Revista interamericana;


Material Information

Revista interamericana; revista dedicada al estudio de la cultura iberoamericana ..
Physical Description:
v. : ; 28 cm.
University of Florida -- Institute of Inter-American Affairs
Los Pícaros de Quevedo
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Latin America   ( lcsh )


Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Contributions in English or Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- agosto 1939-
Issuing Body:
1939- published by the Institute of Inter-American Affairs, University of Florida, in cooperation with Los Pícaros de Quevedo.
General Note:
Reproduced form type-written copy.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 07270757
lcc - F1401 .R445
System ID:

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SRedactor -., S. Manual D. Ramlrez

Asistentos Sr. Andrbs Davis Salazar, *Sr. Harold Wexler

Conscjo Consultivo Dr. 0. H. Hauptancn, Dr. Rollin S.
Atwood, Sr. Donald F. Fogelquist,, Sr. Ernncisco Pardo d o
Zela, ,Jr., ;Sr., Daniel Montenegro

Vol. I. Mayo '1940 No. 2.


Implications of the Conference:. A SPimnry... ..............*...... ..... 1

Arturo Mbnosos Pcllr.ros4,...La NuevtO Cddialidad dIntetkmneicana.......... ... 5

William C. Zollrrd.....Sources of El Dohcol de don Enrique el Dolilnte of
,,os r v, i '--- --- ..-..., I .. .
,Maricno Jos e Larra... ........ ....,..,.. 7

Othon Moncyr Grroia.... Thc Place Qf Brazil in the American Cbmmoowgalth., ... 12

Andros Davis Slznr...........Rog.lo de Mczlas ................ .....,.... 13

Inter-Amnarican Section rt the University of Florida.... ...........4 .... ..... 14

Donrld F. Fogol uist..........Pancho Villa in the Mexican Ballad........... 15

Rollin S. Atwood.....La Gcoografa y la Historia on lc desrrrollo do la
Civilizacion on las Americas ............................ 18

Wanuol D. RTmirez....Somo Semantic and Linguistic Notes on the Sphnish,
Spokon in Tampa, Florida, Part III.............. .. 22

Yilliam C. Zellars.....Notes on the Spanish Historical Novel 'f the Period
1826-1850....................'......... ......... I........ 29
Tictor C. Grand off..... Folklore Noto About the Minordans of did St,.
-Augustine, Florida ................... 6 .... '31
*ur Contributors ...................... ,. ... .... ..... ...,,......... ... 35

o~ e i Iee4+'OI IIl q .leI i i, Ieo q I 'Ie IeOo61OI@O I


The Inter-American E'ucational and Cultural Conference was officially opened
on April 14, the Fiftieth Anniversary of the founding of the Pan American Union,
by John J. Tigert, President of the University of Florida. President Tigert paid
tribute to Dr. Leo S. Rowe, Director of the Pan American Union, and s-oke briefly
of the cultural activities of this important organization. President Tigert then
mentioned with frankness certain unfavorable aspects of relations in the past be-
tween the United States an' Latin America, and gave examples of a new outlook in
this hemisphere, the most notable being the proposed exchange of students and
-:rrfessors between the various countries of America.
President Wallace W. Atwood of Clark University spoke of the unequal ?istri-
_tion of natural resources amoni the countries of the world, the inter-'^condence
f r.ll nations, and the necessity for a fair and just method of exchange of pro-
-ucts. Particularly significant is the fact that English-sperking countries con-
trol or own three fourths of the mineral wealth of the world. President Atwood
pointed out the earnest desire of all peoples for peace and made a moving appeal
for .n informed understanding in the Americas. Only by education ean the barriers
of ignorance be broken down and to this end the University of Florida is -evoting
itself through its Institute of Inter-American Affairs.
The program for Monday brought out clearly a fact of the utmost importance in
the understanding of Latin America: namely, that the countries to the south are
not all alike.
Tho first speaker, Soor Jorge Obligado, thrilled his audience by rythmic
Spanish that had all the charm of poetry. He gave a thorough-going account of the
history and nr.ture of Argentina, its intellectual ties with France, and its edu-
crtional contacts with both France and the United States. The work of Snrmicnto
in this respect was of peculiar interest. Soi-or Obligado spoke of the vast pampa,
its gra.t resources, the absence of natural obstacles to the development of these
resources, and the flood of immigration which populated the country rnr helped
make it what it is today. The speaker dwelt at length on the school system of
Argentina and gave other reasons for the strong position occupied by Argentina in
the American world.
Sohor Oblinado was followed by Dr. Richard F. Behrendt, Dean cf the Faculty
of Socir.l Sciences of the University of Panama, who spoke of a younger country.
Ho explained the reasons for the late development of Panama: its small and varied
population, and the fact that it was cut off from intellectual contacts during
much of its history. In spite of these obstacles, Panama has mrde remarkable
"chievements since 1903. Of particular interest was his account of the University
of Panama, founded in 1935, whose policy has departed from that of other Latin
American universities in that full-time teachers have been employed and c attempt
hrs been made to ongrf:e in extensive research work in social studies. The pro-
gross of Panama in its educational experiments will be followed' with interest by
.ll who have the welfare of Latin America at heart.
In the evening Dr. R. Ernosto Losez spoke of Venezuela and atrrtled his audi-
once by sryinr that Venezuela has solved the tax problem by not having taxes.
Those wh', herrd him silently wished for enough oil in their own back yards to eli-
minc.t. at least one annoying feature of modern civilization. Dr. Lopoz spoke of
th> grcr.t educators, Simon Rodriguez and his influence on Simon Bolivar, and nf
An.'res Boll whose extraordinary work so profoundly influenced -the intellectual
life 'f Chile. Dr. Lopez pointed out that Venezuela was slow in extending its
oducntionnl system due to the repressive monsures of certain dictators.
Following these remarks, Dr. L6poz showed motion pictures of the remarkable
efforts to extend rural education in his native country, particularly by teachers
o(rr.tin;- from trailers. Those men give instruction in sanitation and hygiene,
renrdcr medical assistance as well as impart rudimentary education. Color pictures
"srosonted another side rf Venezuela and awakened in all those present n strong
"esire to visit the country so courageously presented by Dr. L6poz.

Rorort road by Dr. Sturgis E. Lorvitt, Chrirman nf:-he Committee on Implications
"f the Inter-American Educational and Cultural Conference, April 17, 1940.

In the morning the rud'ience hearrd President Rosdsovbl't s'c .kin!.: from thc P1.n
Anmricarn Union. The theme of his address was peace Per.ce was th-' *.sirc of' Bo-
liv:r in the famous conference of 1826, and pence has been in the nine's of mrny
loaders in the United States ever since. Today peaco in the West has ta.ken on a.
now mcaning. It is a cooperative undec.vor, which means libernti-n from fc-r, ros-
--oct for the integrity -f ether nations,. and recognition of equr.l rights for rll.
The Western WTorld, President, Rosvait said, s~ cherishes this new idea that it is
-repoared 'to meeiG force with force if peace is thrr.tened by dreams of conquest
from beyond the sco.s.
At noon r. 'rr.ctir.l suggestion for better understanding was 'by Soner
,Irncsto ,'ontenagro, in a -,ner, read by his sni, r.dvoc.ting a dcroi-n roe.aor in
Slish, S;rnish, Portuiuoese and French for tho olomcntr.ry schools of the .amcric.s,
,is su, ;:3ostion and the explanation that nccmpnnieO it quickonoe the iLmngintion
f "11 whi" h--r' it.
In the rud.ionce were many hih school pupilss, some of whom l.tcr in the day
-rtici?"ted! in r. declamrtion contest. The spiaendid rcrf-rmr.ncc of the four who
rjochoa' the finals show, clearly that Florida. has a wealth of material in her
hi h school inoulation and able -teachers who rre developing it, Every encourroe-
neat should be given tr. their msinfold activities.
On Tu.esdy morning Pr~sident Atwodc of Clark University, with his usual
chr.rm, illustrr.ter by numerous oxrnlos the importance of gengra.phy to other
fielr's rf study. He represented the earth as a stnae on which actors come nnid Co,
P.nd whore the goographer can give export knowledge of the settin+ in which those
actorss piny their parts'. This setting, or environment, persists 'throu-h the aged
a.nd profoundly influences the actors. There is mnrd 'to gengraphy, he sid, thrn
an aid in the analysis of economic problems. Geoprrphy is valuable t- the younF
as r cultural subject, and it will help both young r.nh old to be intelligent ob-
servers of the physical world thht lies `about them.
Dr. Behrondt of the University of Parnamii then presented with on:r.;in: frank-
ness the nooe for a solution of certain- economic nrbblemis which stand in the Ti.y
of the extensive program of Pan Americanism now in operation. The prthcipal is-
sues involved rre 1) lack of purcharsing power in Latin America, an!d 2) rowing
nrtionclistic and socialistic tendencies in the countries to the s,-uth. There is
need for a comron economic basis of coorcration ,long c6-mnorcinl lines. The task
of finding this common basis calls for extensive and thorouch-going research, a
odlving into tho. economic, social a.n a.ninistrrtive problems now cxistinr.: Dr.
Bohrcndt pointed out the lack of interest in Latin Americr on the part 4f founfa-
tions rnd( "rgued for the establishment of an Institute for Inter-A-ericrn Saci.l
and Economic Studios. Ho outlined. in consi'ernble detail possible activitiess of
such a center of research. Dr. Behrendit"s ')r-or is r:.v.ilr.ble in mim.c-rr ?hod form
.n'. deserves, serious study by all concerned with the great fieid it ambrrccs.
In the afternoon Dr. Rollin S. Atwo-d!, Director of the Institute of Inter-
Americrn Affairs, explained the organization of the Institute a~1 "'to uf-
3~fe1 ""t .students of both, continents. He explained Ahe arrangement whereby foreign
students live in the same dormitory with Floridr students, and gave a S lowing ac.-
count of the excellent results derived therefrom. In conclusion he asked Cr number
',f qu stions. The audience, however, was interested in questioning Dr. Atwn,'
about the L-tin Americr.n program at Florida and was reluet.nt to fix its r.ttontion
upon "nythin; oleso. However, after 'sane discussion it returned to the questions
r:skoe by Dr. Atwoncd and expressed itself in fpvrr of breaking down intar-"'opart-
Tontal lines and bringing tofeethor courses touching upon. Latin Amerinca ntr. one
flexible program,, or inter-_eror.rtmental tn5jor. It was su;"e-stoe thrt the Univer-
sity of Florida, might act as a clearing house for informrtir-n about inter-,enart-
montal majors in other universities.

"Ctada un. do nuestras Republicas estpo list para defenderse contra cualquinr nme-
naza su soUeuridad, ven';a de donde venC~," Cordell Hull.

In the evening Dr. Rollin S. Atwood introduced the students from Latin Amer.i-
ca in attendance at the University of Florida. Daniel Montenegro spoke for the
group, saying that he and his associates felt themselves a part of the university,
that they had no difficulty in getting acquainted with North American students,
and readily made friends among them. Furthermore, they also appreciated an oppor-
tunity to meet men from other parts of Latin America. Mr. Montenegro's remarks
were ample proof of the success of the Florida plan.
In the evening Dr. Jose Padin spoke eloquently of Puerto Rico as one of the
major supports;of the bridge of islands connecting North and South America. Puer-
to Rico was important to Spain for military reasons, and still is important to the
two Americas for the same cause. It has been, and still is, an experiment station,
c: racial and cultural frontier. There the United States has a unique opportunity
to develop the two most important languages of America. Dr. Padin's hope that
this opportunity will not be neglected was shared by all present.
At the close of his speech Dr. Padin gave, for the benefit of the Latin Ame-
rican students, an account of his own experiences as a student in the United
States, and offered friendly advice to those who found themselves among foreign
friends whose loyalty was assured.
On Wednesday morning Dr. Sturgis E. Leavitt of the University of North Caro-
lina spoke of the necessity for a knowledge of geography and history for a proper
understanding of Spanish American literature. He mentioned the difficulties at-
tending the teaching of this subject: lack of suitable histories of literature,
the absence of critical studies (now being remedied in part by the work of Torres-
Riosoco and others), and the dialect and Indian words found in many Spanish Ameri-
can novels. The teaching of Spanish-American literature, he said, calls for a
realistic presentation tempered with sympathy and understanding. Spanish American
literature at present is greater in promise than in achievement.
Dr. Jose Padin advocated the broadening of the present linguistic policy to
meet the present situation. He argued for opening up the principal channels of
communication, Spanish and English, for the greatest number at the earliest pos-
sible moment in the educational system. He would have a longer period of exposure
to the language, preferably beginning with two years in the Junior High School and
continuing through High School and College.
After prolonged discussion of these and other topics the following resolu-
tions were adopted:
1. "That wherever feasible consideration of Latin America should be included
in general courses in American history, geography and the social sciences."
2. "That wherever possible department barriers be broken down so as to in-
clude an inter-departmental major. That in this major a minimum requirement
should be a reading knowledge and a knowledge of spoken Spanish. That wherever
possible a survey of Spanish literature should precede the study of Spanish Ameri-
can literature."
3. "That courses in Spanish American literature should use available Spanish
translations of Brazilian literature until such time as Portuguese and Brazilian
literature in the original can be introduced."
4. "That the idea of an exchange of students on the undergraduate level be
5. "That the idea of introducing a common reader, or series of readers,
dealing with both North and South America into the elementary schools of the two
continents be commended."
6. "That the Inter-American educational program of the Institute of Inter-
American Affairs at the University of Florida be endorsed."
7. "That the work begun at this conference might be continued and that an-
other conference be hold at the end of two years."

"The man who knows no foreign languages, knows nothing of his mother-tongue,"

8. "Thr.t th6 delegates to the Inter-American Educational and Cultural Confer-
3nce heartily congratulate the University of Florida on the success of the Insti-
tuto of Intor-American Affairs and express the hope that it will continue to
flourish and set an example to other institutions."
9. "That Dr, R. S. Atwood and his associates be congratulated on the effi-
cient way in which the conference was organized, and that President John J. Tigert
:nd the University of Florida be sincerely thanked for their gracious hospitality
and for the opportunity given the delegates to learn at first hand about the work
of the Institutecof Inter-American Affairs,,,'
10. "That-the sincere appreciation of the delegates be expressed to the Car-
n.egic Endowment' for International Peace for making possible a conference of vitrl
importance not only to the University of Florida but to the colleges and univer-
sitics of the Southeast. Duo to the presence of distinguished Latin Americans and
Sr.rge group of Latin American students it is believed that the influence of the
conference will extend throughout the two Americas."
Soeor Obligado urged the University of Florida and other universities to ad-
vertise their offerings to Latin American students. He assured his audience that
such advertising would moot with a favorable response.
In the afternoon Dr. Behrendt was asked about the existence of institutions
that are doing any part of the work outlined in his proposal of the day before.
He mentioned several whose work was of a regional character President Atwood
cr.llcd attention to other organizations whose activities were more inclusive. He
s-id that the foundations in the United States are already prepared to undertake
projects presented to them and expressed his belief that the work proposed by Dr.
Behr-ndt might be carried on by organizations already established.
Dr. Leavitt gave a survey of the papers presented at the conference. He then
commented upon what seemed an unusual opportunity to connect the work of the high
schools of Florida and that of the Institute of Inter-American Affairs into an in-
tograted program and make the University of Florida an outstanding center for
Spanish studies in the United States..
President Atwood aid oa*hrs voiced the thought that the conference was a
source of inspiration and profit to those who attended.
Professor Atwood of the University of. Florida thanked the delegates for their
generous and r.ctive participation in the entire program of the conference and help
in the work undertaken by the University of Florida, and expressed -the hope that*
the work thus undertaken could continue. The meeting adjourned.

Richard F, Behrnodt

John E. Englakirk

Sturgis E. Loavitt, Chairman,

Committee on Implications of the

Un Concepto
"La lectura y la oscritura con otr'as nooionos elementales no se imparton a la
nieoz tan solo por su valor como conocimicnto, ni siquiern oomo instruments nece-
sarios y de uso prCotico en las alternCtivn s de il existonoia. Talcs conocimien-
tos so imparten para disciplinary la inteligencia, In memorial, In voluntnd. Lpa ,'n
nez necesita el alimonto porque sin lI subumbe ncoosariamento. Sin la disciplirna
del entendimionto, la memorial, an voluntad no sucumbon necesariamentc, pero nrrasr
tran una existonoi". mfs lastimosn quo la misma muerte. Brutos poro se.nos de cuer-
po, quiere docir somillr do criminals en un pans donde la discipline no es el ca-
'racter distintivo do las facultades del individuo, ni de las aspircciones de cada
clJaso,"{n Cano.


por Arturo Meneses P.

En los Estados Unidos se porfila ya claramente una nuova mantra do
comprondor nuestra ve'dindad, no simplemente como un abcidento geogr6fico
sino como algo vivo, como una intcrdependencia just y neoesaria, en un mun-
do vasto, inriquocido por contrasts y pleno do posibilidades Esto sonti-
mionto de solidaridad continental do cosas por hacer y do cosas por evitar,
!untos, csa frrternidad quo esta creoiendo centre las Amkricrs, ante nnholos
y tjmoros comunes, eso modo nuevo do darse los unos americanos a los otros
ywdda7os fuortcs del espiritu, y do oambiar cordialidades y entrogr.rse r la
r-yuda mutual, y dodioarse al aprondizaje y al entendimianto do nucstros
:t;tices, todo cso, on mi opinion, caracterida ahora al nuovo panamericanismo
y a la gran amistad interamericana,

Nos homos puesto con los E. E. U. U. a cambiar los datos dcl ospri~fu
y los do lr mr.toria, como ofreoiondonos sutilezas y manufaoturas y las excelentes
cosas del ospiritu y dol ouerpo quo tonemos tan on ebundancina -Nos sentimos
rctur.lmente los americanos do ambos lcdos llenos de facetas nmistosas y

Este repdblica dcl Norto, mrtorialista y antiospiritual on aprridncir.,
regal6, bajo otros auspicios, un palacio nuevo a la gran univcrsidad alomana
do Heidolborg, e hizo grebar en su frontisoicio esta dedicatoria: AL ESPIRITU
VIVO. Esto magnifico lema, este noble ofrocimiento quo pide la vivencia
etorna del csp ritu, la defense y la presorvaci6n do los valores subjectivos,
1l apuntlr.mionto permanent de la cultural, fun tambiln la notr. prodominante
on la confaroncia panamericana do Chile, en la gran reunion amoricana do
Buenos Aires,, on el Congreso de Escritoros Estado unidenses do Nueva York, on lr.
Conforenclr de Lima, on cl ciclo cultural panamericano on la Universidad Contral
do Quito, Ecuador, y en tnntas otras felices ocasiones en quo so han juntado
amcricanos do uno y otro lado y han comenzado a enteoderse y a hablar dada
vao m ts unit.riamonte.

Y osto no es tan solo una nota aislada sino un ao.ecer coloctivoq unn
formal distinta de sentir una frosca uni6n y nna gran confraternidad, *

Quizas a las gentos mas jovenes do ambas amoriods nos toca horaa mts
quo nunca, on que el mundo at avicsa por una nueva crisis de civilizaci6n
y un atroz roflorc'er do la barbaric de 10o ca~ones, empuniar unr solar band6ra
y hacker do nuestra America el gran continente pacifico, oli z on su gusto
cultural y on su bienestar material. Ahora que ost'. en tranco do croaci6n la
grr.n univwrsidad Panamerioana, on Puorto Rico, debomos sentir unr. rosponsabilidad
comun y ponornos todos a la obr. dificll do la unificnci6n ameridana. 'No
prooisa quo esta unificaoion olvide, con las oaraoter{siticrs diforencialos
nuestr-s, aquollos que individualize n un amoricano saj6n y a otro indo-
amoriodno. So trata do un.'sintosis superior, de. portar humanidr.d distinta, -
rrsgos oxcelentes y propios, do intcgrarlos on una unidad rica y bion
oquilibrnda. Nosotros los ostudiantos Intinos podomos ahora,' on lr. universidad.
de Ir. Florida, de venida cordial, asilo del enterndimiento y do la ccmpenotrae
ciri paenamoricana, oportar la 16gioa del corazon, le. de la pasion, la del sentir

"El sistomr militrs os l do Ir, fuerza y la fuerza no os gobiorno,"- Bolivar

mionto, il do 1r intoligencia siompre-on trr.nce do volute subjctivr., sutiliz.n-
do y Tbstrnyendo, oso modo nuostro do posc.r 1 ivuelo.1 r-.zn y hr.corlr entre-
i~blQ por modio do I. omoci6n, osa nuestrr fr.cilidd .prar sintotizar ol univor-
so, gonoraliztndolo, esa formal quoa tonemos do considerar debor today rutonticr.
urgencir spiritual. El estudinnto muericano nos dear su raz6n fr{n pero ore-
cis., su soncilloz y llnnoza on cls reclciones humans, su- discipline su entu-
siano,1a l6gicr. do Ir int,-ligenci. concrete y la de Ia pasion a tr-ve.s de In
intoliganncir. Do Ir. Universidad Interamericana, de. I. Universidad de la Florida,
usir.bonos es'rechisimos entire a.mbs Amoricas, puedo esperarse un grrn creci-
iionto cspiritual y paz y prosperidad permrnente para naestro continent.

SEs admirable on los Estados Unidos sobre todo ese gran cspiritu de
.ccion, ose ma gnfico ritnio vital. Ean formidable capacidad pa.r hroer y prra
doshr.cor tambien. Por otra part, os magnifico el sentimiento social estado
unidense, do lucha y de tranajo, do critic y de constant revision de los oc-
tos do Gobierno. Admirable libertr.d do pensnmiento y de exprosi6n. Discipline
ojomplrr, y una honest y en nuestro tiempo-increible tolerancin. Un oreciento
gusto por la cultui a y !que formidable capncidad para lo industrioso, par.
l logro del comfort y la resolution de los arduos problems tecnicos de
nuostro tiompot

Pc.ra terminar, quiero referirmc r. las relaciones de los E. E. U. U. con
mi pras. El Ecuador, y me siento orgulloso do deoirlo, hacmrnifestado siompro
unc. gran decision pnra las cosas do la libertad y las del espiritu. El
primer grito por In indeponcia raericana fue lanzado en Quito, y el pueblo
cuntorirnmo he. demostrado la'voluntad mZis fire y mis valiente per la
domocracia y In defense do sus libertades, La political de buenn vocindnd
del prosidente Rnosevelt ha sido acogida came casa propia y entrainble
on mi pals, y nuestro viojo probloma de limites con el Peru, coloccnms,
con un sincere desoo do concordin y abierto americanismo, on mamns dcl presi-
donte R(csovelt, prr. quo natuarn como arbitro maximo sobre la zona o zonas
on quo los dos p!rises litigantes no pudierea ponerse de acuerdo*: PTra la Fc-
ri. Mundial de Nueva York acudimos inmedintamente al llamado del president
do los E.E.U.U. e hicimos un paboll6n modesto, nunquc quizas interosLntee que
tr.trnmos do quo fuern. entire todoss, e mas amistoso y el mas acogodor.
Fucstrn literaturna sta obteniendo tmplio reconocimionto en los E.E.U.Ui:
Dr, FranklinG Carlton Boals, Dr. Sturgis E' Leavitt, ontre otros oscritores
do grcn vnlfn en este pals, se rhn proocupade del nuovo movimionto literario
dol Ecuandr, y hrn vrlorizado f.vornblemente la obra de nuestras j6venos
generrciones literarias. Muy pronto nls obras de los escritores countorianos
pcdrdn sor leadas on Ingls, por el public norteamericano, en-traducciones maestro

Cnmercialmente los E.E.U.U. tionon de nosotros el famoso cacro ecun-, tngua, cafe, azucar, madorr. de baen.,losrmu4-1almnntO famosos sombreros (Panam) ,frutos exquisites, quinina, caucho, -a notable fibra "kapoks,

P.ra terminar: es un pals cult lte pas que sabe esilrr in culture,
y quo permit, on sus mementos mCs folices, que un hombre area. an on n l

"La falta do ilustracion y do idonlos amplios ongendra las concepcionos dcmasindo'
simpics, coao ocurro on todas Ins forms do nl intolornncin position o roligio-
sa," Agustin Alvr.roz.

The Sources of E1 doncel de don Enrique el Doliente of H-rirno Jose de Larrr
pr W'illiam C. Zoll-ra
For some time several critics of Spanish liter'.turj have believed
that Larrn wrota 1- doncel de don Enrique el Doliente in imitation of certrir
points of Sir 1'alter S-ott's stile and technique! As evidence of this idea,
,:e hevo the opinion of Pineyro who tells us that Larta's novel "Tiene entera-
m3nte la r.ari-encia de unm novelc. de Scott; el mismb corte, el mismo r-ndcr lento
de Il n"rr'ci&j, dialogos largos,pcapItulos sin titulo, siemore procodidos de
un apigrcfoe oh verso, generr.imont de alguna bclrda o romanc c.ntiguo,
y al principio de la obr' unc rXpida ojo..da sobre la historic y las costumbrcs
do l 6pocc. en quo pasa le. escena, Poro l. semejnnza real .hi terminc.; ..rgu-
nento, porsonr.joc, opisodios, todo lo d-mrs es enteramente espcaol, runque
hay.y guicio do Dios como vn Ivnhoo, p srdizos quo so rompon como on KonilWTorth,
y r.lgun otro d;trlle quo recuorde al noveclistr 0scocs s.

In addition to the above spocificrlly mentioned points of similarity,
the investigations of the present author cause him to note scver 1 other marked
simil, cities butwoo n Ivrnhoe r.nd '*l doncel. First we cite the scone in El don-
c.l w ,hcre Hornr.ndo and Porrnsirez disguise themselves r.s Frr.nciscn fri-rs in
order to geCi ontrrnco to Villenc.'s crstle,2 nd the soone in this sr-m novel
;hero Elvir. disguises herself so affootiv-ly with r. veil, when she nccusos
Villonv. of the abduction of his wife, thrt even her husband does not recognize
h r. Those details rocrll the scone in Ivr.nhoe where '"rmbr., the loyr.l jester
of C.dric the Saxon, disguises himself cs a Fr.nciscrn friar and g'-.ins missionn
to the cr.stlo ofFront-de-Poe-uf to tako the place of his master who is imprisoned
thore. Dosidos, in sever-l of Scott's other novels, we find cha.rctcrs who dis-
guis.. themselves for various r-J sons.

Third, in Ivrnhoc, R-becc the Jowess, has a knowledge of medicine
.nd the -rt of hc.ling e.nd uses it for the bcnAfit of the wounded knight,
Ivr.nhoi;. .~ -ail ss t s:ys't.hor hcrlingsp arc c.coaplis'hedin chief measure
by c. brls-m of m-.rvellous virtue.6 Similrrly in El doncol, Abr'hrm Abonzrrsal,
fisico of Enriquc dc Villona, gives Elvir- a potion 1ihich dopri-es her of her
senses rnd causes her to be found later in c. compromising situation vith
Mr.o.s.7 These observations arc strengthened when we consider the immenhso
popularity that Scott's novels enjoyed in Spain even'rs orly rs 1334, the drto
of the first edition of El doncol.

Fourth, before we consider other opinions as to the sources of Larra's
novel, lot us mention the scholarly studies of Professor Peers who believes that,
while Lr.rrr.'s novel was not by arny morns founded on any one of Scott's works,
yet Larra was evidently influenced by Scott in descriptions rhd in arch-.cblogical.
detail, if not -lso in irnguago.

1. El rom.n-ticismo .en-Esprii, prge 16.
2. Edition of P ris, 1857, Vol. 7, p.age 195.
3. .d. cit., chapter 18.
4.jEdition of Cv.rrie E. Tucker Drc.nss, NcY York, D. Appljton Co., 1903,
p, gs 232-287..
5. Ed. Cit., pa.gos 282-287.
6. Ed. Cit., pr.gc 383.
7. Ed.'Cit. ch:ptr .XXI.
8. Studios in the Influence of Sir W'lter Scott in Spain," in Revue Hisp.niquo,
LXVIII, prgos 1-144.

Somewhat in accord with this .observation are the. words of Father Blanco, Garcia
who says that '19E model de Larra no lo fue Walter Scott,. a lo menos -ex.lusiva-
mente; antes parece haber dado 'la preferaencia a Dumas y a otros autores france-
s*es aficionados a las grandes catkstrofes de la historic y a los dramas intimos
del alma,", although he does not elaborate on this statement.

Before proceeding further with the question of French influence in
Larra's novel,, we cite here the opinion of the eminent Men4ndez y Pelayo who
sees still another influence in El doncel; "Su erotismo refinado, mezcla de
impulses sensi~ales y de sofismas "ticos, viene en lInea recta -de Juan Jacobo
.!ousseau.O10 Undoubtedly the idea of love under insuperable obstacles (that
of Maciss and Elvira), as pictured in El doncel, resembles that which is
portrayed in Rousseau's Julie, and it is quite possible that Larra paints the
love of Maclas and Elvira with this model in mind.. Also, Larra doubtless saw
in the love of Macias and Elvira something like the love affair in his own
life that probably led to his suicide.. However, Hurtado and Palencia are more
specific in their observations. "La obra do Larra-esta inspirada en Enrique III
y su corte do Dumas padre.,tll This play was translated into Spanish in 1829.

Now our object- in beginning this study was to give due credit for the
source material of El doncel to Soott and to Rousseau,. as well as to Dumas pore.
The probable influence of Scott and the possible influence of Rousseou have,, we
b.-.lievce boen covered in sufficient detail,. But the fact that we wish to stress
in this study is the essential indebtedness of Larra to Dumas, notwithstanding
the several influences already mentioned. The story of Larra's novel is undoubt-
edly based in part on Henri III et sa cour-,, hence at this point a brief resume
of this play is now necessary.

Saint-Mogrin, one of the court favorites of Henry III,, is in love with
the Duchess of Guise,. Their love is pure and profound. The Duke of Guise be-
comes jealous and, using tortureo-.forces his wife to write to Saint-Mcgrin and
make an app6intmcnt to meet him. The Duke of Guise then hires assassins who
await Saint-Mogrin and kill him-when he arrives at the spot designated by the
Duchess of Guise,.2

The action of .n donobl takes place in the year 1403 during the reign
of Enrique III (el Doliente) of Castile. The love story is that of Macirs, the
favorite doncol'of the king, and Elvira Porez. The latter is ready the wife
of PernAn PToz, the escudero of Enrique de Villena who is the king's uncle and
Count of Cangris y Tineo..

Mac1as brings news to the royal court one day that the Maestre de
Calatrnvn is dead. Villena immediately aspires to be appointed by the king to
fill the vacancy in this office But a married man cannot servo in this capa-
city, so Villena forthwith asks his wife, Maria de Albornoz, to cgree to a dis-
solution of thdir union and thus remove the impediment to his ambitions.

9. La literature espanola on el siglo XIX, primora part, tercera edici6n,
Madrid, 1909, page 25 .
10, Obros do Lope do Vega, Vol# X, MadridF 1899, page 59.
11. Historic de la literature espanol., Mndrid, 1925, page 1037,
12. Honri III ot sa cou, edition of Calmann Levy, Ptnis, 1929.

"En la nuevn Pen Amorico no exists hormnno mayor. Todos snmos hermanos iguales on
unr grrn union do nroionos hormnnas," Fiorello Laguardia.

She, However, indignantly refuses,his request. .Meanwhilej ElviratPArez is serv-
ing Maria de Albornoz. as a camerera. Maciad has loved Elvira prior to her marriage
to Fern n Perez and, learning that she is not happy in her union, renews his
suit. Elvira loves Maclis but struggles desperately against her affection for

At length, Villena deternines to remove Maria de Albornoz from the path
of his aspirations, hehoe he has her abducted and imprisoned in a castle and
later tolls the king that she is dead,' Elvira is convinced from the first that
Villena has caused his wife's disappearance.' One day she goes veiled before th<:
king r.nd accuses Villona of the murder of her mistress, Villena's wife, The kiupv
gives Elvirc three days in which to find a champion to defend her charges in r
juicio de Dios; otherwise she must die for having made a false accusation.
McFi.-os, hovicver, offers himself as Elvira's champion, while Fernan Pdroz, unr.T' r
of his wife's identity, agrees to defend the honor of Villena. While those thi.,
Cre happening Maclas is pressing his courtship of Elvira. The letter clings to
the path of duty and honor and begs him to desist. FernFn Perez in the meanwhile
begins to hr.v doubts about Elvira's loyalty to him.

Villona can sec in the ensuing, juicio de Dies only his own ruin, as, he
is sure that victory will be the lot of Macias, who is championing the-cause of
the right. Consequently Villona has Macias abducted and imprisoned in the srme
castle in which Maria de Albornoz has been placed. But Macias faithful servunt-
Hornando discovers his master's disappearance and traces him to the prison.
Hernando and a companion succeed in getting into this castle, disguised as
Franciscan friars, and there find Villena's wife, whom they rescue. She sends a
message to the king that she is still "live. In the meantime Villonr. is named b;
the king as Mr.cstro do Calatrava, and Luis de Guzman, Villena's rival for this
honor, apporrs unexpectedly on the field of combat as Elvira's champion, the
duel between him and FcrnAn Prez begins, but is stopped when the message arrived
that Mr.ria do Albornoz is still living.

In the confusion that follows this announcement, Villona and Fornan
Peroz rt once realize that the discovery of Villonn's crime emanated from the
castle which was serving as a prison for Maria de Albornoz. Consequently they go
at once to the crstle. A duel ensues botwe3n Maclas and Fernan PErez which is
interrupted by the arrival of ElVira, who threatens her own destruction unless
they desist. The king's forces follow Villena and take him prisoner, but he is
freed when his wife generously asks the king to show him clemency. However, Luis
de Guzmin is named Macstre do,. Maclas falls to his death from one of
the bridges no-r the castle. Years afterward Elyira, who has become as insane
wanderer, dios on his grave.l

A comparison of the drama and the noyol shows that both are based on
impossible love affairs. The woman in ench case is already married. The man whe
loves her in each case is a more youth; Seint-MAgrin is cightden years old, Mr,.
twenty.14 These two youths are furthermore cousins of their respective kings.

13. "El doneel" in Obras do Figaro, sixth edition, Gamier Freres, Paris, n.d.
14. HTnri III at sa court, od. cit., page 149, El donoel, ed. cit., page 84.

"Los paises do America tionon tradiciones e interoses comuries y su armonia y su
mutual cooporacin, constituyen una nocosidad do la hora prosente," TomAs Manuol
Elio (Bolivian)
T '

C-.thorino de Medici,. mother 6fItHleny 11 of -r`Fzoo, i anxious to
dir'o ct' ho son in his governmental duties, 'but she pooe th5-t he, .veraro .
power of the Duke ef utise before shio an realize her wishe She enlists the
of the astrologer,, Come Ruggioro i ho, plans ad she nd tho as.trpologef decide
to mrkb" th. Duke of Guise 'ealous pr. tho affection that exists botwoon the
Duchess of G;uisa a nd' dgrth. To- a accomplish this' the y arrange a secret moet-
ing betwoon and theDii bhess of Guise. This meeting is the cause of
the discovery of the love. affair. by the Duke of Guise.
Likokdsc in tEarra 's novcl. Enr'ique do Villenb has tW en'mie's who ob-
struct his ambi4tio6ns o become Ma'strc d6e' Cacltrata,, Enprique :de Villonr. ea~ploys
Abraham, r.n r.stroIoger, to aid him, 'and "th two of them plan to bring about a
secret moe ting between Elvira: ad ik.bias.A The astrologers in each case suggest
poison a s a. mens of doing e.way with their employers' enemies but Crthcrino de
Medici and Enrique de Villena refuse to use muirderous meorns Likewise
~igrin and Mac{as both'consult their respective astrologers as -to their, f..tos.1
There is a strbng similarity in tho fidelity to their respective lr.dies
between Arthur, %he page and .ous:in of the Ducheoss of Guiseo and Jaime, the page
r.nd cousin of Elvira, and in the corrc-ponding confidence wiich the la y in each
case extends t'o her page.',
At one place in El doncel we have almost an exact translation of a
sentence of DumLas' work Arthura of the Duchess oi Guisa, dos6riibes Saint-
Mogrin to his lady as follows: *64" mo t a chevalj e'st touours le chovr.i l
plus fougueux qu. ost le sion..-0: Jaime, describing Macias 1o his ady,' s."ys4
"Si monta a cab.llo es' el 4-s fbgosb c1 suyo.'-t -1

Besides these similarities$ there are minor ones which further show
that Larra used Henr.i III et sa cu ur. a~S 0ifo-h is sources. The secret passage-
way in the apartment of GOcme Ruggiori corresponds to one in Abrrham's apartment in
Larra's novel, and those pnssagwanys are meeting places for conferences be&%oshai
the astrologoes and the obnspirnatobis I eachoase.2

In each story, there ar. two meetings betwienthe lbver, and thoir
ladiosi and the meetings have ma'n details w16h ,ao e idontic.r. 'The first miet-
ing in cOeh work takes : pl~ in the home of tho astrologer. This meeting ha.s been
crrefully planned by tho endrmebs ob th respective suitors, but the suitors and
their ladios are unaware that they are to see each other. In both stories a
sleeping notion i' administered e; itly to hoe women. he bcf Giis,
is under the inflUnce of a drug when she meets Saint. 'gr-in. 'Evlira is under
the influence of a. drug Whea she meets W'cirs. Both women wfilo drugged admit
their affection to their lovers but 1 tcr deny' t. In Dumas' work, Saint-MEgrin's
friends are writing on guardian the antechamber; '' in Lari a' hovel, Macias' friend
Hernando is w.itiig ih the r.ntcchnmbor. The arrival of the 'husbtha 'in Baoi'caBe
causes the lover'r tloadof 2

15, Henri III et sr-.a;cdi ed, It.o pr.go 122, 1169-175, 197-198, annd At I,- .Sce? I
16, El doncol, od. d-it paes'184. ..
17. Henri III easa' our, ed, cit., pago 122, El doncel, ed. cit., pages 185, 264.
18, Hinri III ct sr. cciur., Co. cit-., page 127, El donqe1, ed. cit., pages 213-214.
19, Henri .II :.t S..& *. COi t, pagTs 163-168, 175j ET docl, ad. cdt. pgoI
135 218,'270.
20. Honri'. fi t sa.cour, od ct, pab 167; El doncol, Ed. cit., ;:page 149
21# Hnriri III 3t'a cour 'u .c r., pags 119-123; El doneel, ed. cit., pages 1u-
22. Hcnri IIi t sedour; ed. 'iT.e pagos 123. 124,1s32 133, l-; V'onael, ed.
cit, p-gos 125,198; Ch-Cptor XXi pages 212, 214, 216-218. -

The second meeting in qach craso between th. loveons h.s, similar colnci-
d.mncos. ,The. Duchess of Guise ip poA.d by her husband to write a letter to '
S-int-Ho1grin asking him to come to her. is deceived by the letter,
In Larra's novel, Abraham writes a letter to Macias which the latter believes
to be from Slvirr.' Both Spint-Megrin :.ncd attempt to sc6.pe6 fTrb6 th roo' s
of their respective Ir.dies and find all doors locked, hence escape through the
v-indows into the hands of'thcir respective enemies,

Also, it is necessary for the king to rise Fernan Pa'rf to a higher
social rank thai he holds, before the latter can accept a challenge from -.facir.s.
Henry III al so-bestows the title of M.rquis of ~iussaae upon the Count of S-irt-
".grin, which fr.vbr enables him to foroo the Du k of utiso'eto accept r. ch.cllcng'.
'"he duels do not take place.,' however.

A legend .bout Macins hadeisAtc rin'8paniish-liternturc long before
Larre's time. -Mtcirs ws- a fourtdeesih century poet Mf'the "Galician school, The
legend about him seems to have some historical foundatioir'_nd occurs in two
versions, which arr as follows. according t6 HaeRBtn Nioez, Maci-s, the done of
Enriquo do Villona, fell in love with a mr.rridd w6han 'and died at the hnds" of
her husband rwho killed him with a javelin -while he was' siAging poetry to her.
The -sccond version -is that of the Condest'ble Don Pedro of Portug'.li who sarys
that Maccr.s fell in love with a mnafiri d ltdy whom he had ri'scued frmi drowriing.

One- day he Imet her a.gin afttr she hiadbenoi .rricO and''be'gged her to
dismount from her horse "nd .talk with him., -he gr'cnted his roquost A'fter she
l.ft, her husband cam?: up and found M.cI".rs kissing her 'fbotpririts -da saying 'nmi
sennorr. puso aqu sus pics on cuyr.s pis~daac'. yo :enticndo vovir e fenescer mi tristo
vid..." The husband then bocrTao joealois nhd -sle-tw a-iaS with lance.25 Th' legenpr
was used by several poets of the Middle. Agos dind of the Golden Age including 'ope,
de Vega, who dramatized it' in Porfiar htstn mbrir,

Furthermore,. the story told of Enrigue do Villena in 'El doncol corresponds
very closely to the history of this pao.'onageo Hu-'Udo and Palcricia give '"us the
following history concerning him.: lDosccddietb.i 8hL-a e.n Reo.l po' su padre y
do Ic do Grstilla.por. sui madre; no fu nnrqu's, af condcstable,' ni siquiorr bondrb
de C.ngas y Tineoo, titulo concedido por" unique III 1nomiinnlnento'. ?TM.cstroe .''ab, despu s de: un divorciot.escr.ndalos 'an' 141-4 todo se hr.bfr i'1 vr on
humo; n.rqucsado, conddlo, 'y:mrust.razgo2i.

Thus wo see that it is cleanr that .the historical oloments-. of this'novel
are. the aspirationss of Enrique do Villona for the maestrazgo of Cnlatravn and his
ultimate downfall in ,the royal court Histo~cal of logendn.'y elements constitu't(-
the romance of Ma-'ease. Lt~rrr. seems te ve.y-.ftom ,the original stories in rep0rosenh-
ing that Enrique, do Villona-and his wife w:re, ,notdivorcc iamndhe gives his own
version of the legend, making hin the dnncel of Enriquo dia Villlann in-
steadT of, tho. doncolr- of-the king..

It is -obvious that Larra's ncvcl isi patterned principally- ohf Hcnri'lII.
Ot. sa court for its. plot, b.~wb i;t contain's many-undeni-ble- similarities t6 Ivnh'ob,

23. Henri III at s- court, ed.oit&,4 pcgos 174, 1891 194, 196; El 'oncel,y di cit.,
pr.gos 268, 269, 273, 2 .;V '
24, B1 dcnoel, et, cit,, Chnpter XXV'j; Hnri III t sa court, ed. Eit., p.go 155,
25. Hurtrnc' y r.lepori, 6p. bit.'," page 18O6-.i ,
26.. Ibid., pagos 244-245 --

at the same time that it seems perhaps impregnated with Roussoauts eroticism.
But the historical or legendary o'iha'ctoer bf is closely followed by Larra,
and for this reason his novel remains a truly Spanish nnvol in its background
and characters

por OthonaMonayr Gnrcin

The history of Brazil may be sketched in theree characteristic phascss First,
th, conquering of the land by the colonists, climaxed by the Pandoiranto incursions
in quest of gold and diamonds. Secondly, the first fruitless movements of indepon-
dince in 1789 and 1817, and finally that of 1822 which brought about the much
sought liberty. Thirdly, the Abolition Of Slavery Act in 1888 with its natural
consequence th proclamation of the Republic on November 15, 1889.
As an empire and under the wise government of the Erporor Podto II, Brazil was
quite democratic nnd liberal; as a Republic -today, it continues with the samo tra-
ditions that prevailed during the colonial and imperial days. The Abolition of
Slavery Act in 1888 that freed thousands '.of-aslanves brought about hn almost fatal
result to the economic lifo of Brazil. 'For the slavery system supported a strong
r.gricultur'l aristocracy that controlled acgh'y percent of thd Brazilian wealth.
The abolition act placed 4~a ..'f4.* s of the--time in n very pol-carious position.
So they soon took their pjlo %'ho side 6f thd literary men who were already
spro-:ding propaganda of *,~Odblicrl .tdaOnlism, One yer.r later the emperor was exil-
ed and the republic of Brail was oa'tblished. On February 24, 1891, the Republic's
Constitution, founded on the s-ae basiq principles 's that of the United State's of
America, wa. promulgated. The ,ifirit pf liberal i-ntelloetu ls like Euy BE rbosa,
Jose do Pntyocinio, Quintino R.os6eayoW and others, gave our constitution many of
thi idaolisttq clqmonts of the Froah revolution with 19-th century acquisitions.
As a result, thq Braz:ilian constitution was at that time the most libcrnl in the
During its fifty yners as a republic, the f6oeign policy of Brazil ~8 been
expressively Pan American in nature. Its stand for'Amiericar solidarity has been
proven on'various occasions, an eoxmpli taking place du-ing the first TofldW'r.--
whan Brazil revoked its 'act of neutrality in 1917 to maintain its solidarity with
the United States which had just entered the war. And njw, wh6n the present Euro-
pean War gives us Americans a better consciousness of our hnppincss, of or love
of peace, of our mutual and sympathetic understr.ndfng, of' our und6niable friendship
and solidarity- we, Americans nll, feel the necessity of :ntensifying our relationss
even more.
Th. role thrt the gyothkmust play .in this -work cannot be neglected. We 'stu-
dents, we young men, with our ido.als, with tha consciousness of our possibilities,
we must cooperate in ordor tb bring about this ganorr'l understanding, this s61.-
darity. Now this spirit of cooperation, this sihneroe spirit of closqc rclatioiTship'
springs from a Worthy source it coe s fro the heart 96 well r. from the mind.
The Latin-Amori on student that comes to the United States takes b.ak with. him-
fooling of certainty that Pan is not a myth, but r reality. It. ndtu~hl -
ly exists, and it can c~intinue through the ages. The com'emorr.tion of the '0th in-
niversary of the Brazilian Government todry by the Institute of Inter 'incrican Af*
fairs of tho University of Florida revoersah' g ood-intentions .rn&.puroses thWh
that all North Americans want to domoinstitrte~ The iddal of the'politicos is not
worthless; they united the Amorioas mitdr rnd ro6re into ono great Amerior.
commonwealth, but they cannot do- ll the work by themseol s ..- g -men of Amorlcr.a
let us hulp them. Wo should take a definite strnd iin this movement. Lot us fght-
for ponce I feel very happy at this moment because 'I do hot spork for myself "I
do not spcak dnily as a Brrziliann. am'speaking as an Amerionn,

* Radio talk given on o Tovembcr 15, 1939, commumornting the 50th.:nnnivorsnry of the
Branzlian government.



poe' Andr4s Davis SalaZI&r

Un dia, caballeros andantes s.obre el- ehflPquecido dorso de sus cabalgaduras,
generacibn incansable de buscadores del mito, de ideales magnificos y de empuje
sobrenatural, se aventuraron valientes por esos flancos enobmes de nuestra cordi-
flera maternal; sin m.s riecursos. que sus encallecidas manos desnudas, sin mas
brujule orientsdora 'qe un corazon intuitive henchido de eoraje -y sediento de
emociones s'bliimes, desafiando el mnisterio inviolado de la selva hostile, bin le-
cho distinto que el rastrojo moldeado. pbr el oapribho del-viento o por el peso
enorme de animals salvages. Un pantano insalubre serviales de oadis, la marana
'unida ponia su nota ,ettrica con afan desalentedor, el huracan que las aves. core-
.ban, la noche angustiosa'carente de estrellas, 1s muerte violent de sus flacos
u.entos, ea crujir de Una seiva que sonaba fatal e impaciente, fueron el c bndo
.risco de una civilizacion despaciosa y resuelta que hoy es soberana,
As{ llogaron, arrastrando sus peohos, desgarradas sus carnes y extasiada su
fe, los n6mades vocacionales y creadores, a la antiplanioie del Imperio do los
Chibchas, donde hoy se alza.Bogota, oiudad de contrast, repleta de hazaxas, de
historic strevida y de magic encanto..
Ya un poco repuestos d us susfrimientos-sin fin, sembraron on 'ansa made-
ros que cubrieron con musgos silvostres, y sirvieron de albergue a los titanicos
conquistadorss' Alli se encontraron, como cumpliondo una cita de honor, bordada
do mistorio, con otros dos grupos do arrojados cxpedicibnarios quo maroas Ilova-
ban, sangriontas aun, divulgando l1 dostino amargo que' sus penalidades los pro-
porcionaron. Llegaron hasta ellos con la alecion propicia de' otros grupos oet
nicos, -quo so 1o s sumaban a su paso como los satelites fulgurantes a sus esqui-
vos comotas.
Sus almas, do tradiciri guerrora, bion hubieran podido procipitarlos locamen-
to a unc luchr. a muorto, Bara poder, ol malherido voncedor, elamar orgulloso la
soborania absolute do su magna conquista. En c'mbio, amistbsos orsolvioron roe-
partirso la gloria, bieh grande por cierto, y sombrar el injosto do sus virtudes.
A ponas osbot.d: la rural torrecillr de toscas campanas, adivindbnse on ella la-
gracir supreme do sus does conjuntost regalaron con gusto los csplondoros magni-
ficos dcl artc ingonuo, In. hidalgula 6xquisita y genorosa, el ncorvio omotivo do
sus brazos do acoro, y el colo guerroro y, vliente comno aporte comuni,
La majestad do la r-turnalza engalano a1 obra con' ottros encantos, cobia pr-c.
mio y tribute a In P pacifica union: an bl estuhho hechicer' do nuestrr.s veodos
colinns, recogifronse curiosns millaros do estrollas, y las nubos, jugando co-
quotas, ropartieronse en ol ielo, d' do al pal sajo la ma& bella iiprcsion.
Roda-ndb las chozas, como exprosion nutootonr. do ostablocor hogr.rcs, vci.n-
cl buoy, al pcrfo#* l mule y el gallos oi uho o' oi &-iicncio, cncr.nnrndo In vir-
tud del sufrir, es el ,lma de la p -'a el otro- s la fidclidcd., el' te
sore bondito do la nmistcd; In mula as cl simbolo del einpuje,# der cornjo, unf pu-
fnido do colo Qnoarnizondo la iluchc tcnit; el gallo es el grito on in nocho, es;
I, olocuoncia misma..
Aaios dspue's drronte :la real oonquistr. de esto universe vegotr.l, la pruoba
supreme do it. civilizroi6n naciento, empezaron a brotar en ios origndros mosti-
zos.las mtltiples cur.lidr.des prsndas por tradicibn-y por sangro. Los Chibchas
dedicarban su video i idolizer sus dioses imagin.rios, prodigand6 faitt.sticos ritos
do '.dortici6n. C-"lm.dos, idotlistas quizns, esbozadores tfpioos del crto indigo-
nr.. Su heroncia, fi nohbl y risuenirA los Quimbnyos, rrdiente's, sonsurles, opi-
curoos por excelenoin, dotost.bnn .lr. guerrr. y fnscinabnnse con el brillo de o*'
yPs y con ol: lujoo'xquisito da3 plums do mntices sublimes, desprccibr.n sus fle,
chas gu.rrirrs y ontonnbr.n sys hihinos do amor* a sus diosrs morenrs, y on
jos orge.s dcslizh.brn su vida. u' horcnoin fue un regalo dq goocs en el
arlmr, los Pij.os, los v.liantos guorroros), ntrepidos y heroics, .mpunnban sus
armr.s 'con uh grito de, :y horian el espacio bon flechrs s-ngricntns. Extam

si.bran su dicha, on al rumor do brtrnlln y on los toscos a.zroes de milicin srlvnaje.
F.tidic'mente forjr.ron un idolo9 y on :1s imnpornntes beromonirs emprnpdns de r'it -
mo guarroro y .udz; rendfan culto a unn crscadn de s.ngre do tribus rivnles. Su
haronoi fue un toque do celo, un corrjo folino, un grito do n.cci6n.
i Curont. virtud, cul.ntn elocuonoica curnta energic ritesorn el pcbcll.n do
nuostr- rz.zr. .
Un din, yr. remoto, los indios mazcltron sus rrtes. Con i praci-o de sus mo-
numentos y l. destrezc- do su inteligenci., ol Chibchr. risueao contribuy6 n.l in-
jcrtot cl nrrte meritorio de su tosco trrbr.jos cl Quimbn.yo, el lujoso, 'el indio
ftstivo quo culto P la prJciosec c6rtescnrt aborigen, I. que nscendiern
.1 trono do sus'rnmntes haciendo escnlincrtr. sobre i.n espnldr desnudr de sus ro-
"i:-s esclivs, regr.6 optimist y sincero Ir. filosofin de su rrte voluptuoso y
.nsu.l; el Pijro, l s'oborbio, doblego su furir y mezcl sin prison el r.rte gue-
rrore y rodci humnnamentc un enorme cnntaro do un arte distintoi el nrte do Ic.
p-.z. Y con piedrd romtnticr, forj-.ron en el enorme crisol do Ins colinis, un rare
produc'to HERIIANDAD.


One of the outstanding features of the new dormitories at the University of
Florida, the Inter-American Section, rooming twelve students representing Brazil,
Chile, Colombia, Scuador, Peru and the United States, is being hailed as a great
stop toward cementing better relations between this country and the other American
republics to the south.
The Inter-American Section, a realization brought about by the constant ef-'
forts of the Institute of Inter-American Affairs, is conducted somewhat like the
International Houses located at various universities throughout the world and un-
der the direct supervision of the Institute. Although Spanish and English are the
official languages of this section, Portuguese, Italian and French are spoken among
some of the members of the group. Evening chats among the students usually produce
lively discussions of the mother countries, and ideas and ideals are exchanged
freely. Topics under discussion range from war opinions to leading American au-
Each Latin American representative, rooming -ith a North American student,
feels that the Inter-American Section is a splendid innovation at the State insti-
tution and is more than outspoken in his praise for the wonderful work carried on
by the University of Florida in respect to promoting international and Inter-
American intellectual exchange.
All of these men have been selected and approved by the institute of Inter-
American Affairs, and are helping the rapidly growing program of the local organi-
zation with talks, articles and other activities. They are more than eager to
welcome visiting Florida students who are desirouts of conversation.
Monitor of the Inter-American Section is John W. Hamilton, a Jacks6nvillI
graduate majoring in journalism. Following his graduation from high school, John
signed with the United States Marine Corps in which service he remained for five
years, spending three years in Shanghai, China. Since his return to the United
States in 1937, he has been studying at the University of Florida, His fPicd'
Francisco Pardo de Zola, Jr., son of the consul general-of Peru in New York City,
has received his elementary and secondary education in France, Spain, Germany, Peru
and Chile. The United States of Brazil is-represented by Othon Moacyr Garcia, a
graduate of the school of philosophy and letters of:the University in 'iode '6 nei-
ro. Other Latin American students in the Inter-American Section include Andris
Davis Salazar, former student at the Univorsidad Nacional de Colombia iii Bogota,
Arturo b Mneses Pallares,, a graduate of the Universidad Central de Quito, Ecuador,
and Daniel and Enrique Montenegroj sons of t~e eminent Chilean journalist, Sonor
Ernesto Montenegro. North American students include Paul D. Holtzman, 'Frank
Gagliardi, Rudolph Miro, Clyde Simpson and Homer St1..:-


por Donald P. Fogalquist

Perh'.ps no figure in .Mexican history has appealed more to popult fancy than
hrs Francisco Villni To the common .people of Mexico-- especially those of the great
northern states of Chihuntur, Coahuila, and Durnngo-- Villa is far more than a
colorful bandit and outlaw; he is a. national hero, a &champion of the oppre.ssod
mr.sses and by them his death is regarded as a national tragedy. Innumerable
stories are told of Villa's deeds of valor 'and wandering guitar players sing
of his heroism in their corridos (ballads). In spite of the comparative recency
of Villn's death (1923), his name has ireoady gone into Mexican folklore and
litorcture.' Poncho Villa apperrs 4in novels,' stories, poems,' and songs.'

The city of Chihuahua 'in the Moxiorn state of the srme name w.:s the center
of Villa's activities during the'glrjorious, but trngio days of the Mcxic.nn
Revolution.' Mriny of Villa's relatives still lve there,, among them his brother,
Hipolito Villa, his wife Luz Corral dc Villa,' dnd her old mother Trinidad Corr".l.
Colonel Cruz Villnlvr.,' one of the survivors of Villa's famous Dorados-- a personal
escort made up of men chosen beccusj of their courage rnd loyalty-- is today a
well-known citizon of Chihuahua.' In theooemetbry of Chihuachu. is a large and
ola.borato tomb Which Villa had built for himself, and beside it aro two less
protontious ones for two of his generals.' The lattoi", Trin-ida.d Rodriguoz and
Toribio Ortoga buried there, but the tomb of Villa is varcnt and his name has
b., n covered with a plaque,* for circurmstencds never permitted his body to be moved
to Chihurhur. from Prrrr.l where he wr.s assrssinatQd." Also in Chihuahua one may
sow the-large -and pretentious housJ which Villa built for himself during his days
of greatest glory; and in one of the patios stands the bullet-riddled body of the
automobilee in which Villa was riding when he ws killed by assassins,'

The cdrrido give below is one of r number collected in Chihuahua.' It
reviews somd of the important events of Villa,'s life and relates the circumstances
of his death,* ALfew comments may serve to clarify some of the historical and
personal allusions.*

Pancho Villa's'enrly life w~s one of hardship and peril,' For years he was
pursued by MExicos rurdl mounted police,'by soldiers and posses of civilians.
Dozens of times he w-s in situations where death seemed cotain but his reckless
courage, his dexterity with his pistols,'his expert horsemanship, and his almost
superhuman physiorl cndur.ndo s-vod him,

When the Revolution broke out n 1910 Villa ehteioed the reVolutionary
ranks in a sincere desire to cont'ributo in every way possible to the betterment
of conditions among the poorer classess, M'adro,.'the leader of the movement,"
was r kind,sunselfish, 'and noble individual, who understood Villa,'and the two
became good friends.' Villa proved to be a good soldier and Mcdero's cause
triumphed., In 1913 when Madero was betrayed and assassinated,'Villc gave up
the life of r pc-.cful citizenship which he' had now enjoyed for a short time,'to
oust the traitor, Huerta, from the presidency that he ,had won jby committing the
most heinous crime in Mexican history. Villa's loyalty to' M.dero was unwavering,
and he probably did more to rid Mexico of the Huertistas and their reign of terror
than any other revolutionary leader. Villa boame the commander of 40,000 men
end defeated Federal generals of long exporfienco and thorough military training,

"The triprrtito aspect of,Pan Americanism is peaco, 'cooperation and consideration
for others,1 Mnnuol Cr.ldorn. *

"nch b- ttIls rs those of Torr rn and Z.cato r.s might well be compared with stme
the major engagements of the "American Civil Wa.r. They wore not more
guerrrillr skirmishes but large scale military operations, yet they wore conducted
y a m"n with no milit-ry training or reduction of m y kind, r mrn who relied
.n instinct, native intelligence, and reckless courage. Villa was a natur-l-
ibrrn lo der; men either worshipn,'d or fcered him. Among his admirers were such
distinguished men as the great Peruvian poet, Jose Santos Choc no, and in the
Uritod States he wrs for some time regarded by President W"ilso'n rnd Willi.m
JYnnings Bryan rs the hope of the MTxic.n nation.

L-tr cmn.e the break with C-rr-nza, the leodor of the Revoluticnory
Srmc,- n t. The United Stotcs suppn-rted Crrr, nza., and Villa's fell was
v.it1l. Vill.'s attack on the Amorican town of Columbusj Now Mcxico,was
r it.lir.ticn for the conduct of the American government. Feeling that his
r-a.r friend, Woo-drow Wfilson, had betrayed him, Villa dared defy the armed might
i1 the United Strtes and struck terror into the hearts of the "gringos". One stanz-
'*. the corrido reminds the "cowardly gringos" that now they may trke courage
;, fcr their terror, Pancho Villa, exists no more.

Villa never surrendered to Carr'nza, rot until 1920, after the death of
C rrrnza, did Villa consider a truce with the Mexican government. Then he wrs
pgi~rn the state of Canutillo in Chihuahua end lived there porcefully until the
d y "f his "ssssinatior in 1923. During these three years Villa devoted himself
onrirusly t, agriculture: HJ became a successful former and r gc:ad citizen,
Ynd aade serious efforts t. educate himself. One of his favorite projects was
th. building of schools for the children of Crnutillo rnd its vicinity; The of opportunities for education and peaceful industry in his own life he
regarded as the causes for all of his unhappiness.

Tho.ccrrido here given is only nec of the many that sing of Pancho Villa.
P..rhaps Villa's deeds are too recent to furnish material for a Mexican epic,
f-r mcst heroes need to be dignified by the halo of time before they become
symbols of national heroism. In some future period this condition may be
fulfilled and perhaps then will appear the Mexican poet who has the inspiration
required to write the national epic of Poncho Villa. Surely no figure could be
fund better suited for epic treatmr.nt, fPr Pancho Villa represents the glory
cf Mexico and its trrg..dy.

La Muerte do Francisco Villa

Sorirc~, t ngan presented Siempro pclenba justicin,
y pcng-n much cuid-.d,, no ambiciones do la silla*,
quc on l die veinto do Julio y rogocijaba el almi
Villt hF side asesinado. cl nombre de Pancho Villa.

At'-. do 4il novecientos, Porque aunque a todos les pese
'n 1i vointitres actual, din pruebas do su valor,
Im:t rtn n P'ncho Villa en los Estodos del Nortc
rn Hid:alg del P'rral. Prncho Villa era el terror.

Villa eor un pollite fin- Villa fu le-l partidnrio,
*y n- hrbie, -tre en 1, naclon, siompre benign y sincere,
Oc'm.- le tuvieron micdo vengo la horrible trnici6n
l mltaron a traiciin. que le hicieron a Mtadero.

silla prFJdTdncitil.

Cu.ndo ese infern do Huarta
r M1rTderr. trriicinO
Francisco Villa en ol Norte
on nrmas so lov-nt$.

En comprania do Carranza
crmbati6 aquolla traici6n,
present6 heroicos combates
on la ciudad de Torre6n.

Contra las troprs huertistas
Villa much combrti6
dospubs do trnta lucha
Il Constituoicn triunf6I

Don C-rrenzr.
cuando triunf;nte se vi
mirnndse n on l poder.
a Villr dosconoci6.

Desde entcnces Pancho Villa
presigui" lc rcbolion,
que ccuso grandos tristezas
a todc nuestra naciAn.

En mil novocientos vjinto
quo la guerra tormino
don Adolfo de la Huerta.
con Villa conforen.oi<0

Y le pidi6 gnrantlas
este valiento caudillo,
y ol Gobierno le cedio
la hacienda do Canutillo.

En los trabajos del cnmpo
el puse su intoligenc-in,
y a los tries Pios cumplidns
lo quitrron 1 oxistencia.

El dir veinti on la ma ana
ptrr su haciondn snrli6
de r1 otidad do Parral
dcndo l. video perdi6o

Villr pnso on su autom6vil
qgue I mismo iba mhncjando
sin saber quo los traidcres
yr. l ostrbrn esperando.

En un barrio de nl antrada
llamaddo d Gunnejut.o,
pas'ndo una csan sola
fue el horrible asesinnto.

Al pasar per esa cas.
variaas-desargas so oyeron,.
Villa, con Trillo y su escolta
todos juntos pereocieronp

Dos infanmes asesinos
r1 instant so ba~tron,
sobre Villa y sus soldados
sus pistols descargaron,

"n rumbo de Santa Barbara
los asesinos so fueron
y las troprs del Gobierno
con furor los persiguieron.

Grando novedad cau-s
on Hidalgo de Pnrral,
la muorte ten repentine
del valionto general.

Vueln, vuela, palomita,
parato on aquella higuerilla,
avisclos n los gringos
quo murio Francisco Villa.

Ahora si, gringos cobardos,
rocobren ya su vrlor,
yt' soe cabo Prncho Villr.
que or'f do ustedes terror.

En'ol pueblo de Cnlumbus
sus recuerdos ies dejo
nr',ms diecisieto gringos
fucron los que allf deoj.

Despodida no los doy,
la angustia no es mny sencilla
la falta que hace a mi petria
el seoorr rancisco VtllaI

AunqUW los pesej repito,
din fn'cha ni alovostas
pollos como Pancho Vill.,
no nacon todos los d{as,

The University of Chiloe looted in Snntingo and generally regarded as the
best in South Americn, was founded in 1843, four years after a government law put
nn end to the ancient Universidcd do Snn Folipe. Its first rector was the ominont
Vonezuelan man of letters, Andr6s Bello. It is composed of seven Facultades or
Colleges which are as follows: .Facultad do Cicncias Jurldicns y Socibles, FrcUltra
do Filosoffa y Educnci6n, Facultad do Comorcio y Economia Industrial, Facultad do
Biologin y Cioncins Modicns, Facultad do Cioncias Fisiccs y Mntommticns, FhoultRd
dc Agronomin y Votqnrinria, and. Frcultad: do Bellas Artes,


'I 8 k


por Rollin S. Atwo,-d

L. geogrnflaf os primordialmente unn interpretr.cion de la distribucion, l. vi-
dr. y las activid.des de los pueblos en las varies regions del mundo. Al hr.cor
esto, el geografo utiliza los resultados de ciencias como la geologi{n, la motereo-
logia, la antropologia y la economic, porque se relaoionan con ol medio de su fi-
gure contral:- el hombre.
Para powder compronder un pueblo, as necesario tambien que comprondamrs su his-
tnrin. El gopgrafo, per lo tanto, estudiando unn civilizecion del prosento, c n-
sidern su historic como una sucesibn do factors geoor.ficos, oncernadns on rcon-
tc cimiontos. En realirad, la historic es 1i geogr.fia puestr. en movimionto. L-
quc on la r.ctualidad es factor geogrAfico, es mrninn un hecho historic. NTo os
--siblu segragar las dos ciencias sin disminuir el valor de ambas.
1E studio de Ie caccidentes geograficos one un factor histArico, desgracia-
dr.monto, hr. sido desacreditado, a ncusa de generalizacionos extravaeanteos, basadas
on dr.ts insuficientes. Algunos geografol, aun hoy, con frecuencia so inclinan a
n-tar un factor sin tender al resto. Un geologo hara resnltar los accidentes
-'-srnficos. Un economist le darA importancia desmedida a factores do indole a-
conmiicrn. Un meteorologist es capr.z de asegurar que el tiemxpo es la fucrza omni-
pctento quo dirige el desenvolvimionto do la humanidad. Estas son formas do un
punt- do vista estroch-, explicable on parte por el hecho de quo un especinlista,
on ot.lquior tcrreno, esta naturalmonte mas preparndo pare apreciar la significa-
cion de los factors en su campo particular. La goografra, no obstanto, as ol
studio de un gran grupo re influences actuande al unisono, asl coao do influon-
cias quo han tonido efecto en distintas 4pocas. Algunos factors actunn on unn
direccion dotorminada, alginos en otra. Un factor puede tenor extreme imponrtan-
cir. on unn cpoca, poro una completamente disimil puede despertarso con la expan-
siln dcl mundo conocido o, a causa rdo invnhteiohes o dQ cambios socialcs, conver-
tirso On ol factor mrs impbrtante do una epoca posto ior.
Estas complicadas influencias geograficas no se rindon al annalsis, ni oucdcn
ostimrrse sus fuerzas a n' ser desdo el punto do vista do la evolucian. Dobe on-
tendorse quo todas las relacionos geograficas del hombre estrn someti'las a las
lcyes del deosrrollo. El medio fisico puede sor favorable a un piano del dosarro,
llo humann, pore completamente hostile a otro, y viceversa. Por ejermplo, un rmodio
roducidn, cislado y pri'tegido, comr cl de Grecin, precipito el ,rccoz dRcsr.rr-llo
do una civilizacion mn.ravillosr.; perry ni.s tarrdo este mismo aislamicnt~ fisico im-
pidio el progress y' ln oxpansiAn y detuvo el desarrollo del pueblo. P.r, una razon
muy semajanto, el comercio altrnaonto dosarrollado del Bhltico, quo ol di6 riquoz.s
y prconinancia a Lubeck y otros puebls del Hcnse, en el norte de Ilemnnir., del
sigl doco al siglr diecisiote, porrio su importrncin cuando el Atlintico
so convirti' on el scenario maritino do la historic. El voeradero geografo, por
1l t.ntc, run cu.ndo estudia una combinacibn determinada do fuorzas geogr ficas,
hr. do st.r preparado para reajustes enormes y nuevas relaciones al llegar a un
roc .0r imn-'rrtrnto en las relacionos mundiales, econmincas o culturales do un puo-
No acrba aqui la complejidad dcl problema del ge6grafo. El dosarrollo huma-
nf, on lo quo se refiere a la influencia del medio geografico, es un process na-
turnl y cmrpronde los efectos cumulr.tivos: de- diversas fuerzas que obrrn impe'cep-
tiblementa, pero con persistencia, a traves de vastos periods do tiempo. Lenta
y deliberareamonte, in geograffa le da los subtftulos a la hist-ria de un pueblo.
En cada problema del estudic do un pueblo hay dos faotores do mayor importan-
cia, enunci.dos en varias forms: in herencia y el medio; ol hombre y sus condi-
dionos gengrificas; sus fuerzas interiores de la raza y fuerzas exteriors de la

* Published in Revista do Educacion, La Habana, Cuba, Marzo-Abril, 1938, Yos. 5-4.

El Jlonunto g ,ngri.fic, ha 'por.-o y persistentrcnntu -urrnt. in
lr.; historir .el 'sarrollo human. Es una fucrzr. ostpblc. Nuncr. Auermo, L
hist',ri, sc ropite t'Jb'.'.o on gran media ra st6 fuorza .inmutr.blo y pcrsistento dcl
n'l'i'd' f'.sico.
La dificulterv do segr'.gar lac googrnfr, la histCria ra 'itros ostud-i-s, nr,
pucT.o ilustr.rso mej-r quo considorando las rolnciones que oxistan entro unr. y
otra. P:r ojomplo, las vnriaolones gc.graficas de Ir.3 forms r~o vidr. con rolrci n
Sdiforontos mopdios sobrovienon ". mcnude a traves r'c ri~gracioncs en ol ossnnci que,
impresns on-ol 1comipe, formnn a. historic. Lr. naturalezn y nls prr.n.rciones del
cnmbic .nuedion moirs s ya on cl tiempo, ya on cl ospacio,. En fcnliV-.':1 so encuon-
yr'.'.n impress on ambos. Bien po,'lmos vor on In variedad y mutrcihn incidontales
Il. Pistribucion goografica y on cl desrrrollo y la evoluciin n ol tiorn-, dos
ls Ins grm.ndes concqpciones on lo quo se reficre rl mun8o on quo vivimns.
Son r'o tnnt. irmpptrncia los puntos de ~tVista de la. geogrfi y dO i, historic.
quo, on un Spoo)n, on quo In ciudr.iniana implion verlrindora responsnbilirI.'1 por los
canociniontos, paroco; razonablo adoptar la actitud de que ninguna -orsona '.bo ser
consic'rada cult, si no ha construido un. mapa representando los olomontos dr lai
distribucion 'o aigo, y que no hays, soguido ei desarr'llo o la histBrin do unr.
ide. o siturcibn detenminacd que sea. ejmplo d6 socuencia en el tiomno.
Lr significr.cin de los comnontzrio) que se hen hocho portincntes a in c'cofini-
ci'n do las fUnoiones de la geografin y la historic depend de la apiicaci6n do
estos conccptos en la interpretacion y cl uso de los hechos o situncionos con que
tonoms quc habernosla en nls rolacicnos humans. Es licito progunt.r si I. npli-
cc.cin do cstos cCnceptrs puode sor util al definir la indolOe dc li rcturcipn ne-
casr.rin, si ha ea hacerse el mejor use human de les ideas y matorial -ispeniblcs.
Scon cualos fueren las compliccciones -rigin.,'as por la combinacion de li
gocgrficr y la historic con un niumro considerable do otras ciencics, ambos cstu-
dies han contribuido a nl intdernretacln de los datos en esas otras esforns rdo
ncnsnmiant-. La geocgrraf{a ha definido nla variacioni do todo lo,; i ani- y Ic humano, on ol esp.cio, y ha aportado los dates necesarios para il, in-
terpretacirn do los contrasts, las varidciones y la evolucion o dosenvolvimiento
an ol ospncio. La historic ha side la medida del tiempo y de los crambios, tooan-
do todo lo inanimado, 1r animado y lo hiuano. Las vnriaciones on el ticmp- y on'
ol osnacif dobon ser c xaminadas por -itodos comparable por su oxactitud, orden
o intencion on la interpretacion, con los do las ciencias exactas. Se, o no la
manora do procedor tan simple y tan claramente delinendi como en la fisica, no as
nonns important, y esos metodos doben ser emplaeads mientras podamos dnrle in-
So puedo probar clarjamento quo los accidents geograficos ojercon una influ-
oncic. "otorminante sobre l. desnrrello d( la economic y el cnr'cter nrcironl.
Juogr.n un napol muy imp'rtante en 1i manera de sor de los pueblos. Doburia eosn-
rrollarso on cada uno de los pases del planota una simpatia intcligen-
to hccia los habitantes de otros palseos Por medio de can mayor inteligoncia y
mAs r.mnble sinpatinc n la menti de los quo ocupan puosto en ls consojos quo re-
presont.n a 1cs pueblos do las difcrontos naciones, podemos anticipnr 1I. solution
amistosa do todos los nroblerns de importrncia internacioinl.
Una ,.precncrcin ~ el scenario geografico en las 'iforentcs pqrtos del -'rb,
dondo vivon pueblos, oebe cnnducir a una comnronsihn de las condicionos oconrmrico-
soeiclos on quo so rcscrvuelven nqu~llns. Ningun otr- ostudi n enfncr. su atenci6n
tanto como Ie. gieoraffn: en las ccn.iciones actunlos 'el hombre sobro il plnoetr..
A tr.avys do una aprocir.cin intoli-cnto de los nntccordentes histAric-.s do caqa
pueblo y del scenario aeogrAfico -onao ostA. actuando el gran draim. humr.nn,' ,ocbo-
rc. dosarrollnrse una simptnt{n intoli. onte h.cia osos pueblos. Cada nacicn 0c-
bijra dlcs.rrrll.r, por medioi do un sistomr. cduencional, una sinpr.tia inteligente
r'r in gentc de otras nncinnes.

"Sc ofunde a la dignid.d humana cuando so le constrino y niegr libortad de r.ccion,"
Nic.nor'Riveor Caooros (peruano).


Esto no as un,suoneo ostoril, no as una mrotr. intangible. Los idrV les on quc
r'lsc.nsh. iuec'i n i nsoiairse o n ol nula dondc lI s pquoeuclos trninjan juntos. Puo-
fon incorporrrs r.l r. prendiozajc do todo eontor. Dabioran prosontarso on ls uni-
rvcrsid.".dcs do mnncr 'cfoctiva6' La Idec. podrri. feorrrs prrto do i e ouco in Co to-
dos los quo intcntan soguir it sOrvicio di-loatio y tdos los que buscrn omnloo
1blico d3ntroo fuorn del pra{s. No pue'o hacdrse una intorprAtr.cion intoli;;onto
do In historic sin unn apreciaoion dlc scenario donde se ha dosarrollndo ol drc.-
im hist'rico. Ni so puedo hncor tampoco una interpretaciln Inteligonto do los
-rbblamns oconmnicos do hoy, quo tn justamento nos preocupnn, a no sor quo so le
a-rste lr do&.idn toncion lans c ondioones naturales bajo las cunles viv el. puc-
'AlI on cuostion. Fingun nogocio puodo administrarso dobidamento sia una aprooi.-
*i.n o ler.s oondicionos econinicas a tranvs del undo, La vida social de un puo-
rofloja: su asociacion intima con cuanto ie roden. Aun lns joys de nl litera-
h1.rr. y las composicinnos musioalos reflojan la influoncin dol radio. Grupos in-
'ividunles so dcsonvuelven do manor diferento a cause do la hornci rr. racial y Ins
condiciones del medioi y debqnos reconocer que los problomas d .rolcginns, intcr-
nrcionalcs nos llogan ospontanoamonte a medida quo pueblos de diforontos razas han
p-nbldo diforontos sectors del planota.
Tonemos on cl hemisferio occidental vo.intiuna rcnublicasn; unquc do 'rigon
divers, todas han llegndo a a maota tantn tiempo buscada dcl gobierno popular,
Este prinoipio, c n tantos esfuerzos; lleva implilitns, si bion gran-
}cs oportunidrdos, tambi n responsabilidades enormous. La.voz del gobierno es la
vwz dol puobl.o. Es necesar'o, por lo t.nto,. quq todos 1ns hr.bitantes de cnda pais
rcciban lr. information necesria,- para popmitfrles coopronder esos problems me.-
yoros on quo tan vitalmente ostAn intoresados. La clave de nuestrIs
6n ol homisforio ocoidontal serm el desarrollo do un program rcciproco intornmc-
ric no do cducacirn, que tenga como unico objetivo lle.gar na ,cmprendor a cadn pc-
bic a la luz do su medio geografico y su historia espiritunl,' oconomica y cultural.
Rapido servicio do vapors, ferrocarriloes,; tolegrafo y teolfono, carrotcras y nas
reciontemento ol extenso desarrollo de la radio y el tirnsporto aIroo, han roto
las b.rroras fxsicas en el homisferio occidental, Sin embargo, permanoce on pic
I:: mayor do las barreras que no se puodon vencer, cnn eli emplco do It. dinamita y la
mano do obra; In principal de estas barroras s ln ignorancia.. .
La orucacion de la juventud en los.paases nmoricanos necosit. unn rofoma
fundamental on el sentid- de hacerla m~is id"nea npra eldestino coloctivo d0e ostos
mismas prisos.
Por quo so han oxtondiiao tanto el miedo, la sospecha y cl o0io? P-rque 1r.
mc.yoria do las cpnforencias ihternacionales quo tratan del problem del cdsnrmo o
do asuntos coonomicos o. politicos tormina.on el fracaso,
La intoliGencia international no so puode basar en el odio o on ln.sosaacha.
Debo crigirse sobro la comprensipn mutur buena voluntad.
Hoy ya sabomcs que unn paz durnadorn no so puede esotabblecer sobre la com'oton-
cia d r.rmamontos o la intimidacion. Nadie puede oreer hoy en dar.,como algunns
rntos de 1914,-quo las guerras en esto mundo puoden sor. ya de alg~n honficio.
'ntcs d eosr. focha, alguien que oroyaer on ia necosidad de paz eor considerado un
fcnn.tic7. No croor hoy on la :nooesidad de paz as ser. el tontc. dcl pueblo.
El miedo so dbo on grn g moedidn a sospecha, 'y a sos-ochra nace gonornlpmcn-
tc do l ignorancia. UnaR de lasgrandos barrerns qu p aun soe ar n los puCbl os
del mundo as ol 4osconocimiento mutuo. Eliemisforio ocoidontal,'si bion so he
tornado en cl puorto. do gonto do oucdhas pa-ses,c.on frocuonci6 ha fracasRdo en su
intoncion do conocer los problems dce,otrTs naciones. Cuando ostall6 i1 iguorra
mundial, c muchos do nosotros desconoofimos aun la situacifn do numorosos luraro.s ,
im.ortrntos do Euronp. y monos todavia sabfrmos algo d imls idoales y las aspirr,-
ciones, los problems y las dificultados do lsrs pueblos de ultrrme.r,. Con fro-m
cuencir, no coertamos a simpatizar intoligentemente con otros pueblos, -nrque no

"Hr.blr.n's idionas rliforontos, pero todos scnos amoridanos," Franklin D. Roosevelt.


tonocomos sus idoalos y sus problems. No acertamos a ponernos en su lurrr.
La avaricia excsiva y el nacionalismo dosmedidb estn~ ongendrando ogo{smo y
.un odin on los pueblos del planet. Las barreras quo tr-.dcvir quedan on pic no
son obstriculos matoriales. Son obst'culos quo no pueden veneer la cioncia y la
tocnologia. Son crtitudes mentalos, quo dependen del character montal y mrr.l -e'
l.'s individuos y, por lo tanto, do las naciones.
Pocc a--p~coec a modida quo las naciones so han -anrcado mas y m sy han esta-
blocido nueGvoas lvzos do mistad y asaocrcicon. Han logrado una ocooQrn.cion on la
'istribucinn dc 1." corres:pondoncia y on las comunicaciones quo llegan por mrdric
-el hil'' Ilr onda. As{, c~di aico millones de mensnjes de rfooto, simiprti{ y buc-
Sv'lunt"' flotrn on el aire y en el miar de un confin al otrn dce rlanetn. Los
iiforcntos pueblos han logrado el libre intercambio do li mejor literature. Reco-
n-con su do'udr a los Imsicos, los artists y los hombres do cioncina otras n.-
ci-nes. Una abiorta cooneracion intellectual estt siendo promovida en muchas or-
:r.nizacir-nos internacionales. Una simpetia mundial hacia los infortundnes so haco
n-tar, y cae.r iran cat6strofe, ya venga del hambre, las inundaciones, los torremo-
tns, los huracanos, las orupcionos volcanicas o cualquier otra crusa, rtrac ln.
nyudn do los individucs y nls nacionos on los distintos lugares dol mundo. Adon-
do quiera quo viajenrs, do un extreme rd otto do las Americas y londo quicra quo
nos mozcloros con gento ^e diferento nacionalidad, encontramos muy pocos quo de-
socn conflict. La inmensa mayoria do los pueblos quiere libertad prre cultivar
la ticrr., prr. trebnjar on las arts tiles o para rendir servicios on su comuni-
dad. Sobro todo, desoa la oportunidad para construir un hogar fcliz. El desco
mas [Trndo y prominent de hoy en el mundo es la paz. Nos encarrios hry con el
problron do rompor Irs ultimas barroras quo que impidon establecer r. justicin y
la paz on cl mundo. L. nosctros y a Ins generaciones futures nos toca continuar
l. obra. La send do nuostro debor esta claramonte definida, Do las tcrriblcs
tragedias quo so desarrollan hoy en el mundo, y que parecon ir on fumento, nos ha
llonado la comprcnsi6n de la solidcridad de la sociodad humana, de la noccsidad
r organizacicn ostrechai si es quo ha de nerdurar alguna forma do civilizncion.
Ahorn comprendmnos que somos compan oros do vinjo on el mismo pairieotey '4*tra b '
to rosponsables per el bienestar y in felicidad del mundo en quo vivimos. No po-
demos portrrncs crmn si ostuvieramos en un gran tren transcontinental, o un tras-
atl ntico con cdstino a un puerto dosconocido. Nuestra apolacin no nocesita ba-
sa.rso on sontimontalismros, sinr, on buen sentido croun y un deson Ido justicia y
buona voluntad on esto munno.
Esta gran tarea puede lograrse unicamente por medio de la educaci6n. Nues-
tras oscuolas estAn llenas de niios y niias que no saben nada de ln guerra mundial,
Lr gonto joven, nacida d'uranto aquclla epoca, estA ahora en In universidad. Es
nucstro dbbcr sag~ado el ver que cada future generaoi6n soea nstrulda on la inuti-
licda do 1. guorra. Per medio de la educaci6n, por medio del dosarrollo del son-
timionto :blico, por todas ias naciones dol mundo, debemos estcblocor un nuevo
motodo part solucionar risputas entro los habitantes do este mundo.
Nocositanos una orientactin nuova on nucstro program educational par.a las
mncrica; una intorprotacion intellectual y una comprension que sirva Ins necesida-
dos do la nueoa epoca de relaciones on ol homisferio occidental. El fcrrocarril,
cl vapor, ol cable, la radio y el aeroplano han llevado al comorcio muy Icjos; os
precise ahorn quo una education rovitalizada, formal o informal, asuma su moroci-
da p:.sicion do influencia ostablizadora en esto nuevo poerod6o. No hay tiompo quo
pordor, si dosoamos obtener el maximo rendimionto de los adelantos en campos re-
lacionados. Es igualmonto esoncial, si el homisforio occidental ha do mantoner
su hogomonia on cl ostablocimiento do la pas y la buona voluntad ontro los habi-
tantos del planeta.


por Manuel D. Ramirez


I. Accent. The question of accent in Spanish is not an altogether difficult one,
for the language is most constant in its pronunciation insofar as rules of ac-
cent are concerned. However, as in English, Toanish is subject to a shift of
accent as -has been found true in some Spanisi. words spoken by Latin-American
people of Tampa, Florida. A number of these changes, of course, may he due to
the influence of the English language.

1. In the first person plural of the present subjunctive when the forms have
more than two syllables, Tampa Spanish has the tendency to accent the an-
tepenult instead of the penult in a number of verbs:

tengamos >- tengamos (2)
salgamos > salgamos (2)

digamos> digamos (2)
vayamos > vayamos (2)

2. Through the influence of English the following change is observed
telefono> telef6n

II. Vowel Changes.

1. Atonic e in hiatus before a or u> i (3).

real> rial (4)
carpintear> carpintiar
patear > patiar
bombardear >bombardiar
clavetear > clavetiar
golpear > gaipiar (5)
bloquear ;> bloquiar
cabecear > cabesiar
deletrear >Im deletriar
pisotear > pisotiar

pelear >-
saborear >
telefonear >*
marear >-
olfatear *s.
gotear >
jaranear >
manosear 2S
picotear >
palmotear Ip


1.A continuation of the same article found in Revista Interamericana, Gainesville,
Vol. I, No. 1, August, 1939.
2The same tendency apparently exists in New Mexican Spanish. See Aurelio Espino-
sn, Studies in New Mexican Spanish, Albuquerque, 1909, par. 11.
3c.f. Lisandro Espinp, Ensayo de Critica Gramatical, Panama, 1925, pp. 237-273.
4This phenomenon is true of most Spanish speaking countries. See MPriano Azuela,
Los do Abajo, Bilbao, 1930, p. 80:
"Yo le daba un contavo Tanto me ostuvo rogando
y ella me dijo quo no... hasta que me sac6 un rial.
Yo le daba medio Ay, que mujeres ingratas,
y no lo quiso agarrar. no sabon considerar!"

For the 1> r, see III, 11.

"Djnocrpta n r.isculpulo do Jesus, no os ccaso la nissr. cos.?" Ignrcio Lltcmirano.

2. In some infinitives of the first conjugation, tonic a> ia by analogy to
verbs ending in oar> iar (6).
filosofar> filosofiar

3. The vowel a has remained unchanged excepting in the following case:
agrio > aigrio
4. Atonic o in hiatus before a or e> u:
toalla > tuaya (7) cohete > cuetc
Joaquin > Juaquin almohada> almur.da
5. Probably due to analogy with feminine nouns ending in a, e >a, as in the
temperie t temperia especie 3 special
series > seria

6. Since it is difficult to produce a well rounded u when far removed from
the accent, u >o as in the following cases
espiritu.* esplrito
7. Through assimilation and dissimilation, e> i in many Sprnish words that
are spoken in Tampa as in the following cases:
ileso;lwiliso debilidad >.dibilid.d
ontero; intero derrotir ) derritir
desgracia'disgrasia (8) despierto 3 dispierto (9)
chimenea > chiminoa entierro ~P) intierro
pedir : pidir

8. In some instances u o when pretonic or in any unaccented position:
butifarra* botifarra durmiendo dormicndo

9. By assimilation after tonic a, the opa, as in the following:
catallogo catlago di logo 'idi lago
10. It is not uncommon to find that ou u by assimilation as in the cascst
Europa3 Uropa (10) neuralgia =>nuralgia
Eustasio >Ustasio reumatismo > rumatismo (11)

"c.f. Rufino Jose Cuervo, Apuntaciones Criticas Sobre el Pogotano, 6th
edition, Paris, 1914, par. 316.
For the ll y, see III, 9.
8c.f Grlician disgr.cia. See M. Curros Enrlquoz, Aires d'a Miia Terra, Mr.drid,
1917, p. 119:
"'alia, quen foi causonantc
Do disgracin semellante
E quen ala te levoul
N-a mifa company amanto
Nunon outra tal che pas6u'"
Cartas Perdidas
9This also. appears to be true of the Argentine gaucho. See Jose Hernandez, Martin
Ficrro, Buenos Aires, 1938, p.25.
"Ansf lloga medio muorto
Do hambre, de so y de fatiga
Poro el indio es una hormiga
Quo dia y noche esta dispierto."
10See Benito Lynch, Los Caranchos de la Florida, Buenos Aires, 1926, p. 149.
"Dignme si parn eso los habra mandao el padre a Uropa..."

11. Likewise, the dipthong au tends to becdhe a single sound. This phenomenon
is also true of the Spanish spoken in Bogota, Colombia (12).
automovil> atomovil auditorio> aditorio
vidrio do aumento vidrio de umento
12. Just as is found true of Spanish spoken in New Mexico (13), the dipthong
ei ao in the numerals such as:
veinte y dos i ventidos treinta y cinco a>trentisinco
13. Initial or medial ao-or aho)*o in some cases found in Tampa Sprnish.
This is also true oT the Spanish spoken in New Mexico (14).r.nd in Bogota,
Colombia (15).
ahogarse > ogarse ahorrar > orr'ar
zanahoria 3 zanoria ahorcnrr orcar
oxtraordinario estrordinnrio ahoray hora (16)
14. Two successive like vowels tend to become one sound in Tamp. Spanish, but
this phenomenon is generally true in all Spanish speaking countries and
is especially true of colloquial Spanish, (17).
creenciaB crensia albahnaon* albnon
alcohol y] alcol

III. Consonant Changes.

1. The Spanish v represents a voiced bilabial explosive (b) when in an ini-
tial position or when followed by m or n (18). In Tampa Spanish, however,
probably due to the English influence, v is given a voiced labiodontnl
sound rather than the Spanish (b) sound regardless of position.
envio (envio) todav{i> (todavia)
verde j (verde) ventana> (ventana)
2. Just as in New Mexican Sp.nish, in all Spanish America, in Andrlusia, and
other Spanish provinces, a or z before e or i represent a simple sibilant
s (19).
citar > sitar zapato r saprto
cesto.> sesto zorra ) sorra
zeta:> setn cenar -y senar

11This is probably due to the influence of the English pronunciation.
Rufino Jose Cuervo, op. cit., par. 785.
130.f. Aurelio Espinosa, op. pit., par. 59.
14 Ibid, par. 64.
15Rufino Jose Cuervo, op. cit., par. 783.
16There may also be found instances of aho au that apparently is also true of
the Irnguage spoken in Uruguay. See Carlos"eyles,. El Terruno, Madrid, (c.1927),
p. 267:
"Aurita lo vamos a saber..."
17Soe T. Ncvarro Tomns, Manual do Pronuncircibn Espanola, 2nd edition, Madrid,
1921, p. 124.
18Ibid, p. 70.
19Professor Pedro Henriquez-UreFn writes a very enlightening discussion on the al-
leged Andalusian characteristics of the speech of Spanish America. I cite from
Panorama, Pan American Union, No. 8, August, 1937, p. 16.

3. Contrary to the Spanish spoken in Spain, the s does not become a relaxed
r when followed by another r in the Spanish spoken in Tampa. To this
end, Navarro-Tomas says, "En el grupo -r(israelite, los reyes, dos reales),
la s se sonoriza come en los easos precedentes; pero I- pun dE -a lon-
gua7, arrastrada por In energica atticul'cion de in r siguiente, abandon
la forma cnracteristica do la ostrechez redondonda quo la pUnta de la, lei-
gua formal en la bs h..cindo perder a e&sta su timbre sibilante y producien-
dsse propiamentej en vez do ir. unn r, o sea una r fricr.tiva." (20)

4. According to Aurelio Espinosa, the fall of d is very frequent in nearly
all the Romance languages and dialects, and-is an almost universal pheno-
menon in the Spanish dialects (21). Final or intervocalic d is almost
always dropped in the Spanish used in Tampa.
honrardo> honrao usted> uste (22)
candado > candao verdad >. dverdi
pelado > pelao juventud., juventu"
aguado > aguao sentado> sentan (23)

5. Due to the velar quality of the u, b> g when followed by the dipthong ue.
buono >gueno (24) abuclcai h~giela
buoy> gfey

6. The Spanish consonant h is always mute. but in r few cases have I noticed
that it has a voiceless aspirate (x) quality as is found true in Bogota,
Colombia (25).
halar> jalar (26) Hactor.. Jector (27)

7. Again1 as in the ease of bue g~e, huo ~gfe due to the velar quality of
the u.
hueos s> g9 esos hucrfano > geirfano

20 Op. cit., p. 86.
21 Op. cit., par. 180, 4.
22 This is apparently true of the Spanish in Colcmbia. See Jose Eustasio Rivcerr
L. Vorngine, 9th edition New York~ 1929, p. 290*
i uste me hubiera toc.o lc ca i uno de los dos osta'ia on el suolol"
23 Jose Hernandoz, op. cit., pi 1301
"Alli sentao on su silla
Ningun gue) le sale bravo:
A uno le da con 1l tlavo
Y a otro on la bantramilla."
Enrique Larreta, Zogoibi, Buenos Aires, 1926, p. 262:
"Guenas trrdes..."
Rufino Jose Cuervo, op. cit., pars. 774-775.
26 ,
"En today la America espanola es oomun el empleo del verbo jalar en vez de halar
(tirar). En Espana no son ajenos al uso de tal verbo," Daric Rubio, La Anar-
qu{a del Lenguaje on la America Espafola, Mexicot 1925, Vol. 1, p. 330.
This is probably dus to the influence of the English pronunciation of the word.

8. In a number of instances do I find that English words having the consonant
w are used in the Spanish spoken in Toanpn, ca.~r~rtirng the w to either gfi
or hui.

whiskey > glisqui (28)

sandwich> sinhr'ui.hi (29)

9. The gradual development of the consonant 11 losing its palatal quality is
a matter of history now, for the sound of 11 in Tampa Spanish no longer
corresponds to that of Old Castile. Here we find, as is true of New Mexi-
can Spanish and Spanish America, that 11 y (30).

ella'3 eya
calle "Y caye
caballoW cabayo
lluvia V yuvia

lleno. yeno
brillo briyo
llamar yamar

10. By the process of assimilation, gn> n in the following cases:

r e pu gnar !0 re punar
ignorant inorante (31)

magnlfico> manifico
ignorancia > inorancia (32)

11. In many cases have I found that the consonant 1> r whether in a final or
in any other position (33).

delantal idelantar
alquilar> arquilar
almidbn> armidon
rldaba .3 ardaba

alcohol> alcor
salpicar > sarpicar
alfiler.> arfiler
maltratar ~>imartiatar

12. In certain instances I have found that the -consonant g is dropped in
Tampa Spanish as in the following cases:

aguar 1 awa
aguacate> awacate
aguantar awantar

guardacantbnj> huaracanton
agujero 3S ahujero (34)

2This is also true of the Argentine speech. See Hugo Wast, Desierto do Piedra,
edited by E. R. Sims, New York, (c. 1930), p. 183:
"Entoncos habra que emborracharlo ,.. Precisamente he trafdo una botolln do
un g~isqui tan de su gusto ... Una botolla de Caballo Blanco."
c.f, F. M. Kerchevillo, A Preliminary Glossary of New Mexican Spanish, Univer-
sity of Now Mexico Bulletin, Albuquerque, July, 1934, p. 66.
See Note 19.
Bonito Lynch, Los Caranchos de la Florida, Buenos Aires, 1926, p. 150:
"Ven, don Panchito, yo no soy mas que un paisano inorante..."

Jose HernAndoz, op. cit., p. 60:
"Y aunque yo por mi inorancia
Con gran trabnjo me osplico,

Cuando llego a abrir el pico,
Tenganlo por cosa cierta."

c.f. Aurelio Espinosa, op. cit., par. 141.

Jose Hornrndoz, op. cit., p. 1781
"No galopo, que hay aujeros,
Le dijo a un guapo un prudonto."

13. Intervocalic rr has become dr in the case of the future and conditionals
of querer, apparently by anaTogy to other futures and like
habro, habra, habria, podre, podra, podrla,
querre >r quedre quorrass > que r:%
querr n '>quodran

14. By dissimilation t> 1 and g> k as in the f'.:i: '.wig oases:
estrambotico > strambolico gangrzna > cvr.-m-nr. (75)

IV. Phonetic Changes.

1. The sound of s is suppressed in most plurals and words ending in s in the
Spanish spoken in Tampa.
las casas> lah casah (36) ladrones > ladroneh
vanos > vamoh paracaidas > paracaidah

2. By apocope the following changes are noted in Tampa Sp.nish:
adredo> adro (37)

3, Aphaorcsis of a is not uncommon in Tampa Spanish, but this phenomenon
is generally true of the Spanish spoken in other Spanish-speaking regions
(38). The following are but r few of the instances:
arrebatar > rebater abochornar' bochornar
rrancar > rancar

4. The following change takes place in Tampa Spanish due tn syncope:
adelante 'alanto (39)

5. Prosthesis of a, em, en, des, and other prefixes is found as common in
some Spanish words used in Tampr as in other places where the Hispanic
language is spoken.

prendor > apronder baar 3. abajar 140)
prestar > omprestar todavia > entodav.r
juntar> ajuntar rascal" arrascar
barajar N embarajar guitar iW enguiirar
borrador> aborrador

6. By the process of openthosis a new set of words appears in the Spanish of
Tampa, Florida (41). The following case is an example
tigre p tiguero

c.f. Lisrndro Espino, op. cit., p. 211.
3There is a tendency to have an aspirate sound to designate the plural.
Cr.rlos Rcyles, op. cit., p. 130s
"En costa tierra no gana uno pa sustos agreg6 cl pnisano."
c.f. Aurclio Espinosa, op. cit., par. 201.
See Real Academia Espalola, Diccionario Manual e ilustrado de la lengua Espano-
l1, Madrid, 1927, p. 71:
"Vulgarismo per adelante."
40 This tendency is also true in Argentina. See Hugo Wast, La Corbata Celeste,
Buenos Aires, 1930, p. 279:
"Bien haiga la horn de llegarl Abnjensen'"
c.f. Aurelio Espinosa, op. cit., par. 193.

7. The following change takes place through metathcsis:
cluoca >rculcca

8. By analogy to the verb frmrs trarig, caig_ there are "ls' found in Trmpa
Spanish the following forms:
hayn > haiga (42) huy r. b hui". (43)

9. Since the Spanish lingur~.e rarely cont;; i.- .ouns ending with r consonrnt
stop .or explosive, loan words fr.m the n..n.lish usually have an epithetic
vowel (44).
quilt> cuilto rake reique
sink > sinque trick > triqui i

10. Some words in Tampa Spanish have underr-n,. a change of suffix es in the
following cases
chirona~ chirola (45) lamer> lambir.r (46)

11. Some words in the Spanish spoken in Tampa have undergone a change of pre-
fix as in the following:
rasurar > resurvr zafar > desafar (48)
nstilla >estilla (47) estornudar destornudnr

12. By analogy to the formation of plurals of other words, certain terms in
Tampa Spanish form their plurals as follows:
ccf 6e oafeses aji{ncjjisas (49)
mnianf manisos

42Marinno Azuola, op. cit., p, 163:
"Pa quo tu lo sepas! Y ya sabos ... Lo que haign con 1l, hay cnmigo."
43 These forms were also used in Classical Spanish. See Ram6n Menenndez Pidnl,
Manual dc Gr.amtica Historica Espgvol., 5th edition, Madrid, 1929, prr. 254.
44 For more Spanish loan words from the English language, see my article "Some
Semi-ntic and Linguistic Notes on the Spanish Spoken in Tampa, Fl'ridar Rcvista
Interamericana, Gainesville, August, 1939j p. 31.
4 Apparently this word is accepted as an Americanism. See Augusto Malaret,
Diccionario do Americanismos, Puerto Rico, 1931, p. 196.
c.f. Rufino Jose Cuervo, op. cit., par. 788.
This term also appears to be an accepted Americanism. See Augusto Mnlarot, 'p.
cit., p. 245.
4This change in prefix may be due to analogy to the verb desatar.
This tendency seems to be true in Cuba. See Fernando Ortiz, Glosario de Afro-
negrismos, La Habana, 1924, p. 22:
"Copiamos de Dihigo: 'Fornm incorrect de former ol plural on class do nan-
bre como ajf; la forma es c.jaes. Nada so indica al travis do nuestros l1xi-
cos como oxpresion frocuente on boca del vulgo; tampoc" on los diccionarics
ospanoles. Malaret on su Dice. do prov. do Puerto Rico apunta la forma cc-
mo plural irregular do ji Ortiz en Un catauro do cubanismos soeala como
en Cuba so suale decir ajises por ajies.'


por William C. Zellars

About two years ago I published an essay on the Spanish Historical owvel
of the second quarter of the nineteenth century.1 The bibliographical section
of this work was based on a careful search for titles and volumes in some
thirty-two bibliographical .sources, including libraries of this country and-
Europe and a number of bookshops of Madrid. When bibliographer deals with
a field of literature that involves many volumes a are out of prJ4t and
studies a genre whose main popularity has passed except for the specialist, his
task is ant to be difficult to complete, regardless of how meticulously cereful
his work may be.

Recently a few other bits of information bearing on the field covered in
the aforementioned esspy have come to my-attention, largely through the
cooperation and kindness of Dr. R. S. Boggs of the University of Forth Carolina,
whose collection of titles of Spanish works promises to be one of the best
in our country. Moreover, I able to add a few other titles that appear
in dejador y Frauca's Historia de la lengue y literature castellana (VI and VII).

The titles that can definitively be classified as historical novelsof
the years 1820-1850 which should now be added to those included in my former
investigations in this field are:

An6n: Las grutas de Lidental y el castillo de Tcrberg, novels hist6rica
del sigio XTIII Ecija, IT36. i -
La Laguna, el sefor des Los -ouatro Juanes o loi desposorios en el castillo
de Zahara, novela originals CadTiz, 1842, 2vo1l 33.-JiEi orical noWve lof 15th
"century Cadiz).
Larrosa; Amados Los reyes godos, nove a, Parcelona, 1848.
Ram~rezjs Braullo A MF E sabt-de1 zmn, Madrid, 1847.(An historical novel
based on the War of Indepen ence)7.
Rome, M. des Pelayo, restaurador de la monarqua espafola, novel host6rica,
Madrid, 1828, 2 volumes.
Tovar y Salcedo, Antonia: Reynaldo y Elina o la sacerdotisa peruana, novel
hist6rica, Valencia, 1820.

The last mentioned title is of singular interest in that it indicates that
the aeBrth of the historical novel in the nineteenth century began in Spain
oven before Walter Scott's writings had appeared in translation in Spanish,3
though, of course, Scott's influence was the main factor responsible for the
popularity of this genre in Spain during the second quarter of this century,
I hope some day to locate a copy of this work of Tover y Salcedo so as to as-
cafin athther or not Scott's influence had affected Spanish literature prior
to the publication of the first Spanish edition of Ivanhoe.

1 La novel histbrica en Esa, 1828-1850, New York, Instituto do las Espafas,19,
2, Op. cit., page 1i65. Pevious-y mentioned ty the present author as probably
an Historical Novel.
3, Churchman and Peers have fixed 1825 as the date of the first appearance of a tr
lation of any of Scott's works in Spanish, Ivanhoe was published in Spanish in
London, 18265 See "A Survey of the Influence of yi7 Waiter Scott in Spain-," Rev.
LV, 227-310* According to the abovo-cited work of Cejedor y Frauc% (VI, 404;77
El Europoo, published in Barcelona 1823-1824 by Aribau; L6pez Solor, Cook and
sormo Italians, all of whom were disciples of Romanticism, made known in Spain
some soloctiohs from Scott.

Recently, due to the kindness of the Library of Harvard University and
of tho Now York Public Library, it has been possible for me to examine Jorgo
Montgomery's historical novels, El bastardo do Castilla and Bcrnardo dol Carpio.
The Intter work is a reprinting of the former and I have thus ben ablo to
verify the opinion that I previously expressed in the assr.y mentioned above.3

Finally, I am inclined to think thr.t the following works are historical

L6pez,Solor", Ram6ns Memorias del golferr, nov. p6st., 1839.
Mr-.rqu4s y Espejo, Antonio; Anasth.sia, asnecdota hist'riPr, Valoncia, 1826.
TVaob., y Cossio, Tiesforos Count of CGastile".
,.ruoba y Ir. Quintana, Antonio dot sonor dc Borledo,. leyondr, Madrid, 1849,.

A careful -examination of Humara y Salamancr's historical novel Rnamiro,
condo do Lucena, in the Boston Public Library convinces me that the edition
to bo fou-there (Paris and New York)(128), is the first edition of this work
Pnd that it was not published In 1823,, as stated by Cejador y Far.ucarE5

1. Madrid, 1832, 2 volumes.
2. Boston, 1834,
3. Page 158.
4. It has been impossible for me to locate the place or- drte of the publication
of this novol.
5. Op., cit., VI,. 404.,


"Nas epocas de nervosismo,. de crise social, de lutas sangrentas como a
opoca que atravessamos nos todos, das geraS es que hoje vivemos a missao da arteo
o uma missao de renasoimento e de purificaoaoo.. Por ella expressamos as aspiravbs
que nto conseguimos roalizar -. aspiraoRas de paz, do felicidado, de solidaridade
humana, que se oppr-imem nos conflicts de egoismos que hoje lancam umas contra ou-.
tras as classes, as racas e as na5es.
Talvez nunca tivosse tido. a arto um horizonto tao vasto o uma missao tro alta
a realizar, como nos dias que oortmmi, Ella precise crihri para nosso conforto e
nosso ostimulo, a imagem de um mundo do coisas bellas e boas, que ja vae desappa--
recondo no ontreohoque das paitx as que ameaoam; por todos os ladosa a liberdade dos
fracos e o proprio direito de vivir dos homons humildes e das ra-as opprimidas.
Portenocemos a uma gerac o quo nasceu centre as ruinas da Grandd Guerra e que
caminha, atravos do incertozas e sobrosaltos, para guerras e lutas oada vez mais
sangrontas. A arte da nossa epooa raz a marea dessa angustia, dessa profunda in--
quicta.-o humana.
Nenhum do n6s pode pormanecer alhoio a esse panorama de tragedies o a ossas
explosios do soffrimonto, que se lovantaim do todos os'oantos do mundo. Porque o
homom 0 insaparavol do sou meio,. a um oterrio esoravo do aeu melo,
Por isso 4 que os nossos artists a-gora doixaram de sorrir. A arte modern
rospira soffrimento, angustia, nervosismo, incertoza do dia de amanhTl Talvez ella
passe a histor.ia como uma das expressoos -mais poderosas de tormonto, quo o homom
jamais consoguiu r ealizar.
E tnlvoz por isso mesmo, possamos osperar,. para um future tao muito longinqud~
quo today oss. immonsidade do angustin e soffrimento seja capaz do oriar um mundd
novo, do molhor comprehonsto ontro os homes, do monos egoismo e do maior sereni-
dedo,"' Almir do Andrade (Brazil)..


por Victor 0. Grandoff

RQ dcrs of Marjorio Kinnan 1'wlings's recent Pulitzer prize winning-
novel "The Ycrrling" will r.crill the following reference to Minorcans, which
2.ppears on page 91.
"I'd not pry on the poro things," Penny snid. "The Minorcans is a
people .ws mighty bad put upon. My father knowed their hull history..
A English fuller carried 'em to New Smyrna, over by the ocean and
the Indian River. Ho promised 'em a pure Heaven and put 'em to work.
Ar.d when times got brd and the crops failed, he left 'cm to nigh
about starve to death. There wasn't many loft." 1

The reference, as students of Florida hi-story know, is to the Turnbull
Yinorc-'n Colony of New Smyrna2, established in June of 1768. Some 300 families
wore brought over from the island of Minorca, one of the Baleoric Isles off the
coast of Spain. The venture was an ill-fated one. Indian attacks, crop
failures, sickness and death beset the colonists, who become dissatisfied with
the management and migrated to St. Augustine where they established themselves
in thatched palmetto houses on the outskirts of the city.

Through the year the Minorcans have become assimilated and as often
hapnons in such cases they have lost their native speech, which was a Mahonese
dialect of Catalonian.

Writing from St. Augustine in April 1843, William Cullen Bryant says:

"Soeo old customs which the Minorcans brought with them from their
native country are still kept up. On the evening before Easter Sunday,
about eleven o'clock, I heard the sound of a serenade in the streets.
Going out, I found a party of young men with instruments of music,
grouped about the window of one of the dwellings, singing a hymn in
honor of the Virgin in the Mahonese dialect. They began, as I was told,
with tapping'on the window shutter. An answering knock within had
told them that their visit was welcome, and they had immediately begun
the serenade. If no reply had been heard, they would have passed on to
another dwelling. I give the hymn as it was kindly taken down for me.
in writing by a native of Sti Augustind. I presume this is the first
time that it has green put in print; but I fear the copy has several
corruptions occasioned by the unskillfulnoss of the copyist. The letter oa
which I have put in italics, represents the guttural French ,- or,
perhaps more nearly the sound of the u in the word but. Tho-sh of our
language is represented by sc followed by an i or an e; the both
hard and soft, has the sa-me sound as in our language.o

Included in the letter was a copy of the hymn, a copy of which is repro-
duced below. This copy is not Bryant's but one which appears in'Dewhurst's
History of St,. Augustine, Putnam, New York, 1881. The English rendering
is exct translation of the text and is likewise quoted from Dewhurst..
Recent recordings of the hymn as sung by oldtimcrs have be.,n made by the Works
Progress Administration, and also by Dr. Ralph S. Boggs of the University of
Forth Carolina. The St. Augustine Historical Society is responsible for the

El idioma no as lo unico que explica y da tono particular a la oxpresion litera-
ria de un pais," Luis Alberto Sanchez.

revivr.l of the custom in recent years, r.nd for the testing of various reccpis
for "fromr.jr.rdis'l or cheese crkes, secured from saae of the older residents.
The Junidr Service Le'gue took up the matter and is helping with the revival,
as is thJ St.'Joseph's Academy Alumni Association.


(Hymn.;to the Virgin sung (carolers) on Easter eve by the Minorcansa

Us Gois

The Stnnas

"Disciatrm lu dol
Cant"rom aub'rlagria
Y n'aronm a da
Las pascuas a Maria
0 M-rial

"S'n Gabriel
Qui portabr la ambasciadr.
Des nostro rey del eel
Estr.ran vos peonada
Yc omitiada
Tuao vais aqui serventa
Fia del Doe content
Para fr lo que el vol

"Disciarom lu dol, etc,

"Y a milla nit
Parigucro vos regina--
A un Doo infinit--
Dintra una establina
Y miller. dia
Qua los angels von canti.nt
Prr y .bondr.nt
D2 1c gloria de Doo sol

"Disciarcm lu dol, etc.

"Y a Libalem;
Alla la terra santa,
Nus nat Jesus
Aub'tlagria trnta
Infant petit
Qua tot lu mon salvaria
Y ningi y btstarir
Nu mos un Deo sol.

"Discinrem lu dol, oto.

"Let us leave off mourning
Let us sing with joy
Let us go and give
Our salutation to Mary
0 Mary I

"Saint Gabriel
Brought the tidings
That the king of Heaven
Thow hadst conceived
Thou wert humble.
Behold here is the handmaid,
Daughter of God, content
To do what he will!

"Let us leave off mourning,

"And at midnight
She gave birth to the child
The infinite God--
In a stable.
At mid-day
The angels go singing
Peace and abundance,,
And the glory of God alone,

"Let us leave off mourning,

"In Bethlehem
In the Holy Land
Was born the Saviour,
With grent joy;
The little child
Who all the world would save,
Which no one could accomplish
But God alone

"Let us leave off mourning,

"Aqui, on America y on nuestro siglo, necesitamos una lengua condensada, jugosa y
alimenticia, come oxtracto de carno; una longun fecunda, como riego en tierra de
labor; una longua que desenvuelva poriodos con el ostruendo y vnlentia de las
olas en n playa; una langua domocratica que no so arredro con nombres propios
ni con frases crudas como juramento do soldado; una longun, on fin, dondo so pe.r-
ciba cl golpo dul martillo en el yunque, cl cstridor do In locomotora en ol rial,
la fulguracion do la luz on el foco olectrico y hasta cl color del acido fenico,
Ql humo du la chimonea o cl chirrido de la poloa n o eojo," Manuel Gonzaloz-

"Cu.nt de Orion lus
Tres reys la stralla veran
Deo omnipotent
Adora lo virgaran
Un present infernan
De mil encens y or,
A lu benuit seno
Que conosce cual se vol.

".Disciarei lu dol, etc,

"Tot fu gaynnt
Para cumple la prumas
Y lu Esperit sant
Do un angel fau gramas
Gran foe encens
Quo crama lu curagia..
Dames da lenguagia
Para fe lo que Deo vol,.

"Discinrem lu dol, etc..

"Quant trespasA
De quest mon nostra Se~iora,
Al cel s'ompugia.
Sum fil la matescia ora,
0, Emporadora,
Quo del eel san oligida
Lu rose florida
Me resplondon que un sol.

"Disciarom iu dol, etc.

"Y ol torcor groin
Que Jesus resunta,
Deo y aboroma,
Que la mort triumfa,
Do alli se ball
Para perldra Lucife
Au tot a son pend&
Que do nostro sor al sol.

"Disoiarem lu dol, etc.

"When in the East
Three kings the star did see,
God omnipotent
To adore they came.
A present they made him
Of myrrh and gold
To the blessed Saviour
Who knows everyone.

"Let us leave off mourning,

"All burning with zeal
To accomplish, the promises,
The Holy Spirit
From an angel was sent forth.
A great fire was kindled
And courage inflamed him*
God give us language
To do thy will.

"Let us leave off mourning,

"When we have passed
From this world, our Lady,
To Heaven we are raised,
Your Son- at the same hour
O Queen,
Who art -f Hea7en the choicest
Blooming rose!
More brilliant than the sun.

"Let us leave off mourning,

"On the third day
Our Jesus, arose,
the celestial God
Over death triumphant,
From hence he has gone
To overcome Satan
Throughout the whole world
Our protector and our guido.

"Let us loave off mourning,

" -After this hymn the following strnzas, soliciting the customary gifts of
cakes or eggs, are sung.

"Lu cet gois vam cantant
Regina celestial
Dnmos pan y alagria
Ya bonas festas tingan

"Those seven stanzas sung,
Give us peace and joyl
May you enjoy a good feast;

"The ,moral is, that the states of America are not hostile rivals but cooperating
friends, and that their growing sense of community of interest, like in matters
political and in matters economic, is likely to give them a new significance as
factors in international affairs and in the political history of the world,"
Woodrow Wilson.

Y vos de sus bonas festas,
Damos dines de shs nous
Sempre tarem lus neans Uestas
Pera recibT un grapat de nes.
Y'el giorn de pascua florida
Alagramos y, giuntament.
As qui es mort par dar nos vida
Y via glorosiamente,
A quest casa esta empedrada,
Bien halia que la empedro.
San amo de aquesta casa
Taldria duna un do
Formagiada o empanada
Cucutta a flao,
Cual se v.l casa sue grada,
Sol que no rue digas que no."

We wish a happy tine,
Give us of your bounty,
We always have our hands ready
Thy bounty to receive,
Let us now the Easter feast
Together enjoy,
He died to save us;
Let us be joyful
This house is walled round,
Bledsed be he who walled it about
The owner of this house
Ought to give us a token,
Either a cake or a tart,
We like anything,
So you say not no."

The shutters are then opened by the people within, and a supply of cakes
or other pastry is dropped into a bag carried by one of the party, who
acknowledge the gift in the following lines, and then departs

"Aquesta casa reta empedrada,
Empedrada do cuastro vens,
Sun amo de aquesta casa
Es omo de compliment."

"This house is walled around
Walled round on four sides
The owner of this house
Is a polite gentleman."

If nothing is given, the last line reads thuss

"No es home de compliment."

"Is not a polite gentleman."

This song is repeated through the city until midnight. To the listener it
has a peculiar fascination like some of the tunes from popular operas, keeping
one awake to listen to its strains, even after many repetitions have rendered
the singing monotonous.


(All of the books listed here may be found in the Florida Collection, at
the University of Florida)

1. Rawlings, Marjorie Kinnan, The Yearling, Scribner's, Yew York, 1938.

2. Corse, Carita Doggett, Dr. Turnbull and the New Smyrna Colony, C. & W. BO
Drew, Jacksonville, 191-9, out of p'rit.

3. Fairbanks, George R., History and Antiquities of St. Augustine, C. Drew,
Jacksonville, Fla., 1871.

4. Dewhurst, William, W., History'.of St. Augustine, Putnam'sl New York, 1881.

"Debemos reemplazar los patriotismos locales por un generoso patriotism Continen-
tal," Jose Vasooncelos.


A graduate of the Universidad Central de Ecuador, Arturo Meneses Pallares is
doing graduate work in sociology and agricultural economics at the University of
Florida. Bilingual and well advanced in the French language, he is a writer and
translator of the books, "Creation by Evolution" and "Ecuador." Meneses plans to
continue governmental work when he returns to Quito.

Dr. William C. Zellars is an Associate Professor of Spanish at the Florida
Southern College in Lakeland, Florida, and is a Director of the Instituto de las
Espafias en los Estados Unidos, Seccion de la Florida. Author of numerous books and
*bicles, Dr. Zellars is a regular contributor tf the Revista Interamericana.

Andres Davis Salazar, former student at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia,
is a junior at the University of Florida and is specializing in economics. A for-
mer president of Los Picaros de Quevedo, honorary Spanish fraternity, Davis has
compiled an enviable record as a speaker, appearing before civic, religious and
women's organizations and a number of schools in the State.

A graduate of the School of Philosophy and Letters of the University of the
Federal District in Rio de Janeiro and of the School of Law of the University of
Brazil, Othon Moacyr Garcia is a graduate student at the University of Florida.
During his undergraduate days he was president of the student body in Rio do Janei-
ro for two years, and founded two monthly literary magazines and various clubs for
the advancement of culture and education in Brazil.

Donald F. Fogclquist, Instructor in Spanish and Gcrman at the University of
Florida, is a graduate from Washington State College. He has done research work
in Mexico and is working on his Ph.D. at the University of Wisconsin.

Rollin S. Atwood, Acting Director of the Institute of Inter-American Affairs
of the University of Florida, has been engaged in the Inter-American field for the
past decade and has done research work in Central America for the Carnegie Insti-
tution of Washington. He is the author of a number of books and articles and is a
Director of the Institute do las Espafias en los Estados Unidos, Socci6n do la Flo-

Manuel D. Ramiroz, editor of the Revista Intoramoricana and Secretary of the
Institute of Inter-American Affairs of the University of Florida, graduated from
the State University in 1937. After a year of teaching, he returned to the Univer-
sity of Florida and received his master's degree in 1939.

Victor C. Grandoff is a graduate of the University of Florida and has done
graduate work at the University of Chicago and at the University of Florida. After
teaching six years in the Jacksonville school system, Grandoff returned to the
local campus to continue his graduate studies.