Expanding Teacher Role Definition
Toward Humanistic Values
TED D. KILPATRICK
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
I wish to express my appreciation to the Alachua
County School System and the teachers who participated
in this human relations workshop., I especially wish
to acknowledge the cooperation of Dr. Boyd Ayers,
Dr. Jack Christian, Dr. Wendell Kilpatrick, Dr. Marilyn
Thursby, Mrs. Mary Koru, and Mrs. Betty Sullivan. I am
also deeply indebted to Dr. Bill Mottola for his help
with the original proposal, as well as the development
of the evaluative instruments.
My thanks also go to the men on my advisory
committee--Dr. Harry A. Grater, Jr., Chairman; Dr. Marvin E.
Shaw; Dr. Gerald R. Leslie; Dr. Richard K. McGee; and
Dr. Carl T. Clarke. These men provided understanding and
demonstrated great flexibility by encouraging field
research despite the design problems and subjectivity
I owe a special thanks to Dr. Alan N. Griffin
for his long hours of dedicated help and willingness to
share the tedious complications of the data analysis. It
would have been impossible to complete this study with
out the benefit of his thinking and his dedicated
support. Special thanks also to Mrs. Janet Griner for
her excellent secretarial skills and forbearance despite
numerous delays and constant changes in the material.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES V
LIST OF FIGURES V
Statement of the Problem. .......
Purposes of the Study
Philosophy of Human Nature Scale . .
Survey of Interpersonal
Teachers Role Inventory
. Didactic and Group Process
Test of the Hypotheses
Hypothesis 1 .... .
Hypothesis 4 .
Does Human Relations Training
What Can One Hope to Accomplish
During Human Relations' Training. . .
TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued):
What Is the Best Approach to
Facilitate the Development of
Humanistic Values and Change
Teacher Role Definition? 62
Can Human Relations Laboratories
Be Task Oriented and Relevant to
the Needs of a Specific School
or School System? 72
Can Experience Gained During Human
Relations Training Be Generalized
to Specific Within-School Problems?. 75
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH W mo oVW Or
LIST OF TABLES
1: Age and Years of Teaching Experience for
Experimental and Control Subjects 37
2: Percentages for Sex and Race for
Experimental and Control Subjects ...... 38
3: Covariate Analysis of Pre-Test and Post-
Test PHN Scores for Experimental and
Control Groups 40
4: Descriptive Statistics for All Five
TRI Testings for the Experimental
Group and Pre-Test and Post-Test
for the Standard Control Group. ...... 42
5: Covariate Analysis of Pre-Test and Post-
Test TRI Scores for Experimental and
Control Groups 42
6: One-Way Analysis of Variance on TRI
Scale Five According to Testing
7: Covariate Analysis of Pre-Test and
Post-Test SIR Scores for Experimental
and Control Groups 4 8
8: Covariate Analysis of Pre-Test and Post-
Test Ideal-Self Congruence Scores
for Experimental and Control Groups .... 49
9: One-Way Analysis of Variance of Daily
Self-Report Mean Scores for Didactic
and Experiential Conditions 49
10. Comparison of PHN Scores for Experimental
and Control Groups to Wrightsman's
Study of Teachers and Administrators
in a Desegregation Institute 58
11: Subjective Reactions (DGQ) to Didactic
LIST OF TABLES (continued):
12: Subjective Reactions to Experiential
Group Process 6 8
13: Subjective Reactions to the NTL
14: Daily Self-Report Mean Scores for Didactic
and Experiential Conditions and
NTL Follow-Up 71
15: Subjective Reactions to the Overall
16: Percentages of Workshop Participants
Reporting the Development of Plans
for Their School 73
17: Percentages of Workshop Participants
Suggesting Changes in Alachua County
Schools to Help Facilitate Projected
18: Percentages of Workshop Participants
Requesting Help in Carrying Out Plans ... 73
LIST OF FIGURES
1: Mean TRI Scores for Experimental Groups
According to Treatment Sequence 43
2: Mean TRI Scores for Experimental Group
by Test Conditions . 45
3: Mean Daily Scores for All Groups
4: Mean Daily Scores According to
Treatment Condition ...... 52
5: Mean Daily Scores According to
Treatment Sequence 53
Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
EXPANDING TEACHER ROLE DEFINITION
TOWARD HUMANISTIC VALUES
Ted D. Kilpatrick
Chairman: Harry A. Grater, Jr., Ph. D.
Major Department: Psychology
This is a study of a 30-day human relations work-
shop conducted with 77 teachers. There were 48 teachers
in the experimental group and 29 teachers in the control
group. There were no significant differences between
the experimental and control groups on variables such as
race, sex, age, and years of teaching experience. The
experimental teachers received six days of didactic material,
six days of group process, three days of a National Training
Laboratory weekend retreat, and two days of NTL follow-up.
The following five hypotheses were tested by
analysis of covariance:
1. Workshop participants will increase their
acceptance of humanistic values.
2. Workshop participants will endorse a more
humanistic role definition.
3. Workshop participants will demonstrate
greater personal acceptance of school
administrators, staff and peers.
4. Workshop participants will reflect
increased congruence between their
ideal teacher role and their self-
5. Workshop participants will report more
personal involvement in the workshop and
greater understanding, satisfaction and
appreciation of the workshop's purposes
and goals during the experiential condition
than during the didactic condition.
Hypotheses 1, 2, 4, and 5 were confirmed. The
third hypothesis was specifically related to how workshop
participants felt about colleagues in their own school.
The failure to confirm this hypothesis suggests that
human relations workshops would probably be most
effective if they were conducted within a specific
The results were interpreted to indicate that
human relations laboratories are effective and can pro
duce definitive changes in terms of humanistic values,
role behavior and self-concept.
The Teacher Role Inventory (TRI) developed for
this study has shown itself to be of value in assessing
changes in role concept. Its ability to discriminate
very fine movement would seem to be of particular value
for assessing short-term in-service training projects
Many students, especially those who are poor,
intuitively know what the schools do for them.
They school them to confuse process and sub
stance. Once these become blurred, a new
logic is assumed: the more treatment there
is, the better are the results; or, escalation
leads to success. The pupil is thereby "schooled"
to confuse teaching with learning, grade advance
ment with education, a diploma with competence,
and fluency with the ability to say something
Equal educational opportunity is, indeed, both
a desirable and feasible goal, but to equate
this with obligatory schooling is to confuse
salvation with the church. School has become
the world religion of a modernized proletariat
and makes futile promises of salvation to the
poor of a technological age. The nation-state
has adopted it, drafting all citizens into a
graduated curriculum leading to sequential
diplomas not unlike the initiation rituals and
hieratic promotions of former times....
Two centuries ago the United States lead the
world in a movement to disestablish the monopoly
of a single church. Now we need constitutional
disestablishment of the monopoly of the schools,
and thereby of a system which legally combines
prejudice with discrimination. The first
article of a bill of rights for a modern,
humanistic society would correspond to the
first amendment of the United States Consti
tution. "The state shall make no law with
respect to the establishment of education.
There shall be no ritual obligatory for all."
At first glance, this damning assessment of modern
education seems far out of step with the glowing
statistics of an ever-enlarging educational structure.
These statistics "prove" that an increasing number of
people are being educated to greater heights than ever
before. The increased percentage of high school graduates
in the job force, and the rising entrance requirements
of colleges and universities are presented as documen
tation of a better-educated society. We somehow continue
to ignore the fact that we are desperately short of
skilled and semiskilled workers in many professions.
The nationwide shortage of nurses, plumbers, mechanics,
etc., grows steadily worse despite a more "edcated"
Illich maintains that this would not be true if
learning were associated with the acquisition of a new
skill or insight, rather than with promotion or graduation
based upon the opinion or assessment of someone else.
Both professional and blue-collar supervisors have long
known that their employees did not learn their trade in
the classroom. Job skills, language skills, creativity,
social responsibility, etc., are culturally taught via
the family, church, or peer interaction, not through
Programmed instruction is, of course, necessary
and beneficial. Children need to learn the self-
discipline that is necessary to master a complex skill.
The question is not about the need to learn, but rather
concerns the most efficient and constructive way to
develop motivation (Fuller, 1969; McKeachie, 1963).
When success is measured by compulsory classroom attend
ance and automatic promotion, rather than personal
involvement and commitment, individual initiative and
personal satisfaction are retarded or destroyed.'*'
Illich's answer to this is to call for a "deschool
ing of society." By this, he means the eventual abolition
of compulsory education, thereby releasing both teacher
and student to develop individual educational programs
based on self-development and personal motivation. Illich
suggests that this "deschooling" has already started and
teachers and administrators must face the fact that their
future in education will require personal involvement
and an expanded role definition if they are to survive.
The movement to enlarge the teacher's involvement
with the total community is meeting a great deal of
resistance from within the school system itself (Sharma,
1963 and Moeller and Charters, 1966). Some educators maintain
that even more strucure is needed, and schools should be run
on a businesslike basis where the only concern is an end
product that can adequately solve algebraic equations
or reproduce the circulatory system from memory. Such
a system is being tried in Gary, Indiana, under the
sponsorship of Behavioral Research Laboratories (BRL) of
Westwood (1967) raises this same general question using
the term "dysfunctional" to describe much of traditional
Palo Alto, California. BRL contracted to educate 800
black children at $800 per child per year.
guaranteed to bring each child up to the national norms
on standard achievement tests in three years or refund
the full $2400 investment for each child not reaching
the norms. The BRL system comes complete with fully
programmed textbooks and even its own
who has the job of evaluating how children may become
more self-reliant. By making the children more self-
reliant, fewer teachers are needed, and thus the project
is more profitable. The program was evaluated by
teacher-author, Del Kaufman (1971).
Kaufman could not fault the efficiency or
apparent success of the BRL system. He did note that
essentially nothing was demanded of the child except
the ability to follow instructions
motivation, or self-direction were unnecessary
children can read, however, something they were unable
to do previous to the BRL takeover. Kaufman concludes,
"It isn't just that they have succeeded, but that we
[public education] have failed
Why does a child who
is eager to learn the alphabet and begs for a story
begin to hate to read? Or a child who starts out
loving nursery rhymes end by hating poetry? What in
his education was missing?" In the final analysis,
Kaufman expresses the same concern as Illich; namely,
it is easy to confuse rote learning with education and
The questionable success of the BRL experiment
will undoubtedly attract many followers, and may even
encourage the development of a "big brother" educational
atmosphere. Educators, psychologists, and sociologists
already concerned with de-personalization in the class
room, see the BRL system as a giant step in the wrong
direction. Children in our society have far too few
contacts with understanding adults who are accepted by
their parents and peers alike (Miller, 1970)
need to plan for interpersonal contact in the classroom
to facilitate the socialization of the child. Much of
the socialization of children was once carried out by
the home or the church. The divorce rate in this country
now approaches 50 percent across the nation, and in some
parts of the West, has reached a high of 75 percent.
Legislative decisions have greatly curtailed the involve
ment of organized religion, thus limiting its influence.
The combination of numerous broken homes, plus the decline
of religious involvement has severely limited the number
of adult authority figures a child can positively identify
In this vacuum of understanding adults, the child
has turned to his own peers (Westwood, 1967). We now
Gary, Indiana, school system
to court for allegedly teaching the
to the achievement tests.
recently taken BRL
see a new culture emerging that often has more influence
on school age personality development than important
adult associations. The problems of school integration
have helped to pinpoint the fact that children of all
races have emotional and psychological needs which are
not currently being met by society, either inside or out
side the classroom (Epps, 1970).
Statement of the Problem
The teacher's traditional role becomes impossibly
Complex at this point. The lack of training in inter
personal skills makes it difficult for teachers to clearly
define emotional problems, much less develop specific
aims and goals for a disturbed child. The pressure of
differing expectations from the community, school system
and teacher himself, is confusing and stressful (Kahn,
1964). As aptly stated by Margaret Mead (1961) "age
and experience become not orienting factors but disorient
ing ones, and children become increasingly unpredictable."
As of this point in time, the public school
system is the one institution that at least has access
to every child for a specified amount of time. The
problems of our nation's youth thus come to rest in the
classroom, whether we like it or not, and regardless of
our preparation to handle them. An educational system
which was originally conceived as.a place to teach
geography and math is now loaded with thousands of
children who need emotional support, humanistic under
standing, and preventive mental health. To ignore these
needs through the seduction of apparent productivity via
the BRL system, or to lose contact with the emotionally
confused or disturbed child through the abolition of
compulsory education, would seem an unforgivable injustice
to future generations.
The school system is a tremendous potential
resource to meet the complex needs of every child.
is a place for programmed learning of specific skills and
we need the qualified professionals who are interested
in this aspect of education. This tool of education can
only be fully utilized, however, in an atmosphere that
represents emotional stability and security for each child
(Dreeben, 1967; Wilson, 1965; Evans, 1966). The emotional
and psychological needs of many children in today's school
system can no longer be met by the traditional classroom
presentation of specific materials (Westwood, 1967).
only do these children fail to learn the content presented,
but also experience new failures within the school system
(Epps, 1970). The frustration of these failures becomes
the genesis of disciplinary problems which in turn leads
to retribution by the school system
the child develops a negative and rebellious attitude
toward the social
represented by the school,
and often ends up reinforcing his impression that adult
authority figures are inflexible, unsympathetic, and unconcerned
If this situation were true of a small percentage
of the classroom population, it might be possible to
handle the problem with outside professionals, school
psychologists or school counselors
The numbers involved,
however, are not small, and while the problems of inte
gration have certainly contributed to the conflict and
turmoil in the classroom, integration is not the problem.
The real difficulty stems from the unmet needs of hundreds
of young people, both black and white, who bring their
emotional and psychological needs to the classroom. These
needs are common to much of our society where rapid
changes have made many of our previous values, norms,
and expectations obsolete (Toffler, 1970). The confusion
and anxiety created by this accelerated process of change
is clearly reflected in the adult
especially evident in the school age population (Westwood,
Teachers have also been caught up in the
bewilderment of "future shock." Only a few years ago,
the teacher's role required the teacher to be friendly
and helpful to students, but not personally involved
with them. Teachers were primarily expected to endorse
and maintain the social and moral standards of the com
munity and competently discharge their instructional
responsibilities (Chilcott, 1958). In the late 1950's,
there began a spectacular extension of teacher responsi
bilities into areas that did not specifically pertain
to education (Biddle et al., 1961). These new areas of
concern involved the child's social and emotional
development as well as the related areas of moral values
and mental health.
To some extent, teachers have always served the
dual function of transmitting both knowledge and values
(Wilson, 1962). This has been accomplished through a
relationship with each child based on mutual respect and
acceptance of society's standards. Teachers have accepted
responsibility for reinforcing the social values children
normally receive from their homes, relatives, or religious
involvements (Westwood, 1967). This system worked well
as long as the majority of children came from fairly stable
home environments where their emotional and psychological
needs were met, and the social expectations were similar
to those of the school system. Children with emotional
problems or poor self-concepts were handled on an individual
basis by school counselors or outside professionals.
As large numbers of minority groups and disad
vantaged children were incorporated into the main stream
of public education, teachers found themselves faced with
problems they were not trained to handle. Even though
aware of differences in cultural background and home
environment, teachers find it difficult to change their
expectations and discriminate between the abilities and
cultural standards of minority groups (Ulibarri, 1960;
Westwood, 1967). Since teacher effectiveness is based
on an accurate perception of student reaction and feed
back (Penfold and Meldon, 1969), and learning occurs when
information takes on a personal meaning to the child
(Combs, 1970), it is critical that teachers be able to
understand and communicate with every child in the class
room, regardless of the student's, cultural background or
personality. This is often difficult with the slow or
disturbed child since it is first necessary to build or
repair the student's self-concept. Little academic
achievement can be expected from a child who feels
inadequate, inferior, unimportant or unloved (Caldwell,
The link between student self-concept and achieve
ment represents only one-third of the learning cycle.
The second part involves the relationship between the
teacher and the student. The more personally sensitive,
the teacher is of the
student's needs, concerns, and achievements, the better
the student learns (Hefele, 1971; Penfold and Meldon,
1969; Gazda, 1971; Aspy, 1969; Aspy and Hadlock, 1967).
A good learning environment is possible when the teacher
accurately perceives and understands the needs of the
student, which in turn allows the teacher to help the
student develop a good self-concept. If every student
felt secure, motivated, and full of self-confidence, a
teacher could afford to remain aloof and uninvolved.
Many of today's children, however, are insecure, poorly
motivated, and have little or no self-confidence. The
key to teaching this type of child is the teacher's
ability to develop a positive interpersonal relationship.
A teacher's interpersonal skills are primarily influenced
by teacher self-concept (Lee, 1970) rather than the
student composition of the classroom. This brings us
to the final phase of the learning cycle. Namely, a
teacher's interpersonal skills and self-concept are
related to pupil acceptance in the classroom, and thus
directly linked to student self-concept and student
achievement (Ravitz, 1957).
The problems outlined above (regarding today's
confused and ambiguous teacher role definition) have had
their effect on teacher self-concept. For the most part,
this impact has been quite deleterious and large numbers
of teachers have begun to search for new ways to under
stand and cope with the wide range of problems they now
find in their classrooms. To meet these needs, adminis
trators have turned to the social sciences for help with
in-service training and program development. Some of
the in-service training programs in common use are T-groups,
sensitivity training, encounter groups, laboratory groups,
. Currently, the term human relations is in vogue, and
many in-service programs around the country are now simply
referred to as "Human Relations Training."
The sudden surge of interest in human relations
training becomes obvious when reviewing the number of
articles in psychological abstracts between 1960 and 1971.
Prior to 1968, the number of entries under human relations
training, sensitivity training, etc., fluctuated between
five and ten per year. The figure doubled during 1968
and 1969, when there were a total of 18 articles reviewed,
and doubled again between 1969 and 1970, when there were
a total of 37 articles reviewed. During the first four
issues of 1970-71, 40 articles had already been listed,
indicating that the figure will probably double again.
This accelerated interest in human relations
training should not be interpreted as generalized accep-
tance of either the value or appropriateness of the
various programs. It has been offered as a "better
order" for changing our entire culture (Shepard, 1970),
and at the same time condemned as unworthy of public
funding for teacher training (Hassard, 1968). Several
authors (Rakstis, 1970; Shostrom, 1969; Birnbaum, 1969;
Sumner et al., 1969; Edwards, 1970; Wiggins, 1970;
Combs, 1970) have warned against the indiscriminant use
of sensitivity training, human relations training and
encounter groups. Most of these men have also acknowledged
the value of human relations training under certain
circumstances, but are concerned about the lack of
knowledge regarding who needs human relations training
and what happens to individuals who receive it. There
has also been a great deal of concern about the use of
paraprofessionals who have had little or no formal educa-
tion in group dynamics or personality development, but
nevertheless become group leaders in human relations
Despite these concerns, the pressing need of
education is encouraging the
on of human
relations programs throughout the nation. Nations
Schools (1970) took an opinion poll of school administra
tors in March, 1970, concerning their
the value of sensitivity training or human relations
programs in their schools. Thirty-five percent of the
respondents indicated they felt such a program would have
positive benefits. Forty-nine percent of the respondents
were not sure about the benefits of such a program, and
16 percent felt that there was nothing to be gained from
training in interpersonal relationships. The poll was
based on the responses of 315 school administrators
representing a proportional sampling of 14,000 school
administrators in all 50 states.
These results reflect
the interest, confusion, and concern about in-service
human relations programs
Part of the nationwide interest in human relations
training has come from its use in crisis situations.
Some towns have developed a program of encounter groups
on a community-wide basis (Cattle, 1969). Community
leaders, parents-, students, and teachers have been invited
to attend these encounter groups in order to bring
problems into the open, and hopefully find solutions.
These programs have been especially helpful in potentially
volatile black-white confrontations. Similar programs
have been developed within individual schools in response
to crisis (Mottola, 1970).
Numerous models have been used in human relations
training, depending on the needs of the individual
school. Some schools have developed student encounter
groups (Hansen and Wirgau, 1970), while others have
included primarily school staff and teachers (Koile and
Galleffich, 1971), and still others have concentrated on
black-white relationships (Wilson, 1969; Carkhuff and
Banks, 1970; Bagdassarroff and Chambers, 1970). Programs
have also been designed for specific groups such as new
teachers (Grossman and Clark, 1967), elementary teachers
(Lee, 1970), etc. Regardless of the specific program
or participants involved, the general goal has been to
improve communications and facilitate positive inter
personal relationships. The need for this in today's
classroom is urgent enough to encourage some writers
(Lippitt, 1970; Kimple, 1970; Osborne, 1970) to endorse
widespread human relations training among educators, even
though we are not yet able to guaranty positive results.
Purposes of the Study
The major problem at this time is a shortage
of information. Very little research has been done on
what happens to teachers during human relations training.
Do they change their role definition, do they accept
more humanistic values, does their self-concept improve,
do they become more interpersonally accepting? We have
very few answers for these questions, and yet human relations
training is rapidly being accepted as a necessary part of
in-service training for teachers.
Since human relations workshops are already with
us, it is possible to answer some of the above questions
by planning these workshops to accommodate the needs of
field research. By carefully evaluating the effects of
numerous workshops on various participants, it should
eventually be possible to develop training programs
specifically aimed at improving teacher self-concept and
The difficulties of conducting research in human
relations training are numerous (Harrison, 1971). The
persistent problems of inadequate control groups, variability
of training experiences, inadequate assessment instruments,
and lack of longitudinal data make this type of research
difficult at best, and often impossible. In addition, the
need to accommodate funding guidelines and local power
politics may make any type of a legitimate research design
impossible. Nevertheless, we need more research in this
area, and the quickest way to gather it is to build an
adequate evaluation into new projects as they are conceived.
In the Spring of 1971, the Alachua County,
Florida, school system gathered professionals from the
University of Florida (from the College of Education
and the Department of Psychology) to discuss a county
wide project to deal with racial tensions and general
conflicts within the secondary schools. The original
idea was to develop within-school teams composed of two
teachers, one administrator, and two outside professionals.
These teams were to evaluate the needs of their particular
school, and then meet during a summer workshop to improve
their skills in crisis intervention and prepare programs
for the coming year. A proposal was written and sub
sequently funded by the Civil Rights Act.
Because of the delay in initial funding, it was
impossible to develop the within-school teams during
the school year as originally proposed. It was thus
decided to conduct a pilot project with a sample of
secondary school teachers from each school. The purpose
was to develop a core of humanistic teachers with good
interpersonal skills to work in the schools the following
year. If the workshop could help these teachers develop
a more humanistic role definition, then it was anticipated
that a larger grant would be written for a county-wide
in-service training program.
Fortunately, the need for an adequate evaluation
was accepted during the early planning, and the workshop was
designed accordingly. Even so, there were numerous
problems in designing the research, since the funds came
from a Federal agency and were then channeled through
the local school board. Nevertheless, it was possible
to accommodate a research design which allowed an
investigation of the research needs described earlier.
The overall purpose of the workshop was to help
a representative sample of secondary school teachers
expand their role definitions toward more humanistic
values. To meet this goal, the workshop was designed
to improve: (1) self-concept as a teacher; (2) inter
personal acceptance of administrators and peers; and
(3) humanistic values. The focus of the workshop was
thus on the teachers themselves, rather than curriculum,
subject content, or teaching methods.
The teachers were exposed to both a didactic
presentation and an experiential human relations group.
This design was necessitated by a decision of the county
administrators that all participants would be exposed to
the same information and techniques. They also decided
that it was necessary to present specific topics to the
teachers that they felt were related to the needs of
their particular school system.
In planning for the workshop, one of the primary
questions concerned the best way to get information to
teachers concerning issues that required humanistic
understanding and awareness. Some administrators wanted
to use a lecture series, while others felt very strongly
that a participating workshop would be more beneficial.
It was decided to do both, and evaluate which approach
was best accepted by the participants themselves.
This design was somewhat similar to previous
studies (Rand and Carew, 1970; Lee, 1970), where groups
were compared after receiving either a didactic or
experiential treatment process. These studies used
different subjects in the two treatment groups, whereas
in this study the experimental participants received both
treatments, but at different times. Through the timing
of interim testings, the differential effects of treat-
ment sequence have been examined.
The didactic sessions in this study were presented
by qualified professionals who discussed topics designed
to increase awareness of the need for a humanistic
approach to teaching. Several different methods of
presentation were used, including films, discussion
panels, speakers, and group discussion.
The experiential groups were conducted by trained
professionals who were experienced at developing inter
personal sensitivity and humanistic awareness. The
group methods were designed to increase interpersonal
understanding and self-acceptance by encouraging each
group member to actively participate and risk sharing
himself with the others.
Several previous studies with teachers (Krafft,
1967; Casper, 1967; McClintock, 1957) have suggested
that an experiential approach does the best job of
developing interpersonal skills and humanistic values.
With this research in mind, the following hypotheses
were generated to assess this aspect of the workshop.
1. Workshop participants will increase their
acceptance of humanistic values more than
will untreated control subjects. This will
be tested by an analysis of covariance using
the post-test Philosophy of Human Nature (PHN)
scores as the dependent variable and the pre
test PHN scores as the covariate.
2. Workshop participants will endorse a more
humanistic role definition than will un
treated control subjects. This will be
tested by an analysis of covariance using
the post-test Teacher Role Inventory (TRI)
scores as the dependent variable and the
pre-test TRI scores as the covariate.
3. Workshop participants will demonstrate
interpersonal acceptance of school
administrators, staff and peers than will
untreated control subjects. This will be
tested by an analysis of covariance using
the post-test Survey of Interpersonal Relation
ships (SIR) scores as the dependent variable
and the pre-test scores as the covariate.
In order to assess changes in teacher self-concept,
comparisons were made between pre-test congruency on
ideal teacher and self as a teacher, and post-test
congruency on the ideal and self forms of the TRI.
The relationship between ideal and self images and per
sonal adjustment has been well documented (Rogers, 1951,
1952; Rogers and Dymond, 1954; Burke and Bennis, 1961).
These men have demonstrated that low discrepancy
between ideal self and actual self is positively
correlated with independent measures of personal adjust-
ment. Butler and Haigh (1954) demonstrated that congruency
between self and ideal increases during the course of
successful therapy. Most of the movement seems to occur
with the self image moving upward toward the ideal, although
the ideal is likely to lower slightly toward a more
achievable level (Rudikoff, 1954). Similar changes in
self-ideal congruency have been achieved in group psycho
therapy (Truax et al., 1968). To the extent that experi
ential human relations training with teachers is a quasi-
therapeutic setting, changes in self-concept should be
observable among members of such a workshop. To assess
this aspect of the workshop, the following hypothesis was
4. Workshop participants will reflect a
higher congruence between their ideal
teacher role and their self-defined
role than will untreated control sub
jects. This will be tested by an
analysis of covariance using the post-
test congruence scores as the dependent
variable and the pre-test congruence
scores as the covariate.
As mentioned above, the school administrators were not
only concerned with the'individual movement of workshop
participants, but also interested in discovering which
approach (didactic or experiential) was the most satis
fying and palatable. In order to assess this aspect of
the workshop, the following hypothesis was tested:
5. Workshop participants will report more
personal involvement in' the workshop and
greater understanding, satisfaction and
appreciation of the workshop's purposes
and goals during the experiential condition
than during the didactic condition. This
will be tested by a one-way analysis of
variance between the daily self-report
mean scores for days under the didactic
condition versus days under the exper
The subjects in the workshop were 77 junior and
senior high school teachers from Alachua County, Florida.
Of this number, there were 48 participants and 29 controls
The 48 participants were selected by the county staff in
conjunction with the individual school principals accord
ing to the following criteria:
Each secondary school in the county would
An appropriate balance would be achieved
on such variables as race, sex, age, and
of teaching experience.
The participants would be able to attend
the entire workshop.
Each participant in the workshop was paid $20 per day plus
expenses for travel and lodging during the weekend retreat
The control group was selected according to the
They were not participating in any summer
course work or workshops that were designed
to influence interpersonal relations or
An appropriate balance would be achieved
on such variables as race, sex, age, and
of teaching experience.
Each subject would be available for both
the pre-testing and post-testing at specified
A total of six instruments were used in evaluating
the experimental subjects. These were:
Philosophy of Human Nature (PHN)
Survey of Interpersonal Relationships
Teacher Role Inventory (TRI)
Daily Self-Report (DSR)
Didactic and Group Process Questionnai
Post Workshop Questionnaire (PWQ)
The first four instruments in this list were all marked
objectively, and scored with prepared scoring keys.
last two instruments were open-ended subjective questionnaires
which allowed the participants to respond in their own words
to the various parts of the workshop. The first three
instruments were used for both the experimental subjects
and the controls.
The last three instruments were used
only with the experimental subjects.
Philosophy of Human Nature Scale
The Philosophy of Human Nature Scale (Wrightsman,
1964) is an instrument designed to understand "aspects of
human nature which bear on our dealings with others."
The instrument contains six sub-scales: Trustworthiness,
Altruism, Independence, Strength of Will and Rationality,
Simplicity-Complexity, and Variability Between People.
The first four sub-scales are summed to give a General
Favorableness of Human Nature Score.
The two sub-scales
on Complexity and Variability are summed to give a score
on the Multiplexity of human nature. The first four sub-
scales and the General Favorableness score are primarily
evaluative in nature while the last two sub-scales and
their sum deal with beliefs about the basic "understand-
ability and consistency of human nature."
Split-half reliabilities for two testings on 100
graduate students at a three-month interval were as
Strength of Will and Rationality .75
General Favorableness .90
There was no reliability coefficient given for the
Validity was assessed by correlating the PHN to
other "attitude scales in the same conceptual area." The
PHN was negatively correlated to the Political Cynicism
Scale and Machiavellianism Scale, and positively correlated
to the Faith-in-People Scale. The correlations are listed
Political Faith-in- Machiavellianism
Strength of Will
Correlations marked are significant at
the .01 level. (Wrightsman, 1964)
The Likert-type items are responded to on a separate answer
Survey of Interpersonal Relationships
The SIR (Wittmer, 1970) was designed to assess
interpersonal relationships between teachers, guidance
counselors, principals, secretarial staff, etc., within
a given school. Both the control group and experimental
subjects were thus instructed to consider only the
faculty and staff of the school they last taught in.
instrument yields three main scores:
(2) Cognitive; and (3) Total. Reliability Coefficients
(Spearman-Brown) are .82 (Affective); .96 (Cognitive);
and .91 (Total). Content validity was assessed by more
than 100 school administrators. "The overwhelming majority
who responded to the SIR in a pilot study judged it high
in content validity" (Wittmer and Ferendin, 1970) .
subjects responded on a separate answer sheet that was
Teachers Role Inventory
The TRI was developed by Kilpatrick and Griffin
(1971) to assess attitudinal favorability towards specific
teacher role behaviors. Items for the scale were developed
from a pool of 125 teacher role behaviors suggested by a
group of nine secondary school teachers
role behaviors were then reviewed by a panel of five judges
who clarified and combined them into a total of 56 items.
Graduate students in the Department of Psychology,
University of Florida.
These 56 items were then given to another panel of six
judges who rated each item twice. For their first rating,
the judges were told to rate the item according to clarity,
appropriateness for teachers, and understandability.
judges rated each item on a three point-scale. A good
item that did not need any modification was scored 1,
items requiring some modification were scored 2, and bad
items were scored 3. The judges were then askedto score
each item according to its positive or negative association
with humanistic values. For example, all six judges scored
the following item in a negative way: "As a teacher I dis
courage student discussion of racial differences." An example
of a positive item would be: "As a teacher I support bi-
racial student discussion groups
The final 28 items were
selected according to the following criteria:
An item had to have unanimous agreement
from all six judges regarding its positive
or negative association with humanistic
All bad items (rated as a 3 by any one
judge) were discarded.
Any item rated 2 by more than three of
the judges was discarded.
The wording for any item given a 2 had to
be unanimously resolved by all six judges.
This procedure yielded six negative items and 22 positive
items for a total of 28 items.
The contert validity of the instrument is related
to the initial pool of items (which were suggested by
teachers) and the analysis of the eleven different judges.
All of the judges were either Ph.D.-level psychologists
or advanced graduate students in psychology with experience
in educational settings.
Test-retest reliability over a thirty-day interval
with 74 teachers was .83 (Pearson r correlation significant
at .001). Equivalent forms correlation (ideal and self)
for 75 teachers was .88 (Pearson r correlation significant
Two different stems were mated with each item, allowing
the subject to respond both as himself and as a "good
(effective)" teacher would respond. For example: "As
a teacher, I must maintain a quiet classroom," as well
as "A good (effective) teacher must maintain a quiet
classroom." All of the "good (effective)" items were
presented first, followed by the same items with the self-
related stems. Item presentation was randomized according
to a table of random numbers.
The subjects were instructed to respond to each
item by marking five modified bipolar semantic differentials:
0% of the time 100% of the time
Each bipolar scale was set up on an unmarked 100-millimeter
line (see Appendix). There were three reasons for
selecting this graphic method of responding. First, it
was hoped that the unmarked line would elicit a more
subjective response. Second, since the test was to be
used several times within a thirty-day period, it was
hoped the use of an unmarked line would cut down on the
recall of previous responses. Third, the unmarked line
allowed the scoring overlay to be divided into 20 five-
millimeter segments, thus permitting finer discrimination
The five bipolar scales were selected from a
pool of scales obtained primarily from Osgood et al.'s
(1957) list of evaluative semantic differentials.
scales particularly appropriate for.teachers were added
to this pool by the authors of the instrument
were then reviewed by a panel of three judges, and five
were selected for the final form of the instrument
of the scales (good-bad, harmful-beneficial, comfortable-
uncomfortable) are known to be primarily evaluative in
nature from Osgood's work. The appropriate-inappropriate
scale was correlated to the other three evaluative
differentials (.91 Pearson r correlation). The time
scale was included in order to assess degree of commitment
to humanistic role behavior, and was scored separately.
The scales were marked directly on the test booklet by
having each subject make a single vertical mark through
the line of each of the five bipolar scales for each item.
The daily evaluation form consisted of eight
items which assessed the participants' degree of involve
ment in the day's activities (see Appendix).
items were modified from a group process questionnaire
obtained from The National Training Lab. The participants
responded to each item on an unmarked 100-millimeter line
by making a single vertical mark through the line directly
on the form. An overlay that divided each line into 20
five-millimeter segments was used to score each item.
All experimental subjects filled out this form at the
end of each day.
Didactic and Group Process Questionnaire
This questionnaire consisted of 19 open-ended
items designed to allow each participant to express his
or her personal reaction to the various parts of- the work
shop (see Appendix). Each item was scored by a panel
of four judges along two dimensions. First, each judge
determined the quality of the response, noting whether
Each judge then scored the item according to the "reason"
for the response. The possible reasons were
1. None indicated
2. Information gained or impersonal reason
3. Personal reason
4. Interpersonal reason
Each item was given a code where the first number identi
fied the quality of the response and the second
number identified the reason for the response. For
example, "The workshop was important to me because it
helped me to understand and appreciate how others feel"
would have been coded 1-4 (Positive, Interpersonal). An
example of a negative-personal response would be, "I
didn't get anything out of it because it didn't apply to
Some items on this questionnaire, as well as the
Post-workshop Questionnaire, asked the participants to
discuss plans they had developed for their own school
during the course of the workshop. These items were also
scored by the same panel of four judges and given the
1. No plans indicated
2. Specific plans and processes discussed
3. General plans and goals identified
One question asked for requests from the participants
concerning their needs to implement their plans. This
question was also scored by the same panel of judges
according to the following code:
1. None indicated
2. Specific requests and processes discussed
3. General requests and goals identified
During the coding process each judge made an
independent decision and all differences were reconciled
by the entire panel. To assess inter-judge agreement,
15 instruments were coded independently by each judge.
Inter-judge agreement on the quality of responses was
approximately 87 percent complete agreement. Inter-judge
agreement on the reasons for responses was approximately
72 percent complete agreement.
This questionnaire consisted of nine subjective
questions related to the participant's overall reaction
to the NTL Retreat and the workshop as a whole. The answers
were coded by the same panel of judges using the same
scoring criteria as outlined above. This instrument was
given the final day of the workshop as a part of the post
The experimental participants were divided via a
table of random numbers into four groups of 12 each,
to any workshop involvement, the 48 participants were
administered the pre-test in a group session. Afew minutes
were spent at the beginning of this pre-testing establishing
rapport and building interest in the evaluation.
problem of confidentiality was discussed. Anonimity and
confidentiality were insured by the use of code numbers
known only to the participants. Throughout the evaluation,
all of the instruments were identified by the individual's
code number and group number in lieu of names, social
security numbers or other identifying data. This same
procedure was used with the control group.
The experimental groups, meeting jointly, were
given two hours of introduction and orientation to the
overall workshop. The pre-testing and orientation
session completed the first day of the workshop.
The remainder of the workshop was divided into
three treatment conditions:
Six days of didactic presentation
Six days of group process
A national training lab (NTL) weekend
and three-day follow-up.
The four groups were randomly assigned to the first two
treatment conditions. Two groups started group process
on the second day of the workshop, and two groups began
receiving the didactic presentation. At the end of six
days, the two groups receiving the didactic presentation
switched to group process, and the two groups in group
process switched to the didactic presentation. At this
point, a second testing of the TRI instrument was
administered. Following the second block of six days,
the TRI was again administered along with an open-ended
questionnaire. By the third testing, each group had
received six consecutive days, excluding weekends, of
didactic presentation, and six consecutive days of group
process. Each day consisted of four hours, from 8:30 to
12:30 with a 15-minute coffee break sometime between
10:00 and 10:30. At the end of each day, all subjects
were asked to fill out a brief daily evaluation sheet.
The didactic presentation consisted of individual
speakers, panels, films, and tape recordings on the
on in Florida
History of black-white relations in
Special problems of adolescent development
Community biracial relationships
Student feed-back and perspectives
Adolescent sexual development
Drug use and abuse
Application of behavior modification
principles in the classroom
In addition to these, groups I and II saw a film on
penitentiary life. The overall approach during the didactic
sessions involved professionals followed by a brief question
and answer period.
The group process sessions were led by four
professionals trained in group dynamics, interpersonal
relationships, and communication techniques. Each group
spent part of the total group process time as an integral
unit of 12, and part of the time with the other group
then in group process for a total group of 24. The group
process sessions met in the school library, which contained
both a large open room and several small discussion rooms.
This was in contract to the didactic groups which met in
regular classroom settings.
The NTL weekend was conducted by the three group
process leaders who had continued throughout the workshop,
plus three additional leaders brought in from outside
Alachua County. The retreat was held at the Ponce de
Leon Motor Lodge in St. Augustine, Florida. In addition
to the experimental subjects, several additional participants
were invited. These included the school principals from
the eight schools involved, community leaders, and Board
of Public Instruction staff.
The weekend consisted of a variety of activities
designed to increase interpersonal understanding and
communication. The bulk of these activities involved
small group discussions led by the various leaders in the
workshop. Starting on Monday after the weekend, there were
three days of follow-up activities. The subjects held
leaderless discussion groups with individuals from their
own school who had also participated in the workshop. The
principals from each school were again invited to participate
in these within-school groups.
The post-test came the third day of follow-up, and
concluded the workshop. In addition to the three objective
instruments (PHN, TRI, SIR), an open-ended subjective
questionnaire was administered. A latency testing of the
TRI was administered thirty days following the post-test.
The control group received the TRI, PHN and SIR
for the pre-test and post-test only. The control testings
were conducted over the same time interval as the pre-test
and post-test of the experimental subjects. There was no
other contact with the control group.
In addition to the analyses necessary to test the
five hypotheses mentioned in Chapter I, percentages will
be given regarding the open-ended reactions to the various
aspects of the workshop. Each day of the didactic
presentation and the overall reactions to the group
process time and NTL weekend will be tabled and reported
in the discussion chapter. The information concerning
future planning will also be reported in this section.
Scale 5 of the TRI (the time scale) will be
analyzed separately and reported on in the results chapter.
Sequence effects will be analyzed for both the TRI scores
and the daily self-report scores. Any differences between
experiences under the didactic condition versus experiences
under the group process condition for either daily or
TRI scores will be reported on in the results chapter.
The two groups which start didactic first will also be
compared with the two groups that start experiential first
for any differences as they progress through each of the
five testings on the TRI.
The experimental and control subjects used in
this study were discussed in Chapter II (page 22).
Table 1 gives a break down of percentages according to
age and years of teaching experience. For convenience
the table is divided into four age
years of experience categories. Individual T-tests for
age and years of experience were non-significant
gives the percentages for sex and race
the experimental and control groups on these factors were
Both the experimental and control groups were
composed of teachers from essentially the same general
population. All were teaching at the junior or senior
high school level in Alachua County, Florida.
were no statistical differences between the two groups
on variables such as sex, age, years of teaching experience
and race. The two groups are thus comparable (not
equivalent) and meet the criteria for a Separate Sample
Pre-Test Post-test Control Group Design (Campbell and
Stanley, 1963). This design controls for all of the
Age and Years of Teaching Experience for
Experimental and Control Subjects
25 & below
46 & up
F score = .
024 with df 1,68 NS
16 & over
F score = .173 with df 1,68 NS
Percentages for Sex and Race for
Experimental and Control Subjects
CHI Square =
= 1.09 with df(1)
CHI Square = 2.95 with df(l)
Note: Percentages were figured only on those
subjects who gave complete data. The
total number of subjects was 48
Experimental and 29 Control.
internal and external sources of invalidity noted by
Campbell and Stanley, except the possibility of a
trend in the experimental group related to their selection,
rather than treatment effects. Campbell and Stanley
indicate that this is an extremely strong (although
expensive) quasi-experimental design, which needs only
random assignment of subjects to be considered ideal.
The possibility of a specific bias within the
experimental group in this study seems unlikely since
the subjects for both groups were partially selected and
partially volunteers. Also, any influence from pre-test
differences between the experimental and control groups
was controlled for by using an analysis of covariance to
test the hypotheses. Pre-test scores were used as the
covariate to adjust post-test scores and all analyses
and findings are based on the adjusted post-test means.
Test of the Hypotheses
The first hypothesis is substantiated regarding
the evaluative aspects of the PHN scale. The scale
relating to human complexity and variability is not
substantiated (see Table 3).
The first four PHN sub-scales reflected upward
movement by the experimental group, although they did
not reach significance. The control group remained at
the same level or moved downward on these four sub-scales.
Covariate Analysis of Pre-Test and Post-Test PHN Scores
for Experimental and Control Groups
Strength of Will
The general favorableness scales (made up of the four
evaluative sub-scales) is significant in favor of the
As compared with the control group
workshop participants reflected evaluative changes in
their humanistic values by seeing mankind as more trust
worthy, altruistic, etc.
In terms of the multiplexity of human nature, the
complexity sub-scale was actually significant in.favor of
the controls. The general scale made up of the two sub
scales on variability and complexity was not significant.
Table 4 gives the descriptive statistics for the
various TRI administrations. For the experimental group,
the mean scores moved steadily upward exept for a slight
drop-off at the latency testing
The control group remained
essentially the same on the pre-test and post-test.
The second hypothesis is supported (see Table 5)
since teachers in the human relations workshop made sig
nificant gains over the control teachers in expanding
their role definitions toward more humanistic values.
This change seems to occur equally well regardless of
The group which received didactic
first had slightly higher original pre-test scores (see
Figure 1), and remained above the group that received
the experiential treatment first, except for the latency
testing. Separate covariate analyses for differences between
the two groups at any one testing were all non-significant.
Descriptive Statistics for All Five
TRI Testings for the Experimental Group and
Pre-Test and Post-Test for the Standard Control Group
Covariate Analysis of Pre-Test and Post-Test
TRI Scores for Experimental and Control Groups
F score = 35.070 with
df 1,71 significant at .
ft 1 ft f ft ft ft
GROUP MEAN SCORES
Covariate analysis of differences between
Groups A and B was non-significant for all
Mean TRI Scores for Experimental Groups
According to Treatment Sequence
Although treatment sequence did not affect the
rate of change in role definition, more progress was made
during the experiential condition than during the didactic
condition. Figure 2 compares the original pre-test scores
to interim scores received following a specific treatment
condition. There were significant differences between
the pre-test, experiential, post-test, and latency
conditions, but not the didactic condition. This indicates
that individuals reported significant changes following
the experiential condition but not following the didactic
condition. There was also a significant difference
between scores obtained following the didactic condition
and scores obtained at the post-test. This was not true
for any of the other conditions. Because of the counter
balanced design, only half of the experimental subjects
had received the experiential treatment when the didactic
scores were tabulated
At the post-test, all subjects
had received both the experiential treatment and the NTL
weekend, which was
in nature. The significant
differences between didactic scores and post-test scores
would be expected if most of the change were occurring
during the experiential treatment.
This same sequence was also true for scale 5 of
the TRI which was scored separately Csee Table 6). This
scale was developed to assess the amount of time a teacher
would allow for a
To the extent
that this scale is related to involvement, it would
GROUP MEAN SCORES
Scores for Experimental Group by Test Conditions
One-Way Analysis of Variance on TRI Scale Five
According to Testing Condition
Test vs. Test T
appear that teachers increased their acceptance of
involvement in such behaviors at about the same rate
they expanded their role definitions in general. This
finding may be strictly related to a response set, however,
and should be investigated more thoroughly with additional
instruments or actual observations in the classroom.
The third hypothesis concerning interpersonal
acceptance of within-school colleagues is not supported.
The results in Table 7 reveal essentially no change for
either the experimental group or the control group. It
should be remembered that this test was designed to be
given within an individual school setting. The instructions
to each subject in this study were to answer the test in
reference to the personnel in his individual school. The
results are thus understandable in that the experimental
subjects did not work with individuals from their own
school, but rather went through the workshop with
teachers from eight different schools.
The fourth hypothesis is also supported as
indicated in Table 8. Workshop participants experienced
more change in congruence between their ideal teacher role
and their self-defined teacher role than did the control
group. To the extent that this score is related to
self-concept, and self-concept to competence, experi-
mental subjects should reflect more self-confidence and
Covariate Analysis of Pre-Test and Post-Test SIR Scores for
Experimental and Control Groups
SIR Scale Experimental Group Control Group
Covariate Analysis of Pre-Test and Post-Test
Ideal-Self Congruence Scores for
Experimental and Control Groups
Pre-Test SD Post-Test SD
F score = 6.679 with df 1,69 significant at .05 level
One Way Analysis of Variance of
Daily Self-Report Mean Scores for
Didactic and Experiential Conditions
Mean Scores Standard Deviations
F score = 6.786 with df 1,48 significant at .05 level
appreciation of themselves as teachers than control
The results from Table 9 support the fifth
hypothesis. As a whole, workshop participants reported
greater satisfaction with daily activities and more
personal involvement in the proceedings during the
experiential condition than during the didactic .condition.
Unlike TRI scores, however, sequence of treatment does
appear to be related to how individuals report their
experiences over the course of the entire workshop.
Figure 3 gives the mean daily scores for all four
experimental groups combined. From a low on day one,
the scores move rather erratically upward to a high on
the final day of the workshop. Figure 4 explains some
of this variation, and reveals some interesting dif
ferences between the two groups that received didactic
first, and the two groups that received group process
During the didactic condition, Groups 1 and 2
(didactic first) started out low, but eventually ended
on a very high note. Groups 3 and 4 (experiential first)
came into the didactic condition at a much higher level,
and then moved down, except for a high score on the last
Under the experiential condition, Groups 1 and 2
started the group process experience at about the same
point they finished the didactic experience
GROUP MEAN SCORES
12 3 4 5 6 7
FIGURE 3 Mean Daily Scores for
All Groups Combined
GROUP MEAN SCORES
DIDACTIC CONDITION EXPERIENTIAL CONDITION
Mean Daily Scores According to Treatment Condition
GROUP MEAN SCORES
\ s /
GROUPS I and
GROUPS 3 and
Mean Daily Scores According to Treatment Sequence
remained relatively high throughout the experiential
condition and finished higher than Groups 3 and 4 who
had group process first. Groups 3 and 4 experienced a
great deal of fluctuation during group process. They
entered the didactic condition at about the same place
they left group process, but then.moved steadily down,
except for the final day high.
Figure 5 charts this sequence of events for the
entire workshop, and suggests that individual involvement
and satisfaction is directly influenced by treatment
sequence. Participants in this study experienced more
personal involvement and better experiences if they
received the didactic input first. This conclusion was
also supported by events that occurred during the work-
shop which will be discussed further in Chapter IV.
The first concern of any field research should
be its relevance to a legitimate problem. In Chapter I,
the multi-facted problems facing modern-day educators
were outlined. The influx of disturbed children and
the diverse backgrounds found in newly segregated class
rooms are but two of the major problems facing teachers
today. It is no longer enough to be proficient in a
particular content area. More than ever before, the
teacher's role now requires sophisticated interpersonal
skills and an understanding of group dynamics in order to
develop a facilitative learning environment.
This study focuses on the problem of training
teachers to understand and accommodate the increasingly
complex humanistic needs of today's student. Most school
administrators now accept the need to develop and refine
humanistic skills in their teachers, and the human
relations laboratory, in one form or another, has been
offered as the vehicle for such in-service training. The
immediacy of the problem, however, has required the
development and utilization of training techniques before
they could be properly researched and perfected. In this
study, we have looked closely at a human relations work-
shop and its impact on teachers. This gives us an
opportunity to expand our understanding of human relations
training and take a critical look at what can and cannot
To facilitate our discussion, the findings will
be examined according to the following five questions:
1. Does human relations training work?
2. What can one hope to accomplish during
human relations training?
3. What is the best approach to facilitate
the development of humanistic values
and change teacher role definitions?
4. Can human relations laboratories be
task oriented and relevant to the needs
of a specific school or school system?
5. Can experiences gained during human
relations training be generalized to
specific within-school problems?
Does Human Relations Training Work?
There is little doubt that workshop participants
in this study made definite gains over the control subjects
in many ways. The testing results clearly demonstrate
significant differences between the workshop participants
and the control group in areas such as humanistic values,
role definition, and self-concept. These three areas are,
of course, crucial to teacher training, and especially
applicable to the problems teachers face in today's class
room. Changes in these areas are 'difficult to produce
through didactic course work commonly required to maintain
proficiency or advance in grade. The findings of this
study indicate that human relations laboratories have a
definite place in in-service training and meet a need that
is especially critical at this time.
What Can One Hope to Accomplish During
Human Relations Training?
What one accomplishes during human relations
training is obviously related to the goals and purposes
of the laboratory. As noted in Chapter I, the primary
goal of this workshop was to help teachers expand their
role definition toward more humanistic values.
most part, this goal was accomplished, and the teachers
did change their humanistic values, expand their role
definition, and improve their self-concept. In order to
appreciate the significance of these findings, these
three areas, plus the results related to interpersonal
acceptance, will be examined more closely.
Table 10 compares post-test PHN means and standard
deviations for subjects from this study to a study of
teachers and administrators in a desegregation institute
conducted in 1965 (Wrightsman, 1967). The experimental
teachers in this study and the teachers in the Wrightsman
study are fairly close on the two general scales, as well
as the six sub-scales. The control subjects fall a good
deal below the Wrightsman group and the experimental
teachers on the general favorableness, trustworthiness,
altruism, and independence. The pre-test scores for the
Comparison of PHN Scores for Experimental and Control Groups to
Wrightsman's Study of Teachers and Administrators in a Desegregation Institute
Tchrs. & Admin.
Exp. Tchrs. in
Cont. Tchrs in
-Test Standard Deviations
Tchrs. & Admin.
Expt.- Tchrs. in
The Wrightsman study consisted of 86 teachers and administrators (34 male42 female, 49 white
37 black) from ten school districts all over the South (Wrightsman, 1967).
experimental group closely approximate the post-test
scores of the control group, except for the complexity
. The similarity of scores between the experimental
teachers in this study, and the teachers in the Wrightsman
study, serves to further validate that intensive human
relations training can change humanistic values as they
are assessed by the PHN scale.
The significant difference in favor of the control
group on the complexity sub-scale can be explained in
at least three ways. First, it may be an entirely
spurious finding. This scale has the poorest test re
test reliability (.52), and is not substantially correlated
in any of the validity studies. Second, it is possible
that the workshop's emphasis on people as human beings
with common goals, rather than individuals bound to
distinct groups, influenced the experimental group's
post-test movement on the scale. This does not explain
the upward movement of the control group, however. Third,
it is also possible that the concept of human nature as
complex and variable is not necessarily associated with
a favorable philosophy toward human nature. Wrightsman
(1967), for instance, found that guidance counselors in
two consecutive summer institutes had relatively low
(10.04, 12.97) mean complexity scores as compared to other
Perhaps as workshop participants
become more understanding and accepting of differences
between individuals, they are less inclined to focus on
or be concerned about the variation in human behavior.
Whatever the reason, the results of this study, plus
the inconsistancies in Wrightsman's own work, should
be evaluated further to assess whether or not seeing
people as complex and variable is necessarily associated
with a positive or negative philosophy of human nature.
Although it is certainly beneficial for individuals
to develop positive humanistic values, this does not
necessarily make them better teachers, unless these
values are reflected in classroom behavior. The steady
upward progression of the TRI scores is reassuring in
this regard. The significant changes in total TRI scores
and the increased congruence between ideal teacher role
and self-defined teacher role suggests that the experi
mental teachers accepted a greater variety of humanistic
role behaviors and also incorporated these changes into
their own role models.
The increase in ideal-self congruence is
particularly significant in light of the changes in
humanistic values mentioned above. To the extent that
ideal-self congruence represents personal growth and
adjustment (Truax, et al., 1968; Rogers and Dymond, 1954;
Burke and Binnis, 1961), we can expect teachers who have
adopted positive humanistic values and accepted related
role behaviors to demonstrate these changes in actual
classroom functioning. Increased ideal-self congruence
suggests a solidifying of the values obtained during the
human relations workshop and a willingness to adjust
personal role models accordingly.
The fourth area of concern, regarding interpersonal
acceptance of within-school colleagues, did not show any
appreciable change in this study. As noted in Chapter II,
the instrument used to assess this variable was originally
designed for within-school use (Wittmer, 1969). It has
been used successfully to demonstrate change in inter
personal acceptance following a within-school Communications
Workshop (Wittmer, 1970). The original proposal (outlined
in Chapter I) was designed as an intraschool project.
The findings here substantiate the need for a within-
school approach as presented in the original proposal.
During the course of the workshop, individual teachers
became involved and interpersonally accepting of each
other, but when asked to anticipate interpersonal relations
in their own school, they were obviously uncertain about
interactions being any different than before.
This would appear to be a serious shortcoming
of interschool human relations laboratories.
certainly valuable to develop more confident, humanistic,
and sensitive teachers, but their impact may be rather
limited if the school climate they have to work in does
not understand or appreciate their approach. On the
other hand, if it were possible to conduct a human rela
tions laboratory, such as the one described here, within
a .given school, and promote changes in humanistic values
and role definitions for the entire staff; then it is
certainly reasonable to expect that the interpersonal
climate would also improve.
Human relations training can accomplish a great
deal. The objective findings of this study document this
fact rather conclusively. Thus we turn to the third
question mentioned earlier concerning the best approach
to facilitate the development of humanistic values.
What Is the Best Approach to Facilitate the Development
of Humanistic Values and Change Teacher Role Definition?
The experimental subjects in this study were
exposed to three distinct treatment conditions:
1. Didactic material
2. Experiential involvement with group
3. A National Training Laboratory week
end retreat and two-day follow-up
As noted in the results chapter, the experiential con
dition seems to account for the most change in terms of
teacher role re-definition. This was true regardless of
sequence (didactic first or experiential first) for the
TRI scores, although sequence did appear to affect the
daily self-report scores, which also favored the experiential
condition. The daily reports improved for the didactic-
first group during the second week of training, but went
down for the experiential-first group during the same
time period. On the basis of the daily reports, it
might be argued that didactic should come first, and
experiential last, if we assume there is a correlation
between learning and the daily report of positive
An analysis of Table 11, however, raises some
question about the value of including didactic material
at all. This table gives the positive, neutral, negative
and ambivalent reactions to each of the eight didactic
topics. The positive reactions range from a high of
68 percent to a low of 14 percent. The negative reactions
range from a high of 70 percent to a low of 8 percent.
The mean scores for these percentages are given at the
end of the table as follows: positive 45 percent, neutral
13 percent, negative 31 percent, and ambivalent 12 percent.
Comparing Tables 11 and 12, we note that the 82
percent positive reaction to the six days of experiential
group process exceeds the highest positive percentage of
all the didactic sessions, and far exceeds the mean
percentage for the combined didactic sessions. In terms
of reasons for positive reactions, the didactic reports
consistently refer to information gained or impersonal
reasons as the basis for the positive response. With
the experiential reports, however, 61 percent of the
positive responses were related to interpersonal reasons.
In a human relations workshop that is designed to improve
interpersonal awareness and humanistic understanding, it
seems obvious that positive interpersonal reactions are
far better than positive impersonal reactions.
Subjective Reactions (DGQ) to Didactic Presentations
History of Desegregation in Florida
or Impersonal Reason
History of Black-White
Quality of Response
Neutral Negative Ambivalent
1. None Indicated
2. Information Gained
or Impersonal Reasons
3. Personal Reasons
4. Interpersonal Reasons
N = 46
TABLE 11 (continued):
Special Problems of Adolescent Development
Source of Quality of Response
or Impersonal Reasons
N = 42
Community Biracial Relationships
Source of Quality of Responses
or Impersonal Reasons
N = 47
TABLE 11 (.continued):
Student Feedback and Perspectives
Source of Quality of Responses
Responses Positive' Neutral Negative Ambivalent
or Impersonal Reasons
Adolescent Sexual Development
Source of Quality of Responses
Responses Positive Neutral Negative Ambivalent
or Impersonal Reasons
N = 43
TABLE 11 (continued):
Drug Use and Abuse
or Impersonal Reasons
Principles of Behavior Modification
or Impersonal Reasons
N = 47
Totals over all
Source of Quality of Responses
Responses Positive Neutral Negative Ambivalent
or Impersonal Reasons
N = 44
Subjective Reactions to the NTL Retreat
Quality of Responses
Positive Neutral Negative Ambivalent
1. None Indicated
2. Information Gained
or Impersonal Reasons
3. Personal Reasons
4. Interpersonal Reasons
N = 39
It might also be noted that the group which had
experiential first moved steadily downward during the
first five days of the didactic presentation. On the
fifth day, half of this group rebelled and refused to
return to the didactic material being presented. Because
of this, adjustments were made, and the participants
became actively involved in the next day's presentation
resulting in the dramatic climb of daily mean scores on
the sixth day of the workshop.
These data all tend to suggest that an experiential
approach is more valuable and satisfying to participants.
The value of having a didactic presentation at all is
not clear, but it is obvious that such material should
come prior to any experiential involvement. Once work
shop participants have participated in group process, they
are no longer satisfied with being a spectator for the
presentation of didactic material. Even the superficial
discussion groups attempted as part of the didactic
presentation were unsatisfying and unrewarding to the
group that had experienced group process first. This
group was also quick to voice their complaints about the
didactic activities, and made it extremely difficult for
some of the instructors to present the programs they had
Table 13 gives the subjective reactions to the
NTL retreat. The reactions were basically positive, but
not as personal or interpersonal as the experiential responses.
The NTL weekend, however, did seem to make an important
contribution. Table 14 gives the daily mean scores for
all three treatment conditions. There is a dramatic
difference for the two days following the NTL weekend.
In addition, the results in Table 4 reveal that the TRI
scores also moved up after the NTL weekend. Undoubtedly,
these results were somewhat influenced by the passage of
time between testings, but from experience with test
scores after the didactic condition, we can infer that
both the daily mean scores and the TRI scores could have
moved down if the NTL experience had not been rewarding.
Table 15 gives the overall subjective reactions
to the entire workshop. The important figure here is
probably the very low negative percentage (7 percent).
The percentage of ambivalent responses (23 percent)
actually contains more positive reactions than negative
reactions. The 67 percent positive reaction is thus a
conservative estimate, since there were many positive
responses in the ambivalent percentage. The overall
reactions to the workshop are once more higher than the
mean averages for the didactic condition, again suggesting
that this form of presentation is not as valuable as
other aspects of the workshop.
In terms of the question asked at the beginning
of this section, the evidence strongly suggests that the
experiential approach is more palatable and beneficial
than the didactic. The NTL weekend essentially continued
Daily Self-Report Mean Scores for Didactic and
Experiential Conditions and NTL Follow-Up
Mean Scores Standard Deviations
Subjective Reactions to the Overall Workshop
Source of Quality of Responses
or Impersonal Reasons
the group process approach and played an important
part in pulling various aspects of the workshop together.
To sum up, if it is possible to use only one
method of presentation, the group process approach seems
to work best. An NTL weekend retreat is also beneficial
and may be especially effective after a week of group
process. This study raises serious questions about the
value of didactic presentation at all, and strongly
suggests that any such material should be kept brief and
be presented at the beginning of the laboratory.
Can Human Relations Laboratories Be Task Oriented
and Relevant to the Needs of a
Specific School or School System?
Much of the criticism leveled at human relations
training has involved the halo without hardhat quality of
many laboratories. Participants leave such laboratories
on an emotional high, but without any specific tools or
definite plans they can use in their own schools. This
has caused some administrators to complain about "turned
on" or "idealistic" teachers who return from human
relations laboratories with few constructive ideas and
very little means to implement them.
This concern was kept in mind throughout the work
shop in this study. At the end of the workshop, the
participants were asked to report on specific plans they
had made or goals they had set for their own school
during the course of the workshop. Table 16 gives the
Percentages of Workshop Participants
Reporting the Development of Plans for Their School
No Plans Indicated
Specifica Plans and Processes
General Plans and Goals
Percentages of Workshop Participants .
Suggesting Changes in Alachua County Schools to
Help Facilitate Projected Plans
1. None Indicated 17%
2. Specific Suggestions or Processes 10%
3. General Suggestions or Goals 73%
N = 30
Percentages of Workshop Participants
Requesting Help in Carrying Out Plans
1. None Indicated 10%
2. Specific Requests and Processes 58%
3. General Requests and Goals 33%
N = 40
percentages for individuals who made plans during the
workshop. Ninety-one percent of the participants reported
either specific plans or general plans and goals they
intended to carry out in their own school.
These plans were not wishful thinking, but rather
developed as a result of within-school meetings during
the two-day NTL follow-up. Several of these meetings
included school principals who had not been in the work
shop, but were asked to attend the intraschool meetings
by the workshop participants. All of the school principals
eventually responded to this request either during the
last two days of the workshop or at a later date worked
out between the participating teachers and the school
Although the topic of discussion varied a great
deal from school to school, one of the primary concerns
was how to generalize the workshop experiences to each
individual school. Table 17 gives the percentage of
participants who felt some changes in the county-wide
school system were necessary to help facilitate their
projected plans. Eighty-three percent had either specific
or general suggestions to make regarding county-wide
policies. Table 18 gives the percentages of those who
felt they needed help to carry out specific plans within
their schools. Ninety percent of the teachers asked for
help, and 58 percent made specific suggestions regarding
things the faculty or principals could do to help implement
Although the first three weeks of the workshop
were fairly general in orientation, the changes in
humanistic values and role definitions seemed to set the
stage for a great deal of task oriented behavior the
last few days. The experiences of this workshop suggest
that human relations training can be quite task oriented
as long as participants develop the sensitivity to accurately
define problems and the interpersonal awareness necessary
to constructively initiate change. The need to involve
teachers who had not been in the workshop and gather
more information about within-school problems than was
available from the workshop participants became a critical
issue during the intraschool meetings. These meetings
were not only self-directed and task oriented, but also
reflected a sophisticated awareness of the complex
problems of change processes. This awareness led to
some of the decisions we will discuss next.
Can Experience Gained During Human Relations Training
Be Generalized to Specific Within-School Problems?
The only true way to judge the effect of a human
relations laboratory is to observe what happens with the
individual teachers and their schools. In this regard,
the results from this particular workshop are quite
rewarding. Several of the schools restructured their
entire pre-planning schedule because of the influence of
teachers who had been in the human relations workshop.
Several schools set aside time for small group discussions
among the faculty with the primary purpose of getting
to know and appreciate each other. Out of these meetings
came constructive suggestions about changes that needed
to be made in school-wide policy. Problems that had
occurred the year before were anticipated and preventive
measures taken. An example of this occurred at one high
school where intense black-white rivalry had occurred
at the end of the preceding school year. The faculty
made some intelligent decisions about the need to enforce
regulations in a consistent manner and thereby present a
united faculty to the students. As a result of this,
activity days were planned where students and faculty
could relax and participate in competetive games, variety
shows, costume contests, etc. This school has since had
its first integrated dance and things appear to be headed
along a much smoother course than in previous years.
Other follow-up changes initiated by participants
in the workshop have involved decisions such as inviting
the total school staff to faculty meetings and staff
conferences. This includes secretarial help, janitorial
service, and food service personnel, in addition to the
teachers and administrators. Lounge furniture and coffee
machines have been moved to comfortable locations where
people gather naturally in order to encourage spontaneous
interpersonal contact. Team teaching patterns have been
adjusted in order to stimulate interdepartmental involve
ment between teachers that hardly knew each other's names
in past years. Small groups of teachers, have continued
to meet, sometimes on a scheduled basis and sometimes
on an informal, as-needed basis, to discuss issues and
Workshop participants have pushed to
more actively include students in school-wide policy
decisions. One school has discussed the possibility of
allowing students to write their own admit slips rather
than requiring them to bring a note (which they have
usually written themselves) in order to obtain an admit
slip from the vice-principal. Non-academic teacher-
student involvement is now being encouraged rather than
. Personal problems, which were once ignore or
denied, are being listened to and often handled by
teachers from the workshop.
These experiences indicate that human relations
training can be generalized to specific school problems,
if part of the training involves helping the teachers to
become self-directed and interpersonally sensitive to
the processes of change. Unfortunately, it is impossible
to anticipate and provide for all that teachers need in
the way of human relations training during a relatively
brief summer workshop. Ideally, such workshops should
be followed up within each school over the entire year
through a series of scheduled meetings. This would help
to insure that humanistic concerns would not become lost
in our production-minded authoratative school system.
Human relations training needs to focus its
attention on the interpersonal aspects of human behavior.
In designing such laboratories and training leaders to
conduct them, we should constantly remember that we will
be working with trained and qualified professionals.
Teachers bring to human relations workshops a wealth of
understanding and appreciation of the complexities of human
behavior. They also bring their defensivenss, personal
blind spots, and prejudices. They usually do not need
instruction about how to teach their subject area.
They do need an opportunity to share their fears, feelings
of inadequacy, and discouragement. They need to develop
an awareness of group dynamics and an acceptance of values
and backgrounds different from their own. They need to
develop confidence in their ability to relate to children
with emotional problems. This implies a more expanded
role definition and confidence in their professional
Human relations training can make a dramatic impact
on these areas. The bases of good human relations
training are well-qualified and empathetic leaders, a
minimum amount of time (preferrably at least ten days to
two weeks), involvement of administrators and authority
figures, and adequate follow-up. To meet these conditions,
of course, implies adequate funding and therefore commit
ment from the school board or county staff. A breakdown
in any of these areas means either a job partially done
or a good experience for a few people with very little
carry over to the actual school system. If these
conditions can be met, human relations training with
teachers can be an invaluable tool to help modern-day
educators breach the gap between yesterday's one room
schoolhouse and tomorrow's world-wide classroom.
T R I
How many of your relatives
are or have been
. or Sis.
Each of the numbered
below deals with
specific behaviors teachers might engage in. Immediately
beneath each item are several scales designed to assess
your subjective reactions to that item. There are no right
or correct responses. Rather, you are encouraged to rely
on your initial
, attitudes, opinions, etc., as of
this moment in time. Please rely on your first impulse
in marking each scale; do not try to evaluate or qualify
your reactions. All responses will remain anonymous.
Please make a single vertical mark through the
line of each individual scale to indicate your subjective
responses to each item.
Example: The good teacher grades papers
Please answer all the scales in this way for every
item, even though some scales may seem less
than others for some items.
1. A good (effective) teacher would use classroom time
to resolve racial conflicts between students.
0% of the time 100% of the time
1 . i ' ' .
2. A good (effective) teacher endorses physical punishment
to maintain classroom discipline.
3. A good (effective) teacher would tell a student how
to obtain birth control information.
4. A good (effective) teacher is willing to change his
(her) teaching methods on the basis of student feedback.
5. A good (effective) teacher is willing to contact
parents in order to resolve any parental complaints
about their child's education.
6. A good (effective) teacher encourages classroom dis
cussion of controversial issues; for example, use of
7. A good (effective) teacher appreciates racial differences
and adjusts accordingly.
8. A good (effective) teacher consults with parents about
their child's personal problems.
9. A good (effective) teacher encourages students to make
friends with others of a difference race.
10. A good (effective) teacher becomes involved in faculty
11. A good (effective) teacher is willing to use classroom
time to listen to student complaints.
12. A good (effective) teacher is willing to talk with
parents about family problems.
13. A good (effective) teacher would provide counseling
and information about sexual development.
A good (effective) teacher will ask for parental
suggestions about changes in curriculum.
A good (effective) teacher supports biracial faculty
A good (effective) teacher would initiate steps to
change administrative policies he (she) disagreed
A good (effective) teacher supports biracial
A good (effective) teacher must maintain a quiet
A good (effective) teacher would initiate a discussion
about a student's personal problems.
A good (effective) teacher discourages student dis
cussions of racial differences.
A good (effective) teacher initiates discussions
about a student's family problems.
A good (effective) teacher considers expression of
feelings more important than academic achievement.
A good (effective) teacher encourages suggestions
from students about changes in curriculum.
A good (effective) teacher permits students to dis
agree with him (her).
A good (effective) teacher does not become involved
in administrative decisions.
A good (effective) teacher encourages students to
express their emotions, including negative feelings
toward the teacher.
A good (effective) teacher would comfort a student
by putting an arm around him.
A good (effective) teacher would allow student
leaders to use classroom time to obtain signatures
on a petition regarding changes in school dress codes.
29. As a teacher I would use classroom time to resolve
racial conflicts between students.
0% of the time
100% of the time
Questions 30-56 are repeats of Questions 2-28, using the
"as a teacher I" stem rather than "a good (effective)
CODE NO. DATE
Directions: Mark through each line the point that
corresponds to your experience in the group today. Build
your own reference points by thinking of the two extremes
as representing the worst or best experience of that kind.
1. How well did you listen to and really understand the
ideas expressed by others in the group?
Not at all Completely
2. How effectively did the group use the full resources
of its members?
effective Not at all
3. How important did you feel the work of the group to be?
4. Now concerned and involved were you in the tasks?
Not at all concerned
5. How clear to you were the objectives, goals, purposes
of your group today?
6. How fully, frankly, freely did you express any
pertinent knowledge, ideas, or experiences which
occurred to you?
Not at all
7. How much did you enjoy this session?
8. How fully, frankly, freely did you express what you
Not at all
Comments are welcome on reverse side.
DIDACTIC AND GROUP PROCESS QUESTIONNAIRE
CODE NO. DATE
This part of the evaluation is designed to allow you an
opportunity to express your individual reactions to the
workshop. Please provide as many of your ideas as
possible. Use the reverse sides of the paper when you
need more space.
A. Please comment on each of the. following aspects of
the workshop. You might express degree of interest/
disinterest; value/worthlessness; ideas for doing
it better next time; comments on organizational
structures; time allowed; the session leaders; etc.
1.Dr. Joe Hall
2. Rev. Wright
3. Jackie Goldman (adolescence)
4. Charles Chesnut and Officer Long (Biracial Committee)
5. Panel of Students
6. Film: "Yesterday's Man" (for Group la and lb only)
7. Mary McCaulley (sex)
8. Drug Panel
9. Behavior Modification (Thad Grimes and John Jones)
10. Group Process (experiential) Please be specific
regarding different parts, experiences, comments
B. Comment on the overall workshop:
1. What I enjoyed most was
What I enjoyed least was
My reaction bo the design of the workshop (half
experiential; half didactic) is
4. I would rather have had the following design
5. I feel that what should have been included was (were)
6. I feel that the following could have been omitted
7. The one change I'd most like to make is
8. The part of the workshop that had the most application
to my classroom is
9. If I could sum up my honest overall reaction to the
workshop so far, it is
1.How did the NTL weekend retreat fit into the overall
2. What was the best part of the NTL retreat?
3. What was the worst part of the NTL retreat?
4. What did you personally get out of the NTL retreat?
5. What are your reactions and comments on the NTL
leadership and design?
6. If I could sum up my honest overall reaction to the
NTL retreat it is
What plans for your school in particular have come
out of this workshop?
What help do you need in carrying out these plans?
What do you feel are changes in the system which
are needed to implement those plans?
Aspy, D. The effect of teacher-offered conditions of
empathy, positive regard and congruence upon
student achievement. Florida Journal of
Educational Research, 1969, 11, 39-48.
Aspy, D., Hadlock, W. The effects of high and low
functioning teachers upon student performance.
In R. R. Carkhuff and G. B. Berenson, Beyond
counseling and therapy. New York: Holt,
Rinehart and Winston, 1967.
Bagdassarroff, B. J., Chambers, N. E. An evaluation of
the encounter group process through assessment
of value shifts and patterns of black and white
educators. Dissertation, United States
International University, 1970.
Biddle, B. J. et al. General characteristics of the
school teacher's role. Studies in the Role of
the Public School Teacher, 1961, 2_, 491-513.
Birnbaum, M. Sense about sensitivity training. Saturday
Review, 1969, 52, 82-98.
Burke, R. L., Bennis, W. G. Changes in perception of
self and others during human relations training.
Human Relations, 1961, 14, 165-181.
Butler, J. M., Haigh, G. V. Changes in the relation between
self-concepts and ideal concepts consequent upon
client-centered'counseling. In C. R. Rogers and
Rosalind Dymond, Psychotherapy and personality
change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
Caldwell, C. Social science as ammunition. Psychology
Today, 1970 4_, 38ff.
Campbell, D. T., Stanley, J. C. Experimental and quasi-
experimental designs for research. Chicago:
Rand McNally, 1963.
Carkhuff, R. R., Banks, G. Training as a preferred mode
of facilitating relations between races and
generations. Journal of Counseling, 1970, 17,
Casper, Irene G. A comparative--experimental study teaching
human relation concepts. Boston: Boston University,
School of Education, 1967.
Cattle, T. J. Bristol Township schools' strategy for
change. Saturday Review, 1969 5J2, 70-71.
Chilcott, J. H. A study of teacher role expectations.
Dissertation, University of Oregon, 1958, Library
Congress Card No. Mic 58-1171.
Combs, A. W. Sensitivity education: Problems and promise.
Educational Leadership, 1970, 28, 235-237.
Dreeben, R. The contribution of schooling to the learn
ing of norms. Harvard Educational Review, 1967,
Edwards, C. H. Sensitivity training and education: A
critique. Educational Leadership, 1970, 28,
Epps, E. G. Interpersonal relations and motivation:
Implications for teachers of disadvantaged
children. The Journal of Negro Education, 1970,
Evans, K. M. The Minnesota teacher attitude inventory.
Educational Research, 1966, VIII, 134-141.
Fuller, F. F. Concerns of teachers: A developmental
conceptualization. American Educational Research
Journal, 1969 6_, 207-223.
Gazda, G. M. Systematic human relations training in
teacher preparation and inservice education.
Journal of Research and Development in Education,
1971, A, 47-51.
Grossman, L., Clark, D. H. Sensitivity training for
teachers: A small group approach. Psychology
in the Schools, 1967 4_, 267-271.
Hansen, L. S., Wirgau, 0. Human relations training: A
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1970, 17, 253-257.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08556 8847
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