Revista interamericana;


Material Information

Revista interamericana; revista dedicada al estudio de la cultura iberoamericana ..
Physical Description:
v. : ; 28 cm.
University of Florida -- Institute of Inter-American Affairs
Los Pícaros de Quevedo
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Latin America   ( lcsh )


Contributions in English or Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- agosto 1939-
Issuing Body:
1939- published by the Institute of Inter-American Affairs, University of Florida, in cooperation with Los Pícaros de Quevedo.
General Note:
Reproduced form type-written copy.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 07270757
lcc - F1401 .R445
System ID:

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Redactors Manuel D. Ramirez
SAsistentess Dean MoPheeters, Ernesto H. Casseres

Consejo Consultivo: Dr. 1O.' H. Hauptnann, Dr. Rollin S.
Atwood, Dr. William C. Yellars, Daniel Montenegro,
Andres Davis Salazar.


Manuel D. Ramirez ...... Homenaje a la Repbblica de Cuba .1.......... 1

Fernando Ortiz ...... El Tabaco Fue Desoubierto en Cuba .............. 3

Inter-American Reading Room of the University of Florida .............. 6

William C. Zellars ...... Jose Garcia de Villalta, a Disciple of Scott 7

Ernesto H. Casseres *..... El Desarrollo Horticola de Costa Ricas Un
Paso Adelante ............................. 20
Los Picaros, Fraternidad Honorifica .......... ......... .............. 21

Braulio Sanchez-Saez ...... Aspectos de la Cultura Brasilefia Tobias
Barreto ........ .... .... ... .............. .. 22
Andres Davis Salazar ....... Medias de Algod6n, un Cuento ..-............ 28

Dean McPheeters ...... Los Heredia, un Estudio Literario ............... 30

Our Contributors ..................... .. .......................... 36

La REVISTA INTERAMERICANA se edita por el Instituto de Asuntos Interamericanos de
la Universidad de Florida, Gainesville, EE.UU., y se public semestralmente en los
idiomas oficiales de las Republicas Americanas.

La REVISTA INTERAMERICANA es enviada a los .confhbs odhoaoloniles de las Americas
interesadas en el mejoramiento de relaciones educativas y oulturales entire los
pauses americanos, y establece canje con cualquiera instituoi6n iberoamericana en
el Hemisferio Occidental.



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por Manuel D. Ramirez

Con este numero, los directors de la Revista Interamericana de la Universidad
de la Florida presentan una innovaoi6n que el64 ;speran sea aprobada unanimemente
por los lectores. En el esfuerzo do abarcar a todas las personas e instituciones
intoresadas en desarrollar me ores ontondimientos educativos y culturales entree las
Americas, y de.mejorar el caractor general de nuestra publioaoi6n, hemos ponsado
que alabanzas 'especiales debiesen sor dedioadas a cada pats do las vointiuna ropd-
blicas quo component el hemisforio occidental. Con osto fin, dodicamos oste numero
al pats latinoamericano mas cercano a nuestro estado a n Ropblion do Cuba, la
joya do las Antillas.

Nos sentimos muy orgullosos de podor empezar esta series innovadora con un arti-
culo del distinguido y celebre cubano, Fernando Ortiz, director de Ultra, mensuario
do culture contemporanea, y conooido on todo el homisferio como folklorista y ori-
tico literario de la mas altn cntegoria. En su entusiasmo sincere do ver estrechar
las relaciones entire ambas Americas, la anglosajona y la ibera, el senior Ortiz nos
honra on este moment con su cooperaci6n intolectual y spiritual. Esporamos poder
corresponderle a su amable gesto on ol future inmodicto. Adomns de presentarle nl
lector do cuando on cuando una desoripoion breve del pats hispanomoricnno nl cual
so dirige el numoro dodicatorio, ospornmos poder publicar algun articulo do uno de
los hijos do nl misma patrin, si nos os possible, Estnmos seguros quo cada patria
ibaronmcricana y quo cadn oscritor quien nos honre con un nrtloulo sornn apoyadores
decididos de nuestros osfuerzos interamoricanos y se sentirn satisfochos y orgullo-
sos de hnber ayudado a difundir oonocimientos mns nmplios de su prIs.

La isla de Cuba, la mayor del grupo de las Antillas, la mas populosa y la mas
occidental, fue descubierta por Cristobal Col6n on un domingo, el 28 do ootubre do
1492, Dominando la ontrada dol Golfo de Mojico, Cuba limita nl norto con ol Oceano
Atlntico y cl Estrocho de la Florida; al este, cor el Paso do los Vientos; al sur,
con ol Estrecho de Colon y el Mar Caribo; y ocupa una position estrntegica quo ha
side por muchos anos una prenda muy apetecida por various poderes politicos; tanto
on Amorica come on Europa.

La historic general do nuestra hormana republican no puedo comonzar solamente oon
la conquista y oolonizacion aspanola; so remonta n opocas mas n ojas, y ella estA
integrnda, no s6lo per los hombros, sine tambiDn per ol sualo. La historic del pue-
blo cubano so contrae a los tiompos primeros, que corrospondon a los dfas pacifioos
de la raza Ciboney, raza laboriosa nunque 0oco rosistento para ol trabnjo. Histo.
riadoros se dividen on cuanto a una invasion to6rica do los Caribes an la isln de
Cuba, pero hasta ahora investigaciones arquool6gicas domuostran quo los Caribos
nunca llegaron al pais. Estan de acuerdo, sin embargo, en la invasion y conquista
de los Tainos en la isla nntillana. La ultima conquist., naturalmento, fue la do
Espaha duranto los siglos quince y diociseis.

Desde los primeros d{as en quo llegaron los espanoles a nl tiorra cubana, los
aborigonos do la isla, come tambion los colonos hispanos, sufrieron much bajo el
regimen duro do in naoi6n europoa, Muchos fuoron los abuses dol mal gobiorno os-
paiol do aquolla Opoca y estas condiciones so fuoron aumontando hasta quo ya no pu-
dieron mas los hrbitantos con la administraci6n isloein. En los principios del si-
glo diecinueve comenzo la agitnion political local, quo continue hasta la subleva-
ci6n del nio 1895. Esta robelion cause much simpatia on los Estados Unidos para
con los patriots cubanos y no tardc much ol gobiorno nortoamoricano en declarar
guorra contra Espaha. En cl aio 1899, con la evncuncibn do nl isln, ceso li sobo-
rnnfa do Espania on Cuba y entr6 osta on el perlodo do ooupr.cin military nortenmeri-

cana hasta 1902 cuando se doclnrl 1n independoncin complete de la Republica de Cuba.

Suponemos que sea In fortilidad do la isln quo lo di6 a Cuba el nombre de "la
perla de las Antillas." Tan ric es su tierra y tan favorable es el climax que Cuba
sirve a la hermnndad americana con sus produ6tos come azucar, tabaco, canf, hene-
quen, cacao, platanos, piia, aguacato, etc. Como un sexto de la republican es tie-
rra maderable que produce cedro, majagua, caoba y otras maderas indispensables.
Ademas, Cuba tiene grandes depositos d' manganese, cobre, hierro y otros minerals
de much importancia al hemisferio occidental. Un dosarrollo interesante en los
ultimos d.osa es la fundaci6n de la puebla industrial come quince mills de La Haba-
na, donde se hacon zapatos, botas, loza de barro, y muchos otros utensilios. Esta
producci6n industrial indica el dosarrollo general do la isln y muestra quo Cuba
tiene una position muy importnnto entro las Americas.

La vida inteloctual y cultural do Cuba ha sido sobresnliento on la hormcndad
intcramericana. No hay pafs hispanoamoricano quo puoda enorgullocorse mas quo la
republican cubana on cuanto a la musica autoctona. Para ontonder y apreciar la mu-
sica do la isla antillnna, hay quo roconocor ol carIotor trigonito quo la misma os-
tenta, intogrado por tros factors quo fuoron importantos on In formation do la mu-
sica cubana cl ind{gena, ol ospanol y ol africano. Hoy dia so baila on todo ol
homisforio occidental al ritmo do la rumba, el son, y In conga, todas ollas contri-
bucionos do la isla nntillana. En In historic dol arto cubano aparooo, do nuovo,
aquollos osfuarzos quo han influido tanto on ol arto pict6rico dol Nuovo Mundo -
osfuorzos con tomas criollos, indggonas, afrocubanos. En ol mundo litorario, Cuba
dio a luz a muchos pootas cuyas poosins fuoron instrumentals on ol dosarrollo do
un alma patriotica y sentimental. Y on las vias podngogicns nuostra hormana rou-
blica ha producido muchos cruditos quionos han influidotato ontro lns o.tras Ameri-

Y pudioramos seguir la discussion, pore basta con docir quo Cuba moroco un aplau-
so per tenor talcs moostros inmortalos y roprosontantos do suu ono come FIlix Varo-
la, Jose Antonio Saoo, Jose do la Luz Caballoro, Carlos Finlay, Jose Maria Horodia,
Julian del Casal, Alfrodo Zayas y Alfonso, Jose Mnrti, Antonio Bustamante y Srnchoz,
Gortrudis Gomoz do Avcllanoda, Maximo Gomoz, Enriquo Joso Varona, Gabriol do la
Concopcion Vald6s, Carlos Manuol do Cospodos, Ignacio Agramonto, Antonio Macco, y
a muchos otros.

"Peace reigns today in the Western Hemisphere because our nations have liberated
themselves fram"fear ... because we have agreed, as neighbors should, to mind our
own business," Franklin D. Roosevelt, president of the United States of America.


por Fernando Ortiz
Se sostienen todavia muchos errors referentes al descubrimiento del tabaoo por
los europeos. Parece ya decidida la tesis, que un tempo tuvo muy tenaces defen-
sores, de que el tabaeo era.conocido en el Viejo Mundo euroasiatico antes de ser
encontrado en.el Nuevo Mundo. Se dijo tambien que el tabaco era muy difundido en
Africa antes que en America y Wiener-, professor de Harvard, hasta sostuvo sin con-
veneer a nadie que el tabaco habia sido tra{do a las Americas por los negros afri-
canes. Por otra part, se repite todavia que el tabaco fue descubierto en America
por Walter Raleigh entire los indios de Virginia; y otros insisted en que lo cono-
cio primero Juan de Grijalba cuando explore las costas de Yucatan. Algunos lie-
garon a sostener que la plant nicooiana precede de Tabasco, ciudad de Mexico, o
de Tobago, una de las pequenas Antilles. Nada de esto puede hoy dfa ser sostenido,
aun cuando todavia se siga dioiendo hasta en publicaciones oficiales de diversos

Y en el siglo XVI un author ingles Lobel en su Novum Stirpia Adversaria, apen-
dice de su obra History of Plants (1576) dijo que Cristbbal Colbn vi6 por vez pri-
mera el tabaco entire los natives de la isla de Guanahani o San Salvador,, y que
alli los indios formaban un embudo con una hoja de palma y colocaban en este las
hojas de tabaco para fumar. No se sabe el fundamento que tuvo Lobel pero era
afirmacion que fuese oxagerada. Es muy possible que ya en San Salvador, Cristobal
Colon viera el tabaco aun sin saber lo que era, y que sus hojas le fueron ofroci-
das por los indios como un rito de buena conviven6ha y amistad. Amerioa recibia
a Europa con un rite simbolico do paz. Pero nada permit asegurar quo all{ se fu-
mara el tabaco on embudos de palma como ocurrfa on el Brasil, segun ya habia pu-
blicado T. Thevot un ano ants de salir a luz la obra de Lobel.

Se ha repotido con insistoncia que ol tabaco fue descubierto por Cristobal Co-
1on en la misma isla Gu.nahhani o de San Salvador, dondo el navegante genov6s top6-
se con el Nuovo Mundo.. Esta opinion se vera en las siguientes lines del diario
derrotero de Col6n:
"Lunes 15 de Octubret
..... y estando a medio golfo destas dos i'slas .,.. fallen un hombre solo en una
almadia, qua se pasaba de la isla Santa Maria a la Fornandina, y trala un poco do
su pan, quo serfa tanto como el puno, y una calabaza de agua, y un pedazo de tie-
rra bormeja hecho on polvo y luego amasada, y unas hojas saoas que debe ser cosa
muy aprociada ontro ellos, porque ya me trajoron on San Salvador dellas on presen-
to ... .

Las citadas "hojas soecs," se dice, oran hojas do tabao, de las que los indios
antillanos empleaban para fumar y para quemar hacienda sahumerios, ouraciones,
magias, sortilegios y rites doprecatorios a sus deidades, Quo esas "hojas secas"
eran hojas do tabaco ya lo pens6 el cubano Bachiller y Morales y luego lo han sos-
tenido otros historiadores,

* Estas paginas estan tomadas del nuovo libro de Fornando Ortiz titulado Contra-
punteo Cubano dol Tabaco y ol Azucar, on ol cual estrn camprendidos sendos cap;-
tulos sobre la historic, etnogrnfir. y transcultur.ci6n del tabaco y el inicio do
la production azucarera y de la asclavitud do negros on America.

Tal interpretacion es muy veroslmil; pero quizs. no baste para darla por segu-
ra. No era el tabaco la unica yerba seca quo aquellos indios podfin apreoiar, ni
dice el Diario de Colon quo las hojas estuviesen torcidas o en rollo, detnlle quo
las habria identificado come tabaco de fuma. Por otra part, si esas hojas secas
eran roalmento de tabaco, cl Almirante lo vio, poro no lo doscubri6; puos desou-
brir no es solo ver, es "ochar do ver," os manifestar lo, ubierto, oculto o igno-
rado, os venir an conocimiento de unr cosa que estaba desconocida, Y Don Crist6i
bal no supo lo que era el tabaco, ni conocio sus oualidades y uso principal de
fumario, hasta la noche del lunes dia 5 de noviembre de 1492, o on la maiann del
siguiente, c.undo se lo mostraron Luis de Torres yRodrigo de Jerez, quienes por
su part ya lo habian descubierto, del din 2 al dia 5 de dicho mes, al ir a explo-
rar tiorra adentro do Cuba, enviados por Col6n.

Antes de oste dia, ni Colon ni los castollanos "echaron de ver" lo que era el
tabaco. Copiamos a continuaci6n el texto del P. Bartolime de las Casas, glosando
al Diario del Almirante Don Cristobal Colbn, on ol oual so describe el doscubri-
miento del tabaco on In islr de Cuba.

En el capitulo XLV do la Historia do las Indias do aquel famoso frail, refo-
rente a lo ocurrido el viOrnos dia 2 do noviombro de 1492 en el viajo del dosou-
brimiento, estando el Almirante on el rio y puerto do Mares, on la Isla de Cuba,
o sea probablemento on la actual bahin de Manati o Sabanalamar, dice asi:
"Con esta opinion que tonia do quo aqualla tierra ora firm y roinos dol Gran
Khan o confines dellos, para tenor algunc noticia y haber lengua dello, acord6
inviar dos hombres espafoles, el uno se llamaba Rodrigo do Xorez, quo vivia on
Ayamonte, y el otro ora un Luis do Torros, quo habia yivido con ol Adelrntado de
Murcia, y habia sido judio y sabia hobraioo y caldoo, y aun, diz quo, arabigo.
"Con estos invi6 dos indios, uno do los que trafa consigo do Guanahani, el otro
doaquollas cnsass quo staban on aquel rio pobladas. Di6les de los rescatos, sar-
tas do cuentas y otras cosas para comprar do camor, si los faltase, y seis dias
de termino para que volviesen. Dioles muestras do ospeceria para oognoscerla, si
alguna por el camino topason. Diolos instrucci6n como habinn do proguntar por el
Roy de aquolla tiorra, y lo quo lo.habian hablar do parto do los Royos de Cast.i-
lla, como inviaban al Almiranto para prosontarle sus cartas y un present quo le
inviaban, y para tenor noticia do su Estado y tenor omistad con ol y ofrecerle su
favor y buonas obras para cada y cuando dollars se quisiese aprovohar, y para to-
nor certidumbre de ciertas provincias y puertos y rios do que ol Almiranto tenfa
noticia, y cuanto distaba de alli."

El dia 3 do noviembre do 1492, sabado, y el din 4, domingo, se entretuvo el
Almirante tratando con los indios y cazando en las tierras riboreEias del Puerto
de Mares.

En el siguiento capitulo XLVI do dicha obra de Las Cases, so dice asir
"Lunos, on nl noche, tornaron los dos indios quo con ollos fueron do la tiorra
adontro, bion doce loguas, dondo hallaron unn poblaci6n de hasta cincuenta caass,
diz quo, mora ran mil vocinos, porque les parocr. quo vivian muchos on una casa;;
y esto asaz os clara social do sor gento -hmlde, mans. y pacifica."

Y luego so continue lo quo siguot
"Hallaron ostos dos cristianos por ol camino much gento quo atravosaban a sus
pueblos, mujoros y hombres, seompro los hombres con un tiz6n on las manos y oiar-
tas hierbas para tomar sus sahumerios, que son unas hierbas seas metidas en una
cierta hoja, seca tambien, a manora do mosquete hecho de papel, do los que hncen
los muchachos la pascua del Espiritu Santo, y encondida per la una part del por
la otra chupan, o sorben, o reciben con ol resuello para adontro aquol humo, con
ol cual se adoipecon las carnos y cunsi omborracha, y asi diz que no sienten el

oansanoio. Estos mosquetes, o como los llamaromos, llaman ellos tabaoos. Espafo-
les cognosi yo en esta isla Espanola, quo los .costumbraron a tomar, qua siondo re-
prendidos per ello, diciendolos quo aquello era vicio, rospondian quo no era en su
mano dojarlos de tomnr; no so quo sabor o provocho hallaban on ellos,"

Do todo esto parcoo bien claro quo Rodrigo do Xcrez y el judio Luis do Torros
descubricron el trbaco un dia, ol 2, ol 3 o ol 4 do noviembro do 1492 on las tie-
rras proximas al puerto do Maros o Mannati on In isla de Cuba.

Esto apart, on ouanto .1 tabaco ocurro lo quo con todos los descubrimiontos
hochos on estas Indias y con ol do la America mismn, quo, on rigor, sblo fuoron
"descubrimientos" prrn los blnncos do Europa, puos antos ya habian sido roalmonto
dosoubiortos por los cobrizos aborigonos do America. El tabaco, caomo l quina y
la coca, como ol maiz, cl tomato, la papa, In papaya, el pimionto, la yuoa, ol bo-
niato, ol cacao, el mania, el mnranHon, el agurcate, la piia o anna, y otros produo-
tos naturals y agricolas que hoy constituyon quizas nl mayor part do In alimonta-
cion vegetal del mundo, fueron "descubrimicntos" hechos por la intoligoncia do los
indigenns amoricanos, siglos y milenios antes que los "echaran de ver" los indige-
nas ouropoos.

America con razon ha sido donominada Nuevo Mundo. Dos veces ha sido 'mundo nue-
vo," Primoro, con sentido muy propio, cuando nl pcrmitirlo nl estabilizaoi6n cli-
mitica del orbo, despues do los periodos glaciales, la invadieron unas rnmas de
gentes quo, a juzgar por sus gonealoglas lingfitsticas, arrancaron do ls regions
uralo-altaicas quo hoy forman part de la UR.S.S., y llogaron por el camino trnns-
atlnntico hasta estos paisos, do igual mantra quo per el camino transouropeo otras
ramas do la misma tronoalidad arribaron a las comarcas do Espaja con esa lengua on-
diablrdamente aglutinrnte, el vascuenco, quo parooo sor del linaje de las quo aqui
hablaron los pielos rojas, aztocas, quichuas, caribos, tainos, y siboneyos. Enton-
cos, en esos romotisimos tiempos primovales, si quo America ora on vordnd el Nuovo
Mundo. Todavia no oxistian Colones, ni Reyes Cat6licos, ni Papas, ni Mosias, ni
un profetas, ni patriarcas quizas, ni Aboles ni Caines. Miles do aios despu's to-
dos los continontos ostaban poblados do soros humans on diforontos grados de civi-
lizacion, aun cuando ignorandose muchos de cllos entro si. Entonces, per los pue-
blos do Europa fuo doscubiorto cl continonto interpolar por ollos dosconocido y lo
dijeron Nuovo Mundo; por lo magno do su hallazgo y lo trascendonto de su novodad.

So croo quo fut iniciativa del historindor y cnpolln Pedro Martir do Angleria
decir do las tierras rocion invontadas quo oran Orbo Novo. Eso apolativo tuvo for-
tuna. Era motaforicamento muy expresivo y hnbia nlgun intoros on mantonorlo. Asi
so podia aplicar major la adjudioncion do su soberania hocha por ol papa Alojandro
VI (Rodrigo Borgia, cl famosamcntc rolajado parrino do America), come si lo hallado
per Colon fuaso res millius, tiorras croadas y nun no dispuostas por ol Croador,
cmergontos do los mares y sin soeorio, come los islotos quo a voccs surgeon on las
crocidas do los rios caudalosos, Y siondo do Otro Mundo hab{a ocasi6n propicia
pnrn protondor quo sus pobladoros indigonas no cran doscondiontos do Arhn, como los
sores humans dcl Mundo Viojo, y podian por tanto sor tratados come brutes y subyu-
goles sin piodad. Tan corrida fuo, aun ontrc clcrigos,.la idea blasfoma do no to-
nor alma humcna los indios do Amorica, quo un papa, Paulo III, tuvo quo r~iotar una
bula para acabar con taman:a horojia, qu3 so oxtondio ontre los conquistadors codi-
ciosos pnra acnllar sus concioncias, a manora do los racismos, igualmonto infundi-
dos y anticristianos, quo dospucs so han propagado contra los nogros, los judios,
los indostancs, los japonosos, los latinos y toea suorto do gentos cuya suporita-
cion so ha tratado do justificar.

"It seems, indeed, that a decree of Providence made the western shore of.the At-
lantic appear ,.,ate in history as the chosen land for a great renewal of mankind,"
Joaquin Nabuco, former minister of Brazil to the United States,

America fug nuevo mundo o tierra virgen, sin ser conooida de hombre; pero no pu-
do serlo mas de una sola vez. Mejor pudo decirse que este gran continent quo se
extiende entire los otros, vertical y medianero, era el Ultimo Mundo, como hubo una
Ultima Thule; el mundo mas remote y.desoonocido de los demis, el que se pobl6 pos-
trero desde el Oriente, el que desde Occidente se civiliz6 con retraso. America
fue Mundo Tardio,.acaso tenga por destiny serun Mundo Terminal.


Like many an attractive news-stand on the sidewalks of New York that boasts of
"news from all over the world," the Institute of Inter-American Affairs of the Uni-
versity of Florida can boast of one of the finest collections of current magazines
and periodicals from Spanish America on the local campus. The Inter-American Read-
ing Room of the Institute, which also contains approximately OOirbooks dealing with
Pan American relations, is one of the latest features added to the program for fos-
tering better cultural relations with the other Americas.

The Pan American Union of Washington, D.C., is the greatest contributor to the
Institute's reading room. It furnishes the foreign trade series, bulletins cover-
ing the latest foreign trade statistics of the Latin-American republics, compiled
from official sources; the bibliographical series, collections of bibliographies on
Pan-American topics, Inter-American relations, history, geography, maps, and libra-
ry science; the cooperative series, a series of articles on various phases of the
cooperative movement Commercial Pan America, a monthly mimeographed review dealing
with economic and financial subjects; Panorama, a mimeographed review devoted to
matters of interest in Inter-American intellectual cooperation; Pan.American Book
Shelf, another mimeographed review dealing with recent books on Latin-American af-
fairs; Pan American Bulletin, a monthly publication covering all phases of Inter-
American relations and published in English, Portuguese and Spanish; and dozens of
other bulletins, programs, pamphlets, and printed matter dealing with the various
phases of the other Americas.

Other North American publications which are received by the Institute of Intdj-
American Affairs includeThe Hemisphere, a confidential weekly report of news and
trends in South America, Central America, Mexico, Canada, and the Caribbean aroaj
the News Bulletin, official organ of the Institute of International Education in
New York City; Foreign Policy Reports, Foreign Policy Bulletin and Headline Books,
all published by the Foreign Policy Association; the Inter-American Quarterly, a
quarterly dedicated to the study of Inter-American relations; Pan American News, a
bi-weekly information service published by the Foreign Policy Association; bulletins
of information of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; and official bul-
letins from the United States Departments of Agriculture, Commerce; Intorior and
State; and the Hispanic American Historical Review.

The most interesting periodicals, however, are sent in by a number of Latin Ame-
rican republics. The Atenoa, a monthly publication of .the Universidad de Conccp-
cion, is one of the leading educational and cultural magazines not only in Chile but
in Latin America. Eminent writers including Arturo Torres-Rioseco, Enrique Molina,
Alberto Ghiraldo, Luis Alberto Sanchez, Ciro Alogrfa, Mariano Latorre, Rail Silva
Castro, and others, contribute to this magazine. An outstanding publication re-
ceived from the Ministry of Education in Venezuela is the Revista Nacional do Cul-
tura. From the island of Cuba are received America, a review of the Association of
American writers and artists; Ultra, official organ of the Instituoi6n Hispanocuba-
na de Cultura; and the Revista Bimestre Cubana, a review of Cuban culture. Other
American republics that contribute to the Institute's reading room include Argenti-
na, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, Moxico,
Panama, Paraguay,- Peru and Uruguay,


por William C, Zellers
It has been impossible for us to ascertain the exact date of the birth of
this Sevillan author However, he was a friend of Espronoeda and evidently he was
a liberal,. for he passed some time., while very young, in exile in Portugal and England
In the latter country he published in English The Dons of the Last Century, which
was apparently his only attempt at writing a novel This work was published in Madrid
in 1835 under the title of El Golpe en Vago. Aside from this novel, he produced several
dramatic works, translated into Spanish Wshington Irving's Life of Columbus, founded
El labriego and directed El espafiol, At the time of his deat-ETlO?), he was
occupying the post of min-ster for Spain in Greece.
Professor Peers in a scholarly article entitled "Studies in the Influence of
Sir Walter Scott in Spain" has observed that El Golpe en Vago' suggests Guy Mannering
and Ivanhoe. A brief summary of Professor PeerF" findings are7 as follows Garcia
Villalta knew English well and was acquainted with several of Scott's admirers in
Spain. Besides, this Spanish author quotes .one epigraph from Scott and names Scott,
Voltaire and Cervantes as three representative novelists, The manuscript device and
the assumed name used in this Spanish novel, as well as the humorously pedantic tone
of the introduction, can be safely ascribed to imitation of Scott, as can also "El
Nifo" and his group of bandits, a company of men committed to the service of freedom,
yet in no way villains, being rather benefactors of the needy and oppressed, as were
Robin Hood and his followers in Ivanhoe. A second suggestion of Ivanhoe is in
Garoia de Villalta's picture of the disguised hermit, Tragalobos, who was actually a
robber, and who resembles Friar Tuck, in Ivanhoe, a member of Robin Hood's band.
A scene between Tragalobos and a visitor3 recalls a visit of the "Black Knight" in
Ivanhoe to the hermitage of Friar Tuck. But although Garcia de Villalta took ideas
from Scott, he used them in quite another fashions The gypsy woman, Tia Rodavallos,
is rather obviously drawn from Meg Merrilies, Several incidents in El Golpe en Vago
and Guy Mannering are also similar, but there is no plagiarism.
It is the purpose of the present author to analyze thoroughly all the likely
points of similarity between El Golpo on Vago, Guy Mannering and Ivanhoe, and to
show in detailed fashion the points of Gar~ de Villalta's indebtedness to Scott in
matters of general technique.
Before we can go more deeply into the sources of El Golpo en Vago, it becomes
necessary first to give an outline of the story of Scott's n0ov'1T'

1. Printed The Dous of the Last Century, We presume that "Dous" should be "Dons".
See Enoiclopedia universal ilustrada, XXV, 829.
2. "Studies in the Influence of Sir Walter Scott in Spain", Rovue Hispanique, LXVIII,
3. Garlos, the hero of El Golpo on VagoA passed a night at Tragalobos' hermitage
when he was on route to SovilTej, but the conversation and happenings that took place
on this visit do not resemble what took place between Friar Tuck and the "Black
Knight" in Ivanhoe.

Guy Manner ing

Guy Mannering, a young student whose hobby is astrology,. takes a vacation
trip in Scotland, One evening,-finding himself far from an inn, he takes shelter
in the home of Lewis Bertram, Laird of Ellangowan. That night a son is born to, the
Laird and his wife. Mannoring looks at the stars and determines that the child's
fifth, tenth and twenty-first years will be particularly hazardous, but does not
divulge his findings to the parents, Instead, he writes them down and they are
placed around the neck of the boy, little Harry. Mannering tells the parents to
open them on the child's fifth birthday.
For a number of years a group of gypsies have lived on the Ell.ngownn estate
rent-free,' except for occasional gifts that they make to-the family#. Moreover,
smugglers have long landed their cargoes on the coast around Ellnngowan rnd have
for years been unmolested.
Before little Harry's fifth birthday, Lewis is elected a justice of the peace
and due to the criticism of a political opponent to the effect that gypsies,. who
are considered as criminals, are harbored on the ground of his barony, forcibly
expels them. All of them are incensed over' this treatment and Meg Morrilios, an
old gypsy who has long been attached to the Laird's family, angrily tells Lewiss
"you have stripped the thatch from seven-cottages; see that the roof-tree of your
own house stands the surer.-" Also, because of his new position, Lewis turns his
sympathies in favor of the customs-officers, who are now pursuing the smugglers
whose contraband he has formerly bought.
The education and care of little Harry are in the hands of a lorrned and
eccentric minister and podant, Dominio Sampson. On the child's fifth birthday,
Lewis recalls that it is the date for the opening of Mannering's predictions about
his son's future, but decides that the document should be opened at the end of the
day. That morning Harry goes to walk with his tutor. Meanwhile, Frank Kennedy,
a customs-official and friend of Lewis, is active against the smugglers and has in-
formed the naval authorities of the presence on the coast of certain outlaws. On
the way to see an expected battle between the smugglers and a naval vessel, Kennedy
meets Dominic Sampson and Harry and takes the child with himon his horse Bor a
The smugglers' boat is sunk by the government ship, but the fate of its master,
Captain Dirk Hatteraick, and his crew is unknown. However, after the battle, Frank
Kennedy's body is found on the beach, but little Harry cannot be located,
Naturally Meg is suspected because of her threat, but she admits nothing and is
eventually released. The smugglers cannot be found for questioning. The' night
after Harry's disappearance his mother gives birth to a daughter, Lucy, and passes
Seventeen years elapse. Guy Mannering, who is now a colonel and has retired
after service in India, returns to Scotland and looks up the Laird of Ellangowan.
He finds that the latter is now a paralytic and that he is about to lose his estate
to Gilbert Glossin, the chief of his creditors, who, due to Lewis' former kindness,
has risen from obscurity and poverty to a position of some prominence. Glossin
prepares one day to seize the property, whereupon Lewis, enraged by his gross in-
gratitude, succumbs to c hcrrt-.ttack. Lucy, now an orphan and well-nigh penniless,
takes refuge for a while in the home of Mr. MrcMorlan, the sheriff-substitute.
In India, Julia, Colonel Mannering's daughter, has had a romance with
Mr. Brown, a young soldier. The encouragement that Mrs. M!nnoring gave to
Brown's attcntions to Julia were misinterpreted by the Colonel as indications
of her own attachment for Brown, After a quarrel over a card game, a duel
took place between Brown and Mannering in which the former fell by the first fire.

"Podemos llamarnos ibero-americanos, nietos de la heroic y civilizadora raza que
s6lo politicamente se ha fragmentado en dos naciones europeas,. y aun podemos ir
mis all& y decir que el mismo nombre de hispano-amerioanos convene tambien a los
natives del Brasil," Jose Enrique Rod6 (uruguayo).

Due to an ensuing attack by native bandits,, Mnnoring was forced to fight his way
from the scene of the duel and later found that another soldier, who desired promotion.
had aroused his dislike of Brown, who clearly merited promotion for his valiant
conduct in several battles., Believing now that Brown died after the duel, Mannering
is deeply remorseful,
Meanwhile, however, Brown has recovered and now holds a captain's rank in
the army. Furthermore he returns to Scotland, locates Julia, and renews his
attentions to her. She conceals those facts from her father,,. In order to help
Lucy Bertram,.-the colonel tries to buy the baronial estate of Ellangowan at the
creditors' sale, but his plans fail when his servant, who has been intrusted with the
required documents, becomes intoxicated on route and delivers these papers to the
sheriff-substitute after Glossin has acquired the property* Mannering now hires the
nearby estate of Woodburno and Lucy comes there to visit Julia Mannering.
In his wanderings around the neighborhood, Brown meets Meg Merrilies, who
recognizes him as Harry Bertram, though she does not apprise him of this fact.
After his funds are stolen by gypsies, she furnishes him with a purse that
contains money and other valuables, including several foreign coins.
Meanwhile Lucy is receiving the attentions of Charles Hazolwood, the son of
Sir Robert Hazelwood, a nobleman of the vicinity. One morning, Brown, whom we
shall now call Harry, leaves his purse at his inn, takes a stroll through the woods
and meets Julia and Lucy, who are out walking with Charles. Unfortunately the
latter thinks that Harry belongs to the band of smugglers who recently attacked
Woodburno; Brown, in his turn, is inflamed by jealousy on seeing Julia in another's
company and starts toward her as if to speak to her. 'Whon Charles points a gun at
Harry, the latter springs on him, the fowling-piece is accidentally discharged,
and Charles is wounded. Brown flees, intending to obtain his credentials and money
rnd then to return to answer any possible charges.
Glossin has now become one of the justices of the peace. The gentry has never
accepted him socially because of his low birth and his treatment of his former
benefactor, Lewis Bertram, Now Glossin, who has been formerly a partner and adviser
to the smugglers, sees an opportunity to gain the good-will of Mannering and of
Sir Robert Hazelwood by capturing the culprits who attacked Woodburne and in
taking prisoner the party who attached Charles Hazolwood. During the search for
Charlos' assailant, Brown's purse is discovered at the inn where he stayed, his
identity is established, and the contents cause suspicion.
At this juncture Captain Dirk Hatteraick reappears in the neighborhood, is
arrested, and is brought before Glossin. The smuggler-captain recalls to the
magistrate that the latter was formerly in league with him and informs him that
. Harry has returned to the vicinity. Glossin orders Hatteraick placed in a prison
so insecure that escape is easy for the outlaw.
Now Glossin had seen, seventeen years before, the opportunity of eventually
enriching himself at the expense of the Laird of Ellangowan if the male heir were
removed, because the baronial properties would then become the unlimited holdings
of the weak and prodigal Lewis Bertram. Hence, after Frank Kennedy's death,
Glossin connived with Hatteraick to take Harry to Holland, Meg Merrilies, wandering
in the neighborhood when the crime was committed, tried to rosoue Harry but ho
was taken, from her and she then promised to be silent about the matter in return
for a pledge from the child's captors that he would not be harmed.
On learning that Harry'gortram is alive and in Scotland, Glossin now sees that
it is imperative for him to send him out of the country and proceeds to form a
plot with Hatteraick. The plan is that, using the shooting of Hazelwood
as a reason, will imprison Harry in the Bridewell jail that is beside the customs
house, then will withdraw the soldier guards from the customs house and thus enable
Hatteraick to abduct Harry and, at the same time, allow the smuggler to recover
goods that the customs officers have taken from him.

"The greatest triumph of this Hemisphere thus far has been the establishment of
the peace of the Americas, peace. by cooperation instead of by conquest or by
balance of power," Cordell Hull, United States Secretary of State..

Harry' after fleeing from the scene of the encounter with Charles Hazelwood,
receives a letter from Julia in which she scolds him for having caused her so much
worry by his encounter with Charles. He sets out to see her and to right himself
in her eyes, but is quickly arrested when Glossin sees him. Unfortunately, Harry
has not his credentials with him to prove his army rank, so is imprisoned in the
jail at Bridewell.
Meanwhile, Glossin withdraws the soldiers from the customs house under the pretense
of having them protect Sir Robert Hazelwood's house from a threatened attack by
smugglers. That night Hatteraick's men attack the customs house and the jail, but
Meg has managed to send along in their band several men who help Harry to escape,
He is then carried to Colonel Mannering's residence.
The next day Harry appears voluntarily before the magistrate, Sir Robert
Hazelwood. Charles has never felt resentment toward Harry, but Glossin has learned
that Harry will lay claim to the estate of his ancestors and has informed Sir Robert
that Harry is the natural son of Lewis Bertram. However, Harry is freed under bond.
Later in the day Meg asks Harry to accompany her on a walk. Dandie Dinmont, a
rustic who is devoted to Harry, accompanies them. She.lends them to Hattoraick's
hiding place where Harry, Dandio and Charles Hazelwood, who has followed the party in
order to help Harry in case he should need aid' capture the smuggler captain who
abducted Harry in his infancy. Before they seize him, however, Hatteraick mortally
wounds Meg who, on her deathbed, identifies Harry as the legal heir of Ellangowan.
In court it is proved that Hntteraick and a fellow-smuggler, Lieutenant Brown,.
were the murderers of Frank Kennedy, and Glossin's criminal acts are exposed. The
natural son of Lewis Bertrnm appears in court and thus disproves any claim that
Harry is other than the legitimate heir. Harry's claims to the barony are ostablishe.
by the fact that he has the astrological prediction still around his neck and by
other undeniable proofs.
Hatteraick, blaming Glossin for his incarceration, murders him and then commits
suicide. Harry and Julia are happily married, as are also Charles Hazelwood and

El Golpo on Vago

In the introduction, Garola do Villalta tells us that this story was taken from
some papers that were sent to him by don Alejo Cevallastigardi y Chodapcturra of San
Sebastian. Don Alojo was a grandson of a gentleman who served the house of E. as
majordomo in Seville. Some members of this house passed through certain adventures
that form the theme of this novel. As Peers has already said, the referenoo to a
supposed manuscript recalls the "tVardour Manuscript" of Ivanhoo.1
The story of El Golpe en Vago is based on the love affair of Carlos Garcia-
Fernandez and Isaboe, a young woman of the village of Aznarcollar, and takes place
during the eighteenth century. Carlos, the son of a wealthy nobleman has been well
educated by his parish priest, Father Juan Melendez de Valdecanas, while Isabel,
though she is a sweet and beautiful girl of some education, is of humble origin and
the daughter of SeHora Andrea, a poor woman of the neighborhood.
Because of the difference that exists in their social backgrounds, Carlos'
father advises him in a paternal way against marrying Isabel. Nor is Carlos' father
alone in his attitude. Padro Naroiso, an itinerant friar who knows the young lovers,
not only opposes the ider of a marriage between Carlos and Isabel, but even;.accuses
Carlos of toying with Isabel's affections solely in order to accomplish her seduction
The young nobleman is deeply offended by this unjust accusation and demands that
Nnrciso conso from meddling in his private affairs.

SIn Ivanhoe Walter Scott repeatedly refers for source material to the "Wardour
Manuscript." Scholars generally admit that this supposed manuscript is a product
of Scottfs imagination.


At. this juncture Carlos has occasion to go th Seville. On his return he finds
that Narciso, instead of complying with his demand, even has the idea of making
Isabel leave the vicinity so as to separate her from her lover. When Naroise inter-
rupts a visit that Carlos is making to Isabel and renews his unfounded charges,
Carlos becomes so infuriated that he hurls the friar against a wall. Hereupon the
latter seizes a sword and attacks Carlos who, drawing his own, inflicts a seemingly
mortal wound on his adversary.
The duel has been witnessed by Carlos' friend, Alberto, and the latter's sweet-
heart, EugeniaA who is r friend of Isabel. With Alborto's aid Carlos escapes from
Aznarcollar and accidentally finds refuge among the followers of El Nifio a celebra-
ted bandit leader of the region, who promises to help him escape to Portugalo However
Carlos insists on first interviewing Isabel. El Chato, one of the bandits, goes to
Aznarcollar to arrange the meeting, Papers that he carries are seized by the authori-
ties, who ascertain from them the place of Carlos' intedted rendezvous with his sweet-
heart. When Carlos appears at this place he is seized and incnrcernted in Seville.
Isabel leaves Aznarcollar and visits Carlos several times. At this point, how-
ever, a minister plot develops to obstruct the happiness of the two young lovers.
The marquesa del E., a wealthy and influential womrn of Seville, visits Catlos
and offers to help him out of his predicament if he will agree not to return to his
native village and will cease his attentions .to Isabel. He refuses to do the latter.
Due to the marquesaos intervention with the jailers, Isabel's visits to Carlos cease,
though he does not know why. Moreover, a letter that Carlos thinks is from Isabel,
but which is actually a forgery, informs Carlos of the death of Narciso.
Though Carlos is totally unaware of the real state of matters, the marquesa, for
some unexplained reason, has determined that Carlos and Isabel shall never marry.
The forged letter in which Carlos is made to think that his adversary has succumbed
was written by Pistaccio, the confidential secretary of the powerful secret society
of the alquimistas, whom the marquesa asks to seize Isabel and to deliver her into
her hands. The alquimistas are anxious to favor the marquesa in order to enjoy her
powerful influence in government circles. Though she is not aware of it, this
society is plotting a revolution against the government. The leaders, however, remain
in the background and work their schemes through Pistaccio and a certain General
By forging Carlos':signaturo to another letter, Pistaccio succeeds in delivering
Isabel into the hands of his masters, but they keep her a prisoner in their house so
as to use her as a weapon in their further dealings with the marquesa,
It happens that Tio Tragalobos, one of El Niio's band, is a nrisonor in the same
jail where Carlos is confined TVith the aid of El Nifo, and others of his band, Tin
Tragalobos and Carlos escape from the prison. Soon afterward Tio Tragalobos becomes
Isabel's jailer in the home of the alquimistas.
However, two things of importance happen during the fight between the prisoners
and their jailers, who are reinforced by troops. Carlos is wounded, and, besides,
his intervention saves the life of the commanding officer of the soldiers, Captain
de Grafina, who is later to become a staunch friend of Carlos.
When Carlos loaves the prison, he is carried by El Chato to the home of a gypsy,
Tia Rodavallos. She and her daughter Violante dross his wounds and he is given a
band that will identify him to certain ones whose aid he may need in the future.
Soon afterward Carlos, disguised as a student, begins to roam through the country.

1. In Ivanhoe Walter Scott repeatedly refers for source material to the '"Tardour
Mcnusoript". Scholars generally admit that this supposed manuscript is a product
of Scott's imagination.

In his wanderings Carlos soon meets another traveler, Sefior Guzmrat, a typical
pedant of the century, who is at different times in the story a sculptor, a bull-
fighter, an army officer, and a hero. Guzmun gives Carlos a letter of introduction
to Captain de Grafina.
On arriving at C6rdoba, Carlos enters the cathedral and finds his father's
funeral in progress. Alberto, who is there, informs Carlos that, after it was
learned that Narciso had not died, the parish priest of Aznarcollar, Juan Melendez de
Valdecaeas, sent letters by Carlost father to certain influential courtiers in Madrid
seeking their intervention in order to obtain a royal pardon for Carlos. The pardon
was granted,. but Carlos' father died while en route to Seville with the document,
which is now useless,
Now Carlos begins to look for Isabel. Captain de Graeina installs him on a sub-
urban estate near Sevillo. El Chato finds out where Isabel is and he, Alberto and
Carlos rescue her by night from her prison and she is placed in a convent whose abbess
is an aunt of de GraEina.
Happiness is not yet in store for the lovers, however, On the eve of the day
set for their wedding, Carlos is recognized by the oscribano of Aznarcollar and re-
arrested. The alquimistas, fearing that Carlos will reveal the place where Isabel
was imprisoned, have determined that Carlos shall die and have amassed a quantity of
false evidence against him, but his fate is placed in the hands of the wise and just
Judge Bruna, president of the audiencia. A death sentence is commuted within a few
hours to six years of bervico in the army.
Meanwhile the abbess has become the dupe of the marquesa and the alquimistas,
though she is unaware of their villany. She tries to persuade Isabel to take the
veil, but on the day set for the ceremony Isabel refuses to take the vows, despite
the marquesa's insistence, and reveals to those present that shh is being persecuted
and feels no call to holy orders, .The good archbishop takes her under his personal
supervision, but despite the efforts of this noble cleric to take care of her, Narcise
is introduced into the convent to act as Isabol's confessor. She, however, recognizes
his voice and refuses his services.
Her refusal to take h-ly orders and her treatment of Narciso now form the basis
of plans of the alquimistas to bring her before the Inquisition under charges of
heresy. Also, letters forged by Pistacoio are freely used by the alquimistas, and
Isabel is led to believe that Carlos is dead and he is made to think that she has
decided to take the vows of a'.nun.
Finally the abbess decides to place Isabel in the hands of a childless couple,
Judge Gonzaga and his wife. The judge, a brother of one of the heads of the
alquimistas, has just been named to an important post in Guatemala and.plans to take
Isabel there.
War with England is now threatening. General Landesa is placed in command of
the Sevillan volunteers and decides to light the torch of revolution against the
government, Carlos has by now received a commission and is an under-officer in
Lnndesa's army. His enemies plot his death at the hands of assassins, but he escapes
and papers that he has seized help materially in reveling the plans of the rebels
against the government. Finally the day arrives when Landesa's rebels attach the
loyal troops of the command. The loyal soldiers defeat their adversaries and Lnndesn
fails in his attempt to kill Carlos when he is himself slain by El Chrto. GuzmAn,
wholalso is now an officer, captures important records from the rebels.
Narciso, who has helped Landosa in the latter's dealings with robbers and
smugglers and has also served the general as counselor and spy, has ere now put aside
his turic and cowl and has served in this battle as an ordinary soldier on the rebel
side. After receiving a mortal wound, Narciso experiences feelings of contrition
and writes a letter to his archbishop in which he reveals his and the marques' evil
deeds against Isabel.

"Ho tonido toda mi vida una sola doctrine political la libertad e independencia
do todos los pueblos," M'ximo G6mez (cubano).

Soon after these events, Tia Rodavrllos, in gratitude to Carlos because he has on
one occasion protected Violante against several ruffians (one of these was actually
sent by the alquimistas to murder Carlos), visits Carlos and tells him that Isabel is
in evil hands. Furthermore, she reveals to him some startling news. Isabel is the
daughter of one of the most illustrious former military leaders of Spain and her
mother was of a noble family, Isabel's birth took place in the h-me of a relative of
her mother's, a.widow, who bore an illegitimate child at almost the exact time Isabel
was born. Isabel's mother died soon after her birth and, hereupon, the widow kept
her own daughter at home, sent Isabel away, and, when Isabel's father arrived at her
home, made him believe that the illegitimate child w.s the baby th.t his deceased
wife bore him. Soon afterward the widow's own child was abducted and the great
military leader retired and disappeared,
Carlos suspects that the marques was the criminal who caused Isabel's dis
appearance. The archbishop reveals the contents of Narciso's letter to Bruna and Car:
suspecting that the marquesa was the criminal who caused Isabel's disappearance, also
informs the magistrate of what Tia Rodavallos has told him. The marques is placed
under guard in her home. Carlos has found out that the alquimistas are plotting to
have him assassinated, and Judge Bruna informs him that Isabel is destined to be sent
to America. As he has himself been given important military duties to perform, Carlo(
sends El Chato to Gadiz to rescue Isabel.
The plots of the alquimistas against the government are discovered and Carlos
has the satisfaction of arresting Pedro Facundo and Pedro Gonzaga, twr leaders of
this organization, who have personally directed the plots against him and Isabel,
El Chato and Guzman rescue Isabel from her boat.
Carlos' faithful friend, the parish priest of Aznarcollar, has meanwhile learned
from the lips of a dying parishioner, who has been Isabel's supposed mother, the
facts about Isabel's abduction and that the much-persecuted girl is his daughter by
his former marriage to Isabel's mother, the real marquesa del E. Nor is this all i
Narciso and the widow actually poisoned Isabel's mother and the villainous woman
later appropriated to her own use the title and property of Isabel's parents.
Violante is the real daughter of the false marquesa and Pedro Facundo. However, the
false marquesa cheats the law by poisoning herself with some of the same poison that
was used to kill Isabel's mother.
Isabel, long cheated out of her rights, is installed as the real marquesa del E.
and is happily married to Carlos, whose rise in military life is rapid. Violante,
shamed by her own illegitimacy and her mother's infamy, retires to a convent and soon
dies. The sekor de Chodapeturra has been unable to pair off rll who remained un-
married at the end of the story, hence Alberto and Eugenia are left single. In fact,
the unhappy fate of Violante and the lack of more marriages are explained in these
words: "Las se.ioras y los caballeros ni galopaban ni aun trotaban juntos en aquellos
dias. Nadie osrba, aunque s6lo fuese por amor a la decenoia, snlir en p1blibo del
paso castellano".
In a study that the present author made several years ago of imitations of Sir
Walter Scott's technique that re to be found in a number of Spanish historical
novels of the period 1828-1850 it was stated that Ivanhoe had The Bride of
Lammermoor contain almost all the points of novelistic technique that Scott -uses in
the majority of his other works. Certain points of Scott's technique that are
mentioned in the aforesaid study, some of which are used in Guy Mannering, that are
found also in El Golpe on Vago may be listed as follows: (1) The art of sustaining
the intrigue by means of the delayed identification of certain characters who play

1. Influencia do Walter Scott on Espfia, R. F. E., XVIII, 149-162.


a part in the story; (2) the use of certain objects as a means of identification of
some persons or of pledging faith; (3) the introduction of certain persons, usually
of an enemy race, who are skilled in the use of medicinal potions; (4) the reappear-
ance of persons who have been supposed to be dead; (5) the use of disguises as an
aid to persons to escape from danger or to introduce themselves into forbidden


In Ivanhoel, one of the principal
elements of interest is found in the
concealment for a while of the identity
of several of the principal characters;
Ivanhoe, King Richard, Friar Tuck and
Robin Hood. Likewise is the identity
of Harry Bertram delayed in Guy
In Ivanhoe, the Pilgrim (Ivanhoe
in disguise) offers Brian a relic of
the True Cross as a pledge that he will
meet Brian in combat, while Brian in
turn delivers to Ivanhoe a gold chain
to bind his word. In the Bride of
Lammormoor a piece of gold, broken into
two parts, binds the .vows of love be-
tween Lucy Ashton and the Master of
In Ivanhoo, Rebecca, the Jewess,
has a knowledge of medicine which she
uses to cure the wounded Knight, Ivan-
hoe, while the potion administered in
The Bride of Lammermoor by the Jewish
fsioo to Alvaro Yaiez gives to the
latter the semblance of death, thus
causing his escudero to believe that he
is dead and to report his belief to
Y~iez' fiancee
In Ivanhoe, the noble Saxon,
Athelstanoe, reappears alive after he is
supposedly killed in battle,. Similarly,.
Harry Bertram reappears alive after Guy
Mannering thinks that he has caused
Harry's death in a duel.
In Ivanhoe, Wamba, the loyal jester
of Cedric the Saxon, disguises himself
as a Franciscan friar in order to in-

El Golpe en Vago

Isabel, la marquesa del E. and Violante
are similarly treated in El Golpe on Vago;
the whole thread of the sEory is more
dependent on concealed identity than is

The band that Tia Rodnvallos gives Carlos
in order that he may identify himself to tho.
who will give him aid slightly recalls these
points of Scott's technique,

Tia Rodavallos and her (supposed)
daughter, Violante, care for Carlos' wound
after he escapes from the Sevillan prison*
The potion administered by gypsies to Narcise
mule give it a death-like appearance,. but,
after the departure of its owner, it is re-
vived by thom with an antidote and falls in-
to the hands of the bandit Tragalobos. Gar{e:
do Villalta uses gypsy medicinal knowledgein
an incident that borders on the ridiculous,
Narciso's supposed death is one of the
principal elements of the plot. His re-
appearance and confession of his crimes brini
justice to Carlos and Isabel, who have been
grossly persecuted,

Markedly similar is the procedure of El
Ni~o's followers, who disguise themselves as
Capuchins and.are admitted into the Sevillan

1. Comparisons to Ivanhoe are based on the edition of Carrie E. Tucker Draoass, New
York, D. Appleton and Co., 1903; comparisons to Guy Mannering are based on the
edition of New York, John W. Lovell Company,. n.. d.

_ ___

produce himself into the castle of
Front de-Boeuf and take the' place of his
master who is imprisoned there. Cedric
escapes aft6r changing clothes with


prison, from whence they help Carlos and
Tragalobos to escape. Later Carlos dons the
garb of a wandering student in his perigrina-

As for other specific- points to be found in El Golpo en Vago which recall Guy
Mwnnering and Ivanhoe, let us consider the follo-wi ng-sTmlaritos, some of which are
strikingly close.

SIn Guy Mannering, the kidnapping
of Harry Bertram is planned by the
villainous Glossin so that Harry will
not be an obstacle to Glossin's greedy
desires to acquire the barony of Ellan-
gowah. Harry is sent to Holland,
later becomes an army officer in India
and, on his return to Scotland, is
persecuted by Glossin so that the latter
may continue to enjoy his ill-gotten
holdings. For the accomplishment of
his nefarious ends, Glossin consorts
and plots with villains of the deepest
dye. Harry is finally 'saved from fall-
ing into Hatteraick's hands, largely
through the intervention of the gypsy,
Meg M'rrilios. i.

In Guy Mannering, Glossin desperate-
ly tries to hold on to the barony of
Ellengowan by claiming that Harry
Bertram is a natural child. The
appearance in court of the real natural
son of the former Laird thwarts his

In Guy Mannoring certain smugglers
play important r'olbs.

In Guy Manneringf Hattraick,: aside
from boing a murderer,' turns kidnapper
at Glossin's bohost.- Hatoeraick is a
criminal of the utmost depravity.

In Guy Mannoring, Harry's death is
thought of by his onomies but is never
actually attempted.


"Tonemos que volver los ojos a la tiorra, a nuostra tierra, para sor algo en el
mundo, para toner una culture," Manui61 G.lvez (argontino).

Isabel's mother is hated by her cousin
because the latter was chosen by the marques
del E. for his bride. This cousin's
illegitimate daughter is born at almost the
same time as Isabel. The cousin wants to
see her own daughter become the heiress to
the title and riches of Isabel's father and
accomplishes Isabel's abduction in collu-
r sion with the -villainous Narciso. After
acquiring theriches and title that she has
coveted, the false marques del E. tries
to continue in the enjoyment of the title
and property that she has criminally
acquired. Conspiring with the alquimistas
whom Naroiso is now serving, the mnrquesa
endeavors to force Isabel to take a nun's
vows. Failing in this largely through the
righteous intervention of the saintly
bishop of Seville, the alquimistas, who
try to favor the false marquesa in order
to enjoy the benefit of her powerful in-,
fluence, attempt to send Isabel out of
Spain. El Chato, a bandit, helps to
rescue her from her intended fato.
Violanto's birth makes possible the
whole nefarious scheme of her mother to
acquire a title and riches for her natural
daughter. After Violanto's mother becomes
"the wealthy false marques. del E., Isabel's
and Carlos' persecutions are largely
motivated by the desire of thisfalse
marquesa to continue in the enjoyment of
the honors and riches that have been
criminally acquired.
Narciso's connection with smugglers is
only one feature of his criminal career
and has no bearing on the plot of the story.
Fcrciso, equally as base as Hattoraoik,
furnishes the poison with which Isabel's
mother is slain by the latter's cousin,
and he suggests tho idea of having Isabel
abducted and of deceiving Isabel's father..
Carlos' death is not only planned by
the alquimistas but is actually attempted.

In Guy Mannering, Hatteraick, in
his abduction of Harry, is but a tool
in Glossin's hands. Glossin remains
in the background,

In Guy Mannering, Glossin is possess-
ed of a brilliant mind, but his abili-
ties are turned into wrong channels
In Guy Mannering) Glossin is
remorseful tdowrd'the end of his
career, but fear of discovery permeates
all of his regrets over past crimes.
However, he never reveals his wrong-
doings nor does he try to atone for his
In Guy Mannering, both Colonel
MannerTng and Charles Hazelwood have
personal encounters with Harry Bertram
and later became his staunch friends.
Harry, of course, forgets all the re-
sentment that he has felt toward his
former Colonel, who wronged him in
In Guy Mannering, Harry Bertram,
now a young captain, has the personal
satisfaction of arresting Hatteraick,
the scoundrel who kidnapped him when he
was a child.
Scott's love for archaeological
detail is., as in other works,
evidenced in Guy Mannering and this
work is flavored with his love for
Scotlandts beauties.

In Guy Mannering) Meg Merrilios,
who, of course, claims supernatural
powers for herself, is angered by the
action of Lewis Bertrrm when he evicts
the gypsies from his estate. Hence she
tells him "You have stripped the thatch
from seven cottages; see that the roof-
tree of your own house stands the
surer." However, she later tries to
save Harry from his kidnappers and
succeeds in exacting a promise from
them that they will spare his life.
Later on, thinking that her curse has
been responsible for Harry's hardships,
she swears to restore him to his
rights. Far from being a friend of his
kidnappers, she materially aids in
Harry's escape from unjust imprisonment
by revealing Hattoraick's plot to attack
the customs-house and jail, even to the
point of sending her nephew to help

Landesa, Naroiso and Pist.ccio are tools
of the false marques and the alquimistas in
their persecution of Carlos and Isabel, The
real conspirators keep mainly behind the
The alquimistas have exceptionally keen
mental faculties which they use for evil
Narciso, wounded and facing death, be-
comes remorseful and penitent and writes a
letter to his bishop in which he reveals his
and the marquesa's wrong-doing and thus
helps to rectify the evil that he has

Do Graiina becomes a firm friend of
Carlos after the two have been adversaries
in the fight in the Sevillan prison. At the
end of the story, Carlos magnanimously
pardons the escribano for having pursued
him for a crime for which he was innocent.

Carlos leads the soldiers who arrest the
two alquimistas who have persecuted him
and Isabel.

Garcia de Villalta pays some attention
to archaelogicnl detail, but his descrip-
tions are brief in comparison with Scott,
There is a slight indication given of
this Sovillan's attachment for his native
Tia Rodnvallos, though endowed, as she
claims, with supernatural gifts, does not
play quite as important a role in Carlos'
and Isabel's delivery from their persecu-
tors as Meg does in Harry's case. She
treats Cnrlos' wound after he has escaped
from prison, disguises him and helps him
on his way, works in league with the
bandit, El Chato, and later, calling
herself the "numen benefico quo to ha
oscundado on los poligros y te los
peligros y to coronara de vontura, "
reveals to him that Isabel is a kidnapped
child of illustrious parentage and that
the girl is in danger. The evidence that
clinches the matter of Isabel's rights,
however, comes through Narciso and Isabel's
supposed mother.

"Veamos en la grnndeza do la Americn unidn el vlor do crda uno do nosotros en per-
fecta vigilancia," Pedro da Costa Rego (brasilefo).

him and in thwarting Glossin's plan to
have Harry abducted a second time by
Hatteraick. Finally, she aids .in
arresting Hatteraick and establishing
Harry's identity so that he may inherit
the barony of Ellangowan.
In Ivanhoe, Rebecca's association
with Ivanhoe results in her forming a
deep affection for the young knight, but
notwithstanding her kindness to him,
Ivanhoe chooses a lady of his race,
social rank and religion as his bride.

Few comic characters in literature
are better drawn than Dominie Sampson
in Guy Mannering, the minister and tutor
of Harry and Lucy Bertram, who is a
classical scholar, devoted to the house
of Ellangowan, fond of pedantic
language, forgetful to the standpoint-
of freakishness, a strange creature who
commits all manner of ridiculous mis-
takes in his, and who is so
fond of Latin phrases that he hurls them
at even so ignorant a person as poor old

Violante nurses Carlos after he has
been less seriously wounded than Ivanhoe.
Her attachment for Carlos is strongly
suggested by the author, but the
led to sympathize with her in her hopeless
love, just as many readers of Ivanhoe
sympathize with Rebecca. The one is a
Jewess, the other a gypsy, and both are
benefactresses of men who occupy high
stations. In Carlos' time "nadid osaba,
aunque solo fuese por amor a la decenoia,
salir en p4blico del paso castellano."
If we substitute ingles for oastellano,
this remark could apply to Ivanhoe's
Garcia de Villalta's picture of the
physical appearance of Guzman, Carlos'
friend, is even more amusing than is that
of Sampson. Guzman was "la personification
identica del licenoiado Cabra.-- Mirado de
medio abajo parecda tenedor o comps, con
dos piernas largas y flacas, su andar muy
despacio; y si se descompanla, sonaban
los huesos come tablillas de san Ldzaroj
la (sic) habla etica; la barba grande,
que nunca se le cortaba-- poro on lo que
mas se le parecia era on la (sic) hambre."
Of course, Garola de Villalta copies
some of this from Quevedo. However,
Guzman, in his liberal use of quotations
from foreign masters, resembles Dominie
Sampson more than he resembles the
licenciado Cabra, idiosyn-
crasies and podantry. Guzman's activities
as a sculptor, bull-fighter, army officer
and hero render him far more versatile
than Dominie Sampson, but he is the comic
character in an ultra-serious story, and
from the humorous standpoint recalls both
Sampson and the licenciado Cabra.

When we consider the immense vo ue of Scott's popularity in Spain at the time
that El Golpe en Vago was written,, and also the statement that Garcia de Villalta

1. See Churchman and Peerst "A Survey of the Influence of Sir Walter Scott in Spain,"
Revue Hispanique, LV, 227.310; Peers, Ei Allisoni "Studies in the Influence of
Sir Walter Scott in Spain," 'bid., LXVII, 1-144.


knew English well enough to compose this novel first inEnglish,2 there remains
virtually no doubt that Garcia de Villalta imitated Guy Mannering in the main plot
of his story. Tia Rodavallos both in type and actions recalls Meg Merrilies
sufficiently to make us feel sure that the former was patterned after the latter,
but not slavishly. While various points of Scott's technique of which we have made
mention were not all original with Scott, the fact that Garcoa do Villalta's work
was composed at almost the height of Scott's popularity makes it very probable
that Garcia de Villalta owes their use directly, in part or in whole, to the
influence of the great Scotch novelist.
Opinions of the literary worth of Garcia de Villalta vary, Cejador character-
izes El Golpe en Vago as "un verdadero golpe on vago,"3 while Ovilo calls it,
author'"uno delosmas felioes ingenios de la primer mitad de nuestro siglo,
and Hurtado and Palencia observe that this novel "tiene al o sobre la expulsion
de los jesultas y quiore ser tambien novel de costumbres.." Our reaction to these
comments, after a careful perusal of the work areas Garcia de Villalta was one of
the most extraordinarily gifted, in his ability to construct a complionted-plot,
of any Spanish novelists whose works fall in the first ifP years of the nineteenth
century. Every little detail is made to fit in as a vital part in the final
denouement. In the author's efforts to depict the manners of the eighteenth
century, he succeeds best in his portrait of the pedantic Guzmin,. although this
personage becomes at times almost a caricature. The extreme length of the novel -
it contains about 1050 pages divided into six volumes makes it tiresome at times.
If 'Garcia de Villalta intended to imitate Scott with a slow-moving narrative, he
made one that moves too slowly, However, the wok does give the reader a good idea
of some types of eighteenth century Spain in most of the characters who are
represented. The villains are so exaggerated that they do not impress one with
any idea of reality. Evidently the author-intended to follow the vogue of historical
fiction, but the historical portion is virtually without foundation and hardly a
single historical personage takes part in the course of the story. If the
alquimistas are Jesuits in disguise, the story does not correspond to the facts
concerning the expulsion of the Jesuitso Besides, it would be ridiculous to.
impute to the Jesuits any such crimes as those attributed to the alquimistas.
While Narciso is a renegade cleric, he is intended to represent only a marked
exception to the general character of priests.. The parish priest of Aznaroollar
and the archbishop of Seville are men of the highest virtues; the latter could
not do more for Isabel, though he wished to do so; his hands were tied by the
astute machinations and the power of a society of scoundrels. The church is a
holy institution and the author assures the reader about the "car cter divino do la
religion cristiana, segLn felizmente se profesa en nuestro pais y en otros de
Europa, y considerado solo en sus efectos materials y palpables, hnbre. que
confesar, sopena de descreer la historic y los hechos mejor conprobados, quo no
han gozado jams los hombres do institution mas sublime, benefica y consoladora.'1
However, in our authors opinion, the eighteenth century in Spain was filled
with godlessness, an epoch in which the holy influence of the church was overcome
in Spain by the forces of evil,

2. Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada, XXV, 829.
. Historic de n lengua y literature cnstellana. VII, 176.
4. Mondez Bejarano, Mario; Dicoionario de escritores, maestros y oradores de Sevilla,
1922-1925, I, 243.
5. Historia de la literature espanola, segunda edici6n, Madrid, 1925, 993.


El Golpe en Vago, while it has faults that have been pointed out, is entirely
undeervi'ng oT-any consummate, sweepingly adverse criticism, While just punish-
ment is the lot of the consummate villains, Christian charity, forgiveness and
fidelity are the keynote of the treatment meted'out to other characters. The
work deserves consideration among those that mark the rebirth of the novel in
the nineteenth century, While the abnormally evil character of several of the
persons who play roles in the story place it definitely in the classification of
romantic fiction, the almost entire lack of really historical elements and
personages givos the work but little right to be termed an historical novel.


Cejador y Fraucas Historia do la lengua y literature castellana, VII.
Churchman and Peers: '"A Survey of the Influence of Sir Walter Scott in Spain,"
Revue Hispanique, LV, 227-310.
Enciclopedia universal ilustrada, XXV.
Hurtado y Palencias Historia do la literature ospaiola, segunda edici6n, Madrid,
Mendez Bojarano: Diooionario do escritorcs, maestros y oradores de Sevilla,
1922-1925, I.
Peers, E. Allison: "Studies in the Influence of Sir Walter Scott in Spain,"
Royue.Hispanique, LXVIII, 1-144.
Zollers, Guillormo: "Influnocia do Walter Scott on Espana," R.F.E., XVIII, 149-162.

"There is not one of all our countries that cannot benefit the others; there is
not one that cannot receive benefit from the others; there is not one that will
not gain by the prosperity, the peace, the happiness of all," Elihu Root,
Secretary of State, at Rio de Janeiro in 1906.


por Ernesto Hastings Casseres

Costa Rica es un pals centroamericano esoencialmente agrfoola. La topograffa
favorable, el clima variado, y la fertilidad de sus tierras contribuyen grandemente
a que sea la agriculture la principal industrial de Costa Rica. El caf. 'r'lbsibina-
no' son los dos products mas cultivados, .debiendose a ellos el desarrollo y adelan-
to del pais. Sin embargo, la preponderancia de este bicultivo ha sido tan grande
on los afos pa-sados, que no se produce todavia la suficiente cantidad de artioulos
alimentioios para satisfaoer las necesidades de la poblacibn,

Los problems agricolas toman especial importancia en estos tiempos en que se ha-
ce necesario el reajuste econmnico, pues la agriculture es la base de la riqueza na-
oional. El problema principal que Costa Rica tiene que resolver es el aumento con-
trolado de la production de articulos comestibles. Digo controlado porque por ex-
periencia propia y por lo quo ha sucedido en otros passes, sabemos que existed la
tendencia de cultivar demasiado o muy poco, de acuerdo con los altos o bajos precios
que se obtienen en el mercado.

Hay poca variedad de articulos comestibles; arroz, frijoles, ma{z, papas y pll-
tanos es lo que se consume mayormente. Se conocen algunas frutas y verduras pero
no se aprecian ni consume en debida cantidad, tal vez por la misma escasez de ellos.
Estos products hortloolas, que se pueden producer de muy buena oalidad y en sufi-
cientes cantidades, estan llamados a former una buena part de la alimentaoion de
la poblaci6n de Costa Rica. El aumento de producoi6n de los mismos contribuira
grandemente a la soluci6n del problema antes anotado.

Los pauses tropioales abundan en plants economicas cuyo valor no se conooe. Al
igual de otros passes, Costa Rica debe descubrir esas riquezas latentes dentro de
gu propio territorio y tambien debe interesarse por introducir do otras regions
plants que pueden cultivarse en nuestras tierras. El mejoramiento del tipo y ca-
lidad de los products actuales es otro paso important, pues nuestros agricultores
on su mayorxa siompre querran cultivar los products a que eatan aoostumbrados.
Mediante la recomendacion do los mejores mitodos do cultivo, y medianto la introduo-
ci6n de variedades nuevas so puede persuadir a los productoros quo aumenten su pro-
duccion do estas frutas y vorduras para asi ir procediendo a su estableoimionto oo-
mo articulos comestibles indispensables.

El mercado potential quo exist on la misma pohlacion do Costa Rica so dobe pro-
parar por medio de un plan comploto para divulgar las vontajas econm&ioas y saluda-
bles que so obtienen con el consume de mns frutas y mas verduras frescas; oste pro-
grama se debe llevar a cabo por medio do las oscuelos, peri6dicos, radio y conferon-
cias por estudiantes de rgricultura y teonicos en la material. Un mercrdo seguro
que no necosita preparation es la region Sur do In provincia do Puntarenas en la
costa del Pacnfico done so estan estableciondo grandes oultivos do bananoss los
pueblos y ciudades nuovas quo r.ll se estan formando requieren frutas y verduras de
los climas templados del pals. Todav{n otra buena perspective referente a meroados
es la construction de la oarretera Pan-americana la cual nos oomunicara con PanamA.

A osos mercados se envinran frutas do nuestros climes onlidos, tales cnoo papa-
yas, mangos, pinas y marraiones; de los climas templados y frfos so enviaran duraz-
nos, mombrillos, aguacates, naranjas y anonas; zanahorias, nabos, coliflores, espi-
nncas, beronjenas, leohugas y tomatoes tambion serAn articulos de gran comoroio.

"Through the Pan-American principles of continental solidarity Bolivrr's dream has
become a reality," Dr. Rafael A. Calder6n, presidentoloct of Costa Rica.

El creciente sistema do carreteras, ferrocarriles y vias aereos ponen on comuni-
cacion casi todos los contros do production con los moroados.

El desarrollo hort"cola de Costa Rica sora un gran paso hacia adolante porque so
mejorara la vitalidad del pueblo mediante el consume de alimentos mns apropiados.
No se tendr& que recurrir tan frocuontemento a la importaci6n de partidas de nrroz
o frijoles por el aumento de production de los-mismos y porque otros nrtcfulos for-
mr,n parte do los alimentos del pueblo. 'La horticultural es una nctividad adaptable
para muchos peque0os agricultores. Esta industrial provoera a otras emprosas con
mejores material primas, come por ejomplo, frutas y vegetalos para encurtidos, ja-
leas y conservas. Con una buona production so puede incromontar in exportaci6n do
los mismos a Panama, ya por la via mnritima o por la Carretera Pan-Americana. So
hara possible el almacenamiento de estos products on plants rofrigeradoras para
asi surtir los mercados con comestibles froscos en epoons on quo ordinariamente no
se consiguen. Se podran aprovisionar los-barcos que arriban a nuestros puertos.
Las perspectives de los mercados son buonas. Las vontajas son inostimables.

Esta necesidad del establecimiento de ompresas hortfoolas en Costa Rion, no de-
biera considerarse tanto como problema sino come magnifica oportunidnd que se pre-
sent. a nuestrn juventud y a los hombres do vision para trabnjar on una industrial
modern, progresiva y crecionte. El Dop.rtnmento de Agrioultura del Gobiorno costa-
rricense debe star listo parn suplir la informncion tecnion a los ompresarios na-
cionales o extranjeros quo pudieran tenor intores on estus nctividades; como on mu-
chas ocasiones tenemos que nceptar ampresas con capital extranjero por fnlta do ca-
pital nncional, parte del personal de esas omprosas extranjoras dobe star siempre
formado con tocnicos del pnis.

En los Estados Unidos la Horticultura tropical y sub-tropicnl hn sido desarrolla-
da grandomonte en el estado do Florida, y nl estudinr esn materin on in Universidad
del mismo ostado, so aprecia la cooperacibn y espiritu de entendimiento que osta
nnci6n muestr a las republics hisp no-amoricnnas.


Los Picaros de Quevedo, parent and local chapter of the honorary Spanish frater-
nity which is now being expanded into a statewide organization was founded in the
spring of 1933 under the guidance of Dr. 0. H. Hauptmann and Mr. Francis M. DeGae-
tani, professors of Spanish at the University of Florida.

The group is playing an active part in Pan-American activities throughout the
State of Florida and has sponsored educational broadcasts on Hispanic culture from
University of Florida radio station WRUFP educational Spanish motion pictures at the
Florida Union of the University; and, speakers.of note such as Dr. Juan Clemente
Zamora, professor of law at the University of Havana. In cooperation with the In-
stitute of Inter-American Affairs of the University of Florida, Los Picaros has
sponsored a statewide Spanish declamation contest for high school students for the
past few years.

In the spring of 1939 Los Pfcaros entertained the University of Havana baseball
team in Gainesville, and in the fall of the same year organized a Chapter at the
Florida Southern College in Lakeland, Florida. This Chapter is known as Los Picaros
de Cervantes. Plans are being made to include the University of Tampa, Rollins Col-
lege and other schools.

Requirements for membership in the honorary organization are: (a) Any bona fide
student who has successfully completed twelve (12) semester hours of Spanish, or the
equivalent thereof, with an average of "B", or the equivalent thereof. (b) Any bona
fide student who has a fluent command of the Spanish language.



por Braulio Sanchez-S&ez

De un tiempo aca, la bibliografia nos ha dado seiaales de interest, por las cosas
del pasado. Y Tobias Barreto logr6 despertar el interest, con dos sendas biogra-
fias. Una particularmente me ha llamado la atenci6n, la del professor Hermes Lima,
otra, si bien alto interesante, responded mas, a lo minucioso. Me refiero al libro
del Sefor Omar Monte-Alegre "Tobias Barreto, vida y obra," de aparicion reciente.
Si bien es. verdad, ya existia una amplia bibliografia, muy curiosa por cierto,
en la del professor Hermes Lima resplance la figure de este gran pensador, en sus
mas extranas y diversas manifestaciones. Con ese libro, tenemos muy cerca de nues-
tra mane, ouantos dates precisemos para encarar el sujeto, en su epoca y ambiente,
para tener una idea mas concrete de sus partoularidades y la esencialidpd de su
Comencemos per el hambre. Naci6 Tobias Barreto de Menezes, en la pequena locali-
dad de Campos (Estado de Sergipe), el dia 7 de junior del aflo 1839. El hogar de su
naoimiento,'era bien pobre ciertamente. Era hijo de un escribano de huerfanos y
de ausentes, de la citada localidad. Mestizo bien pronunciado, do ideas liberals,
casi jacobinas, que chocaban y repelan, en ese ambiente patriarchal y esolavocrata
del Brasil. Dicen sus biografos, quo la'madre de Tobias Barroto podia considorar-
se "casi blanca," vale decir, que la inicial procedencia del sujoto era de blanco
y negro, mas eso no era obice, para que se clasificara entire los "no puros," y su
catogorla, quedase entire los esclavos. Precisamonte por cuestiones do color, den-
tro do otras muchas, tuvo Tobias Barroto quo soportar tremendas luchas, pues la
puroza de la sangro era capital en cl pasado siglo, cuando so trntabn do una figu-
ra quo "quera llamar In ntencion."
Do pequeno, ya el joven Barreto domostraba condiciones para ol studio, y on
vistn do ollo, su padre lo coloo6 bajo las 6rdenes del viejo professor Manuel Jon-
quin de Oliveira Campos, hombre do aspiritu liberal, que ha dejado rocuordo on los
angles sorgipanos, come poeta, jurista, politico y sobretodo, hombre de bion. Luo-
go do oste somoro aprendizaje, fuE mntriculado on la ciudad de Estanoin, on Ins
aulas de latin del padre Domingo Quirino, que fuera andando ol tiempo, obispo del
Estado do Goyaz.
Con ontusiasmo siempro peronne so dio a la tnrea do apronder, logrando destncar-
so on cuanta material lo suministraban, domostrando insuperables condiciones parn
today labor especulativa, tanto on idiomas come ciencias. Y ye, a los quince anos
logro cl titulo do sustituto do latin, otorgrndo en In ciudad do Lagrrto, quo cr.
segunda on cctogoria de onsoianza, on la docta provincial. Pnrocer oxtrnno, pero
los conocimiontos de latin eran recomponsados en ose tiempo con grandos merecimien-
tos y el mortal que podia tender una buona clasificaci"n, si no ore domasiado nmbi-
cioso, tenia un medio do ganarse el sustento, puss siendo un idiomr. do lujo, gus-
t.bban las families pudientos de quo sus hijos recitaran doclematorinmente come tri-
bunos a Virgilio, Seneca, Lucrecio y Horacio, en su propin salsa, si bien algo es-
pesa, Mas, no sucedia lo mismo, on los que teniEn anbi6ionos,y so sentian poster-
gados on la modiocridad de ose ambionto, come le sucedia a Tobias Barroto, y otros
do su ospecio.
Ya desde Joven, sintiose dominado per un gran deseo do superacion, y hnbiendo
horodedo part de. las ideas do su progenitor, su luchn ora mas firm y su idol
tambien much mAs grand, por que do rdentro le vonia. El horizonto amplindo, de-
mostrado por poets y estadistns dcl Imperio Romano, lograron podoroso ncicacte pn-
ra sus ilusiones, y con un afAn pleno do voluntariosa prestancia, incluso con in-
transigoncia, se di a a l area do npronder, surcando derroteros diversos, sondean-
do la ciencin y la filosofia, hasta dnr con los ideals que acuicinban on el alma,
con un dcsoo infinito de ser aigo. Gracias a la gentileza de un condiscipulo, tu-
vo on sus mnnos diversos texts en aloman, y sin otra explicacion di6 comienzo a
componetrarlos, facilitdndole en tel tnroa, la especial prodisposici6n que tonia
para dosentraner los idiomas. Sus progress fueron rapidos y grandos. Trasladose


a c oiudad do Itabninn, en dondo onoontr6 mas c.lumnos, mntriculrndose on el dero-
oho, perfeccionandose en alem"n, y nsimilandoso cuantas ideas cxistir.n, on parti-
cular cl "positivismo," que como unn floor exotica, so dabn por rqurllos olim.s do
In inquiotud y del pons'~miento, inquiotando el nmbiente intellectual de nl provin-
A fines del c o 1855, fu6 nombrrdo juoz on r. ciudnd de Lrgr.rto, asombrnndo con
sus innovacionos y trntnndo de implnntlr nuewrs norms on In jurisprudcncin, 1i
cual, soguin nnquilosadnmente on los procedimiontos do lr epoca colonial, casi en
plano feudalismo.
Er,, como es o1gico, bastanto morono, do onorma cnbozn, ojos snltonos, c.bollo
love, entire ensortijado. De naturaloza robusta, gruosr voz, imporiosos gostos,
domostrrndo a lis clarns su combatividnd. Pero, ore trnioionrdo, por lr obscurn
procodonciC do su piel. Procisamonto fuc esto lo quo lo porjudico6 n todr su vidn
liternria y political. La. sociedad cstbba acostumbradn a quo los hombres do modes-
to origin fuoson dociles, r.p,'ciblos, osencialmonto si estos hombros ernn do otrr
rnzn inferior. Pero, esr. norm. bion-podria :stnr determinoda prrn otros sores mns
domndos, quo con cutola, mra.ns o doblo intoncion, podlrn vlorso nT)rr. ronl.iznr
sus rotos sin llnmnr domasiado la .teonci6n. Un osfuerzo promcdint-do do doblez,
sistom ticonmnto puosto on pr0cticn, drbr osplindidos resultdos, y llogr.b inclu-
so a sor gustcdo por lc cristoorncin do lri. pocrn. Mas, pnrr Tobirs Brrroto do Me-
nozes, l, cosa resultabn completamonto impossible. Ccrrctor violonto, prrn. ese su
mnnera do ponsar, bastante comprsnsiblo, no podin ncopter terminos modios, colocdnr-~
dose do inmodiato on frnnca desidoncin, con rbogados y juocos. Yr dcsdo muy jovon
pudo comprjndor quo siempro tondria quo luchr.r a la dofonsiwv y quo si quoria ven-
car sorin acat.ndo lrs ideas, l.s normas y los concepts de los domes; poro, com-
prendic trmbiin quo era muy dificil pnrn. cl, y quo tendria que sr.crifionr moral-
monte todr. su concioncia do hombre.
A ostcs oxplioRciones complicadrs, sucodioron otrns. Sus studios on Rlomr.n,
sus influoncir.s y toorias monistns (1Haockol, Darwin, etc.), con los rosistidos i-
nicir.doros do osos sistemas, corrospondiondose con ollos epistolarmontc, lo infln-
ron demasiado, llen.ndolo do suficionbia, dosnrrollando sus concaptos, muy pooo-
conooidos on ese tiompo, por causes dol ambiunto p.cato do la provincir; lo imagi-
nnron do inmedinto, loco o'un pazgunto on procurn do fanm ruidosa. La vida so lo
hizo impossible. Sus rocursos oran muy osccsos, s6lo tcnfa consualo on osas tro-
mendas inquietudes cunndo so nislrba on sus libros extranjeros o oscribiondo oru-
ditos studios sobre filosofia, dorocho y litorrtura clcmnna, o tnmbicn confiMndo
a su guitarra, compairara field (supervivencin attvica de su snngre nogra), las mo-
joros canciones dc su alma ilusiondAn.
Aconsejado por sus amigos, 6ambia do horizontes, pide remocion, y dcsooso do po-
dor liborarse de ose ospiritu discordant quo rodcr.b, so traslcda aIn ,la udad do
Bzhia eon donde aponas so pormaneci6 un prr do afios, encontrando idonntico l ambion-
to, apolma.zado y chato, on dondc'ora pontifice maximo el pintoresco Fray Itapnricn
do much nombrdin on esc tiompo. Poro ni siquiora eso lo intoros6, su picoor ora
lr Bibliotoca Pbblicn', on dondo ronliz6 asombrosos doscubrimiontos. El mXs intore-
srnto do todos fu6 oxaminando unn "Antologia Pocticn" do Charlos Andre la marnvilla
do 1 poosia do Victor Hugo, sintiendose inmedintamente influonciado por su gcnio
plono do lirico y libertario fuego. Su otrn pnsi6n, apart do sus studios rlomr-
nos, fu6 In poossla, y como ere natural do facturn Rogros^a Cr.apos, su
ville natal y pormanoce un R-o on in placidez mansa do oso lugnr, pcro siompro in-
dociso, notndo quo cada dia, hnolrsoli mas impossible la vida en oso ambionto on
dondo vivian los suyos, existoncin mediocre, vivir on ap.rioncias do muorto, puos
luchaban lo imposibie para mal alimentarse. Adopta pues trr.sladarse a i1 ciudad
do Pernambuco, on donde residian lgunos amigos y condiscipulos ouyn universidad
soern mas benigia con las ideas quo lo ataraceaban inquisitorialmonto on las grnn-
dos vigilias.
A finclos del PiIo 1864 so decide dofinitivamente a rndicarse on Pornambuco y
con algunas carts do viejos amigos do su padre, su inseparable guitarra, libros,
Osceso dinero y caballero ilusionado part para la ciudnd sofndn.

Su primer". proocupaoi6n fut liric-, puos le ondilga unn odn a Rocifo, quo fal-
ta do auditorio, so la recite asi mismo, quodando complacido. Por lo visto Victor
Hugo hrbir arado hondo on su animo. A los pooos dlas sufro dos contratiompos, un
.sno lo pntoa, cuande pasaba noidentalmonto corcr del animal, y no bion ropuosto,
lo la viruola, siondo nocescrio intornarlo. Sano do cstos dos contratiompos
so mn.trioula on filosofia, on la doctn Univorsidad Pornambuonna y consiguo divor-
sos alumnos a los oualos da leocioncs do alomr'n, Tongua ista, quo dominrab do for-
ma admirable.
Es siompro un ostudianto animoso y com-ronsivo quo logro solir victorioso on
sus mritarias., -incluso las mirs dificiles, poro r.p:rsrr do ollo, es resistido por ol
color do su piel. Algo t.mbien, por l. insolunoi. do su prostnncii., pucs cur.ndo
comprondi quo existlnn los projuicios on torno do su figure on voz do nmilrnnerso
so ponfa furioso y oer cr.pnz do conictor actos do sumc. violonci..
So prosonta un concurso do la.t{n, on ol Gimnasio do Pernr.mbuco, y no logrc
srlir voncodor, a posnr do sus notables cl.sificaciones, poco dospuos, on ul con-
curso d3 filosofi., s.licndo a tod.s luces gnncdor, entrogrn ol trofoo a otro, por
el simple motive do que ol frvorocido orr. pndre do familiar, y Tobias Br.rroto, no.
Unrr. cesn lo consuela., In juvontud esta con 6l, le rolnmr., siguo sus oursos prrti-
cularos, ologia sus discursos, rocite sus versos, so ontusiasmr. por ol onciclopo-
dismo quo atcsora; cosas nuovas y muy poco vistas on oso tiompo. No obstfanto, su
situaoi6n cconomica se hace cada. voz m.s diffcil, y prr, colmo do los mn.los so
cn-:mrc, do una angelical figure, quo lo corrospond:2, poro ellao s do unr claso pri-
vilogicda, rica, blEnc, dosocda per muchos pr.pcos, mientrrs l onr'.morrdo solo
tiono su talonto y su -.udrcia, aconnpalindolo una piel bastante obscure.
Visit al padro, pore no logra prsar de nls primers palabras, ol gonio ostaba
domIs, oran nocesr.rios pergaminos, sin ollos, serai impossible trratr dol asunto.
Tdos ostos sinsaboros, fueron agrinndo su carnctor y haciendole mr.s roboldo do lo
quc ya. ora, su unico consuelo oran sus libros, sus amrdos studios oxtr.njuros, y,
cunndo la tristoza era muy donsa y onsambrec{a su ooractor y su r.lmr., In guitnrre,
ficl compaiera, acoptaba las quojas do su dolorido-corrs.n. Fu comprondido, uco
crEn muchos los factors quo lo ocrrr.ben ol paso a sus a.spir.cionos, y quo jrmr.s
podrin doblogarso a las oxigenoias dol modio, en dondo otrcs, si bion monos oultos,
eran mAs f cilos de domar, y lograban las escasas probondas otorgadns, on los pi-
tanzas controladas de un oficialismo do castas. La Universidad,.scguia siendo un
feudo, morced de profesores domesticer!os, camarilla quo so turnaban, toniendo ya
prefijado con much nnterioridad los nuevos jefos, quo so destinaban a los sitios
Muchos cautolosos, silonciados per nl fuorza, tolcraban ose gcnoro do trmpisnn-
das, pore no asi Tobias Barreto, quo on plona oleso, on tertulias, on cafes, rou-
nionos familiares, proclamaba a gritos, los males y vicious quo asolaban in oulturn
y el progress del pueblo. Conform pnsrba el tiempo, crecia su dcsonfado, y duofio
ya do muy divorsos titulcs academicos, so encontraba como on los primoros tiempos;
me.s pcbro y mas ropelido que nuncr.
Su amor so casa con otro. Noo la apon. much, comprondo, que ha side una simple
v.nidad do mujer, ose enamoramiento, posiblcmento per enoontrarlo arrisoado y do
fijr. c.tunoi6n popular, por trl razon, pronto cur6 su coraz6n de ose love horida.
Desde Sergipe, la vioja ciuded prcvinciana do sus primeros aios, ostaba unido on
frctorna r.mistad con un condiscipulo, tambien rosidente ahorn on Pornambuco; so
trata do Castro Alves, ol magnifico poota, que ye dabn comionzo a brill.r con ox-
trancs fulgoros. Ambos, apesr do la distnncin do class, Castro Alves do rice
pa.trimonio, buen mozo, blanco, on todos los salones cristocrioticos; dife-
ronto a kl, cl pobre Barreto, mostizo y ediado por su carcoter u intransigoncia.
Esas relaciones no fueron intorrunpidas duranto muchos anos, mas una nocho on que
0astra Alves rondia ploitesia a un aoctriz de moda, con unos versos do su cosech.,
Tobias Brrreto, sin proponersolo, naturalemonte, cant6 tambiDn a osr musa do carne
y huoso, oosa que le pareci6 muy mrnl ia ondiosado Castro Alvos, y so tronzaron en
amigablo discursi6n, primero y poco despues on agrin polmnica, adistanci.ndoso des-
do ose moment para siempre.

En vistrt de quc cade dil, on c~dra horn so ncontur-br. nqis su ponos. situr.oiJn,
procurn colr.borrr on divorsos periodioos y publicr.cionos r.ce.di.icrns, quo si bion
rogonto.d.s por los quo 01 considorlcab sus onemi r s, no obst:culitirr'n su trr.bjo,
insurt.ndo on Ics An'.los onsr.ys come "Srnto Twnr.s do Aquino," Tc-l-ng{ y Tcidicea
n, s'rn cioncias," "Jules Simon" y "Doningo M ngnlh.wos y su tibmpn," quo crmbntidos
ostos studios, cosa muy nr.tural per ciorto, no per aso dejbr.In do sor "dnirrdes
per gontos entendidas, on Porn-mbuoo, Rocifo, Olinda., Notr.l, y tnnbion on Sno
P!.ul- y Rio de Janoirc, crociendo su nrostigio intelectual, considorr.blieonto. Co-
me oses trab.los citAdos, public r-tros muchos, particulcrmento, oruditos studios
sobro fil"sofita y litorrtura aclomrnr', dostr.cndo'-solo y consagrrnd- su nrmbre fuora
y dontro doal prns.
Vivo do lo poce quo le producon sus locoiones, nlgunr quo otrr consult conr
abogndc, y sus trrbajos do colnborr.oiin. Conf"rmo pasr. 0. tiompo, .crco su vin-
lonoin, rl sontirse postergado. Su luchr. on los medios universitr.rins, llogn r. lo
mrximo, rdquiriendo ccntornos de vcrd.dors eoscondcloss piblicos. Sc rofugi n nls
librns a on los tortuli.s, cr, 'fs, librari.s, on do'ndo so dospacha con n.critud, ro-
d'-d' dor jovonos ostudirntos, quo luogc propr.irn, r.mplir.dc. Inr. ccion'
Un diL conoco .1 coronal Joao Felix, viojn libornl, quo so ontusiasmr. do nl vcr-
ba y los arrobatos del tribune on cirnes, qua as Tobias Brrrcto, lo invite r. su
casa. y lo cfrece su npoyo. Sucedif 1" quo os l0gico on todas cstr.s cnsas do fani-
lic, so onrmor" do una do l.s hijr.s d.l coronol, onmprometiondoso poco dospuls. El
future sucgro, ducHo do va.rios ingonios r.zuocroros on Esonda, le asogur6 un osplon-
did- doto a su hija, a fin do quo no tuvieso m.s ponnlidades su nuove famili.r.
So oasnarn. Mr.s lr frmilin dol c,:roncl rra muy numorosa y no tan brillrnto su po-
sicinn, pues le. political lo consumc r much dinoro, poro do ounlquio-r fonnr, yr. l~
c-sa nr tonr. romodio. So traslnd6o ol matrimonin a Escnda y rlli rbrio bufote do
abgr,.do. Sus entiguos onemigos fucron con chismes onvnonenndble Ir, sr.ngro, cada
voz con mas sanR, y on csta, cch.ndolo on car. su fa.ltr do miral, on accp-
tar dolibcradrmonto, el dinero do In mujor.
Un dir. so ontor6 do quo so vondia un. modostisime impront., on un carorno puo-
blo y Ir. compro a fin do editor sus libras, quo muchos oditores so nogrbacn, no
quorian compromatorso editando a une figure tan nagand, por lo mis brillrnte do la
provincial. Tomrn un nficial cajiste, y a In prr componif sus "Estudios Alomanos",
sus diversos tomos do "Ensayos" y do "Estudins," admirrblos b.jn todo concept, un "El Martillo," on dondo ntr.acab dospicd.drenonto a
cuantos so ntrovian con su obra o con su figure, siondo -esto todrv.i poor, pubs
pnr simples dclnciones so metia con pn.cficcs ciudadanos, que a 1 mnojor nndr hr.-
bir.n Adoems, era una nuove modnlidn.d la introducidr. por Tobins Br.rroto,
s do dcombatir dospindadoameont, on un clinn que no estcbo. prrn oso. Es-
pecir.lmonto oso fue uno do sus mns doplornblos nctos, pues ri6o pio pr.r.. quo muchas
porsonas que lo estimaban, le retirason fr. rmistrd.
Si bion su fnnnn crocia, poro lajos dcl solrr, y su nombro arr. tni:~ on cuontn
on los cen culos autorizndos do lr. intolectunlidad del Brcsil; su vidr- pri 'drn' so
fue hnciondn cr.nd voz'mas odiosnmonto impossible. A asto so sumrn Ir.s dosidencins
entro suogro y yorno, la fnlta.a las pronesas dc.dcs en material oconomica. Inespe-
rancmonto fallooe el viejo coronel. Los hijcs so apodcren do in hacionda, nalogrndo
quo Tobias Barreto habi.a gastado yn, on c'-ss suporfluas, much mar's re lo quo lo
corrospondia on In herenoia. Esto as pr.ra Brrroto un golpe casi mort.l. No pens6
ni dofonderse siquiora. Sus amigos Ic instan para quo dej torlo y rogroso de nuo-
vo Rjcife, en done as muy factiblo quo fuoso n.nbrmldo professor do In Univcrsi-
dad, puds existing una vacanto y so llrnmar n concurs.
Doj6 todo on Esca.da y regros a I n ciurd.d do sus primers andcnzas, pore yr. no
ra, ol mismo. En escs dioz anos do continues luches, habia dado lo mojor de su
existoncia y notaba quo algo morin on 6l, o quo otra cosa aparcica on su vida. Y
era procisamento el coraz6n quo comonznba afnllarlo. Ponso quo eso mnlostar fue-
so unn bronquitis, como le docia on cnrtas r un viojo amigo y paisann; so trata dol
oritico Silvio Romoro, puro orr. on rorlidad quo al corazon ost;.ba y. fuorr do su
ritm.c normal.

Nombrrdo pr-ofosor, llcvo r1urnnto rns rios une existcncin lgo nr.s s'sognd ,. Sus
clcsoss orrn c'nourridisimas, siond celogir.'o grendramonto per t,'-?r"s, nh'--
rn quo los pstorgrdsos orn r.quollos sosudos pr-fosoros que I~ roohrzvbr.n, y tr n-
bion sus mismos cormpr.orcs do turmris r.nt, ol goni' d1o osto hrnmbre. Apnrontomonte
so lo tclorr.b, pere sordn luchr. so gcstn.b on In.s sombr.s, y osto lo conprondi-.
porfoctrnmnto Tobirs Brrrot.. Estrb. per ostos y ntras muchr.s rnzcnos cnsi sion-
pro tristo o viColnto, on ocnrsionos n,' pnd{nr. soperte.r mos ol cliv. y crn vinloncoi,
los dcc{r. n t r' s sus fnlsodr.dos, hnciondo in vidrl y lI luchr imposiblc. Su crr.-
z6n, c".o' df{nr, s dobil. Sus nooosid".olos imperioses, puas aor un indivirdu sin
orclon y gr.strh on libros, on ordicionos y *n follotos, sc.tiriz-ndo r. sus onomigns,
much m.s do 1o quo gnnn'bn. Los u'itrnros !o Rio so noga-rnn sionpro c roreliz'r
oicionnos do ostc ponsn.ror, indudnblomoento por induioionos do lgunns onomigos on-
cubiortos do r. metropolis.
El no 1888, su mr.l so acrecentr, So conv-nci' esto voz quo orn 0 cor..zon ol
quo I1 ostabn contend los prsos, y con un 'nfn crccionto, so dedic, ro visnr sus
obras y c dr.r fin definitivrmonto r los trnb.njs comonzndos, pnro quo no qucrldson
mnrtorirlos inconclusos. Por esta rnzn, tormrin sus "Cinontrri. s nrl Codigo ro lo
Criminnil," "Cuostionos Vigontos," "Estudios (d Filosofir y Critior," "Estudirs Alo-
mancs," "Poomas," "Diversos Escritos," "Pol(micns," "Estudios -e Dorocho," "Dis-
curso on Mangns do Camis-.," ."cnorms y locos," "Esturdios sobru Il. nujor," "Ensr.yos
sobro ol Romuanticismo," y "El Positivismo."
Esa l1,bor,dcrn, oempoor6 mrs su astndo, acrecontinnroso, con lIs ponurias
oconomioas quo sufrin., obliganlo r sus numnorsos amigos y r.-mlirndomros n inicinr
unr suscripoi6n, quo Silvio Rororn, oxtondii hnstn. So Prulo y Rio do Jnnuiro. Mns
oso dinoro hnbrif do sor pnrn su mnrt-jna, pues falloci ol d~ir 26 do junior do 1889,
tcnin 50 nnos.
Dontro do todos los orrores y rnpsionrmiont's, propi. do In poc., as digno do
tcnoi'n ostr. figure de Tobins Barroto. Compronrldn porfoctmeonto qu. lr hqstilicnrd
quo so 1o hcin, on pnrtcs, ore on osncin c1 ol mrtive ro sn culpr.bilidr.d, nris,
ose ambianto ohbrconno, oursi, ror.oio I todr. idon do rcfmorm., or donlo prismr. In
idor, fij-. y roomodada a un, sociod.dd rancci'onari.; rnuchr. p.rto on sus
dosgrncias. Miontras muches do sus contcmp-n'no s so ontrogrbr.n l's idrorcs do
los csclavistrs y corrabrn ol ruodo a. Is ideas do libortedr y de hum.nns principles,
~o so plogabc~ los s Es evnzndos, on In primorn linort do choquo, prr.r. ropolrr con
vord:,des, las intorosads s rnzonos do los torr.teniontcs y soficres do video. y hnoion-
dr,, onn o-ndo imporabr l. osclavitud mis inicun, cicgos y sordos n trdo llrnmdo do
Quo su fisononmin delctnbn Ir. br.jn cstirpe do su angro? Err ostc r.cnso capital
on unn Opoor., la cual oxistia un ptrircrdo ro mozclrns, y yr. I. s.ngro ouropor. so
hr,.bl entire padres o hijos, p'r convivio ontre Ins osol.vns, quo so pros-
trbr.n o vondcan aIs fn.milias pudiontos entro si, a lo major do parentcsco do sangro
muy corcano? Por ello, quo, Tobias Br.rreto so .forr6 nl positivismo mns,
crsi un positivismo compuesto a su mndo, quo lo coomplrcn y llonabr su cornz6n do
las vordrdos quo tonia n.lto examinndas on su ruro ojorcicio con In video, r. so con-
copto biologico del mundo material, tRn egofsta y frlso.
Sus mismos orrores do nprocinci.n nrizrndro in filosofic. do los PtAres do
la Iglosia, rospondir a los sistemas dc oposicion, patcntcs on su mancra do scr,
dificil do posiblo y nonmodad convivoncit., cunndo alg Tongemos
on cuontn, quo tuvo que luchnr on sus primeros moments, con nla sclr'isticr do Frry
Itaparicr y sus ense-rnzrs dogm.ticns, cosa quo frnnce.mento, ern un continue temr.
do risa.
Hoy, c un siglo do su nrcimiento, poco queda en pi6 de sus viclentes crmpaa.s y
do sus ,postolsdos, pero lo quo si quedr., son sus ensorisanzas sobre filrsof{ del
Dorocho, y sus admirables ensayos s~bro le literature y ciencia clomrnr., particu-
Irrmcnto, l.s escuolas rominticas, hnbiondo razonado sobre osas tondoncinrs liter,-
rias, muoho r.ntes quo llogason aqui, Ins quo Frrncic sin nogar trmpoco,
Ic onorme influence ogercirda por Victor Hugo, r.1 curl, quo su ospiritu
Y fuorza, tonla much do la psicol'gi{r. dol aspr:nol, pcsi ms quo dol frrncoeo.

So brnsrbr, on casos concrotos muy poco conocidos on su tiompo, morcocd sus co-
nocimiontos on otros idioms, nrgunontrndo solic!nmonto sus rr.zonos. Asi pucs, lo-
grb6 stnr muy por onoima de muchos quo slo tcni.n un prostigin gannr'o p"r imdios
inconfosablos, cost. que su conciencia ropoll. on todo mnmento. Parr confundir r.
sus oncmigos, cosi siompro on rlomin, o on Ir.tin, llon.ndo do oitar trgu-
montadas sus chrrlas y oscritos polcmiocs, y os, por ostas rnzonos y otras muchns,
quo choco on violontr form con nl mryorr, do sus conntompnranoos, y much mns c.n
el mcdio rmbionto, toniendo contra su persona, Ir oesmirrindn figure y su toz mos-
tiza do doscondicnte do negros.

Algunas Fuentes Bibliogrt.ficns Sobro Tobins Brrroto

Silvio Romorc: Prilogos y notas r l'-s "Estudios Alomrnes'", 1894.
Silvio Romorot Eistcria do Ir. literr:turn Brrsilirn, 1906.
Jose Vcrissimo: Historia. do ln litoratura Brasiloirn, 1910.
Ronald do C.rvlho: Puquc~r. historic do 1n litcr.tura Bra'silcir., 1924.
Nolson Worncok Srcdre: Historia do la litornturn Brasiloira, 1938.
Hormos Lima: Tobirs Brrroto, la 6poea y ol hombre, 1939.
Rosario Fusco: Vide Litoraria, 1940.
EOdgnrdo Cavrlhoiros Fagundos Varoll. y su tiompo, 1940.
Harocl o Pnrnnhos: Historia del Romanticismo on al Brasil, 1939.
Braulic S.nchoz-SAozt Vioja y Nuova litorr.tur. dol Brasil, 1935.


New books received by the Inter-American Reading Room recently include:

Bassi, Angel C., Principios de Metodologia General, Editorial Claridad,.Buenos
Aires, c. 1939.
Bernaldo de Quiros, Constanoio, Cursillo de Criminologia y Derecho Penal, Editora
Montalvo, Ciudad Trujillo, 1940.
Avelino, Andres, Metafisica Categorial, Editora Montalvo, Ciudad Trujillo, i940.
Davies, Howell, ed., The South American Handbook, 1940, Trade and Travel Publica-
tions, Ltd., London, 1940.
Ellis, Alfredo, junior, 0 Bandeirismo Paulista e o Recio do Meridiano, 3rd edition,
Companhia Editora Nacional, Sao Paulo, 1938.
Ellis, Alfredo, junior, Feijo e a primeira metade do seculo XIX, Companhia Editora
National, S~o'Paulo, 1940.
Ellis, Alfredo, junior, Populacoes Paulistas, Companhia Editora Nacional, Sao Pau-
lo, 1934.
Icaza, Jorge, Flagelo, drama en un acto; con un studio de F. Ferrandiz Alborz,
Imprenta Naoional, Quito, 1936.
Planning, John Tate, Academic Culture in the Spanish Colonies, Oxford University
Press, New York City, 1940.
Molina, Enrique, De lo Espiritual on la Vida Humana, Ediciones de "Atenea", Concep-
cion, 1937.
Molina, Enrique, La Herencia Moral do la Filosoffa Griega, 2nd edition, Ediciones
de "Atenca", Concepoi6n, 1938.
Venezuela. Ministerio de Educncion Nacional, Antologia del Cuento Moderno Venezo-
lano (1895-1935), selecci6n de Arturo Uslar Pietri y Julian Padron, Caracas,
1940, 2 vols.
Venezuela. Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Antologia de la Modcrna Poosia Vene-
zolana, selecoi6n y compilaci6n do Otto D'Sola, Caracas, 1940, 2 vols.


por Andrrs Davis Snlr.zrr

Ern un campo maldito, parocif unrn "gonia-. Un sabor r. ridoz, a arena rosoca,
sodienta y r-rdionto contagiabna ol rmbiento y todo orrn isorisa. Palnorns onformas,
sin grr.cic,. pnroclcan 'desr1nayrso do sol por Ics ardos. Los porros' can-
sadons, c-n un ruida do quoja, y sus ojos vidrioses hnblkban dbl hnmibrb. Lr, cnsa,
unos troncos t-rcidos rrrumos 1.2 br.rro; un mnnojc do pnalmas secns y p, rhos do In-
ta formaban cl tocho, quo err. l I voz ol gn.llinero.- pobros bichos ... unas plu-
mas clcwv.dns al hueso. Un cuer- nun pestilonte hac1.,'las veoes de crJna, donde
dormi~n MHrirna, la vieja, Pastor, un' hrlgrzain y onfermizo y Mnrinrna, In
hijr, I, unica nota viviente del ciapo malr1itc.
Bonito, 'ernrMrirna,, si la iden do bolloza puoede r-ncobirso en un modi" comrn- 6s-
te. Pa.rclcnse r In protests altanorr do unn floor delion.d quo brota robclro dr
I.s ontrrnr.s de unn roa. Y Mnrinn. or, buena. Dos aios hec{ni quo cuidnbc. Ic
tiondn dT'ndo los phones do los cr.mpos vocinos sr.ciaban su sod con "guarapo."l Dos
r.nos hr.cir. quo Cr.milo, l mr.rido do MW.riana,, In viojn, o mejor, ol prre do Mrria-
nn, i:. hijr, habin, muerto. El negocio ibn mrl desdo ontonoos. L, cnrratorr prsn-
ba bnstanto distant de "La Horquotr. do M.rirnnn,"'asi lllamdn dobido a Iln bifuroa-
oion dol cmaino real, rologado ahortr crmino do horindurc. con escanssimo transito.
Adamas, las clyondas do ospantos, do "gur.cas,"2 de gritos nocturnes do r.lmas on
pona, habinn herido do muorto el nogocio. 'Era curioso o{r los cuontos do npari-
cionos do fantasmas cornudos, do ruidos do cidenns y do sombras gigrntos que los
indios rlar.taban on la tionda do Prchhoor. Y Pnchocr. err, -lo ms nraturrl, 1r. m/s
ontusinstr. ombustera. Lns ticndr.s, situadas casi on frcntc Ir. unn do lr, otr", toe-
hicn su rivrlidad comorcial, quo fu cl principic indirooctr, do lr qucrollr. porso-
nral que ontre las dos oxisti-n.
Las muchachas do los ormpos vocinos tonian chinolrs chnrolrdas con borlrs vis-
tosc.s y.cnaguas chillonas, rojas, dC proforencizn, sombreros de paj. cn o cintas
brillrntcs y rdornos simulando fruta's que cntan lastim'estmnte sobro ol ala. MAn
nndc do esta vestimonta protoncios. llog6 nunca a arrancar un suspir doi onvidina quo nada tonna. Ella sonabe con nls medias rnsadas do pur" rAlgdon quo
nlgun di* hubiora. visto on el dol pueblo. Suspirabn per 61es y ls .d-
nir-br. con idolatria, y al for jr sus suceics on su mundo ficticio, adivinabr. el
roloite do su amado Olivorio al vorle nr.rchr.ndc por los sondoros ol lujo con sus
modias rosadas.
Y Pr.choca contnba quo un poin ".onju.nosco quo a la chica, unr vez ia
colm6 do prosontos, y In vioja onfurocida por poco aniquila n los dos c. gnrroto.
Nuncr. ms so vio un alma on rondas do nmor desdo ontonces, inclusive Olivorio.
Los doimingcs, y on prrticulr, los d1as do fiesta do iglosia, nls canpesinas
dosplogr.bnn con orgullo sus majors prandcs, y los phones vostran sus mns nuovos
cf.lzonos, train sus "tiples"3 y ol inevitable porroro4con latrrs nrc.das con fuo-
go, y habia bailey. So bnilaba "brabuct"5 y Ins ollas quo hsrv{an do guarapo for-
antado Oxpollan un color agrio quo so oonfundia con el sudor do las gontos.

SGunrapo Bobida formentada hochn con el jugo do lr oan o con l. cortoza do Ic.
2 Guccrs -. Loyonda de tesoros onterrr.drs, acompaindos per lo gonoral do fuogos fa-
tuos, a lis quo se los atribuye proveniencin infernal.
STiplos Instrumonto do cuerda do voices muy agudas. Tipico do Colombi.n
4 Porrro Madoro dolgado y consietonto con un lAtigo, en la puntn, pnra arroran
lns bestias. Los c.mposinos tambion lo usn a manonre de br.ston,
SBambucn Bailo tipioo national de Col:.mbia.

Un domingo on Ic tnrdo habia fiesta on la tionda do Poohoca. Mariana, inclina-
da sobro cl fogon, avivaba la hoguara con golpos ritmicos dcl abanico de pnlniohe;
sogula la music quo llogaba hasta olla con un dolor do molancolia, anmrtiguada per
el vionto y amnrgada per las circunstancias. Despuos do l. conn modest oscasa
quizas, Mariana so extendio sobre ol cuoro do res on In sala. La fiesta sogula con
todo furor. Los triples largaban sus notas con nnrs alegr'a, la misioa so hacoi m&s
invitanto, las carconjdas mas frecucntos y la angustia spiritual do In cnmposina,
m&s insufrible. Parec'a como si todo un mundo hostil oncontrara un placer sublime
en hccer burl-q do su tedio. Mariana soiaba imploraba tal vez y murmuraba im-
precaciones contra su sucrto rnlditn. Ella era el tema infnlible do burial on los
"fandangos."6 La apodaban "La Snta" con una. or~hl intenci6n ir6nica, pues la Pa-
checa ultrajaba su nonbre .y le inventaba pasajes do amor pervertido que la humilde
camposina no habia cometido ni siquierc soa-do.
El jueves siguiente, cuando se fu6 al mercado, I. vieron muy triste ouando sa-
li6 del rancho. Y lleg6 In tarde, pero Mariana no vino. La vieja trati do expli-
carle a Pachec, quo do vez on ouand- Marirna pnsaba la noohe en onsa do la madrina.
Y llego la noche, y la noche siguiente .. y tros moses, y In camposina no apare-
.Un dominge on la tardo hnbia fiesta on al monpo, cuando lleg6 Mariana. La mu-
sioa ceso y hubc un silencio dosesporante y todos lis ojos brotando veneno so cla-
varon con ira inclement on la figure do Mariana. Sue tronzas humildes hnbianse
tornado on rizos vulgnres y.un parche rojizo sobre sus labios pIlidos haoin con-
trastar con furia unas sombras obscures bajo sus ojos, unos ojos con sueno quo arro-
jaban desprecio. Con un caminado ondulante se dirigi6 a nl tienda, apart unas bo-
tellas vac{as y con un gesto de ser superior so sent6 sobre las mismas tablas del
mostrador. Sonri6 con picardia y de su bolso sac6 con af'n de coquota un cigarri-
Ilo que fumaba en bncanadas sensualos, e impudicamonte cruz6 las piernas, mostran-
do orgullosa unas meclias rosadas do pure algod6n.

6 Fandangos Bailes ontre los campesinos.

"We believe that a spirit of justice, of common and equal interests between the
American states, will leave no room for an artificial balance of power like unto
that which has led to wars abroad and drenched Europe in blood," James G. Blaine
at the opening conference of the International Union of the American republics in


por Dean MoPheeters

En la primer mitad del siglo XIX Cuba di6 al mundo los primos Heredia que eran
destinados a dejar huellas importantes en las literaturas francesa y espanola.
Como se describe esto de un punto de vista hispano-americano hablaremos por la ma-
yor parte de Jose Maria Heredia y Campuzano (1803-1839) porque su obra es netamen-
te cubana. El caso es que su primo, que no nacio hasta tres aios despues de su
muerte, se traslad6 a Francia ouando no tenia mas que nueve anos. El escribio en-
teramente en frances y no reflejo much el estilo. de su primo o el de otros esori-
tores esparoles.
Empero, es.interesante clasificarlo y al fin de este studio breve eso haremos.
El poema mas conocido del autbr cubano es Niagara que gano para el el apodo de "El
Cantor de Niagara." Niagara y En el Teocalli de Cholula aparecen entire 1820 y
1824 y se puede considerar esta epoca la mas important de Heredia2 En este pe-
riodo la revoluci6n abortive de 1823 fracas y Heredia se hall desterrado. Se
dirigi6 Heredia a Nueva York y un poco mas tarde fue a visitar a Niagara. Se ha
dicho que la oda que escribi6 Heredia en esta ocasi6n es la mejor poesia escrita
sobre este asunto en cualquiera lengua. Por ejemplo, el verso poderoso siguientes

Ved! llegan, saltan; El abismo horrendo
Devora los torrentes desponados;
Cruzanse en el mil iris, y asordados
Vuelven los bosques el fragor tremendo.
En las rigidas penas
R6mpeae el agua: vaporosa nube
Con elastic fuerza
Llena el abismo en torbellino, sube,
Gira en torno, y al peter
Luminosa piramide levanta,
Y per sobre los montes quo le cercan
Al solitario cazador espanta.3

1 Dice Francisco Genzalez del Valle en Cronologia Horediana refiriendose a la An-
tologia de Poetas Hispano Americanos por Don Marcelino Menndez y Pelayo, quo
6ste cree que En el Teocalli do Cholula es la mejor poosia de Heredia. No ob-
stante vcmos en Las Cien Mejores Poosias de la Lengua Castollana oscogidas por
Menendez y Pelayo que 61 escogo solo Niagara para ropresentar a Horodia on esta
coleccion. Por dosgracia no tonomos a mano la obra de MonMendez y Polayo para
averiguar si le citaron corrooctamonte o si so confundib a si mismo.
2 Gustavo Adolfo Mejia, "Jos6 Maria Horedia y sus obras," Revista Bimestre Cubana,
Mayo-Junio, 1940.
3 Menondez y Polayo (obra citada) prefiero la vorsi6n primora do asta poosia y di-
ce quo os menos afectada ni tione tantas cosas do mal quo intercalo despuos
por evitar mas ligeros descuidos o dar mas variedad a la diccion pootica. El
vorso citado loo asi en la version primcra:
Mas llegan ... saltan ... al abismo horrendo
Devora los torrontes despoeados;
Cruzanse on 61 mil iris, y asorbados
Vuolven los bosques ol frago tremendo.
Al golpe violontisimo on las penas
Rompese el agua, y salta, y una nube
De revueltos vapores
Cubre el abismo en romolinos, subc,
Gira on torno, y al ciolo
Cual pirmride inmensa so levanta
Y por sobre los bosquos que le oorcan
Al solitario cazador ospanta.

Gustavo Adolfo Mejia4 eree ver en muchas locuciones como abismo horrendo y oa-
zador espanta, ese sentimiento de terror que se palpa en su obra, en sus grande
producciones artlsticasp y que se transform en ira, passion amorosa, o contemplacion
filos6fica hondisima, es el talisman de su poesia imperecedora: porque el terror
c6smioo es sin duda ninguna el mas oreador de todos los sentimientos primaries.
Citemos ahora unos pocos de jos versos mas hermosos de las otras poesias esori-
tas por Heredia. En el poema pensativo En el Teocalli de Cholua hay esta imagent
Era la tardes su ligera brisa
S Las alas en silencio ya plegaba
Y entire la hierba y arboles dormia
Mientras el ancho sol su disco hundia
Detras de Iztacochual ..
y estos renglones que tienen algo del espiritu del Ozymandias de Shelleys.
Tales ya fueron
Tus monarchs, Anahuac, y su orgullo:
Su vil supersticion y tiranla
En el abismo del no ser se hundieron*
Si, que la muerte, universal sefora,
Hiriendo a par al d'spota y esclavo,
Escribe la igualdad sobre la tumba.
Con su manto henefico el olvido
Tu insensatez oculta y tus furores
A la raza present y la future.

En eptas frases de En Una Tempestad vemos ese sentimiento de terror muy distinta-
QuA nubest qu8 furort El sol temblando
Vela on triste vapor su faz gloriosa,
Y su disco nublado s6lo viorto
Luz fune.bre y sombria,
Que no es noche ni dia ,.,
Pavoroso color, velo do muertel
Los pajarillos tiemblan y se esoonden
Al acercarso el huraoan bramando,
Y en los lejanos montes retumbando
Le oyen los bosques, y a su voz respondon.

En 1826 Heredia estaba.en Mejioo, dondo lleg6 do Nueva York el 15 de septiembre
de 1825 y donde residio el resto de su vida. En aquel ano escribi6 La Estrella de
Venus on que amargamente refiero a su primer amor, Isabel Rueda y Ponce de Le6n, que
solo contrba 12 anios de odad cuando la conooi6 In primera voz Heredia, en La Habana
en 1819. Parece que la culpaba Heredia en part per au destierro aunquo no se pue-
do avoriguar que rnzon tonla. Dico asi:
Ahora mo miras
Amer tambien, y amar dosesperado.
Hulr me vos al objeto desdichado
Do una estoril pasi6n, que es mi.tormento
Con su bellozs mismr.;
Y al renunciar su amor, mi alma so r.bisma
.En el solo y eturno ponsamionto
S D amcrrla, y de llorar la suerte impfa
Quo por siempro so ara
Su alma del. alma mia.

4Obr td
Obra citada.

He aqui un pasaje cbnmovedor' de Al Sol que refleja el espiritu revolucionario de
Oh dulcisimo error Oh Soil Tu viste
A tu pueblo inocente
Bajo el hierro inclemente
Como palida miles gemir segado.
Vanamento sus ojos moribundos
Por venganza o favor a ti se alzaban.
TA los desatendias,
Y tu carrora etorna proseguas, 5
Y sangrientos y yertos expiraban.

Ademas de su poesia Heredia escribi6 muchos ensayos y articulos do critical y tam-
bien imit6 o refundio various dramas. Uno quo era original se represents durante el
gobierno del Presidente Gundalupe Victoria y fue recibido frfamente por muchos me-
jicanos porque trat6 del tirano Sila (ol protagonist) y ellos eran muy oolosos do
sus libertades.
Domingo del Monte no habla muy favorable del drama de Heredia,6 cuando dice -
Quisieramos que en ella no insertase el author la traduccion y refundici6n que ha ho-
cho de algunas tragedies dol teatro frances, que trnto por no ser las mejores de su
genero, except el Abufar do Ducis, cuanto por carecer del mSrito de la originalidad,
no haran buena liga con los otros versos de nuestro Cantor, en que no paroco sino
que el genio poetic do la America tropical le comunic6 sus m6s pateticas y sublimes
inspiraciones. Tambien estn imprimiendo el mismo Herodia unas Lecciones do Historia
on cuatro tomos, de las ouales no tenomos idea ninguna.
Al hablar Del Monte del "~goio poetico do la America tropical," nos noordamos, d
lo que dij.o un critico frances sobre la cnlidad tropical on Ins escrituras do He-
redia, ol primo. Este prdbablomente represent un fondo comnn a los dos en veo de
una imitaoi6n del estilo dcl Herodia cubano.
Gustavo Adolfo Mcojia cita a Menendez y Pelayo cuando este dice Pero no se ha
de career que Heredia, aunque poeta porsonrlisimo en sus ideas y nfectos, y gran pe-
cador contra lan pur.eza de la lengua y del gusto, deba sor tenido por poeta rom.nti-
co. Su puosto esta en otra escuela que fue como vago proludio, come aurora tenure
del romanticism. Es cierto que alguna vez imito a Lord Byron, etc. p........ paro
fucra-doiosta semejanza, mas bien moral que literaria, ..... el romnnticismo, pro-
piamente dicho, tiene poco que reclamar en los versos de Heredia, cuya verdadera
filaci6n esta evidentemente en aquella escuela sentimental, descriptive, filantr6-
pica y afilosofade que, derivada principalmonto de la prosa de Juan Jacobo Rousseau,
tenia a fines del siglo XVIII insignos afiliados en todas las literatures do Europa,
y centre nosotros uno no indigno de memorial en Cionfuegos, quo si hubiera acertado a
escribir come acerto a pensar, a sentir, hubiera side grin poeta. Cionfuegos es ol
principal rosponsable de los defectos de Horodia, come ya not6 don Alborto Lista
(V6ase la famosa carta.del primero de enero do 1828 a don Domingo del Monte repro-
ducida en algunas ediciones do las poesias do Horodia y en varies studios sobro
oste poeta), pero tambien es just referir a el algunas do sus cunlidades.

SLas citaciones do poesia quo acabamos de dar son de Odes of Bello, Olmedo and
Heredia escojidas por Elijah Clarence Hills.
6Obra citada.
Le Realisme, vol. IX de LiHistoire de la Literature Frnncdiso par Rone Dumesnil.
8Obr cited
Obra citada.

Este pasaje es interesante pero se puede career que esta estimacion de la obra de
Heredia es demasiada estrecha. La primer part de su obra refleja algo de Cien-
fuegos tal vez, pero en su periodo mas fructuoso Heredia tiene muchas calidades ro-
manticas. Se nota v. gr. un espiritu --- personalismo, en su poesla de esta epoca
como hemos visto en las citaciones dadas aqui. Por lo quo mira a Byron en la cita-
cibn de Menendez y Pelayo sabemos que Heredia traduce o imita los poemas siguientest
Atenas y Palmira, Versos escritos en el golf de Ambracia y tambien escribio A los
griegos, en 1821 y Lord Byron.
Este'tema del levantamiento griego es significativo o, mejor dicho, podria ser-
lo, Tocante a este asunto Heredia tradujo las poesias siguientes del frances:
Defaite D'Aly Tebelen, Deroute Mouktar-Veli, Sacrifice des six martyrs souliotes,
L'exil de Photos, La prise de Souli, La mort de magnanime Despot, Hymne funbbre sur
Parga, y Anatheme, Tambien tradujo Skilo-Dimos y Yotis Mourant al italiano.
Es interesante ver las reverberaciones que tenia la revoluoi6n griega en el mun-
do de las letras. Nos acordamos de que Byron se muri6 luchando contra los turcos.
Bsta era una epoca de alzamientos y Heredia vivia en tiompos agitados. Contempora-
neos suyos eran Simon Bolivar y Santa Ana. Aunque se puede deoir en un sentido muy
general que toda esta lucha por la independencia tenia racoes en la filosof{a de
escritores como Rousseau, Voltaire, y los patriots franceses y americanos de ambos
continents, se puede ver si se hace un studio mas o menos detenido que el espiri-
tu conmovedor era algo mas que la filosofia de Rousseau.
Hay algunos criticos que screen que hay algo de Chateaubriand en Nidgara pero las
huellas no son muy definitivas. Cuando estaba en Nueva York escribib una carta (8
de mayo, 1824) en la cual dice a su hermana que leyese la descripci6n de las saltas
de Niagara en Atala y Rene. Sabomos que mas tardo Heredia escribi6 una poesla ti-
tulada Atala. Por esg parece que su romanticismo se debo tal vez a la influencia
del escritor frances.
Como ya hemos visto, Heredia imit6 a muchos escritoros y por lo siguiento es bas-
tante dificil avoriguar quien le influyo mas. Tambien Heredia era aficionado a va-
rios autores ingleses. Come, por ejemplo, Scott y el escritor del Osiam spurio.
Sabemos que Heredia sabia algo de Juan Jrcobo Rousseau porque escribi6 una poesia
titulada Los Dias Ultimos do Juan Jacobo Rousseau.
Cuando volvib de Pensacola, Florida, en 1810 con su padrei0 un amigo le di6 una
copia de Las fabulas de Florian, Por casi la mitad de su vida Heredia hacia tra-
ducciones do estas ftbulas.
Adem6s de sus obras poeticas y oriticas, Horedia servia come juez en Mejico por
various akos. Hay algunas cartan restantes en las cuales demuestran various jueces
companeros do la habilidad y honradez de Heredia on el cumplimiento de sus deberes.
Varins veces Heredia defendi6 n algunas personas o grupos porsoguidos por el go-
bierno y demostraba que no temi aa los oficialos u otros cuando habla quo hablar en
dofensa do la libertad.
Cuando se murio el 7 de mayo do 183 i Heredia en la capital de Mejico, site po-
etas escribieron poesias a su memorial,
--Ils laissent subsister un rapprochement avec Chateaubriand dent Villiers est
bien le successor, lour differences otant justific suffisamment par le deroule-
ment entire eux du romanticisme don't l'un fut le premier, l'autre le dernier.grand
prosateur. Hautain romanticisme disabuse qui n'est pas peut-etre pour Chateau-
briand qu'une attitude omprunt5e, etc. Rone Lnlou, Histoire do la Litteraturo
Frr.ncaise Contemporaine (1870 a nos jours).
Se cuenta que Heredia estuvo on Florida de 1806 hasta 1810, pore hay algunas du-
das sobre esto. En una carta do Nueva York del 12 de agosto, 1825, dice que le
han aconsejado que fuese all{ para pasar el invierno proximo porque tione un oli-
ma semejinte al de La Habana. El nada dice de la primer temporada, pero como no
tenia mas que sietto anos do edad cuando sali6 de Pens cola tal vez no recordaba
much del clima.
Ignncio Maria de Acosta, Jh. K. (desoonocido), Ignacio Valdds Mnchuca, Francisco
Iturrondo, Gabriel de la Concopoion Vald6s (Placido), y Gortrudis Gomez de Avella-

Citamos aqui un verso de la poesia A la Muerte del Celebre poeta Cubno .Don Jose
Maria do Herodia per Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda (1816-1.87) nacida en Cuba..

Le poete est semblablo nux oiseaux de passage,
Qui no batissent point leur nid sur le rivage,

Voz pavorosa en funeral lamento
Desde los mars do mi pntria vuela
A las playas do Iberia; tristemente
en son confuse la dilata el viento;
El dulce canto en mi garganta hiela,
Y sombras de dolor visto a mi mente.
Ayl que osa voz doliente,
Con que su pena America denote
Y en estas playas lanza el Oconno.
"Muri6," pronuncia, "el fervido patriota ..."
"Murio," ropite, "el trovador cubano;"
Yun eco tristo en lontananza gime,
"Muri6 ol cantor del Niagara sublime."

Al pasar, hablemos un poco acorca del poota quo era primo del autor que acabamos
do discutir. Como este Heredia so traslad6 a Francia cuando tonia solo nueve nleos
y cano su madre era francesa olvid6 su longua natural muy rapidamonte. Unos anos
mas tarde volvio a Cuba para perfoccionarse en el espanol.
Los ostilos de los dos escritores son distintos. Aunque el autor franoes refle-
ja un ambient tropical en muchas de sus poosins es muy imporsohal y su tratrmiento
de temas de la naturaleza no tienen much que ver con el otro. Alguion ha dioho que
su pocsla Le Recife de Corail es semejante a algunas de las poesias que escribi6 su
prime, pero es dificil acertar quo tienon on comun.
Nos dej6 Horedia un solo volumon on el cual vemos la suma de su ompeno liternrio.
El arte do este escritor era ol do cincolar con rasgos firmos y hermosos la cumbre
de una opoca o do una figure. Por oso sus sonotos, que so oncuentran on Los Tro-
phees, tienen algo de pequenas esculturas en marmol.
Come dijo Daniel Mornot1 ---. sus antepasados verdnderes ni son conquistadores
del oro ni criollos apasionados. Son los griagos de aqualla "Holada'" verdadora y
fabulosa que se han trasladado a la vida on unos series do fuerza humana y graoia
ritmica, on dioses y diosas, contauros, corvatos, tan bien que ni In oontienda ni la
sonsualidad ya no compiten alli ... soltmonto las actitudes do la luoha ... do la
tristeza o do la alogr{a.
Las oreenoias del auto mismo del arto portico son intorosantes.14
-- La poesla vordadera esta on la naturaleza y on la humanidad otorna y no estl
on el corazon do unr hombro do un d{a per grand quo son. Ella es osencialmonto son-
cilla, antigua, primitive y, por ello, venerable. Despuos do Homoro, no so ha it-
vontado nada fuera do algunas imagines nuovas para exprosar lo quo ha existido siom-
pro. El poota no puodo ser mas roal y grandomento human quo lo os impersonal.
Esto no osta do acuordo con ol ostilo "personalismo" do su primo..
No obstante Horedia no so oscap6 do una influoncir o, mojor dicho, una inspira-
cion ospaiola. Escribi6 un "Romrncoro" on ol cual siguo, casi oscona vor oscona,
on poosia, ol drama Las Mocodados dol Cid por Guillan do Castro.. Tambion oscribio

Bardos Cubanos per Elijah Claronce Hills..
13 Daniel Mornot, Histoiro do la Littoraturoe t do la Penso Francaisos Contompo-
rainos (1870-1927)..

14 "Discurso do Acogida a la Ancadmia Frr.ncosa.," do Los Trophdos por Jose Mnria do

su poema epico en el oual trata do "los conquistadors del oro," y quo tieno esto
titulo. Los protagonists de osta obra son Balboa, Pizarro., y otros de los con-
quistadores del nuevo mundo.
Herodia tnmbion tradujo una or6nica vieja nl francs.
Antonio de Zayas, Duque d' Amalfi, hizo una traducci6n excelente de Los Trophies
(1908) y este influyo much sus colocciones, Joyolos bizantinos, Rotratos antiguos
y Paisajes.15


Histoire de la Litteraturo et do la Ponsce Francaisos Contemporninos par Daniel
Mornot, Paris, 1927.
Las Cion Mojoros Poosias doola Longua Crstollana, esoogidas por Don Marcolino
Men'ndez y Pelayo, Philrdelphin,. 1925.
Le Realismo (vol. IX do L'Histoire do la Littornture Francaise) par Rone Dumos-
nil, Paris, 1922.
Dioz Comodias dcl Siglo do Ore, por Hymon Alpern y Jose Martol, New York, 1938.
A History of French Literature, por William A. Nitzo y E. Preston Dargan, Now
York, 1928.
Some Spanish American Poets, traducido per Abie Stone Blackwoll, New York,-1929.
Histoire do la Litteraturo Frrncaise Contomporaino, par RonO Lalou, Paris, 1922.'
Les Trophies, par Jos6 Maria do Horodin, Paris.
Bardos Cubrnos, por Elijah' Clarence Hills,.Boston, 1901.,
The Odos of Bollo, Olmedo and Herodia, por Elijah Clnrenco Hills, Now York, 1920.
Cronologia Horodiana, por Francisco Gonzaoz del Vallo, La Habana, 1938.
"JosO Marfa Herodia y sus obras" por Gustavo Adolfo Majia, Rovista Bimostre Cuba-
na; eds. Mayo-Junio, 1939; Julio-Agosto,.1939; Septicmbro-Octubre, 1939; Noviombro-
Hicimbro, 1939; Enero-Febroro, 1940; Marzo-Abril, 1940;.Mayo-Junio, 1940. La odi-
ci6n do Mayo-Junio, 1939, es dodienda a Hcrodia onteramontp porque era su contena-

15 A History of Spanish Literaturo by Ernest Merimoo.



Cuban lawyer, jurist, sociologist, folklorist, and lite nry critic, Fernando Or-
tiz is a former member of his country's diplomatic-consular corps and farmer profes-
sor in the Faculty of Law of the University of Havana. Sr. Ortiz now devotes most
of his time to the Revista Bimestre Cubana and Ultras cultural and informative publi-
cations of which he is director. He is a member of many intellectual and scientific
societies in Europe., Hispanic America., and the United States, and is author of many
books and articles on linguistics, folklore,, sociology and law.

Dr..William C. Zellars is an Associate Professor of Spanish at the Florida
Southern College in Lakeland, Florida, and is a Director of the Instituto de las
Espafias en los Estndos Unidos, Seccin de la Florida. Author of numerous books and
articles, Dr. Zellars is a regular contributor to the Revista Interamoricana.

Author of numerous articles, Ernesto Hastings Casseres is an exchange student
from Costa Rica and is studying horticulture in the College of Agriculture of the
University of Florida. He was a former student at Maryville College in Tonnessee.

Bra-llio Sanchez-Saez is Professor of -Spanish and Ibero-Americnn Literature at the_
University of Sao Paulo in Brazil. A native of Spain, Sr. Sanchoz-SAez has spent a
number of years in Argentina where he.has studied and taught in the Instituto Naoio-
nal del Profesorado Secundario de Buenos Airos. An ardent lover of the Portuguese
language and Brazilian culture, he has published many books and articles in this
field and bn Hispanic-American literature.

Andres Davis Salazar, former student at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, is
a senior at the University of Florida and is specializing in economics. Davis, who
has been a regular contributor to the Revista Interamericrna, has compiled an en-
viable record as a speaker, appearing before civic, religious and women's odganiza-
tions and a number of schools in the State of Florida.

Dean McPheeters is a graduate student from the University of Illinois where he
specialized in Spanish. After spending a period of travel and study in Mexico, he
returned to the States to resume his studies at the University of Florida where he
will receive his Master's 'degree in Romance languages.

Manuel D. Ramirez, editor of the Revista Interrmericana and Secretary of the
Institute of Inter-American Affairs of the .Uniersity of Florida, graduated from
the State University in 1937. After a year of teaching,, he returned to the Univer-
sity of Florida and received his Master's degree in, 1939.