Citation
Changing the rape-supportive attitudes of traditional and nontraditional males and females

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Title:
Changing the rape-supportive attitudes of traditional and nontraditional males and females
Creator:
Rosenthal, Eric, 1966-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
ix, 141 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Blame ( jstor )
Date rape ( jstor )
Human sexual behavior ( jstor )
Men ( jstor )
Myths ( jstor )
Psychological attitudes ( jstor )
Rapists ( jstor )
Sexual aggression ( jstor )
Sexual assault ( jstor )
Women ( jstor )
Acquaintance rape ( lcsh )
Stereotypes (Social psychology) ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1994.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 135-140).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Eric Rosenthal.

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
002027459 ( ALEPH )
AKL5058 ( NOTIS )
33017534 ( OCLC )

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CHANGING
TRADITIONAL


THE
AND


RAPE-SUPPORTIVE ATTITUDES OF
NONTRADITIONAL MALES AND FEMALES


ERIC


ROSENTHAL


A DI
OF THE


SSERTATION
UNIVERSITY


OF THE


ENTED TO
FLORIDA


REQUIREMENT
DOCTOR OF


3 FO


THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
R THE DEGREE OF


PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA










following


is dedicated to my wife,


Melissa Bracha


Rosenthal,


the best


whose


sweet


time of my


love has made my


life,


doctoral


and to my mother,


Lee


training


Stern,


taught me


the meaning


of heart and perseverance.















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


would


like


thank


Greg


Neimeyer


being


excellent

graduate


committee


school.


chair

would


and

also


for

lik


guiding

e to tha


me through

nk Marty


Heesacker,


more


than


share


of effort


into


this


project.


Much


appreciation


also


goes


to Shae


Kosch,


James


Shepperd,


Rus


Bauer,


each


helped to


make


this


dissertation


better


some


way.


Finally,


could


not


have


run


my experiment


without


able


assistance


of Russ


Sabella


Teri


Hitchcock.















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . ... .


vil

V111


LIST OF TABLES .. .

ABSTRACT .


CHAPTERS


INTRODUCTION .. ..... .. .. ........ .... .


Definitions of Rape..
Prevalence of Rape...
Consequences of Rape.
Rapist Pathology.....
Target Individuals...
Traditionality...
Women. ....


*. S a *. .. a. .a .a .a .a .a. .a
*. a a. a a. a a. a. .. a. a. a. a. a .*. .
*. a. .a. *.. ..a ..*.a a a
*. .. .S .a a a a.. a. a. a *. a .a
. .a a a. a a. a. a.. .a *.. a. *..


Measures of Intervention Success...............
Rape Myth Acceptance and Related Beliefs....
Responses to Vignettes.................. ..
Attempted Interventions ............ .

REVIEW OF LITERATURE .. ... ... ... .


Rapist and Victim Belief in Rape Myths..........
Myths and Their Prevalence..................
Myths and Relation to Rape Behavior.........
Rapist and Victim Blame of the Victim...........
Perception of the Situation as an Incidence of
Rape ... .... ....... ..... .. ..... ..... ... .
Sex-Role Stereotyping/Traditionality of Rapist
and Victim ... .
Factors Perceived as Justifying Rape........
Interventions/Psychoeducation...................
Rationale and Hypotheses of the Present Study...


METHODS. . .


Participants . .. .. 72
Instruments .. .. .. .. .. .. 73


PacTe









Traditionality .. ........
Rape Myth Acceptance.......
Date Rape Vignette.........
Postintervention Attitudes.
Sexual Experience.........
Phone Appeal .. .. .. .. .
Design and Procedures..........
Intervention and Immediate


. ..0. .6. 0 S
. ... S 0 S 0 S S*. ..
. . S 0
. ..0 0 0
. .0 .0 .0 ..0 *
*. 0 0 .S ..0. 0
. .. ..0 0 0


Posttest.


Control and Iimmediate Posttest.....
Follow-Up Posttest......... ........


...... ew.....


*. *. .. *.
. .0 .6 .0
. .0 .* .*


.. .. 80


Hypothesis 1 .. ...... .. .. .. .... .
Hypothesis 2 ..... .. .. .... .
Rape-Related Posttest Attitudes..
Phone Appeal Responses...........
Repeated Measures................
Hypothesis 3. .. ... .. .... .
Rape-Related Posttest Attitudes..
Phone Appeal Responses......
Rape Myth Acceptance as Mediator
Effects .. .. ..... .A. ...
Hypothesis 4. .. ... .. .....
History of Sexual Aggression or


*.. S
. .0 0
. ..* 0
*.. 0
. ..* *
*.. ..0. 0
. .* .6 0
. ..6 0
of Main


.. 0..
. *.. .0


Victimization as Mediator of Main Effects.
Additional Findings: Sex. ..... .. ... .........
Rape-Related Posttest Attitudes... ...
Phone Appeal Responses .... ................
Additional Findings: Repeated Measures of
Traditionality .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. ..


Effects of Intervention...........
Effects of Traditionality.........
Effects of Sex .. .
Traditionality and Behavior.......
Traditionality and Myth Acceptance


. *. .. .. .0 .
* *. .. a. a.. *


CONCLUSION. .. .


APPENDICES


PRESCREENING QUESTIONNAIRE...................


INTERVENTION TRANSCRIPT.. ....................


~ 7r~T(T C \hTrmm~C r 7\M DtCfflcr


RESULTS .


DISCUSSION.








POSTTEST QUESTIONNAIRE................. .......


TELEPHONE RESPONSE SHEET... .....................


REFERENCES .. . .


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. .. ..


DIEBRIEFING ................... ...................


TELEP HONE SCRIP T .















LIST OF TABLES


Table


Correlation Coefficients/P-Values


for Dependent


Variables .


Dependent


Variable Means


and Standard


Deviations:


Treatment...


Means and Standard Deviations


Measure


Dependent


Rape Myth Acceptance


Variable Means


.. 85


Repeated
.. ... 87


: Traditionality........


Dependent


Deviations


Variable Means and Standard


Sex...


Means and Standard Deviations


Measure:


Traditionality......


.. .. ... .. .. .92


for Repeated
... .. 93


Page













Abstract


of Dissertation Presented to


University


of the Requirements


of Florida


the Graduate School


in Partial Fulfillment


for the Degree of Doctor


of Philosophy


CHANGING THE RAPE-SUPPORTIVE ATTITUDES OF


TRADITIONAL AND NONTRADITIONAL MALES AND


FEMALES


By

Eric Rosenthal


August


Chairman:
Cochairman:


Major


Department


1994


Greg Neimeyer
Martin Heesacker
t: Psychology


Date


rape


is a serious problem on


college campuses and


often


leads


to more


severe


psychological


consequences


than


stranger


rape.


A possible


variable


linked to date


rape has


been


identified as


the degree


to which both males and


females possess

attitudes. Alt

change rape-rel


traditional,


hough several


ated attitudes


sex-role

attempts


stereotyping

have been made


and behaviors,


none have


focused their


interventions


on highly traditional


individuals.


The present


study takes


this next


step,


using


a psychoeducational


intervention


that


had been


successful


with


less


traditional


individuals


hundred and


forty-


five male and


female


undergraduates


were


classified on


basis


of their traditionality and either


received


intervention


served as


no-treatment


controls.


Results








revealed that,

participants wh


on five of seven attitudinal measures,

o received the intervention expressed less


rape-supportive


same pattern


attitudes


was true


than


control


females


participants.


versus males on


three


the measures.


Similarly,


on all


attitudinal measures,


s traditional


participants expressed less


rape-supportive


attitudes


than


did more


traditional


participants.


addition,


participants


' responses


to a


subsequent


phone


appeal,


purportedly unrelated to the experiment,


regarding


women's


safety projects were


in part


less


rape-supportive


experimental


versus


control


and female


versus male


participants.


However,


this pattern


was


found


less


traditional


versus more


traditional


participants.


Finally,


support


was gained for the notion that


very powerful


predictor of


traditionality


a person's degree of


is a


rape-


supportive


attitudes.


Implications of


these


findings


future rape-prevention


efforts


are discussed.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION


Few words


English language


yield as many


negative emotional


people have been

human being sexu


connotations as


rape.


greatly affected by the


ally victimized.


centuries,


idea of


a fellow

only


recently has


the phenomenon


rape


been


subjected to


scientific


scrutiny


in efforts


to understand and reduce


prevalence


(Ellis,


1989).


Despite an abundance of both basic and applied research,


rape


still


occurs at


alarming rates


(Koss,


1992;


Ellis,


1989).


Even more


unsettling


is growing


evidence


that


a significant


portion


rapes


involve


individuals


who are acquainted in


some


way,


and often occur during a


dating


situation


(Koss,


1992)


Alarmingly,


many observers,


rapists,


and victims do


consider the


latter to be as


serious


as rapes


involving


strangers,


often


failing to


classify


such offenses as


rape


(Bridges,


1991;


Kanin,


1984)


This misperception has


been


implicated as


contributing to


incidence and prevalence of


such


crimes


(Koralewski


Conger,


1992;


Muehlenhard &


Linton,


1987;


Muehlenhard &


MacNaughton,


1988).


Although several


efforts have been made to understand


-1-a -L


---- -- --


Nevertheless,


I, -


*








acquaintance rape


(e.g.,


Bridges,


1991),


few researchers


have attempted to evaluate methods of


changing this tendency


(e.g.,


Gilbert,


Heesacker,


Gannon,


1991;


Harrison,


Downes,


Williams,


1991) .


The present


investigation


involves a further attempt

transformation is possible,


to discover whether


and makes two


such


significant


improvements upon past


efforts.


First,


intervention


employed is presented to


"high-risk"


individuals who possess


characteristics


associated with


phenomenon


rape.


Second,


women are


included in


study


response


growing evidence


that


their


attitudes


and behaviors may be


related to


the prevention


rape


(Coller


Resick,


1987;


Hamilton and


Yee,


1990;


Muehlenhard,


1988;


Muehlenhard and


Linton,


1987;


Muehlenhard


MacNaughton,


1988)


including these


sources,


is hoped


that


ultimate


goal


of reducing


date


and acquaintance


rape will become more


attainable.


However,


one


should understand that


this


study


limited


to an


examination


of date


rape on a


university


campus;


generalizations


to other


settings


and situations may


inappropriate.


Definitions


of Rape


Before discussing the details of


this


study,


essential


to address


several


aspects


of the date and


acquaintance


rape


literature


that


play a


role


present


invest ication.


Perhaps


the most apnrooriate


lace


to beain









general,


as well as date and acquaintance


rape.


According


to Ellis


(1989),


rape


"a physically forceful attempt at


sexual


intimacy when one of


to become


sexually


individuals


intimate"


involved


Date


chooses


rape


defined as


"a forced sexual


intercourse that


occurs on a


date or

(Ellis,


: between


1989,


peopi

2),


e


who are romantically


while acquaintance rape


involved"

refers to


forced sexual


intercourse that


occurs between people who are


acquainted"


(Jenkins


Dambrot,


1987,


Date


rape has


also


been


defined as


interaction


that


begins between a


man and a


woman


in the


context


of a social


event


gathering


, and ends


with one


participant


forcing the other


to participate


in sexual


activity


against


his or


her will"


(Miller,


1988,


Although no one


version


universally agreed upon,


two


distinct


rape,


criteria

whether


lin

the


k


virtually all


rape occurs between


entific definitions

strangers,


acquaintances,


or dating partners.


Although men are


sometimes


victims


rape,


the majority


date and


acquaintance


therefore,


rapes


this


involve male


paper will


rapists


focus on


and female


situation


victims;


in which


men are


rapist


and women


victims.


first


criteria


involve


s some


degree of


force,


which plays a


role


in one of


individuals participating


in behavior


against


A-'-. l r~,-~ n -' Y a nw a n


rr: 11


S


,C,,,,,' ,, 1


C'lr rnlC


n,,,









which force


is not


threatened appears


to be a


tactic used


successfully by many men


(Craig,


Kalichman,


Follingstad,


1989) ,


it does not


this


conservative definition


rape.


Second,


the unwilling behavior


is of a


sexual nature.


Although


this


often


intercourse,


it may


involve one or


more behaviors on a


continuum of


sexual activity


(Margolin,


Miller,


Moran,


1989)


Unfortunately,


situations


in which


rapist


and victim


are


romantically


layperson's


involved or


definition


on a


rape,


date often


despite


their


fail


fitting these


two criteria.


This


becomes


especially disturbing when one


realizes


that


men


who do not


consider


their


actions to


rape are more


likely to


rape,


women who do not


perceive


their partners'


actions


rape


are


less


likely to


attempt


to resist


such


actions and/or


report


them


(Sandberg,


Jackson,


Petretic-Jackson,


1987),


friends


who do not


view the


situation


involving


rape are


less


likely to


assist


victim


in reporting the


crime and/or


seeking


psychological help,


and


jurors


who allow the


relationship between


involved parties


to attenuate


their


judgment


severity


the crime are


less


likely to


convict


rapist


(Kanin,


1984


Prevalence of Rape


Misperceptions of


date


id acquaintance


rape have








viewed in


light


of recently


determined estimates


of the


prevalence of


date and acquaintance


rape.


least


(Muehlenhard,


1985;


Muehlenhard &


Linton,


1987)


rapes


occur between acquaintances,


with the victim being at


least


somewhat


aware of the


rapist's


identity


cases


(Sandberg


et al.,


1987) .


A survey


women at


Kent


State


University


revealed that


of respondents


reported being


victims


of rape or attempted rape by


someone


they


knew,


while only


these


women


reported it


to the


police


(Koss


& Oros,


1982,


cited in Miller


& Marshall,


1987)


Similarly,


(Rappaport


Burkhart,


1984,


cited


in Aizenman


Kelley,


1988)


(Struckman-Johnson,


1988,


cited in Struckman-


Johnson


Struckman-Johnson,


1991)


of college women


recently


surveyed reported having been


raped by an acquaintance.


These


statistics


are


consistent


with the


results of


studies


Kanin and his


assoc


iates


spanning


from


1957


to 1977,


which indicate


that


.9% to


23.8%


of college women


report


experiencing


forceful


attempts


sexual


intercourse by


dating partners.

discovery that c


Related to


collegee


these


women are more


findings


likely to be


raped in


a dating


situation


than by a


stranger


(Dull


Giacopassi,


1987).


With


respect


the general


population,


randomly


selected


women


in San Francisco


reported attempted


nr r-nm]n 1ti +d rarnn h\


S'
ijin ntb nxr


m thi nf


~ n ~ rn115~ i nt ~ n rP









in Coller


Res


ick,


1987) .


Even


more


telling,


a national


survey


reveal


ed that


women


studied


were


rape


victims,


with


occurring


hands


an acquaintance


(Koss,


1985,


cited


in Aizenman


Kell


1988) .


Although


some


these


statistics


have


been


criticized


based


on conse


rvative


definitions


rape,


they


have


recently


been


defended


convincingly


Koss


1992)


Consecruences


of Rape


evidence,


then,


clearly


indicates


that


date


acquaintance


rape


occur


frequently


to a significant


degree.


Another


more


popular


traumatic


misconception


psychol


that


ogically


stranger


damaging,


rape


thus


is much


minimizing


importance


of date


acquaintance


rape.


contrary,


appears


that


date


acquaintance


rape


often


result


more


psych


ologically


devastating


consequences


than


stranger


Linton,


rape


1987;


Cornett


Roth


Shuntich,


, Wayland


1991;


Woolsey,


Muehlenhard


1990).


example,


Bridges


1991)


indicated


that


acquaintance


rape


victims


report


ess


recovery


than


women


raped


strangers


during


year


period


following


rape.


Muehl


enhard


(1988


posited


that


severe


adjustment


problems


suffered


victims


of acquaintance


rape


are


their


subsequent


inability


to differentiate


motives


other


acquaintances


from


motives


rapist,


which


Tn 7A a- ut0*rn 1 arm~ It It ~


r'r ~a 4a


~nri


th r


m -iT


Ft r~l Pt


n 1


mnl


I I I








by the


victim's


self-blame


for the


rape,


which


is more


likely to occur


in acquaintance


rape as opposed to


stranger


rape


to the ambiguity of having been


raped by someone


familiar


(Miller


& Marshall,


1987) .


This


is especially true


when


rapist


a romantic or dating partner,


victim must


then


deal


with


feelings


of betrayal


and/or guilt


(Kiernan


Taylor,


1990;


Sandberg et al.,


1987)


Such guilt


is often experienced when the


victim adheres to


societally rei

are capable of


forced belief


"leading


that


a man on"


several


female behaviors


to the point


where


cannot


control his


urges


(Muehlenhard & MacNaughton,


1988).


Rapist Pathology


A common belief


regarding


rape


that


a man


can get


a point


which he


simply


cannot


stop


himself


from engaging


in intercourse.


Another misconception


contributing to both


victim's


guilt


and the


layperson's


reluctance


classify


a date


or acquaintance


rape


situation


as rape


involves a belief


that


rapist


someone psychologically


pathological


(Groth,


1979) .


Belief


this myth makes


hard


to believe


that


rape


can occur


as often as


does;


after


all,


just


how many pathological


individuals


can


there


This


line of


reasoning


is especially


likely when


one


applies


to an acquaintance or dating partner who appears


to be


free


from psychopathology.


Nevertheless,


several


studr i Ps


(P .


frsrn r't P


;:f


o1 n .


r. 1 1


I ~7fl CC *IuI I I A,


fl; =Ilnnn~ Q Q


1 QU7


1 rnr^









acquaintance


rapist,


psychologically


deviant.


example,


Kanin


s (1984


review


of several


studies


indicated


that


such


individuals


are


no more


sexually


deprived,


sexually


inadequate,


nor


socially


psychologically


maladjusted


than


average


man.


Similarly,


results


of a study


Koss,


Leonard,


Beezley


(1985)


indicated


that


self-report


ed acquaintance


rapists


not


differ


from


nonacquaintance


rapists


measures


psyc


hopathic


deviance,


soc


anxi


ety,


and


hostility.


Furthermore,


more


recent


studies


revealed


that


while


sexually


aggressive


men


differ


from


sexually


nonagg


ressive


men


with


respect


to traits


such


as aggression,


impulse


range


ivity,


Petty


dominance,


Dawson,


they


1989)


are


are


still


not


within


deficient


normal


soc


skills


(Koralewski


Conger,


1992


This


evidence


strong


implications;


date


acquaintance


rape


more


likely


if it


does


take


a deviant


individual


engage


such


activities.


In fact,


over


one-third


of college


men


admit


that,


depending


circumstances,


would


commit


a rape


they


believed


that


they


would


not


punished


Malamuth,


1981,


cited


Peterson


Franzese,


1987).


Although


those


rape


acquaintances


dating


partners


may


meet


standards


of psychological


Ar~~rv4 ~~n r~~n i-~n A-: onaorm o o -bx TfQQQ


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th ~~r


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not


engage


beliefs


in such behaviors.


held by women


which may


Likewise,


increase


if there are


likelihood of


their victimization,


important


to identify them.


discovering


such


characteristics or


beliefs,


researchers


will be better


able


to understand and potentially devise


means of prevention,


targeting these


interventions toward


such


"high


risk"


individuals.


As mentioned earlier,


this


the major thrust


of the present


study.


Several


factors


have been


implicated in either


sexual


aggression


or victimization.


These


factors


will be now be


discussed,


must


with


be targeted


the goals


identifying


interventions are


individuals who


succeed


reducing


rape and


methods


of assessing whether


behaviorally


relevant


change


has occurred.


TarQet


Individuals


Although a handful


effectiveness of int

supportive attitudes


studies


erventions desi


have demonstrated

gned to change ra


and potential behavior


(e.g.,


pe-


Gilbert


et al.,


1991;


Harrison


et al.,


1991),


none have


specifically


aimed these


interventions


toward individuals


classified


"high risk"


for potential


involvement


in a rape.


Although


some


"high


risk"


individuals


were


probably


included


samples,


likely that


they were


the minority.


example,


Gilbert


et al.


(1991)


admitted that


participants


th i r


struck


1 C


r~n-~~nnr1 n r0 -,;ntarr n tc~~~ nfl7


r~ np-rllnllnrt i IrP









attitudes


than


expected,


suggested


that


further


investigations


utilize


more


rape-supportive


part


cipants.


Traditionalitv


The

distinct'


"high-risk"


individual


characteristics,


may

one


possess


several


in particular


most


widely


cited


as being


linked


to actual


behavior.


Specifically,


tendency


engage


traditional


sex-role


stereotyping


(also


called


traditionality),


indicated


responses


to either


Burt


1980


Sex-Role


Stereotyping


Scale


or Spence


Helmrei


1978)


Attitudes


Toward


Women


Scale,


appears


to be


assoc


ed with


men's


likelihood


of raping


women's


likelihood


of being


raped


Muehlenhard


Before


MacNaughton,


briefly


1988;


mentioning


Scott


evidence


Tetreault,


1986).


supporting


this


assoc


iation,


one


should


understand


that


effects


traditionality


are


most


salient


cases


of date


rape. I


dating


situation


highly


influenced


sex-role


socialization


processes,


such


as those


that


teach


men


persist


attempts


at sexual


intimacy


despite


woman'


protests.


Such


behavior


often


not


viewed


as harmful


to the


belief


that


woman'


res


instance


is only


"token"


being


part


of her


role


as the


"lady


this


line


thinking,


rape


viewed


extreme


end of a continuum


of sexual


behavior


governed


traditional


sex


roles


I
1QQ1\


Th or of nro


hnl-h


m~n ann


-.nrnnnr


-r .r a


tflr4 rIC~~oO 'A' I- IIIUtIII Mn~ I1


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Uu








are more


likely to hold rape-supportive attitudes.


This


increases


their


chances


of raping or being raped,


especially


in a dating


situation


(Bridges,


1991)


For example,


Check and Malamuth


1983)


found that


traditional


sex-role


stereotyping men,


contrast


their


less traditional


sexual arousal

rape vignettes,


counterparts,


in response

were more


showed higher


to both

likely to


levels of


stranger and acquaintance

perceive a favorable


reaction


from the


victim,


and expressed a


greater


likelihood


raping


future.


Similarly,


Byers


and Wilson


(1985)


found that


traditional male participants


who engaged


role-played responses


to audiotapes


of dating


situations


showed less


compliance


with


victim's


refusal


of sexual


intimacy than


did nontraditional men.


Perhaps

found that c


even more


revealing,


convicted rapists,


albe


Scott

it not


and Tetreault

necessarily


(1986)


date


rapists,


were


significantly more


traditional


than men


convicted of


violent


nonsexual


crimes


and noncriminal


men.


This


corroborates


reports by Muehlenhard and Linton


1987)


and Koralewski


engaged in


sexual


Conger


aggression


(1992)


that men


expressed more


traditional


beliefs


than nonaggressive men.


Although selecting participants on


self-reported history


the basis of


of raping or victimization


their


would seem


to be a more direct measure


of risk,


one must


keep


in mind








have


raped.


Likewise,


including


only


women


are


rape


victims


would


exclude


women


whose


traditional


beli


may


place


them


at a higher


risk


of being


victimized.


Therefore,


is especially


important


target


traditional


individuals


when


implementing


interventions


designed


prevent


rape;


unfortunately,


this


not


been


case.


aoe


appears


nontraditional


that

women


the

may


attitudes

contribute


of both

to the


traditional

occurrence


and

and


damaging


it has

their


consequences


already

partners


to resist


such


been


of date


mentioned


' actions


actions


rap


and/or


rape.


that

e are


report


Regarding


women

less


them


occurrence,


do not


perceive


to attempt


(Sandberg,


Jackson,


Pet retic-Jackson,


1987)


Indeed,


traditional


women


have


been


found


to be


more


likely


to have


been


verbally


coerced


into


having


sex


(Muehlenhard


MacNaughton,


1988)


Additionally,


percentage


justifies


women


unwanted


been


believe


sexual


shown


that


intercourse,


that


"leading


compared


a higher


a man


women


do not,


report


having


unwanted


sex


because


their


partner


become


so arouse


d that


they


felt


would


be useless


stop


him


(Muehlenhard


Naughton,


1988) .


Similarly,


Cornett


Shuntich


1991)


report


that


self-blame


one


several


common


attributions


rape


made


victims


seen


rape


crisis


centers.








Women's attitudes also


seem to play


a role


consequences of


dat e


rape,


which have been mentioned as even


more psychologically devastating than


stranger


rape


(Bridges,


1991;


Cornett


and Shuntich,


1991;


Muehlenhard,


1988;


Roth,


Wayland,


Woolsey,


1990) .


It has


been asserted


that


victim self-blame may play a


role


this


(Kiernan


Taylor,


1990;


Miller


Marshall,


1987;


Sandberg


et al.,


1987)


is especially


likely because of


greater


situational


fact,


ambiguity


self-blame


(Muehlenhard


been


Linton,


implicated in


1987).


victim failure


report


rape


(Miller


& Marshall,


1987)


and may even


increase vulnerability to


future rape


(Sandberg


et al.,


1987).


Given


many women


these


findings,


do engage


important


in victim blame.


to realize that


fact,


both male


and female


participants


are more


likely to


assi


gn blame


date


rape


victims


if these participants exhibit


traditional,


sex-role


stereotypical


attitudes


(Coller


Resick,


1987;


Fischer,


1986;


Muehlenhard,


1988;


Muehlenhard &


MacNaughton,


1988)


Muehlenhard and MacNaughton


(1988),


well


as Coller


and Resick


(1987


suggest


that


this


tendency


related


to self-blame


in a rape


situation.


Indeed,


women


have been


victimized are


more


likely than nonvictims to


rate male


use of


force


justified


(Cornett


Shuntich,


1991) ;


this


is consistent


with


indications


that


self-blame








Although


involvement


a woman's tr

or reaction


aditionality

to a date r


may


ape


contribute

experience,


to her

other


factors


may


involved.


instance


Muehlenhard


Linton


(1987)


found


that


female


part


cipants


with


histories


of involvement


in unwanted


sexual


activity


tended


to accept


rape


myths


related


beliefs


more


than


others.


Ther


before,


seems


espe


cially


important


to include


women,


especially


women


hold


traditional


beliefs,


when


administering


antirape


inte


rventions.


Although


many


studies


have


included


female


participants


(Borden,


Karr,


Caldwell


-Colbert,


1988;


Check


Malamuth,


Hamilton


Yee,


1984;


1990;


Feltey


Johnson


, Ainslie,


Russ,


Geib,


1989;


1991;


Malamuth


Check,


1984),


others


have


not


(Gilbert


et al., 1991;


Harrison


et al.,


1991


implications


this


will


discussed


further


following


chapter.


Measures


Intervention


Success


In addition


to understanding


rationale


including


traditional


male


female


participants


present


study,


one


must


understand


certain


measures


the

idea


effectiveness

1 approach, i


intervention


n which


were


rape-related


selected.

experiences


each


participant


assessed


over


a period


years


following


intervention,


was


feasible.


Fortunately,


responses


to certain


paper-and-pencil


measures


have


been


linlcsr


wit-h


malP


n rtr i rl "n~nt


' hi Itnr\


nf r-an in


female








participants'


history


of victimization;


these measures were


used


in this


study and will now be discussed.


Rape Myth Acceptance


and Related Beliefs


Belief


in rape myths,


defined as prejudicial,


stereotyped,


rapists


or false


(Malamuth


statements about


Check,


rape,


1984),


rape


contribute


victims,


to the


incidence of


rape.


Indeed,


belief


in such myths may


increase


likelihood of


the rapist's


raping,


rapist's


victim's


failure


label


sexually aggressive behavior


rape,


victim's


hesitance


to resist


and/or


report


rape,


and society's


failure


to provide adequate


support


and/or


justice


for the


victim


Koss


et al.,


1985).


Although beli


in rape myths


is potentially dangerous,


one


would hope


that


few people


hold such beliefs.


Unfortunately,


Giacopassi


and Dull


1986)


discovered


that,


depending


the myth


stated,


from


to 75% of people


surveyed indicated


either


strong or moderate agreement.


Similarly,


Quackenbush


(1989)


found


that


from


college men agreed


with statements


such


"women often


pretend that


they


do not


desire


intercourse


hope


that


the man


will


force


them.


Such


prevalence


figures become more


striking when one


realizes


that


adherence


to rape myths


related beliefs,


typically


operationalized using Burt's


1980)


Rape Myth


Acceptance.


Adversarial


Sexual Beliefs.


and Acceptance of








actual


rape.


instance,


Muehlenhard


Linton


(1987)


found


that


both


male


female


partic


ipants


with


histories


of involvement


in unwanted


sexual


activity


tended


to accept


myths


related


beliefs


concerning


violence


relationships


Conger


more


1992)


than


found


others.


similar


More


results


recently,


with


Koralewski


male


part


cipants.


course,


impossible


to draw


causal


conclusions


Malamuth


from


(1983)


these


findings;


discovered


that


however,


men


ere


indicated


least


some


elihood


of raping


agree


more


with


rape


myths


than


those


indicated


elihood


these


behaviors.


Responses


to Vianettes


Similar


investigations


using


Burt


1980


scales,


several


studies


have


demonstrated


that


part


cipant


rape-


supportive


responses


to vignettes


depicting


rape


situations


correlate


with


history


of raping


as well


as men's


self-


reported 1

& Dambrot,


Likelihood

1987; Qu


rape


ackenbush,


(Check


1989)


Malamuth,


1983;


It has also


Jenkins


been


shown


that


rape-


supportive


responses


among


women


related


increase


ed incidence


of sexual


victimization


(Jenkins


Dambrot,


women,


1987) .


include


Such


agreement


response


with


patterns,


statements


in both


men


referring


to victim


blame,


rapist


blame,


victim


desire


intercourse,


iustifiability


rape,


whether


rape


occurred,








men,

the


self-reported likelihood of performing the behavior

vignette.


Moreover,


both men and women are more


likely to


respond


rape-supportive ways


if the vignette depicts an ambiguous


situation,


such


as one


which


woman


invites


the man to


apartment


and consents


to kissing and petting.


For


example,


the more ambiguous


situation,


less


likely


that


victim will be perceived as victimized


(Bridges,


1991;


Kanekar,


Shaherwalla,


Franco,


Kunju,


Pinto,


1991;


Quackenbush,


1989)


Being


influenced in


this


fashion by


situational


ambiguity


seems


to be


a risk


factor when applied by


certain


individuals


in actual


dating


situations:


Kanin


(1984)


found


that


self-disclosed date


rapists


indicated that


consensual


sexual activity preceding the


rape made


seem


justified.


Equally


important,


women


had been


victimized


were more


likely than nonvictims


to rate


the use of


force


justified


(Cornett


Shuntich,


1991) .


Therefore,


since


vignette


responses


have been


associated with


involvement


dat e


rape,


is desirable


see


whether


intervention


can


affect


such


responses.


Finally,


finding that

sex-role ste


and most


both men


reotypes


relevant


and women

are more 1


to the


present


who adhere


ikely to make


study,


is the


to traditional


rape-supportive


responses


to date


rape


vignettes


(Coller


Resick,


1987;


.








partly


to their tendency to regard sexually


coercive


behaviors


acceptable


in a


dating


situation.


Attempted


Interventions


As mentioned earlier,


little


research has examined


whether in

supportive


terventions

attitudes.


can attenuate

Nevertheless,


the effects


rape-


reported efforts


are


encouraging.


and Check


instance,


and Malamuth


1984)


Malamuth and Check


discovered that


(1984)


participants


were educated about


the negative consequences of


rape


after reading


a rape vignette were


later


less


likely to


respond to an apparently unrelated acquaintance


rape


article


in a myth-consistent manner,


assigning


less


responsibility


to the


victim.


(1987)


utilized 2-hour educational


workshops that


allowed male


parti


cipants


to engage


in guided imagery and to


discuss


their emotional


reactions to


rape


situations,


resulting


in a


decrease


in rape-supportive attitudes.


Similar


changes


in attitudes


regarding the


justifiability of


sexual aggression


(Feltey


et al.,


1991),


as well


decreased agreement


with statements


advocating victim blame


and denial


that


rape occurs


(Harrison et


al.,


1991)


have


occurred after


shorter presentations.


Finally,


and perhaps most


encouraging,


Gilbert


et al.


(1991)


successfully employed a psychoeducational


intervention based unon Petty and Cacioooo's


(1986)








Compared to controls,


participants


receiving this


hour-long


presentation exhibited more


favorable change of their


rape-


related attitudes.


listen


Moreover,


they were more willing to


to an ostensibly unrelated phone appeal


proposed women's


comments


safety projects and made more


regarding the


regarding

favorable


latter.


While s

mind that mo

are most lik

individuals


:h discoveries


of the


ely not


are promising,


individuals


representative of


who are more


likely to


one must


undergoing positive


"high


rape or be


keep in

e change


isk"

raped in


dating


situations.


Additionally,


the Gilbert


et al.


(1991)


and Harrison et


(1991)


studies


did not


target


female


participants


intervention,


overlooking an


important


group of potential


rape


victims


could suffer


negative


consequences.


Therefore,


one


still


left


ponder whether


is possible


to change the behaviorally


relevant


attitudinal


responses


of both


traditional men and


traditional


women.


To address


this


question,


the present


investigation


examined the effects of


an attitude


change


intervention


identical


one employed by Gilbert


et al.


(1991)


traditional men and women


(although


less


traditional


part icipants


were


not


expected to be


"high risk,


" they were


included to assure


that


intervention


was properly


implemented)








assess


success


of the


intervention,


participants'


degree of


rape-supportive attitudes prior to


and after the


intervention


was assessed.


In addition,


participants'


responses


to a


date rape vignette


were


obtained after the


intervention.


To more directly examine


participants'


they


history


also completed


of sexual


aggression or victimization,


the Sexual Experiences Survey


(Koss


Oros,


1982) .


Finally,


in order to determine


whether any


observed attitude


change


would be enduring


and behaviorally-


relevant,


a phone appeal


procedure


identical


that


employed in


Gilbert


et al.


(1991)


study was


administered


to all


participants


one month after the presentation.


groups,


there


was


a no-intervention


control


group.


more


detailed discussion


rationale


for these methods


can be


found in


following


chapter.















CHAPTER


REVIEW OF LITERATURE


centuries,


men have been


raping women.


In her


comprehensive account


of the historical bases of


rape,


Susan


Brownmiller


(1975)


presents


rape as


a significant


part


man's


historical


domination


over women.


is a violation


that


cannot be


punished according to the


"eye


an eye"


doctrine,


and,


therefore,


represents


conscious


process


intimidation by which all men keep all


women


in a


state of


fear"


Consistent


with


this notion,


rape occurs


even among


those


know each other and/or are


romantically


involved


in some


way.


Indeed,


date


and acquaintance


rape are


severe


stranger


rape.


However,


lay public often


minimize date


rape,


defining


stranger


rape


"real"


rape.


Nevertheless,


important


of date and acquaintance


rape


to emphasize


are


that


potentially mo


the effects

re traumatic


than


those


stranger


rape


(Cornett


Shuntich,


1991;


Muehlenhard


Linton,


1987;


Roth,


Wayland,


Isey,


1990)


Because date and acquaintance


rape are


so devastating,


numerous


studies


have


examined


factors


that


contribute


their occurrence.


Although psychological


deviance does


not


15).








seem to be


responsible


(e.g.,


Craig


et al.,


1989) ,


a review


of the


literature points


to several


variables


that may be


regarded as potential


predictors of


date and acquaintance


rape,


most


of which are related to


the attitudes and beliefs


of rapists.


In addition,


the data


show that


women may be at


higher risk


of sexual


victimization


if they hold certain


traditional beliefs about


gender


roles


or male and female


sexual behavior.


mentioned


discuss


Although-the major


preceding


them in more detail.


chapter,


Thus,


findings


have been


desirable


following broad


categories


will


now be addressed:


bell


in rape myths,


blame of the


victim,


perception of


situation as


an incidence of


rape,


sex-role


stereotyping/traditionality,


tendencies


see


certain


factors


justifying


forced


intercourse.


Subsequently,


attempted interventions will be outlined.


Racist


and Victim Belief


in Rape Myths


For the


purposes


of the present


investigation,


a rape


myth


can be


thought


of as a prejudicial,


stereotyped,


false statement


about


rape,


rape


victims,


and rapists


(Malamuth


Check,


1984)


example,


a common myth


that


rapist


insane


Groth,


1979);


yet,


there


little evidence


supporting this belief.


However,


despite


their


lack


veracity,


belief


in such myths can


contribute


to incidence of


rape.


Indeed,


many


of the


rape-predicting








related to myths.


instance,


some common beliefs among


rapists,


third parties,


and even


victims


are that


victim


somehow asked for


deserved it,


or enjoyed it


(Shapcott,


1988);


the effects of


such perceptions of the


victim as


desiring


intercourse,


as well as


rapist


and victim blame of


victim,


will be discussed later.


In the


first


part


of this


section,


the most


widely held


myths will be presented and


their prevalence discussed.


However,


myths may


important


increase


to keep


in mind


likelihood of


that belief


a rapist's


raping


in such


or a


rapist


or a


victim failing to


label


sexually aggressive


behavior as


rape


(Koss


et al.,


1985),


a victim'


hesitance


to resist


and report


rape,


and society's


failure


provide adequate


support


justice


for the


victim


Koss et


al.,

rape


1985)


Such relationships between belief


behavior will be addressed


in myths and


the second part


this


section.


Their


Prevalence


Perhaps


the most


potentially


dangerous


classification


of myths


are


those


that


denote


certain


situations


which


rape


justifiable.


Beliefs


this


category


include


notions


that


rape


is more


justifiable


the woman


"leads


the man on";


hitchhikes,


goes braless,


or wears


sexy


clothing;


engages


petting


behavior;


goes


to a man's


apartment


on the


first


date;


or gets drunk.


According to


Mcrt hs









"suggestive" behaviors,


with


women


exhibiting


such behaviors


placing themselves at


greater risk.


Just


as the belief


in myths


dealing with


justifiability of


sexual aggression


can be a serious


problem


escalates


into behavior,


myths


that


deal


with the


prevalence of


a man


rape are


who adheres to


potentially


the beliefs


dangerous.


instance,


that a healthy woman


cannot


be raped against


her will,


rape only occurs between


strangers,


women


often


falsely accuse men


rape,


and only


bad girls


raped


Giacopassi


Dull,


1986)


find it


hard to classify


rape.


his own


This attitude


sexually


aggressive behavior


is certainly prevalent


on a societal


level


as offenders who do not


stranger-raping-the-


virgin-victim-in-a-brutal-manner


stereotype often


receive


more


lenient


sentences


(Giacopas


Dull,


1986) .


And,


unfortunately,


victims


hold these beliefs may blame


themselves


for the occurrence of


rape


(e.g.,


Cornett


Shuntich,


1991)


How widespread are these beliefs?


An attempt


to make


such a determination


was made by Giacopassi


and Dull


(1986)


in a


survey


449 college


students.


Nine


rape myths


were


presented


statements,


each


followed by a Likert-type


response


scale


ranging


from strongly agree


to strongly


disagree.


Depending


the myth stated,


between


aAn4 rz yr% nr mn narar Ta


: n~: nlCh~ r\:~hn


rnnnnn rJ nn~n


r








most


rapists


have


severe psychological


problems


(75%),


rape


is usually unplanned and impulsive


(36.9%),


and women


often


falsely accuse men of


rape


(29.2%)


In addition,


men


were


significantly more


likely than women


to agree with


latter myth,


well


with


the myths


that


women are often


a little


to blame


rape and that


normal men


do not


commit


rape.


In a


related study,


Quackenbush


1989)


found that many


college men agreed with


following


ideas:


Women


often


pretend


that


they


do not


desire


intercourse


hope


that


the man will


force


them


(39%);


being


"roughed up"


sexually


stimulating to many women


(19%);


sometimes the only


a man


can


turn a


cold woman


use


force


(17%);


woman


who goes


to a man's apartment


on their


first


date


implies


engages


her willingness


in necking


to have


sex


or petting and


(17%) ;


lets


if a girl


things


"out


hand


" it


is her


own


fault


if her partner


forces


sex


on her


(35%


The


latter two


beliefs


can be


thought


of as examples


of the


"leading


myths


alluded to earlier.


and Relation


to Race


Behavior


Several


efforts


link belief


in rape myths


rape


behavior

these in


have been


vestigations


reported


in recent


have employed


Scml


literature.

e form of BE


Many


lurt 's


(1980)

adheren


Rape Myth Acceptance

ce to rape myths. T


Scale


assess


his measure


participants'


requires


respondents


Mvt h s


r








relating


to themes


suC


as rape


often


woman


s fault,


rape


sometimes


Additionally,


Burt


justifiable,


(1980)


developed


many

two


women

other


enjoy

scales


rape.

that


are


positively


related


to acceptance


rape


myths.


Adversarial


Sexual


Beli


Scale


measures


agreement


with


statements


such


"men


are


out


only


one


thing"


other


items


dealing


with


negative


attitudes


regarding


male-


female


sexual


relations.


Acceptance


of Interpersonal


Violence


Scale


asks


respondents


indicate


agreement


with


items


that


involve


violence


against


women.


These


scales


are


also widely


used


in the


date


acquaintance


rape


literature.


Perhaps


most


comprehensive


study


relationship


between


myths


behavior


was


Muehlenhard


Linton


(1987),


in which


female


male


college


students


res


ponded


to a wide


variety


of behavioral


and


attitudinal


items


in questionnaire


form.


In addition


to the


Rape


Myth


Acceptance


Scale,


participants


answered


questions


about


their


most


recent


date.


Among


other


things,


they


were


presented


kissing


with


to sexual


list


sexual


intercourse


activities


were


asked


ranging


to check


from


each


one


that


woman


willingly,


each


one


man


tried


do against


against


woman


wishes.


s wishes,


Participants


each


were


one


also


he actually


asked whether


they h


ever


experienced


unwanted


sexual


activity


in high


.









clearly resisted,


yet,


was


forced to engage


one or more


of the


describe


listed activities.


their worst


they were asked to


experience with such activity by


responding


to the


same


items


they


did regarding their


most


recent


date.


Consistent


with


related research


(Blumberg


Lester,


1991;


Brady


et al.,


1990;


Giacopassi


Dull,


1986),


men


agreed more with rape myths


than


did women.


In addition,


there


was


a trend for participants


who had been


involved in


unwanted sexual


activity to accept


myths


more


than


others.


Moreover,


a significant


interaction


indicated


that men


had been


involved in


unwanted sexual


activity agreed more


with


the myths


agreed more


than


than


did other men,


women


participant s


while men i

regardless


n general

of whether


these


women had experienced unwanted sexual activity.


also

than


scored higher on


did women,


the Adversarial


as did participants


Sexual


Beliefs


had been


Scale


involved in


unwanted sexual


activity,


regardless


of their


sex.


This


latter pattern


of results


was


also


found with respect


to the


Acceptance of


Interpersonal


Violence


Scale


(Muehlenhard &


Linton,


1987) .


Although


causality


cannot


be determined,


these


findings


indicate


that


sexually aggressive men are


more


likely to accept


rape myths


than


their


sexually


nonaggressive


counterparts,


which


corroborates


a similar


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other women


to hold adversarial


sexual beliefs and to accept


violence toward


women.


with men,


is plausible


that


these attitudes may


have contributed to their experience,


although


is also possible


that


they are a


result


having


experienced unwanted sexual


activity.


In a more


recent


study


(Koralewski


Conger,


1992),


men


were classified


as either


low,


medium,


or high


with


respect


to sexual aggression based on their


responses


to the


same


sexual-behavior


items


used


the Muehlenhard and


Linton


(1987


study.


These groups


differed in


their


scores


on Burt's


Acceptance o

participants


1980)


Acceptance of


f Rape Myths


scoring


scales,


higher


Interpersonal


with


, although


Violence


the more aggressive

there were only trends


regarding the Acceptance of Rape Myths measure.


Although requesting


self-reports of behavior


widely used method of


determining whether


someone


likely


to have

solely


engaged


this


in aggressive

technique may b


sexual behavior,

e insufficient.


relying

Despite


efforts


to operationally define


sexually


aggressive


behaviors,


may underestimate


quite


possible


such activity


that

s for


participants as

reasons such a


a whole


s a


desire


to maintain social


embarrassed to admit


desirability;


engaging


in activity


they might be

ies of which society


does


not


approve.


In addition


, it


is possible


that many


oarticinants may


be capable


of beinac


-C


exuallv aqacressive but








been


stated that


over


one-third of


college men admit


that


they would


not


commit


be punished


a rape


if they believed that


(cited in Peterson


Franzese,


they would

1987).


Therefore,


several


studies


have employed additional means of


ascertaining the


likelihood


that


participants would engage


in date or

Perhap


acquaintance

s the most p


rape


if given the opportunity.


popularr method of


obtaining a more


behaviorally relevant


appraisal


of a sexual


aggression


involves


the use of


situational


vignettes.


These are


typically


one- or two-paragraph stories that


depict


date,


stranger,


and/or


acquaintance rape


situations.


Subsequent


to reading them,


part


cipants


respond to questions designed


to reveal


their perceptions


vignette and/or their


and attitudes


likelihood of


engagi


regarding the

ng in similar


behavior.


female and


instance,


Margolin et


49 male participants


(1989)


to read a


asked


vignette


in which


a man kisses


a woman


despite


her verbal


protest


while they


are on a


date


a movie


theater.


Although


this


would not


be classified as


date


rape,


the authors


considered such an


activity part


of a continuum of


culturally normative,


male-


aggressive


behavior with rape at


the endpoint.


In any


case,


participants


were asked


to rate the acceptability of


man's and


they


woman's behavior on a


completed a


7-point


scale,


19-item version of Burt's


after which


(1980)


Rape Myth


Acceptan


ce Scale.


140T


nn rP


LrS L ~ S S WYL %L ~ .,~a


likely than


women


.


.








Furthermore,


regardless


of participant


sex,


acceptance


of 10


rape


man


myths


s behavior


was


significantly


and/or


related


nonacceptance


to acceptance


of the


woman


attempt


to resist.


course,


desirable


to discover


whether

involved


similar

sexual


relationships


activities


would


closer


occur


to the


vignette


endpoint


continuum.


Fortunately,


a recent


investigation


was


performed


order


answer


preceding


question


(Blumberg


Lester,


1991)


A questionnaire


containing


Burt


s (1980


Rape


Myth


Acce


ptance


Scale


11 acquaintance


rape


vignettes


was


administered


to 21


female


33 male


high


school


students,


as well


female


15 male


college


students.


With


res


pect


vignettes,


parti


cipants


assigned


degree


of blame


rape,


using


-point


scale.


Results


indi


cated


that


high


school


men


blamed


victim


significantly


more


than


high


school


women


and


also


agreed


more


with


rape


myths.


Additionally,


a significant


correlation


between


victim


blame


and


rape


myth


acceptance


was


found


both


high


school


men


women


(Blumberg


Lester,


1991)


These


findings


suggest


that


an individual


more


likely


to adhere


these


myths


also


more


to blame


a rape


victim


vignette


, he


or she


may


find


it easier


to blame


victim


an actual


rape


situation.


This me


e true


whether


individual








juror.


already argued,


the consequences might be


devastating


in any of


these


scenarios.


In any


case,


a more


thorough examination of


studies that


explore situations


which the


victim of a


rape


is blamed is


in order.


Racist


and Victim Blame of the


Victim


The ten

with several

behaviors, s


Idency to believe

potentially rap


in rape myths


e-related attitude:


uch as blaming the victim of


a rape


associated

s and

e (Blumberg


Lester,


1991) .


However,


is there any


relation between


victim blame and such attitudes


and behaviors?


Several


studies


have


attempted to answer this question.


In an


early


study,


Briere and Malamuth


1983)


sought


discover whether victim blame was


related to self-reported


likelihood of


raping.


latter measure


considered a


possible


indicator


individual's


potential


rape;


men


report


some


likelihood,


as opposed to


those who report


no likelihood,


have been


found to be more


similar to


convicted


rapists


on a


variety


of dimensions.


In addition,


such


self-reports


have


been associated with actual


aggression

situations


(Briere


toward women,

and directly


Malamuth,


1983) .


both


in self-reports of


observable


laboratory


In order to assess


dating


situations

this


variable,

participant


the authors


used distractor


to indicate on a


5-point


items,

scale


asking

how lik


356 male


ely they


would be


to commit


several


acts


(one of


which being rape)








indicated at


least


some


likelihood of


raping


well


using force to get


a woman to do something


did not


really want


to do


(28%


of the


sample)


agreed significantly


more with


the belief that


victims are


responsible


for their


rapes than

behaviors


did those


(40%)


(Briere


indicated no


Malamuth,


likelihood of these


1983).


To discover whether there are


any variables


that


increase


likelihood


Edmonds and Cahoon


(1986)


that


victim will be blamed,


presented two slides


to each of


male and


female


college


students.


slide


depicted a


female model


wearing


attractive but


conservative clothing,


while the other


showed


same model


wearing more


sexy


attire.

might t


When asked to


>e raped,


rate


participants


the

ass


likelihood t

signed higher


hat


the woman


ratings


to the


sexy-dressed model.


more


Moreover,


likely to provoke her


rape,


latter was


and participa


rated as being

nts indicated


that


should be held more


consequences,


with men


responsible


indicating this more


for the


strongly than


women.


Both men


and women also believed


that


the attacker


should be


held less


responsible


when


victim was


wearing


sexy


clothes,


as opposed to


conservative


apparel.


Importantly,


assignment


of blame


this


study


depended on


perceived


characteristics or


behaviors of


the victim;


this


is consistent


with previously mentioned myths


indicating


that


women


who get


drunk,


go braless,


or engage


in petting








Although a


victim's


characteristics are an


important


component


of victim blame


rape,


one must be


careful not


to overlook rapist


characteristics associated with victim


blame.


We have already


seen


that belief


in rape myths


one


factor


(Blumberg


Lester,


1991);


indeed,


several myths


deal


directly with


victim blame.


Additionally,


it has been


discovered


that both male and female participants are more


likely to assign blame


to the


victim if these participants


exhibit


traditional,


sex-role


stereotypical attitudes


(Coller


Resick,


1987;


Muehlenhard &


MacNaughton,


1988);


latter will


section on


Finally,


itself


be discussed


sex-role


in greater detail


stereotyping/traditionality.


the effect


is pertinent


is designed to


focus


to the current


iteractional situation

investigation, since


on date and acquaintance


rape.


research-based assertion that


victim blame


is more


likely


when


incident


less


closely resembles


the classic


stranger


rape


scenario


in which a


total stranger


suddenly


assaults


the victim.


When


rape occurs


between


acquaintances and especially


dating partners,


people


have


trouble


assigning


full


responsibility to


rapist.


Indeed,


the more ambiguous


situation,


lower the


probability that


victim will be


perceived as truly


victimized


Bridges,


1991;


Kanekar


et al.,


1991;


Quackenbush,


1989)








Although it


appears


that


situational ambiguity plays


important


role when one tries to determine


the degree of


victim responsibility,


least


one


study


found that


sex


differences may affect


such attitudes.


Tetreault and


Barnett


(1987)


had


40 male and


female


undergraduates


read


one of two


versions of


a rape vignette.


They were


led to


believe


that


rapist


was


either


a complete


stranger to


victim or a man


dated a co

a 5-minute


from one


uple of times


videotape


of her


Subsequently,


of what


classes who


she had


participants


was purportedly a


watched


therapeutic


interview of the


rape


victim;


actually,


participants


saw


same video of


an actress


with an


unseen


therapist.


expected,


female


participants blamed the


victim more


acquaintance


rape


situation.


Interestingly,


male


participants attributed more blame


to the


stranger


rape


victim than


acquaintance


rape


victim.


While


this


would seem to contradict


idea


that


greater situational


ambiguity


increases


victim blame,


should be noted that both


stranger and acquaintance


rape


vignettes


coerces


were unambiguous.


into


In both


victim's


cases,


apartment;


rapist


stranger


does


this by


force,


the acquaintance by deception.


In both


cases


victim does


engage


in any


romantic or


sexual


activity prior to


assault.


Therefore,


is perplexing


why men and women


did differentiate between


vignettes,









it had to do with perceived likability of


the victim;


men


liked her


less


than


did women


(Tetreault


& Barnett,


1987) .


Although


is unclear why this


was


true,


it may


have


mediated their attributions of blame,


an effect


that


might


have been


weakened if


the acquaintance


rape


scenario


been more


ambiguous.


type of


greater vignette


ambiguity that may have


benefitted


the Tetreault


and Barnett


(1987


experiment


was


provided


in a more


recent


study by Quackenbush


(1989),


male


participants


read either


a stranger


rape


vignette or


a date


rape


vignette


in which


woman


engages


in petting


responsibility


behavior prior to


the assault.


for the assault,


When asked about


blamed the


victim of


stranger


rape,


held


the victim responsible


date


rape


scenario.


Perhaps


related


to this


was that


participants


in the


stranger


rape condition


expressed


some


likelihood of


engaging


similar behavior,


while


of the date


rape


scenario participants made


such an


indication.


Given


that


this


connection between


victim blame


and propensity to


rape


affected by perceived situational


ambiguity,


is desirable


to discover whether


such


perceptions


can


increase


likelihood of


rape


in other


ways.


Perception


of the


Situation as an


Incidence of Rane


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nine


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(Grauerholz


Koralewski,


1991) .


As mentioned


earlier,


findings


those


are


striking,


stranger


rape


with

(e.g


prevalence


., Koss,


figures


1992;


surpassing


Muehlenhard


Linton,


1987).


To determine


this


case,


several


studies


have


compared


rape


participants'


situations.


reactions


suC


to date


h investigation


versus


was


stranger


undertaken


Check


Malamuth


1983)


Undergraduate


male


female


participants


read


one


three


vignettes,


a mutually


consenting


intercourse


scenario,


stranger


rape


scenario,


an acquaintance


rape


scenario.


Participants


reported


experiencing


more


sexual


arousal


consenting


intercourse


condition;


acquaintance


condition


however,


rape


as opposed


their


vignette


arousal


was


similar


to the


stranger


response


rape


to the


that


participants


consenting


condition.


Perhaps


latter


two


situations


were


perceived


similar.


In support


this


condition


contention,


perceived


participant s


victim


in the


as reacting


acquaintance


more


rape


favorably


assault


than


those


read


stranger


rape


situation,


despite


identically


unfavorable


responses


of the


victim


in each


vignette.


authors


concluded


that


ambiguities


acquaintance


rape


depictions


bias


perceptions
1-i -- -! -_


and


ri I


,I 1


1








possibility that

likelihood of se


such perceptions may


xually


increase


aggressive behavior;


the male


acquaintance


rape participants'


self-reported likelihood to


commit an


similar to


the one portrayed in


the vignette


was


greater than


that


of the


stranger rape


participants


(Check


Malamuth,


Although


attitudes


1983).


the assessment


and perceptions


laboratory participants'


of date and acquaintance versus


strange r


rape


scenarios


is quite


useful,


been the


only method used


assess


whether perceptions


of the


situation affect


actual


or potential


rape


behavior.


instance,


Kanin


questionnaire


1984)


to 71


interviewed and administered a


undergraduate


self-disclosed date


rapists.


Seventy-seven percent


the participants


acknowledged that


their actions


were


considered


rape


legal


sense;


however,


two-thirds


felt


that


woman


was at


fault


sexual


conduct.


fact,


100%


of the


rapes


were


preceded by


involving


genital


some


play.


consensual


sexual activity,


According to


the modal


with


participant,


such ambiguity made


difficult


take


the woman's


subsequent


resistance


seriously and probably played a


significant


role


their beliefs


that


they


did not belong


in the


class


"real"


rapists


used


weapons


"violence.


Although it is


clear that


the ma-inritv nf


t hs dat-s" ~t








causes of their behavior,


is unfortunate


that a


control


group was


used in


the Kanin


(1984)


study.


Specifically,


reader


left


to wonder whether nonrapists might


express similar views,


although it


would be difficult


perform the


inquiry


same manner


since many questions


referred to the


participant's


rape behavior.


To better


address this


issue,


an effort


to make a


distinction between


the perceptions and attitudes of


rapists


and nonrapists


has been made


(Jenkins


Dambrot,


1987).


combining the fa

of participants'


Imiliar vignette procedure


attitudes and history


with an assessment

sexually


aggressive behavior,


both participant


authors


and situational


examined


factors


the effects


on perceptions


rape


scenarios.


Each


female


and 332 male


participants


read one


of three


vignettes,


involving a


date


rape.


scenario


indicated that


the man paid


both his and his


date's concert


tickets,


a second


involved a


dutch


treat


situation


, and a


third depicted the


woman


accepting the man's offer of


a ride


home


from the concert,


although she did not


know him


pick-up


situation)


should be


understood


that


the degree of the


rapist's


monetary


investment


has been


shown


to be an


important


element


in participants


' judgments


justifiability of


forced intercourse


(e.g.,


Cornett


Shuntich,


1991);


this


and other


justifying factors


will be discussed


in a








After reading the vignette,


participants were asked to


rate


their


agreement


with the


statements


conveying that


man


than


raped


the man


woman,


for the


that


fact


the woman


that


was more


responsible


intercourse occurred,


that


she desired intercourse,


and that he behaved violently


toward her.

questions,


In addition


to responding to vignette-related


participants answered several


yes-no questions


designed to assess


their


history of


either


sexual assault


vict imi zat ion.


They also completed Burt's


(1980)


Rape Myth


Acceptance Scale.


Overall, mnna-were less likely than

a rape occurred and more .likely to agree


women


that


to agree


that


the woman


wanted sexual-inter course.


Men also were more accepting of


rape myths.


More


interestingly,


men


had been


sexually


assaultive


and those


who agreed more


with rape myth


were


less


likely than


their


nonassaultive and myth-rejecting


counterparts


view the


scenarios


rape,


although


vignette manipulation


did not


differentially


affect men.


same pattern


victim blame,


of results


woman's


desire


was

for


found


for men' s


intercourse,


ratings


rapist


violence.


In contrast,


of victimization


did not


women'

set t


myth acceptance


hem apart


and history


regarding their


perceptions of


situation;


determined whether they


saw


rather,


rape as


type


having


of date


occurred.


amplify,


they were more


likely to agree


that


rape occurred








which


the man paid for the woman.


Nevertheless,


their


ratings of


victim blame and


female


desire


intercourse


were affected only by their acceptance of


rape myths


(Jenkins


Dambrot,


1987).


Clearly,


results of this


study


are


somewhat


equivocal.


Although the


type of vignette and not


their myth


acceptance nor sexual


history affected women's


perceptions


rape,


the opposite


was true


for men.


The authors


state


that


women may attend more


to situational


factors


while men


are more affected by their values and attitudes


(Jenkins


Dambrot,


1987) ;


however,


this


fails


to explain


why myth


acceptance and not

victim blame and f


situation affected their


emale desire


ratings of


intercourse.


Although


sex


differences may


or may not


play a


major


role


in perceptions


rape,


perhaps


it is


sufficient


now to realize that


the vignettes used did not


provide the


ambiguity


of more


typical


date


rape


scenarios;


there


was


mutually


consenting


sexual


activity prior to


rape.


Although monetary


investment


has been


considered a rape-


justifying


factor,


this does


not mean


that


affects


perceptions of the


situation


strongly


ambiguity


created by


such prior


sexual behavior.


In support


of this


assertion,


a more


recent


study by


Johnson and Jackson


(1988


found that manipulation


male and


female


part


cipants'


perceptions of


victim's








in kissing prior to


the assault,


could differentially


affect


their assessments of


situation.


Participants were more


likely to


see


the woman as more


responsible and the man as


less


responsible


when


the woman had


willingly engaged in


kissing prior to


not


rape.


asked to rate whether


Unfortunately,


rape had occurred,


participants were


although


probable


that


the ambiguity


created by the kissing


scenario


would have


lowered such ratings.


Indeed,


a similar


study


found that


both male and female participants were


less


likely to


perceive a


date


rape


scenario as


rape


when


victim acted more


"suggestively"


(Muehlenhard &


MacNaughton,


1988);


this


study will be discussed


in further


detail


in a


subsequent


section.


Additionally,

undifferentiated,


in a study c

and masculine


:onsisting


sex-typed men


20 androgynous,

(Quackenbush,


1989),


participants


' perceptions of


rape


vignettes differed


depending


whether they


read a


date


rape scenario


in which


woman


activity or

former were


engaged in


a stranger


less


a high


rape


degree


scenario.


likely to express


of consensual


Those


empathy


sexual


read the


victim,


attributed more


responsibility to


her and


less


to the


rapist,


greater


perceived the


likelihood of


rape as


engaging


less


in a


serious,


expressed a


similar type of


rape.


Similarly,


Bridges


(1991)


examined


female and 33 male


participants and


found


th~1-


those who


had read a


vignette


. .a


V-








about


a stranger rape


situation were


less


likely to classify


as rape.


Although


ambiguity


there


can be


such as that


little argument


provided by a


dating


that


situational


situation


often


impairs


the perception


rape,


is disturbing that


participants exhibit


as rape when


clearly


hesitance

involves a


in labeling

woman being


a situation


forced


have


sex


against


her will,


regardless of her prior behavior.


Nevertheless,

dispositional


appears


factors


that


that may


there exist

increase an


certain

individual's


propensity to minimize


seriousness of


date and


acquaintance


situational


rape,


factors


often due


(e.g.,


to an


Jenkins


interaction


Dambrot,


with


1987).


such


dispositional


characteristic that


received much


attention


involves


date


sex-role


and acquaintance


stereotyping


rape


literature


or traditionality,


which will


presently be examined.


Sex-Role


Stereotyping/Traditionality of Rapist


and Victim


Largely because


it has


been


widely


accepted that


rapists are not


necessarily psychopathic,


have attempted to examine


effects


social


of society


scientists


on rape


behavior.


As a result,


it has been


posited that


dating


situation


is highly


influenced by


sex-role socialization


processes,


such


as those


that


teach men


to persist


attempts


at sexual


intimacy


despite


women'


k.


Protests.


Such








that


the woman's


role


as the


resistance


"lady.


is only


this


"token,


" being part


line of thinking,


rape


viewed


the extreme end of


a continuum of


sexual behavior


governed by traditional


sex


roles.


Therefore,


both men and


women


who are more


likely to adhere


to or


believe


in such


traditional


roles are more


likely to


hold rape-supportive


attitudes


and engage


in activities


involving


rape,


especially


in a


dating


situation


(Bridges,


1991;


Check &


Malamuth,


1983) .


Moreover,


attitudes


of such


traditional


individuals may be quite


resistant


to change


(Feltey


et al.,


1991)


In an


effort


to support


this position,


several


studies


have employed measures


designed to


assess


individual's


degree of


sex-role


stereotyping


(hence,


referred to


interchangeably with


traditionality)


two most


widely


used are Burt's


(1980)


Sex-Role Stereotyping


(SRS)


Scale and


Spence and Helmreich


s (1978)


Attitudes


Toward Women


Scale


(AWS)


example,


in a


study whose design


was


already


discuss


ed in detail


, Check and Malamuth


(1983)


employed the


SRS and found that


high


sex-role


stereotyping men showed


higher


levels


of arousal


in response


to both


stranger


acquaintance


rape


vignettes,


contrast


to the


lower


arousal


levels of


their


less


traditional


counterparts.


They


were


also more


likely to perceive a


favorable


reaction


from


victim.


L^I *


especially


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ranE


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Finally,


traditional men


expressed a


greater


likelihood of


raping.


More


recently,


Fischer


(1986)


surveyed over


700 male


female


participants,


using


several measures


including


the AWS.


Participants


also were presented with a date


rape


vignette and asked to


man's behavior.


indicate


Participants


the acceptability of


were also asked to determine


whether


rape occurred and,


who was


to blame.


was


discovered that


the man's


the best


behavior was


predictor


of the acceptability of


how definitely the


participants


regarded the


scenario


as rape;


less


sure


they were,


more acceptable


the behavior.


The next best


predictor was


score,


as perceived acceptability was


greater among


those with more


traditional


attitudes


toward


women.


Moreover,


in a


similarly


designed study aimed at


investigating the effects


of ethnicity and


traditional


sex-


role


stereotyping on


rape-supportive attitudes,


Fischer


(1987)


found that


traditional


as opposed


to nontraditional


men


were more


likely to


find date


rape acceptable.


This


was


regardless


of ethnicity;


although Hispanic men


were more


traditional and accepting


of date


rape than majority men,


bicultural


and bilingual Hispanics


were actually


less


traditional


and accepting


of date


rape


than


were more


assimilated Hispanics.


Although


it appears that


traditionalist is


related to









must


be careful


to overlook


effects on


women.


has already been


shown


that both men and women are more


likely to


hold acceptable attitudes


toward date rape


if they


tend


to engage


(Fischer,


1986)


in traditional


More


sex-role


recently,


stereotyping


investigation of


female


undergraduates


(Coller


and Resick,


1987)


utilized the


to examine


this


relationship.


As expected,


participants


with


greater


sex-role


stereotyping


assigned more blame


victim of


date


rape


vignettes


and were more


likely to


feel


that


led the man


Similarly,


an investigation by Muehlenhard and


MacNaughton


(1988)


traditionality


measured


of 208


female


rape-related attitudes and


undergraduates to determine


whether the belief


that


forced


intercourse


justifiable


a woman


leads


vignettes.


a man on affected their perceptions


Participants were


presented with one of


rape

two date


rape


vignettes,


differing


only


in the degree


to which


victim acted suggestively.


Participants


who most


strongly agreed with


"leading


justifies


force"


myth


were more


likely then a


low-belief


group


to view the


woman as


being


responsible


for the


rape,


desiring


sex,


leading


the man on,


saying no when


she meant


yes,


and acting


the man as


suggestively.


responsible,


They were


to indicate


that


less


likely to view


the woman


was


0vnpr Pri;n r' ncrre


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,


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I ~


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to consider the man' s


actions as


justifiable.


latter


two


findings


were especially


likely


for high-belief women


reading the suggestive


vignette,


as was


the tendency to


discount


the validity


of the


woman's protests.


In addition,


the high-belief women


were more


likely to


have been verbally


coerced into having


sex


in the


past.


Finally,


and most


germane


the present


discussion


of traditionality,


such


women had significantly higher SRS


scores than


their


low-


belief


counterparts.


Although


causality


cannot be


determined,


once again appears that


traditional


sex-'role


stereotyping


somehow associated


with


rape-supportive


attitudes


and actual


experience with sexual aggression.


In light


such


findings,


one might


expect


the more


traditional


woman


to blame


herself


when her


date attempts to


engage


forced


sexual


intercourse,


making


less


likely


that


will


resist.


This


seems even more plausible


when


understood


that


traditional and nontraditional


women


study


did not


differ on


their empathy


for the


victim;


although


they were equally


able


to put


themselves


victim's


shoes,


more


victim blame was


assigned by the


traditional


women.


This


seems


to imply that


even an


actual


experience


in a


date


rape


situation may not


overcome


effects of having been


socialized in a


traditional manner.


Naturally,


would be


unethical


impractical


1 I


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studies that


examined the effects of traditionality on date


rape


in more behaviorally


relevant


ways,


such attempts


have


been made


with male participants.


For example,


Byers


Wilson


(1985)


employed the AWS and exposed participants to


audiotapes


9 dating


situations,


differing on


level


consensual


intimacy attained by the


couple prior to the


rape


(kissing,


breast


fondling,


and genital


fondling)


and on


type of


message


used by the woman


(outright,


excuse--


"someone will be


coming home


soon"


and relationship--"I


don't


know you


well


enough")


The AWS was


administered


during an


initial


session,


after which participants


returned


listened to all


9 of


scenarios.


they


listened,


participants


role


played


their


responses


they were


situation;


these


responses


were


recorded and later


rated.


was discovered


that


traditional men


showed less


role-played compliance


nontraditional men,


with


regardless


victim's


of the


refusal


scenario


than


(Byers


Wilson,


1985)


response


Although one might


high


intimacy


expect


situation,


less


compliance


is possible


that


within-participants


design


suppressed


this


effect;


perhaps participants maintained similar


levels


of compliance


in an effort


to appear


consistent.


related attempt


to study the effects


of sex-role


stereotvpinc


on sexually


acraressive behavior.


Malamuth


Ilo"









experiments;


although


each


"experiment"


was


really


one


phase


of the


true


experiment,


participant s


indicated


recognition


of a link


between


ses.


In the


first


phase,


participants


completed


a questionnaire


comprised


several


attitudinal


scales


including


SRS,


as well


as a


self-report


instrument


aggression.


measuring


second


phase,


history


of sexual


participants'


penile


tumescence


was


measured


they


read


three


vignettes


describing


a woman


masturbating,


rape,


mutually


consenting


sex.


In the


third


phase,


disguised


experiment


investigating


effects


of feedback


on ESP,


participants


were


placed


a room


with


a computer.


was


their

the s


screen


to concentrate

in an attempt


on numbers


transmit


that

the


were


numbers


presented


mentally


another


male


female


participant


(really


a confederate)


acting


a receiver


another


room.


every


incorrect


response


receiver,


participant


could


puni


sh him


or her


with


levels


noise,


while


correct


responses


could


rewarded


with


levels


money.


After


reading


instructions,


prior


transmission


numbers,


an anger-inducement


intervention


was


performed.


Parti


cipants


completed


and


exchanged


a questionnaire


purportedly


designed


familiarize


them


with


one


another.


Based


on this


Snfnrmr t n


rhPI


4-1p.~a~


A7; r0t ri-F -4 r


tn Glr; t~


l


WP rP


ri jj


j-jr









exchanged.


course,


only the actual


participant performed


these


tasks,


and he was


to believe


that


receiver


wrote a negative evaluation.


Subsequently,


the ESP phase


began,


consisting of


trials


in which the receiver made 5


correct


of punishment


incorrect


was


responses.


recorded as


Participants'


his aggression


delivery


index.


As expected,


participants'


aggression


toward male


receivers


was


not


correlated with any


of the


predictor


variables


except


self-reported history


aggression,


they administered


equal


amounts


of punishment


to men and


women.


Contrary to expectations


regarding traditionality,


scores


were


correlated with participants'


aggression


indices.


However,


several measures


did predict


more


punishment


women.


These


included indications


dominance


as a


sexuality motive,


acceptance of


interpersonal


violence,


vignettes


penile


during


tumescence


Phase


response


, higher


to the


scores on a


rape


psychoticism


scale,


and self-reported history


sexual


aggression


(Malamuth,


1988).


above


findings


are


not


surprising


as one might


think,


since


"ESP


experiment"


not


the type of


social


situation


in which


traditional


sex-role expectations


apply.


Indeed,


although


violence


toward women


in a


socially


unapproved


situation might


run


counter to


traditional


hs 1 sfg Us


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will


upon


female


receivers:


Likelihood to reward


female


receivers


was


inversely


correlated


with SRS


score.


This


relationship was


found for


of the other


predictors,


suggesting that


the adverse effects of


traditionality are especially


linked to social


sanctions.


Although


the use of


such behavioral-dependent


variables


rare


reported literature,


several


studies


have


examined the effects


of traditionality


on attitudes


regarding the


justifiability


of date


and acquaintance


rape.


In many of


these


studies,


factors that


have been


shown


affect


such attitudes


are manipulated;


for a brief


discussion


of such


factors,


please


refer to


following


section


on factors perceived as


justifying


rape


such study


(Muehlenhard


al.


1985)


involved date


rape


vignettes


read by male


participants.


Eleven


scenarios


were


created by manipulating who


initiated the date


(he did,


hinted a


desire


to go out,


she did),


the dating


activity


(a religious


function,


a movie,


apartment),


and who paid


paid,


dutch


treat)


Participants


read all


vignettes.


The experiment


required


participants


to respond to a


question


regarding the


justifiability of


rape,


and also


to complete


the AWS.


was


revealed that


participants were more


likely to


view the


rape as


justifiable


when


the date


took


place


in the


nr~~ In,, antt a C nmnn cr4~ a


1 CT1 flh1~


m~nl~ ~n~rtmnnt









were more


likely to view the


rape as


justifiable than when


the man


initiated.


Also,


an interaction between dating


activity and


initiator


revealed that


rape


was


rated as most


justifiable when


the woman had asked the man out and they


had gone


to his


apartment.


Rape was


rated as


least


justifiable


when


he had asked her


out,


regardless of


dating activity,


function,


or if


regardless


they


of who


had gone


to a


initiated.


religious


When


the man paid


for the date,


rape


was


rated as more


justifiable


than


when


the date was dutch


treat.


Finally,


traditional


men


rated


rape


as more


justifiable


than nontraditional men,


only


when


woman had asked the man


or hinted a


desire


go out;


this


was


especially true when


they went


to a movie


or the man's


apartment


(Muehlenhard et al.,


1985).


In an analogous


study


employing both male and female


participants,


Muehlenhard


(1988)


obtained similar


results.


Traditional participants


rated rape


as more


justifiable


then


nontraditional


participants


across all


situations;


this


was


especially true


for traditional men.


When


woman


initiated


date and


when


the man


paid


for the date,


ratings of


justifiability


increased more


for the


traditional


participants


than


their


less


traditional


counterparts,


especially


for male participants when


the man paid.


Finally,


when


the woman


initiated


the date,


traditional


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A similar


relationship


been


found


in which


men


with


"macho"


"callous


sex"


attitudes,


such


"get


a woman


drunk


do whatever


want,


" report


more


sexual


aggression


than


men


with


ess


"macho"


attitudes.


Additionally,


men


with


more


"macho"


attitudes


expressed


less


negative


guided


emotion


imagery


more


procedure


sexual


in which


arousal


they


when


imagined


experiencing


committing


rape


(Mosher


Anderson,


1986).


Whereas


studies


employing


experimental


manipulations


are


most


typical


of efforts


to investigate


role


traditionality


with


respect


rape,


have


look


scores


of individuals


with


histories


sexual


aggre


ssion


such


study


(Scott


Tetreault,


1986)


administered


to 20 convicted


rapists,


men


convi


cted


violent


nonsexual


crimes,


noncriminal


men.


rapi


were


significantly


more


traditional


than


each


of the


other


groups


areas


including


dating


sexual


behavior.


Similarly,


studies


already


discussed


in detail


in the


section


concerning


myth


acceptance


Muehlenhard


Linton


(1987


Koralewski


and


Conger


(1992)


found


that


men


engaged


sexual


aggression


were


more


traditional


than


other


men


according


SRS,


respectively.


Traditional


sex-role


stereotyping


seems


to play


r1


mU2 -


--, I..


_ r


I 1r









rape


situations,


that


affect


the perceived


justifiability of


sexual aggression


(Muehlenhard,


1988;


Muehlenhard et


al.,


1985) .


Therefore,


a brief


examination of


some of


these


factors and their effects on


behavior


rape-supportive attitudes and


is now appropriate.


Factors


Perceived


as Justifying


Kane


It has already been mentioned that both male and female


participants may be more


likely to perceive


rape as


justifiable


if they


feel


that


woman


led the man


(Muehlenhard


MacNaughton,


1988;


Muehlenhard et al.,


1985) ;


this


was also


true


of high


school boys


in a


study


cited by Muehlenhard et al.


(1985)


Because of


situational


ambiguity


already discussed


e.g.,


Bridges,


1991),


plausible

situation.


that such

However


b


behavior is

this does


more


likely


not mean


that


in a

the


dating

woman must


"tease"


the man


in order


for the


rape


to be perceived


justified.


In fact,


rape has


been


viewed


as more


justified


when


the date occurs


in the man's


apartment


or a movie


theater


as opposed to a


religious


function,


when


woman


as opposed


the man


initiates the date,


and when


the man


pays


for the date


as opposed


to a


dutch


treat


(Muehlenhard,


1988;


Muehlenhard et


al.


1985) .


Rape


has also


been


viewed


as more


justifiable


when


woman has


slept


with others


already,


when


says


yet,


does


push


the man away,


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in a marriage


(Feltey et


al.


1991);


these beliefs are


closely


linked with belief


rape myths


(Harrison et al.,


1991).


Perhaps more revealing


is Kanin's


(1985


discovery that


of 71 date

justified


rapists

under ce


surveyed;


rtain


86% believed that


conditions,


rape


especially when


can be

the


woman is a


"tease"


"economic


exploiter.


This contrasts


sharply with


of control


participants


shared this


belief.


Additionally,


Muehlenhard and Linton


(1987)


found


that


several


justifying


factors


identified in


literature are,


indeed,


risk


factors


actual


sexual


aggression.


Consistent


with prior


research,


participant-


reported dates


involving


sexual aggression


were more


likely


than nonaggressive dates to


have been paid for


by the man,


to have


involved


the man's


driving,


and to have


involved


miscommunication between


the man and


woman.


With respect


latter,


both male


female participants


indicated that


the man had felt


led on;


however,


male participants


felt


that


the women had led them on


participants


saw this


intentionally,


as unintentional.


while


Moreover,


female

although


women reported less of


intercourse during


a desire


sexually


sexual


aggressive dates,


contact


men


and


perceived


their partners


wanting


sexual


contact


more and


intercourse


just


as much during


such dates.


latter were


also more


likely to


involve


heavy


alcohol


use,


a factor also








associated


with perceived


justifiability


of date


rape


(Muehlenhard &


Linton,


1987).


Finally,


a recent


study


(Cornett


Shuntich,


1991)


corroborates earlier findings


that


both men and women


will


perceive date


rape as


justified under


certain


conditions.


questionnaire was administered to


female and 59 male


participants.


first


part asked


them to respond to one


of six date


rape


vignettes


that


varied according to the


location of the


date's


final


destination


(man's,


woman's,


friend's apartment)


and whether the man


paid or the date was


dutch


rather,


treat.


scenario did not


participants


were asked to


culminate


indicate


rape;


likelihood


that


the man


would force


intercourse.


rest


of the


questionnaire


involved


several


other attitudinal


items,


well as an


item asking whether the


male and female


participants had ever


engaged in


forced


sex


or been


victims


forced


sex,


respectively.


As expected,


men


saw forced


sex


as more


justified when


the man paid for


the date.


Surprisingly,


women


indicated


the opposite,


finding


forced


sex


slightly more


justified


in the dutch


treat


situation.


Women


were


also more


likely


than men


to estimate


that


the scenario would end in rape,


and this was especially


victimized.


likely


Victimized women


for women


were also more


had been


likely than


nnnvictt i mm


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self-blame


common


in victims of


date and acquaintance


rape,


often resulting


in long-term trauma


(e.g.,


Miller


Marshall,


1987).


With


the caveat


that


the direction


of causality


to be established,


findings


such


those


just


discussed


should permit


a better


appreciation


that


the perception of


certain


factors


justifying rape


can


contribute


to both


the occurrence and devastating effects of


rape.


Moreover,


the preceding review


indicates that


there are


several


additional


factors


that have been linked to date and


acquaintance


rape


situations.


These


include belief


in rape


myths,


situation


blame of


as an


victim,


incidence of


failure


rape,


to perceive


and sex-role


stereotyping/traditionality.


Importantly,


effects of


one of


others.


these


may be mediated by


Unfortunately,


few attempts


or all


have been made


discover whether


possible


to design


interventions


that


can


attenuate


the effects of


these


variables.


Following


a discussion


of efforts


that


have been made.


Interventions/Psvchoeducation


Several


investigators,


after


discovering that


several


attitudes,


beliefs,


and perceptions may be predictive of


date and acquaintance


rape behavior,


have


recently urged


that


psychoeducational


efforts be made


to change


such


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have attempted


to directly and systematically address


issue by designing and testing


interventions


this


(Borden et al.,


1988;


Gilbert


et al.,


1991),


results


seem promising and


will be discussed shortly.


Perhaps


the most


appropriate


place


to start


is a study


by Hamilton and


Yee


(1990)


that


examined whether educational


rape-prevention programs would be effective.


investigate


whether greater


rape knowledge was


associated with a


lower


likelihood of


rape-supportive attitudes


and potential


behavior,


male and


the authors


female


administered a


undergraduates.


questionnaire


to 115


Several measures


were


included to ascertain


participants'


knowledge of


aversivene s


rape


for the


victim and the


subsequent


trauma


involved,


well


their


attitudes


toward rape and,


for men,


self-reported likelihood of


raping


they would


not be caught.


Consistent


with


prior


research


(e.g.,


Briere


Malamuth,


1983) ,


of the


men


indicated at


least


some


likelihood of


raping


if they would not be


caught.


However,


men


with


greater


knowledge of the aversiveness


and trauma


rape


were


significantly


less


likely to


indicate


such


likelihood;


these


men al


possessed fewer


rape-supportive


attitudes


than


those with less


knowledge.


Moreover,


while


women


as a


whole


possessed greater


rape knowledge than men,


4-hrncn rt th r -n fr i+ O ,n' a a ra ttlr .t% 1a


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findings


suggest


that


increasing a person's


knowledge of the


seriousness


of rape might alter their attitudes and/or


behavior.


Despite


educational


temptation


interventions


to believe that


would be effective,


well-designed


conclusions


cannot be drawn


until


such


treatments are


administered.


Interestingly,


one of


first


studies


that


demonstrated


such


effectiveness did so unintentionally.


Malamuth and


Check


(1984),


in a response


to criticism that


studies


pornography might


lead to


increased adherence


to rape myths,


subjected

vignette


each

that


of 77 male and

portrayed either


female


a stranger


undergraduates


rape


to a


or consenting


intercourse


scenario.


Subsequent


to reading the


rape


vignette,


participants


educate them about


received a


rape


dispel


debriefing designed


rape myths.


ethical


reasons,


available.


a nondebriefing


days


later,


control


participant s


group was not


responded to myth-


based questions


regarding


a newspaper


article dealing with


an acquaintance


rape situation;


this


was


imbedded with


three


other


articles


in a


"Public


Survey


Regarding


Legal


Decis


ions.


It was discovered


that


participants


who had read the


rape


vignette were


less


likely than participants


consenting-intercourse


condition


in a myth-consistent manner,


to respond to


assigning


less


the article


responsibility








read the


rape


scenario and was not


debriefed,


the authors


concluded


that


the combination of


rape vignette and


debriefing actually


lessened participants


' adherence


to rape


myths


(Malamuth


& Check,


1984) .


course,


is also


possible that


the debriefing


itself was


capable of


dispelling myths;


participants


Fortunately,


unfortunately,


the consenting


was not administered to


intercourse condition.


the authors performed an extension


of the


preceding


study


in order to answer this question


(Check


Malamuth,


Check


1984)


(1984


The design


experiment;


was


however,


similar to


the Malamuth and


an acquaintance


rape


vignette


followed by a


debriefing was added,


was a


consenting


intercourse


vignette


followed by a


rape


debriefing.


Results


indicated that


both male and female


participants


depiction,


had been exposed


in contrast


to the


to participants


acquaintance


in either


rape


of the


consenting


intercourse


conditions,


assigned less


responsibility to


victim


newspaper


article


gave


rapist


a longer prison


sentence.


However,


this


difference


was


not


found between the


stranger


rape


condition


consenting-intercourse


conditions,


there


were no


such


differences


between


consent ing-intercourse


conditions.


was asserted that


an educational


debriefing,


when


related to


the content


vignette


follows


(the


debriefing


dealt


with beliefs


usually


associated with








acquaintance rape


situations),


is maximally effective


when


paired with an exposure to an actual


example of


rape.


Unfortunately,


a more


recent


test


of an


intervention


designed to alter


rape-related attitudes met


with less


success


(Borden


et al.,


1988) .


Fifty male and


female


undergradua

acceptance


tes


responded to a questionnaire assessing their


of rape myths and ability to empathize with both


rapists


victims.


Half


of the participants


then


listened


to a


45-minute


seminar


on rape awareness


and prevention,


consisting


legal


definitions of


rape,


biographical


descriptions of


"typical"


rapist,


rape


trauma


syndrome,


and prevention strategies.


Four weeks


later,


participants


again


completed the questionnaire.


Contrary to expectations,


results


indicated that


there


were no significant


changes


in attitude nor ability to


empathize


either group.


was


concluded


that


interventions using


only didactic methods,


such as


dispelling


rape myths,


may be


insufficient


(Borden


et al.,


1988) .


Indeed,


already been


demonstrated that


least


some modicum of


experiential


learning,


which


participant


vicariously


exposed


to a


date


rape


situation,


be necessary


such efforts to


succeed,


even


if this


only


involves


reading


a rape


scenario


(Check


Malamuth,


1984).


Tn nrder tn test


the effects


of such


learning, Lee








both


teenagers and adult men.


These workshops


consisted of


four parts and were administered on a


college campus


to 24


undergraduate men.


Part


involved


20 minutes of


didactic


presentation regarding


rape myths and facts,


with time


reserved for questions.


male


In Part


presenter with whom the


lasting


participants


40 minutes,


were asked to


identify


read a


detailed account


of being raped


that


could


have been his own experience.


Participants then


discussed


their


reactions,


with an emphasis


on feelings.


In Part


participants were engaged in a


imagined themselves


guided


as observers as


fantasy


their


in which


roommates


they


coerced


a date


into


having


intercourse against


her will;


this


was


designed to make participants more


aware of


date


rape


links


to more violent


rape.


Finally,


Part


involved


discussion


of participants


responses


workshop as a


whole.


After


ruling


out


pretest


sensitization


effects,


was


discovered that


participants'


attitudes were


significantly


less


rape-supportive


after the


intervention


(Lee,


1987)


receive


Unfortunately,


intervention


a control


was


group that


included


this


did not


study;


therefore,


is possible


that


any number


of extraneous


variables,


such as participant


history or maturation,


have


accounted


for the


observed


change.


In addition,


attitudes


women


were not


addressed;


this


important


reasons


discussed in


first


chanter.








A more


internally valid experiment


using both male and


female participants has examined the effectiveness of


intervention-targeting


attitudes


and perceptions


regarding


rape


(Johnson


Russ,


1989) .


Eighty male and 80


female


participants who believed they were engaging


in a


"stimuli-


impression"


study


initially viewed a


videotape


of three


speeches purportedly delivered by


students


in a speech


class.


first


speeches were


same


for all


participants.


For the


control


participants,


the third


speech dealt

participants,


with school


involvement.


third speech


contemporary mistreatment


For the experimental


concerned the historical and


of women


for the experimental


group;


rape was


not


directly


addressed.


The authors


chose


this


speech as an


intervention


to reduce


demand bias.


same


reason,


participants


were


then asked


to judge


auditory


stimuli.


Finally,


participants


read three


passages,


one of


which


was


either


stranger or


acquaintance


rape


vignette,


and responded


to several


dependent


measures.


As anticipated,


participants


in the experimental


group


blamed the


victim les


s and saw her


as experiencing


less


enjoyment


than


control


participants;


however,


this


difference


was


significant


only for participants


in the


acquaintance


rape


condition.


This


was probably


a function


of the ambiguity


of the


latter.


The authors asserted that


educational


information has


a greater


effect


on the








already attributed less blame and enjoyment


to the stranger


rape


victim,


there was


less


room for


change.


Experimental


men also

controls,


indicated a


lower


regardless of


likelihood of


type


rape.


raping than


Finally,


while men


perceived


the victim as


experiencing more enjoyment and


blamed her more


than


did women,


there were no


interactions


between


sex


treatment


(Johnson


Russ,


1989).


indirect


nature


of the


intervention as well as


lack of


additional


dependent


variables


casts


doubt


on whether the


observed differences


would endure.


Therefore,


effectiveness of


this


type of


intervention


is unclear,


although


does


warrant


further


investigation


of related


interventions.


such


inquiry


(Feltey et


al.,


1991)


involved


efficacy


of a 45-minute presentation delivered


to 118 male


female


high


school


students.


The basic goal


this


didactic


"date


rape prevention


lecture"


(DRP)


was


emphasize


view that


date


rape


is an


extension


current


sex-role


socialization


practices


and to caution


students


about


seriousness.


Immediately prior to and


6 weeks


after


hearing the DRP,


participants


completed a


survey


assessing

sexual ag


their


gression


attitudes


regarding


(defined as


a man


justifiability of


forcing a


woman


engage


in a range of


sexual behaviors),


depending on


circumstances


such as


spent more


than


$40 on her"








was


revealed that


the DRP


was


relatively effective


in producing attitude


change.


In general,


attitudes


regarding

pretest t


justifiability


o posttest


of sexual


aggression decreased from


for both men and women.


This was


especially true


for men;


prior to the DRP,


men


were more


likely than


women


to agree


that


sexual aggression


justified in


certain


circumstances,


while


this


difference


disappeared for most


circumstances


at posttest.


exceptions


were


situations


in which


woman goes


man's


house


when


parents


are not


home,


as well as


when


woman


stoned or


drunk


(Feltey et al.,


1991).


Nevertheless,


the general


success of


this


intervention


with


both men and women


indicates


that


it may be possible


counter the effects of


sex-role


stereotyping through


education.


In a


related study


investigating the possibility of


changing


attitudes


concerning


date


and acquaintance


rape,


Harrison


et al.


(1991)


had 51


female and


45 male


undergraduates


rate


their


agreement


with


5 myth-related


items


This


was


administered both as a pretest


and posttest


for three


groups


of participants


(one


served as


a control)


and as


a posttest


experimental


experimental


groups


groups


only


for two groups,


and one


viewed a


control


7-minute


a total


group.


four


four


video that


consisted


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send mixed messages


(scenario-only


intervention).


Two of


these groups


then participated in


45-minute facilitated


discussion


sessions that


linked the


video to


issues


regarding


date and acquaintance


rape


(scenario-plus-


discussion


intervention).


was


revealed


that,


after


either


intervention,


pretested men indicated a


decreased belief


advocating victim blame and denial


that


statements


rape occurs.


addition,


male participants


exposed


to either treatment as


compared


agree with


scenario


to control men


such


themselves


were


statements;


were


at posttest


appears


sufficient


less


that


to produce


likely to


video and


the desired


change.


In contrast,


precluded any


women's


significant


initially


change or


low agreement


differences.


Finally,


there


were


pretest


effects,


with pretested treatment


groups


blaming the victim less and


denying the occurrence of


rape


less at


posttest


than


their posttest-only


counterparts


(Harrison


et al.,


1991)


Perhaps


the most


encouraging


few date and


acquaintance


rape attitude change


studies


was


recently


reported by Gilbert


(1991),


who employed a


theory-


based psychoeducational


intervention.


Seventy-five male


undergraduates


from two


universities were


pretested with


Burt 's


(1980)


Acceptance


Interpersonal


Violence,


Adversarial


Sexual Be liefs.


Rane Myth Annentan e.


and Sex-








combined into a


single attitude


score.


Participants


were


also pretested with Cacioppo and Petty's


(1982)


Need for


Cognition


Scale


assess


their trait motivation


to think


about


intervention,


and were


surveyed regarding their


sexual


experiences;


there were no differences between


two universities'


participants


regarding any


measures,


although overall attitudes


were


less


supportive of


sexual


aggression


than


in past


research


(Gilbert


et al.,


1991).


intervention


was


grounded


in Petty and Cacioppo's


(1986)


elaboration


likelihood model


(ELM)


of attitude


change.


According to


attitude change.


the ELM,


Central


route


there ar

change


rou


involves


tes to

thoughtful


elaboration of the


topic and


content


of a persuasive


argument,


while


peripheral


route


change


involves


use of


simple decision


rules


or cues


associated


with


the argument.


Importantly,


former will


occur


only


recipient


the argument


about


possesses


and these


the motivation and ability to


resulting thoughts must


think


favorable


toward the


espoused message.


The authors


Gilbert


et al.,


1991)


attempted


to design an


intervention


that


would


maximize


such motivation,


ability,


and thought


favorability,


since


central


route change


is more


persistent,


resistent


later


counterpersuasion,


influential


of related


h1c-ahnr4 nr








One to


2 weeks after the pretest,


half


participants were presented


with


this


hour-long


intervention


consisting


arguments


in favor of


rejecting


interpersonal


violence,


rape myths,


adversarial sexual beliefs,


and male


dominance.


A man and a


woman presented the arguments


directly to participants


played vignettes


in both didactic


in order to maximize


form and role


their motivation


think about


points


made.


In order to


facilitate


ability,


vocabulary and message complexity appropriate


to an


adult


audience were


selected,


key points


were


repeated,


intervention


content


was


summarized at


the end of


presentation


Finally,


thought


favorability was


promoted by


stressing the negative


intrapsychic and social


consequences


accepting


interpersonal


violence,


rape myths,


adversarial


sexual beliefs,


and male dominance


(Gilbert


al.,


1991).


Immediately following the


intervention,


experimental


participants


again


responded


four


attitude


scales,


well


as ancillary


items designed to


assess


their motivation,


ability


, and


thought


favorability


regarding the


presentation.


Additionally,


they were contacted by phone


one month


later


an experimenter posing


as a


member


newly


formed student


group who


read a


script


regarding


proposed


women's


amount


up was


safety projects


script


recorded,


and asked for volunteers.


participants


was their willingness


heard before hanging


to volunteer.


C1









favorability toward the appeal.


Control


participants


underwent


the same procedure but


did not


receive any


intervention


(Gilbert


et al.,


1991).


It was discovered that


experimental


participants


changed their attitudes


in the desired direction


significantly more


than


controls.


They were also more


willing to


listen


to the phone appeal


and made more


favorable comment s


regarding the


proposed projects.


Moreover,


least


one of


each of


the measures


motivation,


ability,


and thought


favorability predicted


attitude


change,


although several


did not


(Gilbert


al.


1991).


Before outlining the


goals


of the present


investigation,


one


should realize


that


two of


three


studies


just


discussed


(Feltey et


al.,


1991;


Harrison


al.


1991)


leave


some


doubt


about


whether the attitude


change


induced by the


interventions


will


endure.


Because


attitudinal


to the


items


were administered


interventions,


possible


immediately


that


subsequent


relatively


transient


change


was


reflected


in participant


responses.


contrast,


the Gilbert


et al.


(1991)


study


employed a


delayed


behavioral measure


that may well have


indicated more


long-


lasting


change.


Although


such discoveries


are promising,


one must


keep


4 .- -: A A 4- '1-k 4- 5-5"


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individuals who are more


likely to


rape or be


raped in


dating


situations.


Indeed,


Gilbert


et al.


(1991)


admitted


that


their


sample was


supportive of


sexual aggression


as was expected and suggested that


participants


with more


rape-supportive


initial


attitudes be targeted in


future


research.


Additionally,


the Gilbert


et al.


(1991)


Harrison


et al.


(1991)


studies did not


-include


female


participants,


overlooking an


important


source of


reducing


rape


its negative


consequences.


Therefore,


unknown


whether


is possible


to change


the behaviorally


relevant attitudinal


responses


of both


traditional men and


traditional


women.


Rationale


and Hypotheses


Present


Study


In an attempt


to answer this


question,


present


investigation

intervention


(1991)


examined

identical


on both men and women


the effects


of an attitude change


to the one employed by Gilbert


have been


et al.


categorized


according to


role


their


stereotyping


degree of

(although


adherence


nontraditional


traditional sex-

participants are


not


expected to


"high


risk"


, they were


included to be


certain


that


intervention was


properly


implemented)


To determine


participants'


success of


degree of


intervention,


rape-supportive attitudes prior to


and after the


intervention was


assessed.


In addition,


n~r1-t 4' cr' ~? n nnt-c


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u









degree of


ambiguity


in order to


test


intervention


in a


stringent manner.


Evidence


linking these measures


to sexual


aggression


or victimization has already been presented


(Briere


Malamuth,


1983;


Check


& Malamuth,


1983;


Jenkins


Dambrot,


1987;


Koralewski


Conger,


1992;


Muehlenhard &


Linton,


1987;


Quackenbush,


1989) .


To more directly examine


participants


' history


of sexual


aggression or victimization,


they


also


completed the


Sexual Experiences


Survey


(Koss


Oros,


1982


Finally, in order to determine

attitude change would be enduring a


whether any observed


nd behaviorally relevant,


a phone appeal


procedure


identical


that


employed


in the


Gilbert


et al.


(1991)


study was administered to all


participants one month after the presentation.


groups,


there


was


a no-intervention


control


group.


Based upon


literature


reviewed,


following


hypotheses


were offered:


For both men and women,


traditionality would be


positively


correlated with pre-intervention


rape myth


acceptance


well


as with history


of sexual


aggression


victimization.


groups


that


received


intervention,


contrast


to their no-intervention


greater decrease


in their


controls,


acceptance of


would exhibit a


rape myths and would


S *


*








longer to


the phone appeal,


make more


favorable


comments


regarding the proposed projects,


and volunteer more time


assist


with


projects.


Traditionality would be


related attitudes and phone appeal


would be a more powerful


a strong predictor


responses.


predictor than


rape-


Specifically,


rape myth


acceptance


as well


as history of


sexual aggression or


victimization.


Participants


' traditionality would not be a


function


of their


history


of sexual


aggression


victimization.


powerful


As evidence,


predictor


traditionality would be a more


rape-related attitudes and phone


appeal


responses


than


would be


such history.














CHAPTER


METHODS

Participants


Participants


undergraduate


Florida.

pretested


consisted of


psychology


Participants'

(along with s


students at


male and


female


University of


rape-supportive attitudes


severall


were


unrelated questionnaires)


classroom setting with Burt's


(1980)


Rape Myth Acceptance


Scale


(RMAS),


and their


degree of


traditionality was


assessed with Burt's


(1980)


Sex-Role


Stereotyping Scale


(SRS)


(Appendix A).


Parti


cipants


were


selected based on


their pretested


scores


on the SRS,


with


participants


high and


low extremes


being


telephoned first.


In order to


safeguard against


ethical


problems


arising


from the


fact


that


participants


would be dealing with


issues


regarding


rape,


they were offered discontinuation of the


study at


any point.


In addition,


they were carefully


debriefed.


Finally,


participants were


informed


that


they


would be offered a


referral


to the


university


counseling


center


they


experienced any


concern or


discomfort.


However,


no participants


expressed any


concern


or discomfort


during the course of


this


investigation.









Instruments


Traditionalitv


Burt's


(1980)


Sex-Role


Stereotyping


Scale


(SRS)


(Appendix A,


items


1-9)


was


selected as a measure of


traditional


sex-role


stereotyping.


This


was


chosen due


ease of


administration as


well


as its


relevance to


sexual


aggression and victimization


(see Review of


Literature).


SRS consists


of nine


items


that


primarily


assess


beliefs


regarding the nature


of appropriate


sexual


social


roles


for women.


Typical


items


include


"A wife


should never


contradict


husband


in public"


woman


should be


a virgin


when


she marries


In a sample of


male and female Minnesota


residents,


Burt


(1980)


found a


internal


consistency


coefficient


for this


scale.


present


study


found a


internal


consistency


coefficient


for this


scale.


Rape Myth Acceptance


Burt


(1980)


Rape Myth Acceptance


Scale


(RMAS)


(Appendix A,


items


10-28)


was


selected as


a measure of


adherence


typical myths about


rape.


with


SRS,


this


was


chosen


to its


ease


of administration as


well


relevance


to sexual aggression


and victimization


(see


Review of


Literature)


RMAS consists of


19 items


E1 evsn nf


*6rA


Ijpc


thPSP









justify rape or that


place


responsibility for


on the


woman.


A typical


item is


the majority of


rapes,


victim is


promiscuous or has


a bad reputation.


Participants


respond to


these


items


on a


7-point


scale.


items


concern


false


reporting of


rape,


such as


"What


percentage of women


report


a rape


would


say are


lying because they are angry


and want


to get back at


the man


they


accuse?"


a 5-point


scale


Participants r

, "almost all,


respond

about


to these


3/4,


two


about


items


half,


using


about


1/4,


almost


none.


final


six items ask participants to


indicate


how


likely they would be to believe persons


claimed they were


raped.


This


question


is asked regarding


six different


persons,


and participants


respond


on a


5-point


scale,


"always,


frequently,


sometimes,


rarely,


never


sample mentioned above,


Burt


(1980)


found a


internal


consistency


found a


coefficient


internal


this


consistency


scale.


coefficient


The present


for this


study


scale.


Date Rape


Vignette


Participant


responses


to a


vignette describing


a date


rape


situation


served as a measure of


rape-supportive


attitudes.


Selected


high


degree


of ambiguity,


this


was


identical


the more


"suggestive"


scenario employed by


Muehlenhard and MacNaughton


(1988)


(Appendix C)


After


reading the


vignette,


participants


answered several


nrrh n : hn


. 1


an I I a i--h -% I a ~, ., ,-' II ~ a r. a n 2 k -


1


*t" -


n~r rct.


II .


c


In








Literature,


responses


to this


type


of vignette


have been


shown to be more


rape-supportive


for traditional


individuals


for victims


of sexual aggression.


Postintervention Attitudes


Burt's


(1980)


Adversarial Sexual Beliefs


(ASB)


(Appendix D,


items


10-18)


and Acceptance of


Interpersonal


Violence


MIV)


(Appendix D,


items


19-24)


scales


were


selected as measures of postintervention


rape-support ive


attitudes.


As with


and RMAS,


these


was


chosen


to their


ease


administration as


well


their relevance


to sexual


aggression and victimization


(see


Review of the


Literature)


The ASB consists


beliefs


of nine


regarding manipulation and


is designed to assess

"game-playing" by both


men


women


in sexual


relationships.


Typical


items


include


"Most


women are


and manipulating when


they are


to attract a man"


"Men are


for only


one


thing.


AIV


force,


includes


primarily


items


by men against


regarding use


women


of physical


in sexual


relationships.


A typical


item is


"Being


roughed up


sexually


stimulating to many women.


In Burt's


(1980


sample,


internal


consistency


coefficients


were


found


for the ASB and AIV,


respectively.


present


study found


internal


consistency


coefficients


for the ASB and AIV,


respectively.









Sexual


Experience


Sexual


Experiences


Survey


(SES)


Koss


Oros,


1982)


endix


describes


items


sexual


50-62


women


experiences


50-61


men,


men)


being


a victim


rape


is excluded)


ranging


from


mutually


consensual


intercourse


rape.


Respondents


indicate


they


have


these


experi


ences.


This


measure


was


used


to dire


ctly


examine


part


cipants


' history


of sexual


aggression


victimization.


Phone


Appeal


Endurance


behavioral


relevance


intervention


effects


was


assessed


using


a proce


dure


identical


to that


employed


participants


Gilbert


were


et al.


ephoned


1991)


study.


an experimenter,


blind


experimental


condition,


who posed


as a member


of a newly


formed


regarding


student


group


proposed


read


women's


a script


safety


(Appendix


projects.


Participants


were


to indicate


much


time


they


would


volunteer.


This


was


recorded


on a Telephone


Response


Sheet


Appendix


was


before


amount


hanging


made.


script


number


willingness


listen


part


cipants


of positive


to the


heard


comment s


appeal,


they


statements


supportive


project,


number


of hours


volunteered


served


as dependent


variables.








Design and Procedures


design


was a


fully


crossed between-


participants


traditionality


factorial.


(ranging


first


from low to


factor


high);


involved


second


involved


sex


(male,


female);


and the


third involved the


intervention


(treatment,


control).


After


being


separated


according to sex and traditionality,


participants were


assigned randomly to either the experimental


group and completed the


or control


following procedure.


Intervention


Immediate


Posttest


Approximately


weeks


after


completing the pretest,


participants


from the


treatment


group arrived and were


seated at a campus

individuals. These


classroom in

participants


groups of


then


approximately


received a


psychoeducational


intervention aimed at


reducing rape-


supportive attitudes,


presented by


a man


and a


woman and


lasting approximately


hour.


intervention,


identical


to that


employed in


Gilbert


et al.


(1991)


study,


consisted of


arguments


in favor


of rejecting


interpersonal


violence,


rape myths,


adversarial


sexual beliefs,

attitude change,


and male dominance.


techniques


To induce


were employed


central route


to enhance


participants


' motivation and ability to


think about


arguments,


as well


to ensure


that


these


thoughts would


favorable rec


rardinq the


points made


in the


intervention.








participants


in both


didactic form and role played vignettes


in order to maximize motivation.

vocabulary and message complexity


To facilitate ability,


.y appropriate to an adult


audience were used;


key points were


repeated;


intervention


content


was


summarized at


the end of the


presentation.


Finally,


thought


favorability was promoted by


stressing the negative


intrapsychic and social


consequences


of accepting


interpersonal


violence,


rape myths,


adversarial


sexual beliefs,


and male dominance.


A transcript


of this


intervention,


parentheses,


with modifications


can be


female participants


found in Appendix B.


Immediately


following the


intervention,


the presenters


left


room and an


containing the


posttest


experimenter


materials.


handed


When


sealed booklets


instructed to do


participants


opened


the booklets to the


first


page and


were


given


minutes


to read


the date


rape


vignette


(Appendix C).


After the


minutes


expired,


participants


were


instructed


to turn


page and responded on a


0 to


scale to questions


referring to


victim blame,


rapist


blame,


victim desire


rape;


intercourse,


questions were


justifiability of


used by Muehlenhard and MacNaughton


(1988)


After making their


responses


to the


vignette,


participants


completed


the measures


on the


following pages


nf the hnnklet in


ne fnllowiina order:


Sex-Role









Scale,


Acceptance of


Interpersonal


Violence


(AIV)


Scale,


Rape Myth Acceptance Scale


(RMAS),


and Sexual


Experiences


Survey


(SES)


(Appendix D).


Participants


were


then debriefed


about

date


the

rape


Control


purposes

(Appendix


Immedia


of the study and the negative aspects of

E) and were dismissed.

te Posttest


in the Gilbert


et al


1991)


study,


control


participant s


received and completed posttest measures


identical


to those administered to the


treatment


participants


immediate


ely upon arriving


classroom.


These participants did not


receive


intervention.


After


they


completed the booklet,


manner


the treatment


they were debriefed


participants


the same


dismissed.


Follow-UD


Posttest


One month after


completing the


immediate


posttest


measures,


partic


pants were


telephoned by an


experimenter


were


read the phone appeal


script


Appendix


Their


responses


were


recorded


(Appendix G)


and they


were debriefed


(Appendix F)














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Overview


Based on the


frequency


distribution


of pretest


scores,


five


levels


traditionality were created,


each


comprised


of approximately 20


standard deviations,


and ranges


of the participants.


(with


Means,


latter


parentheses


follows:


28.23


level


15.69,


, 145,


(26-30),


through


(9-19),


, respectively,


22.77,


1.42,


are as


(20-25),


(31-35),


40.29,


.55,


-49)


Although


SRS


is a


continuous


measure,


recently been


demonstrated


that


appropriate


to create


discrete


categories


for a


continuous


variable


(Rosenthal,


least


1993


five of


, personal


such


categories are created


communication)


In addition,


several


studies


have


treated


traditionality


a dichotomous


variable


(Coller


Resick,


1987;


Muehlenhard,


1988;


Muehlenhard & MacNaughton,


1988).


To examine


relationships


among the dependent


variables,


intercorrelations


among all


of the


paper-and-


pencil and phone


appeal


responses were performed;


these are


presented in


Table


Then,


Pearson


correlation


-F S


.. I


11









Table


Correlation Coefficients/P-Values


for Deoendent


Variables


1 2 3. 4 5. 6 10


Post
RMAS1


-.04


.001


.001


.001


.001


.001


.001


AIV2


-.07


.001


.001


.001


.001


ASB3


-.03


-.00


.007

---


Responsible


.007

.30
.001


.001

.43
.001


.001

.35
.001


Mike


-.03


Responsible


.001


.001


Wants


.001


Mike


.08 -.05


Justified


Amount


of Time


Volunteered


Amount
Heard


.009

- --


Call


.001


Favorable


Comment


1Posttest
2Attitudes


Rape


Myth Acceptance


Toward


Interpersonal


Scale


Violence


Scale


3Adversarial


Sexual


Beliefs


Scale


women,


traditionality


pretestt


score)


would be


positively


correlated with preintervention


rape myth









Next,


multivariate analyses of variance


(MANOVAs)


followed by univariate analyses


multivariate effects


(ANOVAs)


were used to test


of all


part


significant


of Hypothesis


groups


that


received the


intervention,


in contrast


their no-intervention


controls,


would make


less


rape-


supportive


responses on


posttest


paper-and-pencil


measures.


Chi-square


analyses were


used


to test


a second


part


of Hypothesis


Compared to controls,


experimental


participants


would listen


longer to


phone appeal,


make


more


favorable


comments


regarding the proposed projects,


volunteer more


time


to assist


with


the projects.


This type


of analysis


was more appropriate


than a parametric approach


because of


low variability


in participants'


responses


phone appeal.


Finally,


repeated measures analyses of


variance


(ANOVAs


were


used


to test


a final


part


Hypothesis


groups


that


received the


intervention,


contrast


to their no-intervention


controls,


would exhibit


greater decrease


their acceptance of


rape myths.


Multivariate


analyses


variance


(MANOVAs)


followed by


univariate analyses


(ANOVAs)


of all


significant multivariate


effects


were


used to test


part


of Hypothesis


Traditionality would be a


strong predictor of


rape-related


attitudes.


This


type


of analysis


was


followed by planned


Tukey s


HSD tests


applied to all


significant


univariate


a F ar'+- e


r F~~i a +-a rd -4l n-as nt n fl


a-fo a b /


/Ih: I


7\n r.r: Ck


~n cr tc~


*^ ~^/"









traditionality on participants'


phone appeal


responses.


Multivariate anal


yses


covariance


(MANCOVAs)


were used to


test


a final


part


of Hypothesis


participants'


traditionality would be


a more powerful


predictor of


rape-


related attitudes and phone appeal


responses than would be


rape myth acceptance.


Finally,


multivariate analyses of


covariance


(MANCOVAs)


were


used to


test


Hypothesis


Participants'


traditionality


would not be a


function


of their


history


of sexual aggression


or victimization.


Because of the


conceptual


independence of


independent


variables,


type


as opposed to type


sums


squares


served


criteria


all MANOVAs,


MANCOVAs,


and ANOVAs.


Hypothesis 1


To examine


relationship


between men's and women's


traditionality


pretestt


score


their


rape myth


acceptance


pretestt RMAS


score)


well


their


history


sexual aggression or victimization


(SES


score),


Pearson


correlation


coefficients were generated.


As predicted,


pretest


was


positively


correlated with pretest


RMAS


both men,


.47, <. 0001,


women,


AC
- -if.
* a-,


<.0001.


Contrary to predictions,


pretest


SRS was


correlated with


for men,


r=.14,


was


;. 1,


negatively


correlated with


SES


for women,


.21,


p.05.








Hypothesis 2


Because of


the high degree of


intercorrelation


among


10 dependent


variables,


traditionalityy)


(treatment/control)


sex)


multivariate analysis


variance


(MANOVA)


was


used


as a conservative


statistical


approach


to examine the effects of


independent


variables.


treatment,


The MANOVA


F(10,216)=1 .71,


yielded significant main


p<.05,


effects


traditionality,


F(40,821)


.64,


p<.0001,


sex,


F(10,


216)=5.84,


<. 0001,


warranting univariate


analyses of


these effects.


interactions


were


significant.


Race-Related Posttest


Attitudes


Individual

for treatment o


ANOVAs


revealed significant main


n participants'


scores


effects


the RMAS,


F (1,225)=5


.62,


and AIV,


F(1,


)=4 .74,


pcz.05,


not


on the ASB.


Significant main effects


for treatment


were


also


found


for part:


icipants'


vignette


responses,


concerning


Amy's


responsibility,


F(1,


225)=6.


Mike's


responsibility,


sex,


El1,


E(1,225)=3


.78,


.19, R<.05,


wt.O


and Amy's


desire


justifiability


of Mike's


actions


(see


Table


These


results


partially


support


hypothesis


that


participants


heard the presentation


would


exhibit


less


rape-supportive


attitudes


than participants


who did not hear the


nra ea'tCl 4 rt~tn


p< 01,


p<.ol,









Table


Dependent


Variable Means


and Standard Deviations:


Treatment


Treatment


Control


Posttest


40.11


11.20


42.10


11.45*


RMAS1


AIV2


5.37*


ASB3


7.69


2.69*


Responsible


Mike


0.59


1.21


1.24*


Responsible


1.51


1.76


.11*


Wants


Mike


1.68


1.85


Justified


Amount


of Time


1.02


1.27


0.66


1.24


Volunteer


Amount
Heard


of Call


Favorable


2.89


0.43


2.94


0.50


0.34


0.24


0.48


Comment


1Posttest
2Attitudes


Rape Myth Acceptance Scale


Toward


Interpersonal


Violence Scale


3Adversarial Sexual Beliefs


*denotes


significant


Scale


difference between means


Note: For first
"Mike Justified")


SUDDOrtive


seven variables
, higher scores


res fnonse


l1~4


K:1 t. *.LU .,


("Posttest
represent


three


RMAS
more


variable. -


through


rape-
1 power


SnTres


I


.









Phone Appeal Responses


Chi-square tests


were


used to determine the differential


likelihood of volunteering any time


for the proposed women's


safety projects


(irrespective of


length of


time)


between


treatment


participants'


and control


willingness


participants.


volunteer,


other words,


as opposed to


amount


time


volunteered,


was examined.


Results


indicated


that


treatment


volunteer than


was


group was


the control


significantly more


group,


likely to


(df=1)=9.06,


with


63 of


126 treatment


participants


volunteering


some


time,


compared to only


control


participants.


However,


participants


treatment


group,


compared to controls,


did not


demonstrate a


greater


likelihood of making any


positive comments


regarding the phone appeal nor did they


listen


longer to


the appeal.


Repeated Measures


To test


the hypothesis


that


treatment


would decrease


participants'


adherence


to rape myths,


a repeated measures


analysis of variance


was performed.


The ANOVA revealed a


significant


decrease


in RMAS


score


from pretest


to posttest,


F(1,243)=7.54,


pec.O05.


Moreover,


a significant RMAS


treatment


interaction,


F(1, 243)=3


.04,


B4(*Q5,


indicated that


the decrease among participants who


had heard the


presentation


was


greater than


the decrease among those who


- a S -S


E< 01,


I r


.r


..


i









Table 3


Means and Standard Deviations


for Repeated Measure:


Rape Myth Acceptance


Treatment


Control


Pretest


42.52


12.05


42.64


11.38


RMAS1


Posttest


40.11


11.20


42.10


11.45


RMASi


1Rape Myth Acceptance


Scale


Hypothesis 3


reported in relation


to Hypothesis


a MANOVA


yielded a


significant main


effect


for traditionality,


warranting univariate


analyses


of the effects of


traditionality.


Rape-Related Posttest


Attitudes


Individual ANOVAs


revealed significant main effects


traditionality


on participants'


scores


RMAS,


,225


)=9.04,


n<.0001,


AIV,


F(4,225)=6.81,


<. 0001,


and ASB,


,225


.94,


fl4,oool.


Significant


main effects


traditionality were


also


found


for participants'
"I


vignette


responses,
- / flflr -^


concerning


a


Amy's


response


I I 1 .


ibility, E


J(4,225)=4


.26,









of Mike's


actions,


E(4,225)=4.60,


w<.001


(see


Table


These


results


support


the notion


that


participants with high


traditionality,


more


as indicated by pretest


rape-supportive attitudes than


scores,


participants with


exhibit


lower


traditionality.


To examine more closely the effects of the


five


levels


traditionality on the dependent measures,


Tukey's


studentized range


(HSD)


analyses


were performed.


resulting


comparisons


of means


for the main


effects


traditionality


are


presented in


Table


Phone Appeal


Responses


Chi-square


tests


revealed no


significant main


effects


for traditionality


on participants'


favorable


comments


regarding the


proposed projects,


time


volunteered to assist


with


projects,


nor amount


of time


spent


listening to the


phone appeal.


Rape Myth Acceptance


as Mediator


of Main Effects


To test


powerful


the hypothesis


predictor of


that


traditionality would be a


rape-related attitudes


and phone appeal


responses,


independent


rape myth


acceptance


(as measured


by pretest


RMAS


scores


, a 5


traditionalityy)


(treatment/control )


(sex)


multivariate analysis of


covariance


(MANCOVA)


was performed.


Pretest


RMAS


served


covariate.


was


demonstrated that


treatment,








Table


Dependent


Variable Means:


Traditionality


Level


of Traditionality


= most


traditional)


Posttest


33.46


37.52


44.21


42.34


47.86


RMAS1


AIV2


10.25


11.31


13.32


15.82


ASB3


20.44


27.16


30.31


2.94


4.39


Responsible


Mike


0.40


0.69


*1.35


Responsible


1.60


2.02


2.61


Wants


Mike


0.38


1.13


0.77


1.73


Justified


Amount


Time


0.83


1.00


1.12


0.50


0.71


Volunteered


Amount
Heard


of Call


2.89


2.94


Favorable


0.46


0.46


0.27


0.47


Comment


1Posttest
2Attitude


Rape Myth Acceptance Scale


Toward


Interpersonal


Violence


Scale


3Adversarial


Sexual


Beliefs


Scale









Table


4--continued.


denotes


significantly different


traditionality mean


denotes


< alpha


significantly different


traditionality mean


denotes


< alpha


significantly different


traditionality mean


denotes


< alpha


significantly different


traditionality mean


denotes


< alpha


significantly different


traditionality mean


< alpha


from level


.05)


from level


.05)


from level


.05)


from level


.05)


from level


.05)


Note: For first s
"Mike Justified"),


supportive


;even


variables


higher


responses.


scores


last


("Posttest


RMAS I,


represent more


three


variables,


through


rape-
lower


scores


represent more


rape-supportive


responses.


effects


despite


pretest RMAS


being


covaried out.


This


supports


the hypothesis


that


traditionality


a strong


predictor


of the dependent


measures


and not


simply a


function


rape myth acceptance.


Hypothesis 4


History of
of Main


Sexual
Effects


Aggression


or Victimization as Mediator


To further test


the hypothesis


that


traditionality would


be a p

appeal


powerful


predictor


responses,


of rape-related attitudes and phone


to discover whether participants


traditionality


could be


a function


of their


history of


sexual


aggression


or victimization,


a second 5


traditionalityy)


(treatment/control)


(sex)


multivariate analysis of









E(10,228)=1.82,


traditionality,


E(40,866)=2.43,


fl<.OOO1,


and sex,


E(10,228)=5.72,


D<.0001,


retained their


main


effects


despite SES being


covaried out.


This


further


supports


the hypothesis


that


traditionality


a strong


predictor


of the


dependent measures and


indicates the


improbability that


participants'


traditionality


is a


function


of their


history


of sexual aggression or victimization.


Additional


Rape-Related Posttest


Findings:


Attitudes


Individual ANOVAs


revealed significant main effects


sex


on participants'


scores


on the RMAS,


F(1,225)=38


.81,


2<. 0001,


e.o5.


AIV,


However,


F(1,225)=8


.63,


significant


and ASB,


main


effects


F(1,225)=4


sex


.96,


were not


found for


the participants'


vignette


responses


(see


Table


These


results


support


the notion


that male


participants,


compared


female participants,


exhibit


more


rape-supportive attitudes


when


they


are assessed in


survey


form.


However,


this


difference


apparent


when


participants


are


responding to an ambiguous date


rape


vignette.


Phone Appeal


Responses


Chi-square


tests


revealed


that


women


were


significantly


more


likely to volunteer


for the


proposed


projects


than


were


men,


(df=l)=4


.11, o<.05,


with


58 of


female


participants


.. 1 --- n -- 4 .-.- --L


'I


12<. 05r


E< 005,


--


___


r-


,,


J 1 nn r~n


L




Full Text

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