Report of the general findings committee and reports and recommendations of six group meetings on November tenth


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Report of the general findings committee and reports and recommendations of six group meetings on November tenth
Physical Description:
3 p. l., 24 numb. l. : ;
United States -- Dept. of State. -- Division of Cultural Relations
Conference on inter-American relations in the field of education, (1939
Division of cultural relations, Department of state
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Washington, D. C
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Subjects / Keywords:
Education -- Congresses   ( mesh )
Intellectual cooperation -- Congresses   ( lcsh )
Education -- Congresses   ( lcsh )
Relations -- Latin America -- United States   ( lcsh )
Relations -- United States -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


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Also issued online.
General Note:
At head of title: Conference on inter-American relations in the field of education ... Washington, D. C., November 9-10, 1939.
General Note:

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University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01817751
lccn - 40026430
lcc - F1418 .C784
ddc - 370.361
nlm - W3 C71 1939a
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Full Text



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.6 7484
C 7484

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Mayflower Hotel

Washington, D.C.

November 9-10, 1939





Division of Cultural Relations

Department of State

November 1939

C 74'?44-e



Tribute to the memory of Dean F. K.
Richtmyer .............................. 1

Recommendations of the Findings Committee... 2

Members of the Temporary Continuation
Committee ....... ......................... 3

Group I ..................................... 5

Group II.................................... 8

Group III................................... 12

Group IV.................................... 15

Group V ..................................... 19

Group VI.......................... .......... 22


On November 9 and 10, 1939 approximately six hun-
dred educators representing all sections of the United
States met in Washington under the auspices of the
Division of Cultural Relations of the Department of
State to explore the possibilities of increasing the
interchange of educational interests among the people
of the American republics. The conference met as a
whole on November 9 and on the second day, November 10,
divided into six groups. Although it was an unofficial
and informal gathering, a number of recommendations
were presented by the six group meetings. These recom-
mendations and the reports accompanying them were not,
therefore, acted upon by the conference as a whole.
They will be submitted to the Temporary Continuation
Committee authorized by the conference for whatever
action may appear appropriate to the committee.

This pamphlet contains the report of the General
Findings Committee appointed to summarize the sense of
the conference as a whole, as well as the reports of
the six group meetings.

Tribute paid to the memory of the late
Dean F. K. Richtmyer of Cornell University
by the Conference on Intor-Amorican Relations in the
Field of Education, on November 9, 1939

(Resolution presented by a special
committee under the chairmanship
of Dr. Stephen P. Duggan,
Director of the Institute
of International Education,
and adopted unanimously by
a rising vote of the Conference)

Scholarship has lost one of its eminent advocates.
He was one of the leading physicists of the United States,
and was recognized as an international authority in the
domain of English. In extending the use of X-ray in
medicine, for his conspicuous contribution in this field
he was awarded the Levy Modal by the Franklin Institute
in 1929.

Dean Richtmyer was a member of the faculty of Cornell
University since 1904, and Dean of the Graduate School
since 1931. He was one of America's eminent scientists
whoso scholarly achievements and wide interests have
contributed much to the growth of the research capacity
of our country in its broad educational aspects. He was
a member of the principal scientific organizations in
his field of science and has been honored by the prosi-
doncy of several of them. In recognition also of his
outstanding position he was elected to be a member of the
National Academy of Science; the American Philosophical
Association; and the American Academy of Arts and
Sciences. The conference on education, called by the
Division of Cultural Relations of the Department of State,
in whose discussion he was to have taken a prominent
part, wishes to place upon its record an expression of
the deep sense of loss that it feels in the passing of
Dean Richtmyer.




Adopted Unanimously at the Plenary Session
on the afternoon of November 10, 1939

The Findings Committee of the Conference on Inter-
American Relations in the Field of Education mot during
the luncheon hour on November 10, 1939, and after mature
consideration made the following recommendations to the
Plenary Session of the Conference:

1. That the Conference express its gratitude to the
National Committee of the United States of America on Inter-
national Intellectual Cooperation for the report which it
has provided, entitled A Preliminary Survey of Inter-
American Cultural Activities in the United States.

2. That the members of this Conference bring to the
attention of their colleagues and associates the meeting
of the Eighth Pan American Scientific Congress to be held
in Washington in May 1940.

3. That a Temporary Continuation Committee be chosen
to prepare a digest of the record of the Conference and
send a copy at an.early date to each of those present at
the Conference and to other interested persons; the members
of this Committee to be chosen by the Chairman of the Find-
ings Committee and the Chief of the Division of Cultural
Relations of the Department of State.

4. That the Temporary Continuation Committee give
careful consideration to the recommendations and resolu-
tions of the six discussion groups and refer such of them
as call for further action to appropriate organizations
represented at this Conference.

5. That the entire membership of the Conference ex-
press its appreciation and gratitude to the Department of
State for calling this conference.

6. That an expression of appreciation be extended to
Mr. Archer M. Huntington for his generosity and vision in
making possible the Hispanic:Foundation in the Library of



Dr..Harold Benjamin, Professor of Education, University
of Maryland.

Right Reverend Joseph Corrigan, Rector of Catholic Uni-
versity, Institutional President of the Association of
American Universities.

Dr. Bernice B. Cronkhite, Dean, Radcliffe College.

Dr. Hqgh S. Cunning, Director, Pan American Sanitary

Dr. William D. Cutter, Secretary, Council on Medical Edu-
cation and Hospitals, American Medical Association.

Dr. F. D. Farrell, President, Kansas State College of
Agriculture and Applied Science; President, Association
of Land-G-rant Colleges and Universities.

Dr. Edgar J. Fisher, Assistant Director, Institute of
International Education.

Mr. Ernosto Galarza, Assistant, Division of Intellectual
Cooperation, Pan American Union.

Dr. Willard E. Givens, Executive Secretary, National
Education Association.

Miss Meta Glass, President, Sweet Briar College; Presi-
dent, Association of American Colleges.

Dr. Clarence H. Haring, Chairman, Committee on Latin
American Studies of American Council of Learned Societies.

Dr. Rowland Haynes, President, University of Omaha;
President, Association of Urban Univorsities.

Dr. Charles S. Johnson, Professor of Sociology, Fisk

Dr. Isaac A. Kandel, Professor of Education, Teachers
College, Columbia University.

Dr. Fred J. Kelly


Dr, Fred J. Kolly, Chief, Division of Higher Education,
United Statos Office of Education.

Rcverend John F. O'Hara, President, Notro Dane University.

Dr. John W. Studcb.kor, United Statos Conmissioner of

Dr. Lee E. Sutton, Dean, Modical College of Virginia.

Dr. John J. Tigort, President, University of FlArida; 1.
Prosidc.nt, National Association of Stato Universities.

Dr. Goorgo Works, Dean of Students, University of Chicago.

Mr. Evan E. Young,.Pan Amocrican Airways.

Dr. George F. Zook, President, Anorican Council on



Purpose: To afford executive authorities of
educational institutions opportunity.
to discuss ways and means of stimu-
lating greater exchange of students,
teachers, and professors, of financing
such exchanges, and similar problems.

Chairman: Dr. Fred J. Kelly

Rapporteurs: Mr. G. Lawrence Maxwell
Dr. Lloyd E. Blauch


.The group considered, first, the question of policy
regarding the types of students, teachers and professors
both in the United States and in the other American
republics who should be encouraged to seek fellowships
and scholarships; second, the problem of support for such
exchanges; third, the problem of selection of students,
teachers and professors both in this country and in the
other American republics; fourth, academic credentials;
and fifth, the motivation of students in the United States
to study Latin American culture.

Types: It was felt by the group that the personality
of the student, teacher or professor was a significant
factor. Only those best adapted to orient themselves to
the differences of environment should be considered.

Support: Among those contributing support to the
creation of fellowships and scholarships, it was brought
out in the group discussion that colleges and universities
are increasing tuition scholarships. Businessmen, educa-
tional organizations and foundations, it was found, are
also making increasing contributions to the establishment
of exchange arrangements. It was the general consensus
that foundations would probably make greater contributions
in the future than they are now doing. Any student, teacher
or professor sent to or received from Latin America should
be afforded ample time to pursue the type of work selected
and should travel as extensively as possible in order to
become better acquainted with the cultural attainments of
the country visited. In order to do this sufficient
stipends should be given.



Selection: Only graduate students and those with
definite objectives in view should be selected for
fellowships. The determination of effective methods of
appraising the applicant's ability, the group found, was
an extremely difficult problem to solve. In the selection
of teachers only our ablest scholars should be considered.
In the selection of professors, the organizational dif-
ferences between colleges and universities in the United
States and Latin America should be a determining factor
in setting standards of selection. The visiting professor
should give informal lectures on the campus and in the
community in which the institution to which he is
assigned is located. North American professors of
education could make an effective contribution ih
South American countries. Any student, teacher or
professor selected should have a well-grounded knowledge
of the language of the country to which heis sent.

Accrediting: The problem of recognition of credits
between the institutions of the American republics, the
group found, was a question deserving of the most exacting
study. The problem has not as yet been solved.

Motivation of students in the United Stites to study
Latin American culture: This, the group felt, was a
matter which would require years of painstaking effort.
The .first step was to make the study of Spanish and
Portuguese attractive to the student. To accomplish this
end, materials on great personalities and events in Latin
America should be translated or rewritten in English in
a manner to capture the imagination of the student in this
country. The creation of Departments of Latin American
Affairs in institutions in this country should be
encouraged. Professors of Latin American literature,
history, et cetera, should be encouraged to visit Latin
America in order that they might humanize their subjects
through first-hand impressions.

Re orimenidatinns.

As a result of these discussions, Group I submitted
to the Conference the following recommendations:

1. In order that citizens of Latin America may be
adequately informed of the advantages which universities,
colleges and schools in the United States offer to Latin
American youth of both sexes, it is recommended that
descriptive and fully informative literature, in the
Spanish and Portuguese languages, be distributed in the
Latin American countries. This information would be made


available to American embassies,, legations and consulates,
to graduates of American institutions resident in Latin /,
America, and to others interested. The material should
include essential data regarding fees and living expenses \
in various parts of the United States, including trans-
portation costs and particularly such reductions in fares
as American steamship companies offer to students and 0IS
2. It is recommended that a committee be appointed
by the Institute of International Education to canvass
possible donors with a view to increasing the number of
fellowships and scholarships available for inter-American
It is further recommended that the said committee
study the problem of the cost of travel between the
United States and Latin American countries to see if
the cost of travel can be reduced, especially for
students and teachers.
S3. It is recommended that the United States Govern-
ment add educational attaches to its diplomatic staffs.
/ Every ambassador and minister has on his staff today
l military, naval and commercial attaches, whose business
it is to keep in touch with the latest developments in
their field in the countries where they are located
Certainly it is equally important for each nation to
keep in touch with what is going on in the development
of intellectual leadership and effective citizenship


\ .l iRapporteur
\ 'LJ L ,,J^




Purpose: To discuss and compare programs for
academic and public education in
inter-American affairs: courses,
summer schools, proposed institutes,
and projects for-conferences in
university centers.

Chairman: Dr. Harold Benjamin

Rapporteurs: Dr. Chester.Lloyd Jones
Dr. Harley A. Notter


The discussion held by Group II developed in the
direction of rather wide agreement upon several matters.
It was brought out that programs of academic education
in inter-American affairs should make provision for the
inclusion of coLrses in Latin American history in United
States secondary and elementary schools to a far wider
extent than now obtains, and many believed that in the
advanced instruction provision might profitably be made
for broad studies dealing with social and anthropological
as well as economic, geographical and political factors..
Discussion upon these points raised the matter of survey
or general courses on the history of the Americas, either
two-year more detailed courses, or one-year courses
emphasizing syntheses, unities, trends and broad aspects.

The existing need for more history texts in the
Latin American field was noted, and the desirability of
utilizing the now rapidly developing and multiplying
visual aids of motion pictures, et cetera, was felt to
be very important. The usefulness of making an effort
in United States history courses t.o bring out historical
relations with Latin American cultural,economic and
political developments was pointed out. The great value
of public conferences, courses for adults, and similar
enterprises to stimulate popular understanding and interest
was a matter of favorable comment.

There was in general a recognition in the discussion
that the public, both adults and students, were increasingly
interested in Latin America. The public, however, has
available too few books and pictures on Latin American



life to be adequately informed and satisfied. The
same condition exists in Latin America to a considerable
degree, even among the intelligentsia. Hence, in the
discussion there was some thought given to sending
United States books in Spanish translation to Latin
America, supplemented by radio and by motion pictures of
American life--pictures which more accurately reflect
and typify our life than many of those now being shown
in Latin America. The social and cultural side of our
life needs emphasis throughout in this endeavor.

In regard to supplying United States citizens with
books, translated from the Spanish, which is a great
source of informed appreciation, the discussion brought
out that the American public is rather an apathetic
market, but that the publishers of translated Latin
American classics and histories are willing to try
further to see whether our public will not develop a
real interest.

The greatest amount of discussion took place on
the need of teaching Spanish, and also Portuguese where
possible, in our own secondary and elementary schools.
To make the exchange of ideas and ideals possible on a
fully sympathetic plane, we need to learn the language
of Latin America, and the Latin Americans need to learn
ours. It was desired, with a vote which approached
unanimity, that the recommendatory resolution given below
be included in this report.

As to courses, facilities and programs dealing with
Latin America in the field of economics and allied fields
in higher institutions of learning in the United States,
the discussions brought out the limitations of materials
dealing with Latin American economics and allied subjects
which are suitable for use as text books, and emphasized
the importance of making available to colleges and uni-
versities lists of the more specialized secondary
discussions which may be used as the background for
college courses.

Other aids for economic studies were mentioned, in-
cluding assistance from the recently established Hispanic
Foundation, the Handbook of Latin American Studies, the
Hispanic American Historical Review, the Quarterly Review
of Inter-American Relations, the statistical publications
of the Pan American Union, and the bibliographical card
service of the Library of Congress. The opinion Was ex-
pressed that further clearing house service in the field
was needed.



The desirability of study of recent economic
developments in Latin America was stressed, since these
have greatly modified the position of Latin America in
the life of the world.

As to programs of instruction in Latin American
subjects in colleges and universities of the United
States, it was the sense of the meeting that a Latin
American interdepartmental major be recommended for
possible establishment in the institutions of higher
learning in the United Staces. The primary object of
such a program should be cultural though specialized
courses may well be established for the smaller number
of students who may be encouraged to look to careers in
Latin America and for those Latin American students who
come to the United States for professional studies.

With regard to seminars and travel projects, it
was the sense of the meeting that informal seminars and
travel may serve as an effective means of promoting
better understanding among the American peoples through
the personal contacts thus afforded.

With regard to summer schools in Latin America, it
was agreed that they are constructive instruments (1) to
promote better understanding of Latin American cultures
by students from the United States, and (2) to foster
appreciation by Latin Americans of the culture of this

It was suggested that the colleges and universities
of the United States be asked to study the advisability
of offering to students from Latin American countries
programs of undergraduate instruction which may allow
them to complete the four-year course in three years /
The opinion was expressed, however, that students be-
encouraged to spend four years in the United States, if
possible, so that they may obtain a fuller knowledge of
the life and culture of this country.

It was agreed that American institutions of learning
be asked to consider the advantages which may be obtained
by students from the United States who secure a portion
of their education in Latin American countries.

It was the consensus of opinion that for the guidance
of United States students going into Latin American
countries, the establishment of centers of study similar
to the Centro de Estudios Hist6ricos in Madrid or the
Institute Cultural of Argentina is desirable.




Whereas one of the best keys for the true understanding
of a peoples culture is a thorough knowledge of its
language and literature; and

Whereas the various members of the Department of
State, and especially the Under Secretary of State
Sumner Welles, have publicly voiced the desirability of
a wider diffusion of the knowledge of the Spanish and
Portuguese languages in the United States;

Be it resolved that Group II of this Conference on
Inter-American Relations in the Field of Education endorse
the proposition that the study of the Spanish and Portuguese
languages needs to be increased in the schools and colleges
of the United States, and to this end asks the United
States Commissioner of Education, through his office, to
bring to the attention of the Commissioners of Education
or other authorities responsible for the conduct of educa-
tion in the various states of the Union, the desirability
of a greatly increased program for the teaching of the
Spanish and Portuguese languages and to ask these respec-
tiveauthorities to submit to him concrete suggestions
(1) for the manner in which an increase in those disciplines
can be effected within their present organizations, and
(2) for provisions for the beginning of the study of modern
foreign languages on the level of the elementary school.





Purpose: To discuss problems involving the
adjustment of students from abroad
to their new.environment and to
formulate plans for more effective
guidance and hospitality.

Chairman: Dr. Edgar J. Fisher

Rapporteurs: Mr. Charles D. Hurry
Miss Gladys Bryson


We are in complete accord with the Department of
State on the program of encouraging contacts of all
useful kinds between ihe United States of America and.
the Latin American countries. But we realize that more
harm than good may result from teacher and student
exchanges.unless the candidates are carefully chosen and
carefully received upon their arrival in the country
concerned. On this account, it is important that
exchanges should not be increased too.rapidly and that
they should not be associated with the present abnormal-
situation created by the European war. This applies
equally well to North American teachers and students
going abroad.

Turning to the problem of students coming to the
United. States, we all agree that more attention should
be given to the student before he leaves his native land.
This should include items such as introductions to
United States citizens and returned students abroad
qualified to render assistance, distribution of guide
books and academic catalogues, and the opportunity to
see moving pictures descriptive of American student

We further agree that it is important that
provision be made to meet the students upon their
arrival, both in this country and on the college and
university campus.

Without seeming to set off the foreign students
as a separate group, but with the realization that they
should be integrated normally as soon as possible with
the student body, we believe that the period of tran-
sition to the new academic and community environment

cal ls


calls for special counseling, including a special
adviser, with faculty and student committees.

Experience proves the value of facilitating the
attendance of foreign students at student conferences,
and all possible encouragement should be given to assist
thri to this end.


It is recommended that the Division of Cultural
Relations of the Department of State appoint a continua-
tion committee in consultation with the Departments of
State and Labor and the Office of Education, to study
the question of selecting and implementing a private
agency. or agencies qualified:

1. To advise Latin American and other foreign
students before departure to the United States unon
arrival at a port of .entry and upon taking up their
residence and study at the ocucational institutions
of their choice;

2. to consult with the .officers of the Deoartment
of State and Immigration and Naturalization Service
regarding questions and problems pertaining to visas
and their extension, adequate working knowledge of
English and financial competence;

3. to act as a clearing house for educational and
other institutions in the United States desiring to give
or to receive advice and assistance concerning La-tin
Amoric.n and other foreign students;

4. to make a survey of the Latin American and
other foreign students in the United States;

5, to make a survey of the private agencies con-
cerned with foreign students with a view to expansion
of activities, wherever advantageous, and their adequate

,6. to prepare a roster of all persons responsible
for the personal guidance and activities of the foreign

7. to consider the advisability of establishing
an adequate Student Loa.n Fund, provision for group
health and accident insurance, and kindred questions;


8. to send a copy of the report and findings of
the Conference on Education to all colleges and univer-
sities in .this country; and
9. to call another conference of those officially
concerned with and responsible for the adjustment of
the foreign student in the United States.


#i(L )' A/ ,
vjs. ^
Al j ^C



Puirrose: To afford editors of educational
journals and publications of learned
societies opportunity to explore the
possibility of more effectively
acquainting the United States with
scholars and writers in the other
Am erican republics.

Chairman: Dr. Isaac L. Kandel

Rapporteur: Dr. Samuel Guy Inman


The chairman in opening the meeting referred to
his own experience .durin. a. year spent in some of the
Latin American countries about fifteen years as.o end
a few years later in Mexico. The chief difficulties
he encountered wore to find the right people with whom
to start his investigation and, th, lLck of available
research materials. On the sld!e of the. Latin Americans,
there was the corrospondingf difficulty with reference to
publications on North American culture. Since that time
the interest in both parts.of the continent in each
other has been considerably increased through the exchange
of students and professors. Referring to his own special
fi'c., education, he pointed out th.t there has been an
increase in the number of publications and in research
in current problems; that, on the whole, the tendency to
look more to the United States for guidance is marked.

Mr. Samuel Guy Inman spoke on the subject of the
av., inability of Latin American writers for North American
publications. He mentioned as examples a number of out-
standing Latin American writers who would bo av.A.ilable
for articles in publications of the Unitede States. There
are certain classes of these writers: In the first place,
those living in the Uniter States, professors of Spanish
and Portuguese, and other Latin kAmeric.ns occupying various
positions in this country; graduates of North American
institutions now living in Latin America, prominent Latin
American authors, editors, and authorities in special
fiolCs; and refugee scholars from Europe now occupying
positions in Latin American universities, who are opening
up new fields of research.

With regard to the availability of Latin American
writers who would cooperate, it was pointed out that one


of the main difficulties was encountered in securing the
right contacts. Dr. Cross of the Yale Review.spoke of
his experience of having invited people to write and
receiving no reply.

Proposals were made to publish in Spanish, either
in United States or Latin American centers, reviews like
Yale Review and Readers Digest, althoughh there are such
digests now published in Latin America). It was reported
that the Journal of Internationa.l Law was published in
Spanish for a while with unsatisfactory results.

In this connection, the work of the Intor-Amorican
Bibliographic.l Association was announced. Names of
authors can be secured from such bibliographies.

Arising out of discussion of securing writers, the
question of the exchange of publications was presented.
Where can good journals published in the United States
be placed? Is there a list of serious publications
available? The Doint was made that relatively unknown
journals in a special field may be of groat value to
the research worker.

The question whether these writers and periodicals
should be evaluated was raised. It -was clear that this
was a question that could not be decided or undertaken
by an official organization, but it was the sense of the
meeting that classified lists be prepared and made
available by such organizations as may be established.

The discussion indicated that the question of
exchanges is twofold: one of interest to thn general
reader, and the other to the specialist; that the
general reader-needs more guidance than the specialist.

The discussion turned to the question of the cost
of exchanges. It was noted that most.publications are
today having budget difficulties. It is necessary,
therefore, that these journals make arrangements in
their budgets for exchange with Latin American publica-
tions. The Duke University Press announced th..?t it is
now making reductions in subscriptions for Latin American
readers in view of the difficulties of exchange.

Given the importance of securing a list of Latin
American writers, the question was raised as to whether
the Division of Cultural Relations of the Department of
State might undertake to furnish a list of Latin American



writers with the aid of a committee of persons in the
United States who are familiar with Latin America. ,It
was suggested that aid might be secured from the diplomatic
representatives of the United States in Latin American

The next question that was taken up was the problem
of marketing books from North America in the Latin American
countries. The booksellers in this country have.been slow
to accommodate their methods to the credit systems pre-
vailing in Latin American countries. At the same time, a
great deal of interest was .shown in the exhibits of books
held in Buenos Aires, Montevideo and Rio de Janeiro last

The next question discussed concerned the opportuni-
ties available for increasing in the publications of the
United States materials on the culture of Latin America;
to what degr o would North American publications opon
their pages to Latin American writers in different fields.

In connection with publishing reviews of Latin
American publications, the difficulty of.securing books
from publishers and authors was mentioned by a number
of speakers. Bibliographies frequently appear long after
the publication of a book, and the Latin American books
are frequently published from type in small editions
which are soon exhausted. Furthermore, the question
was raised whether it is desirable to review books that
are not easily purchasable in this country.

In connection with the discussion of the exchange
of publications, it was suggested that the Library of
Congress secure copies of as wide a range as possible of
Latin Amcrican books and disseminate information about
thom; also, that we urge more South Amjnria-pn publishers
to exhibit their books in this country. It ws. noted
with pleasure that one such exhibit is now being displayed
by the Committee on Cooperation with Latin America of the
Amorican Library Association.

An outstanding feature of the meeting was widespread
expression of interest not only from the specialists in
the field of Latin American culture, but in the general
fields as well. It was clear that what is needed at the
present time is the capitalizing of this interest through
the creation of appropriate committees and the dissemination
of definite information and lists of periodical publications
and writers to the various groups that have shown interest.
It is encouraging to note the new interest shown by Latin
AmericPns in the cultural life of the United States.




The following recommendations were adopted by the
members of Group IV:

l.- That a list of.Latin American writers classified
according to their fields of interest be made generally

2. That it is desirable to draw up a classified
list of periodicals and publishers in the Latin American

-. That the Department of State be requested to
investigate the possibility of implementing the second
convention agreed upon at Buenos Aires in 1936 concerning
the interchange of publications between national libraries,
which has already been ratified by the Senate but for
which appropriations have not yet been made.

4. That the Department of State be requested to
bring to the attention of publishers through appropriate
channels the desirability of considering the whole
problem of the sale of books including credit facilities.

5. That the attention of Latin American publishers
be directed to the current interest in their publications
and the desirability of having book exhibits from time
to timp in the United States.

6. That the Division of Cultural Relations of the
Department of State be requested to refor for further
study to the Conference on Publications and Libraries to
bc hold on November 29 and 30, the question of making
more available in the United States, both for sale and
for review, books published in Latin America.

It was the desire of the mooting that the list of
members attending and the recommendations be sent to the
members present and others interested in this particular

It is suggested that a Continuation Committee
representing this Conference be appointed to cooperate
in the near future with the Division of Cultural Relations
of the Department of State in carrying out the findings
of the Conference.




Purpose: Arranged for representatives of medical
and allied fields to consider cooperative
projects with the other American republics
in the field of medical education and

Chairmen: Dr. Hugh S. Cumming
Dr. William D. Cutter

Rapporteurs: Dr. Thomas T. Mackie
Dr. Edward C. Ernst


The discussion naturally dealt largely with those
problems met by the participants in their own work in
this country and could not presume to deal, except in a
general way, with the problems encountered by the other
American republics.

Problems: Several speakers stressed the difficulties
created by the lack of a rather thorough knowledge of
another language when attempting to study,a technical
subject in that language. Students from the other
American republics who take their premedical work in
United States schools, for example, are much better
prepared from a language standpoint for study in a
medical school. Another problem frequently met is that
of financial difficulties, as shown, for instance, in
differences in the relative value of the currency of
the several countries. A third problem has to do with
premedical education. Many students from the other
American republics are, for instance, found to be lack-
ing in the basic sciences and have to take some premedical
work which they beliovc they have completed. This leads
to the problem of the inadequate sources of information
about prospective students from those countries; this
can probably best be solved by having some dependable
person on the ground examine students before they leave
for the United States. A fifth problem is the barriers
in the way of disseminating scientific journals published
in tho United States, in the other American republics.
Those journals include medical, nursing, public health,
and dental publications as well as those dealing with the
biological sciences. The difficulties encountered are
both financial and editorial. The language barrier is



not great. A final important set of problems arises in
connection with medical licensure. These arise (1) when
an alien wishes to practice'0edicine in the United States
(state laws on this subject are not uniform); and (2)
when degrees granted by medical schools of the United
States, especially to Latin American students who are
returning to their homes to practice medicine, are not
recognized by the local government.

Opportunities: That many opportunities in medical
education are open was apparent from the discussion.
These may be listed as follows:

1. Laboratory facilities in many fields are at
present available for qualified workers.

2. Opportunities exist in omeical education,
principally on the graduate student level.

3. Opportunities are available in the United States
in the fields of (a) nursing education, (b)
hospital administrati-on, and (c) dental

4. Ample opportunities are available for students
from the other American republics for field
experience in public health measures and public
health administration through federal, state,
and municipal public health bodies.

5, A limited number of internships are available'
in the United States for selected graduates
of schools in the other American republics.

6. The field of tropical medicine offers a largo
reciprocal opportunity for the development of
desirable teaching services.

7. A limited number of opportunities exist for
research workers in institutions in the other
American republics. Ample material is available
for research.

8. Moving picture films for teaching purposes are


The following definite recommendations came out of
the discussion:


1. That a study and analysis of medical education,
medical schools, and research institutes in the American
republics be undertaken.

2. That reciprocal exchanges of bibliofilm between
medical libraries in the American republics be undertaken.

3. That reciprocal loan collections be exchanged between
the Army Medical Museum and museums in the other American
republics; i.e., microscopic slides.

4. That the Army Medical Library and Army Medical
Museum train medical librarian and museum directors.

5. That information on medicine, nursing, public
health. dentistry, and sanitary engineering be collected
and exchanged through summaries of literature of the American

6. That nursing education be expanded.

7, That public health education of general teachers
in the other American republics would be helpful.

8. That there be created a Continuation Committee
to (a) advise on the selection of medical students who
apply for fellowships and professors who apply for professor-
ships under the Convention for the Promotion of Inter-
Amcrican Cultural Relations, and (b) explore these and
other recommendations; this committee to include representa-
tives from the following fields:

Medicine Public health
Tropical medicine Sanitary engineering
Dentistry Hospital administration
NurEing Vital statistics




Purpose: To afford primary and secondary
school administrators and teachers
opportunity to discuss curriculum
materials for Latin American studies
and teacher exchanges.

Chairman: Mr. Ernesto Galarza

Rapporteurs: Miss Edith E. Pence
Mr. Chester W. Holes


After thorough discussion and with due regard to
differences of opinion expressed by various members of
the group, the following conclusions and recommendations
are presented_to the general assembly of the Conference:

1. The study of Latin American history and of
various phases of Latin American civilization properly
belongs in the courses of study of the elementary and
secondary schools of the United States, materials and
procedures to be adapted to the respective levels.

2. The teaching of United States.history in the
primary and secondary schools should be regarded as one
phase of the broader concept of American history, in
which the development of the other American nations should
be given proper attention. School authorities should be
encouraged to foster activities of a curricular and extra-
curricular nature which will aid in bringing wTithin the
experience of school children a knowledge and understanding
of all the American peoples. Likewise, the study of the
languages spoken in Latin Amorica--Spanish, Portuguese and
French--should be encouraged and in conjunction with such
language study there should be the study of Latin American

3. This group earnestly recommends that, as a part
of the effort to enlist wider public support for the
introduction and expansion of Latin American studies in
the schools, the address delivered by Dr. Herbert E.
Bolton be given the greatest possible circulation among
school teachers, administrators and educational authorities.



Active work should be carried on through educational
journals, parent teacher's associations, administrative
organizations, and state conventions of teachers to the
end that Latin American studies in the schools be actively
fostered. With regard to secondary school courses of
study, it is recommended that efforts be made to obtain
the recognition of elective courses on Latin America by
secondary and college accrediting associations.

4.-Preliminary discussion has shown that a number
of individuals and in some cases school systems have boon
experimenting with Latin American studies in the elementary
and. secondary schools. With due-acknowledgment of the
foresight of these teachers and administrators, it is
recommended that a survey be made of the courses, projects,
units, assembly programs, and other activities relating
to Latin America which have been carried out. This survey
should aim at a critical analysis of the experience thus
gained in order to place it at the disposal of teachers
and administrators who may be interested in Latin American
activities. Moreover, there ought to be a continuing
effort, carried on through a central agency, to coordinate
all such activities anywhere in the United States. The
information thus collected should be regularly disseminated
or hold at the disposal of teachers and should include
experience in the teaching of the languages of Latin
America mentioned above.

5. Group VI calls attention to the valuable service
which the Pan American Union has been rendering in the past
in the distribution of materials useful in the study of
Latin America in the elementary and secondary schools. It
also wishes to refer to the services which the Institute
of Pacific Relations is ready to render in this respect.
It particularly wishes to stress the importance of making
as soon -as possible a comprehensive study of the class-
room materials and study aids available in this field. A
committee of competent persons should be appointed to carry
out this study and to make recommendations for the prepara-
tion of additional materials such as maps, motion pictures,
text books, reading lists, biogr,:phies, translations,
anthologies, et cetera. Such a study also could aim at
the coordination of the interest and efforts of private,
commercial and public agencies in the "preparation of such

6. On the matter of teacher exchanges between Latin
America and the United States, it is recommended that such
exchanges include elementary and, secondary school teachers



and administrators, chosen with regard to their ability
both to represent their own culture and to appreciate
sympathetically the culture of Latin America. This type
of teacher exchange should aim especially to provide
opportunities for teachers preparing to teach Spanish,
Portuguese or French and to teach courses on Latin, Aerican
civilization in the schools of the United States. Contact
between organizations of teachers and administrators in
the United States and Latin America are highly dasqrable
for the purpose of establishing friendly intercourse based
on common interests. It is also recommended that the
diplomatic missions of the American republics include
cultural attach6s whose duty it would be to aid all those
interested in inter-American cultural exchange in general
and in education in particular.

7. Group VI calls the attention of the Conference to
the fact that by unanimous action it has created a national
committee which will continue the work of fostering interest
in Latin American studies.




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