of the transport phenomena can be

expressed by the Peclet number, Pe, a dimensionless quantity defined as

(Bear, 1972)

Pe = qL/eD (3)

where L = representative length. During flow conditions at low Peclet

numbers, the dispersion and diffusion phenomena dominate the transport

process, while advection dominates solute migration under flow

conditions with high Peclet numbers. However, to assess the relative

significance of each term, the influential parameters of the solute,

soil matrix and extant geohydrologic regimes must be evaluated. The

geohydrologic regime of a particular site may be saturated, unsaturated

or some heterogeneous combination. In turn, the character and

significance of each component of the material transport phenomena is

highly influenced by this regime.


Advection

In many cases of pollutant transport, consideration of downstream

risks requires that conservative estimates of travel time through the

medium in question be obtained. In a soil matrix, this conservative

value of contaminant migration is generally the advection term and is

estimated from the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil, which








may be three to five orders of magnitude greater than the hydraulic

conductivity of the unsaturated soil at its average moisture content.

However, for engineering design purposes, the average value of the

hydraulic conductivity may be desired, as there may be tremendous

differences in control technologies and economics compared to solutions

using the saturated values.

The rate of bulk fluid movement through the soil profile is the

most fundamental process affecting the migration of soluble or

immiscible contaminants. A fluid moves through the soil matrix in

response to hydraulic energy (potential) gradients. The hydraulic

potential of fluid in the pores of a soil volume has been defined as the

amount of work necessary to transport, reversibly and isothermally, a

volume of pure water from an external reservoir at a known elevation to

the soil volume at a known location and pressure. While the validity of

this definition has been debated, it does convey the fundamental

concepts of hydraulic energy of pore fluid. The flux of fluid through a

soil volume, whether saturated or unsaturated, is proportional to the

existing potential gradient, as stated by Darcy's law, written in one

dimension as

q = -K (dH/dz) (4)

where q = specific discharge, defined as the volume of fluid
passing through a unit area of soil in a unit time (L/T).

The terms hydraulic conductivity and permeability are often used

interchangeably, reflecting the broad range of disciplines which employ

the parameter. The term hydraulic conductivity will be used throughout

this text when referring to the constant of proportionality between the

total hydraulic potential gradient and the specific discharge.









The gradient of the total hydraulic potential provides the driving

force for water movement in soils. The total potential energy can be

expressed on the basis of energy per unit weight, defined as the

hydraulic potential, or head, which has the dimension of length. The

potential energy can also be expressed as energy per unit volume,

defined as the pressure potential, with the dimensions M/LT2; or as

energy per unit mass, defined as the specific energy potential, with the

dimensions L2/T2. The units of hydraulic conductivity must be

dimensionally consistent with the potential energy term; Table 2

summarizes these relationships.


Table 2. Fundamental Relationships Between the Potential
Gradient and Hydraulic Conductivity

Potential Dimensions Example
Gradient of K of K


Hydraulic Potential /T cm/s
Pressure Potential L /M cm2s/g
Specific Energy Potential T sec



Darcy's original work employed the dimension of length for the

hydraulic potential (Darcy, 1856). As a consequence, the dimensions of

the potential gradient were length per unit length and the dimensions of

the hydraulic conductivity were length per time, later expressed as a

function of both the bulk fluid and the soil media (Bear, 1979)

K kg / v (5)

where k = intrinsic permeability of the medium (L2)

g = acceleration due to gravity acting on the fluid (L/T2);
and

v = kinematic viscosity of the fluid (L2/L).

The influence of acceleration due to gravity can be separated by










employing the dimensions of the specific energy potential. The

resulting coefficient of proportionality has the dimension of time, and

still preserves the direct relation between the properties of the medium

and fluid. Accordingly, equation 5 can be modified as

K k / v (6)

Based on this relationship, the hydraulic conductivity, and hence flow

rates, of various bulk fluids in a similar medium theoretically can be

determined from the fluid's kinematic viscosity. This principle is

relevant in predicting the bulk transport of nonaqueous fluids as well

as the advection of solutes in aqueous flow. However, this extrapolation

is based on the implicit condition that chemical interactions between

the bulk fluid and the soil matrix would not alter the intrinsic

permeability. In fact, in investigations of contaminant migration the

solution properties and surface chemistry of the solute and soil need to

be examined. Numerous studies have documented increases or decreases in

the hydraulic conductivity beyond that suggested by equation 5 (Gordon

and Forrest, 1981; Brown et al., 1984). For example, one study reported

an increase in conductivity of three orders of magnitude with the

addition of gasoline to water in a clay soil (Brown et al., 1984). The

viscosity of gasoline is approximately one half that of water, so a two-

fold increase in the conductivity was expected from equation 5. The

tremendous increase was attributed to the surface chemistry properties

of the water/gasoline/clay system. The gasoline apparently displaced

the water molecules separating the clay sheets which in turn created

numerous cracks through which the fluid passed more readily.

Darcy's law is generally regarded as valid in laminar flow ranges,

that is, where viscous forces predominate over inertial forces acting on










the fluid. By analogy to open channel hydraulics, a Reynolds number,

Re, has been defined for flow through porous media as (Bear, 1979)

Re = q d /v (7)

where d = representative length of the porous matrix (L). Often d is

taken as either the mean grain diameter or the diameter such that 10

percent by weight are smaller. Experimental evidence suggests that

Darcy's law becomes invalid at some point in the range of Re between 1

and 10 (Bear, 1979).


Flow in Unsaturated Media

The infiltration of leachate from a waste storage pond, an

accidental spill or other source will generally encounter unsaturated

soil directly below the site. As is the case in saturated media,

hydraulic potential gradients determine the flow conditions in

unsaturated soils. The unsaturated hydraulic gradient is composed of

similar components such as pressure potential and gravitational

potential; also, thermal gradients can exist which influence fluid

movement. However, unlike the positive pressures acting on pore fluid

in saturated media, pressures which are less than atmospheric are

exerted on fluid volumes within unsaturated soil. By convention these

pressures are considered negative, and the positive (in sign) terms soil

moisture suction and matric potential are widely used. Soil suction

increases rapidly as the pore water content decreases. The relationship

between soil suction and water content is referred to as a moisture

retention curve and exhibits a hysteretic effect between the wetting

imbibitionn) and desorption (drainage) paths. In association with the

wide range of moisture contents and cycles of imbibition and drainage,









the hydraulic gradient in the unsaturated zone can be dominated by any

one of the components during specific flow conditions.

As the soil dries, the influence of gravity on the movement of pore

fluid decreases. For the majority of the time fluid flux in natural

soils is dominated by suction gradients, which can typically be 1000 to

10,000 times greater than the gradient due to gravity (Hillel, 1982). In

a uniformly dry soil, water movement below an influent source will occur

in a radial pattern, as in Figure 3, demonstrating the negligible

influence of gravity. Thus, in the scenario of percolation of leachate

from a hazardous waste site overlaying an unsaturated soil profile, the

movement of fluid will be dominated by the soil suction gradients.

Another consequence of decreasing soil moisture content as the soil

dries out is the attendant decrease in the hydraulic conductivity.

Reductions of up to five orders of magnitude from the saturated

hydraulic conductivity value have been documented (Hillel, 1982). This

reduction may be attributed to several phenomena: (1) the first pores

to empty are the larger ones which offer the least flow resistance; (2)

as the center of the pores lose water first, the adsorption influence of

the soil particles on the water film further increases the resistance

to flow; (3) the tortuosity of the flow paths increases as the pores

drain; and (4) the total cross-sectional area of flow decreases, thereby

requiring a larger gradient to maintain a given specific discharge.












WATER SOURCE



I


Figure 3. Radial Movement of Moisture in a Uniformly Dry Soil











Immiscible Fluid Flow

Two fluids are mutually immiscible if their solubility in the other

is very low. Decane and JP-4 jet fuel are immiscible in water; decane

has a solubility of 0.009 mg/l at 200C. The movement of these fluids

through soil, as depicted in Figure 4, is vastly different than the

transport of a soluble contaminant. The advection and hydrodynamic

dispersion within the water phase are negligible due to their limited

solubility. In soils that are initially water-saturated, insoluble

wastes must displace extant water from soil pores in order to migrate

through the voids. The energy required to displace the existing liquid

from the pores is termed the interfacial energy (Adamson, 1982). An

analogous situation occurs when saturating a porous media (e.g., a

porous stone) originally filled with air. In that case, the interfacial

energy is commonly expressed as the air entry pressure or bubble

pressure (Brooks and Corey, 1964). The magnitude of the interfacial

energy is inversely proportional to the diameters of the pore, or

(Adamson, 1982)

ha = 2 s cos(b) /(dp r g) (8)

where ha = air entry pressure (L);

s = surface tension (M/T2);

b = contact angle (rad);

dp = difference in fluid densities (M/L3); and

r = radius of the pores (L).

For flow to occur, the hydraulic energy gradient across a sample must be

sufficient to satisfy the interfacial energy requirements. The smaller

the soil pores, the greater the driving force required to displace the

water.





























































Flow Pattern of an Insoluble Contaminant Beneath a Waste Source


Figure 4.








In unsaturated soil, a three-phase flow system exists, composed of

air, water and the immiscible fluid. The movement of each fluid occurs

only after the volume of that fluid attains a minimum value, referred

to as the residual saturation. The residual saturation is specific to

the fluid and soil type. Most components of JP-4 are less dense than

water; hence, any of these lighter fluids which reaches the water table

will spread on the surface. The travel distance is limited by the

residual saturation flow requirement. Migration into and along with the

surficial aquifer fluid will be limited by the solubility of the various

fractional components of JP-4.


Methods of Prediction

A wide variety of analytical, numerical and physical techniques

have been developed to predict hazardous waste transport (Anderson-

Nichols, 1984). In all cases, an estimate of the hydraulic conductivity

is paramount to estimating the migration rate of a material through the

soil. Literature from soil physics, groundwater hydraulics,

geohydrology and geotechnical engineering publications was reviewed to

provide a comprehensive information base of field and laboratory methods

used to estimate hydraulic conductivity. In general, all the lab tests

provide an estimate of hydraulic conductivity for one-dimensional flow,

whereas field conditions are often two- or three-dimensional.


Field Tests

Field tests are often preferred over laboratory tests for saturated

soils because they generally utilize a larger volume of soil, which

includes the effects of the soil macrostructure, e.g., worm holes, roots

and fissures, which contribute to the overall anisotropy of the flow









region. Field tests also are generally designed to account for three-

dimensional flow. Discrepancies of three orders of magnitude have been

observed between field and laboratory tests (Day and Daniel, 1985). A

summary of field methods for measuring hydraulic conductivity is

presented in Table 3.


Laboratory Tests

Laboratory tests can be conducted to determine the physical and

chemical properties of the soil medium and the contaminant. These data

can be used in subsequent analysis of migration rates and/or evaluation

of appropriate mitigative measures. In the classical treatment of a soil

volume as a physical continuum, the concept of a representative

elementary volume (REV) emerges when conducting laboratory tests. The

REV is defined as the smallest volume of soil which accurately

characterizes the extrinsic and intrinsic variability of the parameter

in question. A summary of laboratory techniques for determining the

hydraulic conductivity of a soil specimen is presented in Table 4.


Saturated hydraulic conductivity tests

Laboratory procedures for determining saturated hydraulic

conductivity of soil specimens have been standardized by several

organizations. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM), the

U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers

(USCOE) and others have documented techniques for specific soil types.

The principle of the test has remained essentially unchanged from the

famous Dijon, France sand filter experiments conducted by Henri Darcy in

1855. However, the apparatus used to conduct the test has been modified









Table 3. Field Methods of Estimating Hydraulic Conductivity
Physical Moisture
Method Scale Content Reference(s)
Range

Unsteady Flow Tests


1. Instantaneous Point
Profile


2. Theta method Point


3. Flux method Point


4. Pump test Regional
nonsteady flow

5. Double tube Point
method

6. Auger hole Point


7. Piezometer Point
method

Steady Flux Tests

8. Crust- Point
imposed flux

9. Sprinkler- Point
imposed flux

10. Tracer Field
transport

11. Double-ring Point
infiltrometer

12. Pump test Regional
steady flow

13. Dry auger Point
hole method

14. Carved Point
column

15. Permeameter Point
method


Moist to
saturated


Moist to
saturated

Moist to
saturated

Unconfined
aquifer

Saturated


Saturated


Saturated




Moist to
saturated

Moist to
saturated

Saturated


Saturated


Unconfined
aquifer

Saturated


Saturated


Saturated


Green et al., 1983
Dane and Hruska, 1983
Chong et al., 1981

Libardi et al., 1980
Jones and Wagenet, 1984

Libardi et al., 1980
Jones and Wagenet, 1984

Bear, 1979


Bouma et al., 1982
USGS, 1982

Bouma et al., 1982
USGS, 1982

Boersma, 1965b
USGS, 1982



Green et al., 1983


Green et al., 1983


Bear, 1979


Chong et al., 1981


Bear, 1979


Boersma, 1965a
Bouma et al., 1982

Bouma et al., 1982


Boersma, 1965a









Table 4. Laboratory Methods of Estimating Hydraulic
Conductivity
Flow Moisture
Method Condition Content Reference(s)
Range


Constant head
permeameter

Falling head
permeameter

Triaxial
cell test

Low-gradient
constant flux

Constant
pressure

Method of
van Genuchten

Outflow
method

Centrifuge
balance

Steady flux


Pressurized
steady flux

Consolidation
testing

Instantaneous
profile

Crust-
imposed flux

Sprinkler-
imposed flux

Centrifuge
flow through


Steady


Unsteady


Unsteady


Steady


Steady


Unsteady


Unsteady


Unsteady


Steady


Steady


Unsteady


Unsteady


Steady


Steady


Unsteady


Saturated


Saturated


Saturated


Saturated


Moist to
saturated

Moist to
saturated

Moist to
saturated

Moist to
saturated

Moist to
saturated

Moist to
saturated

Saturated


Moist to
saturated

Moist to
saturated

Moist to
saturated

Moist to
saturated


ASTM, 1974
Olson and Daniel, 1981

Bear, 1972
Olson and Daniel, 1981

Edil and Erickon, 1985
USAEWES, 1970

Olsen, 1966


Olson and Daniel, 1981


Dane, 1980


Kirkham and Powers, 1972


Alemi et al., 1976


Klute, 1965a


Klute, 1965a


Cargill, 1985
Znidarcic, 1982

Olson and Daniel, 1981


Green et al., 1983
Dunn, 1983

Dunn, 1983
Green et al., 1983

This study









as appropriate to test a wide range of soil specimens under a variety of

soil stress conditions.

Permeameters in general consist of a sample cell, a fluid conduit

system and may or may not incorporate a pressurized air system. The

sample cell can be a rigid vall container; however, to prevent short

circuiting of permeant along the wall of the sample container, some

sample cells utilize a flexible membrane in association with an applied

external pressure.


Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity tests

In contrast to the numerous techniques and apparatus available to

conduct a saturated hydraulic conductivity test, only a few methods

exist for determining the relationship between hydraulic conductivity

and water contents below saturation. However, this is commensurate

with the commercial demand for such methodology. For many engineering

purposes, including many aspects of contaminant migration, the highest

rate of flux is of concern; for these applications the saturated

hydraulic conductivity tests are appropriate.

A variety of techniques have been developed for estimating

unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Along with steady flow tests,

transient flow methods have been developed which yield estimates of

unsaturated hydraulic conductivity over a range of moisture contents.

Estimates can be obtained during the imbibition (wetting) and/or

desorption (drainage) cycle. As in the tests for saturated hydraulic

conductivity, these methods generally yield an estimate of hydraulic

conductivity for one-dimensional flow.

Laboratory techniques for determining unsaturated hydraulic

conductivity are preferred over field tests for several reasons (Hillel,










1982, Christiansen, 1985):

1. the flow during unsaturated conditions is dominated by the film of

water along soil particles, hence the influence of macrostructures

is much less than during saturated conditions;

2. better control of initial and boundary conditions is provided in

the lab and more sensitive measurements can be obtained, yielding

more accurate interpretation of data; and

3. lab tests are generally less expensive.


Physical Modeling

Another approach to predicting contaminant migration and

evaluating treatment alternatives is to construct a prototype of the

field site and conduct appropriate dynamic tests. The results can

subsequently be extrapolated to field conditions by use of appropriate

scaling relationships. The choices of materials and testing conditions

are governed by geometric, mechanical and dynamic similitude between the

model and field prototype.














CHAPTER III
CENTRIFUGE THEORY



Historical Use of Centrifugation

Centrifuges have been used as laboratory apparatus by soil

physicists and geotechnical engineers since the turn of the century.

Centrifugal techniques have been developed for performing physical

models of field-scale prototypes and for testing the physical properties

of materials. A brief history of centrifugal applications is presented

below; specific areas of interest include soil moisture retention, soil

moisture movement and solute transport. An overview of past and current

centrifuge projects is presented below to emphasize the wide range of

practical and research applications.


Soil Moisture Capacity

Centrifugal techniques have been developed to quantify the moisture

retention capacity of soils. Briggs and McLane (1907) presented the

development of experimental procedures and test results of a centrifugal

method for determining a soil parameter they designated as moisture

equivalent. They were after a way to quantitatively compare disturbed

soil samples and elected to compare samples on the basis of capillary

equilibrium in a sample undergoing a constant rotational velocity. The

centrifuge they designed was driven by a steam turbine and was capable

of rotating eight 0.5 cm soil samples up to 5500 rpm (approximately 3550









times the force of gravity, or 3550 g's). Their experimental assessment

included the influence of test duration, angular velocity and initial

water content on the moisture content after centrifugation. They

presented moisture equivalent values for 104 soil types.

In 1935 the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM)

adopted a standard test method for determining the moisture equivalent

of soils (ASTM, 1981). The moisture content of an air-dried and

reconstituted sample after centrifugation at 1000 g's for one hour was

suggested as an approximation for the air-void ratio, also referred to

as the water holding capacity or the specific retention. Additional

testing development was conducted by Johnson et al. of the U. S.

Geological Survey (1963).

Bear (1972) presented a simple method to rapidly obtain the

moisture retention curves of thin soil samples by repeated

centrifugation periods at different rotational speeds. Corey (1977)

discussed the use of gamma radiation attenuation during centrifugation

to obtain an entire segment of the moisture retention curve during the

course of a single test.


Soil Moisture Movement

Alemi et al. (1976) presented the theoretical development and

experimental design of two methods for determining the unsaturated

hydraulic conductivity of undisturbed soil cores by centrifugation. The

potential savings in time was a major advantage of the proposed method.

A closed system method was based on describing the redistribution of

moisture within a sample after centrifugation by means of the mass

shift, as detected by a pair of analytical balances. Relevant

assumptions included constant hydraulic conductivity along the sample










during redistribution and a linear relation between moisture content and

soil-water pressure head. Acceleration levels between seven and 285 g's

were imposed on a 5-cm long sample for durations of 60, 70 and 100

minutes. Estimates of conductivities from two cores of Yolo loam

compared well to field and other lab results.

Alemi et al. (1976) proposed a pressure outflow method for

determining the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity from a centrifuged

sample. Estimates of conductivity could be obtained from the record of

total outflow resulting from a specific increase in rotational velocity.

No experimental results were available to assess the method.

Cargill and Ko (1983) presented details of a centrifugal modeling

study of transient water flow in earthen embankments. The total

hydraulic head was monitored with miniature pressure transducers fitted

with porous tips. Their results suggested the movement of fines (clay

to silt grain sizes) caused anomalous increases in conductivity via

development of channelized flow paths. Comparison of centrifuge model

results with a finite element program indicated very similar heights of

the phreatic surface at the headwater end with a gradual discrepancy

toward the tailwater side of the embankment.


Solute Transport

Arulanandan et al. (1984) presented cursory details of a study

utilizing a centrifuge to execute a simple physical model of

infiltration below a ponded water surface. Breakthrough curves of

electrical resistivity in saturated sand samples were obtained under

steady water flux conditions. Acceleration levels between 1 g and 53

g's were imposed on sand samples with a saturated hydraulic conductivity









in a l-g environment of 0.01 cm/sec. A constant head was maintained

throughout the tests. The authors suggested that centrifugal modeling

"may have significant application" in determining the advective and

dispersive components of contaminant transport (1984, p. 1). However,

careful review of their testing procedure and results indicated that

only a single aspect of centrifugal techniques offers a possible

advantage over laboratory bench (i.e., l-g) physical models.

The paper described a prototype scenario of fresh water

infiltrating into a saltwater stratum of soil under a constant ponded

depth, although the conditions actually constructed were appropriate for

the much simpler one-dimensional model of a constant head saturated

hydraulic conductivity test. The breakthrough curve of fresh water was

determined at multiple acceleration levels by means of an electrical

resistivity probe located within the soil specimen. A comparison of

modeled breakthrough curves at 1 g and 53 g's indicated a reduced pore

fluid velocity at the higher acceleration. While this lag may be an

artifact of the delayed response of the resistivity probe, the results

possibly reflected lower flow rates due to an increase in effective

stress on the soil particles, caused by the increasing acceleration

level with sample depth. The accurate reproduction of the prototype

effective stress profile would be a definite advantage of centrifugal

models over laboratory bench models.

The assumption of a reduction in model length by a factor of N (the

ratio of accelerations between model and prototype) to maintain dynamic

similitude resulted in a proportionate increase in the hydraulic

gradient across the sample. This led to a major pronouncement of the

paper, i.e., that test durations will decrease proportionately by the









square of the acceleration ratios. While this result is valid in the

reference frame of the conceptually simple tests conducted, the

suggestion that the results are generally valid and uniquely a

characteristic of centrifugal modelling is misleading. The reduction in

testing time realized by centrifugal modeling can be readily duplicated

on a bench model. The equivalence in terms of hydraulic potential of

fluid pressure forces and gravity-induced body forces allows

reproduction of centrifuge acceleration potential in bench models by

merely increasing the pressure on the fluid delivery systems. Thus, the

centrifuge does not offer a unique capability for decreasing the testing

time of physical models.

The authors' suggestion that dispersive characteristics of soil

media can be modelled at accelerated velocities was apparently disputed

by the study results. Hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients reflect the

nonuniform pore fluid velocity distribution within a soil volume.

Accordingly, the dispersion coefficient has been observed to vary

significantly with the velocity of the bulk fluid, demonstrating greater

variation in soils with a wide distribution of pore sizes. While the

breakthrough curve results presented clearly demonstrated the dependence

between the dispersion coefficient and pore fluid velocity, the authors

failed to recognize this and optimistically suggested that estimates of

this parameter can indeed be determined at accelerated velocities.

Extrapolation of dispersion coefficients determined by centrifuge tests

to field conditions and pore velocities would be severely restricted to

laboratory media with an extremely uniform pore size distribution such

that hydrodynamic dispersion would be independent of pore fluid

velocity.









In summary, the study highlighted a principal feature of physical

modeling in a centrifuge, that of increasing the body forces imposed on

fluid and soil particles. However, the testing conditions were too

narrow in range to warrant the authors' general conclusion that

centrifugal modeling is superior to bench models in determining

advective characteristics of contaminant transport. In addition, the

breakthrough curve results disputed their suggestion that dispersive

characteristics of soils under field conditions can be determined in a

centrifuge model. Because the prototype condition was never executed,

there was no independent base with which to compare the model results.


Geotechnical Engineering Applications

The use of centrifuges in geotechnical engineering research has

increased at an accelerated rate in the last decade. From the earliest

reference in American literature (a study of mine roof design)

centrifuges have been utilized to investigate a wide spectrum of

problems, including landfill cover subsidence, soil liquefaction, slope

stability, cellular coffer dam performance, bearing capacity of footings

in sand, tectonic modeling, explosive and planetary impact cratering,

sinkhole collapse and evaluation of sedimentation and consolidationof

fine-grained materials.

Research centers specializing in centrifuge projects have developed

in many nations, notably England (Cambridge University), the United

States (University of California Davis, University of Florida,

University of Colorado, University of Kentucky, NASA Ames Research

Center, and others), Japan (four research centers) and France. A

recent review of the state of the art ambitiously projected "the day

will come when every well-equipped geotechnical research laboratory will









include a centrifuge for model testing .. ." (University of California,

1984, p.36). The growth curve presented in Figure 5 demonstrates the

increase in interest in centrifugal applications. A summary of

advantages and limitations of centrifugal techniques compiled from

several articles is presented in Tables 5 and 6.


University of Florida Centrifuge Equipment

The University of Florida geotechnical centrifuge has a 1-m radius

and can accelerate 25 kg to 85 g's (2125 g-kg capacity). Figure 6

presents a schematic drawing of the centrifuge and photographic

equipment. A photograph of the centrifuge is presented in Figure 7. A

window on the centrifuge housing allows visual observations of the model

in flight. A photo-electric pick-off and flash delay augment the system

for visual observation and photographic recording. Two hydraulic slip

rings supply fluid to the apparatus, while 32 slip rings are available

for transmission of electrical current.



Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics in a Centrifuge

All laboratory systems utilized as a permeameter or physical model

inherently entail fluid flow through conduits and through porous media.

The design and analysis of such an apparatus necessitated an

understanding of fluid flow in both regimes as well as any

modifications of their behavior under the influence of radial

acceleration. In this context fluid flow is discussed below.


Flow Through Conduits

During the execution of a laboratory hydraulic conductivity test,

the hydraulic energy at the sample boundaries is determined by the











40



35



J 30
0


25
J
Z
D 20-
0

IL
0 15-
hi

S 10



5



0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

YEAR (1900's)

Figure 5. Number of Journal Articles on Centrifuge Applications










Table 5. Advantages of Centrifugal Modeling

1. It is the only means for subjecting laboratory models to
gravity-induced self-weight stresses comparable to those
in the full-scale field prototypes.
2. Many gravity-dominated phenomena take place at
dramatically increased rates.
3. It allows for verification of model to prototype scaling
relationships by repeating the tests at various
acceleration levels, a technique referred to as modeling
of models.
4. A single model configuration can be used to evaluate
many different prototype configurations by varying the
acceleration levels.
5. It is the only realistic way to model large-scale
phenomena such as nuclear explosive effects and
planetary impacts.





Table 6. Limitations of Centrifugal Model Testing

1. The acceleration level in the centrifuge varies with the
radius of rotation, in contrast to the essentially
constant gravitational force field at the earth's
surface.
2. Coriolis effects may have an influence if movements occur
within the model during rotation.
3. The start-up period, when model acceleration is
increased, has no counterpart in the prototype.
4. Tangential acceleration effects may be significant if
centrifuge speeds are changed too rapidly.
5. Grain size similarity is difficult to achieve.
6. There is a risk of injury and/or property damage during
operation of a large centrifuge due to the large forces
that are developed.
7. They can be more expensive than conventional apparatus.






























































Schematic of the U. F. Geotechnical Centrifuge


Figure 6.
































































Photograph of the U. F. Geotechnical Centrifuge


Figure 7.









influent and effluent reservoir conditions and the flow characteristics

of the conduit system. Under the influence of the earth's gravitational

acceleration, the one-dimensional relationship between the pressure

distribution and fluid kinematics in a conduit flowing full between two

points is the Bernoulli equation (Fox and McDonald, 1978)

(P/p + V2/2 + gz)1 = (P/p + V2/2 + gz)2 (9)

where P = pressure acting on the fluid (M/LT2);

p = mass density of the fluid (M/L3);

V = velocity of the fluid (L/T); and

z = elevation of the point (L).

The Bernoulli equation is an integrated form of the Euler equations of

motion. An analogous equation was derived to describe the same

relationship within a centrifuge. The equations of fluid motion were

evaluated in the reference frame of a centrifugal permeameter. For the

elementary mass of fluid in a tube (see Figure 8), motion is parallel to

the radial acceleration. The forces acting on the element in the

direction of flow are

1. hydraulic pressures acting on the surfaces of the control element;

2. shearing forces of adjacent elements and/or the walls of the tube;
and

3. centrifugal body forces acting on the element.

For a control volume in a centrifuge, the acceleration, ar, acting on

the mass is a function of the radius, r, expressed as

ar = rw2 (10)

where w = angular velocity (rad/T), which is constant at all distances

from the axis of rotation. Newton's second law of motion in one





































-- dr ----


-- dFS


weight a W (pdrdA) r w2


--- (P + dP)dA


I

Figure 8. Definition Sketch for Analysis of Forces Acting on a Fluid
Volume in a Centrifuge


PdA ---


W
--0


111








dimension can be expressed as

F Mar M(dV/dt) p dr dA dV/dt (11)

where F = sum of the forces acting on the control volume (ML/T2);

M = mass of the element (M); and

A = cross-sectional area of the element (L2)

Substituting in the forces acting on the element, equation 11 becomes

PdA (P+dP)dA dFs + p ard A dr = p dr dA dV/dt (12)

where P = pressure acting on the control surface of the element; and

dF = total shear forces.

Dividing equation 12 by (pdA) and simplifying yields

(-dP/p) (dFs/pdA) + ardr = dr dV/dt (13)

Replacing dr/dt with the fluid velocity, V, (dF,/pdA) with dHL and

incorporating equation 10 yields

(-dP/p) dHL + w2 rdr = VdV (14)

Collecting terms,

-w2 rdr + dP/p + dBL + VdV = 0 (15)

For an incompressible fluid equation 15 is integrated across the element

to yield

-w2(r2 r )/2 + (P2- P1)/p + L + (V2 V)/2 0 (16)

Separating terms yields the centrifugal equivalent of the Bernoulli

equation:

(V2/2 + P/p v2r2/2)1 = (V2/2 + P/p w2r2/2)2 + HL (17)

Defining the specific energy hydraulic potential as

H V2/2 + P/p w2r2/2 (18)

Equation 17 can be written as

H1 = B2 + BL (19)









The dimensions of the specific energy potential are energy per unit

mass. For a system in hydrostatic equilibrium, the velocity and hence

the frictional losses are zero. The relationship between the pressure

distribution and the radial location is thus

P2 1 + P2(r22 r12)/2 (20)

This relationship is demonstrated in Figure 9.


Flow Through Porous Media

For flow through porous media, the velocity component of the

hydraulic potential is negligible compared to the pressure and elevation

terms. In reference to the control volume in Figure 10, Darcy's law

within a centrifuge sample can be expressed using the specific energy

potential gradient by introducing equation 18 into equation 4 as


q = -K d (P/p w2r2/2) (21)
dr


Consistent with the units of the hydraulic potential, the hydraulic

conductivity, K, has the units of time. This dimensional definition

retains the basic relationship of flow conductivity to the soil matrix

and fluid properties, i.e.,

K k / v (22)

This definition of K is not a function of the gravity induced

acceleration acting on the fluid mass. Expanding equation 21 yields


q = -K [d(P/p) w2(r + dr)2 r2]] (23)
dr 2 dr

expanding the quadratic term yields











4



3.5-


3 300 RPM
L
4-
o 2.5

E00
%O 2-
Io 200 RPM

Id
1.5


1

100 RPM

0.5-




40 60 80 100

RADIUS (cm)

Figure 9. Hydrostatic Equilibrium in a Fluid Sample in a Centrifuge


















AXIS OF ROTATION


dr
-*114


r+dr


Definition Sketch of a Soil Volume in a Centrifuge


Figure 10.










q = -K [d(P/p) 2[r2 + 2rdr + dr2 r2]]
dr 2 dr


(24)


q = -K [d(P/p) w2(2rdr + dr2)] (25)
dr 2 dr
Evaluating equation 25 at a point and neglecting the second order

differential yields


q -K [d(P/p) rw2] = -K [d(P/p) ar]
dr dr


(26)


This result is plausible; in a l-g environment, the second term in

brackets is equal to unity, while in a multiple-g environment, it is

equal to the acceleration acting on the fluid mass. Assuming that the

pressure gradient component is not influenced by the acceleration

induced by the centrifuge, the hydraulic potential gradient within the

centrifuge will increase over a 1-g sample by an amount equal to (ar-1).

This additional gradient will result in a proportionate increase in the

fluid flux through the soil, i.e., the flux at a radius, r, will

increase by an amount equal to

q = -K (ar 1) (27)

where ar is given by equation 10. However, it is important to note from

equation 26 that the increase in specific discharge is directly

proportional to the acceleration level only if the pressure gradient

equals zero.


Energy Losses in The Permeameter


Along with the

mechanical energy is

tubing walls, and,

expansions and bends.

of the Darcy-Weisbach


energy loss induced across the soil sample,

lost in the permeameter due to friction along the

of minor importance, due to flow contractions,

These losses are generally expressed in the form

equation










HL (f + C) LV2/2D (28)

where HL = lost mechanical energy per unit mass (L2/T2)

f = friction factor dimensionlesss);

C = coefficient for minor energy losses (dimensionless)t

L = length of the conduit (L); and

D = inside diameter of the conduit (L).


Dimensional Analysis

When used to conduct physical modeling of prototype behavior,

appropriate relationships between the forces acting on the control

volume must be preserved in the centrifuge model. Scaling relationships

between the fundamental dimensions, mass, length and time, of the

prototype and centrifuge model are determined by dimensional analysis.

Historically, three methods of determining scaling factors have been

utilized. Croce et al. (1984) employed an approach based on Newton's

original definition of mechanical similarity requiring proportionality

of all the forces acting on similar systems. Cargill and Ko (1983)

derived scaling relationships from a method of dimensional analysis

incorporating the Buckingham Pi Theorem. Others have based scaling

relations on the differential equations governing the phenomena. Each of

these methods, when properly applied,yields identical scaling factors

for the same phenomena and assumptions. Verification of the scaling

factors is accomplished by comparing results of tests with various

geometrical and/or acceleration ratios; this latter process is referred

to as modeling of models and can be readily executed by spinning the

same sample at various speeds and comparing results. An apparent

discrepancy concerning the scaling of hydraulic conductivity was based










on an inconsistent definition of the total potential gradient. When the

potential is defined as the hydraulic potential, with the dimension of

length, K scales as 1/N, where N is the ratio of acceleration in the

model to that in the prototype. When the potential is defined as the

pressure potential or the specific energy potential, K scales as unity.

The reason for the difference in scaling is that the definition of K in

the latter cases is independent of the acceleration acting on the fluid.

A general set of scaling factors is presented in Table 7; however,

individual analysis of the hydraulic conditions specific to the model

under consideration should be conducted.










Table 7. Summary of Scaling Relationships for Centrifugal Modeling

Property Scaling Factor


Potential gradient
(specific energy potential) 1/N

Potential gradient
(hydraulic potential) 1

Potential gradient
(pressure potential) 1/N

Hydraulic conductivity
(specific energy potential) 1

Hydraulic conductivity
(hydraulic potential) 1/N

Hydraulic conductivity
(pressure potential) 1

Time XN

Pressure X/N

Darcian flux in saturated soil 1/N

Darcian flux in unsaturated soil 1

Volumetric flow rate X2/N

Capillary rise N

Note: N (acceleration of model)/(acceleration of prototype)
X (unit length of prototype)/(unit length of model)














CHAPTER IV
TESTING PROGRAM

Centrifugal techniques for evaluating hazardous waste migration

include physical modeling and material properties testing. To fully

utilize the potential of physical modeling in the centrifuge, the

fundamental relationships of radial acceleration, hydraulic pressures

and pore fluid kinematics within the centrifuge soil sample needed to be

developed and verified. The execution of concurrent bench and centrifuge

hydraulic conductivity testing provided the opportunity to investigate

these fundamental fluid flow properties as well as allowed the direct

assessment of the feasibility of material properties testing within the

centrifuge. A secondary objective of the project was to establish the

theoretical and practical operating limits of centrifugal techniques.

The design and execution of the laboratory testing program is discussed

below.


Objectives

The laboratory research program was designed and implemented to

develop centrifugal testing methods for determining saturated and

unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of soil samples. The testing program

encompassed:

1. the analysis, design and fabrication of permeameters for use in the

centrifuge;

2. execution of hydraulic conductivity tests in a 1-g environment to

provide a benchmark for comparing centrifuge test results;








3. derivation of the appropriate equations of motion for fluid flow in a

centrifuge;

4. execution of hydraulic conductivity tests in the centrifuge at

various accelerations;

5. comparison of centrifuge results with 1-g test results; and

6. if necessary, modification of the centrifuge device, testing

procedures and/or data analysis based on results of the comparison.

The technical feasibility of centrifugal techniques for evaluating

hazardous waste migration was assessed based on the results obtained.

Results of the testing program will also serve as the foundation for

subsequent research in the area of centrifugal modeling of hazardous

waste migration. A summary of the testing program is presented in Table

8.





Table 8. Summary of Permeability Testing Matrix..

Soil Moisture Condition
Soil Saturated Unsaturated
Type Water Decane Water Decane


Bench tests
Sand La L C
Sand/clayb L L
Kaolinitec L L
Kaolinited L L

Centrifuge tests
Sand L L C
Sand/clayb L

Notes: a L indicates a laboratory test; C indicates analysis
by computer model
80 percent sand, 20 percent kaolinite, by weight
c initial moisture content was 29 percent by weight
d initial moisture content was 32 percent by weight








Materials

Permeants

Saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity tests were

performed using water and decane as the permeants. A survey of current

hydraulic conductivity studies and published testing procedures

indicated that distilled water was the most common permeant, although

most agree that so-called native water should be used. Several studies

have documented reductions in the estimates of hydraulic conductivity

through clays using distilled water of up to two orders of magnitude

lower than estimates from tests using native water or a weak electrolyte

solution (Uppot, 1984; Olson and Daniel, 1981). The discrepancy has been

attributed to electric double layer interaction of the clay particles

with the fluid (Dunn, 1983; Uppot, 1984; Olson and Daniel, 1981). When

distilled water flows past clay particles with high surface potentials,

the electric double layer of diffuse ions expands as the number of

counter ions anionss in this case) in solution decreases, increasing the

surface viscosity and resulting in reduced estimates of hydraulic

conductivity (Adamson, 1982). The use of distilled water did not

present a problem in this study because the initially dry kaolinite was

prepared to an initial moisture content with distilled water. In

essence, distilled water was the "native" water for these clays.

Reagent grade, i.e. at least 99 percent pure, decane was used as the

nonaqueous permeant. Decane is a straight chain hydrocarbon with

similar properties to the U. S. Air Force jet fuel JP-4. A comparison

of physical and chemical properties of water, JP-4 and decane is

presented in Table 9. Like jet fuel, decane is flammable in specific

mixtures with air. The lower and upper explosive limits for decane in








Table 9. Comparison Between Properties
Water (at 250C)


of JP-4, Decane and


Property JP-4 Jet Fuela n-Decaneb Waterc


Fluid density 0.774 0.686 0.997
(g/cc)

Kinematic viscosity 0.01184 0.01195 0.00900
(cm2/s)

Surface tension 24.18 18.59 72.14
(dyne/cm)

Freezing point -60.000 -29.661 0.000
(c)

Boiling point not available 174.123 100.00
(c)

Vapor pressure not available 3.240 32.69
(cm water)

Solubility in not available 0.009
water (mg/1)

Polarity Nonpolar Nonpolar Polar

Sources: a Ashworth, 1985
b Chemical Rubber Company, 1981
c Giles, 1962


air are 0.67 and 2.60 percent by volume, respectively. The auto-

ignition temperature of decane is greater than 2600C, while the closed

cup open flame flash point is 460C. However, decane is not susceptible

to spontaneous heating (Strauss and Kaufman, 1976). Suitable

extinguishing agents include foam, carbon dioxide and dry chemicals.

Because of the explosive potential and otherwise hazardous nature of

decane, safety procedures in handling and disposal were implemented.

Recommended precautions for safe handling of decane include the use of

rubber gloves, lab coats, face shields, good ventilation and a

respirator. Recommended disposal procedures consist of absorbing in









vermiculite, collection in combustible boxes, transferal to open pit and

burning (Strauss and Kaufman, 1976). During the course of the testing

program waste decane and water were separated by density differences;

the waste decane was decanted into the original shipping containers and

picked up by a University of Florida hazardous waste removal group.

The potential existed for atomizing substantial volumes of decane

during centrifugation, which could have resulted in a potentially

explosive atmosphere. The presence of elevated hydraulic pressure under

high acceleration could cause a rapid efflux of decane from the

permeameter should a seal in the apparatus fail. Depending on the

location of the seal failure, the amount of decane released could result

in a concentration in the centrifuge atmosphere between the lower and

upper explosive limits, and hence present a combustion hazard if an

ignition source was present. The decane could be sprayed and

subsequently condensed on the walls of the centrifuge housing. The

relatively cool temperature (250C) of the housing is well below the

auto-ignition point (2600C) and below the open flame flash point of

460C. In summary, the actual combustion behavior of decane released

during centrifugation is not definitively predictable. However, general

calculations of explosive potential coupled with a concerted exercise of

caution suggest that there is little potential of combustion during

centrifuge testing.


Soils

Four soil preparations were utilized in the testing program. The

soils were chosen to span the wide range of pore fluid velocities of

natural soils as well as for their low degree of reactivity:

1. fine-grained silica sand;









2. 80% sand 20% kaolinite (by weight);

3.1007 kaolinite prepared to an initial water content of 29%; and

4.100% kaolinite prepared to an initial water content of 32%.

The uniform fine-grained silica sand used in the laboratory tests was

obtained from the Edgar Mine Company of Edgar, Florida. A summary of

the physical and chemical characteristics of the sand is presented in

Table 10.


Table 10. Characteristics of the Sand Used in the Testing Program


Parameter


Value


Chemical Composition
Si02
Other minerals

Particle Size Distribution
1.00 mm
0.25 mm
0.20 mm
0.125 mm
0.07 mm

Specific surface area
(based on spherical grain)

Specific Gravity


99.3 percent by weight
< 1 percent by weight

Cumulative percent undersize
100.0
93.0
50.0
10.0
0.6

0.01 m2/g


2.64


The kaolinite employed for the laboratory tests was also obtained

from the Edgar Mine of Edgar, Florida. A summary of the physical and

chemical characteristics of the clay is presented in Table 11.

Kaolinite was selected as a representative fine-grained soil with

extremely low values of hydraulic conductivity, with the advantage that

its shrink/swell and reactivity tendencies are small compared to other

clays such as illite. The hydrogen bonding and Van der Waal forces

which hold the silica and alumina sheets together are sufficiently










Table 11. Characteristics of the Clay Used in the Testing Program

Parameter Value


Chemical Composition Weight percent, dry basis
Si02 46.5
A12 37.6
Other minerals < 2
Loss on ignition 13.77

Mineral Content (x-ray diffraction)
Kaolinite (A1203 2SiO2 2H20) 97 percent

Particle Size Distribution Cumulative percent undersize
40 micron 100
10 micron 90
5 micron 78
3 micron 68
1 micron 49
0.5 micron 40
0.2 micron 20

Specific Surface Area 11.36 m2/g

Specific Resistivity 35,000 ohms/cm

Oil Absorption 47.3 g oil/100 g clay

pH
5% solids 6.05
10% solids 6.07
20% solids 5.85
30% solids 5.89

Cation Exchange Capacity 5.8 Meq/100 g

Specific gravity 2.50



strong to restrict interlayer expansion (Mitchell, 1976). A net

negative charge is present on the edges of kaolinite particles resulting

in a relatively low cation exchange capacity of 3-13 milliequivalents

per 100 grams. Relative to other clay, e.g., montmorillonite and

illite, kaolinite has a small specific surface area of 5-12 square

meters per gram. The particular kaolinite employed in the laboratory

tests had an average specific surface area of 11.36 m2/g as determined











by the nitrogen method. The clay samples were prepared at two initial

water contents, one below the optimum water content of 30 percent by

weight and one above the optimum water content. Theory and practical

experience indicated that the resulting pore structures would differ

enough to produce discernible differences in hydraulic conductivity

values (Mitchell, 1976).

A mixture of sand and clay was prepared to create a soil with

intermediate values of hydraulic conductivity. The mixture was prepared

to the ratio of 4 parts sand to one part kaolinite by weight.

The relationship between the moisture content and the soil moisture

suction of a soil volume is referred to as a soil moisture retention

curve, or moisture characteristic curve. The curves are specific to

each soil type and generally exhibit a hysteretic response during the

absorption and drainage cycles. Moisture retention curves were prepared

for each soil during a drainage cycle using water covering the range

from saturation to 15 bars suction. The results, presented in Figure 11,

were used in the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity analysis.


Testing Equipment

Evaluation of Current Technology

A preliminary task was the design of the permeameter for the

testing program. A review of current research revealed that two major

types of permeameters are utilized for determining the hydraulic

conductivity of water and nonaqueous fluids in saturated samples.

Historically, sample containers had rigid walls. Mechanical simplicity,

ease of sample preparation and ability to facilitate field cores were

among the reasons for their popularity. However, sidewall leakage,











0.5

CLAY (32%)


0.4
,. +^ \ (LAY (29s)





S\I SAND/CLAY
z







0 0.2


W SAND
3-J-
0 0.1




0
0 2 4

SOIL MOISTURE SUCTION Iog(cm of water)

Figure 11. Moisture Retention Curves for the Sand, Sand/Clay and Clay
Samples











i.e., flow along the wall rather than through the sample, has been

documented, raising the question of validity of results for a rigid wall

apparatus (Daniel et al., 1985). Prevention of sidewall leakage was

addressed by various remedial measures, as exemplified by the practice

of sealing the top of the sample adjacent to the wall with sodium

bentonite. Another practical problem encountered in rigid wall apparatus

has been volumetric change of reactive soils when exposed to nonaqueous

permeants. Reports of tremendous increases in the hydraulic

conductivity of soils to organic solvents have been criticized because

the rigid wall apparatus utilized were conducive to unrestrained

shrinking resulting from chemical reaction between the fluid and the

soil matrix (Brown et al., 1984). With the advent of triaxial apparatus

(see Figure 12), used for measurements of soil strength, an alternative

to the rigid wall container developed. The triaxial apparatus confines

the soil sample in a flexible membrane which allows transmittal of

confining pressures to the soil specimen. Flow along the wall outside

the specimen is prevented by the continuous contact between the sample

and the flexible wall. Review of current research indicated that

flexible wall permeameters are the preferred laboratory apparatus for

saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements of nonaqueous permeants

(Dunn, 1983; Uppot, 1984; Daniel et. al., 1985).

The flexible wall apparatus also has the advantage over rigid wall

permeameters in that complete saturation of the soil sample can be

ensured by applying high pressure from both ends of the sample. In the

process of introducing water into the sample, air is entrapped in the

interior voids, preventing complete saturation of the sample. These air

pockets effectively block the flow of water through the sample, reducing


















































































Figure 12.


Photograph of a Commercial Triaxial Apparatus


' -







the observed value of the hydraulic conductivity. By applying high back

pressures, the trapped air dissolves into the pore fluid. Attempts to

utilize back pressure saturation in rigid wall permeametershave

exacerbated the sidewall leakage problem (Edil and Erickson, 1985). A

related advantage of flexible wall apparatus over rigid wall

permeameters is the ability to verify complete saturation of the sample

before testing begins. Application of an incremental increase in the

confining pressure, transmitted to the sample by the flexible membrane,

will cause an equal incremental increase in pore fluid pressure when the

sample is fully saturated. The ratio of the observed pore pressure

increase to the applied increment of confining pressure is referred to

as the "B" value, and is equal to unity for complete saturation. It is

not possible to check for "B" values in a rigid wall device

(Christiansen, 1985).

Another benefit of the flexible wall apparatus is the ability to

control the effective stresses acting on the sample particles. During

back pressure saturation, the external applied pressure is

proportionately increased to maintain specified effective stresses on

the soil particles. Neglecting the weight of the overlaying sample, the

effective stress of a sample in a flexible membrane is the net pressure

difference between the pore fluid pressure and the external chamber

pressure. This unique capability allows the sample to be tested under

similar effective stress conditions as exist in the field, e.g., fifty

feet below the surface. A comparison between the confining stress

distribution in a flexible wall and a rigid wall container is presented

in Figure 13. Flexible wall permeameters also allow direct measurement

of sample volume change during testing.

































































Figure 13.


Comparison of Confining Stress Profiles








Disadvantages of a flexible vall apparatus include higher equipment

costs, possible reactivity of the flexible membrane with nonaqueous

permeants, and the inability to reproduce zero effective stress at the

top of the sample, a condition which exists at the soil surface. When

exposed to the atmosphere, desiccation cracks open up in clay soil and

liners due to shrinkage. The resulting fissures significantly increase

the rate of liquid movement through the layer. Currently, there is no

way to reproduce this condition of zero effective stress at the surface

in the flexible wall permeameter. A study comparing field seepage rates

of a carefully compacted clay liner with rates determined in a flexible

wall apparatus documented a difference of three orders of magnitude (Day

and Daniel, 1985). Rigid wall field apparatus (double-ring

infiltrometers) recorded values within an order of magnitude of observed

field rates.

A carefully controlled investigation of the effects of permeameter

type concluded that there was no significant difference in saturated

hydraulic conductivity measurements for water in clay (Boynton and

Daniel 1985). However, estimates of hydraulic conductivity of

concentrated organic were an order of magnitude higher for tests

conducted in rigid wall containers than in a flexible wall permeameter.

In that study results from a flexible wall apparatus were compared to

estimates from a standard consolidation cell and compaction mold.


Design of the Hydraulic Conductivity Apparatus

Separate permeameters were designed for use in the saturated and

unsaturated hydraulic conductivity tests. After a review of current

technology, the saturated hydraulic conductivity permeameter was

designed as a modular apparatus to facilitate uncomplicated sample








preparation and for the convenience of incorporating possible future

design revisions. The device incorporated the current best technology

in permeameters, including

1. incorporation of a flexible membrane;

2. capability for de-airing the permeant and sample via vacuum;

3. capability for back pressure saturation; and,

4. capability to check for complete saturation by means of the "B" value

test.

The design also included constraints brought about by its intended use

in the centrifuge. These included

1. size constraint the device must fit on the 75-cm long lower flat

portion of the centrifuge arm, while at the same time, be narrow

enough so that the radial acceleration forces act in nearly parallel

directions;

2. the weight must remain balanced in flight hence the apparatus must

have a self-contained permeant system;

3. the permeameter is limited to two hydraulic slip rings on the

centrifuge assembly; and

4. the permeant tubing system should be as large as possible to minimize

flow velocities and hence minimize the energy losses due to friction.

A schematic of the completed device is presented in Figure 14. A

photograph of the apparatus attached to the centrifuge arm is presented

in Figure 15. The unit consisted of 1.25-cm thick, 11.43-cm inside

diameter acrylic cylinders separated by 2.54-cm thick acrylic plates.

Conduits were drilled in the plates to conduct the test permeant. 0-

rings between the individual elements provided high pressure seals,

and the entire apparatus was unified by six 0.95-cm diameter steel rods.














0.95-cm


FROM


I ?23 cm


-I


Figure 14. Schematic of Apparatus Used in the Saturated Hydraulic
Conductivity Tests





























































Figure 15. Photograph of the Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Apparatus
Attached to the Centrifuge Arm a) Front View; b) Rear View









Permeant flow between the reservoirs and the soil sample was controlled

by a three-way solenoid valve. Material and fabrication of the

permeameter cost approximately $1000. Pressure transducers, attendant

voltage meters, pressure controls and miscellaneous hardware cost an

additional $4000.

The soil specimens were confined in a flexible membrane within the

upper water-filled acrylic cylinder. Stainless steel porous discs and

filter fabric were used to contain the soil sample, subject to the

criterion that the pore sizes be small enough to prevent particle

emigration from the sample, and yet large enough to avoid becoming

limiting to flow. The flexible membrane must be free of leaks,

nonreactive with the permeant and relatively impermeable to the

confining fluid to ensure hydraulic isolation. Reactivity and

permeability of the membrane can be tested by stretching a piece of the

membrane over the top of a beaker containing the fluid in question,

inverting, and monitoring the subsequent fluid loss (Uppot, 1984).

Initial tests with decane revealed significant leakage and interaction

between the latex rubber membrane and decane. After several hours of

exposure to decane, the surface of the latex membranes was transformed

into a wrinkled covering, similar in pattern to the convolutions on the

surface of the brain. A similar wrinkle pattern was observed in a

previous study using benzene with a latex membrane (Acar et al., 1985).

It has been suggested that decane and other nonpolar hydrophobic

organic penetrate the polymers comprising the latex membrane, resulting

in molecular relaxation and hence an increase in the surface area of

the membrane. The wrinkles result from the confining pressure

restricting the volumetric expansion of the membrane. As an










intermediate solution to the leakage problem, a sheet of polyethylene

food wrap was sandwiched between two latex membranes. However, this

measure did not prevent the surface convolutions on the inner membrane.

Single neoprene rubber membranes were subsequently utilized and found to

be relatively nonreactive to decane. All of the saturated hydraulic

conductivity tests reported herein using decane as the permeant utilized

the neoprene rubber membranes.

The conduit system consisted of the tubing and valves connecting

the sample cell to the pressure control and flow measurement components.

Along with the energy loss induced across the soil sample, mechanical

energy is lost in the permeameter due to friction along the tubing

walls, and, of minor importance, due to flow contractions, expansions

and bends. The conventional constant head saturated hydraulic

conductivity test is conducted under steady flow conditions, and as

such, the appropriate head loss can be obtained by pressure transducers

located at each end of the sample; no correction is needed to account

for other energy losses. However, hydraulic conductivity tests with

variable boundary conditions, such as the falling head or variable head

test employed here, result in transient boundary conditions, and the

gradient across the sample is constantly changing; hence pressure

transducers seldom are used at the ends of the sample. Rather, the

transient boundary conditions are incorporated directly into the

derivation of the equation for K. Generally the energy losses due to

friction, etc., are neglected, which is acceptable when flow velocity in

the tubing is small, as it may be for flow through clays and sand/clay

composites as well as for gravity flow through sand. However, for sand

samples under pressure and permeameters with small diameter tubing,










energy losses became significant as flow velocities increased.

Extremely high energy losses due to friction were observed in the small

(0.25 cm inside diameter) tubing of the commercial triaxial device.

Larger tubing (0.64 cm inside diameter) was used in the new permeameter

and as large as practical valves were employed in the permeameter to

minimize energy losses due to flow restrictions. Energy losses were

monitored during tests. Nylon tubing, which is nonreactive to most

organic, was used in the permeameter. The presence of decane did not

noticeably affect the nylon tubing nor the acrylic chambers of the

permeameter.

Elaborate multiphase systems have been utilized to accurately

measure inflow/outflow rates (Dunn, 1983). However, visual observation

of water surface elevations were utilized in this study to determine

fluid flux in the current hydraulic conductivity device.

The air pressure system consisted of both vacuum and positive

supplies, regulators, gages, pressure transducers and calibrated

voltmeters. Desiring the permeants and the sample were facilitated by

the vacuum. Appropriate pressure gradients were established and

maintained across the sample via independent control of the air

pressures in the influent and effluent reservoirs. Air pressure was

introduced at the top of the influent and effluent reservoirs through

the conduits in the upper acrylic plates. During preliminary testing,

the inability of pressure regulators to hold constant pressures above

the influent and effluent reservoirs as their water levels fluctuated

resulted in inaccurate estimates of hydraulic conductivity. Adequate

regulators were appropriated for subsequent testing. The accuracy of

pressure gages, regulators and transducers is paramount due to their










role in establishing boundary conditions on the sample. Individual and

differential pressure tranducers were utilized to monitor the "B" value

of the sample before testing and the air pressure above the permeant

surfaces during the tests. External confining pressure was maintained

on the sample throughout the test by pressurizing the water in the

surrounding chamber. This design allowed for flow-through back pressure

saturation of the soil sample within the flexible membrane, reported to

be the most efficient method of saturating the specimen (Dunn, 1983).


Bench Testing Procedures

Similar testing procedures were followed for all the saturated

hydraulic conductivity tests. The saturated hydraulic conductivity tests

of the sand and the sand/clay samples used for comparing bench and

centrifuge results were conducted in the new permeameter. The clay

samples were tested with water and decane in the triaxial apparatus. For

the sand and sand/clay samples, the specimens were prepared dry. The

initially dry kaolinite samples were prepared to designated water

contents (29 and 32 percent by weight) and allowed to cure for six

weeks. For each test, the clay samples were compacted to a specified

volume, yielding bulk densities of approximately 100 pounds per cubic

foot.

Several measures were performed to ensure that the samples were

completely saturated. Prior to saturating the sample a vacuum was

applied to the top of the water reservoir until the bubbling ceased.

Water was subsequently introduced into the samples from the bottom while

a vacuum of approximately 13 psi was maintained at the top. When air

bubbles ceased to flow out the top of the sample, the pressures on the









influent and effluent reservoirs were increased to 40 psi for sands, 50

psi for the sand/clay mixtures and 70 psi for the clay samples. A

slight gradient was established to allow flow through the sample. After

a pressurization period of approximately one day for the sand and two to

three days for the sand/clay and clay samples, "B" values of unity were

recorded, indicating complete saturation.

A range of gradients was established during the saturated

hydraulic conductivity testing. Of primary interest was the possibility

of determining the critical value of the Reynolds number above which

Darcy's law was invalid. Preliminary estimates of pore fluid velocities

indicated that only the sand specimens could exhibit a deviation from

Darcy's law. In fact, a previous investigation used gradients of over

800 on clay specimens to reduce the testing time, with no discernible

deviation from Darcy's law (Uppot, 1984). Deviations from Darcy's law

can be attributed to:

1. the transition from laminar to turbulent flow through the pores; and

2. the tendency for flow to occur in the larger pores as the velocity

increases, thus decreasing the total cross-sectional area of flow.

When the desired initial pressure boundary conditions were

established and fluid levels in the reservoirs recorded, the solenoid

valve was opened and flow through the sample commenced. When the

solenoid valve was closed, the elapsed time and fluid levels were

recorded. For the sand specimens, the pressure differential during the

test was recorded to quantify the friction and minor energy losses.

This was not necessary for the slower fluid velocities present in the

sand/clay and clay tests. The testing procedure was repeated until

sufficient data were collected. Boundary conditions were verified and










real time data analysis was conducted on a microcomputer during the

execution of the tests.

Tests with decane were performed immediately following tests using

water. Water was removed from the influent lines and decane was

introduced into the influent reservoir.

The viscosity of a permeant varies with temperature. The

temperature of the main permeant reservoir was recorded during each

test. The temperature in the air conditioned laboratory was maintained

within a 50C range throughout the duration of the testing program.


Centrifuge Testing Procedures

Saturated hydraulic conductivities were determined for sand and

sand/clay soil specimens in the centrifuge. The high influent

pressures, 120 psi, required for the clay samples were too high to

safely perform replicate tests in the acrylic chambers within the

centrifuge. The centrifuge tests were conducted on the same soil

specimen immediately following the bench tests. The pressure transducers

were recalibrated before each centrifuge test to compensate for line

noise in the electrical slip rings. During the centrifuge tests,

pressures in the sample and fluid reservoirs were controlled by

regulators external to the centrifuge, which supplied air through

hydraulic slip rings. When the desired initial pressure boundary

conditions were established and fluid levels in the reservoirs recorded,

the solenoid valve was opened and flow through the sample commenced.

When the solenoid valve was closed, the elapsed time and fluid levels

were recorded. For the sand specimens, the pressure differential during

the test was recorded to quantify the friction and minor energy losses.

This was not necessary for the slower fluid velocities present in the











sand/clay tests. The testing procedure was repeated until sufficient

data were collected. Boundary conditions were verified and real time

data analysis was conducted on a microcomputer during the execution of

the tests.


Unsaturated Testing

Centrifugal techniques for physical modeling and material testing

of unsaturated soil samples were evaluated in this study. A variety of

applications were investigated, including several laboratory techniques

for determining the relationship of hydraulic conductivity as a function

of moisture content, as well as physically modeling the advection of a

conservative leachate through a partially saturated soil profile. The

results are presented below.


Physical Modeling

As the soil dries, the influence of gravity on the movement of pore

fluid decreases. In fact, for the majority of the time, fluid flux in

natural soils is dominated by suction gradients, which can typically be

1000 to 10,000 times the gradient due to gravity. In a uniformly dry

soil, water movement below an influent source will occur in a radial

pattern, reflecting the negligible influence of gravity. Thus, in the

scenario of percolation of leachate from a hazardous waste site, the

movement of fluid will be dominated by the extant suction gradients.

Because the influence of gravity on the flow is small, there is no

feasible advantage of physically modeling unsaturated flow conditions in

the gravity-accelerated environment within the centrifuge.











Material Testing

Laboratory tests for determining the unsaturated hydraulic

conductivity as a function of pore water content of soils have been

developed for both steady and nonsteady flow conditions. Six of the

most common methods were evaluated with the intention of determining a

feasible centrifuge technique. The following criteria for assessing the

different techniques were compiled;

1. The gravity component of the hydraulic potential gradient should be

at least of the same order of magnitude as the suction component;

preferably the gravity component will dominate.

2. The testing procedure should be appropriate for a wide variety of

soil types.

3. The test should not present undue safety concerns with the use of

decane as the permeant.

The results of the evaluation are summarized in Table 12.

Table 12. Evaluation of Laboratory Tests for Determining
Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity

Gradient Suitable For a Allows Centrifuge
Test Dominated Wide Range Use of Offers
by Gravity? of Tests? Decane? Advantage?

Steady Flow
1. Impeding
Crust Yes No Yes No
2. Sprinkler Yes No Yes Yes
3. Pressurized
Steady Yes No Yes No
4. Ambient
Steady Yes Yes Yes Yes

Transient Flow
1. IPMa Yes Yes Yes Yes
2. Pressure
Outflow No No Yes No

Note: a IPM refers to the Instantaneous Profile Method







Steady Flow Tests

Steady state methods of determining the hydraulic conductivity as a

function of moisture content establish and maintain a constant pressure

gradient (greater than or equal to zero) across the soil sample and

monitor the rate and volume of discharge. The four tests evaluated

herein were the impeding crust method, the sprinkler-induced steady flux

method and two generic methods, the pressurized steady flux method and

the ambient pressure steady flux method.

In the pressurized steady flux method, application of an air

pressure to the sample can be used to increase the gas phase volume, and

hence decrease the moisture content (Klute, 1965a). This technique is

limited to soils with low permeabilities due to the restriction on the

air entry value of the porous discs at the ends of the samples. The

porous discs must have small enough pores such that the pressurized air

in the soil sample cannot displace the liquid occupying the pores.

However, as the pore diameter is reduced, the hydraulic conductivity of

the disc also decreases. For example, a commercially available ceramic

disc with an air entry value of 7.3 psi suction has an associated

hydraulic conductivity on the order of 10-5 cm/sec (Soilmoisture

Equipment Corporation, 1978).

In the ambient pressure steady flux method, atmospheric pressure is

allowed to enter a horizontal or vertical sample through air holes in

the rigid wall container. The water content is regulated by the soil

suction at the entrance and exit (Klute, 1965a). This removes the

restriction of limiting conductivity of the porous disc, but introduces

the restriction that suctions must be less than the cavitation pressure

of the fluid. For water this corresponds to a practical range of 200 cm







to 800 cm of water (Klute, 1965a). When the sample is vertical and the

entrance and exit sections are equal, the resulting soil moisture flux

is driven by gravity.

Steady flow can also be achieved by placing a thin layer of flow-

restricting material on top of the vertical soil and maintaining a

shallow head of water (Green et al., 1983; Dunn, 1983). The crust

material must have a saturated hydraulic conductivity less than the

hydraulic conductivity of the test soil at the test suction. Plaster of

Paris, gypsum and hydraulic cement have been used for this purpose.

Extended periods of time are required to obtain steady flow, since the

gradient is composed almost entirely of the gravitational potential

gradient.

In the sprinkler-induced steady flux method, a constant rate of

inflow is supplied by a source located above the vertical sample (Green

et al., 1983). As long as the rate of application is lower than the

saturated hydraulic conductivity the sample will eventually achieve a

uniform soil moisture content, specific to the application rate. Since

the gradient is composed almost entirely of the gravitational potential

gradient, this method can be adapted for use in the centrifuge.


Unsteady Flow Techniques

Transient flow techniques for measuring the hydraulic conductivity

have a time advantage over steady state methods in that they yield

estimates of K over a range of moisture contents during a single test.

Two nonsteady flow techniques were evaluated as a potential centrifuge

candidate. The instantaneous profile method (IPM) entails monitoring

the change in soil suction with time along the sample profile as the

sample is exposed to specified boundary conditions (Green et al., 1983;









Olson and Daniel, 1981). Concurrent or independent information on the

moisture retention characteristic is incorporated in obtaining estimates

of K as a function of moisture content. Soil suction profiles can be

obtained during drainage from initially saturated soil or during

imbibition as water is introduced into a dry sample. When the test is

conducted during the drainage cycle, the gravity component of the

hydraulic gradient is greater than the soil moisture suction gradient; a

comparison of these two components during a test of Lakeland Series soil

ispresented in Figure 16 (Dane et al., 1983). The soil moisture and

potential data presented therein were collected during the

redistribution of moisture following surface ponding. Thus the IPM test

for the drainage cycle is a good candidate for adaptation to the

centrifuge.

The other major transient flow technique is the pressure outflow

method. The pressure outflow method relates the unsaturated hydraulic

conductivity to the volume of water discharged from a sample resulting

from an incremental increase in air pressure (Kirkham and Powers, 1972).

Again, the restriction of porous discs with sufficient air entry values

limits this procedure to materials with low conductivity. Alemi et al.

(1976) proposed a theory for revising this test which utilizes a

centrifuge to increase the hydraulic gradient via the gravitational

head. However, no experimental results were available to assess this

method.









1.6

1.4-

1.2

1-

0.8
z

ir 0.4

Z 0.2
0n


-0.2
.-t ,,------

-o., \--


-0.4-

-0.6

-0.8-

-1
0 100 200 300
ELAPSED TIME (hr)
Figure 16. Time History of the Suction Gradient During the Drainage Test








Development of the Centrifugal Technique

The IPM was selected as the most feasible test procedure to

determine the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of a soil sample within

the centrifuge. The apparatus utilized in the saturated test was

readily modified for use in the IPM testing. A schematic of the

apparatus is presented in Figure 17. Miniature pressure transducers

were placed within the sample during preparation and monitoredthe soil

moisture suction of the pore fluid during the test.



Computer Model

A computer program was developed and utilized to evaluate the

influence of elevated and nonuniform acceleration levels on soil

moisture movement in unsaturated soils. The model incorporated the

centrifuge version of Darcy's law presented in equation 26 into theone-

dimensional continuity expression referred to as Richard's equation

de/dt -dq/dz (29)

where de/dt is the time change in volumetric water content. The model

assumes that the soil is homogeneous. A moisture retention curve and

the relationship between the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and the

soil suction are entered as input data for each soil type of interest.

The program can simulate the wetting and/or drainage of a soil sample

under constant flux or constant potential boundary conditions. The

model was designed to simulate bench (i.e., 1 g) or centrifuge

acceleration levels, allowing direct evaluation of the influence of

acceleration on soil moisture movement.

A fully implicit finite difference solution scheme was used. The

resulting system of simultaneous equations forms a tridiagonal matrix,













OPEN TO ATMOSPHERE 2.64-cm

PLATE


S0.95-cm
STEEL ROD





-10-cm
DIAMETER
PVC PIPE




FROM BOTTOM
OF SAMPLE
SOLENOID
VALUE








PORT OPEN TO
ATMOSPHERE


I- 23 cm


Figure 17. Schematic of the Proposed Test Apparatus
Profile Method


for the Instantaneous


ENDCAI


76 cm


m
i I









which was solved by the Thomas algorithm for each time step. The model

was written in FORTRAN on a microcomputer using doubleprecision

variables and requires approximately five minutes to simulate an hour of

soil moisture movement. The mass balance is checked each time step by

comparing the total change in mass of the system with the net flux of

mass from the system. Cumulative mass errors were consistently less

than one-half of one percent for a one-hour simulation.

Accuracy of the model was determined by comparing the pressure

profile after drainage ceased to the appropriate analytical expression

of hydrostatic equilibrium. For bench tests, a linear relationship

between sample depth and soil suction (expressed in cm of water),

determined analytically as

h = ho + z (30)

was reproduced by the model. Equation 30 states that, at hydrostatic

equilibrium, the soil suction is equal to the height above a datum of

fixed potential, e. g., a water table. For centrifuge tests, the

pressure distribution at hydrostatic equilibrium was derived earlier as

P2 = P1 + pw2 (r22 r12)/2 (31)

Results from the computer model agreed precisely with this relationship,

thereby verifying the accuracy of the numerical technique.


Data Analysis

Analysis of the test results required initially deriving the

appropriate flow equations based on the acceleration distribution and

boundary conditions imposed during the tests. Because of the variable

permeant levels in the influent and effluent reservoirs, traditional

constant head and falling head permeability equations were inappropriate

for the triaxial apparatus and new permeameter. The correct equation









for the bench tests was derived by incorporating the appropriate

boundary conditions into the equation of motion. Referring to the

definition sketch in Figure 18, the variable head equation for the bench

tests is

K = aL ln(hi/hf) (32)
2At

where a = cross-sectional area of the influent line (L2);

L = length of the sample (L);

A = cross-sectional area of the sample (L2); and

t = duration of the test (T).

hi PM PL + (z z) + L (33)
i MO LO) T
pg
PM PL = air pressures at the permeant surface (M/LT2);

ZMO, ZLO I initial permeant surface elevations (L); and
HL = hydraulic energy loss due to friction, bends, valves,
entrances and exits (L).

hf = hi + 2h (34)

h rise in the right burette water surface (L).

Equation 32 has been written in a form similar to the conventional

falling head equation, the differences being the factor of two in the

denominator and the different definitions of hi and hf. Also, like the

falling head equation, when the applied pressure gradient is high

relative to the change in water levels during the test, equation 32

yields nearly identical results as the constant head equation. This was

verified during data analysis. The complete derivation of the falling

head permeability equation is presented in the Appendix. For comparison

with the centrifuge test results and to investigate the influence of

decane, the intrinsic permeability was calculated as

























AIR
PRESSURE
SUPPLY


Tz




ZZ




ZLO
j_ +


Figure 18.
Bench Test


Definition Sketch for the Variable Head Permeability Equation -


HE
no


L Z=o


&B~I I









k Kv/g (35)

where v = kinematic viscosity of the permeant at the test temperature

(L2/T). As in the conventional falling head test, the variable head

condition resulted in a deviation from steady flow, and hence,

introduced an additional acceleration force acting on the fluid element.

The fluid velocity during the test is proportional to the hydraulic

gradient; hence, this acceleration term is proportional to the time

rate of change in the gradient. During the bench tests, the gradients

were nearly constant, hence this additional acceleration term was

neglected. The derivation of the conventional falling head permeability

test also neglects this term.

The derivation of the variable head hydraulic conductivity equation

for the centrifuge testing necessitated derivation of the fundamental

relationships of fluid flow under the influence of radial acceleration.

Highlights of those derivations were presented in Chapter III. The

appropriate equation for the variable head saturated hydraulic

conductivity test in a centrifuge (see Figure 19) test is



K A In (hl/h2) (in units of time) (36)


hO w2 (rLO + rO) (37)


where rLO, rMO = the initial radii of the water surfaces (L).


P P 2
h + T (r rL) + HL (38)
1 h + h (39)M
h2 h h1 + h0 h (39)


































AIR
PRESSURE
SUPPLY


h











L


I

Figure 19. Definition Sketch for the Variable Head Permeability Equation -
Centrifuge Test


rmo M










where h = increase in radius of the upper fluid surface (L).

Here, BL has the dimensions of energy per unit mass. The complete

derivation of the falling head permeability equation is presented in the

Appendix. Estimates of the intrinsic permeability were calculated from

k = Kv (40)

The data analysis worksheet for the centrifuge tests included

information on the acceleration and hydrostatic pressure profiles in the

permeameter. The real-time data analysis facilitated the establishment

of proper initial boundary pressures.


Sources of Error

Measurement errors are inherent in most laboratory tests. Errors

associated with the hydraulic conductivity tests are discussed below.

During the tests, the flux through the soil sample was determined

as the average change in volume of the inlet and effluent reservoirs.

The levels in the reservoirs were recorded before and after each test.

In the centrifuge, a strobe light illuminated the apparatus directly

below the window in the housing, allowing direct observation of the

water levels in flight. Fluctuation of the permeant surfaces was

observed at all rotational speeds, with severe sloshing (0.5 1.0 cm)

occurring below 150 RPM.

The use of high gradients across the clay and sand/clay samples may

have caused differential consolidation during the test. Also, the exit

end of the sample had higher effective stresses acting on the particles

as a result of the gradient. To minimize the influence of these

transient phenomena, the sample was allowed to equilibrate for a period

of one to ten minutes after changing the boundary conditions before

measurements began.












A sensitivity analysis of the measurement errors was performed by

recording the variation in K as the input parameters were varied.

Maximum practical errors in determining the sample dimensions and the

test duration resulted in a variation of less than 5 percent in

estimates of K. The height of the meniscus varied from zero to 0.2 cm

during the course of the tests. The pressure transducers were

calibrated regularly and had a sensitivity of 0.02 psi. Obviously, the

lower the gradient and smaller the flux during the test, the more

sensitive the estimates of K are to errors in reading the water level

and pressure gradient. To compensate for this sensitivity, tests with

small gradients were run long enough to register at least a one cm

change in the effluent reservoir.

Another possible source of error was the equation used to calculate

K. Both the bench and centrifuge variable head equations were derived

during this study and have not been independently tested. For

comparison, estimates of K were determined using the standard constant

head equation. Under high pressure gradients, the variable head

equation yielded similar results, since under these boundary conditions,

the change in elevation of the permeant reservoir surfaces were

negligible compared to the pressure gradient. The validity of the

variable head equations was carefully scrutinized, and eventually

verified under the extreme range of hydraulic conductivity values,

boundary gradients, acceleration levels and test durations experienced

during the testing program. The validity of the equations and the

permeameter was also supported by nearly identical estimates of the

saturated hydraulic conductivity obtained by performing a conventional

falling head permeability test on the sand.














CHAPTER V
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION




The objective of the laboratory research program was to develop

centrifugal testing methods for determining saturated and unsaturated

hydraulic conductivity of soil samples. The testing program

encompassed

1. the design, fabrication and analysis of permeameters for use in the

centrifuge;

2. execution of hydraulic conductivity tests using water and decane in

a 1-g environment to provide a benchmark for comparing centrifuge

results;

3. derivation of the appropriate equations of motion for fluid flow in a

centrifuge;

4. execution of hydraulic conductivity tests using water and decane in

the centrifuge at various accelerations;

5. comparison of centrifuge results with 1-g test results; and

6. (if necessary) modification of the centrifuge device, testing

procedures and/or data analysis based on results of the comparison.

These were successfully accomplished during the course of the

study. Analysis of the current technology in permeameters resulted in

an appropriate design of apparatus to be utilized in centrifuge

testing. The apparatus was fabricated, tested and employed during the

course of the study. Saturated hydraulic conductivity tests were








conducted on the laboratory bench using commercial triaxial apparatus

and the apparatus designed during the study. Four soil types and two

permeants were utilized to cover a broad range of saturated hydraulic

conductivity values. Centrifuge testing was carried out using the same

soil types, permeants and hydraulic gradients. For the unsaturated

hydraulic conductivity analysis, the influence of acceleration levels on

soil moisture redistribution was evaluated by means of a computer model.

Results of these tests are discussed below.


Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Tests

Sand Samples

Influence of acceleration level

The saturated hydraulic conductivity testing with sand exposed

several interesting facets of permeability testing and flow through

porous media in general. The initial testing was performed on the

commercial triaxial apparatus. However, after analyzing the results, it

was realized that significant energy losses occurred during the tests.

High energy losses due to friction occurred in the small diameter

tubing (inside diameter of 0.15 cm), which rendered the commercial

triaxial apparatus unsuitable for determining saturated hydraulic

conductivity of sand samples. Results presented herein were obtained

from the new apparatus which was designed with larger diameter tubing to

decrease the frictional energy losses. The hydraulic energy losses

which occurred during the tests weremonitored with differential

pressure transducer. A typical hydraulic energy distribution during a

centrifuge test is presented in Figure 20. The derivation of the

variable head conductivity equation incorporated the energy loss term

directly.











4


3.9
L TOP OF SAMPLE
4-
0 -3.8-


E 3.7
0

o0 3.6-
iuc
W
Zo
hi 3.5-
00
t 3.4
0

> 3.3-
I
J
< 3.2 BOTTOM OF SAMPLE
0
F-

3.1-



0 40 80 120 160 200 240

DISTANCE FROM INFLUENT RESERVOIR (cm)
Figure 20. Hydraulic Energy Profile During the Variable Head Test








The tests were conducted on the bench and then transferred to the

centrifuge for subsequent testing. Approximately 30 minutes were

required for assembly in the centrifuge. Similar gradient ranges were

established in the centrifuge as on the bench. As the permeant shifted

from the influent reservoir to the effluent reservoir, the hydraulic

pressure gradient changed during the course of the tests. Changes in

the gradient of 10 were commonly observed in the centrifuge, while

gradient changes on the bench were rarely greater than 1.

Departure from Darcy's law was observed in both the 1-g and

multiple-g tests with sand. Estimates of the intrinsic permeability, k,

are presented in Figure 21. The extreme variation in estimates of k

were explained when the same data were plotted versus the initial

gradient (see Figure 22), exhibiting a strong dependence on the

hydraulic gradient. An independent estimate of k was obtained by

performing a conventional falling head permeability test on the sand

sample using a low gradient. An average gradient of 2.8 yielded an

average value for k of 8.56 x 107 c 2, which corresponds to a hydraulic

conductivity value of 9.44 x 10-3 cm/s. These results verify the

accuracy of the new permeameter as well as the variable head equation.

As Figure 23 demonstrates, this deviation from Darcy's law was

reproduced in the centrifuge at accelerations of 14.7 and 24.4 g's. The

greater scatter observed in the centrifuge results is attributed to the

observed fluctuations in the reservoir surfaces. Below a gradient of

around ten, somewhat constant values of k were determined. However,

increased gradients resulted in decreased magnitudes of the intrinsic

permeability. Constant values of k were obtained below hydraulic

gradients corresponding to soils Reynolds number of approximately 0.2.















I



U
I'
E

z


1.1

1

0.I

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1


0 20 40
PORE VOLUMES

Figure 21. Permeability of Water Through Sand as a Function of Pore Volume


I



zi


1.1 -

1-

0.9 -

0.3 -





O.b-
0.7 -

0.6 -

0.5 -

0.4 -

0.3-

0.2-

0n


0 20 40 o0 30
INITIAL GRADIENT

Figure 22. Permeability of Water Through Sand as a Function of Initial
Gradient


D


Th

8(6
fifr


.1


00
100










1.1 -


1-


0.9-


0.8-


0.7-


0.6-


0.5-


0.4-


0.3-


0.2-

n -


D BENCH TESTS


A CENTRIFUGE TESTS


A




A A
IA
8^ A
6A


E
0





-hi
to
so


WE

o"

z

E
I-

z
Zt


V. i I I I I I I I
0 20 40 60 80 1

INITIAL GRADIENT
Figure 23. Comparison of Centrifuge and Bench Results of Permeability of
Water Through Sand


00


I.


a A


A
A W


W a&




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FILES


TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY OF CENTRIFUGAL TECHNIQUES
FOR EVALUATING HAZARDOUS WASTE MIGRATION
By
Gary F. E. Goforth
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1986

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I am grateful to each member of my research committee for their
individual contributions. The guidance and support over the past 5
years of Drs. Jim Heaney and Wayne Huber have been very helpful to my
professional and academic career development. The enthusiasm and
direction provided by Dr. Frank Townsend during the day-to-day
adventures in the laboratory were instrumental in the success of this
project. The resources and experiences of Drs. Dinesh Shah and Jim
Davidson were called upon and generously provided during the course of
this inter-disciplinary research project.
Comments and suggestions of numerous individuals at the University
of Florida have contributed to this project and are collectively
acknowledged and appreciated. Dr. Siresh Rao furnished valuable
information on contaminant migration as well ae imparted natural
enthusiasm for research. The experience and assistance of Dr. Dave
Bloomquist was invaluable in resolving daily mechanical and design
problems. The ideas and laboratory assistance provided by Rob Vicevich
are appreciated. The guidance of Pete Michel in the Engineering Machine
Shop was indispensable during the fabrication of the permeameters.
The continual encouragement from my entire family is sincerely
appreciated. I am especially indebted to my wife, Karen, for all the
sacrifices she has made during the course of this research, as well as
for preparation of the manuscript.
ii

This investigation was part of the University of Florida research
project No. 124504050, funded by the U. S. Air Force, Capt. Richard
Ashworth, Ph.D., Technical Officer and Dr. Paul Thompson, Project
Manager, Engineering Services Center, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida.
The support of the Water Resources Engineering Group, directed by
Dr. Michael Palermo, of the U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment
Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, is greatly appreciated.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii
LIST OF TABLES vi
LIST OF FIGURES vli
KEY TO SYMBOLS USED IN TEXT ix
ABSTRACT x
CHAPTERS
I INTRODUCTION 1
Scope 1
Objectives 2
II BACKGROUND 5
Contaminant Migration 5
Advection 10
Flow in Unsaturated Media 14
Immiscible Fluid Flow ..... 17
Methods of Prediction 19
III CENTRIFUGE THEORY 25
Historical Use of Centrifugation 25
University of Florida Centrifuge Equipment 31
Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics in a Centrifuge 31
Dimensional Analysis 43
IV TESTING PROGRAM 46
Objectives 46
Materials 48
Testing Equipment 53
Bench Testing Procedures 66
Centrifuge Testing Procedures 68
Unsaturated Testing 69
Data Analysis 77
iv

V RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 84
Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Tests 85
Unsaturated Soil Tests 100
Discussion 105
VI CONCLUSIONS 107
VII RECOMMENDATIONS Ill
REFERENCES 112
APPENDIX DERIVATION OF VARIABLE HEAD PERMEABILITY EQUATIONS ... 117
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 122
V

LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
1. Classification of the Top 216 Installation Restoration
Program Sites by Type of Waste Area 2
2. Fundamental Relationships Between the Potential Gradient and
Hydraulic Conductivity 12
3. Field Methods of Estimating Hydraulic Conductivity 21
4. Laboratory Methods of Estimating Hydraulic Conductivity .... 22
5. Advantages of Centrifugal Modeling 33
6. Limitations of Centrifugal Modeling 33
7. Summary of Scaling Relationships for Centrifugal Modeling ... 45
8. Summary of Permeability Testing Matrix 47
9. Comparison Between Properties of JP-4, Decane and Water .... 49
10. Characteristics of the Sand Used in the Testing Program .... 51
11. Characteristics of the Clay ÃœBed in the Testing Program .... 52
12. Evaluation of Laboratory Tests for Determining Unsaturated
Hydraulic Conductivity 70
13. Summary of Simulated Drainage Test Results 105
vi

r
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
1. Flow Pattern of a Soluble Contaminant Beneath a Waste Source . 7
2. Transport Processes of a Soluble Contaminant Within a Soil
Volume 8
3. Radial Movement of Moisture in a Uniformly Dry Soil 16
4. Flow Pattern of an Insoluble Contaminant Beneath a Waste
Source 18
5. Number of Journal Articles on Centrifuge Applications 32
6. Schematic of the U. F. Geotechnical Centrifuge 34
7. Photograph of the U. F. Geotechnical Centrifuge 35
8. Definition Sketch for Analysis of Forces Acting on a Fluid
Volume in a Centrifuge 37
9. Hydrostatic Equilibrium in the Centrifuge 40
10. Definition Sketch of Soil Volume in a Centrifuge 41
11. Moisture Retention Curves for the Sand, Sand/Clay and Clay
Samples 54
12. Photograph of a Commercial Triaxial Apparatus 56
13. Comparison of Confining Stress Profiles 58
14. Schematic of Apparatus U6ed in the Saturated Hydraulic
Conductivity Tests 61
15. Photograph of the Saturated Conductivity Apparatus Attached to
the Centrifuge Arm a) Front View; b) Rear View 62
16. Time History of the Suction Gradient During Drainage Test ... 74
17. Schematic of the Proposed Test Apparatus for the Instantaneous
Profile Method 76
18. Definition Sketch for the Variable Head Permeability Equation -
Bench Test 79
vii

19. Definition Sketch for the Variable Head Permeability Equation -
Centrifuge Test 81
20. Hydraulic Energy Profile During the Variable Head Test .... 86
21. Permeability of Water Through Sand as a Function of Pore
Volume 88
22. Permeability of Water Through Sand as a Function of Initial
Gradient 88
23. Comparison of Centrifuge and Bench Results of Permeability of
Water through Sand 89
24. Comparison of Centrifuge and Bench Results of Permeability of
Decane through Sand 91
25. Permeability of Decane Through Sand as a Function of Initial
Gradient 91
26. Comparison of Centrifuge and Bench Results of Permeability of
Water through Sand/Clay 93
27. Comparison of Permeability of Water Through Sand/Clay as a
Function of Acceleration Level ..... 93
28. Comparison of the Permeabilities of Decane and Water Through
Sand/Clay a) Sample 1; b) Sample 2 94
29. Permeability of Decane Through Sand/Clay as a Function of
Initial Gradient a) Sample 1; b) Sample 2 96
30. Comparison of the Permeabilities of Decane and Water Through
Clay; Initial Water Content 297c a) Sample 1; b) Sample 2 . . . 98
31. Comparison of the Permeabilities of Decane and Water Through
Clay; Initial Water Content 327. a) Sample 1; b) Sample 2 . . . 99
32. Characteristics of the Sand Used in the Drainage Simulations
a) Hydraulic Conductivity; b) Moisture Retention
Characteristic 102
33. Comparison of Drainage Sequence in a Soil Sample a) Bench
Simulation Results; b) Centrifuge Simulation Results 103
34. Comparison of the Pressure Profiles in a Soil Sample a) Bench
Simulation Results; b) Centrifuge Simulation Results 104
viii

KEY TO SYMBOLS USED IN TEXT
ar
acceleration acting on control mass
(L/T2)
A,a
cross-sectional area
(L2)
b
contact angle
(rad)
C
Bolute concentration
(M/L2)
c
minor energy lose coefficient
(dimensionless)
D
hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient
(l2/t)
d
representative length
(L)
f
friction factor
(dimensionless)
g
acceleration due to gravity
(L/T2)
H
total hydraulic energy
hl
energy I06S between two points
ha
air entry pressure
(L)
J
convective-dispersive solute flux
(m/l2t)
K
hydraulic conductivity
k
intrinsic permeability
(L2)
L
representative length
(L)
M
representative mass
(M)
N
ratio of model to prototype acceleration
(dimensionless)
n
nominal porosity of soil
(dimensionless)
e
volumetric water content
(l3/l3)
p
pressure
(M/LT2)
p
mass density
(M/L3)
Pe
Peclet number
(dimensionless)
q
specific discharge
(L/T)
Re
Reynolds number
(dimensionless)
r
representative radius
(L) _
s
sum of source/sink components
(m/l2t)
s
surface tension
(M/T2)
t
representative time
(T)
u
dynamic (absolute) viscosity
(M/TL)
V
average fluid velocity
(L/T)
V
kinematic viscosity
(l2/t)
W
angular velocity
(rad/T)
X
ratio of prototype to model length
(dimensionless)
z
representative elevation
(L)
ix

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY OF CENTRIFUGAL TECHNIQUES
FOR EVALUATING HAZARDOUS WASTE MIGRATION
By
Gary F. E. Goforth
May 1986
Chairman: Dr. James P. Heaney
Cochairman: Dr. Frank C. Townsend
Major Department: Environmental Engineering Sciences
This study was designed and executed to assess the technical
feasibility of using centrifugal techniques to predict the transport
characteristics of hazardous waste through soil. Advection is generally
the major mechanism of contaminant migration from a waste source. For
soluble contaminants, advection occurs within the aqueous phase. For
immiscible fluid contaminants, such as the jet fuel JP-4, migration
rates are often independent of the rates of water movement. Advection in
saturated and unsaturated soils can be predicted from physical models or
from measurements of the hydraulic conductivity in conjunction with
knowledge of existing hydraulic gradients.
A flexible wall permeameter wa6 designed and utilized for
determining saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil samples in the
centrifuge and on the laboratory bench. Fundamental relationships of
x

hydrodynamic pressure distribution and fluid kinematics within a soil
volume undergoing radial acceleration were derived and verified during
the study. Reagent grade decane was utilized as a surrogate for JP-4
jet fuel. Estimates of the hydraulic conductivity for water and decane
were obtained in sand, sand/clay and 100 percent kaolinite samples.
Testing conducted in the centrifuge reproduced bench test results,
including the deviation from Darcy's law observed in the sand samples
above a gradient of ten. A possible benefit of centrifugal techniques
for saturated soils was the more accurate reproduction of soil stresses
within the sample.
Several laboratory techniques to determine the unsaturated
hydraulic conductivity as a function of soil moisture content were
evaluated. The instantaneous profile method (IPM) was selected as the
technique which would be most conducive to adaptation for use in the
centrifuge. An apparatus was designed and fabricated for conducting the
IPM tests on the laboratory bench and in the centrifuge. Computer
results indicated that a significant decrease in the testing time and a
greater range of moisture contents can be realized by conducting the IPM
test in the centrifuge. However, the use of the centrifuge for
physical modeling of unsaturated phenomena, such a6 leachate from a
waste pit, offers no advantage over laboratory bench models because of
the dominance of soil moisture suction gradients over gravity gradients
in unsaturated soils.
xi

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Scope
The assessment of local and regional impact6 on groundwater
resources due to leachate of hazardous wastes from confined disposal
areas and accidental spills necessitates the prediction of contaminant
migration. In general, either a physical or numerical model can be
applied to depict the mass transport phenomena.
Tyndall Air Force Base was considering the construction of a
large-scale centrifuge for structural, geotechnical and environmental
research applications. The U.S. Department of Defense Installation and
Restoration Program has identified over 200 high priority hazardous
waste sites at Air Force facilities which require mitigative measures
(Heaney, 1984). Categories of waste sources are presented in Table 1.
Of significant concern is the transport characteristics of jet fuel JP-4
through soil. A laboratory research study wa6 designed and executed to
evaluate the feasibility of using centrifugal techniques to determine
hazardous waste migration characteristics. The utilization of a
centrifuge may offer several advantages over traditional physical
modeling apparatus as well as provide the dual capability of performing
as a laboratory instrument capable of testing material properties. The
centrifugal techniques were evaluated on the following criteria:
1. Can they significantly shorten the testing period?
2. Can they reduce the uncertainty associated with estimates of
1

2
Table 1. Classification of the Top 216 Installation
Restoration Program Sites by Type of Waste Area
Type of Waste Area
Number in
Top 216
Percent in
Top 216
Land fills
61
28.2
Surface impoundments, lagoons,
beds and waste pits
57
26.4
Leaks and spills
43
19.9
Fire training areas
28
13.0
Drainage areas
16
7.4
Other
11
5.1
TOTAL
216
100.0
Source: Heaney, 1984
hydraulic conductivity of soil samples?
3. How do the costs compare with conventional techniques?
Objectives
The objective of thi6 study was to assess the technical feasibility
of using a large-scale centrifuge for determining migration rates and
characteristics of hazardous wastes. Centrifugal techniques for
evaluating hazardous waste migration include physical modeling and
material properties testing. While physical modeling has been
successfully conducted under 1-g conditions on the laboratory bench,
gravity-dominated phenomena can be accelerated within a centrifuge,
thereby providing an additional scaling factor and attendant reduction
in testing time. Several geotechnical applications have demonstrated the
feasibility of centrifugal modeling for such gravity-dominated phenomena
as sedimentation and consolidation (Bloomquist and Townsend, 1984;

3
Mikasa and Takada, 1984). An additional advantage of centrifugal
modeling is the accurate reproduction of effective stresses in the
scaled down soil profile as a result of the greater acceleration force
acting on the soil particles. To fully utilize the potential of physical
modeling in the centrifuge, the fundamental relationships of radial
acceleration, hydraulic pressures and pore fluid kinematics within the
centrifuge soil sample needed to be developed and verified. The
execution of concurrent bench and centrifuge hydraulic conductivity
testing provided the opportunity to investigate these fundamental fluid
flow properties as well as allowed the direct assessment of the
feasibility of material properties testing within the centrifuge. The
objective of the laboratory research program was to develop centrifugal
testing methods for determining saturated and unsaturated hydraulic
conductivity of soil samples. The testing program encompassed
1. design, fabrication and analysis of permeameters for use in the
centrifuge;
2. execution of hydraulic conductivity tests in a 1-g environment
to provide a benchmark to compare centrifuge results;
3. derivation of the appropriate equations of motion for fluid flow
in a centrifuge;
4. execution of hydraulic conductivity tests in the centrifuge at
various accelerations;
5. comparison of centrifuge results with 1-g test result; and
6. (if necessary) modification of the centrifuge device, testing
procedures and/or data analysis based on results of the comparison.
A secondary goal of the project was to establish the theoretical and
practical operating limits of centrifugal techniques. The flow and

4
storage characteristics of commercially available n-decane were
evaluated during the course of thi6 study as a surrogate for JP-4.
Results of the testing program will serve as the foundation for
subsequent research in the area of centrifugal modeling of hazardous
waste migration.

CHAPTER II
BACKGROUND
Contaminant Migration
Predicting the migration of jet fuel and its derivatives from
storage areas is a challenging problem. Fluid flow will occur in both
partially saturated and fully saturated soil. Material storage and
transport can be dominated by either the lateral movement of vapors
(Reichmuth, 1984), the advection and dispersion of soluble fractions
within percolating water (Schwille, 1984), interfacial phenomena
occurring between the fuel and the soil matrix, e.g., adsorption and
biodegradation (Borden et al. , 1984) or a variety of rheological
phenomena associated with multiple phase (e.g, air-water-oil) flow
systems, including the pure advection of the water insoluble fractions.
The cumulative mass transport from the waste source to the water
table and/or a downstream water resource is sensitive to site-specific
advective, dispersive and reactive properties of the 6oi1-fluid system.
In lieu of collecting extensive site-specific data to describe the
transport phenomena, a conservative estimate is often initially
presented which considers only advective transport. The efforts of the
current study are hence directed at techniques for estimating the
advective properties of jet fuel in unsaturated and saturated soil.
Contaminant migration within the soil profile is a complex
phenomenon, reflecting the chemical diversity of contaminants as well as
the variety and heterogeneity of the geohydrologic regimes and soil
5

6
matrices encountered. Nonetheless, predictions of the travel rates and
directions of contaminant movement can be formalized based on
generalized transport phenomena. The movement of a soluble contaminant
will in general be governed by the flux of water through the soil
profile. Below a disposal area this fluid movement may resemble the
pattern depicted in Figure 1. Figure 2 presents a schematic of a porous
soil volume through which a solute is passing. Basically, four
fundamental transport phenomena account for all significant movement of
a solute within a soil profile:
1. Advection refers to the movement of a solute by virtue of its
entrainment within the bulk fluid.
2. Mechanical dispersion is the flux of a solute which results from
nonuniform pore fluid velocities, i.e., due to flow path tortuosity
and dead-end channels, the velocities within typical soil volumes
are not uniformly distributed.
3. Molecular diffusion is the movement of a solute solely on the basis
of concentration gradients. Because of their similar influence on
solute movement, mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion are
often represented by a single term referred to as hydrodynamic
dispersion.
4. Source/sink phenomena, including adsorption. Adsorption phenomena
encompass a variety of interactions of the solute with the surfaces
of the soil matrix. Source/sink phenomena are influenced by many
factors, including soil and bulk fluid pH, the ionic nature of the
soil and solute, and the surface characteristics of the soil.
These phenomena are significant to varying degrees, entirely specific to
the site characteristics. For example, in the transport of

AQUICLUDE
Figure
l. Flow
Pattern
of a
Soluble Conta¬
minant Beneath a <
\-3aste

8
IEQEMP
1. ADVECTION
2. MECHANICAL DISPERSION
3. MOLECULAR DIFFUSION
4. ADSORPTION PHENOMENA
Figure 2. Transport Processes of a Soluble Contaminant Within a Soil
Volume

9
a low concentration of a nonionic compound through uniformly graded
coarse sand, the advection term would dominate the material transport;
molecular diffusion would be insignificant due to relatively large pore
fluid velocities and the small concentration gradients of the solute;
adsorption phenomena may also be insignificant due to the relatively
large advection component, nonionic nature of the solute and small
specific surface area of the soil. At the other extreme, the movement
of a high concentration of a cationic solute through a thick clay
landfill liner would be governed less by advection and more by
adsorption and diffusion phenomena. The mass transport of a contaminant
can be expressed quantitatively as a composite of these elements
(Davidson et al., 1983)
J = -D 0 dC + qC + S (1)
dz
where J = convective-dispersive solute flux per unit cross-sectional
area (M/L^T);
D = hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient (l//T);
O O
0 = volumetric soil water content (LJ/LJ);
dC = solute concentration gradient in the z direction (M/L^);
dz
q = specific discharge, i.e., the volumetric discharge of bulk
fluid per unit cross-sectional area (L/T);
C = solute concentration (M/LJ); and
S = sum of the 60urce/sink components (M/LrT).
The advective component, qC, can be further expanded as
qC B C [-K(0) dH] (2)
dz
where K(0) = hydraulic conductivity, which is dependent on the water
content; and
dH = hydraulic potential gradient in the z direction
dz
which explicitly relates the mass transport of a solute to the hydraulic

10
conductivity and the gradient. In addition, the magnitude of the
hydraulic conductivity ie important not only for the advection of a
solute but also for the kinetics of the other components as well. The
hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient in most natural soil6 with uniform
porosities is dependent on the pore fluid velocity , as is the reaction
time for adsorption and other source/sink phenomena (Rao and Jessup,
1983). The relative magnitudes of the transport phenomena can be
expressed by the Peclet number, Pe, a dimensionless quantity defined as
(Bear, 1972)
Pe = qL/6D (3)
where L = representative length. During flow conditions at low Peclet
numbers, the dispersion and diffusion phenomena dominate the transport
process, while advection dominates solute migration under flow
conditions with high Peclet numbers. However, to assess the relative
significance of each term, the influential parameters of the solute,
soil matrix and extant geohydrologic regimes muBt be evaluated. The
geohydrologic regime of a particular site may be saturated, unsaturated
or some heterogeneous combination. In turn, the character and
significance of each component of the material transport phenomena is
highly influenced by this regime.
Advection
In many cases of pollutant transport, consideration of downstream
risks requires that conservative estimates of travel time through the
medium in question be obtained. In a soil matrix, thi6 conservative
value of contaminant migration is generally the advection term and is
estimated from the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil, which

11
may be three to five orders of magnitude greater than the hydraulic
conductivity of the unsaturated soil at its average moisture content.
However, for engineering design purposes, the average value of the
hydraulic conductivity may be desired, as there may be tremendous
differences in control technologies and economics compared to solutions
using the saturated values.
The rate of bulk fluid movement through the soil profile is the
most fundamental process affecting the migration of soluble or
immiscible contaminants. A fluid moves through the soil matrix in
response to hydraulic energy (potential) gradients. The hydraulic
potential of fluid in the pores of a soil volume has been defined as the
amount of work necessary to transport, reversibly and isotherma1ly, a
volume of pure water from an external reservoir at a known elevation to
the sol 1 volume at a known location and pressure. While the validity of
this definition has been debated, it does convey the fundamental
concepts of hydraulic energy of pore fluid. The flux of fluid through a
soil volume, whether saturated or unsaturated, is proportional to the
existing potential gradient, as stated by Darcy's law, written in one
dimension as
q = -K (dH/dz) (4)
where q = specific discharge, defined as the volume of fluid
passing through a unit area of soil in a unit time (L/T).
The terms hydraulic conductivity and permeability are often used
interchangeably, reflecting the broad range of disciplines which employ
the parameter. The term hydraulic conductivity will be used throughout
this text when referring to the constant of proportionality between the
total hydraulic potential gradient and the specific discharge.

12
The gradient of the total hydraulic potential provides the driving
force for vater movement in soils. The total potential energy can be
expressed on the basis of energy per unit weight, defined as the
hydraulic potential, or head, which has the dimension of length. The
potential energy can also be expressed as energy per unit volume,
defined as the pressure potential, with the dimensions M/LT ; or as
energy per unit mass, defined aB the specific energy potential, with the
O O
dimensions Lz/T . The units of hydraulic conductivity must be
dimensionally consistent with the potential energy term; Table 2
summarizes these relationships.
Table 2. Fundamental Relationships Between the Potential
Gradient and Hydraulic Conductivity
Potential
Dimensions
Example
Gradient
of K
of K
Hydraulic Potential
L/T
cm/s
Pressure Potential
l3/m
cm^s/g
Specific Energy Potential
T
sec
Darcy's original work employed the dimension of length for the
hydraulic potential (Darcy, 1856). As a consequence, the dimensions of
the potential gradient were length per unit length and the dimensions of
the hydraulic conductivity were length per time, later expressed as a
function of both the bulk fluid and the soil media (Bear, 1979)
K = k g / v (5)
where k = intrinsic permeability of the medium (i/);
g = acceleration due to gravity acting on the fluid (L/TO;
and
r\
v = kinematic viscosity of the fluid (L /L).
The influence of acceleration due to gravity can be separated by

13
employing the dimensions of the specific energy potential. The
resulting coefficient of proportionality has the dimension of time, and
still preserves the direct relation between the properties of the medium
and fluid. Accordingly, equation 5 can be modified a6
K = k / v (6)
Based on this relationship, the hydraulic conductivity, and hence flow
rates, of various bulk fluids in a similar medium theoretically can be
determined from the fluid's kinematic viscosity. This principle i6
relevant in predicting the bulk transport of nonaqueous fluids as well
a6 the advection of solutes in aqueous flow. However, this extrapolation
is based on the implicit condition that chemical interactions between
the bulk fluid and the 6oil matrix would not alter the intrinsic
permeability. In fact, in investigations of contaminant migration the
solution properties and surface chemistry of the solute and soil need to
be examined. Numerous studies have documented increases or decreases in
the hydraulic conductivity beyond that suggested by equation 5 (Gordon
and Forrest, 1981; Brown et al., 1984). For example, one study reported
an increase in conductivity of three orders of magnitude with the
addition of gasoline to water in a clay soil (Brown et al., 1984). The
viscosity of gasoline is approximately one half that of water, so a two¬
fold increase in the conductivity was expected from equation 5. The
tremendous increase was attributed to the surface chemistry properties
of the water/gasoline/Clay system. The gasoline apparently displaced
the water molecules separating the clay sheets which in turn created
numerous cracks through which the fluid passed more readily.
Darcy's law is generally regarded as valid in laminar flow ranges,
that is, where viscous forces predominate over inertial forces acting on

14
the fluid. By analogy to open channel hydraulics, a Reynolds number,
Re, has been defined for flow through porous media as (Bear, 1979)
Re “ q d / v (7)
where d = representative length of the porous matrix (L). Often d is
taken as either the mean grain diameter or the diameter such that 10
percent by weight are smaller. Experimental evidence suggests that
Darcy's law becomes invalid at some point in the range of Rg between 1
and 10 (Bear, 1979).
Flow in Unsaturated Media
The infiltration of leachate from a vaste storage pond, an
accidental spill or other source will generally encounter unsaturated
soil directly below the site. A6 is the case in saturated media,
hydraulic potential gradients determine the flow conditions in
unsaturated soils. The unsaturated hydraulic gradient is composed of
similar components such as pressure potential and gravitationa1
potential; also, thermal gradients can exist which influence fluid
movement. However, unlike the positive pressures acting on pore fluid
in saturated media, pressures which are less than atmospheric are
exerted on fluid volumes within unsaturated soil. By convention these
pressures are considered negative, and the positive (in sign) terms soil
moisture suction and matric potential are widely used. Soil suction
increases rapidly as the pore water content decreases. The relationship
between 6oil suction and water content Í6 referred to as a moisture
retention curve and exhibits a hysteretic effect between the wetting
(imbibition) and desorption (drainage) paths. In association with the
wide range of moisture contents and cycles of imbibition and drainage,

15
the hydraulic gradient in the unaaturated zone can be dominated by any
one of the components during specific flow conditions.
As the sol 1 dries, the influence of gravity on the movement of pore
fluid decreases. For the majority of the time fluid flux in natural
soils is dominated by suction gradients, which can typically be 1000 to
10,000 times greater than the gradient due to gravity (Hillel, 1982). In
a uniformly dry soil, water movement below an influent source will occur
in a radial pattern, as in Figure 3, demonstrating the negligible
influence of gravity. Thus, in the scenario of percolation of leachate
from a hazardous waste site overlaying an unsaturated soil profile, the
movement of fluid will be dominated by the soil suction gradients.
Another consequence of decreasing soil moisture content as the soil
dries out is the attendant decrease in the hydraulic conductivity.
Reductions of up to five orders of magnitude from the saturated
hydraulic conductivity value have been documented (Hillel, 1982). This
reduction may be attributed to several phenomena: (1) the first pores
to empty are the larger ones which offer the least flow resistance; (2)
as the center of the pores lose water first, the adsorption influence of
the sol1 particles on the water film further increases the resistance
to flow; (3) the tortuosity of the flow paths increases as the pores
drain; and (4) the total cross-sectional area of flow decreases, thereby
requiring a larger gradient to maintain a given specific discharge.

16
WATER SOURCE
í
é
ETH
OF WATER
CONTENT
Figure 3. Radial Movement of Moisture in a Uniformly Dry Soil

17
Immiscible Fluid Flow
Two fluids are mutually immiscible if their solubility in the other
i6 very low. Decane and JP-A jet fuel are immiscible in water; decane
has a solubility of 0.009 mg/1 at 20°C. The movement of these fluids
through soil, as depicted in Figure A, is vastly different than the
transport of a soluble contaminant. The advection and hydrodynamic
dispersion within the water phase are negligible due to their limited
solubility. In soils that are initially water-saturated, insoluble
wastes must displace extant water from soil pores in order to migrate
through the voids. The energy required to displace the existing liquid
from the pores is termed the interfacial energy (Adamson, 1982). An
analogous situation occurs when saturating a porous media (e.g., a
porous 6tone) originally filled with air. In that case, the interfacial
energy is commonly expressed as the air entry pressure or bubble
pressure (Brooks and Corey, 196A). The magnitude of the interfacial
energy is inversely proportional to the diameters of the pore, or
(Adamson, 1982)
hD = 2 6 cos(b) /(dp r g) (8)
where h. = air entry pressure (L);
O
o
s = surface tension (M/Tz);
b = contact angle (rad);
dp = difference in fluid densities (M/LJ); and
r = radius of the pores (L) .
For flow to occur, the hydraulic energy gradient across a sample must be
sufficient to satisfy the interfacial energy requirements. The smaller
the soil pores, the greater the driving force required to displace the
water.

18
Figure 4. Flow Pattern of an Insoluble Contaminant Beneath a Waste Source

19
In unsaturated soli, a three-phase flow system exists, composed of
air, water and the immiscible fluid. The movement of each fluid occurs
only after the volume of that fluid attains a minimum value, referred
to as the residual saturation. The residual saturation is specific to
the fluid and soil type. Most components of JP-A are less dense than
water; hence, any of these lighter fluids which reaches the water table
will spread on the surface. The travel distance is limited by the
residual saturation flow requirement. Migration into and along with the
surficial aquifer fluid will be limited by the solubility of the various
fractional components of JP-A.
Methods of Prediction
A wide variety of analytical, numerical and physical techniques
have been developed to predict hazardous waste transport (Anderson-
Nichols, 198A). In all cases, an estimate of the hydraulic conductivity
is paramount to estimating the migration rate of a material through the
soil. Literature from soil physics, groundwater hydraulics,
geohydrology and geotechnical engineering publications was reviewed to
provide a comprehensive information base of field and laboratory methods
used to estimate hydraulic conductivity. In general, all the lab tests
provide an estimate of hydraulic conductivity for one-dimen6ional flow,
whereas field conditions are often two- or three-dimensional.
Field Tests
Field tests are often preferred over laboratory tests for saturated
so 11 s because they generally utilize a larger volume of soil, which
includes the effects of the soil macrostructure, e.g., worm holes, roots
and fissures, which contribute to the overall anisotropy of the flow

20
region. Field tests also are generally designed to account for three-
dimensional flow. Discrepancies of three orders of magnitude have been
observed between field and laboratory tests (Day and Daniel, 1985). A
summary of field methods for measuring hydraulic conductivity is
presented in Table 3.
Laboratory Tests
Laboratory tests can be conducted to determine the physical and
chemical properties of the soil medium and the contaminant. These data
can be U6ed in subsequent analysis of migration rates and/or evaluation
of appropriate mitigative measures. In the classical treatment of a soil
volume as a physical continuum, the concept of a representative
elementary volume (REV) emerges when conducting laboratory tests. The
REV is defined 86 the smallest volume of soil which accurately
characterizes the extrinsic and intrinsic variability of the parameter
in question. A summary of laboratory techniques for determining the
hydraulic conductivity of a soil specimen is presented in Table 4.
Saturated hydraulic conductivity tests
Laboratory procedures for determining saturated hydraulic
conductivity of soil specimens have been standardized by several
organizations. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM), the
U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers
(USCOE) and others have documented techniques for specific soil types.
The principle of the test has remained essentially unchanged from the
famous Dijon, France sand filter experiments conducted by Henri Darcy in
1855. However, the apparatus used to conduct the test has been modified

Table 3. Field Methods of Estimating Hydraulic Conductivity
Physical Moisture
Method Scale Content Reference(s)
Range
Unsteady Flow Tests
1.
Instantaneous
Profile
Point
Moist to
saturated
Green et al. , 1983
Dane and Hruska, 1983
Chong et al., 1981
2.
Theta method
Point
Moi6t to
saturated
Libardi et al., 1980
Jones and Wagenet, 1984
3.
Flux method
Point
Moi6t to
saturated
Libardi et al., 1980
Jones and Wagenet, 1984
4.
Pump test Regional
nonsteady flow
Unconfined
aquifer
Bear, 1979
5.
Double tube
method
Point
Saturated
Bouma et al., 1982
USGS, 1982
6.
Auger hole
Point
Saturated
Bouma et al., 1982
USGS, 1982
7. Piezometer
method
Steady Flux Tests
Point
Saturated
Boersma, 1965b
USGS, 1982
8.
Crust-
imposed flux
Point
Moist to
saturated
Green et al., 1983
9.
Sprinkler-
imposed flux
Point
Moi6t to
saturated
Green et al., 1983
10.
Tracer
transport
Field
Saturated
Bear, 1979
11.
Double-ring
infiltrometer
Point
Saturated
Chong et al., 1981
12.
Pump test - Regional
steady flow
Unconfined
aquifer
Bear, 1979
13.
Dry auger
hole method
Point
Saturated
Boersma, 1965a
Bouma et al., 1982
14.
Carved
column
Point
Saturated
Bouma et al., 1982
15.
Permeameter
method
Point
Saturated
Boersma, 1965a

Table 4. Laboratory Methods of Estimating Hydraulic
Conductivity
Flow
Method Condition
Moisture
Content
Range
Reference(s)
1.
Constant head
permeameter
Steady
Saturated
ASTM, 1974
Olson and Daniel,
1981
2.
Falling head
permeameter
Unsteady
Saturated
Bear, 1972
Olson and Daniel,
1981
3.
Triaxial
cell test
Unsteady
Saturated
Edil and Erickon,
USAEWES, 1970
1985
4.
Low-gradient
constant flux
Steady
Saturated
Olsen, 1966
5.
Constant
pressure
Steady
Moist to
saturated
Olson and Daniel,
1981
6.
Method of
van Genuchten
Unsteady
Moist to
saturated
Dane, 1980
7.
Outflow
method
Unsteady
Moist to
saturated
Kirkham and Powers
, 1972
8.
Centrifuge
balance
Unsteady
Moist to
saturated
Alemi et al., 1976
9.
Steady flux
Steady
Moist to
saturated
Klute, 1965a
10.
Pressurized
steady flux
Steady
Moist to
saturated
Klute, 1965a
11.
Consolidation
testing
Unsteady
Saturated
Cargill, 1985
Znidarcic, 1982
12.
Instantaneous
profile
Unsteady
Moist to
saturated
Olson and Daniel,
1981
13.
Crust-
imposed flux
Steady
Moist to
saturated
Green et al., 1983
Dunn, 1983
14.
Sprinkler-
imposed flux
Steady
Moist to
saturated
Dunn, 1983
Green et al., 1983
15.
Centrifuge
flow through
Unsteady
Moist to
saturated
This study

23
a6 appropriate to test a wide range of soil specimens under a variety of
soil stress conditions.
Permeameters in general consist of a sample cell, a fluid conduit
syBtem and may or may not incorporate a pressurized air system. The
sample cell can be a rigid wall container; however, to prevent short
circuiting of permeant along the wall of the sample container, some
sample cells utilize a flexible membrane in association with an applied
external pressure.
Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity tests
In contrast to the numerous techniques and apparatus available to
conduct a saturated hydraulic conductivity test, only a few methods
exist for determining the relationship between hydraulic conductivity
and water contents below saturation. However, this is commensurate
with the commercial demand for such methodology. For many engineering
purposes, including many aspects of contaminant migration, the highest
rate of flux is of concern; for these applications the saturated
hydraulic conductivity te6ts are appropriate.
A variety of techniques have been developed for estimating
unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Along with steady flow tests,
transient flow methods have been developed which yield estimates of
unsaturated hydraulic conductivity over a range of moisture contents.
Estimates can be obtained during the imbibition (wetting) and/or
desorption (drainage) cycle. As in the tests for saturated hydraulic
conductivity, these methods generally yield an estimate of hydraulic
conductivity for one-dimensional flow.
Laboratory techniques for determining unsaturated hydraulic
conductivity are preferred over field tests for several reasons (Hillel,

24
1982, Christiansen, 1985):
1. the flow during unsaturated conditions is dominated by the film of
water along soil particles, hence the influence of macrostructures
is much less than during saturated conditions;
2. better control of initial and boundary conditions is provided in
the lab and more sensitive measurements can be obtained, yielding
more accurate interpretation of data; and
3. lab tests are generally less expensive.
Physical Modeling
Another approach to predicting contaminant migration and
evaluating treatment alternatives is to construct a prototype of the
field site and conduct appropriate dynamic tests. The results can
subsequently be extrapolated to field conditions by U6e of appropriate
scaling relationships. The choices of materials and testing conditions
are governed by geometric, mechanical and dynamic similitude between the
model and field prototype.

CHAPTER III
CENTRIFUGE THEORY
Historical Use of Centrifugation
Centrifuges have been used as laboratory apparatus by soil
physicists and geotechnical engineers 6ince the turn of the century.
Centrifugal techniques have been developed for performing physical
models of field-scale prototypes and for testing the physical properties
of materials. A brief history of centrifugal applications is presented
below; specific areas of interest include soil moisture retention, soil
moisture movement and solute transport. An overview of past and current
centrifuge projects is presented below to emphasize the wide range of
practical and research applications.
Soil Moisture Capacity
Centrifugal techniques have been developed to quantify the moisture
retention capacity of soils. Briggs and McLane (1907) presented the
development of experimental procedures and test results of a centrifugal
method for determining a soil parameter they designated as moisture
equivalent. They were after a way to quantitatively compare disturbed
soil samples and elected to compare samples on the basis of capillary
equilibrium in a sample undergoing a constant rotational velocity. The
centrifuge they designed was driven by a steam turbine and was capable
of rotating eight 0.5 cm soil samples up to 5500 rpm (approximately 3550
25

26
times the force of gravity, or 3550 g's). Their experimental assessment
included the influence of test duration, angular velocity and initial
water content on the moisture content after centrifugation. They
presented moisture equivalent values for 104 soil types.
In 1935 the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM)
adopted a standard test method for determining the moisture equivalent
of soils (ASTM, 1981). The moisture content of an air-dried and
reconstituted sample after centrifugation at 1000 g's for one hour was
suggested as an approximation for the air-void ratio, also referred to
as the water holding capacity or the specific retention. Additional
testing development was conducted by Johnson et al. of the U. S.
Geological Survey (1963).
Bear (1972) presented a simple method to rapidly obtain the
moisture retention curves of thin soil samples by repeated
centrifugation periods at different rotational 6peed6. Corey (1977)
discussed the use of gamma radiation attenuation during centrifugation
to obtain an entire segment of the moisture retention curve during the
course of a single test.
Soil Moisture Movement
Alemi et al. (1976) presented the theoretical development and
experimental design of two methods for determining the unsaturated
hydraulic conductivity of undisturbed soil cores by centrifugation. The
potential savings in time was a major advantage of the proposed method.
A closed system method was based on describing the redistribution of
moisture within a sample after centrifugation by means of the mass
shift, as detected by a pair of analytical balances. Relevant
assumptions included constant hydraulic conductivity along the sample

27
during redistribution and a linear relation between moisture content and
6oil-vater pressure head. Acceleration levels between seven and 285 g's
were imposed on a 5-cm long sample for durations of 60, 70 and 100
minutes. Estimates of conductivities from two cores of Yolo loam
compared well to field and other lab results.
Alemi et al. (1976) proposed a pressure outflow method for
determining the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity from a centrifuged
sample. Estimates of conductivity could be obtained from the record of
total outflow resulting from a specific increase in rotational velocity.
No experimental results were available to assess the method.
Cargill and Ko (1983) presented details of a centrifugal modeling
Btudy of transient water flow in earthen embankments. The total
hydraulic head was monitored with miniature pressure transducers fitted
with porous tips. Their results suggested the movement of fines (clay
to silt grain sizes) caused anomalous increases in conductivity via
development of channelized flow paths. Comparison of centrifuge model
results with a finite element program indicated very similar heights of
the phreatic surface at the headwater end with a gradual discrepancy
toward the tailwater side of the embankment.
Solute Transport
Arulanandan et al. (1984) presented cursory details of a study
utilizing a centrifuge to execute a simple physical model of
infiltration below a ponded water surface. Breakthrough curves of
electrical resistivity in saturated sand samples were obtained under
steady water flux conditions. Acceleration levels between 1 g and 53
g's were imposed on 6and samples with a saturated hydraulic conductivity

28
in a 1-g environment of 0.01 cm/sec. A constant head was maintained
throughout the tests. The authors suggested that centrifugal modeling
"may have significant application" in determining the advective and
dispersive components of contaminant transport (1984, p. 1). However,
careful review of their testing procedure and results indicated that
only a single aspect of centrifugal techniques offers a possible
advantage over laboratory bench (i.e., 1-g) physical models.
The paper described a prototype scenario of fresh water
infiltrating into a saltwater stratum of soil under a constant ponded
depth, although the conditions actually constructed were appropriate for
the much simpler one-dimensional model of a constant head saturated
hydraulic conductivity test. The breakthrough curve of fresh water was
determined at multiple acceleration levels by means of an electrical
resistivity probe located within the 6oil specimen. A comparison of
modeled breakthrough curves at 1 g and 53 g's indicated a reduced pore
fluid velocity at the higher acceleration. While this lag may be an
artifact of the delayed response of the resistivity probe, the results
possibly reflected lower flow rates due to an increase in effective
stress on the soil particles, caused by the increasing acceleration
level with sample depth. The accurate reproduction of the prototype
effective stress profile would be a definite advantage of centrifugal
models over laboratory bench models.
The assumption of a reduction in model length by a factor of N (the
ratio of accelerations between model and prototype) to maintain dynamic
similitude resulted in a proportionate increase in the hydraulic
gradient across the sample. This led to a major pronouncement of the
paper, i.e., that test durations will decrease proportionately by the

29
square of the acceleration ratios. While thl6 result Is valid In the
reference frame of the conceptually simple tests conducted, the
suggestion that the results are generally valid and uniquely a
characteristic of centrifugal modelling Is misleading. The reduction In
testing time realized by centrifugal modeling can be readily duplicated
on a bench model. The equivalence in terms of hydraulic potential of
fluid pressure forces and gravity-induced body forces allows
reproduction of centrifuge acceleration potential in bench models by
merely increasing the pressure on the fluid delivery systems. Thus, the
centrifuge does not offer a unique capability for decreasing the testing
time of physical models.
The authors' suggestion that dispersive characteristics of soil
media can be modelled at accelerated velocities was apparently disputed
by the study results. Hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients reflect the
nonuniform pore fluid velocity distribution within a soil volume.
Accordingly, the dispersion coefficient has been observed to vary
significantly with the velocity of the bulk fluid, demonstrating greater
variation in soils with a wide distribution of pore sizes. While the
breakthrough curve results presented clearly demonstrated the dependence
between the dispersion coefficient and pore fluid velocity, the authors
failed to recognize this and optimistically suggested that estimates of
this parameter can indeed be determined at accelerated velocities.
Extrapolation of dispersion coefficients determined by centrifuge tests
to field conditions and pore velocities would be severely restricted to
laboratory media with an extremely uniform pore size distribution such
that hydrodynamic dispersion would be independent of pore fluid
velocity.

30
In summary, the study highlighted a principal feature of physical
modeling in a centrifuge, that of increasing the body forces imposed on
fluid and soil particles. However, the testing conditions were too
narrow in range to warrant the authors' general conclusion that
centrifugal modeling is superior to bench models in determining
advective characteristics of contaminant transport. In addition, the
breakthrough curve results disputed their suggestion that dispersive
characteristics of soils under field conditions can be determined in a
centrifuge model. Because the prototype condition was never executed,
there was no independent base with which to compare the model results.
Geotechnical Engineering Applications
The use of centrifuges in geotechnical engineering research has
increased at an accelerated rate in the last decade. From the earliest
reference in American literature (a study of mine roof design)
centrifuges have been utilized to investigate a wide spectrum of
problems, including landfill cover subsidence, soil liquefaction, 6lope
stability, cellular coffer dam performance, bearing capacity of footings
in sand, tectonic modeling, explosive and planetary impact cratering,
sinkhole collapse and evaluation of sedimentation and consolidationof
fine-grained materials.
Research centers specializing in centrifuge projects have developed
in many nations, notably England (Cambridge University), the United
States (University of California - Davis, University of Florida,
University of Colorado, University of Kentucky, NASA Ames Research
Center, and others), Japan (four research centers) and France. A
recent review of the state of the art ambitiously projected "the day
will come when every we 11-equipped geotechnical research laboratory wi11

31
include a centrifuge for model testing . . (University of California,
1984, p.36). The growth curve presented in Figure 5 demonstrates the
increase in interest in centrifugal applications. A summary of
advantages and limitations of centrifugal techniques compiled from
several articles is presented in Tables 5 and 6.
University of Florida Centrifuge Equipment
The University of Florida geotechnical centrifuge has a 1-m radius
and can accelerate 25 kg to 85 g's (2125 g-kg capacity). Figure 6
presents a schematic drawing of the centrifuge and photographic
equipment. A photograph of the centrifuge is presented in Figure 7. A
window on the centrifuge housing allows visual observations of the model
in flight. A photo-electric pick-off and flash delay augment the system
for visual observation and photographic recording. Two hydraulic slip
rings supply fluid to the apparatus, while 32 slip rings are available
for transmission of electrical current.
Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics in a Centrifuge
All laboratory systems utilized as a permeameter or physical model
inherently entail fluid flow through conduits and through porous media.
The design and analysis of such an apparatus necessitated an
understanding of fluid flow in both regimes as well as any
modifications of their behavior under the influence of radial
acceleration. In this context fluid flow is discussed below.
Flow Through Conduits
During the execution of a laboratory hydraulic conductivity test,
the hydraulic energy at the sample boundaries is determined by the

NUMBER OF JOURNAL ARTICLES
32
YEAR (1900’s)
Figure 5. Number of Journal Articles on Centrifuge Applications

Table 5. Advantages of Centrifugal Modeling
1. It is the only means for subjecting laboratory models to
gravity-induced self-weight stresses comparable to those
in the full-scale field prototypes.
2. Many gravity-dominated phenomena take place at
dramatically increased rates.
3. It allows for verification of model to prototype scaling
relationships by repeating the tests at various
acceleration levels, a technique referred to as modeling
of models.
4. A single model configuration can be used to evaluate
many different prototype configurations by varying the
acceleration levels.
5. It is the only realistic way to model large-scale
phenomena such a6 nuclear explosive effects and
planetary impacts.
Table 6. Limitations of Centrifugal Model Testing
1. The acceleration level in the centrifuge varies with the
radius of rotation, in contrast to the essentially
constant gravitational force field at the earth's
surface.
2. Coriolis effects may have an influence if movements occur
within the model during rotation.
3. The start-up period, when model acceleration is
increased, has no counterpart in the prototype.
4. Tangential acceleration effects may be significant if
centrifuge speeds are changed too rapidly.
5. Grain size similarity is difficult to achieve.
6. There is a risk of injury and/or property damage during
operation of a large centrifuge due to the large forces
that are developed.
They can be more expensive than conventional apparatus.
7.

34
Strobe
PROTECTIVE
HOUSING
ROTOR
ARM
— POWER
&
CONTROLS
CONTROL
PANEL
0
L_
Photo electric
Pickoff
40
i
80 cm
Figure 6. Schematic of the U. F. Geotechnical Centrifuge

35
Figure 7. Photograph of the U. F. Geotechnical Centrifuge

36
influent and effluent reservoir conditions and the flow characteristics
of the conduit system. Under the influence of the earth's gravitational
acceleration, the one-dimensional relationship between the pressure
distribution and fluid kinematics in a conduit flowing full between two
points i8 the Bernoulli equation (Fox and McDonald, 1978)
(P/p + V2/2 + gz)x = (P/p + V2/2 + gz)2 (9)
where P = pressure acting on the fluid (M/LT^);
p = mass density of the fluid (M/L^);
V = velocity of the fluid (L/T); and
z = elevation of the point (L).
The Bernoulli equation is an integrated form of the Euler equations of
motion. An analogous equation was derived to describe the same
relationship within a centrifuge. The equations of fluid motion were
evaluated in the reference frame of a centrifugal permeameter. For the
elementary mass of fluid in a tube (see Figure 8), motion is parallel to
the radial acceleration. The forces acting on the element in the
direction of flow are
1. hydraulic pressures acting on the surfaces of the control element;
2. shearing forces of adjacent elements and/or the walls of the tube;
and
3. centrifugal body forces acting on the element.
For a control volume in a centrifuge, the acceleration, ar, acting on
the mass is a function of the radius, r, expressed as
where w = angular velocity (rad/T), which is constant at all distances
from the axis of rotation. Newton's second law of motion in one

37
Figure 8. Definition Sketch for Analysis of Forces Acting on a Fluid
Volume in a Centrifuge

38
dimension can be expressed as
F - Mar - M(dV/dt) - p dr dA dV/dt (11)
o
where F â–  sum of the forces acting on the control volume (ML/T^);
M = mass of the element (M); and
O
A = cross-sectional area of the element (Lz)
Substituting in the forces acting on the element, equation 11 becomes
PdA - (P+dP)dA - dFg + p ard A dr «= p dr dA dV/dt (12)
where P = pressure acting on the control surface of the element; and
dFg = total shear forces.
Dividing equation 12 by (pdA) and simplifying yields
(-dP/p) - (dFg/pdA) + ardr = dr dV/dt (13)
Replacing dr/dt with the fluid velocity, V, (dFg/pdA) with dH^ and
incorporating equation 10 yields
(-dP/p) - dHL + w2 rdr â–  VdV (14)
Collecting terms,
-w2 rdr + dP/p + dHL + VdV =0 (15)
For an incompressible fluid equation 15 is integrated across the element
to yield
-w2(r2 - r2)/2 + (?2~ P^/p + ^ + (V2 - V2)/2 = 0 (16)
Separating terms yields the centrifugal equivalent of the Bernoulli
equation:
(V2/2 + P/p - w2r2/2)1 - (V2/2 + P/p - w2r2/2)2 + HL (17)
Defining the specific energy hydraulic potential as
H = V2/2 + P/p - w2r2/2 (18)
Equation 17 can be written as
Hi K h2 + hl
(19)

39
The dimensions of the specific energy potential are energy per unit
mass. For a system in hydrostatic equilibrium, the velocity and hence
the frictional losses are zero. The relationship between the pressure
distribution and the radial location Í6 thus
P2 = Px + pv2(r22 - ri2)/2 (20)
Thi6 relationship is demonstrated in Figure 9.
Flow Through Porous Media
For flow through porous media, the velocity component of the
hydraulic potential is negligible compared to the pressure and elevation
terms. In reference to the control volume in Figure 10, Darcy's law
within a centrifuge sample can be expressed using the specific energy
potential gradient by introducing equation 18 into equation 4 as
q = -K £_(P/p - w2r2/2) (21)
dr
Consistent with the units of the hydraulic potential, the hydraulic
conductivity, K, has the units of time. This dimensional definition
retains the basic relationship of flow conductivity to the soil matrix
and fluid properties, i.e.,
K = k / v (22)
This definition of K Í6 not a function of the gravity induced
acceleration acting on the fluid mass. Expanding equation 21 yields
q = -K [d(P/p) - w2[(r + dr)2 - r2]] (23)
dr 2 dr
expanding the quadratic term yields

AO
Figure 9. Hydrostatic Equilibrium in a Fluid Sample in a Centrifuge

41
AXIS OF ROTATION
Figure 10. Definition Sketch of a Soil Volume in a Centrifuge

42
q * -K [d(P/p) - w2[r2 + 2rdr + dr2 - r2]] (24)
dr 2 dr
q * -K [d(P/p) - w2(2rdr + dr2)] (25)
dr 2 dr
Evaluating equation 25 at a point and neglecting the second order
differential yields
q *= -K [d(P/p) - rw2] = -K [d(P/p) - arl (26)
dr dr
This result is plausible; in a 1-g environment, the second term in
brackets is equal to unity, while in a multiple-g environment, it is
equal to the acceleration acting on the fluid mas6. Assuming that the
pressure gradient component is not influenced by the acceleration
induced by the centrifuge, the hydraulic potential gradient within the
centrifuge will increase over a 1-g sample by an amount equal to (ar“l).
This additional gradient will result in a proportionate increase in the
fluid flux through the soil, i.e., the flux at a radius, r, will
increase by an amount equal to
q = -K (ar - 1) (27)
where ar is given by equation 10. However, it is important to note from
equation 26 that the increase in specific discharge is directly
proportional to the acceleration level only if the pressure gradient
equals zero.
Energy Losses in The Permeameter
Along with the energy loss induced across the soil sample,
mechanical energy is lost in the permeameter due to friction along the
tubing walls, and, of minor importance, due to flow contractions,
expansions and bends. These losses are generally expressed in the form
of the Darcy-Weisbach equation

43
HL - (f + C) LV2/2D (28)
o o
where = lost mechanical energy per unit mass (l//T )j
f *= friction factor (dimensionless) 5
C = coefficient for minor energy losses (dimensionless)}
L â– = length of the conduit (L); and
D «= inside diameter of the conduit (L).
Dimensional Analysis
When used to conduct physical modeling of prototype behavior,
appropriate relationships between the forces acting on the control
volume must be preserved in the centrifuge model. Scaling relationships
between the fundamental dimensions, mass, length and time, of the
prototype and centrifuge model are determined by dimensional analysis.
Historically, three methods of determining scaling factors have been
utilized. Croce et al. (1984) employed an approach based on Newton's
original definition of mechanical similarity requiring proportionality
of all the forces acting on similar systems. Cargill and Ko (1983)
derived scaling relationships from a method of dimensional analysis
incorporating the Buckingham Pi Theorem. Others have based scaling
relations on the differential equations governing the phenomena. Each of
these methods, when properly applied, yield s identical scaling factors
for the same phenomena and assumptions. Verification of the scaling
factors is accomplished by comparing results of tests with various
geometrical and/or acceleration ratios; this latter process is referred
to as modeling of models and can be readily executed by spinning the
same sample at various speeds and comparing results. An apparent
discrepancy concerning the scaling of hydraulic conductivity was based

44
on an inconsistent definition of the total potential gradient. When the
potential is defined as the hydraulic potential, with the dimension of
length, K scales as 1/N, where N is the ratio of acceleration in the
model to that in the prototype. When the potential is defined as the
pressure potential or the specific energy potential, K scales as unity.
The reason for the difference in scaling is that the definition of K in
the latter cases is independent of the acceleration acting on the fluid.
A general set of scaling factors is presented in Table 7; however,
individual analysis of the hydraulic conditions specific to the model
under consideration should be conducted.

45
Property
Scaling Factor
Potential gradient
(specific energy potential)
1/N
Potential gradient
(hydraulic potential)
1
Potential gradient
(pressure potential)
1/N
Hydraulic conductivity
(specific energy potential)
1
Hydraulic conductivity
(hydraulic potential)
1/N
Hydraulic conductivity
(pressure potential)
1
Time
XN
Pressure
X/N
Darcian flux in saturated soil
1/N
Darcian flux in un6aturated soil
1
Volumetric flow rate
x2/n
Capillary rise
N
Note: N = (acceleration of model)/(acceleration of prototype)
X = (unit length of prototype)/(unit length of model)

CHAPTER IV
TESTING PROGRAM
Centrifugal techniques for evaluating hazardous vaste migration
include physical modeling and material properties testing. To fully
utilize the potential of physical modeling in the centrifuge, the
fundamental relationships of radial acceleration, hydraulic pressures
and pore fluid kinematics within the centrifuge soil sample needed to be
developed and verified. The execution of concurrent bench and centrifuge
hydraulic conductivity testing provided the opportunity to investigate
these fundamental fluid flow properties as veil as allowed the direct
assessment of the feasibility of material properties testing within the
centrifuge. A secondary objective of the project was to establish the
theoretical and practical operating limits of centrifugal techniques.
The design and execution of the laboratory testing program Í6 discussed
below.
Objectives
The laboratory research program was designed and implemented to
develop centrifugal testing methods for determining saturated and
unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of soil samples. The testing program
encompassed:
1. the analysis, design and fabrication of permeameters for use in the
centrifuge;
2. execution of hydraulic conductivity tests in a 1-g environment to
provide a benchmark for comparing centrifuge test results;
46

47
3. derivation of the appropriate equations of motion for fluid flow in a
centrifuge;
4. execution of hydraulic conductivity tests in the centrifuge at
various accelerations;
5. comparison of centrifuge results with 1-g test results; and
6. if necessary, modification of the centrifuge device, testing
procedures and/or data analysis based on results of the comparison.
The technical feasibility of centrifugal techniques for evaluating
hazardous waste migration was assessed based on the results obtained.
ResultB of the testing program will also serve as the foundation for
subsequent research in the area of centrifugal modeling of hazardous
waste migration. A summary of the testing program is presented in Table
8.
Table 8. Summary of Permeability Testing Matrix
Soil
Type
Soil Moisture
Saturated
Water Decane
Condition
ünsaturated
Water Decane
Bench tests
Sand
La
L
C
Sand/clayk
L
L
Kaolinitec
L
L
Kaolinite**
L
L
Centrifuge
Sand
tests
L
L
C
Sand/clayk
S' VT
L
by computer model
80 percent sand, 20 percent kaolinite, by weight
initial moisture content was 29 percent by weight
initial moisture content was 32 percent by weight

48
Materials
Permeants
Saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity tests were
performed using water and decane as the permeants. A survey of current
hydraulic conductivity studies and published testing procedures
indicated that distilled water was the most common permeant, although
most agree that so-called native water should be used. Several studies
have documented reductions in the estimates of hydraulic conductivity
through clays using distilled water of up to two orders of magnitude
lower than estimates from tests using native water or a weak electrolyte
solution (Uppot, 1984; Olson and Daniel, 1981). The discrepancy has been
attributed to electric double layer interaction of the clay particles
with the fluid (Dunn, 1983; Uppot, 1984; Olson and Daniel, 1981). When
distilled water flows past clay particles with high surface potentials,
the electric double layer of diffuse ions expands as the number of
counter ions (anions in this case) in solution decreases, increasing the
surface viscosity and resulting in reduced estimates of hydraulic
conductivity (Adamson, 1982). The uee of distilled water did not
present a problem in this study because the initially dry kaolinite was
prepared to an initial moisture content with distilled water. In
essence, distilled water was the "native" water for these clays.
Reagent grade, i.e. at least 99 percent pure, decane was used as the
nonaqueous permeant. Decane Í6 a straight chain hydrocarbon with
similar properties to the U. S. Air Force jet fuel JP-4. A comparison
of physical and chemical properties of water, JP-4 and decane Í6
presented in Table 9. Like jet fuel, decane Í6 flammable in specific
mixtures with air. The lower and upper explosive limits for decane in

49
Table 9. Comparison Between Properties of JP-4, Decane and
Water (at 25°C)
Property
JP-4 Jet Fuela
n-Decane*5
Waterc
Fluid density
(g/cc)
0.774
0.686
0.997
Kinematic viscosity
(cm2/s)
0.01184
0.01195
0.00900
Surface tension
(dyne/cm)
24.18
18.59
72.14
Freezing point
(c)
-60.000
-29.661
0.000
Boiling point
(C)
not available
174.123
100.00
Vapor pressure
(cm water)
not available
3.240
32.69
Solubility in
water (mg/1)
not available
0.009
-
Polarity
7T- —rr—
Nonpolar
Nonpolar
Polar
Sources: 6 Ashworth, 1985
Chemical Rubber Company, 1981
c Giles, 1962
air are 0.67 and 2.60 percent by volume, respectively. The auto¬
ignition temperature of decane íb greater than 260°C, while the closed
cup open flame flash point i6 46°C. However, decane is not susceptible
to spontaneous heating (Strauss and Kaufman, 1976). Suitable
extinguishing agents include foam, carbon dioxide and dry chemicals.
Because of the explosive potential and otherwise hazardous nature of
decane, safety procedures in handling and disposal were implemented.
Recommended precautions for safe handling of decane include the use of
rubber gloves, lab coats, face shields, good ventilation and a
respirator. Recommended disposal procedures consist of absorbing in

50
vermiculite, collection in combustible boxes, transferal to open pit and
burning (Strauss and Kaufman, 1976). During the course of the testing
program waste decane and water were separated by density differences;
the waste decane was decanted into the original shipping containers and
picked up by a University of Florida hazardous waste removal group.
The potential existed for atomizing substantial volumes of decane
during centrifugation, which could have resulted in a potentially
explosive atmosphere. The presence of elevated hydraulic pressure under
high acceleration could cause a rapid efflux of decane from the
permeameter should a seal in the apparatus fail. Depending on the
location of the seal failure, the amount of decane released could result
in a concentration in the centrifuge atmosphere between the lower and
upper explosive limits, and hence present a combustion hazard if an
ignition source was present. The decane could be sprayed and
subsequently condensed on the walls of the centrifuge housing. The
relatively cool temperature (25°C) of the housing is well below the
auto-ignition point (260°C) and below the open flame flash point of
46°C. In summary, the actual combustion behavior of decane released
during centrifugation is not definitively predictable. However, general
calculations of explosive potential coupled with a concerted exercise of
caution suggest that there is little potential of combustion during
centrifuge testing.
Soils
Four 8 o i 1 preparations were utilized in the testing program. The
soils were chosen to span the wide range of pore fluid velocities of
natural soils as well as for their low degree of reactivity:
1. fine-grained silica sand;

51
2. 807o sand - 207, kaolinite (by weight);
3.1007 kaolinite - prepared to an initial water content of 297; and
A.1007 kaolinite - prepared to an initial water content of 327.
The uniform fine-grained silica sand used in the laboratory tests was
obtained from the Edgar Mine Company of Edgar, Florida. A summary of
the physical and chemical characteristics of the 6and is presented in
Table 10.
Table 10. Characteristics of the Sand Used in the Testing Program
Parameter
Value
Chemical Composition
Si02
Other minerals
99.3 percent by weight
< 1 percent by weight
Particle Size Distribution
1.00 mm
0.25 mm
0.20 mm
0.125 mm
0.07 mm
Cumulative percent undersize
100.0
93.0
50.0
10.0
0.6
Specific surface area
(based on spherical grain)
0.01 m^/g
Specific Gravity
2.6A
The kaolinite employed for the laboratory tests was also obtained
from the Edgar Mine of Edgar, Florida. A summary of the physical and
chemical characteristics of the clay is presented in Table 11.
Kaolinite was selected as a representative fine-grained soil with
extremely low values of hydraulic conductivity, with the advantage that
its shrink/swell and reactivity tendencies are small compared to other
clays such as illite. The hydrogen bonding and Van der Waal forces
which hold the silica and alumina sheets together are sufficiently

52
Table 11. Characteristics of the Clay Used In the Testing Program
Parameter
Value
Chemical Composition
Si02
A12
Other minerals
Loss on ignition
Weight percent, dry basis
46.5
37.6
< 2
13.77
Mineral Content (x-ray diffraction)
Kaolinite (A1203 2SÍ02
2H20) 97 percent
Particle Size Distribution
40 micron
10 micron
5 micron
3 micron
1 micron
0.5 micron
0.2 micron
Cumulative percent undersize
100
90
78
68
49
40
20
Specific Surface Area
11.36 m2/g
Specific Resistivity
35,000 ohms/cm
Oil Absorption
47.3 g oil/100 g clay
pH
57o solids
107c. solids
207. solids
307, so lid 8
6.05
6.07
5.85
5.89
Cation Exchange Capacity
5.8 Meq/100 g
Specific gravity
2.50
strong to restrict interlayer expansion (Mitchell, 1976). A net
negative charge is present on the edges of kaolinite particles resulting
in a relatively low cation exchange capacity of 3-13 mi1liequivalents
per 100 grams. Relative to other clay, e.g., montmori 11onite and
illite, kaolinite has a small specific surface area of 5-12 square
meters per gram. The particular kaolinite employed in the laboratory
O
tests had an average specific surface area of 11.36 m /g as determined

53
by the nitrogen method. The clay samples were prepared at two initial
water contents, one below the optimum water content of 30 percent by
weight and one above the optimum water content. Theory and practical
experience indicated that the resulting pore structures would differ
enough to produce discernible differences in hydraulic conductivity
values (Mitchell, 1976).
A mixture of sand and clay vas prepared to create a soil with
intermediate values of hydraulic conductivity. The mixture was prepared
to the ratio of A parts sand to one part kaolinite by weight.
The relationship between the moisture content and the soil moisture
6uction of a soil volume is referred to as a soil moisture retention
curve, or moisture characteristic curve. The curves are specific to
each soil type and generally exhibit a hysteretic response during the
absorption and drainage cycles. Moisture retention curves were prepared
for each soil during a drainage cycle using water covering the range
from saturation to 15 bars suction. The results, presented in Figure 11,
were used in the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity analysis.
Testing Equipment
Evaluation of Current Technology
A preliminary task was the design of the permeameter for the
testing program. A review of current research revealed that two major
types of permeameters are utilized for determining the hydraulic
conductivity of water and nonaqueou6 fluids in saturated samples.
Historically, sample containers had rigid walls. Mechanical simplicity,
ease of sample preparation and ability to facilitate field cores were
among the reasons for their popularity. However, sidewall leakage,

VOLUMETRIC WATER CONTENT
54
SOIL MOISTURE SUCTION log(cm of water)
Figure 11. Moisture Retention Curves for the Sand, Sand/Clay and Clay
Samples

55
i.e., flow along the wall rather than through the sample, has been
documented, raising the question of validity of results for a rigid wall
apparatus (Daniel et al., 1985). Prevention of sidewall leakage was
addressed by various remedial measures, as exemplified by the practice
of sealing the top of the sample adjacent to the wall with sodium
bentonite. Another practical problem encountered in rigid wall apparatus
has been volumetric change of reactive soils when exposed to nonaqueous
permeants. Reports of tremendous increases in the hydraulic
conductivity of soils to organic solvents have been criticized because
the rigid wall apparatus utilized were conducive to unrestrained
shrinking resulting from chemical reaction between the fluid and the
soil matrix (Brown et al., 1984). With the advent of triaxial apparatus
(see Figure 12), U6ed for measurements of soil strength, an alternative
to the rigid wall container developed. The triaxial apparatus confines
the soil sample in a flexible membrane which allows transmittal of
confining pressures to the soil specimen. Flow along the wall outside
the specimen is prevented by the continuous contact between the sample
and the flexible wall. Review of current research indicated that
flexible wall permeameters are the preferred laboratory apparatus for
saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements of nonaqueous permeants
(Dunn, 1983; Uppot, 1984; Daniel et. al., 1985).
The flexible wall apparatus also has the advantage over rigid wall
permeameters in that complete saturation of the soil sample can be
ensured by applying high pressure from both ends of the sample. In the
process of introducing water into the sample, air is entrapped in the
interior voids, preventing complete saturation of the sample. These air
pockets effectively block the flow of water through the sample, reducing

56
Figure 12. Photograph of a Commercial Triaxial Apparatus

57
the observed value of the hydraulic conductivity. By applying high back
pressures, the trapped air dissolves into the pore fluid. Attempts to
utilize back pressure saturation in rigid va 11 permeameters have
exacerbated the sidewall leakage problem (Edil and Erickson, 1985). A
related advantage of flexible wall apparatus over rigid wall
permeameters is the ability to verify complete saturation of the sample
before testing begins. Application of an incremental increase in the
confining pressure, transmitted to the sample by the flexible membrane,
will cause an equal incremental increase in pore fluid pressure when the
sample is fully saturated. The ratio of the observed pore pressure
increase to the applied increment of confining pressure is referred to
as the "B" value, and is equal to unity for complete saturation. It is
not possible to check for "B" values in a rigid wall device
(Christiansen, 1985).
Another benefit of the flexible wall apparatus is the ability to
control the effective stresses acting on the sample particles. During
back pressure saturation, the external applied pressure is
proportionately increased to maintain specified effective stresses on
the soil particles. Neglecting the weight of the overlaying sample, the
effective stress of a sample in a flexible membrane is the net pressure
difference between the pore fluid pressure and the external chamber
pressure. This unique capability allows the sample to be tested under
similar effective 6tress conditions as exist in the field, e.g., fifty
feet below the surface. A comparison between the confining stress
distribution in a flexible wall and a rigid wall container is presented
in Figure 13. Flexible wall permeameters also allow direct measurement
of sample volume change during testing.

58
FLEXIBLE WAIL
PINLET
pQ + pgh
RIGID WALL
PINLET
Figure 13. Comparison of Confining Stress Profiles

59
Disadvantages of a flexible wall apparatus Include higher equipment
costs, possible reactivity of the flexible membrane with nonaqueous
permeants, and the inability to reproduce zero effective stress at the
top of the sample, a condition which exists at the soil surface. When
exposed to the atmosphere, desiccation cracks open up in clay soil and
liners due to shrinkage. The resulting fissures significantly increase
the rate of liquid movement through the layer. Currently, there is no
way to reproduce this condition of zero effective stress at the surface
in the flexible wall permeameter. A 6tudy comparing field seepage rates
of a carefully compacted clay liner with rates determined in a flexible
wall apparatus documented a difference of three orders of magnitude (Day
and Daniel, 1985). Rigid wall field apparatus (double-ring
infiltrometers) recorded values within an order of magnitude of observed
field rates.
A carefully controlled investigation of the effects of permeameter
type concluded that there was no significant difference in saturated
hydraulic conductivity measurements for water in clay (Boynton and
Daniel, 1985). However, estimates of hydraulic conductivity of
concentrated organics were an order of magnitude higher for tests
conducted in rigid wall containers than in a flexible wall permeameter.
In that study results from a flexible wall apparatus were compared to
estimates from a standard consolidation cell and compaction mold.
Design of the Hydraulic Conductivity Apparatus
Separate permeameters were designed for use in the saturated and
unsaturated hydraulic conductivity tests. After a review of current
technology, the saturated hydraulic conductivity permeameter was
designed as a modular apparatus to facilitate uncomplicated sample

60
preparation and for the convenience of incorporating possible future
design revisions. The device incorporated the current best technology
in permeameters, including
1. incorporation of a flexible membrane;
2. capability for de-airing the permeant and sample via vacuum;
3. capability for back pressure saturation; and,
4. capability to check for complete saturation by means of the "B" value
test.
The design also included constraints brought about by its intended use
in the centrifuge. These included
1. size constraint - the device must fit on the 75-cm long lower flat
portion of the centrifuge arm, while at the same time, be narrow
enough so that the radial acceleration forces act in nearly parallel
directions;
2. the weight must remain balanced in flight - hence the apparatus must
have a self-contained permeant system;
3. the permeameter is limited to two hydraulic slip rings on the
centrifuge assembly; and
4. the permeant tubing system should be as large as possible to minimize
flow velocities and hence minimize the energy losses due to friction.
A schematic of the completed device is presented in Figure 14. A
photograph of the apparatus attached to the centrifuge arm is presented
in Figure 15. The unit consisted of 1.25-cm thick, 11.43-cm inside
diameter acrylic cylinders separated by 2.54-cm thick acrylic plates.
Conduits were drilled in the plates to conduct the test permeant. 0-
rings between the individual elements provided high pressure seals,
and the entire apparatus was unified by 6ix 0.95-cm diameter steel rods.

61
Figure 14. Schematic of Apparatus Used in the Saturated Hydraulic
Conductivity Tests

62
Figure 15. Photograph of the Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Apparatus
Attached to the Centrifuge Arm a) Front View; b) Rear View

63
Permeant flow between the reservoirs and the soil sample was controlled
by a three-way solenoid valve. Material and fabrication of the
permeameter cost approximately $1000. Pressure transducers, attendant
voltage meters, pressure controls and miscellaneous hardware co6t an
additional $4000.
The soil specimens were confined in a flexible membrane within the
upper water-filled acrylic cylinder. Stainless steel porous discs and
filter fabric were used to contain the soil sample, subject to the
criterion that the pore sizes be small enough to prevent particle
emigration from the sample, and yet large enough to avoid becoming
limiting to flow. The flexible membrane must be free of leaks,
nonreactive with the permeant and relatively impermeable to the
confining fluid to ensure hydraulic isolation. Reactivity and
permeability of the membrane can be tested by stretching a piece of the
membrane over the top of a beaker containing the fluid in question,
inverting, and monitoring the subsequent fluid los6 (Uppot, 1984).
Initial tests with decane revealed significant leakage and interaction
between the latex rubber membrane and decane. After several hours of
exposure to decane, the surface of the latex membranes was transformed
into a wrinkled covering, similar in pattern to the convolutions on the
surface of the brain. A similar wrinkle pattern was observed in a
previous 6tudy using benzene with a latex membrane (Acar et al., 1985).
It has been suggested that decane and other nonpolar hydrophobic
organics penetrate the polymers comprising the latex membrane, resulting
in molecular relaxation and hence an increase in the surface area of
the membrane. The wrinkles result from the confining pressure
restricting the volumetric expansion of the membrane.
As an

64
intermediate solution to the leakage problem, a sheet of polyethylene
food wrap was sandwiched between two latex membranes. However, this
measure did not prevent the surface convolutions on the inner membrane.
Single neoprene rubber membranes were subsequently utilized and found to
be relatively nonreactive to decane. All of the saturated hydraulic
conductivity tests reported herein using decane as the permeant utilized
the neoprene rubber membranes.
The conduit system consisted of the tubing and valves connecting
the sample cell to the pressure control and flow measurement components.
Along with the energy loss induced across the soil sample, mechanical
energy is lost in the permeameter due to friction along the tubing
walls, and, of minor importance, due to flow contractions, expansions
and bends. The conventional constant head saturated hydraulic
conductivity test is conducted under steady flow conditions, and as
such, the appropriate head loss can be obtained by pressure transducers
located at each end of the sample; no correction is needed to account
for other energy losses. However, hydraulic conductivity tests with
variable boundary conditions, such as the falling head or variable head
test employed here, result in transient boundary conditions, and the
gradient across the sample is constantly changing; hence pressure
transducers seldom are used at the ends of the sample. Rather, the
transient boundary conditions are incorporated directly into the
derivation of the equation for K. Generally the energy losses due to
friction, etc., are neglected, which is acceptable when flow velocity in
the tubing is small, as it may be for flow through clays and 6and/clay
composites as well as for gravity flow through sand. However, for sand
samples under pressure and permeameters with small diameter tubing,

65
energy losses became significant as flow velocities increased.
Extremely high energy losses due to friction were observed in the small
(0.25 cm inside diameter) tubing of the commercial triaxial device.
Larger tubing (0.64 cm inside diameter) was used in the new permeameter
and as large as practical valves were employed in the permeameter to
minimize energy losses due to flow restrictions. Energy losses were
monitored during tests. Nylon tubing, which is nonreactive to most
organics, was used in the permeameter. The presence of decane did not
noticeably affect the nylon tubing nor the acrylic chambers of the
permeameter.
Elaborate multiphase systems have been utilized to accurately
measure inflow/outflow rates (Dunn, 1983). However, visual observation
of water surface elevations were utilized in thi6 study to determine
fluid flux in the current hydraulic conductivity device.
The air pressure system consisted of both vacuum and positive
supplies, regulators, gages, pressure transducers and calibrated
voltmeters. Deairing the permeants and the sample were facilitated by
the vacuum. Appropriate pressure gradients were established and
maintained across the sample via independent control of the air
pressures in the influent and effluent reservoirs. Air pressure was
introduced at the top of the influent and effluent reservoirs through
the conduits in the upper acrylic plate6. During preliminary testing,
the inability of pressure regulators to hold constant pressures above
the influent and effluent reservoirs as their water levels fluctuated
resulted in inaccurate estimates of hydraulic conductivity. Adequate
regulators were appropriated for subsequent testing. The accuracy of
pressure gages, regulators and transducers is paramount due to their

66
role In establishing boundary conditions on the sample. Individual and
differential pressure tranducers were utilized to monitor the "B" value
of the sample before testing and the air pressure above the permeant
surfaces during the teBts. External confining pressure was maintained
on the sample throughout the test by pressurizing the water in the
surrounding chamber. This design allowed for flow-through back pressure
saturation of the soil sample within the flexible membrane, reported to
be the most efficient method of saturating the specimen (Dunn, 1983).
Bench Testing Procedures
Similar testing procedures were followed for all the saturated
hydraulic conductivity tests. The saturated hydraulic conductivity tests
of the sand and the sand/clay samples used for comparing bench and
centrifuge results were conducted in the new permeameter. The clay
samples were tested with water and decane in the triaxial apparatus. For
the sand and sand/clay samples, the specimens were prepared dry. The
initially dry kaolinite samples were prepared to designated water
contents (29 and 32 percent by weight) and allowed to cure for six
weeks. For each test, the clay samples were compacted to a specified
volume, yielding bulk densities of approximately 100 pounds per cubic
foot.
Several measures were performed to ensure that the samples were
completely saturated. Prior to saturating the sample a vacuum was
applied to the top of the water reservoir until the bubbling ceased.
Water was subsequently introduced into the samples from the bottom while
a vacuum of approximately 13 psi was maintained at the top. When air
bubbles ceased to flow out the top of the sample, the pressures on the

67
influent and effluent reservoirs vere increased to 40 psi for sands, 50
psi for the sand/clay mixtures and 70 psi for the clay samples. A
slight gradient was established to allow flow through the sample. After
a pressurization period of approximately one day for the sand and two to
three days for the sand/clay and clay samples, "B" values of unity were
recorded, indicating complete saturation.
A range of gradients was established during the saturated
hydraulic conductivity testing. Of primary interest was the possibility
of determining the critical value of the Reynolds number above which
Darcy'8 law was invalid. Preliminary estimates of pore fluid velocities
indicated that only the sand specimens could exhibit a deviation from
Darcy's law. In fact, a previous investigation used gradients of over
800 on clay specimens to reduce the testing time, with no discernible
deviation from Darcy's law (Uppot, 1984). Deviations from Darcy's law
can be attributed to:
1. the transition from laminar to turbulent flow through the pores; and
2. the tendency for flow to occur in the larger pores as the velocity
increases, thus decreasing the total cross-sectional area of flow.
When the desired initial pressure boundary conditions were
established and fluid levels in the reservoirs recorded, the solenoid
valve was opened and flow through the sample commenced. When the
solenoid valve wa6 closed, the elapsed time and fluid levels were
recorded. For the sand specimens, the pressure differential during the
test was recorded to quantify the friction and minor energy losses.
Thi6 was not necessary for the slower fluid velocities present in the
sand/clay and clay tests. The testing procedure was repeated until
sufficient data were collected. Boundary conditions were verified and

68
real tine data analysis was conducted on a microcomputer during the
execution of the tests.
Tests with decane were performed immediately following tests using
water. Water was removed from the influent lines and decane was
introduced into the influent reservoir.
The viscosity of a permeant varies with temperature. The
temperature of the main permeant reservoir was recorded during each
test. The temperature in the air conditioned laboratory wa6 maintained
within a 5°C range throughout the duration of the testing program.
Centrifuge Testing Procedures
Saturated hydraulic conductivities were determined for sand and
sand/clay soil specimens in the centrifuge. The high influent
pressures, 120 p6i, required for the clay samples were too high to
safely perform replicate tests in the acrylic chambers within the
centrifuge. The centrifuge tests were conducted on the same soil
specimen immediately following the bench tests. The pressure transducers
were recalibrated before each centrifuge test to compensate for line
noise in the electrical slip rings. During the centrifuge tests,
pressures in the sample and fluid reservoirs were controlled by
regulators external to the centrifuge, which supplied air through
hydraulic slip rings. When the desired initial pressure boundary
conditions were established and fluid levels in the reservoirs recorded,
the solenoid valve was opened and flow through the sample commenced.
When the solenoid valve wa6 closed, the elapsed time and fluid levels
were recorded. For the sand specimens, the pressure differential during
the test was recorded to quantify the friction and minor energy losses.
This was not necessary for the slower fluid velocities present in the

69
sand/clay tests. The testing procedure was repeated until sufficient
data were collected. Boundary conditions were verified and real time
data analysis was conducted on a microcomputer during the execution of
the teste. ,
Unsaturated Testing
Centrifugal techniques for physical modeling and material testing
of unsaturated soil samples were evaluated in this study. A variety of
applications were investigated, including several laboratory techniques
for determining the relationship of hydraulic conductivity as a function
of moisture content, as well as physically modeling the advection of a
conservative leachate through a partially saturated soil profile. The
results are presented below.
Physical Modeling
As the soil dries, the influence of gravity on the movement of pore
fluid decreases. In fact, for the majority of the time, fluid flux in
natural soils is dominated by suction gradients, which can typically be
1000 to 10,000 times the gradient due to gravity. In a uniformly dry
soil, water movement below an influent source will occur in a radial
pattern, reflecting the negligible influence of gravity. Thus, in the
scenario of percolation of leachate from a hazardous waste site, the
movement of fluid will be dominated by the extant suction gradients.
Because the influence of gravity on the flow is small, there is no
feasible advantage of physically modeling unsaturated flow conditions in
the gravity-accelerated environment within the centrifuge.

70
Material Testing
Laboratory tests for determining the un6aturated hydraulic
conductivity as a function of pore water content of soils have been
developed for both steady and nonsteady flow conditions. Six of the
most common methods were evaluated with the intention of determining a
feasible centrifuge technique. The following criteria for assessing the
different techniques were compiled:
1. The gravity component of the hydraulic potential gradient should be
at least of the same order of magnitude as the suction component;
preferably the gravity component will dominate.
2. The testing procedure should be appropriate for a wide variety of
sol1 types.
3. The test should not present undue safety concerns with the use of
decane as the permeant.
The results of the evaluation are summarized in Table 12.
Table 12. Evaluation of Laboratory Tests for Determining
Gradient
Test Dominated
by Gravity?
Suitable For a
Wide Range
of Tests?
Allows
Use of
Decane?
Centrifuge
Offers
Advantage?
Steady Flow
1. Impeding
Crust
Yes
No
Yes
No
2. Sprinkler
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
3. Pressurized
Steady
Yes
No
Yes
No
4. Ambient
Steady
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Transient Flow
1. IPMfi
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
2. Pressure
Outflow
mTTI “H" V™. —
No
No
Yes
No

71
Steady Flow Teste
Steady state methods of determining the hydraulic conductivity as a
function of moisture content establish and maintain a constant pressure
gradient (greater than or equal to zero) across the soil sample and
monitor the rate and volume of discharge. The four test6 evaluated
herein were the impeding crust method, the sprinkler-induced steady flux
method and two generic methods, the pressurized steady flux method and
the ambient pressure steady flux method.
In the pressurized steady flux method, application of an air
pressure to the sample can be used to increase the gas phase volume, and
hence decrease the moisture content (Klute, 1965a). Thi6 technique is
limited to soils with low permeabilities due to the restriction on the
air entry value of the porous discs at the ends of the samples. The
porous discs must have small enough pores such that the pressurized air
in the soil sample cannot displace the liquid occupying the pores.
However, as the pore diameter is reduced, the hydraulic conductivity of
the disc also decreases. For example, a commercially available ceramic
disc with an air entry value of 7.3 psi suction has an associated
hydraulic conductivity on the order of 10"^ cm/sec (Soilmoisture
Equipment Corporation, 1978).
In the ambient pressure steady flux method, atmospheric pressure is
allowed to enter a horizontal or vertical sample through air holes in
the rigid wall container. The water content is regulated by the soil
suction at the entrance and exit (Klute, 1965a). Thi6 removes the
restriction of limiting conductivity of the porous disc, but introduces
the restriction that suctions must be less than the cavitation pressure
of the fluid. For water this corresponds to a practical range of 200 cm

72
to 800 cm of water (Klute, 1965a). When the sample Is vertical and the
entrance and exit suctions are equal, the resulting soil moisture flux
is driven by gravity.
Steady flow can also be achieved by placing a thin layer of flow-
restricting material on top of the vertical soil and maintaining a
shallow head of water (Green et al., 1983; Dunn, 1983). The crust
material must have a saturated hydraulic conductivity less than the
hydraulic conductivity of the test soil at the te6t 6uction. Plaster of
Paris, gypsum and hydraulic cement have been used for this purpose.
Extended periods of time are required to obtain steady flow, since the
gradient is composed almost entirely of the gravitational potential
gradient.
In the sprinkler-induced steady flux method, a constant rate of
inflow is supplied by a source located above the vertical sample (Green
et al., 1983). As long as the rate of application i6 lower than the
saturated hydraulic conductivity the sample will eventually achieve a
uniform 6oil moisture content, specific to the application rate. Since
the gradient is composed almost entirely of the gravitational potential
gradient, thi6 method can be adapted for use in the centrifuge.
Unsteady Flow Techniques
Transient flow techniques for measuring the hydraulic conductivity
have a time advantage over steady state methods in that they yield
estimates of K over a range of moisture contents during a single test.
Two nonsteady flow techniques were evaluated as a potential centrifuge
candidate. The instantaneous profile method (IPM) entails monitoring
the change in soil suction with time along the sample profile as the
sample is exposed to specified boundary conditions (Green et al., 1983;

73
Olson and Daniel, 1981). Concurrent or Independent information on the
moisture retention characteristic is incorporated in obtaining estimates
of K as a function of moisture content. Soil suction profiles can be
obtained during drainage from initially saturated soil or during
imbibition as water is introduced into a dry sample. When the test íb
conducted during the drainage cycle, the gravity component of the
hydraulic gradient is greater than the soil moisture suction gradient; a
comparison of these two components during a test of Lakeland Series soil
ispresented in Figure 16 (Dane et al., 1983). The soil moisture and
potential data presented therein were collected during the
redistribution of moisture following surface ponding. Thu8 the IPM test
for the drainage cycle is a good candidate for adaptation to the
centrifuge.
The other major transient flow technique is the pressure outflow
method. The pressure outflow method relates the unsaturated hydraulic
conductivity to the volume of water discharged from a sample resulting
from an incremental Increase in air pressure (Kirkham and Powers, 1972).
Again, the restriction of porous discs with sufficient air entry values
limits this procedure to materials with low conductivity. Alemi et al.
(1976) proposed a theory for revising this test which utilizes a
centrifuge to increase the hydraulic gradient via the gravitational
head. However, no experimental results were available to assess thi6
method.

SUCTION GRADIENT
1.6
ELAPSED TIME (hr)
Figure 16. Time History of the Suction Gradient During the Drainage Test

75
Development of the Centrifugal Technique
The IPM was selected as the most feasible test procedure to
determine the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of a soil sample within
the centrifuge. The apparatus utilized in the saturated test was
readily modified for use in the IPM testing. A schematic of the
apparatus is presented in Figure 17. Miniature pressure transducers
were placed within the sample during preparation and monitored the soil
moisture suction of the pore fluid during the test.
Computer Model
A computer program was developed and utilized to evaluate the
influence of elevated and nonuniform acceleration levels on soil
moisture movement in unsaturated soils. The model incorporated the
centrifuge version of Darcy's law presented in equation 26 into the one¬
dimensional continuity expression referred to as Richard'6 equation
de/dt â– = -dq/dz (29)
where d0/dt is the time change in volumetric water content. The model
assumes that the soil is homogeneous. A moisture retention curve and
the relationship between the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and the
soil suction are entered as input data for each soil type of interest.
The program can simulate the wetting and/or drainage of a soil sample
under constant flux or constant potential boundary conditions. The
model was designed to simulate bench (i.e., 1 g) or centrifuge
acceleration levels, allowing direct evaluation of the influence of
acceleration on soil moisture movement.
A fully implicit finite difference solution scheme was used. The
resulting system of simultaneous equations forms a tridiagonal matrix,

76
Figure 17. Schematic of the Proposed Test Apparatus for the Instantaneous
Profile Method

77
which vae solved by the Thomas algorithm for each time step. The model
was written in FORTRAN on a microcomputer using doubleprecision
variables and requires approximately five minutes to simulate an hour of
soil moisture movement. The mass balance is checked each time step by
comparing the total change in mass of the system with the net flux of
mass from the system. Cumulative mass errors were consistently less
than one-half of one percent for a one-hour simulation.
Accuracy of the model was determined by comparing the pressure
profile after drainage ceased to the appropriate analytical expression
of hydrostatic equilibrium. For bench tests, a linear relationship
between sample depth and soil suction (expressed in cm of water),
determined analytically as
h = Viq + z (30)
vae reproduced by the model. Equation 30 states that, at hydrostatic
equilibrium, the soil suction is equal to the height above a datum of
fixed potential, e. g., a water table. For centrifuge tests, the
pressure distribution at hydrostatic equilibrium was derived earlier as
P2 = ?! + pw2 (r22 “ rj2)/2 (31)
Results from the computer model agreed precisely with thi6 relationship,
thereby verifying the accuracy of the numerical technique.
Data Analysis
Analysis of the test results required initially deriving the
appropriate flow equations based on the acceleration distribution and
boundary conditions imposed during the tests. Because of the variable
permeant levels in the influent and effluent reservoirs, traditional
constant head and falling head permeability equations were inappropriate
for the triaxial apparatus and new permeameter. The correct equation

78
for the bench teste was derived by incorporating the appropriate
boundary conditions into the equation of notion. Referring to the
definition sketch in Figure 18, the variable head equation for the bench
tests is
K *= aL_ ln(h1/hf) (32)
2At
where a = cross-sectional area of the influent line (1/ )}
L * length of the sanple (L);
A * cross-sectional area of the sample (I/); and
t = duration of the test (T).
h ■ IíLIA + - V + \ (33)
Pg
o
P^, P^ = air pressures at the permeant surface (M/LT*);
^MO* ZL0 = permeant surface elevations (L); and
= hydraulic energy loss due to friction, bends, valves,
entrances and exits (L).
hf « hi + 2h (34)
h = rise in the right burette water surface (L).
Equation 32 has been written in a form similar to the conventional
falling head equation, the differences being the factor of two in the
denominator and the different definitions of h^ and ti£. Also, like the
falling head equation, when the applied pressure gradient is high
relative to the change in water levels during the test, equation 32
yields nearly identical results as the constant head equation. This was
verified during data analysis. The complete derivation of the falling
head permeability equation is presented in the Appendix. For comparison
with the centrifuge test results and to investigate the influence of
decane, the intrinsic permeability was calculated as

79
Z=o
Figure 18. Definition Sketch for the Variable Head Permeability Equation -
Bench Test

80
k «= Kv/g (35)
where v *= kinematic viscosity of the permeant at the te6t temperature
(L /T). As in the conventional falling head test, the variable head
condition resulted in a deviation from steady flow, and hence,
introduced an additional acceleration force acting on the fluid element.
The fluid velocity during the test is proportional to the hydraulic
gradient; hence, this acceleration term is proportional to the time
rate of change in the gradient. During the bench tests, the gradients
were nearly constant, hence this additional acceleration term was
neglected. The derivation of the conventional falling head permeability
test also neglects this term.
The derivation of the variable head hydraulic conductivity equation
for the centrifuge testing necessitated derivation of the fundamental
relationships of fluid flow under the influence of radial acceleration.
Highlights of those derivations were presented in Chapter III. The
appropriate equation for the variable head saturated hydraulic
conductivity test in a centrifuge (see Figure 19) test is
K *= 7~r~ In (h../h0) (in units of time) (36)
Atrip 1 2
h0 = w2 (rL0 + rM0} (37)
where r^Q, r^p = the initial radii of the water surfaces (L).
h2 c hf + hQ * h
(38)
(39)

81
▲ ♦ a
mo
M
Figure 19. Definition Sketch for the Variable Head Permeability Equation -
Centrifuge Test

82
where h * Increese in radius of the upper fluid surface (L).
Here, has the dimensions of energy per unit mass. The complete
derivation of the falling head permeability equation is presented in the
Appendix. Estimates of the intrinsic permeability were calculated from
k = Kv (40)
The data analysis worksheet for the centrifuge tests included
information on the acceleration and hydrostatic pressure profiles in the
permeameter. The real-time data analysis facilitated the establishment
of proper initial boundary pressures.
Sources of Error
Measurement errors are inherent in most laboratory test6. Errors
associated with the hydraulic conductivity tests are discussed below.
During the tests, the flux through the soil sample was determined
as the average change in volume of the inlet and effluent reservoirs.
The levels in the reservoirs were recorded before and after each test.
In the centrifuge, a strobe light illuminated the apparatus directly
below the window in the housing, allowing direct observation of the
water levels in flight. Fluctuation of the permeant surfaces was
observed at all rotational speeds, with severe sloshing (0.5 - 1.0 cm)
occurring below 150 RPM.
The use of high gradients across the clay and sand/clay samples may
have caused differential consolidation during the test. Also, the exit
end of the sample had higher effective stresses acting on the particles
as a result of the gradient. To minimize the influence of these
transient phenomena, the sample was allowed to equilibrate for a period
of one to ten minutes after changing the boundary conditions before
measurements began.

83
A sensitivity analysis of the measurement errors was performed by
recording the variation in K a6 the input parameters were varied.
Maximum practical errors in determining the sample dimensions and the
test duration resulted in a variation of less than 5 percent in
estimates of K. The height of the meniscus varied from zero to 0.2 cm
during the course of the test6. The pressure transducers were
calibrated regularly and had a sensitivity of 0.02 psi. Obviously, the
lower the gradient and smaller the flux during the test, the more
sensitive the estimates of K are to errors in reading the water level
and pressure gradient. To compensate for this sensitivity, tests with
small gradients were run long enough to register at least a one cm
change in the effluent reservoir.
Another possible source of error was the equation used to calculate
K. Both the bench and centrifuge variable head equations were derived
during this study and have not been independently tested. For
comparison, estimates of K were determined using the standard constant
head equation. Under high pressure gradients, the variable head
equation yielded similar results, since under these boundary conditions,
the change in elevation of the permeant reservoir surfaces were
negligible compared to the pressure gradient. The validity of the
variable head equations was carefully scrutinized, and eventually
verified under the extreme range of hydraulic conductivity values,
boundary gradients, acceleration levels and test durations experienced
during the testing program. The validity of the equations and the
permeameter was also supported by nearly Identical estimates of the
saturated hydraulic conductivity obtained by performing a conventional
falling head permeability test on the sand.

CHAPTER V
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The objective of the laboratory research program was to develop
centrifugal testing methods for determining saturated and unsaturated
hydraulic conductivity of soil samples. The testing program
encompassed
1. the design, fabrication and analysis of permeameter6 for use in the
centrifuge;
2. execution of hydraulic conductivity tests using water and decane in
a 1-g environment to provide a benchmark for comparing centrifuge
results;
3. derivation of the appropriate equations of motion for fluid flow in a
centrifuge;
4. execution of hydraulic conductivity tests using water and decane in
the centrifuge at various accelerations;
5. comparison of centrifuge results with 1-g test results; and
6. (if necessary) modification of the centrifuge device, testing
procedures and/or data analysis based on results of the comparison.
These were successfully accomplished during the course of the
study. Analysis of the current technology in permeameters resulted in
an appropriate design of apparatus to be utilized in centrifuge
testing. The apparatus was fabricated, tested and employed during the
course of the 6tudy. Saturated hydraulic conductivity test6 were
84

85
conducted on the laboratory bench U6ing commercial triaxial apparatus
and the apparatus designed during the study. Four soil types and two
permeant6 were utilized to cover a broad range of saturated hydraulic
conductivity values. Centrifuge testing was carried out using the same
soil types, permeants and hydraulic gradients. For the unsaturated
hydraulic conductivity analysis, the influence of acceleration levels on
soil moisture redistribution was evaluated by means of a computer model.
Results of these test6 are discussed below.
Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Tests
Sand Samples
Influence of acceleration level
The saturated hydraulic conductivity testing with sand exposed
several interesting facets of permeability testing and flow through
porous media in general. The initial testing was performed on the
commercial triaxial apparatus. However, after analyzing the results, it
was realized that significant energy losses occurred during the tests.
High energy losses due to friction occurred in the small diameter
tubing (inside diameter of 0.15 cm), which rendered the commercial
triaxial apparatus unsuitable for determining saturated hydraulic
conductivity of 6and samples. Results presented herein were obtained
from the new apparatus which was designed with larger diameter tubing to
decrease the frictional energy losses. The hydraulic energy losses
which occurred during the test6 weremonitored witha differential
pressure transducer. A typical hydraulic energy distribution during a
centrifuge test is presented in Figure 20. The derivation of the
variable head conductivity equation incorporated the energy loss term
directly.

TOTAL. HYDRAULIC ENERGY (om wat«r)
86
Figure 20. Hydraulic Energy Profile During the Variable Head Test

87
The tests were conducted on the bench and then transferred to the
centrifuge for subsequent testing. Approximately 30 minutes were
required for assembly in the centrifuge. Similar gradient ranges were
established in the centrifuge a6 on the bench. As the permeant shifted
from the influent reservoir to the effluent reservoir, the hydraulic
pressure gradient changed during the course of the test6. Changes in
the gradient of 10 were commonly observed in the centrifuge, while
gradient changes on the bench were rarely greater than 1.
Departure from Darcy's law was observed in both the 1-g and
multiple-g tests with sand. Estimates of the intrinsic permeability, k,
are presented in Figure 21. The extreme variation in estimates of k
were explained when the same data were plotted versus the initial
gradient (see Figure 22), exhibiting a strong dependence on the
hydraulic gradient. An independent estimate of k was obtained by
performing a conventional falling head permeability te6t on the sand
sample using a low gradient. An average gradient of 2.8 yielded an
- 7 2
average value for k of 8.56 x 10 cm , which corresponds to a hydraulic
conductivity value of 9.44 x 10 cm/s. These results verify the
accuracy of the new permeameter as well as the variable head equation.
As Figure 23 demonstrates, thi6 deviation from Darcy's law was
reproduced in the centrifuge at accelerations of 14.7 and 24.4 g's. The
greater scatter observed in the centrifuge results i6 attributed to the
observed fluctuations in the reservoir surfaces. Below a gradient of
around ten, somewhat constant values of k were determined. However,
increased gradients resulted in decreased magnitudes of the intrinsic
permeability. Constant values of k were obtained below hydraulic
gradients corresponding to soils Reynolds number of approximately 0.2.

88
Figure 21. Permeability of Water Through Sand as a Function of Pore Volume
Figure 22. Permeability of Water Through Sand as a Function of Initial
Gradient

89
1.1
r\
E
0
0.9-
O’
a
0.8-
iji
-u
Do
0.7-
<,-
U
0.6-
2»
*E
o-p
0.5-
ÃœW
in
z
0.4-
E
h
z
0.3-
0.2-
0.1 -
ID
D fin A
s
iLh*
D BENCH TESTS
A CENTRIFUGE TESTS
A A
\ * 4
V
20
T
40
T
60
T
80
100
INITIAL GRADIENT
Figure 23. Comparison of Centrifuge and Bench Results of Permeability of
Water Through Sand

90
This value ia almost an order of magnitude smaller than the reported
limits of between one and ten (Bear, 1979). Deviations from Darcy's law
can be attributed to:
1. the transition from laminar to turbulent flow through the pores; and
2. the tendency for flow to occur in the larger pores as the velocity
increases, thus decreasing the total cross-sectional area of flow.
Influence of decane
During the hydraulic conductivity testing with decane as the
permeant, the fluid and soil system experienced binary phase flow.
Decane is nonpolar hydrophobic and immiscible in water. In the fluid
reservoirs the decane floated on top of the water. During the tests the
water was displaced from the sand in a plug flow fashion; very little
water was discharged after decane appeared in the effluent reservoir.
In the soil sample the decane displaced the majority of the pore water;
the amount of water that remained adjacent to the soil particles is
referred to as the irreducible water content (Schwille, 1984). The
irreducible water content for the sand was estimated to be less than 5
percent of the total void volume.
The saturated hydraulic conductivity of decane through sand was
determined on the bench and in the centrifuge at 24.4 g's. The results
are presented in Figure 24. Unlike the results for water, estimates of
intrinsic permeability of decane did not exhibit a strong relationship
with the gradient, as demonstrated in Figure 25. Observed values ranged
from 30 to 50 percent less than values with water.
The frictional losses observed during the testing with decane were
less than those observed during the water tests. This vbb unexpected
since the decane is approximately 33 percent more viscous. Apparently

91
PORE VOLUMES
Figure 24. Comparison of Centrifuge and Bench Results of Permeability of
Decane Through Sand
Figure 25. Permeability of Decane Through Sand as a Function of Initial
Gradient

92
the adhesion between the nonpolar decane and the nylon tubing is less
than that between the polar water molecules and the tubing.
Sand/Clay Samples
Influence of acceleration level
Saturated hydraulic conductivity tests were performed on sand/clay
samples on the laboratory bench and in the centrifuge. Acceleration
levels of 19.3 and 24.A g's were established during the centrifuge
tests. Energy los6e6 due to friction were determined to be negligible
during the tests due to the low velocities in the tubing. Figure26
compares the results obtained in the centrifuge with those determined on
the bench. Initial gradients of 90 to 200 were established across the
4.8 cm samples during the tests. By regulating the pressures at the
upper and lower ends of the specimen, the direction of flow was reversed
during the course of the centrifuge tests, such that the fluid moved
against the radial acceleration forces. The variable head equation
correctly handled this case as long a6 the direction of the hydraulic
pressure gradient remained constant throughout the test.
Estimates of the intrinsic permeability of water through a
sand/clay sample obtained in the centrifuge at two rotational speeds are
presented in Figure 27. The lower estimates observed at the higher
acceleration level suggest that the greater confining pressures, and
consequently, greater effective stresses on the sample, influenced the
rate at which water moves through the soil pores.
Influence of decane
Test results using decane after water are presented in Figure 28.
Gradients of 45 to 160 were used during the tests. Decane was

93
PORE VOLUMES
Figure 26. Comparison of Centrifuge and Bench Results of Permeability of
Water Through Sand/Clay
Figure 27. Comparison of Permeability of Water Through Sand/Clay as a
Function of Acceleration Level

INTRINSIC PERMEABILITY (aq cm) INTRINSIC PERMEABILITY
(Tlmaa 10E-9) (Tlmaa 10E-S)
94
(a)
Figure 28. Comparison of the Permeabilities of Decane and Water Through
Sand/Clay a) Sample 1; b) Sample 2

95
Introduced to the top of the soil sample. Since the decane has a lower
density than water, a bouyant force was present which acted against the
hydraulic potential while pore water was present. Estimates of the
intrinsic permeability dropped dramatica 1 ly with the introduction of
decane. However, definite trends of increasing k were observed as the
specimens were permeated with decane. Similar patterns have been
reported in prior studies of organic permeants through fine grained
samples (Acar et al., 1985; Daniel et al., 1985). This trend suggests
the formation of channels within the samples. It is hypothesized that
the decane caused preferential agglomeration of the clay particles
within the 6and/clay mix. Visual inspection of the samples after the
tests supported this, revealing a grainy appearance in the decane-soaked
samples, as opposed to the smooth appearance of samples exposed only to
water. This agglomeration may have occurred as a result of the adhesive
and cohesive forces between the polar water molecules within the
electric double layer of the clay particles. The nonpolar hydrophobic
decane could not replace the adsorbed water and determined the path of
least re6istence to be around the agglomerations.
The decane displaced the water in a plug-like fashion. Very little
water was discharged once the decane entered the effluent reservoir.
The irreducible water content was found to be less than 5 percent of the
void volume. Estimates of the intrinsic permeability did not exhibit a
discernible relationship with gradient, as presented in Figure 29. The
existence of hydraulic channeling is supported by the non-unique
relationship between k and the gradient as the gradient was increased
and then reduced during the tests.

INTRINSIC PERMEABILITY (tq cm) INTRINSIC PERMEABIUTY (tq cm)
(Tlmtt 10E-9) (Timet 10E-9)
96
(b)
Figure 29. Permeability of Decane Through Sand/Clay as a Function of
Initial Gradient a) Sample 1; b) Sample 2

97
Clay Samples
Safety coneideratIona prevented the execution of the saturated
hydraulic conductivity teste on clay within the centrifuge. Inlet
pressures of 100 psi were required on the bench tests; however, to
overcome the reduction in pressure as the fluid moves toward the center
of rotation to the top of the sample would require approximately 120 psi
in the lower chamber at 24.4 g'6 in the centrifuge. The acrylic
apparatus was successfully pressure tested at 120 psi, but in light of
the successful data collection using sand and 6and/clay samples, the
risk of a seal failure and consequential damage was not warranted.
Influence of Decane
Saturated hydraulic conductivity tests were performed on kaolinite
samples using distilled water followed by decane. The tests were
performed on a commercial triaxial apparatus after a backpressure
saturation period of 3-4 dayB produced a "B" value of unity. Energy
losses due to friction were determined to be negligible. The results of
the tests are presented in Figs. 30 and 31. A pressure differential of
10 p8i across the 2.54-cm high samples was used with the water,
producing a gradient of 277. Consistent estimates of the intrinsic
permeability between 1.8 and 3.2 x 10 cm were obtained, which
-8
correspond to hydraulic conductivity values between 2.1 and 3.7 x 10
cm/s. Slightly higher values were obtained for the samples prepared at
an initial water content of 32 percent by weight. The flux through all
the clay samples decreased significantly following the addition of
decane. Complete cessation of flow was observed in three of the four
samples after approximately 0.2 pore volumes entered the permeant lines.
The volume of the permeameter influent lines between the reservoir and

INTRINSIC PERMEABILITY (aq cm) INTRINSIC PERMEABILITY (aq cm)
(Tima. 10E-13) (Tima. 10E-13)
98
(a)
(b)
Figure 30. Comparison of the Permeabilities of Decane and Water Through
Clay; Initial Water Content 29% a) Sample 1; b) Sample 2

INTRINSIC PERMEABILITY (»q cm) INTRINSIC PERMEABILITY (*q cm)
(T1m«t 10E-13) (Tim»» 10E-13)
99
(a)
Figure 31. Comparison of the Permeabilities of Decane and Water Through
Clay; Initial Water Content 32% a) Sample 1; b) Sample 2

100
the top of the sample Is 8.5 cc, which corresponds to approximately 0.2
pore volumes of the 2.54-cm high specimens. Hence, there was little if
any penetration of the decane into the clay samples before the flow
ceased. Similar results were obtained in an earlier study with aniline
and xylene through kaolinite (Uppot, 1984). Like aniline and xylene,
decane i6 nonpolar, and hence, does not possess any electrostatic
mechanism to displace the polar water molecules from the charged clay
particles surface. Decane, aniline and xylene are immiscible in water;
hence, the only way these fluids can flow through the clay pores is to
physically displace the water.
The pressure gradient was tripled in an effort to overcome the
interfacial energy of the water-decane interface. The flow through the
samples resumed in two of the four samples under the higher gradient.
However, the flux dropped off again in one sample, while estimates of
the intrinsic permeability were about an order of magnitude lower than
with water in the remaining sample. Even though the confining pressure
was increased along with the inlet pressure, volume change of the sample
within the flexible membrane was not monitored and could account for the
apparent fluid flux through the sample.
These results suggest that under gradients normally encountered in
the field, clays saturated with water are impermeable to a nonpolar
immiscible hydrocarbon like decane.
Unsaturated Soil Tests
Based on the preliminary analysis, the most feasible test for
unsaturated hydraulic conductivity was the Instantaneous Profile Method
(IPM). During the IPM test, the soil suction is recorded at a fixed
location in the soil profile as the sample drains. The computer model

101
vas utilized to compare the IPM under bench and centrifuge acceleration
levels. Physical dimensions of the sample were obtained from the
centrifuge apparatus developed for the unsaturated tests (see Figure 16).
The soil type used in the computer analysis vas a hypothetical sand vith
moisture retention and hydraulic conductivity characteristics as
presented in Figure 32. For the computer tests, the initially saturated
sample vas drained under the influence of gravity for the bench test,
and under the influence of radial acceleration in the centrifuge at
speed of 120, 180 and 240 RPM.
From the drainage test results presented in Figures 33 and 34 and
summarized in Table 13, the centrifuge technique offers tvo obvious
advantages over the bench test:
1. the method covers a much vider range of soil moisture and suction;
and
2. the testing time, i.e., the time required to reach hydrostatic
equilibrium, is reduced.
An additional advantage of the centrifuge technique is the possibility
of expeditiously obtaining moisture retention characteristics of soil
samples. These could be obtained by spinning initially saturated
samples until drainage ceases and subsequently determining the moisture
content at discrete locations along the profile. The pressure
distribution presented in equation 20 could be correlated to the
moisture content at specific elevations, providing the information
needed for the moisture retention curves. The redistribution of soil
moisture due to suction gradients after the sample stops spinning may
present a problem for soils vith high rates of unsaturated hydraulic
conductivity.

SUCTION tog(cm of wot or) HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (cm/»)
102
(a)
VOLUMETRIC WATER CONTENT
(b)
Figure 32. Characteristics of the Sand Used in the Drainage Simulations
a) Hydraulic Conductivity; b) Moisture Retention Characteristic

VOLUMETRIC WATER CONTENT VOLUMETRIC WATER CONTENT
103
BENCH TEST
0.S6
0.S4
0.S2
O.S
0.28
0.26
0.24
0.22
0.2
0.18
0.16
0.1 4
0.12
0.1
64 68 72 76 80 84 88 82 86
RADIUS (cm)
(b)
CENTRIFUGE - 120 RPM
t 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r
Figure 33. Comparison of Drainage Sequence in a Soil Sample a) Bench
Simulation Results; b) Centrifuge Simulation Results

PRESSURE (em wotsr) PRESSURE (cm water)
(Thousand»)
104
BENCH TEST
(a)
o
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
-0.5
-0.6
-0.7
-0.8
-0.9
-1
— 1.1
-1.2
-1.3
-1.4
-1.6
64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96
RADIUS (em)
(b)
Figure 34. Comparison of the Pressure Profiles in a Soil Sample a) Bench
Simulation Results; b) Centrifuge Simulation Results
CENTRIFUGE - 240 RPM

105
Table 13. Summary of Simulated Drainage Test Results
Test
Number
RPM
Acceleration
Level
(g's)
Moisture
Content
Range
(7.)
Moisture
Suction
Range
(cm water)
Test
Duration
(min)
1
1
1.0
26 - 31
5-33
120
2
120
15.3
1A - 31
5 - 380
60
3
180
3A.A
11 - 31
5 - 875
60
A
2A0
61.2
10 - 31
5 - 1A75
60
Discussion
The total hydraulic energy of a fluid in a centrifuge is composed
of four elements:
1. air pressure at the surface of the fluid;
2. submergence pressure of the fluid;
3. potential energy associated with the elevation (radius)
difference between two points in a fluid; and
A. kinetic energy of the moving fluid.
The delineation of these components is essential when describing the
effect of centrifugation on a fluid system, for it is only the latter
three which increase significantly with the angular velocity of the
centrifuge arm. The increase in air pressure is limited to the increase
O
in weight of the ga6; with a mass density of 0.00129 g/cc , an increase
of 50 g16 on a volume of one liter of air results in a pressure increase
of less than 0.01 psi. Hence the total energy difference does not
increase proportionately with the increase in radial acceleration.
Inspection of the equations of motion for a fluid in a centrifuge
indicates the interchangeable relationship between the air pressure
differential and the increase in centrifugal acceleration. This

106
relationship is a critical factor in comparing centrifugal techniques
with conventional laboratory te6ts. In the saturated hydraulic
conductivity testing, the increase in the hydraulic gradient due to the
increased acceleration levels was reproduced in a triaxial apparatus by
increasing the pressure gradient across the sample.

CHAPTER VI
CONCLUSIONS
The technical feasibility of utilizing a large-scale centrifuge for
estimating the hydraulic conductivity of fluids in a wide variety of
soil types va6 demonstrated. Conclusions regarding centrifugal
techniques and the migration behavior of decane are summarized below.
1. Equations were derived and verified to describe the influence of
nonuniform acceleration levels on fluid motion within a centrifuge.
Their application removes the restriction of thin samples in centrifugal
modeling and testing procedures. The equations allow accurate
determination of the total or individual components of the hydraulic
potential at any location in the sample, thereby facilitating the
verification of scaling factors applied in physical models.
2. A centrifugal technique was developed for performing saturated
hydraulic conductivity testing. A flexible wall permeameter was
designed and tested which allowed determination of saturated hydraulic
conductivity estimates for a wide range of soil types on the laboratory
bench and also in the centrifuge. The equations of fluid motion in
conduits and porou6 media within a centrifuge were derived and
incorporated into a variable head permeability equation. Excellent
agreement was demonstrated between estimates of intrinsic permeabilities
obtained on the bench and in the centrifuge. Acceleration levels ranged
from 14 to 25 g's.
3. The centrifugal technique for determining saturated hydraulic
107

108
conductivity does not offer any savings in time over similar bench
tests. Although the gravitational component of the total hydraulic
potential was significantly increased during the tests, an identical
increase in the total hydraulic energy va6 obtained on the bench by
increasing the pressure component by means of air pressure regulators.
Fluctuations of the permeant reservoir surface were observed during the
centrifuge testing, apparently due to a minor imbalance of the rotor
arms. As a result, the accuracy of the centrifuge technique was
probably less than the bench testing.
4. One advantage of centrifugal techniques over bench methods is the
ability to accurately reproduce the effective stress profile when
physically modeling a prototype field sample. For example, when testing
the permeability of a six-foot thick clay liner for use under a
landfill, a scaled-down model in the centrifuge will experience the
actual increase in effective stress with depth, whereas a bench model
will experience an almost uniform effective stress distribution. The
greater effective stresses can in turn result in lower rates of leaching
than observed in the bench model, which can influence design decisions.
5. Caution should be exercised when extrapolating advection rate6
determined in a centrifugal model to field conditions. A nonlinear
response of fluid flux to increasing hydraulic gradient, indicating a
deviation from Darcy's law, was observed in the sand samples at a soil
Reynolds number greater than 0.2.
6. A thorough analysis of the total hydraulic energy should be
conducted as part of centrifugal modeling and testing programs dealing
with fluid movement.
7.
Estimates of saturated hydraulic conductivity for nonaqueous

109
permeants cannot be extrapolated from values determined U6ing water as
the permeant, based on differences In kinematic viscosity. Saturated
hydraulic conductivity tests using decane and water In a fine sand, a
sand/clay mix and 100 percent kaolinite produced significant
discrepancies in estimates of the intrinsic permeability as well as
dissimilar permeant behavior. While a clear deviation from Darcy's law
was observed for water in the fine 6and, fairly constant values of k
were obtained using decane up to a gradient of 77. In the sand/clay
mix, fairly uniform estimates of k were obtained using distilled water,
while evidence of structural changes, possibly resulting in hydraulic
channeling, was reflected in larger estimates of k with decane. Decane
did not permeate the water saturated kaolinite sample under a hydraulic
gradient of 277. However, an increase in the gradient to 750-800 was
sufficient to drive decane into the sample pores in half of the tests.
While estimates of k were subsequently determined, extrapolation to
lower gradients is not warranted because of the high interfacial energy
which needed to be overcome before flow commenced.
8. Site specific soil samples subjected to appropriate hydraulic
conditions must be utilized in order to correctly evaluate the migration
characteristics of hazardous wastes. Decane exhibited a variety of flow
behavior in the wide range of soil types and under the wide range of
hydraulic gradients utilized in this study.
9. No advantage can be realized by employing a centrifuge to
physically model the percolation of leachate through an unsaturated soil
profile. Soil moisture suction gradients dominate water movement in the
unsaturated soil, and are often 10 to 1000 times greater than the
gradient due to gravity.

110
10. A centrifugal technique va6 developed for determining the
relationship of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity to the moisture
content of a soil sample. An apparatus vas designed to monitor the
decrease in soil moisture suction with time as a saturated sample drains
under the influence of increased acceleration levels. Computer
simulation results indicated that significant reductions in testing time
and a greater range of soil moisture content can be achieved by
conducting the test in a centrifuge.

CHAPTER VII
RECOMMENDATIONS
Several recommendations for further research in related areas arose
during the course of this investigation.
1. The migration of hazardous vastes avay from source areas will
depend on the soil moisture characteristics of the unsaturated soil
matrix; as such, techniques for determining the moisture retention and
unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of soils using water and appropriate
nonaqueous permeant6 should be incorporated into testing programs along
with saturated tests. The centrifugal technique developed for
determining unsaturated hydraulic conductivity can be utilized for a
variety of soils. In addition, the centrifugal technique for
determining soil moisture retention curves offers potential advantages
over conventional bench methods.
2. Centrifugal models appear to have an advantage over bench models in
that prototype effective stresses can be accurately reproduced due to
the increasing acceleration levels with sample depth. Further research
is needed to assess the importance of thi6 phenomenon to permeability
measurements.
3. Centrifugal techniques may be developed for other conventional
laboratory procedures which could result in savings in time and/or
costs. The major criterion is that the phenomena of interest are
dominated by gravitational forces.
Ill

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clay liners, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division, American
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affecting permeability testing of a bentonite-sand liner material, in
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1982.

APPENDIX
DERIVATION OF VARIABLE HEAD PERMEABILITY EQUATIONS
Bench Tests
Energy equation: = ^0 ~ (A-l)
Bernoulli equations (P/pg + z + V^/2g)^ = (P/pg + z + V^/2g)^ (A-2)
Continuity equation: dV/dt = qA (A-3)
Darcy's Law: q = -K dH/dz (A-4)
Hx •= P^pg + z1 + V*/2g - Hfl (A-5)
Rewriting the Bernoulli equation between the influent reservoir
(subscript M) and the top of the soil sample
Px *= PM + Pg(zM - Zj) + (pV^ - pV^)/2 (A-6)
From continuity, V^ = V^ (A-7)
The elevation of the fluid surface in the influent reservoir is
determined from the initial elevation and the rise in the surface during
the test
ZM ' ^0 ‘ \ Substituting equations A-6, A-7 and A-8 into A-5 yields the expression
for the hydraulic potential at the top of the soil sample
H1 - + ZM0 • “m + vi/2* - Bn (A‘9)
The hydraulic potential at the lower soil boundary can be determined in
a similar manner as
H2 â–  + ZL0 + hL + V2/2B + Hf2 (A-10)
h^ is related to h^ due to continuity; h^ = h^ (a^/a^) = b h^ (A-ll)
For steady flow, V^ = V^; however, in the variable head
permeability test, the flow rate Í6 not constant. Fortuitously, the
117

118
velocity term in the energy equation Is of minor Importance for flow
through a soil specimen. Negligible error la introduced by assuming
that during the permeability test. The difference in potential
across the sample is
dH *= H2 - Hx (A-12)
d„ . (pl . pm) + (Zw . Zfio) + (l+b) ^ + (Hfi + Hf2) (A-13)
Define dP0 - Pp - P„ . - *L0 - *M0 *nd Hf - Hf] + Hf2
and substitute into equation A-13 yields
dH = dPQ + dzQ + (l+b)h^ + Hf (A-14)
The differential dz = L (A-15)
Substituting equations A-14 and A-15 into Darcy's Law (A-4) yields
q â– = -K/L [dPQ + dzQ + (l+b)!^ + Hf] (A-16)
From continuity, dV/dt *= qA (A-17)
Evaluating the left hand side,
dV/dt = d(a>{h>{)/dt = aM dh^/dt (A-18)
Substituting equations A-17 and A-18 into A-16 yields
aM dh^/dt = -KA/L [dPQ + dzQ + (1-hb)^ + Hf] (A-19)
Dividing through by a^ results in the differential equation
dh^/dt = -KA/a^ [dPQ + dzQ + (l+b)!^ + Hf] (A-20)
which can be rewritten as
dtyMt = C1 + Cjhjj (A-21)
where C. = -KA/awL (dP„ + dz. + H,) (A-22)
C„ = -(l+b) KA/aL (A-23)
Z M
This equation is a first order differential equation which was
solved by the use of an integrating factor, -exp(C2t), yielding
-(c.t) - V ■ -Cl/C2 ' + C0 (A‘M)
C- was evaluated at time t = 0, when h
U rl
0, yielding

119
CQ - Cl/C2 (A-25)
Solving for K yields
K = aML In[1 + (1+b)hR ] (A-26)
(l+b)At dPQ + dzQ + Hf
Or, in a more familiar form,
K •= aML ln¿i] (A-27)
(l+b)At hf
where h^ = dP^ + dz^ + (A-28)
hf = dPQ + dzQ + (l+b)hR (A-29)
When the diameters of the permeant burettes are the same, a^ = a^ and
b “ 1, yielding
K *= fj; In ¿i] (A-30)
2At hf
Centrifuge Tests
Energy equation: (A-31)
Bernoulli equation for flow in a centrifuge:
(P/p + V2/2 - w2r2/2)x = (P/p + V2/2 - w2r2/2)2 (A-32)
Continuity equation: dV/dt = qA (A-33)
Darcy'8 Law: q = -K dH/dr (A-34)
The hydraulic potential at the top of the soil sample (subscript 1) is
H1 = VP + Vl/2 ‘ w2rl/2 ' Hfl (A-35)
Rewriting the centrifuge form of the Bernoulli equation between the
surface of the influent reservoir (subscript M) and the top of the soil
P1 = PM + Pw2(rl ‘ rM)/2 + (VM ' Vl)/2 (A-36)
From continuity, V *= V. (A-37)
M 1
The elevation of the influent reservoir is related to the initial
surface elevation and the rise in the fluid surface, h^, by

120
rM ' rB0 + \ Inserting equations A-37 and A-38 into A-36 yields
P1 " PM + Pw2[ri • (rM0 + \)2]/1 (A'39)
Carrying out the algebra,
P1 “ P« + P“2[rl ‘ <4 + 2rM0\ + 4!/2 (A'40)
P1 - P„ + P»2 Inserting equation A-41 into A-35 yields the expression for the total
hydraulic potential at the top of the soil sample
H] - + P»2(r2 - 4 - 2^ - K^)/2]/p + V2/2 - v2r2/2 - Hfl
Simplifying
H1 = ^PM + pW rM0 " 2rH0hM " Nl^/21/P + vj/2 " Hfi (A-43)
A similar analysis was carried out for the hydraulic potential at the
lower boundary of the soil sample, incorporating terms of opposite sign
for the rise in the effluent reservoir surface and the energy losses
H2 - [PL + pv2<- 4 + 2rLOhL - h2)/2]/p + V2/2 + Hf¡, (A-44)
The difference across the sample is given by
dH = H2 - Hj (A-45)
h^ = h^ = h since the diameters of the two reservoirs are identical.
As in the bench test equation derivation, the difference between
and V2 is assumed to be 0.0.
Define dPQ = (PL - PM)/p and Hf = Hfl + Hf2
dH - dP0 + Hf + v2(- r20 + 2rL0h - h2)/2
- ”2<- 4 - 2rM0h - h2)/2 (A-46)
Grouping common terms yields
dH = dPQ + Hf + w2(r20 - r20)/2 + w2h (rLQ + rMQ) (A-47)
dr = L
Substituting equations A-47 and A-48 into Darcy's law,
(A-48)

121
q - -K/L [dP0 + Hf + w2(r^ - r2Q)/2 + w2h (rL0 + r^)]
(A-49)
From continuity, dV/dt * qA
Evaluating the left hand 6ide yields
(A-50)
dV/dt = d(ah)/dt *= a dh/dt
(A-51)
Substituting equations A-49 and A-51 into Equation A-50 yields
a dh/dt = -KA/L [dPQ + Hf + w2(r20 - r2Q)/2 + w2h (rLQ +
Dividing by a results in the differential equation
W
(A-52)
dh/dt «= -KA/aL [dPQ + Hf + v2(r20 - r2Q)/2 + w2h (rLQ +
rH0»
(A-53)
dh/dt = Cx + C2h
(A-54)
where Cj *= -KA/aL [dPp + + w2(r2Q - r2Q)/2]
(A-55)
C2 = -KA/aL [w ?rLQ + r^))
(A-56)
Thi6 equation is a first order differential equation which was
solved by the use of the integrating factor, -exp(C2t)
-(C t) ~(C t)
he = ‘Cl/C2 * + c0 (A-57)
Cq is evaluated at time t = 0, when h = 0, yielding
CQ = Cl/C2 (A-58)
Solving for K yields
K = ^ In [ W (rL0+ rM0)h + 1]
At[w2(rL0 + rM0)] dP0 + w2(rM0 ' 'lO5 + Hf
(A-59)
Carrying the negative sign to the logarithm and inverting the
argument yields
K = aL ln(hl)
(A-60)
AthA h_
0 2
where hQ - w2(rLQ +
(A-61)
hl â–  dP0 + v2(rM0 ' rL0^ + Bf
(A-62)
(A-63)

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Gary Frank Edmon Goforth was bom toward the end of 1956 and grew
up in a one-room cabin in Huntsville, Texas. After graduating from high
school in Tampa, Florida, he attended the University of Florida, where,
along with academic pursuits, he met and married the former Karen
Maryniewski of Buffalo, New York. He received his Bachelor's and
Master's degrees in environmental engineering sciences in 1979 and 1981,
respectively. He spent three years with an engineering consulting firm
in Austin, Texas, before returning to the University of Florida as an
Assistant in Engineering in 1984. While with the University of Florida,
he spent two years at the U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment
Station in Vicksburg, Mississippi, as a research engineer. He was
licensed as a Professional Engineer in the State of Florida in 1985.
As of January 1986, he had three children, Kelly, Geoffrey and
Kristen. They were pretty good, as kids go.
122

I certify that I have read
conforms to acceptable standards
adequate, in scope and quality,
Doctor of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read
conforms to acceptable standards
adequate, in scope and quality,
Doctor of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read
conforms to acceptable standards
adequate, in scope and quality,
Doctor of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read
conforms to acceptable standards
adequate, in scope and quality,
Doctor of Philosophy.
this study and that in my opinion it
of scholarly presentation and is fully
as a dissertation for the degree of
C
S'
â– ' (/
- /James P. Heaney, Chairman
( • Professor of Environmental
Engineering Sciences
this study and that in my opinion it
of scholarly presentation and is fully
as a dissertation for the degree of
Frank C. Townsend, Cochairman
Professor of Civil Engineering
this study and that in. my opinion it
of scholarly presentation and is fully
as a dissertation for the degree of
Wayne C. Huber
Professor of Environmental
Engineering Sciences
this study and that in my opinion it
of scholarly presentation and is fully
as a dissertation for the degree of
fames M. Davidson
Professor of Soil
Science

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
o. S.LU.
Dinesh Shah
Professor of Chemical Engineering
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College
of Engineering and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
May 1986
£>.
Dean, College of Engineering
Dean, Graduate School

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA




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