David Fairchild's manuscript entitled "Southern Trip January to April 1917 Including Account of Effects of Freeze Februa...


Material Information

David Fairchild's manuscript entitled "Southern Trip January to April 1917 Including Account of Effects of Freeze February 3, 1917"
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Fairchild, David, 1869-1954
Publication Date:


Spatial Coverage:
North America -- United States of America


Scope and Content:
Typescript volume with hand corrections and notes, as well as photographs. Report of a trip from Washington, D.C. to Florida January to April, 1917, to survey the disappointing progress of some bamboo plants which were showing signs of insect damage when introduced to Florida. While there, a fierce winter storm came in, and Fairchild describes the effects of the freeze, February 3, 1917. Many of the photographs show icicles on various plants. During the course of the trip he does some research on cross pollination. Many personal comments, as well as comments hand-written into the volume up to 30 years later by the author, give wonderful insights to this botanist.
David Grandison Fairchild was an American botanist. He was born in Michigan in 1869. For most of his career he worked in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, managing the Department of Plant Introduction. He was a frequent visitor to Florida, and in 1898 he established a garden for introducing tropical plants in Miami. In 1926, he built a family home in Miami and filled the property with a large collection of rare tropical plants. The home is now the site of the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden. Fairchild died in 1954.

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University of Florida
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sobekcm - AA00003176_00001
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Full Text

73 2-i C






(Including account of
effects of freeze, February
,3. 1917)

Office of
Pereign Seed and Plant



(Including an account of the effects of the freeze,
February 3d, 1917)


David Fairchild.

Leaving Washington on the 24th of January, I went

through to Miami without stop. Owing to an attack of the

influenza and a resulting slight enlargement of the heart. Jasel

I had to be taken to the train. The first few days in

Florida were enough, however, to put me on my feet again.

On January 30th, I went over the Deering place at

Buena Tista with MIr. Simmonds, Marcus Dall and Marian

and was surprised to find how much the artificial hammock

had grown, but I was disappointed at the behavior of

the bamboo planting (Phyllostachys bambusoides) which

I got Mlr. Deering to put in and for which we furnished

the bamboos from Brooksville. It is not coming on at

all well. In fact, the plants are turning yellow and

becoming covered with sooty mould as the result of insect


On January 31st, I spent the whole day at the

Brickell Avenue Ga.rden, looking over the plants with

Messrs. Piper and Oakley. Messrs. Morrison and Lyman

and Rosenbaum were there too. professor Piper had

just been through the Everglades, and he says that the


problems there are fascinating. Near Lake Okeechobee

the land is being reclaimed rapidly, and it will soon be

in shape for cultivation. Carib grass, he says,

together with Para grass, Japanese cane and Maiden cane

will make stock raising there a distinct possibility.

In the afternoon, I discussed with Mr. Lathrop the

plans for the Bamboo Grove at Savannah, and late in the

afternoon I took him to the Brickell Avenue Garden and

showed him the large Ficus tree from Ehodesia which we

have selected for the avenue at the New Garden. He was

much impressed with the row of Eucalyptus alba at the

Garden and with Detarium senegalense. It was strange

to wander around under the trees which he and I had

been interested in introducing and which we had worked

together to bring in during all these years. The dear

man had just passed his seventieth birthday and seemed

older than I liked to feel he was, but he was interested

in almost everything he saw.

February 1st I took Mr. Safford and his little boy

up to see Prof. Simpson at Littleriver, and we met there

Mr. Simonds of Chicago, LIr. Lathrop and his friend Mr.

Burgdorf, an artist. It was surprising to see how things

had toned down and how everything had grown since I was

last there. Attalea cohune had really made a start and

appeared as though it would be hardy in the hammock here.

AS the day waned and evening approached, the temperature

began to drop, and Mr. Simmonds said that he thought we

The Tamiami Trail near Miami, Florida.

March, 1917.

W. E. Safford and David Fairchild botanizing in
the hammock of the new Tamiami Trail, near Miami,
Florida, March, 1917.

- -'
K-.. L : .
" '" ,
,;: ..,

- i t ..

Barbour Lathrop, Chas. T. Simpson, W. E. Safford,
Mr. Burgdorff and David Fairchild on the newly
made Tamiami Trail,March, 1917. Everglade botanizing.

View across the everglades from Tamiami Trail,
near Miami, Florida, March, 1917.

Everglades from Tamiami Trail, near Miami, Fla.,
March, 1917.

Icicles formed on February 3, 1917, at the Deering
place, Buena Vista, Fla., as a result of the action of
the sprinkling system established by Mr. Deering in his

Icicles formed on February 3, 1917, at the
Deering place, Buena Vista, Fla., as a result of
the action of the sprinkling system established
by iMr. Deering in his arboretum.


Icicles on the strawberries and pea trellises as a
result of the spray from the sprinklers at the Deering place,
Buena Vista, Fla., February 3, 1917.


Icicles formed on February 3, 1917, at the Deering
place, Buena Vista, Fla., as a result of the action of
the sprinkling system established by Mr. Deering in
his arboretum.

Icicles formed on February 3, 1917, at the Deering
place, Buena Vista, Fla., as a result of the action of
the sprinkling system established by Mr. Deering in
his arboretum.



might look for cold weather the next day.

I was sorry to see that the Nipa palm had gone out

entirely; the crabs got it. Prof. Simpson thinks it

will grow here, and we ought to get more plants to try

out. It was surprising to see how the Lebbek had kept

its deep green leaves. I wonder if this is not a

special variety, and I hope that it is going to come true

to seed, for we have an avenue of it in the New Garden.

Spathodia campanulata, Prof. Simpson says, blooms itself


Mr. Lathrop was taken ill and had to leave hurriedly

for his apartments. I feel that he is not getting on

as he ought to at all. Just as we were leaving, DMr.

Alexander Brokaw, formerly of Brownsville, Texas, but

now of Los Angeles, called on Prof. Simpson. I saw Mr.

Brokaw in 1905 when I was in Brownsville.

I then took Messrs. Safford and Dall to Buena Vista,

and we went with Mr. Soar over the plants there. The

black calabash, Enallagma (Orescentia) cucurbitana is a

wonderful plant for seashore work. Garcinia binuoao

had been broken back and looked sickly. Nnuclea orientalis,

S.P.I. No. 30961, is twelve feet tall. Parkia timoriana,

S.P.I. No. 35469, is also twelve feet tall. ziziphus

joazeiro is now two feet tall.

Friday night, February 2nd, or, rather, the morning

of February 3d will long be remembered in Florida, for


it marks the arrival of a cold wave which beat anything

in severity since 1895.

I went to the Garden in the morning, and Mr.

Simmonds said that if the cold had come a few hours

earlier, we would have had a frost, but the sunlight came

just in time. -This was Friday morning.

I.Tessrs. Morrison and Lyman were working hard on

their plants, inspecting them as they passed through

their hands. Mr. Morrison wants a pair of enlarging

spectacles to use, and I want to try my Long Tom camera

on the plants and their parasites. The inspectors

sar that they find things remarkably clean, but I got

them nail brushes for scrubbing off the scale. They

put the plants under the tap and let the water rush over

them and wash them all thoroughly.

In the afternoon, I went with Mr. Lathrop to see

the manatee owned by Col. 0. H. Thompson, Box 398, Miami.

He has a museum on Main Street, and the manatee is in a

tank there. He told me that it was a female and had

had one calf, at least. The manatees breed all the year

round. They eat by preference a plant I take to be a

Nias. Colonel. Thompson's manatee eats a whole wheel-

barrow full in a day; she will also eat celery and

lettuce, but prefers this weed from the water. Her

teeth are about the size and strength of a sheep's, I

should say. She is two years old and weighs from five

to seven hundred pounds. Her backbone is very light,


but her ribs arehard almost as ivory. The meat

is in streaks of fat and lean, not greasy but sweet,

light colored and resembling veal. The cranial cavity

is large, and the animal is as tame as a cow. It is

intelligent, as shown by the fact that when Colonel

Thompson had some of them in a bay in the Miami River,

they learned to recognize the sound of the propellor of

the motor boat which brought them food from up the

river, and they would come to the feeding place. It

would be easy to get a.water grant from the government

for the purpose of breeding.up a herd of manatees for food

purposes. There would be no difficulty, Colonel

Thompson thinks. The problem of fencing them off

might be met by the use of mangrove plantings, I should

think. They have no way of eating through any barriers.

The skin I forgot to ask about.

As night came on, the thermometer began to crawl

down. 'The following are the figures as given by the

Miami Metropolis for Saturday, February 3d:

6:00 A. M., 70 degrees
7:00 64 "
8:00 60
9:00 55
10:00 55 "
11:00 55
12:00 M. 56
1:00 P. M. 57 "
2:00 53
3:00 53
4:00 62
5:00 50 "
6:00 46 "
--7 7:00 44 "
" '" 8:00 42 "
9:00 41 "

10:00 P. M., 39 degrees
11:00 38 "
12:00 37 "
1:00 A. M., 36 "
2:00 34 "
3:00 32
4:00 31 "
5:00 29 "
6:00 27 "
7:00 28 "
8:00 32 "
9:00 6 "
10:00 40
11:00 43 "
12:00 M. 44 (Feb. 3, 1917)

The wind began to blow almost a gale, and we

felt that we were in for a freeze. The night was

perfectly clear and before we retired the wind died

down. Mary, the cook, said that her husband was going

to be irrigating their vegetables all night long.

At daybreak on Saturday, February 3d, I went out

to see what had been done by the freeze. An icicle

was under the drip from the kitchen sink, but no ice

was in a bottle near our bedroom door. I went down

to the barn and found a fruit jar half full of water.

Ice crystals had formed in the upper half inch or so

of the water and down the sides. The top layer was

not over one-third of an inch thick.

As I was photographing the ice, I noticed a

fiddler crab six inches in diameter that had crawled

up near the porch and was just on the point of death

there. I picked it up and took it in to the fire,

and it died there before the fire, killed by the

cold. Then I took a look at the only papaya


on the place, and I photographed it.

I got up to the Garden as soon as I could and found

Mr. Simmonds watering the mangos in the lath house to

keep them from thawing out too quickly. Like two

men at a funeral we wandered about among the plants.

The papayas were black, with their fruits covered with

papain masses which had oozed out.
The Detarium senegalen-and Rhodesian fig were both


I began by recording the injured plants but con-

cluded it would be better to record those unhurt.

The Garcinia xanthochymus escaped with slight injury.

I decided to take time to go over the whole Garden

carefully and record the behavior of every plant species,

photographing them.

I got Mr. Burgdorff, the artist, to paint some

leaves of the Litchi at the new Garden. The Indian

variety escaped with slight injury, whereas the others

were badly scorched.

I was disgusted to find the Weather Bureau self-

registering thermograph registered 220, whereas the

Mercury only registered 26.

It seems to me that the new Garden is colder than
at the new Garden
the old one. The Rhodesian figs^are dead to within a

foot of the ground, I believe. The Garcnias, with

the exception of G. celebica, are killed back to the

ground, I fear, and the Annonas, with the exception of

Carica papaya at the MIia-.i Field Station.
Fruits have been frosted and the papain has oozed
out in drops all over the fruits. Skin frozen.

Negative No. 20390. February 3, 1917.


Papaya, showing how papain oozed out of the
tip of the fruit on the very day of the freeze,
February 3, 1917, when the temperature went down
to 26.5 F. New Garden, Buena Vista, Fla.,
Neg. No. 20398.


Self registering thermograph that registered 220 F.
and self registering bulb thermometer that read 26.50
in same weather instrument box. Miami Plant Introduction
Field Station, February 3, 1917, after a severe freeze.
Something should be done about this discrepancy.

Negative No. 20391.

February 3, 1917.

Garcinia xanthochymus, S.P.I. No. 11788, after
the freeze of 26u F. which occurred between 5:00
and 6:00 A. U. February 3, 1917. Photograph made
at 10:00 A. M. February 3, before effect of freeze
was apparent. Mfrs. Fairchild posing. Miami
Plant Introduction Field Station.

Negative No. 20389.

February 3, 1917.



.. .n

I :


Garcinia xanthochymus, S.P.I. No. 11788, at
the Miami Plant Introduction Field Station,
February 3, 1917.

Photograph by Chambers.

Negative No. 20392.

V*^ -

Garoinia xanthochymus, S.P.I. No. 11788, after
the freeze of February 3, 1917, but before effects
of freeze were apparent. Miami Plant Introduction
Field Station.

Negative No. 20393. February 3, 1917. Photo-
graph by Chambers.

Annona muricata at the Buena Vista Garden, February
3, 1917. The drops of sap came out on the convex side
of the branch whenever it was bent. These drops of sap
were yellowish and I believe indicated that the branches
were dying. These drops appeared on branches at least
one-half inch in diameter. (Fairchild)

Negative No. 20594.

February 3, 1917.


Persea americana, S.P.I. No. 19080, Collins'
seedling Guatemalan avocado after the freeze of
r~ebruary 3, 1917,'22O F. or thereabouts. Killed
all the new growth and made many of the older
leaf nerves rusty. Mr. Simmonds standing beside
the tree, which was one year old last October .-. < ,I
Miami Plant Introduction Field Station.

. Negative No. 20395. February 3, 1917.


H i

I .I

Eugenia dombeyi, S.P.I. No. 37836, at the
new Garden, Buena Vista, Fla. This grumichama
appears to be hardy here, only the tips of the
leaves being injures by the temperature which
probably reached 26 F. February 3, 1917. How-
ever, it may be too early to say what the injury
is on this.
Negative No. 20396. February 3, 1917.

Oroxylum indicum, S.P.I. No. 29183, at the new
Garden, Buena Vista, Fla. Showing gum oozing out
and running down the trunk as the result of the freeze
of February 3, 1917, when the temperature was 26.5 .

Negative No. 20397.

February 3, 1917.

Persea americana, avocado from Coahuila,
Mexico. S.P.I. No. 19206. Flower buds develop-
ing after a temperature of 260 F. on February
3, 1917. Miami Plant Introduction Field Station.

Negative No. 20424.

A. diversifolia, which is evidently dormant now and

which was uninjured. It has pink flesh,and the Consul

at Acapulco says it is a delicious fruit. This is a

great discovery which Dr. Safford has called to our

attention. I think this should be pushed for all it

is worth. It is very near the cherimoya and can be

crossed with it.

The mangos and Guatemalan avocados at the Garden

seem to have escaped very largely. Even the small mangos

are dormant. The drouth has held back these plants

and prevented flushes in most cases, but wherever young

flushes were present they have been killed.

On Sunday, February 4, I went over the old Garden.

It was like a visit to the morgue so many thingsvere

dead or injured. A battlefield after the battle must

give one something like the same sensation which I felt

as I gazed at the corpses and mangled remains of former

pets. I made the following notes:

S.P.I. No. 14454, Casimiroa edulis, has had only

its flush injured. Young fruits look safe.

S.P.I. No. 21030, the Casimiroa from Tegucigalpa,

with large leaves, appears to be badly injured. The

leaves are rustling like leaves in autumn.

S.P.I. No. 35215, Passiflora macrocarpa, is badly

scorched but not entirely dead.

S.P.I. No. 34831, Persea americana, from Rome,

Italy, was untouched. Even the flower clusters were

unhurt. Mexican type.

S.P.I. No. 21204, Litchi chinensis, from Hinghua,

Fukien, China, was only slightly hurt. Its flush was

killed, of course. One specimen was much more injured

than the other, because it was covered with young

growth. The midribs of the leaves appear to be dead.
This died later.
The cow peas are all dead or at least badly cut


February 5th, Monday. er(. 3;o g

R S.P.I. No. 38540, avocado bud put in June 24, 1914,

is not injured at all, whereas the old West Indian branch
(4D. is badly injured by the freeze.

S.P.I. No. iOl-, avocado from Honclulu, has suffered

badly. Evidently a 7est Indian type.

S.P.I. No. 19080, avocado, is uninjured and is side

by side with Earle's late -Jest Indian variety which is

badly injured. A Colorado Guatemala bud put in February

17, 1915, shows practically no injury.

The Ganter was unhurt, except the you-ng grc..th.

The block of "7est Indian seedlings not 3oer a f ot

tall are scarcely touched. Taese seeds were planted

in November and late De2ember.

It is evident that the leaves on the vig.rcus

young growth is more resistant than .that on th crl li- ',

and Harris ought to test the freezing ziint loering :f

the saps of these two kinds of leaves.

The Bucalyptus alba rwv alonz the east si3e f

the Miani Garden was injured o::ily ,li:tly -: l

mottled. Ir, Si::iuonds want. tc i:t a :1w cf hese



View in papaya plantation, Miami Plant Introduction,
Field Station, February 4, 1917, 10:30 A. M., after freeze
of morning of February 3, 1917, temperature 26.5. The
Simmonds papaya crossed on the Birch variety. The leaf
blades dropped and later the petioles collapsed.

Negative No. 20399.

February 4, 1917.

Sgium cumini (Eugenia jambolana) S.P.I. No.
32072- at the Miami Plant Introduction Field Station,
February 4, 1917, after the freeze had killed and
dried all the leaves.

negative No. 20400.

along the north border of the new Garden.

Eucalyptus rostrata is less injured than alba,

and E. viminalis still less so. The tree just west

of E. viminalis was even less affected.

While I was taking notes regarding the plants at

the Garden, Gillespie Brothers, of Littleriver, called.

They have a block of West Indian seedlings like Mr.

Simmonds'. They told me that they turned on the sprays

at 3:00 A. M. and got up at 6:00 A. M., and every plant

was encased with ice. All but about fifteen per cent

of the plants, which are about one foot tall, are as

black as tar. Ir. Simmonds watered his at 6:00 A. M.

i Mr. Gillespie thinks it went to 0~ on his place. It

has been a week since their plants were fertilized.

They used one bucket of nitrate of soda to a two hundred

pound sack of 4.7.2 vegetable fertilizer. Mr. J. V.

:.oore had a slat house with West Indian pears in it,

and these seedlings were not hurt. This place is north

of the Citrus Experiment Grove. Gillespies had seven

acres of limes which had put on a wonderful growth as a

result of fertilizing their pineapples nearby, and these

Slimes were killed back. Buds on the pineapples were

also frozen.

Continuing notes regarding plants at the Garden:

S.P.I. No. 56603, Persea americana, the :McDonald

avocado (two year old bud last Thanksgiving) is now in

bearing and has four fruits three inches in diameter.

~- ~----~-~"- ---.1F~--- -- --rC1__

It was practically uninjured.

S.P.I. No. 38549. Cook's avocado (Persea

americana) was very slightly injured. It is evidently

not quite so hardy as No. 36603.

S.P.I. No. 27932, Rheedia edulis, was uninjured.
It was protected by the Ficus religiosa.

Ficus utilis was browned badly.

S.P.I. No. 36259. Schinus terebinthifolius was

uninjured by the freeze, except that the leaves are a

bit hard and the young growth was scorched.

Murraya exotica was uninjured. It is dormant.

S.P.I. No. 22324, Olea ferruginea, was uninjured.

It is also dormant.

S.P.I. No. 28674, Parmentiera cereifera. Un-

sheltered. Fruits black. Twigs scorched.

Passiflora quadrangularis (?) killed back.

S.P.I. No. 34562. Celtis sp. Young growth killed.

S.P.I. No. 34583, Liquidambar formosana. Dormant but

old leaves scorched.

S.P.I. No.. 12716, Psidium molle, from Mexico, scorched


S.P.I. No. 23431,

leaves injured, but so


Myrciaria cauliflora, Jaboticaba, -

dormant that I doubt if it is much

S.P.I. No. 36032, Mangifera indica, mango bud.

killed back. Possibly lost.

S.P.I. No. 19091, Diospyros texana. Dormant;

;r:jl ?



S.P.I. No. 34831. Avocado from Rome. In flower

now. Not injured in the least. Mexican type. I

believe this will bear fruit this season. It is evidently

a form for colder regions.

S.P.I. No. 32400. Seedless avocado from Taft.

:Mexican type. Practically uninjured, whereas S.P.I. No.

26724, a W.est Indian avocado just west of it a few feet

is badly injured and S.P.I. No. 26728, from Mr. Pound,

of Coconut Grove, is also killed back to old wood.

S.P.I. No. 34904, avocado from famous tree near

Llerida, Yucatan, killed back to old wood. Probably West

Indian variety.

S.P.I. No. 29352, avocado from Richardson, Miami,

killed back to old wood.

S.P.I. No. 21699, avocado (.'est Indian species)

from Mr. Sedgewick, of Lima, Peru, budded upon Mexican

stock, is killed back severely, whereas the stock is not

injured at all. This north of the outhouse.

S.P.I. No. 10978, avocado from Guatemala, vigorous

bud, large leaves, n8w four feet tall. North of outhouse.


S.P.I. No. 36604, avocado, Guatemalan type, Nutmeg,

a variety from Honolulu. Pree now ten feet tall.

Scarcely injured at all.

S.P.I. No. 38549, avocado, just east of S.P.I. No.

36604. Appears to be in not quite so good shape as



Cryptostegia grandiflora, scorched badly but not

killed back much. Tip leaves alive in one part.

Tamarindus indica. Leaves badly scorched.

S.P.I. No. 26691. Avocado from Judge White's place

at Buena Vista. Leaves feel dry but does not appear to

be killed back much.

Strychnos spinosa. Injured leaves badly. Inner

bark darkening on small twigs.

S.P.I. No. 29359. Picus utilis. Leaves brown but

inner bark on branches seems to be fresh.

Ficus religiosa large tree near thermometer -


The temperature went to 420 F. on the thermograph

and 360 F on minimum mercury last night. This

thermograph is a poor affair. At 12:00 M.. the wind

shifted to the northwest.

In the afternoon of February 4th, Mr. Lathrop,

MIr. Safford, Mr. Chambers and I went to the alligator

farm, which is really one of the best planned places

I have seen. The clumps of Pandanus veitchii were

browned but not killed. The Crotons were killed back

severely. The Aralia (cut leaves) was killed to the

ground. The Bauhinia had its leaves killed only.

The Poinsettia was killed back severely.

On February 6th, Tuesday, I continued my notes

regarding the plants at the old Garden, as follows:

S.P.I. No. 29137, Hardie avocado, seedling of the

Trapp, killed back two feet.

S.P.I. No. 19206, Mexican pear, small fruit,from

Coahuila, Mexico, not injured in the least. This is a

hardy variety,and a few trees ought to be in every grove.

S.P.I. No. 19379, woolly leaved West Indian (?)

avocado, not yet placed by Popenoe. Long, early pear.

Seems to be more tender than the ordinary West Indian.

S.P.I. No. 3937Q, Dickinson avocado. Injured

slightly, especially along the nerves. Not entirely

Mexican on MLexican stock. (The Inventory description

of S.P.I. No. 39370, Dickinson, states: "This is an

avocado of the true Guateinalan type, the seed from the

parent tree was grown having been brought from Guatemala

City to Los Angeles.")

S.P.I. No. 39369. Taft avocado on Mvexican, scorched

slightly. Classes as Guatemalan.

S.P.I. No. 39375, Harmon avocado on I.lexican, in bloom,

not hurt much. Will probably fruit this year. Classes

as a Mexican.

San Sebastian, a Mexican avocado, received February

17, 1915, from California, was budded in 1915 and will

fruit this summer. It is in flower and was not injured

at all.

S.P.I. No. 36604, Nutmeg avocado in south garden,

not injured at all. Hard lumps in it but perfectly



The El Puerte on West Indian stock is in fine shape.

Mr. Cellon says this is a hybrid between Mexican and

Guatemalan. It is now in flower and is quite uninjured.

The fruits will be ripe in November.

Mr. Lathrop, Mr. Safford, Mr. Bergdorf and I went

to see Prof. Chas. T. Simpson. Prof. Simnpson said that

he thought the temperature went to 22o p. on the ground

and that every tender thing was hurt. I quote Prof.

Simpson as follows:

"Buttonwood trees as large as my thigh were black.

Every tender thing is hurt. Graptophyllum hortense is

one of the tenderest things, and only a few leaves are

hurt, whereas trees about it are hurt badly. I've been

through this thing four times and got used to it. I'm

scared to get rain now, for fear we will get more frost.

0 'Ten years ago Christmas there were five mornings with

severe frost. I have an idea that this is the most

severe frost we have had since I have been here. The

great trick is to mound up around the trunk,"

Prof. Simpson thought that his Spathodea was killed.
He said that there were three degrees of minimum

temperature for every degree latitude, and that if you

go back three or four miles you don't find any tropical

trees at all. At Paradise Key you get vegetation like

the coastal vegetation here at MIiami. It gets just as

cold at Cape Sable as it does here. The Gulf water

around pe Sable is cold. The Gulf stream affects


a strip of land along the coast.

Prof. Simpson said that ten years ago the sugar I

cane near Cien Fuegos, Cuba, was killed to the ground.

He suggested for low windbreaks Phoenix canariensis or

almost any of the species Phoenix reclinata, P. leonensis,

P. tomentosa, P. cycadifolia and P. peradeniya. For the

tall windbreak, he suggested a bamboo that would grow

rapidly on pine land. IH.ost of the trees in this pine

land will be short-lived, I think. We must hunt bamboos(

that are hardy and will live on pine lands.

Prof. Simpson said that it snowed for three days

and nights at Bradentown in 1886, in January or February.

Litchfield had three Sapodilla trees killed.

I am incorporating in this report the following

report by Prof. Simpson:

"Notes on Frost in the IMiami Regions
Chas. T. Simpson.

"The freeze which visited the Miami region on the

morning of February 3d was probably one of the most

damaging which we have ever had. The norther was

accompanied by a strong wind which at times probably blew

at the rate of thirty miles an hour, and the storm wound

up with a heavy frost on the morning of the 6th, which

gave the final thrust to the poor frozen plants.

So far as my experience in Florida goes, and it

covers a periof of over eighteen years' residence, all

?our worst freezes are accompanied by strong wind from

Sthe northwest, and the wind drives the frost into the

trees and plants. At such times, freezing takes place

from the ground up to an indefinite height in the

atmosphere. In many cases during the recent cold snap

the side of a tree or limb which faced to the northwest -

was utterly destroyed while the other side did not re-

ceive the least injury.

Ordinarily the coldest place during the cold spell

is at the ground, and, when there is little or no wind,

frost does not extend more than a few feet high. Yet

during this last cold storm more damage was sustained by

the upper parts of trees than along their lower portions.

The reason of this is, no doubt, that the damage was

caused by the wind which struck worst above while the

lower part of the vegetation was sheltered by the thick


For years I have believed that it was wise to plant

one's grounds so that the shrubs and trees when grown

would even crowd each other. It is best to mix in

with the tender things a goodly amount of hardy stuff.

This protects the tropical things somewhat and in case

of a severe freeze one has some greenery left. More

and more I am in favor of thick, tall windbreaks,and one

of the problems has been to find a suitable tree or

plant for this purpose. There is serious objection to

most of our ornamental trees from one cause or other;

they may cast their leaves for a while during winter,

their branches may be brittle, they may be alow growers

or the heads may not be dense enough for a good screen.

Some of the hardier bamboos form dense clumps and are

evergreen, but most of them have greatly spreading tops

and narrow, comparatively leafless bases, so that the

wind drives thru below. COn species, however, seems to

promise well for the purpose of a windbreak. It is the

Dendrocalamus latifolius, a plant of rapid growth which

soon attains under at all favorable circumstances a

height of sixty or seventy feet. It has a remarkably

erect growth, the stems simply tip outward slightly at

the summit and the entire plant is well clothed with

abroad, rich green foliage. It passed thru the late

freeze practically unharmed; even the young growth and

leaves were scarcely switched. It will grow well in

ordinary pine land with but a moderate amount of care

or fertilizer, though I have no doubt but what extra

feeding and tending would benefit it. It does not seem

to spread badly but grows in a close clump, and although

rather rare now, it could probably be propagated readily

from buried joints.

Two rows might be planted some six or seven feet

apart and the plants about the same distance apart in the

rows. Some kind of low growing, bushy date could be

put in a row at the inside and when the whole was well

grown, I believe one would have a wall of vegetation

that would be well nigh wind proof.

Although this hardly comes in ulnor the title of

notes on frost in the Miami region, I may say that the

only positive insurance I know of against the loss of

small trees and plants by frost is to mound dry earth

around their stems to a height of a foot or so just before

the first severe norther, taking care that it is care-

fully packed around the stem or stems,and this should be

left until danger of frost is past in the early spring.

Usually it is colder just at this point than anywhere

else, and, if the top of a tree or plant is killed, the

life, which is generally in the collar of it, is saved.

There were many remarkable freaks of the frost dur-

ing the late cold spell. To the northward and southward

of our locality much less damage. was done than here.

It seemed that the full fury of the storm hit us. Over

on the peninsula opposite Miami and Lemon City very little

damage was done, although Mr. W. E. Brown, in charge of

the Carl Fisher property, informs me that he saw ice

fully one-fourth of an inch thick and that other parties

there saw it still thicker. Dr. M. Lightfoot tells f

me that he saw ice one-fourth of an inch thick at

Coconut Grove. The damage done at the latter place wa'

trifling compared with what it was at my place, yet I

, found no ice that was much more than one-eighth of an

inch thick.

In very many cases on my place one tree or limb

was utterly destroyed, while another close to it in

apparently the same kind of environment did not have a

leaf touched. In some cases young, vigorous shoots

were unharmed, while older wood on the same tree was

ruined. Some trees with trunks as large as six inches

in diameter were killed to the ground, while small

sprouts of the same survived.

I will briefly in a general way give an account

of the damage done to the most important trees and plants

on my place, with other data that may be of interest.

Among our native palms the coconut generally had all

its leaves destroyed, and the same was true of the royal

palms, Thrinax wendlandiana and T. microcarpa, while

T. floridana was unhurt, as well as Acoelorhaphe wrightii.

Some of the native trees suffered badly, such as

Erythrina arborea, both of our Ficus metopium, Conocarpus,

Crescentia, Simaruba, Coccolobis uvifera, the latter

terribly hurt for me; Bursera gummifera, Cordia

sebestina, Thespesia populnea, Paritium elatum and P.

tiliaceum. Strangely enough, the mahogany (Swietenia

mahagoni) was scarcely touched, and Amyris escaped with

little injury. Coccolobis laurifolia and Laurocerasus

sphaerocarpa were unhurt.

Among native shrubs seriously hurt are Hamelia

patens and Tecorra stands and the following vines: Vanilla

eggersi, the Guilandinas, the Canavalias, the moon-

flower (Ipomoea bona-nox) and I. fuchsoioides, also

Jacquemontia pentantha.

Archontophoenix alexandrae and A. cunninnhaini

among exotic palms were much damaged, so were all the

species of Areca, a fine specimen of A. triandta being

killed outright. Arenga saccharifera was much hurt,

while Attalea cohune and another species were unhurt.

The Caryotas, Chamaedoreas and Chrysallidocarpus were

injured while the species of Cocos, with the exception

of nucifera were unhurt. Both species of Dictyospermum,

the Dypsis, Elaeis gaineensis; Hydriastele, Hyophorbe and.

the two foreign Oreodoxas lost their leaves,while the

date palms almost without exception escaped.

Ptychosperma macarthuri suffered severely; the

Chamaerops, being among the hardiest of palms, were un-

scathed. Hyphene schatan from tropical Africa had a few

of its leaves injured and the others untouched. All

the Sabals or Inodes came through in fine shape and

strangely Latania loddigesiiwas but little hurt.

'Livistonas, including L. chinensis, altissima, australis,

subglobosa, rotundifolia and hoogendorpi came through.

without damage.

Pritchardia. All the species are exceedingly

tender and P. pacifica was lost, but P. martiiwas

probably saved by being wrapped around the base of the

leaves with fertilizer sacks. Rhapis, two species, are

very hardy and neither were hurt. A Cuban Thrinax or

Coccothrinax, C. miriguano, was not injured, but Thrinax

barbadensis and T. altissima were badly burnt, so was

the new Thrincoma alta from Porto Rico. All three


of the California fan palms, Neowashingtonia sp., were


Among exotic trees a small baobab (Adansonia) was Ji

unhurt, possibly because it was not in foliage.

Adenanthera and Aleurites triloba were cut back terribly,

even limbs the size of a man's thigh being killed.

Albizzia lebbek was somewhat injured but is coming

on finely. Araucaria bidwilli and A. excelsa were

absolutely unhurt, though the latter had its leader

killed back in the much less severe freeze of 1906.

Generally speaking, the Bauhinias got through with little

damage, but B. krugi was cut back. Bischofia was but'

little hurt, though it is a native of Java, and most

Javanese things suffered badly. Bixa orellana was

killed to the ground, if not entirely. The red flower-

silk cotton tree (Bombax ceiba) was but slightly hurt.

Eriodendron anfractuosum, of which I have a tree forty-

feet high, lost all of its limbs and ten feet of its


Brownea ariza and Butea frondosa, small specimens,

were cut to the ground; so was ualpphyllum inophyllu and

C. calaba, Canaga odorata, Cassia fistula andiedrela;

Casuarina was not greatly damaged, the leaves being singed

here, though in other localities it was unhurt. The

/Clusias and Crescentias were cut to the ground, and

Delonix regia suffered very badly. All my Erythrinas

were considerably hurt, so was Euphorbia ganguinea,

while all the Eucalyptus escaped. Generally, the Picus

suffered badly, F. infectoria and F. repens being


Garcinia morella and Kigelia pinnata were killed

to the ground; both the Grevillias (G. robusta and G.

banksi) were practically unhurt and the same was true

of Guaiacum officinale, Haematoxylon campeachianum,

Heritiera littoralis, Jacaranda and Melaleuca leucadendron.

LIoringa pterygosperma was slightly injured, so was

Oroxylon indicum and Pithecolobium dulce, while P. saman,

all the Pachiras, and Plumerias were much injured.

Parmentiera cerifera and Peltophorum ferrugineum were

killed to the ground. Podocarpus macrophyllus was unhurt,

and Saraca indica suffered but little, while Schizolobiu!n

excelsum and Spathodea campanulata were possibly killed

outright, the latter being a tree about six inches in


Sterculia platanifolia is perfectly hardy here, though

it makes but little growth, while S. carthagenensis was

badly damaged. Stereospermum suaveolena was slightly hurt,

while its near relative Tabebuia pentaphylla was seriously

damaged. The tamarind and tropical almond,also Thespesia

grandiflora were wrecked, and Thevetia nerifolia was only

slightly injured.

Among shrubs all the Aralias were badly cut, so were

the Allamandas, Brunfelsia and the Caesalpinias, but

Ardisia crenulata was unhurt. A. polycephala was killed

to the ground, while Baphia racemosa was not touched. The

Cestrums, Catesbaea spinosa, the Crotons and Duranta were

badly cut. Some of the Crotons are either dead or are

killed to the ground or nearly so, but strangely enough

the old favorite, Euphorbia splendens, the crown of

thorns, was untouched, though in full bloom during the

freeze. Graptophyllum hortense, another plant supposed

to be very tender, was scarcely hurt. The Chinese

Hibiscus were more or less injured, according to ex-

posure. In some cases they hardly lost their leaves,

in others considerable wood was frozen.

All the Ixoras are very tender, and this time they

bore out their reputation. The European laurel was

unhurt, so was :Jalvaviscu arboreus,and the Pittosporums

were little injured, though P. viridiflorum lost a few

branches. Lawsonia inermis, all the Phyllanthus,

Rondeletia and Tabernaemontana were much hurt. Plumbago

and Viburnum tinus escaped with little damage.

Among ornamental vines Allamanda, Abrus, Antigonon,

Argyreia, Bougainvillea, Cryptostegia, Philodendron,

Pothos, Stephanotis were badly injured, while Bignonia,

Ficus repens, most of the Jasminums, Pithecotenium,

Solanum, the Tecomas and Thunbergia were either unhurt or

but slightly damaged. The Acalyphas were frozen to the

ground. Daedalocanthus, Crossandra, Jacobinia, Lantana,

Musa, and Sanchezia were badly hit. The great traveller

tree (2avenala) lost all its magnificent leaves and will

be disfigured for a couple of years. At first I thought

that the Pandanus were not badly hurt, but later it turned

out that they had suffered severely, some species

being killed.

Nearly all the bamboos came through pretty well,

so did the Crinuma and Hippeastrums. All the Panax were

much injured. The Strelitzias were unhurt.

It may be well to say a few words about the damage

done to fruit trees and shrubs. All the common guavas

are injured, some of them killed to the ground. The

tops of the Sapodillas are killed, while the lower parts

of them are little injured. The upper growth of

avocados and the smaller branches below are much hurt,

and the same is true of the mangos. Spondias is hard

hit, so is Eugenia jambos and jambolana. All the

growth of Cecropia, except the oldest wood is destroyed,

the Otaheite gooseberry, Ti:.es, Cherimoya, sugar and

custard apples are much injured. Bananas are cut but

for the most part will only lose their leaves. The

Spanish lime, candle nut, Star apple, Antidesma,

Garcinia riorella and Akee, are pretty well ruined, On

the other hand all citrus trees and their fruit are

practically uninjured, except the Triphasia which is
badly cut. Phyllanthus emblica is little damaged, %the

I Cattley guavas, Casimiroa, Feijoa, Eryobotria, Barbados

and Surinam cherries, Kaffir plum, Rhodomyrtus and

Mexican avocado. Strangely enough, a young sour sop

(Annona muricata) about seven feet high only had its

leaves destroyed and scarcely a twig injured. We

consider this, with the cashew nut, the mammee apple


and Pandanus pac f us among the tenderest plants we

cultivate. A large guava tree some fifteen feet from

the Annona was killed to the ground.

I am unable to account for some of the vagaries

of the freeze. 'e had a warm winter and by the

earlier part of February the sap was in mOtion,and this

might account for some of the damage. But there were

so m:nany cases where one limb or tree was ruined clcse

beside another of the i~-me kind which was unhurt, that

I am unable to explain the phenomena.. While this freeze

a.; given us valuable data, it has shown us that we have

very much to learn yet about the action of frost on

tropical and semi-tropical vegetation.."

Phe following notes by Prof. Simpson, submitted in

:.lrch, 1918, in regard to the damage done by the frost

of February -d and 4th, 1917, to the plants on his place,

"The Sentinels", will also be of interest:

Avocados, "'est Indian. Limbs frozen back two to
four feet. BegL:Ain$ to bear again.

Avocado, Mexican. Absolutely uninjured.
:fTango, seedlings and budded. All badly frozen back.
few blooms this year.
Citrus. Nothing injured but common limes, which were
slightly damaged.
Common Guava. Frozen in most cases to the ground;
some killed outright.
Cattley and Strav.berry Guavas. Uninjured.
Annona, squamosa and reticulata. Killed to ground.
Annona muricata. Qnl'y sliEhtly injured.- A
Eryobotra. Unhurt.
StryhnsF.o 31iE;..tly dan:;ced.
Iul o rries. Unhurt.
Spondias purpureus. Badly injured.
dliCis. Li;Is frozen back.
Averrhoa carambola. Branches frozen back.
Bananas, Orinoco and Cavendish. Leaves frozen but
stems little injured. Vent on laboring.

Carissas. 3- lightly injured.
Nephelium longan. Scarcely hurt.
Cicca disticha, Otaheite gooseberry. Limbs badly
frozen back.
Mammea americana. Tree four inches in diameter. Killed
Chrysophyllum cainito. Badly injured.
Eugenia uniflora. Uninjured. Went on bearing.
Myrobalan. Litle damaged.
Cupania sapida, Akee. Frozen to ground.
Melicocca bijuga, Spanish lime. Limbs frozen back.
Pineapples, severely frozen.
Casimiroa. Unhurt.
/Carica. Papaya. Badly frozen.
Dovy&lis caffra. Unhurt.
Antidesma bunia-s. Badly frozen.
Eugenia iambos. Badly frozen back.
Eugenia malaccensis. Frozen to ground.
Flacourtia ramontchi, Governor plum. Very little injured
Lucuma rivicoa. One damaged. Another scarcely
Malpighia glabra, Barbados cherry. Only a little
1 T injured.
Achras sapota. Badly damaged; some frozen half way
to the ground.
Garcinia morella, Gamboge. Cut to ground.
Aleurites moluccana. Considerably cut back but has
come on fast.
Common fig. Uninjured.
Olive "
Syzigium jambolanum. Pretty badly frozen.
Rhodomyr tus. Unhurt.
Pecan. Unhurt.
Tamarind. Frozen back but coming on well.
Paidium fredericksthallianum. Cut to the ground.
it araca "
Natal plum. Badly hurt.
Feijoa. Unhurt.
Mammea sapota. Never did well and to my great joy
was killed.
Common date. Unhurt.
Common coconut. Leaves very much frozen. Plants
Cocos, of australis type, unhurt.


Oreodoxa spp. Some badly hurt; others little
Thrinax. All had leaves frozen, except t. floridana.
None killed.
Coccothrinax. Unhurt.
SAcrocomia. All species went through without serious
-/ injury.
Archontophoenix. Both species slightly hurt.


Arenga. Badly frozen back.
Attalea. Two species. Unhurt.
-aryotas. Scarcely damaged.
Chrysallidocarpus. Seriously frozen.
Cooos nucifera. Leaves generally ruined. Other
species unhurt.
Desmoncus. Nearly ruined.
Elaeis. Considerdliy hurt.
Geonoma. Much sheltered. Not hurt.
Hydriastele wendlandiana. Only slightly injured.
Hyophorbe, two species. Much injured.
Jubaea. Hardy.
Martinezia. Scarcely touched.
Phoenix. P. pusilla and leonensis somewhat damaged;
the others unhurt.
Rosoheria. Badly hurt in slat house and finally died.
Stevensonia t
Wallachia. Slightly hurt.
Chamaerops. Perfectly hardy.
Hyphene. :Much injured but coming on.
SLatania. Badly hurt.
Livistona. None injured.
Pritchardia. All killed but P. martii.
Rhapis, two species. Unhurt.
Thrincoma alta. Badly hurt but coming on.
Areca trianEra. Killed.
-glandiTformis. Badly hurt and will probably
Neowashingtonia. Perfectly hardy.
Ficus. All species except climbers more or less
Casuarina. Badly hurt and back from the sea killed
Coccolobis uvifera. Badly hurt.
Acacia farnesiana. Little damaged.
QGuaiacum, two species. Slightly hurt.
Swietenia, two species. Badly injured; very.fine
S. mahagoni finally died, eight inches in
Cordia. Much injured.
-Paritium, three species. Terribly hurt.
Thespesia, two species. Badly damaged.
Erythrina. All exotic species hurt.
amelias, two species badly damaged.
Yuccas. Unhurt.
Tecoma stans. Slightly hurt.
S capensis. Not injured.
Gereus, no climbing species damaged.
Ipomoea. All cut down but have come up again.
Agaves. None seriously injured.
yA raucarias,bidwillii and excelsa,were not hurt.
Adenanthera was much injured.
Albizzia lebbek. Scarcely hurt. Ends of twigs
S lightly frozen.

/" Bauhinia. Most species only slightly injured.
"f acuminata cut down.
Bischofia. Only slightly hurt.
Bombax and Eriodendron. Ends of limbs considerably
S frozen; coming on all right.
Bixa orellana. Almost ruined.
Butea frondosa. Killed.
Cananga, small trees killed.
Calophyllum. All badly damaged.
Cagsia fistula. Cut back but coming on.
X edrela. Practically ruined.
Ceratonia. Unhurt.
Clusias. Badly damaged. Some killed.
Crescentia. Badly frozen.
Delonix regia. Badly injured; one killed.
Cinnamomum. Unhurt.
Eucalyptus, robusta viminalis, rostrata, unhurt.
Euphoria all hurtE. sanguine killed.
Grevillea robusta an- banksii uninjured.
Haematoxylon, logwood. Somewhat hurt.
Heritiera. Not injured.
Jacaranda. Scarcely hurt.
Kigelia. Cut to the ground.
Lagerstroemia flos-reginae. Hurt badly.
indica. Uninjured.
Melaleuca, Cajeput tree. Unhurt.
Moringa. Slightly injured.
Uroxylon. Unhurt.
Pachira fastuosa. Young is hurt, the rest little
Parmentiera, candle tree. Badly damaged.
Peltophorum. Cut to the ground but coming on finely.
Pithecolobium dulce. Scarcely hurt.
I" saman. Badly cut.
Pimenta, Allspice. Well protected and unhurt.
Podocarpus macrophyllus. Uninjured.
Ricinus. Badly cut.
Saraoa indioa. Well protected and but little hurt.
Schizolobium. Killed.
.-Spathodea. Killed to the ground; coming up.
Sterculia carthagenensis. Somewhat frosted.
"~t platanifolia unhurt.
Stereospermum suaveolens. Scarcely damaged.
Tabebuia. Slightly cut~.
Tamarindus. Badly injured. coming on well.
/ Terminalia catappa, tree eight inches in diameter.
out nearly to the ground. Coming on.
Thevetia. Considerably frosted.
Ardisia crenulata. Unhurt.
polycephala. Badly damaged.
Artabotrys. Scarcely touched.
Allamandas. All cut more or less.
Baphia. Unhurt.
Uaesalpinia pulcherrima. Pretty badly out.
Catesbia spinosa. Not seriously hurt. Came on well.

Cestrums. Slightly injured.
Olerodenadron squamatum. Cut but came right on.
Crotons. Some killed, others injured and several
unhurt. Glory bel
Duranta. Scarcely hurt.
Poinsettia. Cut to the ground and in some cases
Graptophyllum. Very tender but not destroyed.
Coming on.
Hibiscus. Chinese. Considerably cut back but not
seriously hurt.
Hibiscus mutabilis, O.K.
Ixoras. All quite tender and mostly cut down, I.
parviflora least hurt.
KopsTa. Badly cut.
Lawsonia, henna. Somewhat damaged.
Malvaviseaus. TNot hurt.
Dombeya. Considerably cut but came right on.
Mussaenda. Cut to the ground.
Nerium, oleander. None injured.
Phyanthus roseo-pictus, etc., cut badly.
Pittosporum. All hardy as oaks but won't bloom.
Plumbago capensis. Badly cut.
rose. Slightly hurt.
Raphiolepis. Perfectly hardy.
Rondeletia. Was covered and but slightly hurt.
Roses. Uninjured.
Tabernaemontana was but little injured.
Viburnum tinus. Perfectly hardy.
Abrus, crabs eye. Cut a good deal but came on again.
Antigonon was little damaged. Cut back but came
right on.
Arigyraea. Cut but came on.
Arlstolochia elega.-s Well sheltered and unhurt.
Bignonia venusta was little hurt.
Bougainvilleas were badly cut back.
Clerodendron thompsonae was little damaged.
Combretum comosum. Killed.
Crytostegias were badly hurt.
Bpipremnum was unhurt.
Gloriosa dies down in winter and was uninjured.
Jasminum sambac was hurt but the rest were little
Pellionia daveauana is very tender and was badly
Philodendron, several app. All tender and badly hurt.
Phyllocactus and Epiphyllum were not injured.
Pothos area was badly cut and P. argyrea was killed.
Quisqualis, hardy.
Solandra guttata,entirely killed.
Stephanot8i, killed.
Bamboos. B. spinosa and vulgaris badly hurt;
none of the rest injured.
Stigmaphyllum. Slightly damaged, coming on.
Solanum seaforthianum and wendlandiiscarcely hurt.

Zebrina pendula, etc., nearly killed out.
Acalypha. All tender but A. marginata hardiest;
Some killed to the ground.
Angelonia. Cut down but coming on well.
Bryophyllum was cut down but is coming right on.
Coleus was killed.
Crinum. Leaves cut but bulbs uninjured.
Crossandra. Killed.
Daedalocanthus. Pretty well cut back but came right
Dieffenbachia. All killed.
Dioon. Unhurt.
Eucharis. Frozen down but came up again.
Fittonia. Killed.
Furcraea. Badly cut but not destroyed.
Hippeastrum. Cut down but came on.
Lantanas. Badly hurt but came up.
Leonotis leonurus.. Cut some but not seriously
Pandanus. Terribly injured.
IT" utilis least hurt.
graminifolius killed.
SRavenala madagascariensis Badly hurt.
SRavenal gyanensis, protected; was uninjured.
Aralia guilfoylej. Badly injured.
Russelia. Unhurt.
Sanchezia. Very tender. Nearly destroyed.
Sanseviera. Unhurt.
Schismatoglottis. Nipped considerably.
Strelitzia, two species. Uninjured.
Vincas, rosea, nipped.
Some of the Cattleyas were killed while others of
the same species were unhurt.
Dendrobiums escaped injury for the most part. Most
of the air pines were uninjured.

I have used the word protected occasionally,meaning
that the plants were in sheltered locations, not that they
were covered. In some cases plants which had earth
mounded around them were killed outright. I have not
made a complete list, having left out some of the more
unimportant things."

On Wednesday, February 7, Dr. Harris and I discussed

hardiness, and later I took further notes in regard to

the plants at the old Garden. Dr. Harris and I concluded

that the frost injury might be described by indicating

the leaf/ injury in percentages, and inches and feet will

Papaya seedling in south garden, Miami Plant
Introduction Field Station, killed outright by a
temperature of 26.5 F. on February 3, 1917.
(Compare with photograph, neg. No. 20402. ) Dr.
Harris' hand.

Negative No. 20401. February 6, 1917.


Papaya seedling not touched by a temperature
of 26.50, standing five feet west of papay seedling
shown in photograph, Neg. No. 20401. This illustrates
the vagaries of the freeze of February 3, 1917. Miami
plant Introduction Field Station.

Negative No. 20402. February 6, 1917.

How of seedling papayas, one taken and the
other left vagaries of the frost. Dr. Harris
kneeling. Seed sent from Office September 13,
1916. Miami Plant Introduction Field Station.

Negative No. 20403.

February 6, 1917.

45 & 46

I Ar~

Persea americana, S.P.I. No. 19206, Mexican
avocado from Coahuila, showing tender shoots coming
out of the trunk and still pink in color. An
example of the vagaries of the freeze, which left
certain plants untouched and killed others. Miami
Plant Introduction Field Station.

Negative No.20404.

February 6, 1917.

indicate the distance the branches are killed back from

the distal ends. "N"indicates that the plant is naked;

" 1. d." indicates that the plant is leafy but dormant;

"l.a" indicates that the plant is leafy but with new

growth. The following points should be kept in mind

in this connection:

Is N injured = how far back from ends of branches?

l.d. injured= are leaves only or are leaves and
branches injured and how far back
are branches injured?

l.a. injured= is only new growth injured; are new
growth and old leaves injured; are
new growth, old leaves and branches
killed back?


Spathodea in laboratory grounds, 1. a.; young growth

killed, with exception of young shoot at base.

Akee, 1. d. 99% of leaves dead.

Sanseviera in southwest corner of laboratory

grounds. Killed back.

Eucalpytus alba. l.a. 10% and 100% young leaves


Tamarindus indicus. l.a. leaves 100% killed; 1

ft. killed back.

Pithecolobium dulce. 1.d. 95, leaves killed; 6

inches killed back ?; trunk sound.

Cocos nucifera. l.a.; leaflets dry and yellow;

interior young leaves are injured in blotches.

washingtonia filifera. l.d. uninjured.

Phoenix canariensis. Uninjured.

Chalcas exotica, l.a. Very young leaves about

50% killed. Old leaves and occasional branches with

leaves injured, say 6% killed.

S.P.I. No. 37834, Campomanesia fenzliana, two

trees, west tree scarcely injured; north tree, old leaves

5% injured; young leaves about 50% injured. Young

flower buds partly injured; others will probably open

this year. A papaya was killed within three feet of this

north tree. (See photo, Neg. No. 20406)

S.P.I. No. 37838, Myrciaria sp. Jaboticaba. l.d.

Leaves dry and warm; already half dry when frost came;

may recover. Twigs not killed.

S.P.I. No. 37837, Myrciaria sp. l.d. Leaves injured

by the frost; were already scorched at the tips.


S.P.I. No. 37829, Myrciaria edulis. l.a. Young

leaves killed. Old leaves 40% injured.

Wild guava. l.d. Killed to the ground. Near this

S.P.I. No. 37829, Myrciaria edulis.

S.P.I. No. 37836. Eugenia dombeyi. l.a. Quite

uninjured. Even the very young leaves were uninjured.

(See photo, Neg. No. 20407)

Ipomoea horsfalliae briggsii. Killed back to

the large growth.

Bignonia venusta. l.d. Leaves slightly yellowed

but not really injured at all. On the porch.

'* '~7~ "'-"r~l~F

Campomanesia fenzliana, S.P.I. No. 37834,
from Brazil, side by sidewith papaya. Not
injured perceptably by the freeze of February
3, 1917, temperature 26.5. Mr. W. E. Safford
in background. Miami Plant Introduction
Field Station.

Negative No. 20406.

- --" --


February 7, 1917.


Eugenia dombeyi, S.P.I. No. 37856, planted
one year ago last October. Not injured by the
freeze of February 3, 1917, when the temperature
dropped to 260 F. Miami Plant Introduction Field
Station, southeast of house. In background frozen

Negative No. 20407. February 7, 1917.


.uisculis indica. I:illed i,-ck to old growth.

MLan:ifera indice. c Iulgoba mango, 13-ye'.r old tree;

S. P. I. ;o. 12505. 1. a. Two feet of growth killed.

Leaves 75~ dead; twigs killed back; (See photo, Ner.

No. 20408)

Harpephyllum caffrum. The leaves on the topmost

branches slightly touched only.

Sterculia ,s. ? (north of Hareiephyllumi caffri'uLm)

1. d. Leaves all killed,.

jacpodilla sP. 7'iite uninjured in any way.

The Paheri mango probably killed back for two or

three feet.

The Ileld.. mango, S. P. I. 1o. 9808, ap)eacrs to be

less hurt. The outside of the tree shows extensive

leaf injury but inside the dense foliage there is little

injury. The bloom was killed outright. This seems to

be a robust variety.

Fei'oa sellowiana. Perfectly har y.

An__no.i2 cherimola on A. sqLLrumosa stock, S. P. I. Ho.

28611. :Iaked and dormant. Killed bach for two to four


Annoi. reticulata, S.P.I. i1o. 32083. 1. d. Leaves

killed completely anxd young bra-nches killed back a foot

or more.

Garden 1o. 1803, hybrid between Annona cherimola

and Annoi sq umrosa. l.d. Leaves 99% killed. Twigs

killed back a foot or so only.

Spondias seedling of which one shoot has only dead
leaves on it, whereas the other side shoots were both un-
touched by the freeze. Is this a case of maturity of the
side shoots or an air current? I think it illustrates
the fact that it took some time for the cold air to mix
with the warm. These side shoots have not been injured
in the least by the temperature of 26.5. This is an
excellent example of a frost resistance of the young growth.
This temperature would have killed the growth of young
leaves on a sycamore. (Fairchild)

Negative No. 20405. Iiami Plant Introduction Field
Station, February 7, 1917.

Mulgoba mango, water sprouts. On left
sprouts uninjured; on right sprouts killed.
To all appearance identical in character; why
the difference? (Fairchild)

Negative No. 20408.

February 7, 1917.

Mr. Lathrop reported the Bignonia venusta at

Miami Beach killed, the coconuts and the Casuarinas


On February 9th, Friday, I went over the plants at

the old Garden again, with lessrs. Safford and Dall, and

I made the following notes:

S.P.I. No. 13138, the Rhodesian fig leaves all

dead and shrivelled, except on a single branch on the

southeast side and one or two small branches in the

interior. These may be more frost resistant.

S.P.I. No. 9569, Solerocarya.caffra. Iost of the

leaves are killed.

S.P.I. No. 13132, Detarium senegalense. Leaves all

dead; branchlets killed back, possibly but not certainly;

trunk appears healthy; l.d. 100% leaves killed.

S.P.I. No. 14438, Fious sp. l.d. Leaves 10fo killed.

Branches killed back one foot.

S.P.I. No. 29500, Terminalia arjuna. l.d. Leaves

100% killed; branches six inches to one foot killed back.

S.P.I. No. 29501, Terminalia bentzoi. l.d. Leaves

100,o killed; branches scarcely injured.

S.P.I. No. 21235, Uvaria sp. in south of Garden. l.d.

Leaves 1% killed.

S.P.I. No. 34637, Psidium friedrichsthalianum. l.a.

Leaves 997 killed; branches killed back five feet or so.

S.P.I. No.31574, Annona sp., from Werckle', l.d. Leaves

100% killed; branches killed back one foot or so.

/ Ii"
*. r j '55

S.P.I. No. 34637, Psidium sp. Leaves 100% killed;

branches killed back one foot or so.

S.P.I. No. 36016, Terminalia edulis from the

Philippine Islands. l.a. Caught in act of dropping

old leaves and producing new ones. Young growth

killed; branches killed back to the trunk; inner

bark on trunk, with bruwn streaks in it seriously

injured. Small ones in plant house are killed.

Ganter avocado on Mexican stock, Garden No. 1803,

l.a. Only young shoots killed; old leaves scarcely

touched at all.

Strychnoa spinosa. l.a. Young growth killed to

trunk; leaves spotted and dry; will probably fall.

Adenanthera pavonina. l.d. Leaves 100% killed;

branches killed to trunk.

S.P.I. No. 25909, Mimusops kauki, from Lawang,

Java, l.d. Leaves 60% killed; branches killed back

about three feet.

Kigelia pinnata. l.d. Leaves 100% killed; branches

killed back five feet.

Mr. Lathrop, Marcus Dall, Ernest qnd I took or

tried to take photographs of the big manatee or sea cow

in Col. C. H. Thompson's museum here in Miami. He let

the water out, and we tried our best. Ernest's camera

fell down, and my shutter went"on the bum", but we went

ahead and tried just the same. It was the most un-

interesting looking thing on the photographic plate I

.iiinatee or sea cow in Col. C. H.
Thompson's museum, :Iia:ai, Fla.

Negative No. 20409. February 9,

have ever seen a lump of flesh covered with dark

asphalt colored hide. Colonel Thompson said that

it would weigh 1500 pounds or more. He could not get

it to move to the light side of the tank.

In the late afternoon I learned to run the new

car which Uncle Barbour gave us, and I took Mr. Bergdorf

to the Garden, where he painted the Beardsley (McDonald)


On Satuday, February 10th, :.Ir. Safford, the

carpenter and I built a new camera stand for the Long

Tom camera.

Later I went through the Garden alone, taking

further notes on the plants. Mr. Simmonds had taken

the inspectors to the new Garden and to Soar's and

Cellon's nurseries.

S.P.I. No. 36019, Erythrina ps., from Saharanpur,

received through Mr. Wilson Popenoe. l.a. Young leaves

killed and twigs killed back two feet.

Theobroma cacao in lath shed, l.d. Leaves all

killed; branches killed back a foot or more.

Vitis capensis. l.d. Outside lath house. Inside

leaves scorched severely but not all killed.

S.P.I. No. 34364, Carissa carandas, inside lath

house; leaves scorched as though hot water had been

spilled upon them through the lath cover above; leaves

blotched with dead tissue. Mr. Steffani says this was

not watered at all after the freeze. There was no dew

to drop on these leaves. (Bergdorf to paint)

i, t* ., i ; Carissa carandas

S.P.I. No. 13348, Mangifera indica, Bombay Yellow

mango, in big pot was injured. Leaves nearly all killed.

Another specimen in a nearby pot was not so badly hurt.

In lath shed.

S.P.I. No. 3453. Carissa ovata seems to have

entirely escaped.

S.P.I. No. 36687, Persea americana, avocado,

Mexican type. Bud inserted September 27; youngest

leaves not in the least injured. In lath shed.

(Wn. H. Miller called. I have not 'seen him for

five years or so.)

Dr. Harris says that osmotic pressures run up,

in case of desert plants, to 25 atmospheres in heavy

membranes. A solution of vegetable sap can be cooled

down to even 2.70 below 00 Cent. and still remain un-

frozen, and then it suddenly freezes. Some plants

freeze before 320 F., others are not killed until the

temperature reaches-500 F. The sap of leaves low

down near the ground seems to freeze at a higher

temperature than of those higher up on the tree, so

there is certainly a difference.


Mr. Feaster's field of snap beans at Florida City,
Fla. Photograph taken February 10, 1917, after tempera-
ture of 300 about 6:00 A. M., February 3, 1917. Cold
wave came just before sunrise and did no damage. Sold
beans at $6.50 a hamper. Last week sold 47 hampers at
6.50 from three acres; week before sold 207 hampers at
2.75. Expects now to get $8.00 a hamper.

Negative No. 20410.

February 10, 1917.

On Sunday, February 11, Uncle Barbour, Marcus

Dall, Lr. Bergdorf, and I went to Homestead, Fla., to

Mr. Krome's place, and Uncle Barbour and I posed under

the big Kaffir plum (Harpephyllum kaffrum) tree which

came from the seed that we got from old Prof. Macoun

at Cape Town, South Africa.

ITr.Krome said that any varieties of mango with

Philippine blood suffered from the freeze. The

Cambodiana, Saigon and Cecil suffered more than the

Indian varieties. Half of the Bennett tree Wasuntouchpd,

whereas the Cecil wasbadly singed. The Beardsley and

Nutmeg avocados were untouched, whereas the Taylor

was pretty well singed. The Collins, S.P.I. No. 19080,

was beginning to look better. It had a good crop

last year, but this year it went shy. The Collins,

S.P.I. No. 19058, fruited last year but not this year

at all. S.P.I. No. 10978, Collins, fruited, making

the third year. This year one tree has a good crop,

but is now dropping its fruit. The fruit has a streak

like that L.'r. Vosbury found on Trapps in cold storage.

Mr. Krome said that he picked his first tangelos

February 10th.

The Lathrop mango is a different green from the

ordinary mango and is subject to anthracnose. It is

very late, later than the Sandershaw, fruiting in

October. Last year Mr. Krome procured two or three

bushels but this year only a few fruits. It is an

Harpephyllum kaffram on iMr. Krome's old place
at Homestead, Fla. Uninjured by the frost of
February 3. In the Garden at Miami the upper
branches of the Harpephyllum kaffrum tree were
scorched. Mr. Barbour Lathrop and Mr. David
Fairchild posing.
Feb. 11, 1917. Neg. No. 20411.

coming g
alternate bearer,4after all the other mangos on the

place. Mr. Krome said that citrus canker inspectors

wanted to buy the Lathrops, and he sold them for i-.25

a dozen, selling .$2.00 or $3.00 worth. The fruits are

about the size of a hen's egg or duck's egg. '.ith

the exception of the Itamaraca, it is the smallest

mango, but it is a different shape from the Itamaraca.

It never yellows at all. The flesh is a deep yellow,

and it is not free enough of fibre to eat with a

spoon. Mr. Krome said that the way to do is to put

it on a fork and peel it. It has a sort of half

rancid flavor when overripe.

Twenty-five per cent of Mr. Krome's Trapp

avocado crop dropped. The rains were very heavy last

year and 35% of his fruit were No. 2's and of lower

grade. He got $27.50 a box for the fruits. He uses

Pithecolobium dulce as a windbreak. Mr. Krome

said that cats eat avocados and will not look at rats

during avocado season. Raccoons and rats also attack

them. Yother, according to Mr. Krome, evidently has

no avocado limit. He can eat a dozen a day. Mr.

Krome does not eat more than a half a fruit a day, and

he thinks that the best way to eat avocados is with

lime juice and salt.

Mr. Krome gave us three fruits of the Collins

avocado, S.P.I. No. 10978, and explained how they

should be cut open for the table: "Put a knife in


at the stem end and draw outward. If you cut

inward, there are sure to be some fragments of shell

pressed into the flesh by the inward cut."

The plants in the old Krome place at the corner

had grown, many of them, regardless of apparent

neglect. The Harpephyllum caffrum tree.had grown to a

height of thirty feet.

ivr. Krome gave us.the following recipe for

tangelo ice, invented by Mrs.. L L. Bow, of Homestead,


1 qt. tangelo juice,
2 cups granulated sugar,
2 level tablespoonfuls flour (ordinary flour)
1 qt. boiling water.

Mix flour and sugar and pour boiling water over
it; boil five minutes; cool and then add juice;

Mr. Lathrop said regarding this ice: "I think this is

the most delicate ice I have ever tasted."

I spent Monday, February 12th, at the old.Garden,

showing Admiral Ross around and taking photographs.

Admiral Ross said that Admiral Beardsley, whom

he knew well, was much interested in plants and settled,

when he retired, in Beaufort, S. C., and surrounded

himself with plants and flowers and lived there for

several years. He may have introduced many plants

there. His house was the best looking house in Beaufort.

He was in Hawaii, working up the survey of Pearl Harbor

and was all along the Guatemalan coast on survey in

connection with the canal route, and he got into the

.- -

Old Sandershaw mango tree at the Miami
Plant Introduction Field Station, which was
in full bloom when struck by the freeze on
February 3, 1917, when the temperature went
down to 26.5. It is killed back severely.

Negative No. 20412.

February 12, 1917.

* 7k,. -- _- "


Close view of inflorescence of the old
Sandershaw mango at the Miami Plant Introduction
ielId Station, after the freeze of February 3,
1917, temperature 26.5.

Negative No. 20413.

February 12, 1917.



Akee tree at the Miami Plant Introduction Field
Station, February 12, 1917, after the freeze of
February 3, 1917, temperature 26.5. It was killed
back very severely. (i sJ

Negative No. 20414.

,February 12, 1917.

' ^1^
^ ^ i ..... .Jy

Fruit and leaves of S.P.I. No. 36603, the
McDonald avocado, at the Miami Plant Introduction
Field Station, which survived the freeze of
February 3, 1917, temperature 26.5. Mr. Edward
Simmonds' hand behind the fruits.

Negative No. 20415.

February 12, 1917.

Persea americana. Fruiting branch of avocado
S.P.I.. N 36603 on February 12, 1917, after it had
gone through the freeze of February 3, 1917,
temperature 26.5. Mr. Simmonds is holding a branch
of dead leaves of the West Indian variety, S.P.I.
No. 29352 from tree nearby. Miami Plant Intro-
duction Field Station.

Negative No. 20416.

February 12, 1917.

View in mango quarters, Miami Plant Introduction Field
Station, after a temperature of 26.5 on February 3, 1917.
On the right Paheri, S.P.I. No. 8730, on the left Malda,
S.P.I. No. 9808, and in the center Hafu or Alphonse. The
Malda is still green with brown tips to twigs; the
others are all brown leaves.

Negative No. 20417.

February 12, 1917.

Spondias cytherea, S.P.I. No. 35884, We fruit,
at rMami Plant Introduction Field S'tation, killed
back by the temperature of 26.5 on February 3,

Negative No. 20418.

February 12, 1917.

Spondias cytherea, S.P.I. NO. 35884, We fruit,
at Miami Plant Introduction Field Station after a
temperature of 26.5 on February 3, 1917. Axillary
buds starting on the trunk already, nine days after
the freeze. Compare with negative No. 20418.

Negative No. 20419.

February 12, 1917.

pakria mango, S.P.I. No. 8444, Miami
plant Introduction Field Station, after a
temperature of 26.5 on February 3, 1917.
Killed back a foot or more.

Negative No. 20420.

February 12, 1917.

Totafara mango, S.P.I. No. 8732, killed
back at the Miami Plant Introduction Field
Station after a temperature of 26.5 on February
3, 1917. Leaves already yellow on February
12, 1917, when photograph was made.

Negative No. 20421.

Ficus utilis, S.P.I. No. 29359, behind
hothouse at Miami Plant Introduction Field Station,
after freeze of 26.5 on February 3, 1917. Leaves
all completely killed and dark brown. See Neg.
No. 20471.

Negative No. 20422.

February 12, 1917.

Mexican avocado in flower in south garden, !.iami
Plant Introduction Field Station. Came through
freeze of February 3, 1917, uninjured, temperature

Negative No. 20423.

February 12, 1917.

View in north garden, Liami Plant Introduction Field
Station, after freeze of February 3, 1917 temperature 26.5.
Admiral Ross standing beside very tender West Indian avocado,
SPI no. 19379, the leaves of which have turned a deep yellow-
brown. Behind him in center left tree budded with SPI
39369, Taft, March 1915, SPI 39370, Dickinson, November 14,
1914, wh'E has young leaves only scorched, and Harmfn,SPI
39375, November 14, 1914. Left behind Admiral Ross small
avocado No. 19206, from Mexico. Back of it tall Mexican
without tag, unhurt. Rhodesia fig, SPI 13138, in background.
Negative No. 20426. Feb ary 12, 1917.
L" ji ^k e*/l ^


-ii-. 1

El Grande avocado bud inserted February 7, 1914,
in West Indian stock at the Miami Plant Introduction
Field Station. Note that the shoot Admiral Ross is
holding has had all its leaves killed by the Ifeeze of
February 3, 1917, a temperature of 26.5. The El
Grande has entirely escaped injury.

Negative No. 20427.

February 12, 1917.


Persea americana. Ganter avocado of Mexican type.
The young growth of about four inches was killed back
but the old leaves were uninjured save some mottling.
See young growth in center of photograph. It was very
dark colored. Miani Plant Introduction Field Station.

Negative No. 20428.

February 12, 1917.

2 v L* i

^ ^ .:- ~ '*: "*' .t^TH *^. I

Persea americana. Avocados at the Miami Plant
Introduction Fiel Station, after the freeze of
February 3, 1917, when the temperature dropped to
26.5. The tree at the left is the Nutmeg avocado
from Hawaii, S.P.T. No. 36604, the dead tree in the
center is Trapp, and the tree to the right is of
the Mexican type. In the foreground are a lot of
West Indian seedlings badly injured, even killed to
the ground. Admiral Ross posing.

Negative No. 20429.

February 12, 1917.

highlands of Guatemala. His widow may be living, and

Admiral Ross will find out so that I can write her in

regard to the Beardsley avocado. Admiral Rose told me

that in Sanches, on Samana Bay, on the northeast side

of Santo Domingo (Samana Bay is one of the most

wonderful bays in the world) there are avocado trees as

large around as one's body. The people there said they

were a nuisance, as the cows ate the fruits and choked

on the seeds. Admiral Ross asked them why they didn't

put a fence around the trees. Around Samana Bay are

coffee land, and the altitude is high.

On February 13 I worked on the Long Tom camera

and was with Mr. Bell and LIr. Lathrop.

February 14th I spent at the Garden, taking

photographs and making notes in regard to the plants.

Mr. Simmonds and I discovered a pool of warm air,

so to speak, which left untouched the Baker avocado

bud, a seedling mango two feet high, above it a branch
of the Alphonse mango, S.P.I. No. 29506, a branch of

the Bulbulchasm, a branch of avocado S.P.I. No. 26698,

shown in photograph, Neg. No. 20437, and the young

shoot of avocado, S.P.I.*No. 26708, from Fulford, a

West Indian type. ^- %Q' k

V 1 \ *'-
^ l ft^^^

Carissa grandiflora hedge at the Miami Plant
Introduction Field Station, after a temperature of
26.5 on February 3, 1917. The top branches were
badly scorched.

Negative No. 20431.

February 14, 1917.

Scene in the mango orchard at the Miami Plant Intro-
duction Field Station on February 13, 1917, after the
temperature of 26.5 on February 3, 1917. To the left,
behind Mr. Simmonds, S.P.I. No. 10636, Arbuthnot, and to
the right S.P.I. No. 9511, Langra. In the center back-
ground, behind the Carissa hedge, is S.P.I. No. 9808,
Malda. The thick dense foliaged varieties seem to have
escaped the very serious injury which has come to the
sparsely foliaged sorts like Nos. 10636 and 9511.

Negative No. 20432. February 14, 1917.

___ ~ ~

Persea americana. Bud of Baker avocado No.
1828, put in January 3, 1916, not hurt by freeze
of February 3, 1917, temperature 26.5. West
Indian stock has leaves killed. Miami Plant Intro-
duction Field Station.

Negative No. 20433.

February 14, 1917.


View in mango quarter at the Miami Plant Intro-
duction Field Station, showing injury after freeze
of February 3, 1917, temperature 26.5. S.P.I.
No. 9550, Singapur, at left, with Mr. Simmonds
holding branch, S.P.I. No. 29507, Kavaaji patel, in
center, and S.P.I. No. 11645, Cambodhiana, at r-ight.

Negative No. 20434. February 14, 1917.

Pairl mango, S.P.I. No. 29510, four year old
bud, at the Miami Plant Introduction Field Station,
February 14, 1917, after the freeze of February 3,
1917, temperature 26.5. Killed back to the trunk
and the light foliage has all fallen. Note the
slashed bark to show it is dead.

Negative No. 20435.

February 14, 1917.

,o I L~

Kala Alphonse mango, S.P.I. No. 29509, four
year old bud, at the Miami Plant Introduction
Field Station, February 14, 1917, after the freeze
of February 3, 1917, temperature 26.5. There are
many leaves still green and fresh inside. This
tree stands only fifteen feet west of the Pairi
shown in Neg. No. 20435.

Negative No. 20436,,

February 14, 1917.

~ j

Persea americana, S.P.I. No. 26698, %:est Indian
type of avocado, on which a branch occurs that was
quite uninjured by the freeze of February 3, 1917.
Mr. Simmonds holds this branch. The rest of the
tree had all its leaves killed. This avocado is
only fifteen feet west of the Pairi mango, shown in
photograph, Neg. No. 20435. Miami Plant Introduction
Field Station. Negative No. 20437. February 14, 1917.

Rosette of mango leaves, Stalkart variety, which
shows how the cold spattered the leaves with light
brown spots as though they had been sprayed with hot
water. Why this remarkable spotting of the
foliage? Miami Plant Introduction Field Station.

Negative No. 20438.

February 14, 1917.