Proceedings - Florida. University, Gainesville. Institute of Inter-American Affairs


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Proceedings - Florida. University, Gainesville. Institute of Inter-American Affairs
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v. : ; 28 cm.
University of Florida -- Institute of Inter-American Affairs
University of Florida.
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Subjects / Keywords:
Pan American societies   ( lcsh )
Agricultural experiment stations   ( lcsh )
Agricultural -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
1st- 1931-
General Note:
Manuscript copy of Proceedings of the 1st Meeting.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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oclc - 01411295
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Full Text




Adlresses and Diseasslons, at the University
of loi ida, as part of the Proceendla of the
Firt Annual MetinUg
of the
atittute of Intrmer~in Aff

February 11, 1931

^ F/ ^l~/McuLA^^^^-t?

The morning session held in the University Auditoriua was called
to order by Wilmon Newell, Dean of the College of Agriculture, Univer.
sity of Florida, who spoke as follows

"Ladies and Gentlemaen

*Florida, more than any other state, lies close to the Latin-American
countries of the West Indies and Central America, And that same location
has given to Florida climate, soils, fruits and a great variety of plant
products which are also common to the Latin-Amerioan countries near at
hand. This condition is shared, also, in somnseat lesser degree, by the
Gulf Coast sections of our adjoining southern states.

"Attention has already been called to the fact that three great
crops tobacco, sur and cotton are common to the southern states
and to most of the South and Central American countries .. inxlding in
the latter category, of course, the West Indies.

"Add to this the fact that many of the choicest and finest varieties
of the avocado, mango and iotrus fruits have originated in Florida and
we see at once that our state, agriculturally, has much in oenon with
the countries to the south of us,

certainn types of agricultural institutions are peculiar to the
United States and, as will doudbless be pointed out by our speakers this
morning, these institutions have had a profound effect upon the agricul-
tural progress of the United States. I need not take up your time in
pointing out how various other highly satisfactory developments in the
history of our country have, in turn, been dependent upon the development
of agriculture.

"It is quite probable, therefore, that in these systems of agricul-
tural education and research there is something of value for our Latin
American neighbors. Nor should we delude ourselves that we are going to
assume entirely the role of benefactors, for there is much in the agri-
culture of Latin Amerif that can benefit us in any future comparative
studies and exchange of ideas .

"I cannot refrain from mentioning, at this point, the profound im-
pression made upon me when, last armer, it was my privilege to visit the
University of Lim, in Peru, whose distinguished representative, Sr. Vic.
tor Andres Belaunde, is here to participate in these conferences. Here
was the oldest university in the Western Hemisphere, typifying the culture
of more than four centuries, in a city filled with buildings and objects
rich in beauty, architecture and history and the city itself in an agricul.
tural setting, the like of which can probably Ie found nowhere else in the
world. Herds of sleak cattle grated in pastures surrounded by high adobe

- 2 -

walls, erops of corn and banana grew side by side and tropical fruits
flourished along with those from the temperate zones: all Irrigated
with water from the Andes, in many cses brought to the fields in
canals constructed by the Ineas of long ago. What a field for research
and what lessons could be learned from this agriculture, developed as
it has been through the centuries.

AAnd so it seems entirely appropriate that agriculture should receive
more than passing attention in a program of this kind, for it offers a
conrson meeting place, with mutual interests, for all the countries and
peoples of this hemisphere. We are taking ps this morning a discussion
of The Plaee of Agricultural Edueation in the Development of Inter.Ameri-
can Understanding and Good Will.

"Without taposing further upon yova time, it is now ay privilege to
present President J. J. Tigert, of the University of Florida, who will
introduce our first speaker."

President J. J. Tigert, referring to the iBortant part taken by
Doctor Bradford napp, President of the Alabama Polytechnie Institute
(Auburn, Alabama) in past years in the development of research and ex.
tension work in agriculture in the United States, and also making re
ferease to the founding of hoe demonstration work in America by Doctor
Kaspp's father, the late Doctor Seaman A. Knapp, introduced the first



y radford Knapp, Presdent
Alaboma Polyteblchn Institute

"Congratulations are due the Uaiversity of Florida on its Twenty.
fifth Anniversary for this helpful step in InterAmeian understanding.
At such conferences, the exchange of ideas regarding historical batk.
grounds, eoonomi developments and trends in each of these oountries will
be one of the most helpful aids to International peace and good will. If
this occasion may be used to that end it will be a most helpful event in
the history of this section of or oountry, for the South in particular
is profoundly interested econonacally, socially and educationally in the
welfare of our sister republics of Latin America.

"The task has been given me of diseussian the plaoe of agricultural
education in the development of this Inter-merican understanding and
good will. To do so adequately I must go back and discus some frndaBien
tal changes which have taken place in the United States of Amerioa regard.
ing agricultural education. I shall not extend my field of inquiry into
the development of agricultural education in western urope but shall con-
fine it entirely to the phases of agricultural education as they have do-
veloped in America.

"There may be some ground for argument on some of the statements I
shall make but I want to predicate what I am going to say upon certain
fundamental statements regarding the relationship between education and
a democratic form of government. threee centuries before the birth of
Christ,Aristotle, the Greek philosopher, said substantially these words,
"tduoation and good morals will be found to be almost the whole that
goes to make up a good man; and the sam. things will make a good states.
man and a good king." A little later in his discussion of the ideal
state he used this phrase, "A state, consisting of a multitude of haman
beings, as we have before said, ought to be brought to unity and community
by education." In the early history of this country the mortal Thomas
Jefferson gave voice to the same sentiments by saying that a country
founded upon the participation of all the people in the government could
be perpetuated only by the liberal education of all its citizens.

"I need not trace the rise of State education and the comma school
system of America because it is too familiar a subject to need more than
the mention in this place, but higher education of college and university
grade was for many years in this country open only to those who were in
training for the so-.alled learned professions. Men who were expecting
to pursue the common walks of life were not thought to need an education

beyond that of the oamon schools. In other words higher edtsation
was largely an aristocratic edoation in this country as in other

Land QGrat Colleges

"To my mind the greatest single movement ever taken, at least in
America, for the democratising of education is this great movement whiah
we know in the United States of America as the Land.Grant College and
University movement. Its background lie in the desire of the sons of
farmers and engineers and tradesmen to have the right to a complete
education. It goes back into a realization of the need of scientific
training in many walk~ of life beside that of the doctor, the clergy.
man and the lawyer. Out of the hard times of a century ago there
came this demand for a different type of institution of higher learn-
ing. To quote from the recent Srvey of Land-Grant Colleges and Univer.
cities, "Since the industrial classes in the United States during the
period prior to the outbreak of the Civil War were largely agicultural,
the initial discussion centered about the organization of agricultural
colleges. In several states such institutions were organized through
private subsacrptions. Similar colleges under state control and support
were established in one or two other states. The private agricultural
colleges failed. The statepte orted institutions continued to operate.
It then became evident that if the movement as to uacceed, if higher
education was to be furnished the industrial classes, and if it was to
be available in every part of the country, the new type of college would
have to be stpportea by public taxation rather than private endowment and
that it would have to be state-controlled. Any plan of inducing the
governments of all the states on their own initiative to organise the
colleges was an possible undertaking.

"The final recourse was the federal Government. As early as 1787
the Congress of the Confederation passed an ordinance for the govern-
ment of the Northwest Territory by setting aside public lands for the
support of education. Later as new States were organized, the Congress
of the United States made land grants for common schools. Public agi.
station was started, therefore, for the establishment of the new type of
institution, vaguely referred to as the Industrial University, the Agri.
cultural College, or the People's College, through grants of public
lands by the Federal Government to each of the States. Under this plan,
it was assured that every state would have one of the colleges; that the
institutions would be supported through public sources, and that they
would be open to the masses. The proposal succeeded. Congress enacted
a law providing for the grant of public lands to be utilised in creating
an endowment to support a college in eadc of the states. This law opened
the way for the emancipation of higher learning from its classic and
formal traditions and for the recognition of the principle that every


A aerian citisen is entitled to receive higher leaning of a praotio44
type. It was the beginning of the modern institutions of higher eduea-
tion supported by public taxation.

*PThs was formed ima er the Morrill Act of 1862 at least one insti-
tutio n a every one of our states devoted to the fdinrnmt thought of
bringing higher education within the reach of the so4ased ianduatrial
classes. The effort was to add to the owripsou of those, state4mp .
ported institutions of higher learning those soleness hitoh relte to
agriculture and meehanit arts or engineernag. This great instit1tioa
hers we are gathered is one of the ore reeFnt ones orsgaised Oaner
this beneficent act.

Research Work

"For twenty years after the foundation of these insttutions in the
older states the progress was alow and laborlons. It soon became ap-
parent that one of the great difficulties was the lack of a suitable
organized body of solentifio, technical and practical knowledge. It was
necessary to collect and to record the existing scientific nowleodgs and
to push on into the atknown and acquire and crate new haowledge throb h
research and eperimentation. In 1881 there was introduced in the Con-
grees of the United States the first of a series of bills providing for
the creation of agrploltural epers ment stations. In 187 the first of
these bills was passed and became a law ander the title of the Batch
Act, wnder which these Land-Grant institutions in each of the states re.
ceived further endowment for the purpose of conducting fuamental re-
search and widening the field of scientific Inowledge in agriculture. The
work progressed. Not only did research work widen knowledge, but it at.
treated students. The student body in these institutions Itadiately be.
gan to show an increase and the work of the Federal Department of Agri.
eulture, first organized as a cabinet position in 1888, was greatly st1imu
lated because of the training of men who oould take positions in its
scientific work. There was a distinct change in point of view also. Use-
ful application of scientific discoveries to practical problems had its
influence both on research and on education also.

"In recognition of the advances of this great movement toward ex-
tending our knowledge of agriculture te t Congress passed a second act en-
dowing experiment stations in 1906 known as the Adam Act. In xere re-
cent years Congress again endorsed this work by passing the Pirnell Act
giving more money for research,

"Somewhat coincident with the general proved condition of our
farming people beginning about 1697 the enroellent in these institutions
gaitn advanced even more rapidly and the frad of knowledge squired
through research work in the colleges and experiment stations and in the

Federal Department acuamlated amch more rapidly than it could be as-
similated by the farers of this country,
Extension Work

*Tise will not permit me to go into great detail regarding the
early origin and development of extension work in agriculture and home
economics but it mas realized more than thirty years ago that something
needed to be done to take useful and practical information regaring
agriculture back to the people on the farm ad to assist them in trans.
lating this knowledge into actual practice. After years of bmseella.
neots effort throrugbeot all of the states there finally came a great op-
portunity early in this century for setting sp a definite system of
practical instruction for fan4ere, the details of whioh were largely
worked out in our southern cotton growing states where the need of
changes of practice became aperative due to the advent of the cotton
boll weevil. Begining in 1904 Dr. Season A. Knapp gradually created
a system of instruction through actual demonstrations carried on by prac-
tical farmaee on their own fa sermn prviPed by resident, trained men who
knew both the scientific and the practical side of agioulture. So popui
lar was this movement that the county agent system of conducting exten-
sion work with a resident trained man n each omunty beamea a national
policy moder the Smith.Lver Aot approved by the President of the United
States in 1914. The early inception of this system included a service
for the adult faner, a service for his wife through home demonstration
agents and practical educational service for the boys and girls on the
farm through what we now know as the 4~. club work. So popular did
this work become that in a little over fifteen years we find 2200 of
the counttee in the United States with resident agricultual agents and
more than a thousand of them with a resident home demonstration agent
and more than 800,000 boys and girls banded together In the olub work.
Recent reports indicate that approxiaately two-thirds of the more than
six million farms in Americt are reached regularly by this service deal.
ing with every phase of agricultural life including soil fertility, crop
and livestock production, control of diseases of anuml sand plants, in-
sect pests, sanitation, standardization, =rketing, home life and even
the social and economic problems which face our people.

"The extension worc goes back from these institutions of higher
learning to the people to carry the benefits of scientifte knowledge and
to abse modern and scientific information the partner of very farmer
and of every farm fa mly in their every day tasks.

Vocational HRgh Schools

HRigher education of a practical character and its tremendous popu.
lar growth in America twaediately stimulated and developed a reshaping


of secondary education in the bihi schools and other aehools of less
than college grade in JAeWio&. In 191~ there was passed an act of the
Congress of the latted Sta8tes knoxw as the Zmith.rughes Act, the pur.
pose of which was to aid tn the creation of vocational hih schools for
the practical training of people ai the common wam s of life. Today
there are more than 3800 high school in Amerito with an enrollment of
106,000 boys who are receiving distraction in regular classes in agri-
culture. There are others enrolled in classes in trades, in home eco.
nods, night schools, and numerous other efforts to ta e useful and
practical information tao the people of this oouxtry in organized schools
and classes.

"The and.-Grant colleges bave famished the inspiration and trained
the teachers for this great system of practical instruction.

8ome Eoonoaes

"There is a special need to mention the work for women and the de-
velopment of home economics in these institutions and in their effort
to serve the co aon people. Lot me quote from the recent Survey of land-
Grant institutions. 'In the original idea of the daemooatiation of
higher education, no conception existed that women had any special in..
terests or rights. They did not belong to the industrial olasee. Their
place was in the home, an institution that it wam t he thought required
no higher learning. But with the modern change in American society, in
which women occupy as proeanent a place in the social structure as men,
it bemae necessary to include their interests in the college program.
Real recognition had to be given not only to the industrial and econe.
dmi sciences but also to the social and home sciences,' For more than
fifty years, therefore, this movement has stimulated the growth of home
economics, the study of rural sociology, of living standards, and these
Land-Grant institutions have taken this information back through the home
demonstration agent and teacher of vocational home economics into the
common schools of our country,


"Is it too arah for me to claim that this great movement which I
have endeavored to describe so briefly has been an i~ortant factor in
maein education in America universal, democratic, and especially in di-
reoting it toward those useful tasks of everyday life which the vast
majority of our people must facet These institution have put science
on a new basis; they have furnished a vast amount of material for the
camon schools as ell as wel higher institutions of learangi they have
made education applied to every day life popular and effective.

"Others are to speak to you regarding research work and I must there.

Sfr forego the teptation to trace the tremendous value of the work
of these research itstit'utions particularly in the discoveries in chamis.
try, soil fertility, plant and animal breeding, disease control and of
all those factors involved in the problem of prodv~tion. That the world
has reached a new day when problema of production seem to have been solved
and we are confronted with the larger econo~ea problems and particularly
those of distribution is but to present the most profound arguent in
favor of the development of these institutions and this course of agri.
cultural and industrial training. These present only new fields for
work for research and education. Ten years after the passage of the
Morrill Act there were only 223 students enrolled in aXaNd-rant col.
leges. In 1928 this had grown to 164,756 in all branches. Today they
furnish a large and iMaportant gropa of the scientists in our industries
as well as in agricultural work and their anumal turn-out of students
who have finished their course of instruction constitutes the most sig.
nificant proportion of college graduates of all institutions in the cqun
try. The total degrees conferred from 163 to 1928 was upward of fou
hundred thousand.


"tt what has this to do with our friends in South Amerioa, the
West Indies, exwico, and Central Amerioa? They have similar forms of
government. They ae developing their systems of equation. They have
their tasks of making education universal and democratic. We are reaeh.
ing the time when we realize more and more the inter-Aipeendee of this
country and those to the sooth of v For more than 300 years the bhan-
nels of trade in this country led to the Atlantic seaboard and thence to
Strope, the great consumer of the surpluw products of Amertsea I am not
a preset and I do not resume to prophesy bt it tha seemed to me that
the economic relationship of this country to other countries is under.
going a distinct change, I might almost Way a revolution. the growing
trade with South America in agricultural machinery and equipment, in
dairy products, and a hundred and one other fields is ooneon knowledge.
The vast majority of our Americans sit down to breakfast with coffee and
sugar as all inmortant items. The importance of this trade relationship
I am sure will be bemasized by others during this conference.

'Today we, in this country, are faced with great and vexing econo
mic problems. The same has been true in practically every other country
on this hemisphere to say nothing of foreign countries. In recognition
of the inter-dependence of each country upon others our country is send.
iag agricultural representatives along with our consular service for the
purpose of knowing what is being done elsewhere that may so adjust our
program as to avoid difficulties and to coordinate more caretally in
agriculture with what other sections of the world are doing. We have wel.
coed representatives from other countries who have come to as to learn

what we are doing. South American coutries have employed trained
scientists to aid in the establishment of experiment stations and schools
of agriculture in their countries. To oi agricultural colleges, especially
ly tn the South, have come students from Cubs, Mexico from Ceantral Amert-
ean and from South Amerioan countries. It has been my privilege to know
many of these. They have been received on a democratic equality with our
own students and have taken back to their own countries those priceless
possessions upon which there is no taiff regulation, knowledge and skill
and education. All of this is nothing more nor lose than an intelligent
appreciation that education and knowledge with intelligent coordination
and adjustment can and will be the most potent factor in promoting inter.
national peace and good will.

"If the changes which are now taking place in the world should change
the channels of trade and our Gulf Coast and South Atlantic seaboard
should become increasingly Important because of their nearness to our
neighbors in the South the very streams of oomerce might take a new
direction in our own country. The tendency of the manufacttring indus.
tries to place themselves along the streams of trade and oaenerce would
then gradually come into the agricultural South. Indeed this is the very
thing which Is happening. The South Is rapidly adding industries to its
agriculture, textile manufacturing, paper mills, steel and iron and their
products in machinery, the new dairy manufacturing plants, petroleum and
petrole" a products, are rapidly tending toward the South. Forty years
ago Latin and Greek were the predominant studies in languages in our col.
leges. Spanish was almost wmknown. Today the study of Spanish and French
shows a tremmends increase in these very institutions. This is but an
tndex of the growing educational interest in our neighbors to the South.


"There is one other reference I ought to make. The new discoveries
of radio transmission have brought a new field of education which is not
being neglected by these Land.-rant colleges. Radio education is in its
infancy. How far it will go and where it will stop no man is wise e-
nough to say but, as I sit at my radio receiving set and hear the voices
of Cuba and of Mexico and listen to the great stations in Europe trans-
mitted by a short wave and then re-broadcast in our own country, my magi.-
nation is stimulated over this new instrumentality for knowing and under-
standing the lives of or neighboring people. The great agricultural col.
leges of America lloe this one have their radio broadcasting stations
and I trust that with the waves of radio energy which go from them there
may go to the lieternrs across the Gulf of Mexico and the Carribean
stimulating waves of friendship and good will only to be reflected back
when we hear the programs which will eventually come through the air from
everyone of these southern countries.

- 10 -

*We are beginning to understand in America that no man can pro.
dueo to himself alone any more than he can live to himself alone. The
selfish interest of any one section may by unwiee production under our
modern conditions overthrow the economic welfare of other sections and
destroy its own market prices at the same time. It may be true that
the western end of the cotton b1lt in this country might easily produce
enough cotton to destroy the market of these eastern states, but in so
doing they would destroy their own market as well. It will be only a
few years before the world will begin to think in terms of something of
this same principle when applied to international production and con-
sumption. Every part of this coiatry .ie Intereted in the economic wel-
fare of every other part because there lies its market. Surely the
United States of America are interested profoundly in the economic wel.
fare of our sister republican to the South because there lies muah of our
growing market. Ton of those countries are interested in our welfare be-
eause here many of the product peEuliar to yowe section will find yor
best market.

*I have tried thus briefly to bring you some plotures of the de.
development of agricultural education in the United States and the part
it has played in the development of the education of the ooseon people.
I have tried to bring to you the thought which ti alwayIS peraeot in
my mind that these institutions have served a great purpose in making
education truly democratic in the United States. If the wisdom of go.
ermment depends vpon the wisdom of those who are governed and who par.
titcpate in the government, than this Is one of the greatest of all the
contributions made by institutions like the taivereity of florida. We
stand ready I am wsre to furnish to other countries the history of what
has been ~aone here that they may take such parts of it as are adapted
to their own conditions and their own people and make use of these in
building a stable form of government, wise administration, enlightened
development, appreciation of inter'dependence and good will *ad the pro-
motion of peace and happiness among the people of all of these nations.

- 11 -

President STiert then introduce Professor H. harold Hoe, who
spoke as follows

The Place of Agrieltural Sducation in the Development
of Zater-faertaen Understanding and Good Will

L. Harold Haue

"In deciding uoan what I should say to you this morning on 'The
Place of Agricultural Zdauation in the Development of Inter-.Amerian
Understanding and Good Will I oonoluded to emphaise a few of the ac.
compliasbmnts of this Station not many, for it is quite Ispossible
to cover the whole field. I am convinced that perhaps more than in any
other locality of the united States our problems are very similar to
those o oour Latin.Amerioan netihbors of the South, and results seonred
here in the field of agriculture tbro&gh research hate Very broad asp
plication, both in the way of direct help and as a basis for a broader
mlderstandiag. In many instances we have simply built ou agriculture
upon foundations developed long ago in Mex:io, in the West Indies, and
in Central and South America. This may be enphasised by Indicating
that potatoes, peanuts, avocados, corn, and many other plants, partiu-
larly in the ornamental g$r?, came to Florida from countries in these
areas. It must be realized, aad this is my reason for this approach,
that dependable agricultural infoenation can be secured only from re.
search, and after all agricultural educate on to nothing more nor less
than presenting the results of research projects of many kinds in such
manner that they may aid in the development of agriculture. One of the
greatest things that the experiment stations have done is to take the
guesswork, to a very large extent, out of agricultural production. I do
not want anyone to feel that I am trying to arduly emphasize our accom..
plishments, nor am I trying to cover the entire field of research com-
pleted or now being carried on here. My sole object is to call atten-
tion to the fact that in lines of agricultural endeavor Florida may be
of great assistance to many other peoples.

"In the field of agricultural research Florida stands msnh alone.
This has been realized, I believe, by every worker who has at any time
been associated with the Florida rEperiment Station. From the first
bulletin, Issued in April, 1888, nearly fowr*-three years ago, I quote
the words of Doctor J. test, Director, as follows

'The Diredtor of this Station is hot without a deep sene that
his work is, in a great degree, a peuliar one, owing to the la.
titudinal and climatic characteristics of florida. Other eta-
tions have helps from correspondent and analgous surromadings
that afford mutual advantages in station work. But the Florida
Station, located on a peninsula between ocean and sea, alone,
most largely work out its own materials.'

"This isexactly the way everybody has felt about florida problems

ince. Nay, more than that, those research workers who have entered
the lorida field with pre-determined ideas of what might and might
not be done have found it necessary to arlearn rlah and to cast any of
their ideas into the discard& lorida has received ooaparatively lit.
tle help from experiment stations in other states beoaxu her climate,
her soils, and in large measure, the crops grown are peculiar to her-
self, and it has been necessary to develop a different sort of agricul-
ture here. Climate, soils, seasons, practices are all different.
VIn every state of the United States there is one, or there are
more than one, experiment stations and the facts learned by workers at
one of these and the practices developed covYring the crops grown in
one state very frequently apply with equal force and with little varia.
tion to states located to the north, south, east or west of them. And
so, to a large extent, in many parts of the country the workers in one
state have received help throi& work done in other states, and in con-
sequence they have perhaps gone further in the solution of their adi.-
vidal problems andamentally tied up with their plants, animals, soils,
and climates. Hence the wamber of workers in the field and the amount
of money available have been mach greater than we have had here. In.
deed, it might well have been possible, had it been advisable, for many
of the a states to have pooled their agrioulturl research projects and
the sources devoted to them. Net so with forida.

"Moreover, it has not been possible, for various reasons, to se-
cure meh help from foreign countries because in many inetaanesthe cul-
tures undertakenn here have not been far advanced in other lands. Hence
it has been necessary for 'lorida to blase her own trail into taknown
regions of agricultwal knowledge. Fortiuately, bUover, r, ch of what
has been done in Florida in vartous directions is and can be of great
value as related to agrieCltual development in many other countries,
more particularly those having the same plants and having a tropical or
subtropical climate.

"Agricultural research tn fiorida has been esimed almost entirely
at the solution of practical problems and little has been done along
lines of purely scientific research. This has been, and it ust neces-
sarily be so for a long time to come became florida along many line
of agricultural development is still a pioneer state. Zither her crops
are different or the varieties of plants are different, or the condi.
tions of soil and ltlaste and inset and disse seattack are different.
Generally it has not been possible to transfer plants or crops from
other areas to florida and grow them euecessftlly by following the aurm
cultural practices as are followed elsewhere, and a new set of problem
isaediately arises covering every phase of production. Pioneering in a
new field of agricultae is net easy.

* 13 -

"The state it intensely interested in the production of new and
worthwhile crops. If we can produce a crop here that will assist in the
production of other crops, or if we can produce one for which there is a
demand now existing or in prospect, we have made a real advance in stabi.
living the agriculture of the state. Large areas are still in need of
new crops, because there are lands within the state which will not pro-
duce satisfactorily or profitably any of the crops we now have, and it is
entirely possible that new crops may be secured suited to their peculiar
conditions. These crops may already exist in lands to the southward.
These lines of investigation must go on indefinitely. It is here that
the Experiment Station has been carrying on a most iuqortant work and the
results are already very definite and noteworthy. The plant introduction
work of the United States Departnant of Agriculture, with which David fair.
child has been associated for many years, has in many instances been car.
ried to a large and worthwhile conclusion here. It has happened that an
obscure and unappreciated plant picked up in a foreign land by some plant
collector or agricultural explorer has become a factor of great importance
in the agricultural development of our state.

"It is my purpose first to refer to investigations in agronomy to
illustrate what I have just said. Noteworthy among plant introductions
first developed into field crops here is the velvet bean. In Bulletin
No. 35, published April, 1896, the Director, Doctor 0. Clute, wrote

earlyy in 1895, my attention was called to a pea which was
reported to grow luxuriantly in poor soil, to give a large
amount of forage, to yield an unusual amount of peas and to
be eaten readily, both forage and peas, by all stock. The
gentleman who reported this pea has no name for it. After.
wards, the same plant was found in Lake City and in other
places in Florida, grown as an ornamental on trellises for
shading plaszas, under the name of Velvet Bean. The soil
was prepared as for corn. The peas or beans were planted in
rows three feet apart and about one foot apart in the row.

This, to far as we know, was the first vr e made of the velvet bean as an
experimental field orop anywhere in the United States. In thirty years we
have seen an almost wild, amnkown plant become a field crop of great Im.
portance in this state. We have seen a number of new varieties, one of
them originated from hand pollinations at this station, produced, totally
different from the original form, whteh grew to great length and was ex-
tremely difficult to handle. Now there are varieties with seeds of dif.
ferent colors, bush and running, and with a greatly reduced period from
planting to harvest, all within a period of approximately one generation.
This is an outstanding exaImle of the evolution of an agricultural plant
in the United States. It has added greatly to the productivity of Florida
soils and to the wealth of the state, and in parts of adjoining states it
has likewise become a very important crop. The sbbry of the development

. 14 .

of the velvet bean is told in the bulletins and other publications of the
Florida 3Operient Station.

'Among the later additions to Florida's field arose are erotalarias
of several species. As cultivated crops these plants are, in large measure,
new to the world. Certainly they are new to the United States, and already
Florida has demonstrated their great value as soil builders. It is expected
that certain species will prove to be valuable additions to our lists of
bay, pasture and soil improving plants. Many thouasnds of pounds of seed
will be planted this year in the state, to the great betterment of our soils.
A new crop in which the Florida Station, in cooperation with the United
States Department of Agriculture, is having a large part is beiag brought
strikingly to the notice of all areas having similar climates.

"As fundamsntal to the development of Florida agrieultn e, the neces.
sity for an all.-round live stock industry has long been recognized. The
state has managed to get through without such an industry over a period of
many years, but there is no question but that such an addition to our agr.l
culture would go a long way towards stabilizing the whole rusal structure.
In turn, the development of this industry is definitely tied tp with the
introduction of good pasture grasses, unfortunately largely leading in the
native flora. It has therefore been necessary to devote' sach attention to
the establishment of good permanent pastures. This line of investigation
and research has been necessary in many states, and where it has been
in some measure needful it could hardly be classed as a problem of major
ilportanee. The mianitude of the undertaking may be grasped when we realize
that tens of thousands of acres of land must be covered with perennial nu.
tritious grasses or other plants not native to the state, and many of those
so far found suitable do not produce seed or produce it in such small quan.
titles that it is necessary to propagate and establish them vegetatively.
The problem has not been solved in its entirety, but we are measurably closer
to the end of the pasture grass project which has engaged the attention of
this Eperiamnt Station ever since it was established in 1887. Such grasses
as Dallis from the Argentine, carpet grass from the Ameriean tropics, Ber-
muda grass from India and centipede from China have been found suitable for
different soil types. In this connection it may be noted in passing that
Florida is indebted to many different parts of the world. Two of these
grasses have been long in the state, while the other two are resent intro.
ductions. Perhaps nowhere in the world has a grass-growing project of such
proportions been undertaken. Necessarily it will be long in working out to
a final conclusion, but the methods used and the results secured will be of
tremendous Iportance to world-wide agriculture.

"Reference hrs just been made to the live stock industry and the
fundamental importance of pasturage as a basis on whiah to build it. There
have been other difficulties in the way of the development of this industry.
Disease and nutritional difficulties have stood in the way. One of these,


the tick-borne Texas fever, will shortly disappear froa the state through
the cooperative activities of our national and state government. Its
going clears the way for a new and different battle indaitry, but at the
same time the elimination of this aourg ieis maskaag other diAeases son-
fused with it, As far baok as we know anything about cattle diseases in
Florida an obsenre trouQ1 e known as salt esick' or esalt.filetcse has
taken its toll. It ie a disease fomnd in several different parts of the
world, as well as in Florida, Investigations ~der way here now will mn-
doubtedly arrive at the ease and core of this trouble, and the battle
industries of many regions will benefit thereby.

"One of the most interesting plteea of research work carried through
by the Florida Exerimnte Station is covered in TeabaFoal Bulletin No. 206
entitled *Mansontes We Worm of Poultry.' This baffling disease has been
noted in various tropical and ubtropieal countries sines 1878, and it re-
mained for the lorida Experiment Station to determine the intermediate
host in whioh the eye worm lived and the methods by which it may be con.

"Many problems connected with the diseases aed nutrition of live
took in Florida are under process of search and Itvestigation, and the
results will be far-reaohg in Florida agriculture and of great benefit
to all areas having similar conditions.

"The disossion of animal diseases naturally leads us to remarks
pertaining to the field of plant diseases. Beoaue of our eliaate,the
great variety of crops produced, and the lack of knowledge pertaining to
crop production under our conditions, plant disease have always pre.
sente pressing problems and the task has been an enormous one. The state
should be very happy indeed that n plant disease investigations the Florida
Experiment Station has kIpt pace in a marked degree with plant disease,
and in some eases finds itself today several steps ahead. The usual methods
of control have been modified and applied here In such manner as to measure.
ably protect the crops grown. It is not my purpose to go into the dis-
cussion of these methods and their application, bu. I do want to call at.
tention to some outstanding things in which the Department of Plant Patho-
logy has played a major part. The most satisfactory means of controlling
plant diseases are (1) to seewre resistant plants or strains of plants which
are not subject to attack and (2) to eliminate the disease entirely. There
are outstanding examples of eah of eh these lines of attack in work in which
the Florida Experiment Station has had a part. In the field of resistance
I fefer particularly to the work done in testing out the Marglobe tomato
and the development of disease-resitaant strains of tobaoo. The Marglobe
tomato, developed by the United States Department of Agriculture, oame as
the result of oreoseng certain resistant varieties and was found to be
still more highly resistant to Fasariu~ wilt. Working with this variety,
the Florida Experiment Station found that it was very resistant to a

disease known in this state as Nail Head Rust. At one time this disease
threatened the madoing of the entire tomato industry in Florida. Through
the growing of the Marglobe, found to be resistant to it, this disease
has almost disappeared and it is no longer a factor in tomato growing.

"Prior to 1922, the tobacco growers of western norida found them.
selves in serious difficulties because of certain diseases attacking their
crops. Particular referee is made to Black Sbhak,* the most serious of
all their troubles. Two strains of shade tobacco have been developed which
resist the disease and produce leafage of high quality. Had it not been
for this work, it is very probable that by this time the tobsco industry
of western Florida would have foead itself in serious difficulties.

"Cno of the most serious plant disease ever introduced into the
State of Florida is known as 'Citrus Canker.' At the time of its intro.
duction the organism which causes it was unnamed and nothing was known of
its history or of the methods by which it might be controlled. The task
of eliminating this disease from the state was ndertalken by the State
Plant Board, and the results bae been most satisfthtory. The United
States Department of Agriculture has cooperated and in many months no
trace of this disease has been foend in Florida. the Eaperieat Station
has contributed very materially to the success of this undertaking, the
results of which are outstanding. Florida has pointed the way to a new
method of handling plant diseases.

Coconut Sad Rot' attacked the coconut palms of southern Florida,
and investigations carried on by the Experiment Station indicated the
manner in which the disease might be eliminated. The State Plant Board
again was instrumental in carrying out the program. The Plant Board has
made several other outstanding contributions in the handling of diseases
and insects, and the Florida Ereriment Station has been instrumental in
splying much of the information pon which the success of these under.
takings depended. The lines of disease elimination and control here in.
dictated have very wide application.

"One of the most noteworthy and valuable methods of insect control
has been worked out almost in its entirety here. I refer to the use of
fngous diseases against certain injurious insect pests, whiteflies par.
ticularly. The method of control by fighting them with fngous diseases
is not adapted to dry climates, but it is of tremendous importance in
areas of beavy rainfall, This work has been carried so far in Florida
that cultures effective against whiteflies are available and the methods
of applying them so as to bring definite results have been thoroughly
worked out. There should be no particular difficulty in extending these
control methods to several other insects.

"The control of insect pests by introdoing other insects to prey

- 17

upon them has been successfully carried through here in several instances
tnder conditions which may not be so easy as in dry limates, and the way
has been pointed out for further development along these lines, Both
these methods of control, that 1o, by fungous diseases and by insect de-
predators, have been very important as demonstrating what may be done
under moist climatic conditions, It has been demonstrated that they may
be ased here. Undoubtedly they may be also used over wide areas in tropical
and subtropical countries. In the field of insect control and in many
other directions the Florida Experiment Station has made noteworthy pro.
gress. One has but to mention the insects affeettag truck orops, far
crops, citrs, and other fruit orops, to realize the aimnense amount of re.
search work carried through that we might be able to cope with these pro.
blems. And again the valuo of all this work to countries to the south of
us is very great.

"The horticultural crops of FlordAa in some respects out-rank in
Importance other lines of the states agriculture, Consequently more at.
tention has been given to research in horticulture over many years than
to research along other lines. The results are reflected in the production
of many and very diversified crope. It is here that grapefruit first be.
eame of commercial importance, and citrus culture has always received a
large share of attention from research workers in the horticultural field.
One thing that must strike anyone who looks into what has been done is the
large measure of success attained in growing citrus crops under widely dif.
ferent local conditions. Almost it might be said that in Florida, soils
are to be met of such kinds and qualities as might be found anywhere, and
in consequence the results secured here are of wide application elsewhere.
Many research projects in the field of citrus culture are under way. While
it is true that in dealing with tree fruits results come slowly, before
many years Itportant results in this field will be secured along many

"It is worthy of note that florida has had omeh to do with the do.
velopment of many new crops. The foundations fri these have been derived
from widely different localities. When the research in avocados was taken
ip a generation or so ago, there were no orchards and there were no named
varieties, and yet in this period of time large plantings have been de-
veloped, new varieties have come into exsetences methods of propagation
have been worked out and cultural practices developed. In this field
workers froa the United States Department of Agriculture have carried on
nuch of their work in this state. In this, too, the Eperiment Station of
Florida has had a part, and a new pomological development has been given
to the world. The recent movement a generation or so old which has
brought the pecan before the Southern States had its inception hers and
our horticultural workershave had much to do with the development of the
industry. It may also be pointed out that the Florida Experitf nt Station
has played a large part in the development of strawberry culture in the

S8 -

confines of the state. This has called for the handling of the crop on
quite a different basis from that followed in many states to the northward.
Among the latest of the new troops receiving attention is the tmtg-oil tree.
This gives indication of becoming an important industry in certain parts
of the state. In all of these lines the zporiaent Station has been active.
There has sprung up in Florida within the last few years a very large in.
terest in ornamental plants of economic iportace, and here, too, the
Station is lending ~ach assistance in working out the problems. All of
these things will have wide application in foreign lands.

"The last thing to which I desire to call attention in research line
is the results secured in making it possible to grow crops on certain soils
which heretofore have presented baffling difficulties. I tefer to the use
of copper and anganese in truck and farm crop production on the soils of
the Everglades. Some years age the reclamation of the 3verglades was
undertaken by the state, only to find that it was exceedingly difficult
under many conditions to make certain crops grow. In pointing the way to
the solution of this problem the Florida aperiment Station, through the
work done at Belle Glade, has opened the way for the development of agri-
culture on these lands. This, too, has very wide application in other parts
of the world. Where these lines of research may lead no one know.

"'he solution of Florida's agricultural problems in the field of pro-
duction has gone forward -rapidly, and it is at the present tiae engaging
the energies of one hundred and eight workers. The eros total of the re-
suits secured by them within the next few years will be very great. Up to
very recently, little attention has been given to the economies of agri-
culture and to the marketing problems which confront the state, but isves-
tigations are now being started along these lines.

"Since crops, soils and climate are in many respects similar to those
of the countries to the southward, it is undoubtedly true that Florida can
be of material assistance in the solution of agricultural problems in like
situations and under like conditions. While I have thus broadly indicated
several lines in which Florida may be helpful to the tropical and subtrop-
ical countries to the south of us, there are many more which I have not
meittoned. At the same time, I am not unmindfal of the fact that from
those countries we can also secure anch information of wide application
here. I most admit, and I think every worker in this area must admit, a
deplorable amount of ignorance as to what information may be available in
those lines. The far reaches of the tropics have given to Florida plants
of many different kinds, and there is no question but that there is much to
be learned from the methods of handling them in their native homes. It
seems to me most necessary that methods be worked out for an interchange of
ideas and for an interchange of dependable information. In this direction
an organisation such as our extension service might be brought into use.
There can be no question that in the field of agriculture more peoples can

- 19 -

be reached tha In in an other
good will can be placed upon

Professor BHme's paper
morning session adjoarnel

field of endeavor, and so munerstanding and
the broadest posesibe foml datio~. ."

being lathe la other forenoon program, the


Aftermoot Session

Wednesday, February 11, 1931

At 2t00 P. M., in the AudAtorian of the law College, Dean Wilmon
Newell called to order the Round Table Conference ont "~*ge af
Agricultural woper ment Stations d o ensson Work in tg Developaent
fi a Cooperative. Agricltural ationa Progra and introduced the
first discussion leader, Doctor David Fairchild.

DR. FAIRCHILD: Dr. Newell, Ladies and Gentlemen: I do not think
I was ever in a more embarrassing situation. I have a feeling that I
should not be embarrassed, because the problem that we have to discuss
this afternoon deserves and should be put on a strictly scientific basis.
But it does involve those characteristics of human beings Which are the
most difficult to deal with in all social matters: in other words, the
emotional factors. Doctor Newell has said my life has been mostly spent
in travel in foreign countries hunting for crops. I began, if you will
pardon my reference to my own life history, I began in the Department of
Agriculture in 1889, the year after it became a Department. I have been
in the Department ever since and perhaps have an advantage over some of
you, certainly the younger ones, in having seen changes in this whole world
of agriculture, in the attitude of people in that time towards crops of
various kinds. I can illustrate this by a few concrete examples.

When I came into the Department there were five hundred people in
the Department, all told, and everybody connected with it was intent vpon
increasing the area of agriculture in this country and increasing the per-
formance of every agricultural and horticultural crop which we could put
our hands on, Florida then to me was nothing but a names there had not
been established in Florida a single scientific institution so far as I
know of any character whatever The orange industry which was then re-
presented to 4y boyish view by certain wealthy orange growers who lived
in New York, among them Mrs. Tom Platt, who became aroused over the ques-
tion of the diseases in her orange groves. Mrs. Tom Platt wrote Jeremiah
Rusk, then Secretary of Agriculture, and said, "Mr. Rusk, something has
got to be done for my orange grove and you have got to do it." Whereupon,
he immediately pushed the button (bat this was before the days of push
buttons) and turned the task of saving Mrs. Platt's orange grove over to a
boy with whom I grew up and for whom I have always had a most profound
admiration and who is known to some of you here, Mr. W. T. Single. We
were boys together and we grew up in those days when even the term "bac-
teria' was only a name and was used to represent a scattering number of
facts relating to things which most people would not believe were anything

but names. Well, Swingle came down to Sustis and rented a little build.
ing and started to find out about the diseases of the orange trees. I
have got his letter yet giving me the first clear picture I ever found
in my brain of an orange tree. It was something like an oak only it had
gold fruits on it.

I give this little history to show you how things have changed. To-
day when we talk of bringing in a heavier yielding wheat or a drought re-
sistant alfalfa, the problem immediately arises, "~hat are we going to do
with the increased crops from this heavier yielding wheat and the increased
area of dry land which this alfalfa will bring under cultivation?"

But every problem, as I see it from the standpoint of over forty
years, has changed. Not on.y that, but from my travels the world over,
I have found that the whole world has changed. I was in Java as a young
fellow in 1895 and I was there again in '99 and I went out there four years
ago, My idea was that I would not find this wild, oriental country changed.
I remembered it, of course, as it was when I was there as a boy of twenty.
five. But it had changed. The same problems of re-forestation, the same
problems of the destruction of wild life, were concerning them. There was
even a society to preserve the wild life, a society for the prevention of
the killing of wild animals. The whole social structure of Java was changed.
One of my old friends had taken a hand in the civil government of Java and
later had become Minister of Colonies in the Bague and the situation in
Java, with its thirty-five million people had became a problem involving
representative government.

But out of all my experience has come to me the feeling that it is
rather useless to make up your mind that this or that or the other social
thing should be done and done right now; that the factors that we are deal-
ing with in this question of interrelation between peoples are in the first
place deeply biologic in character.

I was born under the shadow of slavery. My unole was President of
Berea College, Kentucly, and my early childhood was spent in listening, in
a boyish way, to the problem of the education of the blacks and the whites
together. My father and my uncle were convinced that the only way to bring
these people together, or to any understanding, was to educate them side
by side and my uncle was even stoned by a mob because e he held to that idea.
I learned my first geography lessons side by side with a colored boy. It
never occurred to me that my father was not right, that my uncle would be
wrong. It took me a long time in my intercourse with Oriental peoples,
South American peoples and with people pretty much over the world, to realize
that this experience which my father and uncle had had did not entitle them
to so positive an opinion on that subject; that the prejudices which separate
peoples have a biologic basis; that they were not notions merely on the part
of the people that they did not like other races of people, hated those

races, in fact, but that they bad as their basis biologic reasons.

I spent three months in the Aegean last smaer, in that region in-
to which Mussolini has thrown his Italian agriculturists, and his organic.
nation of civilian and military men at the very border between Turkey
and Greece. It is perfectly evident that you have there races which have
been living side by side for pretty nearly a thousand years; they do not
want to mix; they have no intention of mixing and when I learned that
the Greeks had been taken out of Turkey and thrown across into the Aegean
islands, Pich are still within sight of Turkey, I tried to iangine living
under suah circwnstances. I began to inquire how these people felt with
regard to the Turks living across on the mainland. I realisedthat by tal.
ing them away from Turkey and segregating them on the islands of Greece
the problem has not been solved. Then, through ay friend Morton W heeler,
I was led to read a very remariable book. I think if we look back in our
lives we will find that books have played a tremendous role in our opinions.
It is entitled Trraito de Soeiologie Generale" (Payot, Paris) by Vilfreda
Pareto. It is in two volmues and in Freneh and is being now translated.
It to a most profound study of the non-logical behavior of man. The Preets
de Sociologie d'apris Vilfredo Pareto by G. H. Bousquet, Payot, Paris, is a
resume of the work.

Of course, that means to many of us another way of saying that man
is primarily an emotional creature. I assure you if you will take the time
to dip into Pareto*' book you will get some idea of the profound analysis
which he has made of those factors which we have got to consider in this
whole question of the interrelation of peoples. Man is not a logical oreas
ture. Farthernore, there are elements which are involved in this question
that are entirely biological.

I have been associated for some time with the mean interested in the
science of geneticst some of whom have perhaps taken as leading a part as
any in the development of that science, and it has long seemed to me that
our Experiment Stations which represent the most remarkable body of bie-
logicallyminded people in the world today are destined to play a role
in the study of the causes of evolution, which are after all at the base,
not only of the development of CrotalarAas and ttng-oil and oranges and
livestock, but of these great questions of the development of peoples.

I realise that this is not the kind of talk that you thought a man
who spent all his time bringing in new crops would probably make, but the
thing has come to be so real in my mind and I have seen and heard so many
doctrines with regard to interrelations of peoples that when I was invited
by your Honorable President to appear before you this afternoon I sat down
and wrote what I thought. Now, this is only the opinion of a boy who has
grown up among you and who has travelled, who has been among savage people
where he had to watch as closely as he could to understand what they were

doing in order not to make a false impression on thel, and vho bas grown
up, so to speak, in this atmosphere of biology, sad If you will pardon
ae I will read v brtef prepared on this subject.

Two WMdsaentea Problems Involved in
International Relations
David a1rchild
Agricultural Eplorer of the United States
Department of Agriculture. Representative
of the National Geographic Society aad
of the American Genetio Association.

Prejudices are the course of the world. If they become strong enough
and violent enough they lead to ware. Science, in spite of all the pre-
judices Vhich have orept into it because of man's emotional nature, stands
today as the bulwark against the spread of prejudices such as have deo
stroyed the oivilisations of the past. It at least makes the attempt to
tear itself free from prejudice. Its best representatives are struggling
to get away from their nonalogical drives and see things in a perspective
untinged with personalities.

The true scientist realises, and teaches, that as soon as he leaves
the field of research and treads the path of propaganda he is entering the
jungle of non-lo~gcal human emotions and personalities.

Our 2hperiment Stations have, for over forty years, oeoqpied a unique
and enviable position in this swiftly moving and changing world. Their
discoveries have checked many destructive illusions which might have in.
jted our American culture, perhaps even have destroyed it.

Their investigative efforts, it is true, have been more particularly
concerned with the production of the raw materials out of which human life
is made, but here and there among the thousands of research workers men
and women have appeared who are not content to tie their Imaginative lives
to these raw materials but have began to tackle the constitution of the
human organism itself.

It is to this problem that I desire to eall your attention. There
are two of its innumerable phases which I believe particularly need eapha.
sis at this time,

The most important is that relating to the cause, or causes, of evo-

To this study the Taperiment Stations have contributed a not in-
considerable element. The Florida State Station has done its part, con-
tributing, for eample, Dr. Belling, whose microscopio technique has been
of great importance to research in this difficult field.

But what, you may wonder, is the relation between the study of this


difficult problem of evolution and the one before us today of Internation.
a4 Relations?

I trust that I an maske this clear, although I am not too confident
that I can.

International relations autosatically involve genetic relations,
and any history of the rise and fall of great cultures whioh overlooks
the genetic factors It leaving out one of the most Uiportant elements in
an equation of multiple variables.

As Sewell Wright remarks in a recent snuber of the Journal of Hereo
dity, where he reviews the remarkable book by R. A. Fisher on the Genetic
Theory of NatuIal Seleetiona* *One might expect to find that
tion once started on the earth would give such an advantage that its
history would be an uninterrupted succession of triumphs. Instead of
this, we find that every civilization, after a period of prosperity, has
fallen into decay, and succumbed to the onslaughts of numerically weak,
barbarous people. The cause of decay," he finds reason to believe, "Is
genetical rather than social. Evidence indicates that differences in
fertility are in part hereditary, whether dependent on physical or men.
tal qualities. The bulk of evidence from civilised oomundities, ancient
and modern, indicates that fertility is lowest in the apper classes of
the population, where qualities which make for individual ability and
leadership are most frequent. The reason for this inversion of the nor.
mal relation is seen in the tendency (first pointed out by Galton) for in.
fertility as well as ability to rise in the social scale. The result is
a tendency to extinction of ability, applying to all classes of society.
REamination of conditions in more primitive societies organized on a olan
basis, leads to the conclusion that the play of natural selection is here
exsatly the opposite. The evolution of individual qualities," he believes,
"reaches its climax just before civilization begins."

I quote from Dr. Wright to illustrate the point I desire to make,
which is that it would seme to be of the utmost possible importance to
know, before .n drives headlong into the migling of different peoples,
vhich the wra of modern transportation is going to make possible, some-
thing more definite with regard to the causes of evolution and the ef.
feots of the mingling of of peoples of widely different heredities.

If stagnation and deterioration in civilized peoples are genetic
matters, it would seem to me of the very first i~portanee that the scion.
tific men of all countries, regardless of race, be given the best oppor-
tunity that can be given to discover what the relation is between heredity
and evolutionary progress.

Once the peoples of the world come to realize the tremendous ipertanoe

journal of Heredity, August 1930, Vol. XXI No. 8, p. 355.


of making discoveries in this field, there would come to the fore man
with minds able to reveal to the rest of us a horizon of the most magai.
ficent possibilities as well as dangers of the most startling and wasus
peoted character, involving the lives and happiness of individual huma
beings on this planet.

Discoveries in this field involve in & peculiar and intimate way
mants outlook tpon his surroundings. Men of science believe that the
maintaining of an outworn point of view leads inevitably to stagnation.
And it does not matter of what real of thought or life one is speaking,

3zperemmnt Stationa are coming into existence everywhere. Their ac
tivities have been in a measure dictated by necessary mediate problems;
the increase of production and economies in production. I want to put in
a plea for their extension and enlargeent to take in this complicated and
most important problem of evolution.

In all countries, even in those which have not established expert.
ment stations, there are men those tastes have led then to collect and
classify and observe the natural objects around them. Most of these men
realise all too leenly that with the spread of cities and the building of
roads there is booming a destruction of some of the most val oble of aa.
trial with which they mnat become familiar if they are to discover the
cause of evolution.

It may be that the genetic factor involved in the oollapse of a
people it of the same order of phenomena as the stagnation of evolutionary
progress which is observed, for ezample, in the social insects. Does not
the discovery that the complicated and intricately organtied camanmity
life of the ants has stood practically still for millions of years have a
possible bearing on the problems of evolution in man? The discovery of
the cause of evolution would carry with it, I presume, a discovery of the
cause of degeneration and stagnation.

It is entirely possible that there may lie concealed in eaoe of the
vast storebouses of forms whieh the great museums are trying to preserve,
the tsys to the solution of this problem, and before it is too late let
the experiment stations and the museums and the universities in all lands
unite in educating people to an appreciation of the great value of pre-
serving wild living forms from extinction or deterioration.

But there is another, and peraps a more iAmediate problem involved
in the inter-relations of peoples of different cultures, It is the pro.
bless of really understanding the forces which make man behave as he does.

In a remarkable work in two large volumes, the late Professor Wil.
fredo Pareto of Lausanne has laid bare in a most masterly way the fact
that emotion and not logic is the driving force in life, and has shown how
almost every action of man is the result of an effect produced by something


in his environment upon his non-logical, emotional self. He has made
his case so plain that it seems to me of the greatest Importanoe to lre
alise its truth in connection with what we term internationall inter-

It has been my lot to travel rather widely, and I have been thrown
with a great many individuals of many distinct races and cultures and a
experience has taught me to appreciate perhaps more fully than I could
otherwise the truth of Pareto's theories.

I have travelled among savages with whom I could have no verbal in-
tercourse, and I have distinctly felt at times the sensations of dislike
and prejudice, without there ever being a word spoken. And I have seen
som s~ale act, 113~ a tosuh on the arm, turn that dislike to like, and
dissipate a prejudice which,. If it had not been removed, might have grown
into a dangerous attack.

In civilized conmunit tes these prejudices are so quokly transferable
and oaaanicable that they constitute the greatest danger f l o a ur re-
lations in life, and the iufortuaate part of them is their non-revereable
character. A single slip of the tongue, the mniesderstanding of one
phrase, and a whole country is aflame over a matter which has no logical
basis whatever. And even when an explanation has been made and the whole
thing shown to have no logical meaning, the formed non-logical opinion -
the prejudice remains.

To mf mind we could do nothing greater in an educational way than to
give our youth an appreciation of the non-logical nature of man's mind.
I do not mean jvst an intellectual realization of the fact, jbut a daily
appreciation that it is almost without exception the emotional factor in
huvmn relationships which is important. I think i am ready to follow
Deandson pretty far in his contention that emotion is the basis of etvi2i-

If this is true among persons of similar bacdkround, how nuch more
should its importance be wephasised when it comes to intercourse between
people of different cultures. It is of the utmost importance to recognize
that gestures and tokens of nmtual respect or tolerance are often of great-
er value than more intimate relations which, bteouse of wide difference in
culture are usually difficult to maintain. The breaking of intimate re-
lations often leads to prejudices of a far reaching and destructive cbara..
ter and prevents the mutual respecting of each other's cultures which is
necessary for peace.

I deem it of prime iportance that in the intercourse which univer-
sity life fosters between different peoples this problem of international
prejudice should be given a mot searching and comprehensive study. Any
move which tends to increase national prejdiee, even though it increase


IUividuzal intimacies, should be givan great coans8a ratIon{ always wirtth
the realization that it ti the naonloaical and motloasf f.ctor that
are the miaot Ioportant.

a oonclx~toa, permit me to express the opaioua that the uz va
tuderstanlingv between people of different oultwl maw wel1 havu to
wait for a broader knowledge of the nonxloioal nature of the idvildulJ
human ma and a4so for a alseoverp of the genttea or other oese of

The Chairman then called on Professor H. Harold flie.

MR. HUMS Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentleonent Doctor PFarchild
has taken us off on another line of thought and it It not zy purpose
either to attoqpt to follow him or to attempt to disease what he has
laid before us. I have been associated with Dootor Fairchild over mnay
years and I know it is exceedingly difficult sometimes to follow him,
qnd yet I have the feeling, after hearing him today and reading his paper
beforehand, that there is much in what Ue is tal ang about. Whether wu-
der conditions as they exist in this country investigations in the field
of evolution could be undertaken might be open to question, Perhaps the
time is not ripe yet for such studies. X have in my mind certain things
that have taken place in other states than this.

This morning, in what I said, I tried to emphasize the in~ortanee of
research work and its bearing upon the practical t hinges of agriculture
and what those meant to the State of Florida, in perhaps a more peculiar
way than they mean or have meant to any other state of the Union, because
of Floridaa' isolated position. I indicated then that I believed these
lines of research might be far.reaehing in importance to peoples located
as we are located and particularly to those peoples, whose good will we
are selling at this time.

You will remember that I taoched upon the matter of our deplorable
ignorance in regard to what has been going on in these other eoot ries
and I feel now that one of the first things that should be done by the
Institute is to get a grasp on exactly what the situation is in every
other country in which we hope to establish contact s we should know what
their problems are and how we can help them; they should know what our
problems are and how they can help us. I have a feeling that in a groat
many ways closer contact with South and Central America might be of ery
great benefit to us.

I might remind you for instance that our potatoes oamn from the Andes,
that corn cam out of Mexico, that avocados are of West ndian, Central
and South American origia, and that with these crops there mst have gone
in ages past cultures with which we are not perhaps as well acquAnted as
we could be to our benefit.

Mr. Chbaiman, I am sipVly indicating at this time see of the things
that oeOur to me as a field in which the research work might be directed
to enable us to contact with peoples in these other lands.

I think this is all I have to ay following what I had to say this
morning along these lines.

CHAMIMA: In the arrangement of the program and the selection of
leaders in the discussion this afternoon, there was included the name of
Mr, emeninel, representative of the Mexican Department of Agriculture.
Mr. Terminal is not present.

ZI pursuiag this discussion this afternoon of the part whioh the
Experiment Station work and Agricultual tension work, research work
more particularly, can take in a cooperative program between the states
of our country and the Latin-American countries and states, I think we
could vell have the reactions of one of our distinguished visitors, Do-
tor W. W. Atwood.

DR. ATWOOD I am deeply interested in this phase of the work, al-
though I am sorry I could not be here to hear the papers this morning.

There is one question I will raise, hich my provoke some discus.
sion anong the men who are especially interested in the work of agrioul.
tural stations. Have you the aauont of climatologioal data that you
need? I believe that the longer e pursue our studies in agricultural
geography the more we are imressed with the significance of olimatio
changes. I grew ap believing that phystography was the most
of geographic factors, but as I listen to my colleagues and watch their
work, I am more and more impressed with the significanee of the long,
carefully kept records of climate. The amot of rainfall, the variabi.
lity in rainfall that can be anticipated, changes in temperature in the
air and in the ground, the length of the period, storm freo
quency and many other kinds of data are important. It seem to ms that
through cooperation the various agricultural stations and the government
weather bureaus in the Amerieas could provide in time invaluable weather
records, We hope to be able to predict more accurately the changes tI
the rainfall that we my expect and the changes in the length of growing
seasons. Would this be a helpful way for the agricultural ep eriment sta-
tions to cooperate?

Another great field which offers wonderful opportunities for inves-
tigation is the new science of fodology. I am astounded with the changes
which have taken place in our knowledge of the soils during the last twenty
years. Doctor Marbett in his studies has led us far awa from what I was
taught in college concerning the soils. 1he soil is a formation that takes
on its character as the years pass and is largely dependent upon the ali-
mate and native vegetation.

It seam to me that these various agricultural experiment stations
could cooperate in many ways in the exchange of valuable information.
Perhaps in the pooling of your knowledge and your interests, you will
find increased strength.

I fear that our knowledge in this country of the IAtin.Amoeroan coun..

0 89

- 30 -

tries from the agricultural standpoint is very, very far short of what
we need. I have been trying to get Doctor 0. 2, Baker for two yards to
complete his articles on "Agricultural Geography,5 which we are pnb.
lishin. in Economic Geography, and it is almost impossible to get him to
complete them. He says he cannot get sufficient data from the Latin.
American countries.

We have not sufficient economic datafrom the neighboring countries
available in this country. Doctor Clarence Jones, our specialist at
ClarM University in Latin-America, has struggled for five or six years,
in visiting South American countries, to bring home the data fhieh Is
needed, but there is still w~ch less available than there is of orf own
covatry or of MEropean countries. The latin-Amerioan coatries, younger
than we are in some ways, and perhaps less fortunate in many ways, have
not pushed forward scientific studies and research as fally as we have.
They will be encouraged by an offer of cooperation.

If through contaOts established by this Institute, the Iatin-Amerl.
can countries are inspired to keep ftll records and to maks the data a.
available throIgh some pooling agency, something like the great Agricul.
tural Institute of R=se, a great forward looking step will have been

I should like to see some very careful studies mad" i physography
so that we may know more definitely how the different countries of Latin.
America can be sub-divided into natural geographic regions. I fully be.
lieve that the goal toward which we are moving is the regional treatment.
zvery region must have a certain tnity. It is a humaa habitat where a
great dram is being enacted. It mey be that the moautains dividing the
desert regions of central Asia or urrounding the plateau of Bolivia and
Peru define the region of interest for the moment. The natural geographic
regions are usually defined by physical features or oliatte conditions.
Each unit region is an area where a hmamn problem of existence is being
worked out. I think that the physiographie setting is signlifant. And
in this physiographie setting you will come to an Mtderstandtng of the
natural terrain, the eaurfae format ion, the soils and the changes that
come with rain and decay of vegetation. The piture is not complete mn..
til the climate is analysed and recorded. Thenthe actor ceme into that
scene and begin their problem of hmaan existence. Those actors, after
having accomplished the very necessary work of getting enough food, olot.h
ing and shelter, are building vp a type of eolture or civilization.

I would like to eaphasize that through the cooperation of these va.
rious experiment stations, agriculture could perhaps add during the next
ten, twenty or thirty years, mch valuable information in regard to the
cllate ano soils and contours in those regions that we are thinking a-
bout. At later meetings of this Institute we will be intensely interested
in the results of such cooperation,

3 1 -

CHAIIMAN: I take it that the object of our discussion this after-
noon is to arrive, if possible, at a definite course of action or procoe
dure which this body can take and which the University of Florida can
take tending to a definite program along the lines which we are discuss
ing and I am wondering if we might have a word from Doctor Knapp.

DR. INAPP*e I feel myself almost utterly at a loss to follow these
men in physiology and some of these other sciences in which I am frankly
not at all versed. I was wondering, or thinking, about the interrelation
of peoples. Some years ago when I was in the Department of Agriculture,
I was visited by a group of distinguished Mexicans who caue to discuss
certain phases of our work. They were endeavoring to learn as much as
they could regarding our methods of extension work, how we were reaching
farmers and their families, and in the course of our conversation I was
endeavoring to lay the background of the needs of the country at that
time. I inadvertently mentioned the boll weevil by the old name of
Mexican cotton boll weevil. They laughed and I asked them what the Joke
was. They explained to me that in Mexico they knew it as the "Gringo
cotton boll weevil." They thought and told in Mexico that it was brought
into their country from America, like all the other cursed things, I
guess, and we had a very delightful conversation over that. I promised
then that thereafter I never would refer to it again as the Mexican boll
weevil, in spite of the fact that it did come to us from over there!

I think maybe it has been a blessing in disguise, very much in di.s
guise. Nevertheless, it brought us to a realization that cotton was not
one of the things upon which we could depend and I think possibly it was
a blessing which brought us to a realization that our agriculture must be
better balanced and a more resourceful agriculture in this country of the

One thing that always amazed me is this: I am speaking particularly
of the south. We have in the south a great territory that in ordinary
years is better supplied with moisture, better supplied with sunshine
and certainly has a longer growing season than any other section of the
United States. We can grow almost anything that tea be grown in the
country farther north of us, perhaps not always as well as they can grow
it, and many things that they cannot grow, and yet in our agriculture we
oapitalise in cotton, tobacco, sugar and rice. It is a predicated agri-
culture founded upon those as single crops for cash or exchange in the
markets of the world and thereby failing to take into account the tremen.
dous opportunity that we have and which I think that the people of the
future south will have in the growth of the things that science will turn
into vast human necessities. We can grow from four to six times as amoh
in the growth of wood on an aore of land in the south as in the north,
but we are not doing it. We regarded the forest as an eney and we
slaughtered it. It has been shown that the first marks on trees which

*Dootor Knapp's remarks, as here given, have not been checked by him.

- 32 -

show injury by fire are coincidental with the advent of the white man.
The Indian himself was not a fire burner, because he lived off of the
small animals of the forest and, therefore, knew that fire was the worst
enamy to his source of supply of food. So we in the south just Blaugh-
tered some of our greatest assets and I am wondering if the epoerlenoes
that we have had may not ultimately change us in the south, where the
possibility of growing wood and oelulose might not makc them a tremen-
dous source of production.

I stand before you today rather trembling at our whole cotton indus-
try. Who knows that tomorrow a chemist may not produce a synthetic cot.
ton made from celulose and if he does, what will become of the farmers
depending upon cotton as a source of income?

And then there is another subjects The whole of this problem of
international relations and of adjustments is not dependent entirely
upon the problem of production. The economic programs have not been
touched to amount to anything during this conference. But the economic
condition of the people is, after al, the one dominant thing that we
are beginning to think about. I may say today to some of the young men
here that there is a large field for men trained in agricultural sub.
jets, men trained in agricultural economics; there are places waiting
for men in that line.

We are wondering at the economic program. Here is the thing that
stands out to us in extension work and in station work as well. The
Purnell Act was an indication that the people, through their represent.
tives in Congresq, were thninkng in terms of the economic life of the
people, because they insisted on the Purnell Act, that should be devoted
to the studies of the economic life of the people.

We have been going through a series of aps and downs. Go back a
century and out of the Napoleonic wars we find the very peak of prospert-
ty in the agricultural world, only to be thrown into a condition almost
parallel with the condition stine the World War. We have read of lew
prices and distress and of agriculture suberged in that period, and they
were just gradually climbing baak when the OCvil War and finally the Fran-
coPrusstan wars dragged them down, by war itelf and then by the tremen-
dous financial seop due to the great gambling upon the stock market.
The history of that time is almost parallel to what happened after the
World War. And then going back into the '90's of last century, we come
up to this hih point of world prices and then again we have an identi-
cal repetition of the economic condition.

The question I challenge is the
emotions and the reactions of the human race to these emotions. What
caused these and how may the world so design economic relations between
these nations that these things may be smoothed over? We are getting a-
way from the old idea that business is business. It reminds me of a

- 33 -

story I heard the other day. I got it from an agricultural chap. A
Catholic priest in New York City saw three little tads wrangling on the
corner and he saw there was a two.bit piece lying near-by and that this
was the cause of the disturbance. He stooped down and picked up the
money and put it in his pocket and the boys stopped wrangling at once.
"I am not going to keep this money," he said, "I am going to give it to
the one of you who gives the best answer to the question I am goiag to
ask." He saw that one of the boys was an American, one an Italian and
the other a little Jew, and turning to the American boy he asked, 'Who
is the greatest man in the world and why?" "George Washington," was the
answer, Beeause he was the father of Our Country." "That is a very good
answer, young man," and then turning to the Italian he again asked, "Who
is the greatest man in the world and why?" The answer came, "*ussoliani
Look what he has done for my country." "That is a good answer, too."
Then to the Jew, "Ikey, who do you say was the greatest man in the world
and why?" "St. Patrick, because he chased the snakes out of Ireland."
He handed the two bits to Ikey and the good father watched the little
boys go away. Then he followed Ikey and said, "Now, wait a minute, Ikey.
I am sure that was a wonderful answer you made, but I want to know why
you, a Jew, should have chosen St. Phtritk.0 "Well," answered Iksy, "It
probably was Moses, but business is business."

There are other countries who have not given the right answer, just
because business is business. We have looked at it from our own selfish
standpoint, without consideration of the rest of the world. It may be
that the economic condition of the future will be distinctly en less self.
ish lines. There might be a time when there will be less of famine in
China and leas of a surplus of wheat in Ameriea, if we could only or-
ganize this international relationship and come to a fall understanding
of distribution. Do you realize that the freight rates both by sea and
by land constitute a rather over-high tariff upon the free flew of goods
to those sections of the world where they are needed? If they lower the
freight rate from points of surplus to points of need they could immediate.
ly start the flow in those directions.

The extension activities is another feature which I hope we will con-
sider. I hope the time is going to come when the South American countries
are going to have this service. I do not make any apologies whatever for
the attitude of the extension work in our country. I think that extension
work is designed to help the man on the farm, to answer his present press.
ing problems. He has not time to go to the cause, he has not time to go
to books, and the extension service is the organization that comes to help
him to do that. You may not know that after the war we picked up in this
country five girls, who spoke French fluently, and sent them over under a
guard, from the Department of Agriculture into Prance to show the French
people merely how we approached the home problem through the home demon-
stration clubs in America.

I took into service during the war in Washington, Doctor Wilson
of Texas, who performed a very great service during the world war, Aft
ter the war he went to Europe under the auspices of the General dt4aa-
tional Board and he succeeded in introducing many methods of extension
work, not the directions, not the subject matter, but methods into foreign
countries, Denmark and other sections. I a not cla ling that this iS
original with us.

A letter just the other day eame to me from India from my old friend
about whom seae of you may know, Higgiabotham, and the fine school of
agriculture and the approach he is making to very prominent people over
there to deal with their present pressing problems of production, of
feeding and clothing themselves in that country.

I know that some of you are interested, for instance, in the produo.
tion of beef in the Argentine and their going Into the market with dairy
products are matters in which we are profoundly interested. The price of
corn in our markets is often somewhat limited by the ability of the Arken.
tine to export it. They have gone into the beef market to such an extent
that their beef went into Europan mar kets in competition with ours. We
cannot produee to ourselves alone nor can we oonesne to ourselves alone.
What I would like to know is what caused the period of depression, who can
put his finger Vpon what, after all, caused people to withdraw their money
and quit buying and go, within twelve months, as far down hill as we went
from 1929 to 1930? There is ~ust as much money in the world as there was
before, but we went crashing into a situation which has brought misery to
people abroad as well as in our own country. Who started it and out of
what attitude of mind did it ar ee? Will the world ever get the wisdom to
smooth out the hills of high production into the valley of low produc-
tion and that will promote the happiness, the buying power of people of all
countries? Can it be done?

COLONEL SE3ZS : I should like to ask Doctor napp along the line of
his discuseson, just now, whether it is a fact, or rather what bearing has
going "along the line of least restitance1 to do with our lack of develop.
meant? Agriculture has a basic foundation in the activities of this Ina
stitute looking to other countries, giving them instruction and advice a.
long the lines that are being discussed right here and now. Is it going
along the line of least resistance that keeps us from developing, as Doo.
tor lapp has pointed out?
DR. NAPPS It is characteristic with us to follow the road of least
resistance. On the other hand, there is an element here which has tremena
dous power, which I am bold enough to discuss rather recently aad have been
discussing for fifteen years before bankers' associations. How many of you
realize that the attitude of the sources of credit very often become the
measure of your economic progress?

- 35 -

I struck a busineeaman one day and sat beside him at a ui=nheon
and in the course of our conversation asked him bhat he was doing in
that part of the country, Oklahom. He *aid he was trying to organie
a steel mill, as the Pittsburg prices and the cost of eeMap iron in
Oklahoma would make him a small aill for e'plying stroMtual steel to
points in that part of the country. Be could make it good. "If it Is
as good as that, uhy dontt you do It?* "There is no banker in this part
of the country who knows how to finance it' was the answer.

It was a new thought to me and I have stu;2ed it for a long time.
I made the remark that the bankers kaew how to finance cotton and oil
and real estate in Kansas, they knew how to finance wheat and cattle and
real estate in Nebraska. If yes went into Iowa they knew how to finance
corn and cattle. But they evidently did not know how to finance a broad.
er program than the one they were financingo yu could no t it it. I
wonder how many of you know that in the cotton country of the south, tn,
til a banker wants to finance a broader agricultural program, it will not
be financed? In a year when one branch of the federal govesmaent, bake
by a lot of you who have been trying to broaden out the agriculture of
the south by getting something else prodwued beside cotton, the finan.
eters have been sbratching off the amount of cotton to be produced and
doubling it, hey are not going to the new idea of broader and better
system of agriculture. Fan ers will follow just suah programs as they
can be financed to follow. And, therefore, our task is to educate the
financial interests, and it is a pretty difficult task. the financier is
a conservative man. I am not blaming him for so being on the other hand,
in the south, particularly, and in many foreign countries, yeu will find
that the breadth of knowledge of the businessman and his ineapaeity to see
the agricultural policy, is one of the limiting factors that we find in
the line that we pursue. There was an econamcl necessity after the War 3e.
tween the States for the south to go forward on a program that could be
financed and, as that financing had to come from the outside, the law of
compuleion conaawned then to follow a certain type of agriculture. But
that time has eooe when we ought not to be coe elled to follow that par-
ticular type of agriculture. We need to broaden and strengthen our so-o
nomic program.

COLO~L SER&M~t With apologies to Doctor Knapp, his answer is not
satisfactory exactly to the people whom I represent, which to the news.
paper reading public. I am a delegate to this conference as well as a
newspaper man. There is a broader answer to that question. It devolves
upon the individual farmer, I believe. I know of a farmer who has the
habit of saying, when people say to him that a certain thing cannot be
done, that it is his greatest delight to go out and do it. And that Is
ttheline which I had in mind when I asked about following the line of
least resistance. I submit to you whether it Is not reasonable to ezpeet
that if the farmer or a group of farmers do anything differently than they
have been doit it, and get better results, is it not reasonable to eopeot,

- 36

that if they need financial assistance, the bankers will come to their
aid just as they came to the aid of the man who invented the ekimn
pie? The man who markets his products in the most boatnesslike way,
won't he get assistance? Leadership is with the farmer, and nest of all
with the extension agents who are dong a splendid work, bat you can do
very anch more, I am sure, by following less the lines of least resistance
and going more into the development and growing of products of the soil
that are not generally produced but for which there is demand or for which
demand can be created. This is ow greatest problem in lorida.

DR. EAPP:U I adopt all that Colonel Sellers has aaid. In just a
brief statement I coOld not cover every phase of it. This is being done.
Many bankers are backing such a program; we are moving forward and making
some progress, but I could take him and show him that the other thing is
true, also.

O!utEA t IZn this discussion I think we o~ght to bring ,ou the point,
if I may be pardoned for so doing, that those connected with the University
in the Institute of Inter-American Affairs are not looking upon the future
activities of this body in the light of the Institute being a Joint power,
betavae there is a great deal that the University and its workers can learn,
not only of the agriculture, but of the oustoss and clture of other coun.
tries. I think there is no question but what mutual good will come out
of these activities. As President Tigert has already stated, no extensive
attempt was made to have representatives of the Latin.American countries
here at the first meeting of the Institute. Nevertheless, it was made per-
feotly clear that any representatives who aame would be entirely welcome.
We are very fortunate, however, in that a gentleman who is here as a dele.
gate of the University of Miami, is also here as a representative of the
University of Lima, Perz, and we will be very glad indeed to have the reach.
tions of Dr. Belaude to the questions before es.

DR. AUNrTDHA I have to confess my absolute ignorance in the field
of agriCltore. I sa nevertheless obliged to say something about the im-
portance of the experimental stations and of some cooperative work in other
fields to foster the good relations between the United States and Latin.
Ameica. We want the experts of the United States to have knowledge not
only of agriculture, but also of our general econo4 and political situa.
tion. The proximity leads to mistakes as a distance favors impartiality
and a spaythetie view. The best books written about Peru, I do not doubt,
have been written by the Geaman, Middendorf, the Rnglishman, Markham, the
American, Preseott. I ought to say Peru is like an agricultural miracle.
As you pass through the Canal Zone and approach the Peruvian eoast you
have the sensation that it is a picture of poverty and distress. I have
had that sensation coming bask to the country recently after ten years of
exile. Doctor Atwood has emphasized the necessity for knowing the habitat
of every nation. Tou know and you say, and perhaps you are right, that the
South American countries are very rich, but the statement ought to be ear.

- 37 -

rooted. The civilization of South America is almost a miracle, not only
in the Jungle bUt in the mountainous region. In this region, despite the
handicap of geographic factors, a wonderful civilization was established.
It is a elvilisation that is perhaps greater than the Mayas according to
Dr. torrla. I am sure that if, vader the anspioes of this Institute of
Inter.Amerioan Affars, some day some experts in agriulture and in humea
geography go out to South America and reveal to vs the secret of the
prosperous conditions of the Inoas Empire, there would be a link between
Peru, Bolivia and the United States.

MR. M. MNSIXO Doctor Atwood touched a key that reverberated in
my being when he spoke of the importance of climate and physiography and
I cannot help but feel the necessity of emphasising the points that Doe.
tor Atwood made. The work that has been going on in Lurope among mineralo-
gists, I think, is very important and significant in so far as we in this
hemisphere are concerned. They have been cooperating to very great advan-
tage recently and are beginning to get hold of some very fundamental facts.
Of course, our United States is rather comparable, in some ways, to various
countries of furope, We have the advantage that all the records of these
stations are now compiled at Washington, and all facts are deciphered and
put into form so that they will mean something to all of us. However,
there is a bigger field, the field that has been termed maorometerology.
When we realize that the conditions existing in Manitoba oan be correlated
to the antipodes in Australia, it begins to show us how international re-
lationships may be mat in this problem of meterolegy. And let me give you
a little idea of another phase, which should have emphasis right in this
connection. It is known, of course, that there is an area of High baro-
metric pressure about thirty degrees north and another thirty degrees south
of the equator and toward the poles there is a corresponding Low pressure
area. The distribution of these High and Low pressure areas is dependent
upon the distribution of the land. For this reason their distribution is
mueh more regular in the southern than in the northern hemisphere. But there
is an important relationship between these pressure areas and the climate of
certain places. For instance, the semipemsanent High that lies in the
Pacific, some 500 to 1000 miles west of San Francisco, is related to rain-
fall in California, depending wpon the relative position and intensity of
that High. And the corresponding Low, which forms the third apex of the
triangle, over the Aleutian Islands in the 1ering Sea. When that High is
intense and is well to the south, California gets no rain. There is some-
thing that breaks that down. There is something that in some years makes
that very much more intense and much more easily broken down than ;i others
and that, I am sure, has something to do with the elimatio conditions in
Florida. I am inclined to think that if we could get a cooperative project
established looking toward this big problem of Inter..Amerion climate r.e
nations, as it tinfuences us here and also in our neighboring states to the
south of us, much good very likely could be derived from such studies and,
furthermore, I feel that we are on the verge of finding out what it is that
causes these variations of rainfall and temperature. I believe that it will
be determined, and in addition to that I feel that steps being taken in

European couantaes with Mieroe.ateroloy consisting of intense studied of
evaporation, soil and air to erature, air movemat, etc., right in the fields
of growing crops, holds mach promise for cooperative projects, as well as
that broad field Ulaow as Phenoloag, something we are jast beginning in a
smaUler way in lorida, and of which we ae already bUinnitng to e the Im.
portance, where the physiological processes of plant growth are being direct.
Z1 correlated with environmental conditions, Including temperature, moisture,
hnaadity and light relations. Ths, of corse, brings together the large
field of meteorology and the problems of plant production.

0RAMAW Mr. E sign has given ua poaits worth considering.

One thing appeals to the Ohainaan as eoaang out of this discussion and
that is that It Is self-evident that the first thing we need Is more know.
ledge, more information perhaps, to be derived froi studies and from research
and it might well be that so far as the agritultural aspects of the work of
this institute are concerned, we could outline a program for the tnmediate
future which would consist largely of studies to be made of the agriculture
and biology, in so far as It my be involved, of some of the Lattln-Aerioan
comutraies i which we are Interested. This group will not have another op.
portunity to meet this week, but I wderstand that the officials of the In-
stitute expect am to offer eso hing definite and concrete, as coming from
this grovp and representing our conalusions, as to what the Institute should
do in the field of agriculture. I would like to have an expression of opian
ion from somBeody as to whether we shall undertake to formulate a tentative
program of future agricultural activities for the Institute ad, if so, whe.
their a committee should be appointed to place in concrete, and perhaps some-
what condensed form the feeling which I think has been pretty well brought
out in this meeting. In ether words, the Chaiman will be glad to enter-
tain a motion looking to maing a definite program for the Institute and pro.
hiding the machinery with whieh to ma0ke it.

Is it the feeling of this body that a committee should be appointed to
formulate a program along the lines indicate~
~R. W. W. ATWOMD: Mr. Chairman I move that the Chair be asked to ap.
point a committee of three to draw up a resolution along these lines.

CBERMA s The OChaib m will appoint M that conittee Professor H.
Harold ERan, Mr. S. T. Flemiu and Doctor 0. V. Noble.
I want to express on behalf of the officials of the University and of
the Institute their hearty appreciation of the contributions which have been
made here this afternoon and to all of you who have shown acsh a keen in.
terest ti the discussion which has come before us.


*38 -

" 39 -

The Committee (see previous page) prepared and submitted the fol.
lowing report thich was transmitted to Doctor R. 5. Atwood, Acting
Director of the Institute of InterAmerican Affaln, Univerwsty of

Gainesville, Florida,
February 11, 1931.


Dr. Wilmon Nwell, Chairman.


Your oomiittee begs leave to report as follows:

Name of Proposed Project:

A Survey of the Research Work Completed or in Progress
in Agricultural Subjects in the Pan-American Countries.


A representative from the United States familiar with
each field of agricultural research, and local repre-
sentatives at each Pan-Amereian research institution.


The University of Florida, Geanesville, Florida.

To obtain a complete survey of the states of research in
agriculture in Pan-American oountries as a background for
sueh research studies as may be of mutual benefit to all
countries concerned.

Method of Proceduret

One or more men should visit each Pan-American research
institution and obtain, translate and tabulate (with the


cooperation of the parties in charge at those institutions)
sufficient data to give a picture of all agricultural re-
search work accomplished or in progress. Also obtain com-
plete references of completed studies and copies of saUh
studies wherever available. The probable sub-divisions. of
the subject matter would bet

Agronomy (Soils and general farm crope)
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science
Economics (Agricultural and Home)
Entomology and Plant Pathology
Rural Sociology

H. ,Harotd Hs

C. V. Noble

fM W .. .. cwU S