Citation
Some seventeenth century animadversions on Sir Thomas Browne's Religio medici.

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Title:
Some seventeenth century animadversions on Sir Thomas Browne's Religio medici.
Creator:
Wise, James N ( James Nial ), 1935-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v, 229 leaves. : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Charity ( jstor )
Death ( jstor )
Divinity ( jstor )
Faith ( jstor )
Ions ( jstor )
Morality ( jstor )
Paradoxes ( jstor )
Religion ( jstor )
Soul ( jstor )
Spiritual love ( jstor )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 220-228.
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
By James Wise.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000570794 ( ALEPH )
ACZ7776 ( NOTIS )
13745501 ( OCLC )

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SOME


SEVENTEENTH


CENTURY


ANIMADVERSIONS ON SIR THOMAS BROWNE'S


RELIGION A













By
JAMES NIAL


IEDICI


WISE


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY





















































Copyright
.TAmam NMn*1


by





























Hes ter












AC NOWLEDGMEN TS


The


his


author


dissertation


wishes


adviser,


express


his


Robert


gratitude


Bowers,


aieggs


testing


this


study


and


for


close


and


patient


reading


which


gave


Gratitude


also


ex tended


other


members


doctoral


commit tee:


Robert


Bryan,


Alton


Morris,


Robertson,


Franois


Haber.


Libraries


which


have


proved


very


helpful


author


include t


University


Florida,.


Louisville


Public


Library,


University


Louisville,


University


Kentucky,


Vanderbil t


University,


and


Western


Kentucky


State


College,














CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGENTS

Chapter

I.

II.

III.

IV.


9
84

149


215


BIBLIOGRAPHY


220












ChAPTE


Amidst

foreshadowing


the

the


preparations


beginning


and

the


reprisals
political


England


conflict


1640's


between


parliamentarians


the


royalists,


it, seeB

titled


probable


Religion


that


1Me~dici,


the


publication


defending


an anonymous


religion


book,


a physician


against


imputations


atheism,


might


have


been


ignored,


but


was


not.


Within


a few


days


after


appearance


well-known


figure,


Sir


Kenelm


Digby,


was


asked


Earl


Dorset


write


a rebuttal,


Out


this


request


Os'se


Observations


Religio


Mediet


(1643g).


Word


this


soon-


to-be- published


work


prompted


author


the


8.1i5gb,


Sir


Thobste


Browne,


recognize


his


own


book


and


prepare


author sed


edition


The


inherent


controversies


found


the


Juncture


these


works


did


not


down;


within


two


years


another


tireless


controversy iali st,


Alexander


Ross,


who


was


noted


attacks


on liberal


thinkers,


published


Medious


Medicatus


(1645),


essentially


a warning


impressionable


readers


allegedly


danger-


Otlis


doctrines


contained


principally


Religio,


also


Digby.


purpose


f this


study


examine the


por-


upon







sections


Religlo


which


Digby


and


Ross


criticize


adversely


their


animadversions.


Altho ugh


Religlo


Medici


may


not


have


been


primarily


intended

of being


Browne


pro pagand ia ti


a work


controversy


or doctrinaire,


there


the s

little


ense

ques-


tion


that


acter.


skeptical


Browne


Browne


a young


msin4


professes


sensed


his


own


physician


concerning


religion,


repeatedly


his


innately


fientist

faith,


work


controversial


with

and


char-


a reasonably

philosophy,


a sense


own


uniqueness


as a thinker


and


as a personality.


While


there


are


not


as many


personal


allusions


as a modern


reader


might


expect


a "private


exercise,


there


are


enough


clear


ref er-


@3)005S


spread


throughout


work


reader


per ce ve


this


young


man's


belief


own


Intellectual


worth


and


imaginative


addition


Browne's


belief


that


was


adds


with


many


thinkers


time,


there


a second


level


controversy


thought.


Some


con temporar-


would


have


argued


uJIwth


his


extreme


love


paradoxes,


while


other


contemporaries


would


have


found


controversial


conclusions


synthesizing


mind


formed,


synthese is


achieves


sets


Browne


apart


from


dogmatisat


who


criticize


him,


interplay


between


Christianity


and


his


natural


science


was


a source


wonderment


for


Browne.


Probably


fnsieb~ht.







Browne


could


tolerant


with


others.


Browne's


usual


pla-


oidity


disrupted


a contempt


for


false


zeal.


Neverthe-


less


his


intense


fidelsm


resembles


very


Irrationality


which


oharac teries


hated


zealot.


Browne


was


intensely


involved


spiritual


con-


trovers ies


time,


yet


seemingly


unabsorbed


political


crises.


Browne's


main


with


the


secular


world


wars


medicine,


a profession


deeply


influenced


moral


and


spiritual


quests


the


period,


Brsowne


accepts


an inher-


eat


dualism


between


the


material


and


s p ritual


which


saves


him


from


reducing


one


other.


Thus


a particular


provi-


dece~tc


may


believed


Since


the


spirit


still


primary


for


Browne,


no mechanic


c~Emphats


Ideas


Plato


and


Forms


Aristotle.


Above


all,


Browne's


Nature


still


permeated


the


Divine


Presence


and


innately


animate


and


moral.


while


Browne' a


mind


and


faith


upholds


First


Cause,


prominence


divine


providence,


and,


despite


some


quizzicalness,


the


sanctity


Biblical


authority,


also


moves


toward


a religious


tolerance


and


desire


order


and


unity


based


MIOn~


directly


on the


presence


a modern


rationalism.


For


example,


probably


Pope


as antichrist


had


been


reduced


BrowPne S.


tolerance


a semantical


question,


rather


than


personal


threat


which


Alexander


Ross


saw


Eventually


a skepticism


about


con temporary


~


w _







Browne' s


nineteenth


and.


twentieth


century


reputation


has


been


largely


due


his


famous


literary


style,


but


was


his


ideas


that


made


him


famous


or infamous


his


own


day


andl


for


several


generations.


Neither


Kenelm


Digby


nor


Alexander


Ross


are


greatly


concerned


with


Browne's


language,


except


for


slight,


usually


disparaging,


references


Digby,


Ross,


and


other


controversialists


the


late


seventeenth


and


unorthodoxies


early


that


eighteenth


provoke


interest


centuries


and.


Browne's


attack.


light


the


religio-scientific


controversies


s event eenth


century,


Browne


fundamentally


a con-


servative.


This


makes


all


the


more


interesting


the


attacks


upon


him,


particularly


the


ext ended


ones


Digby


and


Ross.


Browne


remains


substantially


within


mainstream


Anglican


modernist m;


only


when


gives


rein


his


fide ism


does


move


outside


the


via


media.


doing


intense


love


impossibilities


and


irrationalities


make


him


a vestigal


figure


outside


the


sweep


modern


scientific


rationalism.


With


thel


growth


natural


religion


the


last


half


the


seventeenth


century


with


its


emphasis


on the


reasonableness


Christianity


and


its


corresponding


de-emphasis


on the


mysteries


the


faith,


Browne' a


semi-mysticism


and


Platonic


Idealism


are


left


behind.


Nevertheless


Religion.


?1edicl.


a significant


document







8ome


purs ue


Browne' 8


his


thinking.


conjec tures


Browne


point


himself


where


will


they


not


usually


aonftliet


with


or undermine


Chistian


orthodoxy,


but


pregnant


poesibilities


are


raised.


The


relevance


ReIglt 9o


?4e41io1


the


re~l Oigion


science


controversy


cen tury


under cored


fact


that


Brwne


con oerns


himself


with


central


issue:


the


relative


authority


divinity


and


philosophy,


and


maintaining


a substantial


dualism


throughout


book


Browne


endorses


the


Des8artes,


tendency


Browne


easily


modern

bridge


science


the


since


gap


Baon


thr-ough


his


heightened


imagination


a God-centered


uni verse


and


exist-


onXCeQ,


but


his


uriefla.,


dichotomy


will


widen,


The


arguments


Browne


Digby


fall


within


that


body


debate


and


argument


carried


throughout


the


cen-


tury


virtuoso t,


a heterogeneous


group


scientists,


clergymen,


and


scholars


interested


in natural


philosophy.


Richard


. Westrall


examined


writings


these


men


from
Sir


the

Isaac


days


Newton,


Gresham
1 The


College


three


the


disputants.


terminal

examined


figure,


our


study


concern


themselves


with


most


same


spiritual


and


material


problems


raised


virtual.


harmony


science


religion,


order


inherent


human


exist tence,


role


divine


providence


and


natural


law,


the


interplay


and







muhO~n


and


faith


are


questions


considered


Browne,


Digby,


and


Ross.


Browne's a


perspecti ve


largely


limited


Religlo


that


a private


conversation


aimed


mostly


self-illumination,


implicit


within


self-concern


are


far-reaching,


soen


though


and,


fact,


Browne's


revolutionary


work


somewhat


speculations.

insulated


against


notoriety,


rebuttal s


attracts,


although


fewer


number,


are


slailar


those


aimed


far


more


prominent


figures


like


Thomrasa


Hobbes


and


later


John


Milton.


seven-


teenth


century


was


time


severe


counterattack.


seml-scholastical


fashion


Digby


and


Rose


will


rebut


section


section,


page


page,


Browne's


Religiao.


astute


in tel leo tual


would


expected


follow


all


aides


debate,


perhaps


with


assorted


volumes


before


him.


Sir


Kenoimlr


Digby


will


complain


about


inadequacy


Browne' s


metaphysical


views


on God,


Trinity,


nature


eternity.


Browne's a


Platonic


attitude


concerning


immortality


distasteful


soul


Digby.


and


The


subsequent


author


salvation


Observations


will


will


analyze


some


length


Browne' s


failure


differentiate


clearly


between


charity


virtue


and


will


conclude


that


Browne


not


under stand


the


nature


grace.


Browne's


opinions


supernatural


and


spiritual


will


judged


shallow


and


invalid.


breadth


Digby' S


rebuttals,


whish~


aT tman a


tram


and


etetrni. tv


thurnw ii h


a annatal ration


sVan


trcrR







Ditbyt


himself


nearly


as paradoxical


a thinker


as Browne.


was


fseaErin


his


way


toward


knew


not


what,


Bin


essential


mechanisms


wasit


softened


his


equally


essential


Christianism.


Mitch


interplay


between


these


forces


hiBs


think-


ing


carried


on with


Browne' S


views


lent~il


only


ars 5p'flg


boards


conjecture


and


personal


investigation


on Dgby' s


part,


hemsg


a much


more


prominent


figure,


Di sb7l


will


patroniase


Browne


dismiss


him


with


facet ious


rejoinders,


but


running


grapples


with


throughout


fragments


major


the


por tion


mos t


his


important


book


Digby


qus~etions


his


mind


can


conbeivec.


Alexander


Ross


will


angered


Browne's


latitudi-


narianism.


Along


with


Digby,


Ross


finds


Browne's


thinking


on the


soul,


nature


and


immortality,


defective,


Not


only


will


Browne's


metaphysical


thought


Judg4Ed


false


Ross,


but


will


find


Browne'a


views


on heaven


earth


unacceptable,


tons


Ross


Platonic


will


attack


idealism


Browne'a


as being


metaphorical


irrational


and


explana-


impious.


Ross,


one


Charles


chaplains


and


later


Vicar


Cari sbrooke,


Isle


Wight,


held


Scripture


a central


proof


all


truths,


so he


disputes


many


Brownee s


specula-


tions


about


the


Bible.


Ross


will


take


Browne' a


free


think-


ing


about


Scriptural


meanings


as being


almost


a personal


affront


his


sanctified


approach


all


Biblical


questions.


Ross


will


particularly


a uarrel


with


Browne


w -e


-- w


relation-







on man's


social


relationships--mainly


the


role


charity--


will


suspect


Rosa's


eyes,


There


will


no general


area


discussion


the


Religio


that


Ross


does


not


question.


WI thin


framework


these


disputed


points


cross


emotion


Bsevent eenth- cent ury


religious


and


solentiflo


controversy


will


appear.


Not


even


recurren t


facetious-


31688


Di by


and


Ross


on some


the


questions


and,


answers


presented


~akes


such


an inquiry


this


inconsequential.


For


ju;st


such


a mixture


seriousness


and


humor


show


reah-


tive


I~mpoaa~~jnce


isse sU$


considered,.


Out


arosse


currents


thinking


Browne,


Digby,


and


Rose a


flow


some


vital


quarrels


and


partisanahips


early


*6ys~nt@@yith


century


~i 1and.












CHAPTER


while


Sir


Thomas


B~rone,


intimated


that


Rel gto


Meatol


was


not


a controversialist


piece,


private


and


controversy


Iiav*r


from


the


first


surrounded


work,


addition


the


most


important


sevententh- century


works


the


Religto


Sir


Kenelm


Digby


and


Alexander


Ross,


other


arguments,


old


new,


relate


broad


lines


discussion.


The


author's a


implicit


view


himself


an inherently


controversial


person


and


his


beliefs


on tol-


erancee


and


charity,


God,


soul


and


power


supernatural


the


make


controversial


broad


nature


divisions


Religio


our


Medci.e,


discussion


general


framework


Browne' s


faith


will


composed


subtle


shifts


tone


from


tolerance


skept eaism


simultaneous


declarations


that


both


reason


and


intuition


are


valid


guides


solence


and


religion.


complexity


Browne' s


latitudinarianism


enhanced


Browne's


short


explanation


which


added


1643


author ed


edition


the


Rs ig io.


preface,


which


could


well


termed


an "Apology


Reader,


opens


with


an echo


a moving


pas sage


from


Seneca's


tragedy,


After


Atresu


slaughters


Thyess tes'


three


Rla~~ep


I"~i~Bet;ss,







crime.


Their


conclusive


plea,


"Greedy


indeed


for


life


who


would


not


when


the


world


perishing


his


company,


adapted


Browne


hyperbolico


juxtaposition


with


1111


description


a time


when


someone


as insignificant


as he


laconio


can


harmed


complaints


printers.


that


a song


Despite


or epigrama


Samuel


might


Johnson's a


printed


without


knowledge


the


author,


an entire


book,


that


Browne


issued


so-called


pirated


edition


as a


feeler


judge


public


reaction


without


revealing


his


author-


ship


case


book


failed,


Browned'


melancholic


remarks


have


been


largely


validated


recent


editors,


who


have


studied


numerous


errors


and


revialons


between


1642


3 editions


the


Religion,


Sympathetic


readers


overlook


apology


they


read


on into


body


work.


Yet


charm


Browne's


self"


effa


cement


his


admis s


mutability


his


thoughts


would


cause


even


unsympathetic


readers


have


confidence


so candid


an author.


hear


an author


disown


his


work


even


askse


introduces


would


surprise,


yet


intrigue


most


readers.


Besides,


what


more


inviting


than


a "private


exercise,


not


Mille


Annaeus Se
r, 2 vole.


~geoa ,


Seneca's


Tragedies,


trans.


SB.


Frank
3.


Sir


Browne,
(London,


Sir Thomas
T^f5ff l


Browne' S
-x zxi.


Works, ed
Hereafter


Simon
referred


a m 14rt


1Lucius


Justus


Wilkin,


Thomas


4 volS.


(Cambridge,


f~y),


TI ~







read


according


"rigid


test


reason.


Although


Browne's


description


private


manner


of his


work


suggests


conversational-philosophical


genre


Montaisne's


essays,


evasive


apology


differs


greatly


Browne's


plea


contrasts


with


writings


contemporary


controversialists.


While


Browne


prefaces


hi s


work


with


excuses


avoid


oon trover ste s,


actual


text


Religion .


suggests


that


Browne


recognized


himself


age


thirty


as an innately


con-


trovers al


figure.


Any


attempt


Browne


underBtate


preface


quarrel


which


could


arise


from


his


book


overshadowed


first


section


Religlo,


for


Browne


lists


the


factor a


which


make


him


and


his


ideas


argu-


tentative.


Browne


opens


with


allusions


wary


attitude


which


world


takes


toward


scandalous


profession


physician,


a reputation


which,


Coleridge


observes,


oases


out


honor


medical


profession.


Suspected


atheism


combined


with


a solentific


education


continent


a personal


objectivity


toward


religious


1950


Wdilliam
), PP. 5


P. Dunn,
2-53.


Sir
aWemm


Thomas


Browne,


2nd


(Minneapolis,


50ole


Florence


rid go on the Seve
BI nklI Inklv I r


mteenth


Century,


1955).


.:


ed6.
456.


Roberta


.u


Paul


-.


nine


~st, C,.







quarrels


contribute


a self-portrait


a man


contro-


very.


Even


though


Reli


a perso


work,


does


not


contain


frequent


references


the


a utr'


personal


life.


Nevertheless


a clearly


di stinguishable


self-centeredness


and


self-awareness


may


seen,


Browne's


contemplate ions


his


death


allow


himt


ponder


characteristically


indifi-


ference


itself.


earthly


relishes


memorials


ex tend in8g


even


indifference


imaginatively


such


ritt


comon-


places


as exclamations


on the


transience


life.


The


greatest


number


personal


allusions


occur


par t


Itio


the


Relig o


which


examines


charity,


virtue


defined


bsing


close


self-love.


Browne


contemplates


his


tory,


life,


but


that


"miracle


a peece


thirty


try,


years,


. 9 to


. .not


common


ears


an His-


like


Fable.


continues


that


phys


icCl


world


place,


not


live,


but


di,


Perhaps


clarify


already


traditional


point,


Browne


adds


1643


edition


(pp.


a one


hundred


fifty-five


word


passage


which


develops


more


fully


view


that his


reality


micro-


cosm.,


~r~o'wne


studies


not


exterior,


interior


nature,


and


finds


himself


something


more


than


great.


This

the


meant


microcosm


facetiously,


as only


although


agreeable


Leslie


literary


Stephen


Ingredient


treats

* .


That


whi ms i cal


inversion


the


natural


order


[which)







' Reli gio


Medici.


But


nore


allusiveness


rarely


intention


the


Relig o; .


instead


Browne


time


after


timeB


turns


traditional


metaphors


personal


applicati ons.


naturee


tells


eel I


Iasoae


God


as well


Scriptures"; to


not


know


this


not


know


"first


lesson"


Alpha-


bet


man.


Browne


continues


1642


tnxt:


"Leat,


me not


iwnuJre


felicity


others,


am as happy


as any.


Then


have


a sentence


that


omitted


that


from


convert


1643


edition,


poverty


into


Bra wri


riches,


says


trans.


Torna


adversity


into


prosperity


am more


invulnerable


than


Achilles;


Fortune


hath


not


one


place


hit


auda-


ciousness


this


statement


'nayg


have


mot ivated


Browne's


remov-


from


authorized


edition.


Unkind


oritiecs


have


borne


Brownet S


inclination.


Stephen


dismisses


statement


as presumptuous


or figurative:


a humouris t


core,


and


here


writing


dramatically.


Paul


Elmer


More


s peaking


darkly


finds


passage


"the


very


tongue


utter-


Lao,


a confirmed


disillusion;


yet


mu'


temperament,


out


this


brave


appropriation


vanity,


and


out


this


alone,


that


reflection


rises


into


own


station


content.


Perhaps


this


vain


con tent,


Browne


would


not


have


deemed


that;


instead


has


attained


that


level


6Hours


in a


LibraryI,


vols.


(Ldodon,


1909),


, 270.


a -*


J







happiness a


meditation


very


like


intellectual


happl-


fleas


contempt


active


philo


sopher.


Browne


faithfully


would


hold

stu


s that


03'9


could


nothing


else.


remember

Browne's


his

dream


dreams

s are


part


religious


exercises--communications


with


God--and


part


contempla


tion


astrology 1al


influenoesa


litihe


oton Junom-


tiona


Scorpio


and


Saturn


seem inl1y


weighs


as heavily


rOWnea


as any
3rowne'


hereditary


attitude


influence


with


that


* Mar


such


garet


Bottrall


COn-


autobiographical


writers

and her


as Montaigne


'ed i tary


influences


Cardanor

rather


who

than


emphasize edu

astrological


national


ones.


Melancholy


pervades


Browne


sleep.


holds


that


even


more


than


dreams


the


faculties


soul


freed


last


hours


a man~'


life


that


soul


"begins


reason


like


her


eelfe,


discourse


a strain


above


mortality.


Sleep


death,


but


wak inE


that


kills


Sleep


middle


point


between


life


and


death


so Browne


confesses


that


always


says


a farewell


prayer


before


bed


since


content


sleep


unto


resurrection"


(pp.


99).


Despite


the


melancholy


preface


sections


on sleep


and


death,


prevailing


mood


scm-


her


or grim.


Instead


the


book


the


sedate


proclamation







a man


concerned


about


science


religion.


the


outset


Browne


disregards


those


who


deny


the


name


Christian


physician


or scientist.,


announces


his


Christianity


cause


hase


through


grace


and


reason,


an easy


accept-


dance,


seen


the


need


so align


himself.


Not


only


his


Christianity


differentiated


fro.r


that


naive


ga there


convictions


his


"riper


years,


but


tolerance


non-Christians


sets


him


self-consciously


apart


from


zealous


uncharitable.


Browne


does


not


pronounce


explicitly


that


the


charge


atheis t


or materialist


or skeptic


could


brought


against


him,


but


his


self-awareness


implies


an oblique


acknowledgment


such


charges.


While


others


might


detect


an incongruity


between


science


and


religion,


Browne


correlates


them


an expression


tolerance.


While


there


lintl.


that


controversial


about


Browne's


Anglicanism,


his


tolerance


Roman


Catholicism


and


pagan


faiths


would


have


him


off


from


conservative


and


sectarian.


Also


specifically


allies


himself


with


that


Protestantism


which


believes


closest


that


"primitive


Integrity "


church


time


Christ.


Fittingly


dislikes


the


protesting


spirit


the


name,


but


nonetheless


Roman


himself


Cathollcism--i


protests a
ts attacks


against


against


"decaied"


Luther


are


state

com-


parable


abuses


the


JeWs


against t


Christ.


Never the-


less


not


intolerant


Re 30Th


Catholic


ceremonies.







promote


similar


devotion.


Disassoclating


himself


again


from


zealots,


Catholic


or Protestant,


who


emphasize


spiritual


differences,


ceremony,


Browne


admits


although


a genuine


troubled


that


stimulation


much


from


that


Catholic


ceremony


aims


only


impressing


credulous


laity.


With


magnanimity


Browne


factions


hopes


some


within


ground


circle


reconciliation


Christianity.


divided


Since


Browne' s


sentiment


based


on recent


experiences


which


induced


him


accept


companionable


devotion,


surely


his


con olusiona


cannot


dismissed


as intellectual


detachment.


Nevertheless,


his


tolerance


has


been


called


lien


idiosyncratic


sentiment,


not


belief


, a


statement


an eminently


unsocial


figure,


while


a biographer


has


traced


motivation


for


Browne's


tol-


erance


a natural


reaction


against


anti-Catholicism


his


stepfather,


Thomas


Dut ton.


Yet


even


Browne


were


speaking


only


with


bias,


has


been


careful


quality


that


says.


His


continuous


reminders


that


these


Roman


Catholic


ceremonies


resemble


superstitions


the


masses


and


his


assumption


a superiority


which


"rectified


errours


their


prayers


rightly


ordering


mine


owne"


make


Browne


from


radical


his


tolerance,


and,


most


important,


qualifications


show


that


fully


understands


implications


and


dangers


what


saying.


-






seriousness


Browne'


tolerance


enhanced


ti turfl


ness


with


which


explains


what


means,


fact


these


early


sections


Religlo,


while


not


detached,


are


self-conscious


explanations


how


Browne


stands


both


within


and


without


Sircumference


Christianity.


remove


doubts


about


his


loyalty


Browne


declares


clearly


his


Anglicanism.


Questions


the


laity's


responsibility


religious


authority


are


uppermost t


here.


elaborating


his


circle


imaSery,


Browne


enompaa se s


Lt1ea


diversity


religious


loyalties.


Out


perfection


circle


Browne


directs


the


mingling


his


intellect


arid


his


emotions


such


a way


avoid


an arbitrary


narx-


rownes a


whii ch


serves


only


sectarian


Purposes .


Instead


achieves


that


moderation


which


Aris totle


wrote:


"For


everything


no easy


task


find


middle,


find


middle


circle


not


every


one


but


for


him


who


knows,


For


external


authority,


religious


councils,


and


articles


the


Anglican


church,


Browne


substitutes


"the


rules


private


reason,


or the


humor


and


fashion


votion"


magt tenf~


pertaniing


his


sal vat ion


Browne


repeatedly


aligns


with


orthodoxy,


Surely


these


affirmations


are


not


intended


primarily


placate


his


readers,


or to


All


12Ethina


references


Nicomachea,


Artlto t


trans.
le will


WD.
be


ROss, I
from the


1109a23-26.


Ros s


edition.


61r ~5 s






relieve


tional


his


conscience,


framework


out


for


his


which


orthodoxy


feels


free


provides


a ra-


oriticise


and


evaluate


spiritual


questions.


Browne


squelches


anyg


inclina-


tion


interpret


Alnglic anismt


as sectarianism


con-


tempt


for


those


who


limit


Church


England


a beginning


time


Henry


VSII,


Browne


believes


that


his


faith


an tdata esa


toward


such


Pope,


recent


Browne


events.


once


Even


again


with


claims


a certain


tolerance


superiority,


for


knows


that


Pope


would


not


return


goodl


language.


Nevertheless


Browne


hates


vulgar


railing


the


pulpit


which


oiate


breaks


with


through


intoleran t


serenity.


and


does


timid


wish


when


asso-1


rebukes


their


ati l- Ca tholic ai sm,~


A fear


and


hatred


Catholio


dogma


and


the


discipline


Rome


would


have


made


such


sophistication


and


detachment


toward


hierarchical


claims


unacceptable


most


Englishmen.


Browne


would


have


agreed


with


the


declaration


Benjamin


Whichcote


that


"nothing


spoils


human


Nature


more,


than


false


Zeal


0 9 0


because


amay


Mistaken,


I must


not


dogmatical


and


con! lid cn t,


peremptory


imperious.


will


not


break


Certain


Laws


Charity,


for


a doubtful


Doctrine


or of


uncertain


Truth.


14More ,


2'


15Hers hel


, P.


157.


Baker,


165.


The Ware of
m< gfc -


frutli


(Cambridge,


Mass.,







Just


religion
about re


prompts


liglon,


such a

Browne


hesitancy


offers


declare

a fine


about

his

piece


absolute

avoidance


truth


Baconlan


arSuments
advice


about


successful


argument:


argue


with


those


above


you


you


want


informed,


with


those


below


you


you


want


confirmed.


suggesting


Browne


that


warns


again


nature


against


truth


rashly


error


13*7~


zealous


best


understood


a humble


peaceful


man.


declares


that


would


reoog isze


truth


wi tho ut


reason


as his


guide,


so he


pronounces


himself


the


servant


his


reason ,


a decialon


mired


Johnson:


"There


perhaps,


no better


method


encountering


these


troublesome


irruptions


skepticism,


with


which


inquisitive


minds


are


frequently


harassed,


Browne's


admission


his


own


paradoxicalness


has


been


justly


described


as "distinctly


provocative.


Brownesos


ambivalence


toward


Bible


would


have


dismayed


some


his


literalist


readers,


but


another


key


ingredient


his


latitudinarism.


praises


Bible


expense


Koran


a panegyri t


which


do matical


praises


tion,


with


would


have


relished,


a rationalism


pronounces


b


which


Soriptur


tut he

might
* "but


also

have

the


prefaces

caused c


his


onsterna-


conclusions


fallible


discourses


man


upon


the


word


God,


then


commends


Bible


as a supreme


literary


work,


eternal


!






impLaishable.


significance


Bible's


meaning


prompts


Browne


complain


profusion


printed


matter


which


engulfa


world.


Still


thinking


persuasiveness


holy


text,


Browne


ponders


obs tinacy


Jews


and


Turks.


Browne


frankly


"amIE~iEase


Jewish


interpre-


stations


Scripture


and


their


rejection


Testament,


but


denounces


any


persecution


against


them


and


indirect


way


plant


Religion"


36).


Browne


solidly


ide n titiesa


persecution


with


fanaticism


opinions,


which


fins


lead

view


workedd


a close


Heresies,


weaving


and


extravagant


admiration


and


rejection;


not


free


from


prejudices


time,


but


refusal


persecute


"s stands


well


ahead


his


time,


Even


Browne '


refutation


elsewhere


vulgar


error,


"That


Jews


stink,


may


described


early


speel-


men


sympathetic


racism.


Browne'


concrete


tho ugh


mild


tolerance


leads


one


endorse


Jordan's


enthusiasm tic


view


that


refreshing


indeed


reflect


that


England


could


produce


thought


this


quality


during


height


LaudiPan


repression.


191bd.,


20Edgar
Calif., 196


0


Rosenberg,
), p. 318.


From


Shyloock


svengal


Stanford,


21The Development


of


861iAoQs


Toleration


England


Ilm


- -----


II


.~ ..~







Nevertheless


juxtapostlion


Dunn


anti-


correct


persecution


p~rotivsint


with


that


a disavowal


martyrdom


substantiates


a certain


temerity


behind


both,


Above


all


else


Browne' s


continuous


hatred


ofcdogmatism


and


seal


moderates


his


respQect


for


the


Christian


martyrs.


For


one


thing,


Browne


notes


empirically


that


martyrdom


been


abused

their


leaders


many o

cannot


laimantas;


always


nominations by

accepted, he


zealous

decides.


sects of

Finally


Browne


confesses


that


although


there


are


few


who


fear


death


less


than


point


on which


consistent),


does


believe


that


has


a moral


duty


stay


alive,


Wisdom


does


not


induce


one


self-murder,


declares


37).


Nor


surprisingly


Browne's


tolerance


extends


"those

Browne


honest


Worthies


prono un eas


and


bluntly


Philosophers"


orthodox


paganism.


hypothe is,


Although


"There


no salvation


those


who


believe


not


Chrisat


69),


such


an unbending


view


draws


Browne's


sympathy


the


great


figures


paganism


who


lived


unaware


"the


history


Adam,


traditional


synthesis


running


from


Philer


homerr


held


that


and


Plato


?4agi


complements


Persia


and


Moses,


Egypt


Socrates


parallel


"oonfirms" Christ,


prophets


Israecl.


Such


assumptions


dissolve


differences


between


Christian


doctrine


and


pagan


theology,


that


each


could


understood


an allegorical


sense


compr~r~lomntaryy


both,


Browne


must


Brownes BS


r


Irr


-






admit


final


authority


that


stern


position


that


"all


salvation


through


Christ";


but


permits


a heightened


dignity


priority


""ena


that


liv,


according


right


rule


reason,


" although


"perfeotest


actions


earth"


mus t


transformed


belief


Christ


before


they


have


moral


"claim


unto


Heaven"


(pp.


69-70),


Robert


Sencourt


can


condemn


Browne


as being


"almost


unnecessarily


orthodox


. almost


literal


his


estimation


Chri


at's8


unique


part


human


reaching


souls,.


out


Sencourt


meet


objects


s us tain


that


poor


suggestion


effort


modern-


ism


was


ever


entertained"


Browne


this


regard


was


naive


views.


other


hand,


Dunn


praises


Browne


some


pages.


length


for


Al tho ugh


"liberalism


Browne


not


appears


so outspoken


best"


some,


these


Dunn


mits,


does


speak


strongly


aga Ins t


sec tarian


intolerance.


Dunn


compliments


Browne'sa


"measured


crushing


controversial


speaks


role


growingg


ethical


enllght-


enment


basis


Renaissance.


Browne' a


Nevertheless s


liberalism


Dunn


a prejudice


judges


against


masses,


while


Browne's


sympathies


allow


him


compro-


miase


strictness


faith


Christ,


detects


failings


beliefs


others.


While


goodness


wise


and


virtuous


sustained,


Browne


finds


that


Aristotle,


a Lyls "







the

not


Stoics,

practice


and

the


the Skeptics

high ideals


are example

which they


those


preach,


who


Paro


did

the


safety


historical


rather


than


contemporary


incidents


hypocrisy


Browne


turns


virtue


and


floe


uanz


his


day.


Men


know


good


.1,11


because


they


have


a "depraved


appe-


tite"


whiah


Summarily


contradictory


are


monsters,


that


dictates


their


a composition


reason,


man


and


beast.


From


this


commonplace


Browns


concludes


somewhat


controversially


that


although


way


salvation


attnm-


cult


and


narrow,


"those


who


doe


confine


Church


God,


either


particular


Nations,


Churches,


or Families,


have


made


farre


72).


narrower


Browne


than


added


our


1643


Saviour


a short


ever


meant


section


(pp.


which


establishes


firmly


what


restrict


thinks.


Church


denounces


Europe.


Both


vulgar


Asia


those


Africa


who


have


would


been


reached


apostles


and


martyrs,


they


oanot


excluded.


Browne


does


not


deny


concept


Elect,


but


satir-


2.505


ferocity


with


which


each


denomination


or seat


denies


salvation


next.


Each


would


exclude


all


others


from


God' s


meroy


and


grace,


only


avenues


which


salvation


attained .


concludes


that


there


must


several


Saint


Peters


as well


several


heavenly


gates,


judging


way


each


sect


turns


the


key


against


the


other.


goe


heaven


against


each


others


will


* .. and


with


as much


uneharity


ignorance.


Browne' s


outspoken


addition


may


well


motivated,






as Mrs.


Joan


Bennett


argues,


fruit ta


sectarianism


evidenced


Civil


War.


Browne


warns


that


some


who


believe


themselves


saved


are


not,


because


Iman'


jdgme ~na t


not


reliable.


Even


devils


did


not


"their


know


labours


which


were


saved


an end.


or damned;


Browne


they


amazed


number


who


are


certain


that


they


will


saved.


thinks


that


there


will


a hierarchy


saints


which


will


"bring


the


Rere


Heaven.


Nevertheless


"oonfid ent


and


i ally


peresaded"


his


own


salvation,


although


will


"dare


not


take


an oath"


on it.


believes


as firmly


that


there


a Constantinople,


but


might


perjure


himself


swore


an oath


on it.


Not


just


a need


for


empirical


verification


stops


Browne,


but


a sense


unworthiness


pro-


motes


his


doubts,


A realization


that


his


salvation


depends


on "feare an

humbles him.


trembling"

Then a flu


and


rry


"mercy


wit


and


beneplacit


paradox


based


God8"


on the


Johannine.


Browne


view


measure


time

his


"Before


existence


Abraham


back


was,

the "


allows


Ideas


God.


"Eve


74).


miscarried


while


Zeigler


mee


before


discovers


conoeiv' d


a near


Cain"


"triviality"


(pp.


exploita-


tion


meaning


Browne's


wit


regarding


eternity,


Merton


judges


this


passage


striking


oexeampli,


how


26a 4 a


I am laf lnlAsa


iano~i


haapp;y


FFe rnrr a a


f~urrrcrmrr







Browne' a


science


functions


medtu


through


whiah


his


imagination


can


assimilate


conven tonal


concepts.


Browne


depreciates


those


who


maintain


that


faith


alone


serves


as a ground


salvation.


While


believes


this


true,


finds


Scriptural


evidence


that


the


will


GOd,


sats


directly


influence


fortunes


men.


Above


all


else,


Browne


does


believe


that


man


can


'"boasts L


his


faith,


becaase


may


remove


from


nothing.


Thus


man


Carl


have


complete


confidence


strength


faith


save


him--


works


must


also


carried


out.


Browne' s


tolerance


arises


partly


from


his


universal


tastes.,


can'


charitable


because


"averse


from


nothing.


But


then


registers


a rather


important


contradio-


tion


all


this;


admits


that


hates


multitude,


which


includes


not


just


"the


base


minor


sort


people;


there


a rabble


even


amongst


Gentry.


Considering


nearly


non-political


nature


Rsf lgi o,


surprising


hear


Browne


say,


"let


speaker


like


Politil plans,


there


a Nobil-


ity without


Heraldry,


a natural


dignity


whereby


one


man8f


ranked


with


another.


The


present


time


corrupted,


argues,
Browne's


"byas"


views


which


as compatible


ignores


with


truth.


"amoderate


Dunn


regards


Anglican


position"


tiine,


an


A.







Browne


continues


that


charity


provides


man


with


a virtue


higher


than


his


OWnL


nature.


But


the


motivation


for


charity


must


"the


Will


and


Command


God.


give


alms


satisfied


hunger


Brother"


a lesser


act,


sure,


moral


and


rational,


but


not


divine.


Browne


digresses


may


on whether


seen


express


"the


faces


nature?


Browne


signatures


men.


seems


and


Will


makes


form


inclined


mercy"


a man


accept


the


veracity


facial


markings


attributes


their


significance


as usual


"the


finger


God,


Variety


does


not


disturb


Browne


diversity


and


accord.


are


always


mlindB.


There


are


many


methods


charity.


particular


importance


his


own


practice


are


forgiveness a


others'


ignorance,


more


directly,


study


oneself,


but


for


good


others.


Although


concerned


with


his


own


improve-


moent ,


Browne


depressed


think


that


what


knows


must


d ie


with


him


not


passed


his


friends.


Once


again


condemns


needless


controversies


8nd


removes


himself


from


discussions


philosophy


divinity


which


are


discreett


peaceable.


Passion


throws


muon s01


off


scent


argument,


believes;


besides


"the


Foundations


ligiora


are


already


established,


and


principles


1 ovation


sub-


scribed


unto


all,


there


not


much


worth


passion


an argument,


finds


quarrel


scholars


comparable


argument


over


the


and


Luolan,


pointless


v


v







Speaking


from


within


shelter


raita


learnin,


Browne


condemns


several


offenses


against


charity.


Illogical


and


cruel


epithets


against t


people


other


nations


"wound"


the


persons


and


"assassine


the


honour


a Nation";


those


who


endeavour


destroy


vice


also


destroy


virtue,


believe


each


that


"yet


a surplus


lit,


vice


one


enhances


another.


goodness


Browne


and


the


persistence


a minority


virtue,


man


can


Justly


censur

knows


or condemn


another,


another,


Birowner


because


perceives


indeed


no man


that


truly
a cloud"


his


friends,


while


God,


who


only


knows


him,


no thing,


Just


as we do


not


know


others.,


we do


not


know


our-


selves


Since


we primarily


measure


othersB


ours


elves,


Browne


cone lude


that


"all


but


that


we all


condemns,


selfs-


love,


Igler


calls


this


"the


statement


a disillusioned


ericf,


since


Browne


that,


statement


clashess


with


whole


mood


hellg o


fMelo i .


fiii eglE r


concluded


that


such


an incongruity


arises


only


because


Browns


gains


"pleasure


aphorism.


n30


But


surely


Browne


view


not


so extreme


or so


transient


that.


Relilgio


Medici


examination


self


wisdom


the


Delphic


"know


thyself.


Zieglaer


complain


several


times


that


Browne


writes


much


himself;


but


why


then


surprised


when


Browne


declares


adversely


that


self- love


the


center







man' a


consciousness?


Since


man


unfortunately


own


Atropo s,


Browne


asks


how


can


we be


charitable


other


when


we are


so uncharitable


ourselves


Browne


holds


that


there


are


enigmas


love:


our


desire


for


love


so infinite


that


we are


never


satl


fied


our


self


-love


so strong


that


we love


become


ourselves


86).


Yet


spiritual


love


that


for6


phys i-


cal


appearance


not


only


friendship


but


charity.


Since


"greatest


happiness"


to d


eulro


salvation


for


others,


Browne


admits


that


cannot


pray


himself


"without


catalogue


friends,


so he


prays


for


his


neighbors


his


patients,


his


enemies.


Only


devil


could


pray


harmfully


against t


a person,


professes.


Browne


admits


that


earlier


life.


believed


that


merely


neither


harm


nor


harmed


contained


"en~so ufS


morality,


more


settled


yeares


and


Christian


consti-


tution


have


fallen


upon


severe


resolutions.


Human


actions


cannot


explained


terms


injury


because


man


masse


Antipathies";


contains


all


things,


all


viewpoints


all


8esenc3es


Beyond


self


-love


self-charity.


Charity


others


self-charity


because


part


self' s


fight


against


own


sins.


Man


must


fight


his


sins


because


shares


all


the


sins


laowit


Inane


Y~et


man


can


forgiven


as easily


as he


can


sin.


Browne


feels


nothing


but


n ind iga-ia


tion,


anger,


contempt


and


hatred"


when


contempla tes







Browne


concludes


that


an act


charity


denounce


our


sins,


Such


an abhorrenee


maintains


harmony


d 's-


cords


which


compos es


both


and


world.


Just


as it


self-oharity


divorce


ourselves


from


our


general


sins,


compatible


that


we should


denouno e


vanity


and


thank


God


that


we have


escaped


sin


pride.


Grammarians,


linguists,


travelers


(especially


sailors),


and


seekers


after


knowledge


are


particularly


given


vanity,


Browne


believes;


even


though~


has


shared,


perhaps


.even 6
allowed


exceeded


this


their e

become


experiences,


a cause


does


pride.


not think

Instead h


knowledge


has


confirmed


him


down


a modest


ignor-


ance,


and


rest


contented


with


natural


blessing


our


owne


resasons8


until


death


provides


that


knowledge


for


which


we might


otherwise


foolishly


exhaust


ourselves


pursuing.


Thus


Browne


disowns


any


ultimate


attainmen t


knowledge


this


H'sn


world


with


solution


confltiting


"modest


ignorance"


philosophies


provides


and


him


disciplines.


practical


expedient


whereby


one


can


retain


his


intellectual


integrity


same


time


guard


against


interference


heretic-


batters.


Fluctuations


old


and


new


knowledge,


unoer-


tainty


systems


and


general


intellectual


flux


only


oouraged


Browne


maintain


his


Christian


faith


view


all


else


with


a skeptical


070.B


But


only


after


death


will


ultimate


knowledge


revealed


niprsun









Writing


out


an awareness


own


uniqueness s


a personality


combined


with


a realization


that


spoke


other


sacintist-Chris tians


Browne


has


declared


that


his


rationalism


and


his


fidelsmm


arei


conflict


that


both


a good


Anglican


and


Alan


involved


with


private


coB-


templations.


not


surprising


that


a man


Browne's


humanity


and


charity


would


entertain


heterodoxies.


the


reader


hardly


prepared


marvelous


confession


youthful


heresies,


which


l~rwne


carefully


distinguishes


antiquarian


errors,


not


recent


ones


(pp.


13).


Although


Gosse


considers


these


admiss ions


dangerous


the


chaos


1640'8,


language,


the


timing


the


paradoxical


interlude


on the


eternality


heresy


with


which


the


revoltl u-


tion


time"


reappears


"like


river


Arethusa,


hardly


reflects


oulated


pattern


controversial


reflection


human


revelation,


on the


events,


seeming


attractiveness


whether


rather


him


Platonic


Cal-,


oy lical


year,


Biblical


"there


nothing


new


under


sun,


"Metempsuoho-


Sal,


transaligrat ion


souls.,


point


not


esoteric


allusion,


but


simply


Browne' s


love


of historical


parallels


and


ancient


prepares


allows


dictums.


himself


for


imagination


aligning


himself


speculative


with


daring,


contemplate


Anglicanism,


this


"the


poetic


Browne


basis he

I side of







creeds


heresies


which


differ


reveal


much


from


his


about


own.


the


Nevertheless


nature


hisi


Browne' s


latttudinariam,


Browne's


admit ted


first


"heresy,


mortality


soul


until


"the


last


Day"


when


both


soul


and


body


W ere


resurrected,


a "oonoeit"


held


all,


believes,


seeing


Saviour


last"


gives


Browne


patience


nothing


that


almost


vengeance


unto

God


eternity,


eternal,


His second

"but after


heresy,

a defl-


nite


t ctre


his


wrath


hee


would


released


damned


soules


from


torture,


gsres


out


authority


Origen,


held


that


punishments


which


the


soul


endure


are


medicinal


educational.


Further,


Origen


contends


that


unlimited


punishment


do0es


not


await


soul


because


God's


love


man'


free


will


combine


the


finality


God's


universal


rule,


Drwne


maintains


that


third


heresy,


prayer


for


dead,


did


never


positively


* practise,


Coleridge


cries


out


against


those


who


find


Origen


error,


"Merciful


G-od:


hiow


creatures


blast pheme


th eel


while


acknowledges


that


prayer


for


dead,


although


neither


sanctioned


nor


prohibited


dagl ca~n


Chr ch,


act


natural


338tephen,


34George Williamson,
(Chicago, 1961), pp. 148,
which Browne's mortalismi


century.


Seventeenth


175
had


Century


discusses


on subsequent


Contexts
Stmiulat ion


debate


264.


ait,,


>






piety


sublimed


Christian


Hope,


which


recommends


itself


Browne'


behalf.


Browne


excuses


hiB


propens i ty


for


these


three


errors


on the


basis


that


just


as he


could


not


avoid


"charitable


inducements"


pray


for


others,


so too


can


find


malice"


his


avoidance


despair


contemplating


magnitude


a divine


meroy


which


could


forgive


all,


Browne's


language


markedly


unsentimental,


even


Jetresy


Taylor'


quallfic


action


an objection


prayer


for


dead


s imply


that


the


worst


S


a wrong


error


upon


right


his


side


errors


allowed


JIrowe


them


avows


die


that


thus


never


avoiding


fezy'


sa m


tempting


others.


despite


Browne's


dia-


claimers


aaws


heresies


Thomas


ward


Gangraena


( 1646 )


because


these


professed


here


jog.


i3roWne 'aI


own


judgment


themT


fairer


more


sens


i ble;


these


are


intricate


beliefs,


"but


bare


Errors,


single


Lapses


Yet


importance


heresy


lingered


Browne's


mind,


that


for


just


added


there


a short


are


section


1643


heresies


which


"men


held


singular


parts


and


humor U


will


always


have


unusual


original


ideas


which

are "


need


many


things


heretical.

untouched,


Browne cl

unlmagln'd"


.arifles

over w


that


which


there

reason


ni t,.


Li a -


tr~ck


paga


charity.


always


36nn _


h c;t;







"may


play


and


expatiate


with


security.


Goesee


finds


rouwne's


conviction


that


heresy


cannot t


eliminated


"alarming


enoughh


seventeenth


century"*;38


Browne


emphasizing


endless


reaches


religious


speculation


making


impor-


tant


point


that


schism


rule


rather


exception.


Thus


4 circQleTM


the


church


never


closed;


fact,


Browne


said


an underdeveloped


way


that


truth


itself


disunfiedF~


fragmented,


all


times


partially


heretical


and


sometimes


unknowable.


Brorns


does


that


divinity


also


"double-faced";


but


hints


that


ino-ludesri


unrealized


truths.


the


religious


absolutists


his


day


or this


day,


such


a position


would


ana them.


From


tion


this


near-heresy


broad


revolve


hypothesis


cyclically


that


religious


through


great


specula-


thiraer3


all


ages,


Browne


extends


breadth


his


rational


skepti-


oism


and


imaginative


wondering


an "0&


altitude"


(Romans


33).


This


surprising


paradox


Browne' s


latitudinariaa


and


his


fideism


character iesm


the


attraction


which


Religion


had


for


next


generation.


ar' ments


which


altitude"


provoked


seem


prove


was


understood


more


than


jus t


rhetorical.


Browne's


affinity


Tm'-


tullian


concept,


"Certuaa


est,


quia


impossible


eat"


might


also


Eh~







have


been


d ism i a based


patently


rhetorical,


but


was


not


Tertullian,


nor


Browne.


sermon,


Carna


Chri sti,


" Tertullian


denounces


those


who


cannot t


accept


Chi st' a


resurrection


because


contrary


natural


law.


But


his


mind


this


very


abnormality


makes


resurrection


credible


because


"philosophy


does


not


take


into


account


omnipotence


God.


tradition


Only


prophets


and


apostles,


church,


adequately


based


understands


this.


Browne


later


invokes


all-embracing


pow er


God


Bae th.@


force


which


supersedes


man's


knowledge


prompts


his


spiritual


thought,


That


emotional


phrasing


explicit


an "0


altitude"


has


become


a commonplace


describing


Browne's


thought

Browne's


does


not


detract


preference


from


for


complete


theology


over


seriousness


philosophy.


gravity


this


choice


appears


when


Browne


says


that


will


"answer


objections


Satan,


a personage


who


Browne's


normal


not


a figure


speech,


epitome


deceit


and


evil


itself.


Browne


being


" irrespons ible"


or intellectually


removed41


when


takes


this


stand.


indeed


"stating


extreme


position,


this


a careless


position


as has


been


intimated:


classify


every


Scriptural


statement


'divinity'


and


rebut


critical


questioning


as temptations


Satan


was


a a a


faith


stated


Jan


uer~a~ge







indeed


a short


flry


with


biblical


problems.


However


Browne


not


committing


throughout


himself


Religio


a faith


shows


how


easy


alive


acceptance,


perplexing


questions


faith


and


reason,


fact


Browne


relishes


difficulties


having


total


faith.


professes


his


happiness


that


did


not


wit-


neS1


first


hand


miracles


Christ


disolples.


Such


a compulsive


faith


was


both


naive


and


contemptuous


many


dogmatists,


but


Browne


pushes


his


test


faith


even


fur-


their


when


disolaims


faith


those


like


~haself


have


lived


after


Christ


less


noble


than


faith


those


who


preceded


Christ.


Even


Browne


indulging


a self-


conscious


twist


faney


which


appeals


his


bizarre


sense


relative


truth,


taking


an intellectual


anti-


intelleo tual


stance,


you


will),


stance


which


epitomizes


his


deepest


impiety


thought


his


Yet


extremist


this


readers,


The


carrler a


stigma


flexibility


Browne's


fideism


seemed


extremely


dangerous,


rigidly


dogmatic


minds


time.


extremities


altitude"


lead


mystical


preoccupations


Browne's


imagina tion.


limitations


reason


involve


a conflict


with


faith;


and


Browne' s


recogni-


tion


this


conflict


one


distinctions.


attempted


bridge


gap


between


reason


and


faith


time


when








Vt.


onaoluasively


broadening.


Browne


seeks


a unity


between


faith


and


reason


not


being


absolute


his


demarcation


natural


and


supernatural


knowledge


as were


someQ


his


contemporaries.


Browne's


mysticisan


not


a typically


indulgent


attempt


escape


the


limits


reason,


for


not


incoherent


his


mingling


the


mystical


and


the


ra-


tional.


Peter


Green


suggests


that


Browne'


"natural


temper


.44387y


best


described


as religio-scientific


romanticism"


and


speaks


"the


creative


unity


which


imposes


on appar-


ently


irreconcilable


modes


thought.


However,


this


unity


no means


an absolute


either


artistically


or person-


ally,


with


for


his


as Green


religious


continues,


conscience


"the


was


squaring


not


his


achieved


medical


an easy


piece


casuistry.


Nevertheless


his


"re-integration


already


rapidly


diverging


intellectual


and


spiritual


elements


as aWasll


awareness


a vain


finally


endeavour.


destroyed,


lived


split


see


apart


his


the


unity


wedge


scientific to


inquiry


unmodified


by moral


considerations.


4Victor
181.

'3Elbert


Century


Harris,


Literature


All


Coherence


Gone


Thompson, "Mysticism
,3?, XVIII (1921),


(Chicago,


1949),


in Seventeenth-
200.


45Peter


Green,


Supplements


Work.


No.


108


Sir Th


(London


rats


Book


Browne,


Views


. 1959). oD.


Bibl biographical


on Writers


153-14. Nu


and


imerous


Series


Their
examina-







Certainly


we cannot


ignoreoc


that


Browne


was


unquestionably


'non


science,


but


intrinsically


Drowne's


spiritual


'jesg


are


so God-centered


that


natural


thought


becomes


too;


consequently


there


no dichotomy


his


analysis


quest ions


faith


and


reason,


particularly


aince


does


leave


dogma


the


theologians


as he


claims.


Nevertheless


extremes


his


imaginative


vision


serve


blur


clear


progressions


any


coherent


argument.


For


how


coaniltment


However


mysterious


there


a degree


produce


a system


consciousness


about


thought ?
Browne's


mystical


leanings


that


establishes


a measured


mode


thought


his


altittdo*


controlled


a knowledge


what


allowing


his


rational


mind


always


knows


from


whence


speaks;


his


voice


speaks


out


an intellectual


awareness,


once


rhetorical


poetical,


skeptical


and


devotional.


Browne


has


been


called


"utterly


naive


andl


innocent


theology,


exposed


all


the


winds


that


blow


from


Greek,


Christian,


Jeawishrt


and


Hermetic


quarters,


but


surely


Br~owng


Was


aware


this


exposure


because


was


self-invoked.


knowingly


opened


his


mind


not


only


impossibilities,


metaphysical,


pyrrhoni st t


rather


skepticism


than


leads


sio entific,


him


definitions.


recogni ea


His


Soc~raticP


dictum


that


man


knows


essentially


nothing;


surely


this







no naive


point


view.


His


conscious


subservience


reason


faith,


and


definition


metaphor,


signifies


once


again


an intellectual


commitment,


A recent


oritio


has


complained


that


Browne '


preference


for


"Buoka r "


instead


edge


all


fire


belief"


epitomizes


precisely


"what,


the


century


wanted,


while


Browne' a


liking


for


buckler


"was


at the


least


. irritating.


true


that


Browne' as


outlook


conflicts


with


that


those


who


wished


avoid


paradox


their


search


for


"sharp


outlines"


religious


dogmatism.


contentment


and


pleasure


which


Browne


rives


from


mysteries


Hermes


and


Plato


resented


a recent


critic


who


complains:


the


better


Scholastic


philosophy


had


intended


merely


pleaseI"49


Evena


Browne' e


marginal


gloss


Hermes


not


authentic to,


his


Latin


descriptions


not


explicitly


Platonio,


his


Ari stotelian


definitions


unexplained,


Browne* a


bias


distinct:


prefers


define


soul


man


angel


man


and


body


G~od


rather


than


as an entelechy


or actual


being.


metaphor


that


light


shadow


49Zi
65-66, f
"free."
incorpor
men" int
"serious:


egler, op. cit.
ainds Browne'r
Lacking the co
rates "the total
o "beautiful an
ness," Zeigler


, p.
fatal
n tro
sin
id br
hold


32. He1
ogue of
l of a c
cere the
llllant
s.


further,
poetic ex
committed
ought and
cadensaas"


on
peri
arti
feel
wihi


pages 63,
ences too
st, Browne
ing of great
ch lack


50Catalogu


Translationum et


Commentariorum: Mediaeval








GodB


"humours"


him


more


than


the


definition


that


light


the


"actus


perspieui"


(visible


movement).


body


or the


shadow


the


deity


5@053II


Berestic.


"The


Cup


Monad"


Hermes


describes


the


body


God


With
Maker


Reason
make


shouldst
the Auth
His will
This
or see,
no other


nor
God
and


(Logos),


the


not


universal


think of Him as
or of all things,
all beings hath
Body of Him is a


or measure, a
frame. 'Tie


Breath; yet
He willed to
set its Eart


with


hands,


World; so
everywher
and One
created.
thing no


Body
neith


all of them
consecrate
h in order


did


the


Won 4w


that thnou thus
* and ever-being,
and Only, who by


man


canll


touch,


inextensible, like
er Fire nor Water,
come from it. No
this to Himstlf a
and adorn it. 1


to
Air
w being
lone,


The


remainder


Hermes'


speech


describes


the


commonplace


mysticism


the


permeation


the


universe


the


Hind


which


stands


superior


the


physical


body.


The


imagery


the


cup


fe~alieur


fromI


Timaeus


and


probably


a traditional


Orphic


and


Pythagorean


symbol.


This


unseen


Body


God


the


universe


analogous


the


Platonic


World-Soul,


whi ch


also


appears


Browne.


floino


emp loys


both


the


shadow


~and


the


circle


God.


Although


the


divine


vision


tra-


ditionally


one


light,


within


the


interplay


light


and


dark,


there


would


shadow.


God.


Philo' a


vision has


shadow


51G.R.s. Head,
1949), II, 85.


Thrice-Greatest


Hermes,


vols.


(London,


4,







But
using,


And
of
His
sO,


this


all


else,


God's


Shadow


were


Shadow


else.


Image,


as he


law-giving,
to the mlaage
according to


For


which h
turn]
showed


he sa
of C
God,


to this Lkeness,
Original,!5


Reason


an instrument,


as
that


were


as God


[M oses]


that
when


rid8


aod'
and


Image
. at


'And
--this
man b


which


now
is
the


God


(Logos),
made th


Archetypal


the
calls
the m


Original
[His]
model of


beginning


made


Likeness


e in~


received


m


image
the


which
co smos.
Model
l of
Shadow,
all
the


an according
being imaged
d according


power


Philo 's


writings


were


Browne's


library


and


that


"peculiar


delight"


which


the


former


felt


"when


a passage


the


Pentate ch]

absurd"55 1


literal


comparable


acceptance


Browne's


contradictory


continuous


desire


for


more


how


paradoxes


teacheth


theology,


haggard


When


anld


Browne


unreclaimed


tells


reader


reason


stooped


unto


lure


faith,


didactic,


for


teaches


the


reader


how


read


understand


what


saying.


Marjorie


NMicolson


h~uas


broadened


Browne' s


advice


a guide


a general


understanding


"V


seventeenth- century


Engl ish


literature


which


the


conflict


reason


faith


plays


a part.

of the


Browne's


llteralness


intention


Scripture,


not

for


an absolute


raising


acceptance

paradoxes


ironies*--a


tree


Eden


when


rain


had


not


yet


fallen,


suspicion


that


serpent


"1niade


his


motion


on his


belly


54Mead,


2PE


oit.


236,


quoting


if'.,


AlleO.,


fIII,


55Edwvn


Beran.


"Hellenis tit


Judaism.


a


he Legacy


of







before

is not


the


urse"57?--he


displaced


the


suggests a

concluding


line


emphasis


skepticism

on the iSr


whi ch


rational,


for


his


rational


perceptions


are


kept


alert.


coUrse,


Browne


would


ultimately


hold


that


such


puzzles


are


not


Os.,"-


tial1


one's


salvation


and


therefore


open


speculation.


Thuas


Browne '


mysticism


and


Scriptural


questioning


are


much


more


artistic


than


dogmatic,


since


imparts


his


reader


a personal


excitement


for


myriad


ideas


and


expressions


which


fascinate


him.


But


as he


rambles,


Browne


remains


"wise


doubter,


and,


as MrsP.


Bennett


emphasizes,


"Like


Kea ts s


'Nan


achievement,


especially


literature'


* 0 .


'willing


uncertainties


Vi tlWaut


irritably


seeking


fact


and


reason.


, 59


self-consciousnese


with


which


Browne


pursues


the


ramifications


his


mind


imagination


carried


through


when


sets


an Horatian


mood


and


location


(Satires,


'iv,


133f. )


for


his


contemplations


and


his


readers'


relaxed


reactions


them:


solitary


and


retired


imagination


(Neque

nihi)"


enia

(p.


c
15).


portions


such


aut


me leotulus


meditation


Browne


acipit,


destu


remembers


that


not


alone


and


embarks


upon


a discussion


(pp.


15-28)


57Arnold


1948),


p. I


16


Williams, The Common
, suggests"CtEat Brow


Expo a ster


new's
a at


belief


(Chapel


is


Hill,


an endorse-


a


after


..







God's


wisdom,


eternity,


providence.


While


a contempla-


tion


God's


wisdom


excites


Browne,


confounded


God's


eternity,


While


time


antedates


mran


only


five


days


and


relates


this


existence,


eternal


time


calls


forth


altitude.


God's


definition,


am that


Iam~s~


was


intended


"confound


mortalities,


that


durst


question


God";


but


Browne


not


disillusioned


this


inability


human


mind.


Not


even


"that


terrible


terse


Predestination,


which


Browne


interjects


him.


after


Browns a


one


mild


his


tolerance


elliptical


Calvin


thereforee,

's doctrine


frightens


conflicts


with


his


youthful


heresy


that


God's


meroy


releases


damned.


Even


Browne


not


surprised


that


"the


weak


wisest"


are


troubled


Calvin's


belief


that


God


no respecter


persons.


A reconciliation


mercy


Justice


central


Calvin's a


rebuttal


opponents.


Cal-


v it


holds


that


since


through


Original


Sin


all


men


are


guilty


and


desB eriec


punishment,


evidences


His


mercy


through


His


free


grace


giving


some


what


they


never


deserve,


while


manifests


His


justice


thus


not


giving


all,


declares


d eeri t


all.


those


who


question


arbitrariness


his


system,


Calvin


answers


that


we may


take


confidence


incomprehensibility:


"let


content


with


some


degree


isnorance


where


wisdom


God


soars


into


own


sublimity"


(II,


236).


Browne


does


not


any







means


promote


Calvin' a


doctrines;


his


interest


motivated


public


con ern


with


harshness


the


dogma


more


directly


the


fascinating


oonjeotures


vwhih


per-


aetnare


when


this


view


God's


election


combined


with


speculation


eternity,


which


Bronera


those continuous
into a thousand
moment; what to
is present, his
permanent point,
or division (p.


instants
years, a
us Is to
whole dur
without
16).61


of
eke
0ome
atlo
suoc


time whL
not tob h
, to his
n being
esalion,


oh flow
im one
Eternitie
buat one
parts, flux,


these


spiritual


develops


contemplations
consciousness


"in


Browne


apparently


nearly
true s


opposite


attains


ystie,


but


"the
a stat


really


full
e whioh


complementary


directions"


On the one hand he is inten
knows himself to be at one
of BecominS, that immanent
own life takes its rise. H
in o life a saoramental
a wonder, a heightened sign
from other men.
On the other hand, .
of apprehending the Absolut
terly Transoendent; or as i
can experience 'passive unit
round dual power of knowing
poral and eternal, is
ultimo sigtillo of the great


sely aware
with that
Life, fro
enoe ,
meaning;
ifltoance,


Ii
p


e of, and
aotive World
m which his
, he perceives
a loveliness,
which is hidden


. it developed
e, Pure Being
ts possessor
on with God.'
by communilon
the peotiar
mystio,


the
the
wouldd
ThIb
the
mark


power
ut-
say,
all-
.ea
the


contemplate


mysteries


God


and


eternity


also


for


Browne


contemplate


mysteries


numbers.


The


"diffloulty"


Trinity


denying


a relative


eqr







way


Father


. a priority"


leads


his


mind


ponder


niot


myste tory


di fferentiation,


fancifully


manipulate


the


image


triad.


wondersPe


Aris-


totle's


eternal


world


Oaelo,


284a1-2)


or two


eternities,


latter


taken


perhaps


Browne


from


the


either


Caelo,


270b21-


or from


distinction


drawn


between


eternal


movements


heaven


and


Eternal


Mover


( etaphys ica


1073a


Browne'


34-35).
part soul


identification


symbolized


a triangle


with A

e does


ristotle


not


the


correspond


three-
exactly


with


Aristotle' a


presentation


1' iv.


faculties


soul


Anila,


414a29-31 ) ;


nevertheless


tripartite


soul


may


found


Plato,


who


speaks


soul


being


composed


reason,


passion,


and


desire


or appetite


(The
(___


Republic,


440b-441a).


Al so


Timaeus,


5Tha,


structure


and


generation


structions.


living
Plato's


things


said


dependence


follow


triangular


triangular


con-


explanations


prompted


either


Aristotle


or one


his


followers


com-


plain


How


show
equal


absurd


that
to


would


the three
two right


as a principle


ought
matter
angles
angleas
soul.


not


to 1
of


that


angles
angles,
the so


appropriate,


appropriate


fact,


as well
(Magna


one


triangle


canr


without
Moralia,


are


and


when


of'
one


u


l is
the


and c
prove


equal


one


wished


triangle


were


are


assume


Immortal!
first print


connected.
that the


the immortality
I183bi-6)


For
1ciple


three


right


the


Nevertheless,


Aristotle


Anima,


414b28-


, does


speak







an importunate


fascination


with


numbers,


would


not


have


ended


hiEr


entrancement


with


unexplainable


tranaltions


from


the


divine


trinity


geometrical


triangle


spiritual


trinity.


The


*56O


with


which


Browne


reconciles


unity


tripartite


soul


and


identifies


with


Trinity


suggests


high


degree


correspondence


perceives


them.


For


Browne


complexity


each


con-


oept


has


seemingly


been


absolved


numerical


threE


speak


numbers


meant


speaking


Pythagoras,


so Browne


admits


a not


surprising


admiration


for


this


thinker' s


bers.


" ysticall


Browne


way"


supports


and


his


'"the


earlier


secret
warning


Magioke


against t


nu~-
giving


much


weight


philosophy


allowing


that


"there


things


which


carry


front,


though


not


capital


letters,


yet


s tenography,


and


short


Characters,


something


Divinitie"


17),


before,


Browne


overlooks


Aristotle's


complaint


Caelo,


30015-19,


that


the


natural


world


composed


"weight


and


lightness"


whereas


the


Pythagorean


unit


not;


nevertheless


strength


Pythagorean


principles


combination


with


the


Platonic


triad


and


the


Christian


trinity


was


widespread.


Browne's


vision


mingling


number


and


substance


falls


short


that


CoBPernIcBUs


and


Kepler,


still


combines


knowledge


divinity


with


pursuit


ciphers


and


asins


nature.


mystical


correlation


the


tripartite


universe


with







indeed


nay


mark


the


association.


Perhaps


Browne


was


more


eanfsily


fascinated


the


similarities


which


triangular


symbols


evoked


than


should


have


bean;


but


probably


was


responsive


the


imaginative


fre~doma


breadth


nitions,


soope


for


which


example,


may
"the


deduced


precise


from


definition


mathematical


defi-


an ellipse


introduces


all


ellipses


world.


Browne's


attraction


magical


number a


Pythagoras


fitting


when


one


remembers


that


one


Browne' a


purposes


Religio


Investigate


relationship


between


faith


reason,


a classic


blend


mythic


figure,


a philosophy


Pythagoras,


originated


Browne


found


religion,


but


revived


as solenaoe


er far P
religion
became


the nature
matician's
symbolical
symbolleal
seldom ,
thought:


the
they
and
tifi
to f
sist
was
of a
linm


othe
do
thor
c mo
ore.
ent
neve


of
. b


ythagoreanism


may


have


in the direction of pu
a dispassionate solenti
number, such as the mo
ut was always on


signlfioa
meanings
. parts o
they are n


nhe. t
Pythag,


f any
ot as


r, but are indepen
happen to agree, i
e is an increasing
tive progressively
* them somehow to a
and unified whole.
r fulfilled without


blind
ed and


eye.
bad,


(
1


for ii
number


broken


re s
fie
dern
the


away


clenoe,
study o
mathe-
lookout


. But the numero
oreanism discovers
coherent system of :
a rule deduced the
dent discoveries. .
t is of course a go
aspiration, as the
outweighs the reli
gree and to make up
But suoh an aspir
t the continual tur
instance, evenness i
r 4 ought not to sy


us


f


a
ati


it

for
t
itonal
From
* When
ier-
nd;

us,
oen-
on


ning
sun-
mbolisze


Bamborough, The


Little


World


of Man


(London,


Howev
from
never


6~JB.


----


n







Justice. But 4
and to be foursq
Pythagorean does**
modern scientist
patible proposal
other,' He refu
the same way as
render either Om


also


first


e is to be
t say at th
uld say: '
si I must
to surnand


a modern
aipotenee


fat
is
Her
er


l'


theologia
or Benev


square number,
and just. The
oint, as the
are two inoes-
up one or the
either, in much
n refuosp to suar-
elence,a5


Jkrown


such


a moral


Sn'


scientific


dual isa


wold


not


have


been


objectionable;


the


divinity


numbers


overrides


their


quantitative


mannlag


for


Browne.


abstracting


power


numbers


helps


Bran.


endorse


all-embracing


generality


the


microcosm


as an explanation


man'sa


relationship


the


heavenly.


contemplation


such mysteries


prompts


Browne


Sndul ge


a touch


the


intellectual'a


superior-


when


weighs


"content


and


happiness"


gained


from


study


as "the


advantage


I have


the


vulgar"


17).


But


again


either


rehearses


Grod


or sman,


difficulty


and


even


admits


attaining
"embrace"


knowUdgo


advice


Devil


Del aos


order


gain


wisdom


about


latter.


Seemingly


Browne


never


tires


reiterating


his


inferiority


before


God,


for


after


.jus t if;irxg


his


devout


searching


after


mysteries,


adds


1643


edition


rather


bad


poem


which merely.


repeats


these


ideas,.


Ultimately


either


form,


prose


or verse,


Browne '5


declarations


are


not


startling;


fact,


the


redundancies


are. so


evident


that







one


wonders


author's


compunction


all


this


with


a pious


summary


his


good


intentions


a wish


future


salvation.


Even


Coleridge's


complaint


that


Browne


has


ml sunders stood


true


mystery


Trinity,


ite.,


that


not


tlu'*e


one


as Browne


has


one


three,


does


not


enliven


discussion.


Nevertheless


this


tng


intermixture


understand


God's


and


man' a


serve


will,


former,


the


does


latter


evoke


striv-


Browne a


characteristic


expression


a dual


love


and


commitment.


a man


3rown* ae"E


inclination,


a contempla-


tion


glory


God


a contemplation


absolute-


'loss8


causation,


His


explanation


"one


first


cause,


four


second


causes"


consistently


Aristotelian


(Phystca,


198a23-


21),


only


combined


with


a hierarchy


headed


a providential


God


who


exists


without


causal


motion,


fol-


lowed


angels


who


are


immaterial


and


finally


a first


matter


which


causes,


without


Browne


form,


loves


Since

ponder


God i

this


incorporates


divine


all


action


second


nature.


complains


that


Aristotle


did


not


devote


enough


attention


First


Cause,


a disappointment not


shared


a recent


admirer


Browne


who


objects


that


Aristotle


spent


much


insistence


on teleological


explanations.


Although


attempt


has


been


made


divert


Browne' a


interest








~inal


Cause


away


froma


his


scientific


thought,


55,55820


imperative


that


the


workings


a Craftsman-God


such


Browne


envisions


apply


as auch


the


basis


his


medical


thought


his


mystical.


Browne' s


pleasure


Galaen's


sentioning


the


deity


only


reinforces


how


closely


his


views


on the


natural


world


are


tied


his


understanding


divine


causation.


The


existence


the


divine


force


nature


substantiated


for


Browne


the,


for


him,


natural


law


that


"Natura


nfihil


agit


frustrated


herein


can


ec'L1


the


support


Aristotle


(Do
aif.


CGael


273F1e23a34. )


and


Galen.


When


Broune


prefers


the


study


the


"little


Citizens,


" he


not


only


has


the


aforesaid


authorities


behind


him


but


also


the


Book


Proverbs


Only


the


hindsight


a modern


c commentator


could


perceive


what


a strange


mixture


th*e


new


and


the


old


Browne's


general


thinking


pieces


for


wonder,


when


" the


turns


study


away


the


fro


tides,


"those


magnetism,


astronomy,


and


cosmograph ,


ignoring


"the


reTal


astronomical


mathematics"


which


"the


really


great


achieve-


ments


were


being


ace


omplished


that


very moment.


.70


When


Browne'


anatomical


eye


measures


the


tiny


beings


while


his


imagination


measures


the


universe,


the


precise


ml.. icr a -


ntt. .


flatlr a.


a a


illrs .







regard


quantity


necessary


for


numbers


are


imleas aur-


able


not


exact


their


meanings.


Two


most


renowned


passages


Religlo


are


not


only


unoriginal,


analogues


are


ever


lengthen-


ing.


Nevertheless


Browne 's


phrasing


jus t~iicably


famed


when


writes


"two


books


from


whence


collect


Divinity,


Bible


and


Nature,


latter


epitomized


nature


Art


God"


(pp.


23).


While


none


this


dangerous,


some


modern


commentators


have


complimented


Browne


Dunn


per-


aetnas


remarks


an "appreciation


Greek


religion


and


rebuke


Christians";71


Bottrall


regards


celebra-


tion


nature


as an "implied


criticism"


scholasticism72


and


Wfl3ll~y


commends


BrowneL a


"courage"


admiring


pagan


knowledge


nature,.


causative


powers


Browne's


God


are


far-


reaching;


nature


"the


hand


and


instrument"


God


who


First


Mover


extends


absolute


control


over


all


subsequent


sequences


hand


cause


created


and


effect.


revealed


Browane


God's 8


a "gen-


erall


beauty,


which


denies


deformity,


a view


which


parallels


closely


Aristotle' a


reconciliation


monstrosity


with


neces-


sity


Generation


Animaliua,


Tt767b13- 16).


Browne


closes


his


discussion


with


a famous


conjunction


art


and


nature:


a


unI verse


universality







"all


things


are


artificlall,


for


nature


Art


God"


this


epitome


Dunn


writes


that


Browne


revolts


morally


and


esthetically,


not


solentifically,


against


dualism


his


tine.


omnip-encercP


God's


Browne' s


mind


closely


allied


with


workings


divine


providence,


distinguishes


between


avenues


for


this


providence


"ordinary


and


open


way,


which


relates


the


processes


natural


world,


and


Fortune,


a "way


full


Meanders


and


Labyrinths,


which


Browne


describes


"that


serpentine


and


crooked


line"


by which


God


acts


without


our


knowledge


23).


Apparen tly


Browne


does


not


mind


dualism


maintaniing


systems


occurrences


history.


divine


chance


Nothing


providence


both


left


for


exalts


types


entirely


life


chance;


over


and


even


the


recent


"Se


oesse


that


pety


province


Holland"


comes


from


God's


mercy


and


direct


will.,


But


bro wne


not


overly


troubled


intricate


mysteries


providence,;


fact,


only


qualification


whioh


allows


the


ebb


and


flow


life


by which he


rationalizes


that


"all


cannot


happy


once"


25).


Thus


Browne


has


again


introduced


a cyclical


movement


cit.


101.


75ee
ment' in


Rosali
XVIIth


Colie,


Century


"Sir Th1
olland,


L~Omas


Browne' s


" Neophilologu


SEntertaine-
5 XXXVI


--.


7~os.








history


rexplaini


fluctuation


good


and


bad


for-


tune.


his


image


the


"Helix"


and


the


"Meridian "


Browne


recaptures


an ancient


doctrine


still


acceptable


his


con-


temporaries.


Causes


not


"operate


a loose


and


strangling


war


for


everything


ordered


God,


and


our


ignorance


there


nothing


"ridiculous"


praying


before


games


chance.


Qoleridge


will


agreed


with


Browne,


but


a quizzical


way


But a g
no less abs
weighing tw
that a sigh
result of t
lived to b
where lies
Yly against
injunction


refai


profanation,


urdity.
o pigs Le
t weight
he Dice b
e a settle
the Diffe
all peti
involves


Would


Sir


methinks s


Brown


ad, a and b, pray
the Beavier? Yet
e at the time equa
ed & predetermined
rence? Vould not
tionary prayer?--S
the answer:--Pray


and a
before
to God
if the
lly be-
Effect
this ap
t. Paul
always.


Perhaps


wiaesapt;


answer


for


Browne's


time


would


have


been


that


Gerolamo


COardano


flOwJ


if anyone
me, al thou
himself, I
have been
had this f
have said)


I return


should s
gh appar
will no
some art
oreknowl
I leave


th


ay that
ently he
t dispute
by which
edge. 0


the


dec


*e question at issue;
my Genius was advising
had never yet revealed
e it; yet, there must
h the Genius himself
n this point, (as I
ai ta ^y n*hasn-78


!- we


w ---w w a


7'Williamson,
Thomas Forde in I
cription in treat


224~sl


cit., pp. 36-37, points
f Irtunae (1649) borrows
tre stability theme.


out that
Browne s


d~ges-


cit ..


Sf-


456.


But


.


71il








Browne


espouses


humility


before


powers


chance;


disdains


those


want


influence


chance


for


material


rewards


rather


than


intellectual


ones.


Wisdom


arises


from


a realization


superiority


latter


rewards.


Meditating


on the


influences


fortune


directs


Browne'I


mind


the


controversial


question


judicial


astrology.


While


admi tt ing


that


there


are


numerous


arguments


against


Browne


nevertheless


professes


that


an acceptance


astrology


"doth


not


injure


Divinity"


26);


but


over


all


else


man


must


recognize


that


God,


not


zodiac,


deserves


our


st;ti tude


for


good


fortune,


Seeming


tion


a poetical


for

one,


once


Browne


prefer

declares


a rational

2 "There


explana-


a nearer


way


heaven


than


Homers


chalne;


an easie


Logiok


may


on0-


joynpe


heaven


and


earth


one


argument,


and


with


lease


than


a Sorites


resolve


things


unto


God" (p.


26).


then


replaces


Homer ic


symbol


with


another


one,


great


chain


being.


Browne' a


de-emphasis


Homeric


chain


does


not

ment


(p.
the


lessen


sigif;JicPianon


chain


22)
sun,


being.


geometrical


probably


back


n the Renaissance

Browne's earlier


importance


part


Plato's


as a prefigure-

references


revolutions


idPentidf ios tion


chain


awn


Theatetus,


153e-d,


an ironic


blend


the


physical


and


the


metaphysical


which


was


-a


_ Ja a


a -


..


..


d d







the


mixed


images,


Browne' a


essential


point


remains


that


God


true


and


infallible


caus e of


all


things.


emphasize


for


hisa


mind


impor-


tance


this


divine


causation


Bro~wne


embarks


next


on a


discussion


dangers


atheism


which


much


concern


with


second


causes.


These


atheists


have


listened


closely


reason


and


passion,


while


ignoring


third


member
Plato's


the


"desire


triumvirate


faith


or appetite").


(here


This


substituted


triad


mus t


for

kept


proper
realm,


order
Such


a temperate


harmony


assignment


difficult


each


religion


proper


where


there


are


perplex ing


questions


which


can


only


relieved


upon


one's


knees.


the


1642


edition


Browne


ended


his


tho ughts


this


point,


but


authorized


edition


doubled


length


this


section


relating


his


debates


with


devil,


admits


that


a perusal


Archidoxes


Paracel


Bus


a reading


"the


secret


Sympa~sthie s


things"


helps


Satan


dissuadee


*, belief"


about


such


Biblical


incidents


brazen


serpent,


drenching


the


altar


Kings


xvii:38,


destruction


Sodomaa


Gomorrah,


and


falling


mranaa


the


desert,


Browne


notes


that


las t


even


Josephus


tells


manna


his


lifetime.


But


Browne


has


also


heard


contemporary


reports


which


soil


probability


a miracle,


Browne


concludes


that







battle


wita


between


him


and


devil


not


unavaflr9n ,


tair


thinks


that


his


"on~113i t


endeavours"


have


not


harmed


"the


edifice


reason"


28).


Browne' s


citation


the


Arehidoxes


doctrine


sympathies


as rational


and


natural


explanations


for


miraculous


was


hardly


cone


troversi al,


although


Browne's


acceptance


both


not


his


credit


seientiflially.


Browne


compatibility


with


Paracel usu


appropriate


since


latter


also


emphasizes


a teleological


explanation


nature.


His


purpose


~~xaerh x


reveral


"the


treasure


chief


good,


i.e, ,


Eternal


God


as revealed


Nature,


that


we may


understand


a material


way,.


main


intention


teach


laws


medicine


and


begins


reaffirming


importance


microcosm


because


curing


cot-


poreal


body


physician


allows


spiritual


body


per-


foot


actions


therein,


like


civet


a pure


uncon-


taminat ed


casket.


Wlie


remainder


work


treats


separation


four


elements


nature


quin-


tea ~ sseno


teaeb


Paracelsus


writes


quintessence


that


will


ex traction


rann's


hands


tir-


a power


which


can


only


hinted


so we must


never


target


that


"foundation"


this


knowledge


bringsgs


with


a faith


fixed


on the


Creator,


and


a hope


His


love


towards


an excellent


father


for


his


children.







While


who


coneentrate


Browne


on second


r~cro gn i zre


causes


that atheists,
nature, exist,


those


miii-


imties


probability


their


existence.


hide


own


case


Satnli


doubts


cannot


han~


him


for


span


lb'wne'B


faith


ultimate


blasphemy


truth

the


encompasses


anonymous


teleology


Tribus


Epicurus,


Impose toribus,


Satanic

espouses


"Rhetorick"


a controversial


Machiavelli

l companion


and

when


Luao lan.


Browne


endorses


Epiocurus s


denial


providence


high-strained


as "no


conceit


his


Atheslm,


but


Majesty"


a magni flcent


28).


When


and


Browne


expresses


equal


satisfaction


with


Epiourus 'a


portrait


the


Gods


4ptba~bly


EE.i e t-i._


Menoecus)


and


Stoic


doo-


trine


fatallyl


neces


site,


m eight


recollecting


eounterarguments


Cicero


against


Epicurus.


Cicero


disap~


proves


Epiourean


maxim,


"'that


which


blessed


eternal


can


neither


know


trouble


itself


nor


cause


trouble


another,


and


aooordingly


cannot


feel


either


anger


favour,

Browne' s


since


all


things


championing


belong


Epiourus


only


00comes8


weak.


a time


snB3


when


latter


was


still


g*Uzcflhlry


disrepute.


. Harrison


finds


only


other


English


writers,


Nicholas


Hill


and


Francia

first h


Bacon,


alf


joining

the serve


Browne


nteenth


Epiourus '


century.


behalf


Deemaing


Browne's


sympathies


Epicurus


as being


moral


rather


than


sclentifie,








Harrison


overlooks


these


favorable


rarks


Reiglo


and


calls


Browne' s


lengthier


discussion


Vulgar


~rrora


first


measure


pointed


Browne' a


defense


courage


Epi curae


supporting


Engl1is h.


Epoiucaru s


Some


ennobling


distant


gods0


may


ascertained


remember ting


the


viie


associations


such


thinking


had


with


the


writings


with


Lucre-


tiUa,


whose


materialism


loomed


dangerously


the


*yes


Browne' S


cesofciuall


orthodox


describes


contemporaries.


Browne's


A recent


appreciation


commentator


even


SUC-


"most


tenuous


insight


into


nature


God"


because


was


spiritual


obtuseness


. which


disturbed"


him.


Browne


immotality


admits


soul


that


and


about


has


had


lesser


doubts


questions


about


Scrip-


tural


validity.


not


troubled;


inesr at


skeptical


about


such


essential


questions


soul


and


only


intrigued


harmless


Biblical


oontradiotions


ambiguities.


Although


admits


that


there


are


fabulo us


tales


Bible


himself


"could


show


a catalogue


doubts"


not


noticed


other


men,


Browne


steadfastly


upholds


sanctity


Scripture


a typically


witty


manner


ratifying


word


Saint


Paul


against


that


sailors,


or the


Genesis


account


against t


that


atomists.


Browne's


flexible


BA4ng,


-U


ancient


Atoamists


nd EnUlt


sh


Literature


of the


a


1







delegation


a "bundle


curiosities"


"Pant agruels '


library"


epitomizes


how


ealmly,


yet


facetiously,


discusses


literal


interpretation


Scripture.


Despite


his


question-


ingsl


Browne


certain


that


these


"are


no points


Faith,


and


therefore


may


admit


a free


dispute,


though


has


angel


been


involved


(Acts


xii l:1-


an actual


with


dispute


youn


ConO erring


Divine


Peter's a


. the


Franciscan


Opponent,


" Birownets


final


attitude


amused


speculation.


Browne' s


train


thought


drawn


again


and


again


miraculous.


While


not


doubting


miracles


Bible


and


early


church,


Browne


does


not


accept


on ten-


porary


instances,


especially


those


reported


Jesuits,


whose


self-witness


and


endorsement


transubstantiation


are


dubious


Browne,


adds


1643


a short


section


(pp.


38- 39)


which


admits


that


the


only


antiquarian


authority


admires


"Eternity,


and


that


himself,


The


claims


temporal


antiquity,


whether


miracles


or of


religious


relics,


not


promote


Browne's


devotion,


although


Since


obviously


Browne' a


lovcaes


investigating


thinking


many


these


corporeal


claims.


and


material


areas


teleological


and


Platonic,


not


s ur-


rising


find


his


ideas


about


man's


soul


and


the


world


E\trar~J.







While


Browne


upholds


"verity"


Sorliptural


history


oracular


against


wisdom


that


ohroniles,


despite


Satanic


does


origin


not


for


discuss


serves


as evidence


spiritual


world,


Browne's


need


for


presence


spirits


and


witches


arises


from


principle


plenty tude-- the


fNull


universe.


Browne' s


beli ef


witches


has


drawn


perhaps


more


adverse


.entary


than


any


other


single


statement


Rlgtlo,~a


for


that


matter,


his


entire


writings.


His


unfortunate


involvement


1664


witch


trial


Amy


Dany


and


Rose


CUllendn'


motivates


this


dismay.


Nevertheless


the


composition


Browne's


only


library


indicates


inconser quentfial


books


anything,


on witchcraft


presence


implies


there


that


"did


not


take


his


witchcraft


very


seriously,


Dorotlzy


Tyler


has


absolved


Browne


any


responsible


guilt


the


Duny-Cullender


Browne's
compared


trial,


cautiouss
with his


while


credulity"8


recent

9 and


contemporary ies.


oritise


compliment


"ooolheadedneass"90


Once


again


when


Browne's


temperateness


Ba,,.b


Mmr


from


extreme


superstition.


86ArthSr
1960), p. 80


Love3oy,


The
m


Great


Chain


Doing


(New


York,


87alcolm


11th


Letts,


series,


"Sir Thc
S(1914),


aas


362.


Browne


and


His


Books,


Wanlt


8e1n


Review
a Wita b


the


i'ri s


Interpretation a
n 1AA.* Analla.


Sir


LIV


Thomas
(IQ030).


Browne's
178-1Q.


~ $i


f


.







credulity


a weakness,


but


a soar.


Moreover


devilish


possession


does


not


easily


win


Browne' a


acceptance.


Never-


theless


allows


that


"man


says tries


ascribed


our


owner


inventions


have


been


courteous


revelations a


Spirits


42).


usch


a belief


arises


from


a combination


traditional


guardian


angel,


for


example


Aquinas


(Summa


Theolgiar,


113),


and


the


traditional


distinction


between


white


and


black


magic.


Brown


perceives


a Train


science


originating


traditionall


Mag1iCk*


0# *


learned


a ,


see-


ond


hand"


from


Devil's


"Schollars,


which


then


become


empirical


principles


science


removed


from


tan ic


stigmas.


any


event


Browne


contends


that


man


should


thankful


for


knowled ge


inspired


good


and


bad


anselA.


Thus


Aquinas'


moral


guardilans


haver


been


transformed


Browne


into


learned


informants.


Man' s


relationship


his


guardian


angel


merely


stage


spirit.


man's

Browne


middle
admits


state

that


between the

the Biblical


worlds of

aooount


matter


this


state


contains


"obscurity"


46),


but


llteralist


difficul-


ties


may


avoided


an allegorical


reading,


Sp o ultis fn


further


about


habitation


angels,


Browne


hopes


that


does


"not


offend


Divinity";


nevertheless


has


been


accused


atheism91


method


and


argument"


a recent


and


critic


his


complains


unorthodox


"specious


identification






angels


with


Gods s


essence.


Many


readers


miglht


well


dia-


miss


the


set ion


on the


creation


and


nature


angels


Coleridge did
on some parts


one,


serious


when


the


Nevertheless


religious


declared

Schoolmen,

Browne' s


purpo se.


excellent


tho'


witty


describe


I fear


Burlesque


an unintentional


meanderings


God' S


have


creative


powers


"Omneity


informed


Nullity


into


an Essence"


stands


well


outside


the


time,


the
but


eonen tional


even


anthropomorphico


so an obtuse


descriptions


formula.


Browne


draws


on Gueesis,


Plato,


Aristotle,


Paracelsus,


Saint


Augustine,


Galen,


arid


contemporary


thinkers


relating


a series


speculations


about


the


creation


man,18


Ignoring


or subverting


di fferenees


among


his


authorl-


ties,


Brownec


centers


his


discussion


"making


man"


God.


The


creation


universe


nihilo,


but


man


a combination


materials


infused


imaortal


soul.


Thus


Browue


combines


Scriptural


and


scholastlial


attri-


butes
who


God


rebates


with
with


Platonic


artistic


purpose*


conception


out


available


orkman-God
materials


(timaeus,


68e-69e),


Browne


disagrees


here


with


Saint


Augus-


tine


who


denies


artisan


God


(The t.fl af God,


xii,


23),


Browne


also


rejects


Paracelsus's


belief


the


homunoulus,


instead


preferring


examine


orthodox


explanations


combined


soul


and


body.


Traduc tion,


the


majority







view


time,


held


that


soul


was


passed


into


body


acot


conception.


Browne


does


not


bel iev


that


this


explanation


denied;


yet


bo there


doctrine


the


transmiaa sion


soul


colitiora.


avoid


this


conoluston


Browne


seems


prefer


minority


opinion


time,


infus ion,


which


held


that


God


created


souls


and


then


in usaed


thou


into


bodies


birth.


gen-


eral


theoretical


questions


raised


Browne


were


extend


throughout


century,


Browne' s


skepticism


about


soul's


iorgan~ric


nature


would


still


debated


1693


Charles


Blount,


so as Williamson


says,


"Bromne


was


not


then


merely


stylist,


Despite


his


misgivings


about


or gin


soul


Browne


concludes


that


his


study


anatomy


has


taught


him


proper


respect


for


divinity,


does


not


ignore


Arlisrtotelianpp~


emphasis


on the


rational


soul' s


dependence


on the


body,


and


Browne's


own


imagery


the


seed


inoorpor-


ates


a partially


material


basis


for


soul.


Browne


rests


his


case


on anatomical


experiments,


saying


that


absence


an "Organe


or proper


instrument"


stands


sensible


and


no inoonsiderable


argument


inorganity


soul"


Browne's


thinking


donl


not


mesh


into


any


tangible


expression;


instead


co~tts


himself


the


Bsys tery


that


we are


men,


"and


we know


not


how.


SA







inorgan cl


nature


SoklT


leads


Browne


meditate


death,


contemplates


the


metaphor,


nAl15


flesh


grasse,


without


any


morbidity


medieval


moralist;


instead


relishes


literal


truth


that


have


devoured


our


selves,


and


yet


doe


live


and


remayne


our


selves.


Lesserr


metamorphoses


are


unbelievable


because


man' s


soul


subject


"neither


contrary


nor


ocr-


eruption,


Brwne,


so certain


purity


soul


that


a reversal


his


former


heresy


declares


that


souls


dead


so surely


depart


from


this


earth


that


ghosts


not


exist,


this


Browne


needsbL


ways


the


thinking


his


time:


first,


the


orthodox


held


that


only


souls


martyrs


went


immed lately


heaven,


lesse r


souls


waited


until


Judgment;


second,


literal


existence


ghosts,


not


explicitly


limited


devils,


as Wfrown


contends,


was


still


believed


many.


ThusI


Browne


steps


outside


common


spirit


lore


declaring


existence


only


evil


spirit s,


since


his


exalted


view


human


souls


would


linger


this


world


after


death


heavenly


l ife


beckoned


them,


a aetaphys ical


extension


a small


gain


over


general


superstitions


the


time,


but


was


enough


controversial,


for


was


approved


Dan-


ish


scholar,


Olaus


Borrichuis,


although


editor


1715


edition


Borriohuas's


Dissertationes


divorces


Danish


writer's


way


of life


from


that


"irrelgloUs


Scx~h






While


Browne


admits


a normal


fear


death,


di covers


that


contemplating


death


does


not


"daunt


oour-


age


a man,


much


in rs.


a well


resolved


Christian.


equanimity


allows


him


consider


death


only


a kind


no thing


vision


a moment*


death


Drown


another


pausesebb


those


from


trivial


such


a dignified


Scr ptural


ques-


tions


that


fascinate


him:


SBt


Adam


his


creation.


But


Browne


recovers


from


that


speculation


and


turns


into


a preface


an imaginative


view


the


birth


manu


out


"the


truest


three


Miorocosme,


worlds


philosopher' s


womb,


stone


has


wombe

this


taught


our


earth,


Browne


mother,


and


"how


Man


immortality


that


exists

. The


immortall


spirit


and


incorruptible


substance


soule


may


source,


and


sleep


a while


within


this


house


flesh.


presence


soul


within


body


during


earthly


ex is te


ence


Browne


very


much


like


"those


strange


and


mvst iall


transmigrations


that


I have


observed


Silkwormes.


Although


a recent


critic


might


dismiss


philosopher's


stone


passage


as "really


theatrical


tone,


orthodox


superstition


the


stone


closely


parallels


Browne's


intended


use


even


speaking


metaphorically.


Evelyn


Underhill


elpistins


traditional


view


this


way:


Upon t
Divine
divine


spiritual


Idea


humanity,


transcendental


ordinarily


know


plane


always


the


also


aiming
Ofew Man,


world--and


him


a


they held th
t 'Spiritual


citizen


'natural


a lower


man'


metal,


t


at

he


the
old'


silver


Browne s







best,


yet
the
*'In
his
val
God
out
of


bears
tintt
corrupt
perfeo
ue rest
may be
ion of


is
wit
ure
ibi
t p
des
Tfo
a s


true


a departure
hin himself,


from
if


* which makes
e substance' I
rinciples for
in Man,' says
und everywhere
piritual chbel


Hermetic


U
S


the 'plan,'
we could find


gold. .
man's
'the hi
Albertu
' Honc
try is


soience.97


who
it,


. This
goldness,
ghost mineral
s Magnus, and
* the prose-
a proper part


Whatever


antiquated


sympathies


Brown


might


have


had


for


such


metaphors


on the


nature


man,


does


not


deserve


rebuff


a recent


critic


who


complains


that


Browne's


"deliberate


studied


calling"


authority,


"the


gullibility


his


experimental


approach,


indeed,


heavy


verbosity,


eli


mark


him


ass


thinker


characteristic


his


period,


which


lacked


misses


intellectual


beauty


power


Browne's


escape.


language


Such


ideas


a view


without


substantiating


for


reader


inherent


superiority of


modern


prose


and


empirical


rationalism.


Browne


admits


that


rather


than


boins


afraid


death,


ashamed


closes


with


an exquisite


piece


wholesome


sardonic


a morsell


the immediate
makes us worse


humor:


the


Browne


better,


future

not b


might


wor es


not


call


as any"


concludes


there


that


self


53).


Inrcarease


no need


seek


for


age


old


age.


does


desire


a second


earthly


life


or a new


beginning


this


life


because


feels


that


would


only


a.-







worse.


complains


that


ann


becomes


a child


again


age;


but


more


particularly


a child


who


repeats


sins


youth.


Browne


added


1643


that


providence


God


needed


for


a life


threescore,


a fine


image,


declares


"tho ugh


radlioall


humour


contalne


sufficiean

it gives


not


oyle


for


no light


complain


seventies,


past


an early


thirtie"*


death,


yet

(p.


for


I perceive

56). The


we are


some


reform


God's


that


we should


hand.


Thus


about


Browne


death


tempers


audacity


reintroducing


earlier


Omnipotent


remarks


providence


God.


Then


Browne


expatiates


on some


various


views
advice

share

from s


held

that

the S


on death


and


seeking


toical


uiclde.


Rat


suicide.


earthly

n for t

follow


admiration

her than


Al tho ugh


bliss


he

the


endures


vanity,


happiness to
example of


Lucian's

cannot


gained


heroic


suiiede,


Browne


chooses


suffering


acceptance


Job.


Acknowledging


nobili ty


Stoeial


truths


even


when


mixed


pulpit


with


Christian


dogma,


Browne


thus


tempers


total


acceptance


such


paganism.


Subsequently


Browne


com0


piles


a catalogue


Renaissance


complaints


about


the


power


death,


although


his


tone


not


as pessimistic


might


hands


a less


paradoxical


author.


either


Stoical


Christian


sense


Browne


gains


satisfaction


from


belief


But at


that


same


death


time


an escape


miseries


from


the


life


miseries


seem


less


lis .


when







world's


contemporaries


end,


that


but


the


does


world


not


believe


"neither


with


old


nor


some


decayed"


59).


End


and


decay


are


not


synonymous


Browne *


mind.


Both


creation


and


ranihilation


the


world


are


works


"above


nature.


Only


the


direct


intervention


God


will


world


that


des troyed.


determine


Browne


day


takes


and


the


yeaar.


orthodox99


this


position


inevitable


time,


not


only


.4


* madness,


but


. impiety,


preparing


for


this


Last


Day


Browne


declares


that

Such


without

a stance


the


resurrection


enables


BrOwne11


"all


Religion


declare


Senecar'


Fallacy.
advice


(It Vtia


Beats,


that


"vertue


her


owner


reward,


a cold


principle.


Nevertheless


frowned


admits


that


has


practiced


Seneca' a


"honest


artifice"


Lucilium


Epi tulae


Morales,


epistle


pretend


when


alone


and


tempted


that


"deare


and


worthiest


friends"


are


with


him.


Such


resolution,


virtue


however,


leads


remembrance


only


Him


who


"morall


"must


honesty,


reward


and


us at


not


the


last.


Thus


Droncl


the


resurrection


and


afterlife


are


the


ultimate


sealr


ands


gu id e


morals.


Browne' a


affirmation


resurrection


one


the


most


famous


portions


the


Relitio,


because


also


affirms


palingenes is-- the


regeneration


flame- aona umed


plant,


first


Browne


declares


that


with


regard







resurrection


the


dead


believe


only


possibilities,


not


faith,


but


meere


Philosaophy


62),


Divinity


beyond


reason


and


gnua,,


while


such


a mystery


as magnetic lsm


verified


sense,


not


reason,


so reason


cannot


essential


guide


even


matters


philosophy.


Now


that


areas on


has


been


relegated


the


lowe s t


level


evidence,


Browne


turns


matter


imr ta i ty


body


as well


soul.


Browne


holds


that


the


creation


God"


separated


"that


confused


masse


into


species"


can


again


separate


the


species


"into


distinct


individuals"


on the


"last


day.


Rather


than


abstract t


Browne


exemplifies


reality


natural


kingdom


such


a separation


discussing


and.


re-unification


regeneration


plant


similar


experiments


Cvparnsl


Grove100


were


and


reported


Mrs.


1623


Bennett


reports


William


Drummond


an experiment


aflr,


tality


Daniel


the


Cox


form


1674.


based


Browne' S


on the


theory


"e li,:.9


i mior-


non-corporeal


form


viii


combines


wlth


matter,


but


survives


matter


because


form


a hbsher


nature


close


the


Ideal,


10l


Perhaps


possible


dismiss


Browne' s


sloi cn-~


tific


views


ground,


as one


critics


does,


that


they


are


iet.,


152.


22'


a _.


"vggea


10BgUan,


r






further


from


modern


science


than


solt tilf


thinking


Scholasti a,103


but


such


blanket


j3udgen ts


hardly


justice


the


influence


Browne' s


speculations


had


on later


thinkers.


airt Imtitati


Browne'


thinking


may


found


in Needham' s

embryology w


contention


@ere


that


undertaken"


"first


expr rInn 'U


Browne' s


home


chemical


Norwioh,


Although
dynamico,


Browne's


his


examinations


role


were


a measurable


station "


one.


rather


than


104


heart


Browne's


think ing


miorocosio


Idea


or seed,


can


speculate


that


the


world


cannot


actually


des troyed


fire,


since


fire


one


four


elements;


perhaps


Browne


wonders,


certain


n"Ohymists"


are


correot


holding


that


fire


will


"ohrystallize"


into


glass.


Browne


conjectures


further


that


'nfl


God


does


anaithlate


rera-


tiona,
with


will


Browne's


not
most


des troy
serious


microcosm,


thought.


a view


Browne


consistent


returns


his


seed


and


Idea


imagery


postulate


that


"in


seed


Plant


eyes


God,


and


understanding g


man,


there


exists,


tho~ucEh


an invisible


way,


perfect


leaves,


fruits


and


flowers


thereof"


66).


Into


midst


this


di session


the


regenerated


soul


plant


Browne


interjects


a discuss ion


heaven


and


103J~bn


Among
The No


English


.


Ryan,


" The


Protestant


Scholasticism.


Reputation
Thinkers of


XX1II


(1948).


of
the


1~539


Thomas


Seventeent


Aquinas
h Century,


.






hell


which


raises


thoroughly


materialistic


doubts


whether


"SfirF


essenceB


hell.


How


exactly


" t~lang~e


.9,


oat)


either


prey


upon,


or pur fle


the


substance


soule'


does


not


know,


Even


w were


provided


with


"bodies"1


susceptible


torture


fire,


Browne


COy-


tain


how


the


fire


endure


without


des trying


body.


for


hell


itselfT


Browne


declares


his


lack


feaarn


either


hell


or of


a revengeful


God.


separates


himself


from


those


"slaves


Almnig~htyTMr


who


fear


Him


rather


than


serve


fHim,


and


not


perceive


mercy


judagents,


but


only


them


as punishments.


Characteristically


Browne


pursues


this


train


thought


the


paradox


that


"God


marc8rclfllr~2


unto


all,


because


better


the


worst,


than


best


deserve;


and


punilsheth


none


this


world,


though


Paradox,


no absurdity"


693).


Thiskr


ingenious


view


man'


relationship


God


probably


cushions


author


against


absolutist


outcries,


ideal


nature


the


soul


and


spirit


mercy


God


exist


for


Browne


harmonious


order.


Harmony


beauty,


especially


beautiful


mus ic


which


reminds


him


music


sphereDs


with all


religious


and


spiritual


associations,


harmony


a state


good


health,


so Browne


disassociates


himself


from


those


physicians


who
neS


desire t
(p. 92),


spread


a perceptive


disharmony


jibe


order


ano other


create


pejorative


ill-
m.Cih S^






traditional.


The


harmony


musia


Hieroglyphicall


God.


Browne'


worshipfulnessa


allows


him


hear


devotional


musio


"even


that


Vulgar


and


Taverne


Mustlke,


a homely


admission


latter


attacked


speaks


like


Browne*


Stephen


reputation


and


More,


depending


more


than


any


author


on "purple


patches"


sueh


tinse.


The


former


much


more


outspoken;


while


granting


Browne


liberty


indulge


humourouss"


nature,


Ste phen


must


0on-


fensl


that


"rtinr


severity


our


modern


taste


shocked


intermixture


whioh


seemed


natural


enough


his


contemporaries,


Stephen


professes


that


today


"few


people find


their


religious


emotions


other


stimulated


words


the


moderns


performance


can


a nigger


sacred


secular,


aearet


a comprehension


Browne's


which


eloquence.


Stephen


From


believes


the


medicinal


"great


proper-


U,.s


harmony,


Browne


ORIZ


with


some


coherence


speak


105F.M. Cornford, The
iEssas, ed. W.K.C. GutarEFle
Tisiusses the Pythagorean


spheres.
the body
being in
order of
Knowledge
VI (1959)
of musical
dilation


The so
and the
order,
the wor
in Ren
, 36-63
1l harmo
Sof opp


representation


Unwritten Ph
(Cambrid6ge,
tradition of


ul itself was a
virtue of the
Cosmic harmony
ld. Gretohen L
aissanoe Englan
, discusses the
ny as emblematic
sites, the mys


"human


frailt


i osor


the


harmonia and the health of
soul depend on the harmonica
and number reflect the divine
. Finney, "Muslot A Booke of
d," Studies in Renaissance,
Renats aanoeTnterpreta tons
cal, indicative of the recon-
tery of numbers, and the
- waaA n.4a~di if


3


situ


lO6jj.


oit.,


177.


orities


darkly


comprehend


melody.


#lO7


h 19rml
harmony


Other
PP. 18-23,
of the


U SUJ. LJ J j.






curative


powers


three


professions.


Medicine


stands


first


aince


law


infallible,


while


then


are


ills


that


divinity


cannot


oWue.


Oont Pnu ing


theme


harmony


Browne


concludes


that


each


man' s


Datin


nature


carries


such


within


a mixture


himself


good


oure


for


and


evil


every


that


d i.-


ease.


But


this


therapy


does


not


affect


moral


natur.


man


for


a moral


infection


reaching


back


"man


without


a Navelr


persists.


Browne


prays


"Lord


deliver


me from


self,


Mlan


his


corruption


may


seek


solitude


but


will


never


achieve


for


our


loneliness


filled


with


world,


mind,


devil


and


divine,


last


drawing


this


disunity


into


transcendent


unity


(pp.


9a- 95s) ,


Despite


Browne 's


view


man's


-centered


ex-


istence,


does


examine


man's


relationship


society.


one


the


most


tortured


sentences


Religio


99),


declares


The


often
call
to ot


method


observe


I should


proportion


hers,


erogate
as thou


I become


in that
wouldst


use


coamutat ive,


both,
unjus


oobeon
be done


distributive


and


whereby


principle,


unto


thy


keep a
becoming


oselfe,
Doe u


self.


justice,


Geometri


and


Into


equable
super-
others


Browne


detects


that


may


Judgede


an atheist


world


because


does


not


"hnh)Our


that


which


world


adores.


But


contends


that


his


charity


endorses


"Epitome"


that


giveth


the


poor


lendeth


the


Lord.


final


verdict


that


disappearance


poverty


would


"take






away


object


charity,


draws


an "o


for


shame!


for


frOmP


the


idealistic


Coleridge.


The


next-to-last


section


Religion


opes


with


this


propositions


the


"Basis


and


Pillar"


charity


"ia


the


love


God,


for


whom


wee


love


our


neighbour.


There


nothing


unusual


our


loving


invisible


for


R ant


that


wee


truely


love


thus.


Virtue


greater


because


insensible.


visible


progression


love


our'


parents,


then


our


wife,


later


CU?


children


but


a "dumbe


shove.


When


our


children


mature


tlwy


besgi


a repetition


this


ritual,


so Browne


perceives


manrr


may


bee


buried


alIve ,


and


behold


his


grave


his


owner


i ssue .


giegler


contends


that


when


Browne


pushes


his


paradox


"final


hyperbole,


assumes


a "selfish


standard


virtue.


..109


Surely


Browne


would


have


justly


claimed


that


his


vision


empirically


grounded


on the


real


order


things,


Men


indeed

Browne


temper
only d


or revert


escribes


early


the


ties


commonest


as later

example


loyalties


this


arise;


fact,


Characters t ically


extends


his


vision


a paradox


which


lends


originality


all


that


has


substantiated


The


final


section


el igo


centers


on a


prayer,


but


much


on troveresy


surrounding


section


ignoresa


prayer


focuses


on a passing,


disparaging


allusion


Copernicus.


Coleridge


complains


that


Browne


shame"n






an example


thinker who


guulty11


secondd


evil


philosophy lna


. that


mistaking


souch


facts


mere


general


prejudices,


and


those


opinions


that,


Mving


been


habitually


taken


for


granted,


are


d ~ignif t ed


with


name


0010(01


SENSE


#110


Coleridge'a


d i sappoin tment


may


have


been


answered


part


conclusions


such


cities


as Chalmers


antr


Almonte


Howell


who


have


studied


Browne* a


scientific


Tiesw ,


especially


Vulgar


Errors,


Browne's


next


work


after


Rell Qo.


Browne' s


inconclusiveness


there


about


Co~3P(Ernlc an tu


tingness


may


become


explained


entangled


possibly

the reli


his


gious


usual


disputes


unwill-

sur-


rounding


ePlnric


Copernious's


R4i~2iOi


ideas.


Just


Perhaps


a bit


Copernicus


humor.


ref-


Browne' a


ultimate


pup~ osel


concern


that


ear thly


happiness


"appari tion,


or neat


delusion.


Since


only


God


angels


are


happy,


lBrovne


prays


oreb


"the


peace


@0Th-


science,


command


affections,


love


self


and


dearest


OanarBF


Browne


friends,


deems


these


I shall


happy


requests


enough


"the


pity


humble


desires


moat


reasonable


ambition,


all


I dare


call


happiness


on earth.


reiterates


that


since


does


limit


providence


God


aroli ts


himself


"the


wis-


dome


pleasure.


vill


bee


done,


thiougho


owne


110^i


ala a


taht a


~nm






undoing.


last


word


has


been


toned


don


from


"damntionn


1642


version,


vII


Reactions


the


Religio


were


quick


and


emphatic,


such


that


John


Aubrey


who


flur


prompted


record


"1642,


Religio


Med lo i


printed,


whi ch


first


opened


and er-


s tand ing*

Browne on


v.1122


SOotob


Browne' s

er 1, 16


4


friend,

9 that


John Merryweather,


the


Reli So


found some dem
Leysden; and u


book
it,
who
high
him
but
tion


merchant
carryed it
being in s
.a quarter
that there
that it @o
s in Relig


urre in the first
pon this occasion:
there, to whome I
to Salasius for
tate, first played
of a year and th
were indeed many
ntained also many
ion, and would pro


impre
One
first
his a
it by
en at
thing
exorb
bably


ssion


Hayl, a
offered
probation,
for very
last told
s well said
itant oonme
find but


frowning entertainment, especially among th
terms: Whioh deterred him from undertaking
printing.113


e min
the


I
p-
ia-


From


mid-1640's


until


end


the


oentury Browne's


work


was


translated


into


Latin,


French,


Dutch.


Was


bandied


about


controversy


the


on the


Dut oh


side


vers ion


moderns.


114


A physician-poet,


John


Collop,


published


high


praise


Browne


his


Poesil


Redlivva


(1656)


Brief Lives,
p. xxx I.


Oliver


Lawson


Dick


1.1 '.t%,a4 na-3


1CLl


wrote


ancients-modern


t


,I c


nrll *I


jh






Religio


On Doctor Brown.
Medici and vulgar


errors.


Religion


The
Mor
The
Wha
He
Tho
He
Or
To
Dul
In
Let


Medici


world s
'e zeal a
r twelve
t Parace
twixtt t
ugh gut-
hath mor
the Soot
maim the
lumps o
natures
these 1


Which
Dog-1
Think
While
Crawl
Shine
Knowl
Folli
Brown


Crude
ke to
learn
these
with
out d


ho
nd
p
Is
he
in
e
oh


though


vs none,
charity
east ages
us brag'
Pope an
spired sz
knowledge
Spedant


words
f earth
count s
1ok up
r stoma


vom
Ing
can
the
ispe


its
to


edge makes
's unmask'd


others


and
no
oar
the
oh'
ru
rep


prize
ged s
ling
only
, and


errors,


a
d
id
o


th'
and
Bro
wri
of
Lu
lot


world
the P


wn 1:
t, o:
dot
their
a ba


e than t
a worm 1i
make th
t yet co
oe Cyphe
Indiges
d Soiolil
n and 11
'eat what
truths
erpent 1i
th' ages
Children
errors
others w


no
rs
te
st
ok
's
we
n
d
o
ba


Atheism


hysi


an


call
Small.


rite


their


own.


L.,

i shows,
nowss;


twelve sheets
th' present kI
disclose,
iight compose,
:at him,
ir Sandedrim.
every book,
sence mistook
ooted mud,
understood.
d phlegm
s beloh'd 'fc
each sore,
said before,
apons by the
the dust.
arker night.
f the light,
ld pate shown


rust,


115


According


John


Collop


world


declared


Sir


Thomas


Browne


an atheist,


Collop


recognized


Browne


as a modern


pro-


gressive


who


mediates


between


extremes


Pope


Luther


against t


the


outcries


zealots.


Collop


respected


Browne as

ignorant.


ann


Pedants


knowledge who

like Alexander


reveals


Ross


errors


are


dismissed


of th
with


bestial


imsg~eryg .


John


Evelyn's


famous


description


Browne


1671


as an indefatigable


collector


curiosities116


has


conditioned


ll5Conrad Bilberry, "Medical Poems from
Poesis Rediviva (1656)," Journ. of the Hist.
Allied Solences, XI (1956 7.395.-


John Collop's
of Med, and
S ea, ~m


]


]


them:


i






readers


subsequent


ablge


ploture


an eccentric


and


harm-


less


grfltl@38J1r,


but


admiration


Aubrey


and


Collop


attacks


Digby


and


Ross


must


not


ignored.


con-


trovers al


tries


Browne


quaint


will


Sir


not


Thomas,


dissolve away
although the


latter


pleasan-

dominates


all


writings


after


first


two


books,


fl3i


Rel.glo


Medici


that


marked


Browne


for


good


or ill,


Perhaps


taint


religious


unorthodoxies


work


kept


Browne


out


Royal


Societyll7


or perhaps


was


excesses


Browne' s


style.


that


514t


may,


controversies


aroused


were


real


detectable.


Even


as combustible


time


1630' s


and


1640's


England,


significant


meanderings


Browne '


religious


and


scientific


mind


were


not


unnoticed


and


were


not


dismissed


trivial


or superficial.


Charles


Raven


has


come


mented


that


"the


denunciations


called


out


so conciliatory


orthodox


treatise


. show


how


inveterately


hostile


were


Churches


Western


Europe


any


attempt


formu-


late


a religion


the


scientist.


ln119


117oh1almers,


22*


eit.,


Osiris,


Mn.


ll118Rihard


Style i
The Sev

1951 h


Foster


Third


enteenth


JOne8S,


Quarter


Cen tury :


and Literature
>. 90n.


from


Science


Studies


and


Engl ishb


Seventeenth


in the His tor of


Prose


Century,


Bacon


19charle a


Raven.


Natural


Relitlon


and


Christian


Theoloar


ish






Broneca


may


seen


Rel glo


as a synthesizer


who,


aLBS,


Bethell


points


out,


pushes


the


analogi cal


method


to great

possible


lengths


modes


because


knowledge


"ni

than


aware

the


a wider


previous


range


generations.


Scholastic


principles


are


extended


through


Browne's


imagina-


tionr


and


insight


accommodate


new


knowledge


new


uncer-


tainties.


partially


w120


final


completed


product


later


synthesis


combined


was


efforts a


only


men


such


founders


Royal


Society


the


Cambridge


Pla-


tonists,


but


they


"created


between


them


a Relig_1 o


Medici


greater


more


coherent


than


that


S SBrowneP)


l121


Nineteenth


century


critics


firmly


established


view


that


Browne


idealizes


himself


Religio,


Coleridge


del'inns


this


position


beat:


The Religio
handsome man


what
he wa
read
to my
with
tiona
tell
not o
not,


h
S
a


Mod


.e was at
only in
book, in


ow


Sani
te
a d
nly
Sir


whole Tr
However,
His
ist, gen


ilo
his
all
his
whi
ab


* f
bes
time
best
ch I
.ki


n make or mlin
appetite to b
& elevated VI
different Tale
endeavor to
T. B, has do
uth, which mO
it Is a most
own character


lus,


and


s--
el
sl
0


is
, 1
* a
mom
fel
act
eve


a fin
othes-
good
ents.
t great
ive in


,--in


onary!
f my o
11 the
) but
assur


Bu
wn h
Tru
like
edly


delicious
was a fine


pedant.


Portrait


-it is muc
deal [of w
I have ne
terms lmtilla
enquiry,
short, an
t then I w
eart; for
th, (whioh


wise
he


of
h of
hat]
ver


ri


I


to tell


has


Book.
mixture


A library


wad


ty
yet
'feo-
1i1
would
doubt
the
done,

umour-


a living


120Bethell,


ii,


sit.,


i


e


)






world
flesh


to
and


records


him,


and


blood!


every


and


contrad itory


book


the


'man,


gravity


opinions


absolute


with


which


exquisite.122


that


this


mixture


11 teral


ideal


difficult


sustain


may


seen


Dowden'


conception


the


ReliRio


philosophic


poem"123


not


read


literally.


Browne


himself


recognized


dangers


literal


a reading,


per-


haps


because


intended


his


work


describe


idealistic


symbolic


mind


thought.


imaginative


quality


Browne' a


thought


has


been


praisedl4


and


deprecated.


125


While


Dowden' s


verdict


close


correct:


cannot


said


that


Browne


contributed


any


idea


capital


importance


seventeenth-century


tho ught;


ascertained


no new


truth;


confirmed


no old


truth


original


dialectic";126


such


a verdict


misses


true


flavor


Religio.


attractiveness


capture in


this


aneO-


dote:


Evert


Duyckinok,


the


publisher,


wrote


ro their


George


1848


that


Herman


Melville


who


had


borrowed


read


his


copy


the


Regl~ig


called


Browne


kind


'erack'd


Archangel.


ever


anything


this


sort


said


before


1229p.


eit.,


'~se


123 jpuritan~


anrd


Angltcan


(London,


1901),


Books


124Bot


and
S f


trail, ~.p
Characters


125 Willlam


oZI


aizabeth,


cit.,


Haslitt,


pp.
York,


Leo tur
laractu


224,


8, 55,
1922),


and
p.


Lytton
44.


es on the Literature
re E khespears' s f
2515 and Gosge, o


S trachey,


of the
1a
l^^--..... .. ,-U^^^^


as "a


**


arncr Gb


m






sailor?127


Evert


asked.


we might


ask


baa


any


such


stat eament


ever


again


been


made


about


a physician?


From


creation


a cracked


archangel


1848


we see


that


over


a century


later


Reltgio


has


been


judged


as "at


least


part,


a psychologi-


work


archangel


modern


and


sense,


n128


psychologist,


These


mark


the


poles,


possible


cracked


extremes


evaluation


Browne


and


his


book.


While


these


opinions


are


no means


furthest


about


Browne,


they


reflect


great


degree


bread th


of Browne's


attraction.


But


we must


identify


not


fringe of


value


Browne's


work,


but


broad


middle


way


excellence,


another


context


Blackmur.


has


described


kind


intellectual


viewpoint


and


excitement


we find


Rellgio:


Fortunately, there
dootrinated thinking.


like
Plato
haust
and t
absen
early
shift
evolu
It no
anoth
provl
forms
most
though
of se


reflectors


and


bible
he Es
ce of
Plat
ing b
tion,
t tha
er id
siona


1


on a pi
approach


the whole
stimulus


says
post
o alw


a'
w
t


I,


f men
timat
po
Inbutr
n biut


h,


due
tive
ays


oatc
Mon
and
as m
doe
ho dld
hold


ante, prese
Ith victory
Montaigne 1
, and imply
adjudicati
themselves
e recesses
noting It ou
Itmina tion,
in the but


such


exist


Let
h t
tat
fer


uc
tr
I


us


h as
ine?
eonf
,ting
nly


s al
ing
ng 1
Iro
the
t, s
and
f 1t


an attempt


wa


arche
Inal
light
a Is


Ity
any
Is
H1ot
them
the
ys m


always s


rony
nit,
dupl
o to
show
fe?


?


1
a


types o
ine our
of the
not th
f the D
hing to
it not
ng idea
In cont
ast shl
king ro
a third
Are not


unin-


minds
early
e inex-
lalogues
the
that the
s in
est and
ft? Is
omas for
for
the


betraying in
licty of every


spe
Ing


vivid


ak, In the act
it not paled
. Such an
questing,


127F.O. Matthieesen.


American


Renaissance


(London.






borrowed


is the
of body
umwbing


only
of
, no


monest of i
his depth d
having once
sary to sti
life-raft,
Thei tragic
will show--
chooses des
Of waiting
part works
objects; as
any given i


no doubt


adulterated


rational approach
eritleal thinking.
t an approach; and
ronies to observe


o his

ck to
and t
chars
Is th
tiny
slowly
again
anyo
dea o


creative


eause fatal
mbed to an
it. Though
o confuse th
ater of thou
at it takes
like a Calvi
y for old ag
aet the world
ne may see b
f demoeraoy
strength.12


to t
Any
it i
a ana


harm
idea,
t is a
e fune
ght--a
a risi
nist,
e, and
* good


oUr"


own


needs,


he multiplioation
thing else is sUe-
s surely the com-
altogether out of
merely because,
he think it neces-
beacon, not a
tions is tragic.
a any perspective
d mould too soon;
In infancy, instead
hence for the most
sense, and its own


taking a j
of justice,


erspect lve of
or the nature


While


speifil


oon text


Blackaur's


remarks


relates


the


writing


original


literary


criticism,


may


we not


detect


a description


meditative


wanderings


Thomas--


Browne


what


Blackrur


praises?


Brown


was


not


unindoc trinated


his


mind


per-


sonallty


were


influenced


both


consciously


and


unconsciously


so many


doctrines--old


and


new--that


an intellectual


blend-


ing


process


took


place.


8lsn


Browne


the


Religio


listen-


lag


reflections


his


own


mind.


The


self-centered-


work


cannot


ignored-- from


such


self- concern


beginnings


controversy


ome,


Browne


considers


himself


a person


worth


knowing;


eVn"


his


apologetic


pro? toe


intrigues


the


reader


pursue


onward


Browne'


profession


openly


controversy ial,


his


soientifti


education


eduea-


tlon


him


apart


from


other


flsabL


while


his


speculations






about


religion


and


Scripture


mark


him


as a skeptic


or worse,


Brone


unadmi ttedly


proud


character.


While


not


as radically


dissimilar


from


most


men


as heo


might


think,


this


does


lessen


vorifs


Mus


work.


Browne Bs


failure


systematize


contradictions,


and


inconsistencies


may


held


against


him,


but


his


critics


such


as Sir


Kenela


Digby


Alexander


Ross,


as we shall


see,


cost


their


attempted


consistency


writing


ted io us,


unimaginative


critiques


which


misrepresent


Browne


and


their


authors


lit-


credit.


fair


we must


not


hold


Browne' s


theooentri city


against


age,


him,


for


continual


a moocare


devotion


product


faith


and


mind


charity


and


not


Bolt


controversy


ial;


but


attempts


develop


both


faith


and


charity


light


his


intellectual


experiences,


both


empirical


mystical,


lead


him


into


diffPicaul tis.c~


Sir


Thomas


even


claims


s erene


midst


civil


and


ind different


upheaval;


indeed


controversy


quietness


his


later


life


East


Angl ia


seems


bear


out


ability


remain


ci-fls.m l j


detached


both


religio usly


and


politically.


RCQ~gioE~


perpetrated


ripples


reaction


outcry


that


stand


out


s Isn ificantly


even


this


age


intellectual


counter attack,


irony


that


Browne


himself


not


primarily


an attacker


or even


an initiator,


Nevertheless


when


undertook


this


compendium


meditations


about


what






and


hLis


perspectives


century,


touching


Even


on asn


11.1 1bar i


debated


Just


ideas


a primer


controversy


when


compared


with


those


battles


Hobbes


and


Milton,


nevertheless


left


mark.











CHAPTER


Sir


Kenelm


Digby


was


spending


Christmas


1642


laprisoned


Winchester


House


Southwark


when


friend,


Edward


Saokville,


fourth


tan


Dorset,


from


battle


preparations


Oxford


invited


Digby


oriti-


else


"this


favourite


yours,


Rellgio


Medici.


year


preceding


Digby' a


confinement


had


been


tempestuous


both


for


him


andL


for


England.


Digby


and


other


Royalist


been


called


before


XLOng


Parliament


January


1641


examined


about


their


alleged


dealings


for


King


Charles.


pressures


portend ing


civil


war


increased,


Digby


volun-


tartly


left


for


France


June.


However,


Digby


killed


Frene

tory


lord,


dinner


Mont

toast


Roe,
the


a duel


cowardice


over


latter' a


English


king


deroga-

; and


return


England


November


1641.


Continuing


work


Royalist


and


Catholic


causes,


Digby


was


spied


upon


and


finally


arrested


August


1642,


but


released


without


formal


charge


anti-Catholic


ran


anti-


Royalist


forces


continued


strengthen,


opposition


enthusiasts


like


Digby


grew.


The


civil


war


wasr


but


three


months


old,


when


Digby


was


confined


early


November.






Imprisonment


did


not


stifle


Digby' S


famed


energies


Lodging


was


made


Kenelm D
himself
precious
Flint, a
at the s


Time
in


S


Confusion,


Southwerk,


a Prison


igby


wrote


for
his


Chymi try,


Stones,


a Sir
am t


being
the R
book
and u


as Rubies,


Frances


lao,


told


the


Bishop


a large
loyalists;


Of
s.-


Pi1
an


Bodies,
Et5EEe


Em-eralds,


Dodtigton,
ae,


Prisoner


Winchester'sa


* of Build
d here Sir
and divert
artificial


out
with


of
him


Contemporary


and


later


opinion


varied


about


veracity


the


value


Dtigby' a


thought


and


work,


Henry


Peacham,


Digby


suited


perfectly


his


herole


figure


"that


noble


absolutely


compleat


Gentleman


Sir


ICen~e~lm


Digby


Knight.


But


John


Evelyn,


Digby


wasc


an "arrant


mounte-


bank"


and


teller


strange


things.


Furthermore


describing


Digby' S


library


bamUell


Pepys


1689,


Eve;ly~n


judged


more


pomp


than


intrinsic


value.


However,


acquaintance


Digby'as,


John


Finch,


could


hold


Di by's


oura-


tils.


powers


higher


regard


than


those


Van


Heluont,


but


this

ithat


may


excusable


variety


endearv


credulity,

or describe


as Nicolson


Aubrey


has

and


suggested.


lauded


many


contemporaries


has


become


Digby' s


"doom.


John


Tullooh


represents


a typical


nineteenth


century


viewpoint


when


Aubrey,


2~.


oait,


3Peacham' s


(Oxfod


1906),


~4nt


Gentleman,


Tudor


and


Stuart


Library


4
22*


cit.,


185,


311,


684.


- tflsr5-t.--t


MaIr 1lnTr a


Wan.n


VMieafnnn


(Xew


W8Erm.


Ing,


"of


nn






regards


Man


Dist~by


Glot 9(insuiedrs


notorious


more


pervert"

a certain


religion


restless


and


liveliness


nature


than


any


higher


at tributes


head


or heart.


Nevertheless


even


Tulloch


upon


delving


into


Digby'


writings


qualifies


verdict:


not


treatises
not very
and even
have supp
restless


profess


but


we have


ye
of


t


readable;
subtlety


osed


have


studied


looked
they s


into


I


how


disquisition,


permissible


character


from


attributed


the
to h


Sir K.
them.


lore
tha


Digby' s


soli


They are
d labour,


we could


vorsra t il.e


and


James


Russell


Xlow ll


a famous


essay,


K1Bew


nFligand


Cen-


turtine r


Ago,


pronounced


Digby


a political


turncoat


about


whom


no good


could


said.


A recent


commentator


kinder


recog-


flng~~e


Digby


as an early


example


"'Man


quality"'


who


became


interested


science


when


was


new


thing"


vhii


only


later


O~b~rOOs


fashionable"


"highly


approved.


Perhaps


we may


juxtapose


Douglas


Bush' s


descrip-


tion


Digby


"the


RapleghQl


light


opera"10


against


epitaph


written


Richard


Ferrar


possible


ex&enio fns


Digby's


reputation


7'gatina


Theoloy


Ceituti,


and
-FL.^^^.^^..__.


Christian


vo1T s


Philosophy


(Londaon,


1572),


8~it~r~rrys


Essays4,


4 VOls.


(Bos tono,


1890),


9Robert
Seventeenth


385-


386.


Merton,


Century


"So l~Eena


England,


" Galf


TI. chn~foloa


'art


Society
2 (1938),


~7~i~.


t;ha







Under
Diglby
This


this
the
Ages


Skilled


Born
And
'Tis
His


on the


that


Tomb
great,
onder
Six T
Day


Day


Rare,
tr of


the
the
for


Matohless
Valiant,


His


ongue s,
He Dy'd,


Bravely


that


Birth,


one


Noble


and
the


Fought


and


the


Death,


Digby
and th
Parts


lies;
S Wise:


Learn' in
'Eleventh


at S
ande
and


All
of


andero un,
Day should


Victory.11


the
June,


Arts,


That


this


extravagant


person


should


have


been


stimu-


lated


such


a work


as Religlo


Medici


which


discussed


subjeots--religion


and


soience-


-whioh


V.?,r(


uppermost


Digby' s


mind


all


times,


not


surprising.,


Out


this


stimulation


came


rapidly


composed


work


known


as Observa-


tlons


upas


R~lS~iQ


Media l


(STC


1441).


Although


Browne's


sum-


mrary


his


book'* s


unauthorized


publication


contain a


no direct


allusion


Digby' s


rebuttal,


Browne' a


knowledge


may


have


prompted


his


decision


acknowledge


pirated


work


his


own


revise


for


formal


publication.


Browne


and


Digby


had


exchanged


letters


March


1643


on the


matter


authorized


publication.


Browncb


explains


politely


private


nature


RElaiglo


it~aga. 6*


not


unlike


that


uses


his


added


~ PrftoEl


Reader.


requests


that


Digby


withhold


circulation


his


animadvers ions


until


the


latter


has


read


"the


true


and


tal~ntcnd


original


(whereof


mean


time


your


worthy


self


'Day


co~nan


a view).


Browne


promises


that


his


revised


edition


will


show


"how


far


text


hath


been


mistaken"


and


that


"exeroitations


thereon,


will


a great


I


(
\






part


impugn


printer


or transcriber,


rather


than


the


author,


Digby' a


morking


reply


pro esseas


inability


comply


with


Brown e'


request,i


his


unawareness


that


Obaervations


was


being


prepared


for


print.


Any


efforts


contact


printer


into


whose


hand s,


AnredW


Crook


(who


would


publish


both


the


pirated


and


authorized


editions


the


Reli gie),


had


delivered


"something


under


name"


had


failed.


He then
notions


renown


lists


excuses


against


Digby


indulges


about
smart


unworthiness


a piece


as yours.


extravagantly


false.


his "slender

Despite his


modesty.


practically


disowns


his


work


ase k


concludes


letter


with


mook


reticence:


superficial


besprinkling


will


serve


only


for


a private


letter,


or a familiar


discourse


with


lady-


auditors.


Digby


also


describes


thu


speed


with


whioh


wrote


his


commentary,


busy


twenty-four


hou rs


that


Samuel


Johnson


allowed


was


work' s


main


distinction


Digby' a


chief


fame.


13Jeremiah Finch,
P. 95, comments that
Observations because
reputation required t
that he has written a


Sir Thomas
Digy ms
his social
hat he not
criticism


Browne (New York, 1961),
disown publication of the
station and intellectual
immediately acknowledge
of an anonymous book.


14"wilkn,


-22


-W A,


XXIX,


15Ibd,, I, xxl, Peterason,
beievt"-that Digby misrepresents
eamiaav 4 .4 an 4 a nab 4n atn


o cait.,
+n mnlre 4*


pp. 168-169,
devoted to the
sUnanw' .t E a






Although


Digby *


fuller


Observations


contains


rela-


tively


little


comment


on Browne's


style,


Digby's


letter


lincludes$


a jud gent


that


tin


Religio


strongly


penned,


as requireth


much


time,


and


sharp


attention,


but


comprehend


Wilson


regards


this


statements


as a perceptive


opinion


on Blrowne'


demand s.


Excesses


langagp


both


letters


emphasize


the


which


strained


seeks


mixture


eli,?


courtesy,


on sionl.


modesty,


Johnson


bravado,


comments


and


these


anger


letters


"The


reciprocal


civility


authors


one


most


risible


scenes


farce


life.


Isrofl~loQS


note


signed


appeared


when


letters


were


publl shed.


This


notice


earliest


retort


Di gby


for


author


acknowledges


without


Browne* s


approval


that


readers


both


Religio


and


Observat ons


will


perceive


"hasty


birth"


the


latter


which


contains


a veat


extent


Digby' S


"prepared


conceptions"


and


"digres ions


S S


not


all


emergent


from


this


discourse,


This


note


first


many


rebuttals


charging


that


Digby


misunderstood


and


ml represent ted


meaning


Rellgio.


A correspondent


Browne' Bs,


he~fnry


Bates,


wrote


August


, 1647


17WI. 1 ki n1


an..


a~tt_


:1


Trri i.


16~n


t"i if,,






But
Mons
and
of t
hee
[the
ment
had
then
woul
sce
unle


it
ie
a
he
ha


troubles a
ur le Cheva
Judgment,
sunne, and
d thought o


Earl
, aut
animad
sOe n
soon1
d have
late t


be.,


ee li
lher,
should
Schi
n the


of Dorset's]
numquam tent
averted bette
ihil agenda
orost himse
o seo little


intended


ke the
who p


8


fall
BSpes


attempt


to


oppir on Reli
motto of tha
, whence hee
es aut perfloc
r, or had bee
on that piece
lfe, blest hi
purpose, and


make


of Phaeto
both for
reyne th


o Media
noble


0


*
a


an opiate


k tha
or th
liud
ure t
o hav
se hi


for


n, that
a sit
e horses
ol; I wish
family
t employ-
at hee


agendo,
hen he
e sitt up
s sleep,


his


readers.


Such


disparagement


uastif t~ed


since


much


Digby' s


atrrti-


aisa


Browne


either


facetious


or unfair,


Coleridge a"


evaluation


Digby's


inability


recognize


true


nature


Rsligio


still


very


much


points


Sir K. Digby's
in his own sys
considered the
in a metaphysi
character & pa
Investigation


obs
tom
Rel
caut
ssio
of n


ervations are those of a pedant
& opinion. He ought to have
ito Medic! in a dramatic & not
41&-as a sweet Exhibitlon of
n, & not as an Expression or
osltive Truth.20


Digby


shows


little


sympathy


with


Browne' a


message


his


style


and


most


his


favorable


comment


does


not


ring


true;
is not

after


sounds


taken


snide


kindly


or reveals


or generously


self-effaoement


a superior


most
Many


Browne.


attitude


readers,


Di6by' s


which


especially


most


telling


points


are


truncated,


leading


not


evidence


conclusions,


but


adverti segment a


for


his


coming


attraction,


ywo


Treatises.


fact,


Observations


can


only


read


as a series


incomplete


unformed


jottings,


pivoting


n nn tfEA


Uutilewt. lP


an-


eit .


I4e;A


19 T"bl A T _


fSk;?_






around


afnisu


related


points-- immortality


and


resurrection,


nature


virtue


and


grace--which


seemed


firs t


importance


Digby


time.


His


thinking


on even


these


point s


sometimes


belligerent,


as befits


'a n


imprisoned


angered,


incoherent,


characteristic


a man


rushed


and


impassioned.


Observations


reach


conclusion


because


they


cannot.


Digby


makes


no effort


present


a cogent


summation


but


then


perhaps


thoughts


were


much


flux


are


tied


left


with


securely


vision


every


an all-powerful


individual


soul


God


a chain


who


causes


which


visible


the


insight


rational


man,


But


only


path


"right


rea son"


can


mPen


grasp


signifi-


canoe


relationship,


Even


most


exalted


pa.-


sa6es,
Nor do


I,


Di gby
s he


never

forget


loses

the m


that


emphasis


echanlcal


on judicious


progression


reason.


causal


rela-


tions


Nor


that


does


conceives


these


the


nature


contemplations


~n"*


higher


existence.


natures


sIUch


the


immortal


soul


forego


moral


emphasis


on the


inferi-


ority


body


and


earthly


desires,


a curious


paradox


that


Browne' s


mystical


and


Platonic


iUB ight sO!thOSSa


moments


when


feels


that


tranas-


cendsa


inferior


real ty


and


perceives


true


reality--and


Browne's


social


personal


insights--those


moments


when


explains


chari t ies


and


virtues


that


can


expressed


between


u8n-n


The






of worldly


Digby


advice


Sman


Digbfy


complains


temperamentally


"vulgar


8ao t ios


not


him


metaphysical


speculations


are


either


ephemeral


or too


earth-laden;


his


earlyy


insights


are


unaspiring,


Kenelm


Digby


largely


unimpressed.


Yet


we cannot


dismi se


his


Observations


even


though


they


have


been


judged


Digby's


most


thorough


critic,


. Peterason,


"trifles


not


worthy


serious


attention,


because e


they


also


show


oro s currents


active


and


investigating


minds.


Digby


opens


his


Observations


with


pleasant


commenda-


tions


both


his


prompter,


Earl


Dorset,


"the


litl.a


needle


soul


thoroughly


touched


great


load-


stone


yours,


" and


the


Religio,


" his


good


nature


orea ture


I could


easily


persuade


Bedfellow,


and


wake


with


mee,


as long


Iliad


any


edge


entertain


myself


with


delights


sucked


from


so noble


a conversation.


However,


decides,


such


so he


"perfuno tory"


promises


responses


blot


are


a sheet


trivial,


or two


Digby


. with


reflections


upon


asundry


passages


through


whole


context


(pp.


1-2).


ait.,


316.


2[Sir


alT t 4 n


Thomas


ftalA ai


alnti


Browne


and


niCakr thu a


Sir


Kenela


nhhae a ti n n.


Digby],
qTn~ r~


Browne's


ai'w


S uairt


Browne s


oati, ejtescl.


2~se






Disby' 6


m eat


prominent


doubts


sonoer


what


irewne


"hath


sprinkled


(most


wittily)*"


about


the


Immortality


the


soul.


Citing


Roger


Baoons


dislike


for


those


unable


think


metaphysical


planes,


but


who


endlessly


attempt


Digby


allows
such s


serves


that


tudies,


him


Browne s


but


better


"sharpe wit"

believes that


understand


uisht
his


such


have

OWn "


served


little


subjects.


well


philosophy"


However,


Pitgb


professes


that


a lack


spaoe


will


not


permit


him


"make


good


this


assertion"


except


for


this


note:


that
of t
in t
of f


his
he


take


the


nature,
waye of


aith;


demonstrative


oth


immortality


that


proving
ers, it


them


Science,(p.


only


Sole
that


by reason,
an evident


it


*
Sr.
1.


. to
not v


bee


ersed


an article


eonolusion


Thus


Digby


o ppo s,.


Browne* a


"ArbSian"~


speculation


that


the


soulr


mortal.


For


Digby


boths


faith


ant'


demonstration


affirm


soul's


immortality.


That


Digby


returns


repeatedly


subject


the


soul


not


surpri sing


when


all


allusion


this


point


oompo :sing


"near


hundred


sheets


paper"


on the


"whole


Science


moyer W


shows


that


work-


tag


on his a


Two


Treatises


concerning


the Body and Soul of Man


public shed


1644.


Digby's


superficial


and


perharps


facetious


complaint


that


Browne


as a physician


mentally


inadequate


for


handling


metaphysical


questions


contained


an allusion


Roger


Bacon.


Perhaps


this


references


stems


from


Digby's


knowledge


Mits.~~


A somewhat


parallel


pFnassarge


may


Op~s






found


with


part


causes


one


Bacont s


error,


work


writes


which


that


one


while


safeguard


dealing


against


conceit


grasping


wishing


truth")


appear


the


wisae


recognition


(the


that


fourth


"obstacle


"universal


causes


should


considered


first.


For in
bodily


spiritual
disease;


particular


but the
universe


to
For
of


Such


acquire


if
what


causes


latter
1 cause


from


we are
follow


a plea


disease t
physicians


* process
learn the


a disease


as well the
a precedes,


tin'


former
which


processes


special


same


and


*ough symptoms ;
a knowledge of


the


physician


nature;


ignorant of the universal
s the universals.24


a remembrance


general


*e *e S
we are


concepts


ignorant


behind


knowledge


implied


Digby's


words


that


the


physician's


"fancy


always


fraught


with


material


drugs,


" and


his


hand a


and


@345s


with


"cutting


. inspection


anatomised


thoughts


bodies,


towering


that


least


a Game,


as a pure


able


"flye


intellect,


a sep-


rated


unbodyed


Soule.


Digby


not


championing


superiority


deduction,


but


recommend ing


that


instead


a concentration


on particular


details,


an understanding


"first


principles"


must


uppermost


any


metaphysical


ques-


tion.


Unfortunately


Digby


does


not


explain


spe ifically


what


means


knowledge


first

them


principles


Browne


soul


would


have


when


prevented


says
his


that

first


24floger


Robert


Belle


Bacon,
Burke,


Bacon,
T18 IT


transa.


'iZLg Opus






heresy,


that


believing


soul


dead


until


resurrected


with


body.


Later


Browne's


discussion


traduction


(i.e.,


soul


transmitted


generation


offspring)


section


and


prompts


knotty


Digby


a peece0


judge


for


problem


a Letter.


"too


summarily


tedious


declares


that


soul


not


Traduce,


and


yet


hath


a strange


kind


neere2


dependance


body;


which


as it


were,


Gods


instrument


create


Merritt


Hlughes


has


shown


that


orthodoxy


emphasized


immortality


soul


as a


signal


miraculous


nature


soul,


but


also


fell


back


on what


Browne


calls


"the


flat


affirmative


Plato,


Digby


also


re-enforoes


immortality


soul


and


transcendence


body,


but


opposes


traditional


Platonic


conception


when


writes


Bodies:


the Pla
humane
any kto
perfect
remember
ill bes
cause o
forget


tonic
Soul
wledg
; and
ings
tead,
f her


d

o


ulness


Philos
oth no



ne
tha


f
t
b


corporealit
a creature


0
o W
lei
in
y,
wh


unsufferable


re,
t a
hat
ren
ng6
a
-Os
ose
err


ophers (vh
t profit 1
as being
11 our dis
she had f
der a Phil
locked lnt
pure Spiri
o treat a
nature it
or.26


are
this


persuaded
llfe, nor


of herself
coursings


that a
acquire


compleatly
are but her


gotten) find
sophical and s
a Body. For,
(so manifest
corruption, in
is to know it


themselves
uffiolent
to put
an effect
respect
self) is


25.T
treated '
Baldwin
Thompson


he Themes of Pre-existence and
" Renaissance Studies in Honor
Naivel, W.D. IriFs 1j WafIr
(Stanford, Calif., 1941), pp.


Infancy in
of Hardin
t- Johnson,
296-300.


'The
Crait


Re-
p eds.
LE.S.


26wo_ Treatises: in the one of which, The Nature of




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