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A model for selecting media to channel information about occupational education

Material Information

Title:
A model for selecting media to channel information about occupational education to target population groups
Creator:
Scott, Roland Joseph, 1940-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
viii, 128 leaves : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Adult education ( jstor )
Community colleges ( jstor )
Educational research ( jstor )
Information surveys ( jstor )
Media use ( jstor )
Movies ( jstor )
Newspapers ( jstor )
Population education ( jstor )
Vocational education ( jstor )
White people ( jstor )
Mass media -- Florida ( lcsh )
Vocational education -- Information services -- Florida ( lcsh )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 123-126).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Roland Joseph Scott.

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000163007 ( ALEPH )
AAS9357 ( NOTIS )
02731432 ( OCLC )

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A MODEL


FOR


SELECTING


ABOUT


MEDIA


OCCUPATIONAL


TARGET


POPULATI


TO CHANNEL
EDUCATION
ON GROUPS


INFORMATION


ROLAND


JOSEPH


SCOTT


A DISSERTATION


PRESENTED


TO THE


GRADUATE


COUNCIL


OF THE


UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


PARTIAL


FULFILLMENT


OF THE


REQUIREMENTS


FOR


THE


DEGREE


OF DOCTOR


OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


1975














ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The


author


this


study


indebted


to many


individuals


their


assistance


support t


completion of


this


research.


Special


chairman


gratitude


the doctoral


extended

committee


to Dr.


James


director


Wattenbarger,

the disserta-


tion,


guidance


this


research


and


example


throughout


the writer


doctoral


program.


Also appreciated


assistance


of other


members


doctoral


committee:


Phillip A.


Clark,


Associate


Professor


of Educational Administration;


Benjamin L.


Gorman,


Professor


of Sociology;


and Dr.


Harry H.


Griggs,


Professor


of Journalism


Communications.


The writer wishes


to convey


special


thank s


and respect


to Dr.


John M.


Nickens,


Assistant


Professor


of Educational


Administration,


his


counsel


on the


formulation


this


study and analysis


of data.


Also,


the writer


is grateful


to Mr.


Bruce


Howell,









extended to

Development


Dean


William


, Central


Florida


Jackson, O

Community


office


of Research


and


College,


support


providing


facilities


necessary


con-


duct


research.


Any


gratitude


recognition


would


inadequate


express


writer


s debt


to his


wife


and


closest


friend,


Gail


pearsall


, and


Scott


strength


provided


of character


that


encouragement,


greatly


understand-


assisted


writer


in pursuing


educational


goals


in completing


this


dissertation.


Thanks


are


extended


to Mr.


and


Mrs.


Frank


pearsall


their


constant


encouragement


during


author


s graduate


studies.


The


Kathleen


writer


expresses


Scott,


admiration


moral


mother


upbringing


, Mrs.


gave


six


children.
















TABLE OF


CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.


ABSTRACT.


CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION.


S 1


Pr oblem


Assumption
Definition
Procedures


* a a a 2
a a a 5


Terms


. a a a 5


a a a a a a a 7


REVIEW OF RELATED


RESEARCH AND


LITERATURE


Information Level


Sources


of Information


Information


Campaigns.


24


Media


Use.


S. 30


Conclusions


from


Review


Rela


Research


RESULTS AND


Literature


DISCUSSION.


a 47


. 50


Response


Target


Rate
groups


to Teleph


Their


one


Surveys


Media


Comparison


preasse


ssment and


Postassessment


Compar
Post


Sample Characteristics.


of Preassessment


assessment


Information Level


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS .


The


p age









TABLE


OF CONTENTS


(Continued)


Page


APPENDICES.


S. . 94


APPENDIX

APPENDIX


PREASSESSMENT


POSTASSESSMENT


SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE.

SURVEY QUESTION-


NAIRE


APPENDIX


MEDIA


MATERIALS


APPENDIX


COMPARATIVE
TIME/SPACE


COSTS


OF MEDIA


REFERENCES.


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH









Abstract of Dissertation


University of


the Requirements


Presented


Florida


the Graduate Council


in partial Fulfillment of


the Degree of Doctor


of Philosophy


A MODEL FOR SELECTING MEDIA TO CHANNEL


INFORMATION


ABOUT OCCUPATIONAL EDUCATION TO


TARGET


POPULATION GROUPS


Roland Joseph Scott


August,


1975


Chairman:


Major


James


Department:


Wat tenbarger


Educational Administration


The purpose of


this


study was


test


theory suggested


by previous


studies


that


different


socioeconomic groups


have


different media


use


patterns and


different


levels


informa-


tion


about


occupational


education.


A second


purpose was


test a hypothesis


that


levels


of information


about


occupa-


tional


education


could be raised by


channeling


information


target


population


groups


through


appropriate media.


Other


purposes


study were


to develop a model


for de-


termining


occupational


education


information


levels


media


use patterns


of population


subgroups


service


area


a Florida


community


college;


to design


implement


information


campaign


to raise


levels of


information


about









In order


formation


groups


to determine


levels and media


test


occupational


use patterns


theory that different


education


of income/racial


socioeconomic


groups


have different media


use patterns


different


levels


information


survey was


about occupational


conducted


education,


service area


a preassessment


community


college


= 1,034).


test


occupational


hypothesis


education


that


could be


levels


of information about


raised by channeling


informa-


tion


target


population


groups


through


appropriate media,


an information


campaign was


conducted


utilizing media


used


most by


low-income


blacks


low-income whites--the


target


population


groups.


In order


to measure


evaluate


effectiveness


information


campaign,


a postassessment


survey


- 1,008)


was


conducted


to determine change


levels


of information


respondents'


sources


information


about


occupa-


tional


education.


Both


reassessment


postassessment


surveys


used


telephone


interviews with


persons


selected


separate


cent


systematic


samples


from


telephone directories


cover-







persons


contacted


preassessment


survey


and


86,5


per


cent


postassessment


survey,


Results


the


preassessment


survey


indicated


that


levels


information


about


occupational


education


were


extremely


low,


and


persons


lower


status


groups--those


most


likely


to benefit


from


occupational


education


courses--had


less


information


than


other


groups.


The


study


supported


theory


media


that


use


different


patterns


socioeconomic


different


groups


levels


have


different


information


about


occupational


education.


Analysis


study


results


revealed


that


significant


level)


gains


information


levels


occurred


both

this


low-income


study


white


and


supports


low-income


hypothesis


black


that


groups.


levels


Thus,

information


about


occupational


information


education


target


groups


could


through


raised


appropriate


channeling

media.


Based


on results,


newspapers


radio


appeared


to be


the


most


promising


media


raise


levels


of occupational


education


information


that


community


college


s service


area.













CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


After


conducting


a statewide


survey of Florida residents,


Dobson and Edwards


(1971:88)


report ted


that


the general


adult


population


in Florida had


acquired a base of


knowledge


about occupational


education:


was


true


on every variable analyzed


this


section


majority


our


that


sample


far more


failed


than


pass


even


the most basic


test regarding


in-


formation about


vocational


education.


The


Dobson


and Edwards


survey further


revealed


that


per-


sons


lower


status


groups--those most


likely to


benefit


from occupational


education--had significantly


less


informa-


tion


about


occupational


education


than


other


groups.


In discussing


standard


public


relations methods


used


by higher


education


institutions,


Marston


(1963:104)


was


critical:


too often


educators


bask


the de-


lusion


that


they are


communicating with


impor tant


publics


when,


in fact,


they


are


only talking


to other


educators.








might


include


"greater


concentration


upon


the specific publics


of which


the general


public


of higher


education


is com-


posed.


Writing


about Medicare


program


information,


Stojanovic


(1972:253)


discussed what she called


"ideal"


approach


disseminating program


information:


With respe
programs,


to Medicare


it would be


as well


ideal


as other


information


could be
likely to


sent


through


used by those


channels


most


for whom parti-


cular
least


programs


effort


are designed,
d expense will


largest returns


identification
characteristics


gained


social
users


that


be wasted
. .The


demographic


certain


media


would be


a step


the direction


facilitating planning
of specific messages


transmiss ion


to particular


publics.


This


study applied


approach discussed by Stojanovic


to occupational


education.


Methods


were


developed


plemented


to convey essential


information


about


occupational


education


programs


order


serve


individuals


who could


profit by enrolling


those


programs.


Problem


Purpose


the Study









different media


use patterns


and different


levels


informa-


tion about


occupational


education.


A second


purpose was


test


a hypothesis


that


levels


of information


about occupa-


tional


education


could be raised by


channeling


information


target


population


groups


through


appropriate media.


third


purpose of


study was


to develop a


model


determining


media


occupational


use patterns


education


of population


in formation


subgroups


levels


(population


and

seg-


ments) .


The


population


information


subgroups


levels were


should be


target


used

s for


to determine which

an information


campaign


on occupational


education.


Further,


the media


use


patterns


indicated


which media


should be


used


in disseminating


information.


A fourth purpose of


study was


measure


evaluate

veying i


effectiveness


information


about


of various


occupational


media materials


education


con-


programs


changing


levels


information


held by


defined


target


popula-


tion


groups.


Specifically,


this


study was


to provide


answers


following questions:


What


tion subgroups


are


levels


concerning


information held by popula-


occupational


education programs?








population groups?


(The


"mos t


appropriate media" were


con-


sidered


to be


those used most


heavily by the specific


target


population


groups.


The


relationship of relative costs also


was


considered


in making


the decision


"most appro-


private media.


Does


conveyed


occupational


target


education


population groups


program information


appropriate media


raise


levels


information held by those groups?


Justification


Study


The Dobson and Edwards


survey


(1971)


pointed


a need


study.


This


need


was


emphasized by their


finding


that different


population


subgroups


significantly different


amounts


information


about


occupational


education,


with no


group having


"basic"


information.


In order


fulfill


the goal


of providing the


unemployed


entry-level


skills


necessary


existing


jobs


and


to provide


a ladder


essential


promotion


information about


advancement


programs,


the employed,


opportunities,


missions,


etc.,


must be


communicated


target


population


groups.


The


lack


success


serving


certain


population


*


4- 'tt An -- A -- 4 a -


f t 1 i-1 T-^ Arf-T^ rf- 1r n


,u~2ilnm hC


I I


* bh /


L L~ L








Assumptions


The design


used


study was


a separate sample


pretest-posttest quasi-experimental


design.


According


Campbell


Stanley


(1963),


this


research design has


inherent


threats


to external


validity;


however,


internal


validity


potentially threatened by history,


maturation,


instrumentation,


mortality,


interaction


of selection


and maturation.


The


only one


these


rival


hypotheses


that


appeared


to be


applicable


to this


study was


history.


It was


assumed


that


history would not be a reasonable


rival


hypothesis


study.


Media


serving


the population


studied


were monitored


to determine


any events


occurred


occupational


would


education


interfere with


information


treatment


was


effect;


released


such


that


events


occurred,


and no


interfering


information was released.


Definition


of Terms


Media


Materials--These


are production-ready advertise-


ment or


public relations


copy and/or


visual


materials


newspaper,


radio,


television,


or movie


publication.


Occupational


Education--For


the purpose of


this


study,


_ ~ ~~1








programs designed


to provide educational


skill


develop-


ment experiences


to prepare


persons


entry,


promotion,


updating


technical


semi-professional


occupations


business ,


trade


industry,


health,


home


economics,


agri-


culture,


and other


special


areas.


This


definition


based


on several


definitions


given


in recent


contributions


the occupational


education


litera-


ture. It borrows h

Childers (1971:36).


heavily from o

They define


ne provided by Bartlett


"occupational


and


education


programs "


as:


A sequence


of educational


skill


develop-


ment


experiences


designed


to prepare


individual
ing in a s


pecif


entry,
ic occ


promotion,


upation


updat-


cluster


occupations
in business,


less


than


trade


profess


industry,


ional


level


health,


home


economics D


agriculture


other


special


areas.


These


programs


are


normally two


years


s in duration


lead


an associate


degree,


diploma,


or cer


tificate


and


immediate


employment.


The definition


"occupational


education"


adopted


this


study also


based


two others:


(Thornton,


1966:


175-196;


and


"Occupational Education


and Black Students,


1971:76-77) .


Thornton


said


term


"occupational


education"


used


'1 -


L


I 4m


I K


m m


__









technical,


prepare


manipulative,


student for


general,


employment


and elective


upon


courses


the successful


completion


course.


second


definition


"Occupational Education


Black Students


" 1971:76-77)


term


"occupational


educa-


tion"


used


to refer


"post-high


school


programs


that


prepare men and women


technical


semi-professional


jobs


in government,


private


industry,


business,


and health


fields.


Population Subgroup--This


a segment


population


under


study.


Social


and-demographic characteristics


population


group


wer e


identified,


yielding various population


subgroups.


Target


population Group--This


an aggregate of


racial


income


subgroups which


reassessment survey revealed


as having


lowest


levels


information about


occupational


education.


Procedures


StudyDesign


The s


tudy was


conducted


on a pilot


scale


the service








located


in Ocala,


serves


Marion,


Citrus,


and Levy counties.


As mentioned


earlier,


study adhered


to a separate


sample


pretest-posttest quasi-experimental


design.


The


reassessment


survey determined


following:


Levels


of information held by the


population


about


occupational


education.


Demographic and


social


characteristics


respon-


dents


(occupation,


educational


level,


age grouping,


race,


income,


sex,


and


urban/nonurban residency).


Media


use patterns


of respondents.


Thus,


reassessment


survey revealed which


income/


racial


population


subgroups


had


lowest


levels


informa-


tion


about


occupational


education.


These


subgroups were


selected


targets


treatment--a media


information


campaign


aimed


increasing


levels


information


about


occupational


education.


Demographic


information allowed


determination


pertinent


characteristics


of population


subgroups


several


levels of


information.


The


media


use


patterns


suggested which media should be


used


in presenting


information.









Demographic and


social


characteristics of


respondents.


Source of recently acquired


occupational


Selection


information about


education.


the Sample


reassessment


sample was


cent


systematic


sample,


beginning


at randomly selected items drawn from


telephone directories


covering


Florida Community College,


except


service area


in the City of


of Central


Ocala.


A different,


drawing


more


sample


representative


from


sampling method was


telephone directory for


used


the City


of Ocala.


This was done


insure


that major population


income


and racial


subgroups


were


represented


sample


from


Ocala,


which


largest


and most


heterogeneous


city


service


area


of Central


Florida


Community College.


In drawing


Ocala


sample,


several


Central Florida


Com-


munity College


administrators who were


long-time


residents


Ocala


blocked


areas


a map of


the City of


Ocala.


assure


that


sample would


include


adequate numbers


cases


both black


and white races


and


low-income groups,








high-income white,


middle-income white,


low-income white,


middle-income


black,


and


low-income


black.


These


income


groupings were


devised


only for


the purpose of


sampling.


After


city map was


blocked


out,


1970 Census


Tract Map


the City of


Ocala


was


used


to determine


number


households


in Ocala


(7,933) .


Then,


us ing


cent


samples


from


Ocala


telephone directory,


telephone


listings were


checked


against


five


income and racial residential


areas;


listings


were drawn


from


the directory until


120 were


taken


from


each


five


areas;


listings


that


did


not


fit within


those


areas were


included


sample.


The


listings


from each


area


included


cent allowance


respondent


loss.


Taking


this


allowance


into


consideration,


resultant


sample


listings


approximated a


per


cent


sample


of households


the City


of Ocala.


After


sample was


drawn,


preassessment question-


naires were


administered by


telephone


in November


and


December,


1974,


and January,


1975.


The


directories


postassessment


covering


sample was


service


drawn


area


from


of Central


telephone


Florida


Community College.


The


same


sampling methods were


used


'I


Tt /-.,n a r a 4- a e


nI'M F; rn P- yr+


n*I "~1 W I lh W


n ^t innw I j^ T-T? -^


*r" n ^ J- /l n^rfn








items


that did not


reassessment


contain


correspond with


survey sample;


any person


thus,


included


items selected


the second sample did not


first sample.


The postassessment


survey questionnaires were


adminis-


tered by telephone


In administering


last week


both


of March,


the preassessment


1975.


postassess-


ment questionnaires,


interviewers were


instructed


talk with


whoever


answered


telephone


provided


that


person


was


years


or older.


Interviewers


also were


structed


to make


three


callbacks


should


the phone not


be answered.


The


Information Campaign


The media


usage results


revealed


that


target


popula-


tion


groups were


extensive


consumers


newspapers,


television,


radio,


four


and


to a much


these


media


less

were


extent,


used


movies.


Therefore,


information


campaign


which


was


conducted


during


March,


1975.


Because


increasing


need


educational


institu-


tions


to hold down


costs,


information


campaign was


planned


as a


low-cost


public


service


announcement


(PSA)


public








classified advertisement


section


of the


Ocala Star-Banner;


the media materials


prepared


information campaign


were


distributed


groups with


channels


the materials


to be


used


run


frequently by target


the discretion


media officials.


The media materials were


prepared


and distributed


follows


(see


Appendix C


texts


these materials):


A 55-second-long


commercially made


voice-over


color


movie


showing


and


discussing


aspects


of occupational


educa-


tion


programs was


filmed at Central Florida Community College;


16 mm and


mm prints were


made


fr om


film.


A 16 mm


print


was


taken


television


station


WESH in Daytona Beach


the middle


of February,


1975.


The Springs,


Ocala


Twin,


and Florida movie


theaters


(all


owned by separate


companies)


in Ocala


were


contacted


and


requested


run a


mm print during


their


regular


movie


sequences.


Officials


Springs


and


Ocala


Twin


theaters


refused


because


their


policies


against


showing


any kind


advertisements


other


than


their


own


film


previews.


The


Florida


Theater


cooperated


showed


55-second,


film


the


last


three weeks


of March,;


film was


shown









Photographs


were


taken


persons


and


actions


connected


with


occupational


education


programs


and


given


with


outlines


editor


Ocala


Star-Banner.


Four


them


were


used


news


columns


March


16) .


Also,


five-line


classified


advertisement


occupational


education


program s


was


placed


"Help


Wanted"


column


Ocala


Star-Banner


and


run


two


weeks.


outlines


text


classified


advertisement


are


in Appendix


last


week


of February,


1975,


30-second-long


reel-to-reel


audio


tapes


(the


length


commonly


used


radio


stations


public


service


announcements)


on occupational


education


WMOP.


programs


The


were


management


delivered


at WTMC


to radio


agreed


stations


use


WTMC


tapes


as public


service


announcements


whenever


possible


during


March.


same


service


management


ownership


announcements


WMOP


as WMOP)


seven


and


agreed


times


WFUZ-FM


run


a day


(which


tapes


including


under


as public


during


6:00-10


a.m


. period


which


was


requested,


every


day


during


March,


1975.








Instrumentation


reassessment


questionnaire


was


developed


using


questionnaire


from


Dobson


Edwards


1971)


study


a base


and


drawing


on questionnaires


from


media


use


studio


reported


literature.


The


reassessment


questionnaire


included


as Appendix


The


postassessment


questionnaire


(see


Appendix


was


developed


different


drawing


from


between


reassessment


ques tionnaires


was


questionnaire.


that


The


questions


on media


use


were


included


postassessment


ques-


tionnair


The


"panel


of experts"


method


was


used


to establish


validity


preassessment


and


postassessment


questionnaires.


Data


Coll


section


Data


wer e


collected


through


use


telephone


surveys


because


important


advantages


that


method


contact.


According


the


to Nunnery


telephone


and


survey


Kimbrough


include


1971


, major


refusal


rate


advantages


among


persons


capabi


successfully


and


contacted


telephone


(assuming


survey


interviewer


economical


are


in terms









Kerlinger


(1964:395-7)


preferred


personal


interview


telephone


interview


or the


mail


questionnaire;


how-


ever,


resulted


primary y


from


reason


"careful


was


and


that


laborious


interview


schedules


construction.


Accord-


to Kerlinger,


telephone


surveys


have


advantages


speed


and


cost


but


suffer


a defect


an inability


obtain


detailed


information


with


their


use.


Also,


Ker linger


pointed


that


when


telephone


interviewer


unknown


respondent,


telephone


interviews


are


limited


possi-


ble


nonresponse,


uncooperativeness,


and


reluctance


subjects


answer


more


than


simple,


superficial


questions.


Traver s


(1969


:199-200)


criticized


direct


mail


questionnaire


because


the


percentage


of returns


tends


to be


small,


only


about


cent


"even


when


conditions


are


favorable.


Also


there


likely


to be


a bias


in returns


with


mail


questionnaires


because


persons


return


them


tend


to be


more


educated


than


person s


who


return


them.


Many


advantages


interview


listed


Travers


(1969


:133


appear


to be


applicable


telephone


interviews


well


per sonal


interviews.


These


advantages


are:


Incom-


pleteness


returns


is rarely


found


interviews








the


interviewee


ease


a way


not


possible


with


mailed


questionnaires;


interviews


not


present


difficulties


persons


and


limited


an interviewer


literacy


can


that


conduct


mailed


questionnaires


interview


a proper


speed


whereas


mailed


questionnaires


often


are


filled


out


hurriedly.


In order


to determine


coverage


telephone


samples


and,


therefore,


extent


of generalizability


among


population,


a door-to-door


survey


was


conducted


to learn


percentage


people


with


telephones.


The


door-to-door


sur-


vey


was


conducted


low-income


black


area


of Ocala


because


previous


research


(Dobson


and


Edwards,


1971)


indicated


that


persons


most


likely


to benefit


from


occupational


education--those


lower


status


groups--had


significantly


less


information


than


other


groups.


door-to-door


survey,


interviewer


low-income


black


contacted


area


members


Ocala


of 157


found


households


that


(95.


households


had


telephones.


Executives


two


telephone


corporations


(Florida


Telephone

serving h


Corporation


households


and

the


Southern

Central


Bell Telephone C

Florida Community


corporation)

College









telephone


company executives


indicated


that


approximately


80 per


cent of


households


service area


college


had


telephones.


Thus,


practical


purposes,


scope


of house-


holds with


telephones was


sufficiently


large


to merit


limit-


ing generalizability


results of


this


study to members


of households with


telephones.


Data Treatment


The data


collected


were


keypunched and analysis


per-


formed by the


computer


program Statistical


Package


Social


Sciences


(SPSS)


(Nie,


Bent,


and Hull,


1970) .


Pre-


assessment and


postassessment responses were


compared


each


population


subgroup


to determine


change


information


levels.


Media


to which


respondents attributed


their


informa-


tion


sources were


tabulated


each


population


subgroup


order


to evaluate the media


effectiveness


in communicating


information.













CHAPTER II


REVIEW OF RELATED


RESEARCH AND LITERATURE


Information Levels


Dobson and Edwards


(1971)


reported


on a


1971


statewide


survey of Florida residents;


levels


information about and


study aimed at

perceptions of


assessing


vocational,


technical,


adult


education


in Florida.


study was


attempt


to determine


how much


information Florida residents


possessed


about


content


of vocational


education


ad-


vertising,


about


opportunities


for vocational


education in


areas


where


they


lived and


in Florida


generally,


and


ability


respondents


name


youth


organizations


con-


cerned with


vocational


education.


Those


information


variables were


studied


in relation


several


independent


variables:


whether


or not


respondent


had


taken


par t


in a


vocational


education


program;


where


had


seen


or heard advertising


about


vocational


education;


sex;


age;


race;


occupation;


education;


and


income.









28 per


cent


the


898 respondents


said


they had


seen or


heard advertising


to recall


about


anything that


vocational


was


education and were


stressed


able


advertising;


cent


(386)


respondents were


able


answer


when


they were


asked


name


some


specific


opportunities


vocational


education


their


area,


but


these


respondents were


able


only to give


some


kind


program


(i.e.,


"You


can


learn


to be


a mechanic.


without any


reference


to where


how a


person might


take


such


a pro-


gram;


only


cent


of respondents who


said


there were


opportunities


for vocational


education


in Florida


were


able


to give


any response


opportunities


at all


might be;


question


only


16.4


of what


cent


these


total


sample


with


said


they had heard


vocational


education


youth


were


organizations


correctly able


concerned


to name


least one.


The


primary findings


Dobson


and Edwards


study


were


tha t


levels


of specific


information


about


vocational


opportunities were extremely


low,


and


persons


lower


status


groups were


less


informed


than


persons


in higher


status


groups.








participate


in adult


education,


London and Wenkert


(1964)


identified


obstacles


that


inhibit greater participation


by blue-collar workers


adult


education.


These


obstacles


are of


life,


two


types:


about


myths about


learning


process,


nature


about


of blue-collar


the blue-collar


worker's


interest


education,


etc.;


and


obstacles


inherent


social


conditions


blue-collar world.


Obstacles


second


type were


identified in


empirical


study


concerned with


the relations between


social


class


and adult


education,


and


conducted


in Oakland,


California.


sample consisted


of men between


ages


Results


revealed


that


a major


obstacle was


lack


of information


about


adult


education


possessed by


blue-collar workers,


particularly the


unskilled


and


the


semiskilled.


Sources


Information


Research


on sources


information


to which


students


attribute


their


knowledge


educational


courses


or programs


indicates


that


personal


sources


are extremely


important,


but


mass


media


also are


notable


sources


such


information.


-, -, r A4


-9 4 *


_









in adult


education


learned about


their


courses.


They found


that


personal


sources


(friends,


neighbors,


and acquaintances)


were a major


source of


such


course


information


unskilled


and


blue-collar,

respondents


semiskilled blue-collar workers.


lower white-collar,

relied much more fre


professional,


-quently on


skilled


and managerial


the mass media,


employers,


supervisors,


being


on a mailing


list and


receiving


an announcement by mail.


Other


findings of


London


Wenkert


wer e


that


men


tend


to participate


adult


education with


their


friends,


but


blue-collar worker


less


likely than


the white-collar


worker


to have


friends


acquaintances who are


enrolled


adult


education


courses.


Thus,


blue-collar


worker


less


likely than


the white-collar worker


to have


a source


information


about


adult


education.


Wanty


(1969)


studied sources which


community


college


students


considered


important


channels


news


about


their


college.


also


found


that


personal


sources were


important.


Approximately one


third


students


sampled


(1,000


students at

conversation


a metropolitan


second


a so


community

urce of c


college)


college


rated


news;


student


however,








majority of


students


reported


spending part


of each


day as


consumers


commercial


media


(newspapers,


radio,


and


television)


, only


cent relied on


commercial media


their main


source


news


about


college.


The


Wanty


study


compared administrators'


identification


campus


news


sources with


sources


ranked by the


stu-


dents.

important


Several


sources which


(monthly talks


by the


administrators


college


considered


president and


college's


radio


station)


were


not


cited by


students


important


sources;


only


cent


considered


presi-


dent


talks


important


sources,


and


less


than


cent


ranked


college


radio


important


source.


student


profile


study


conducted by the


Virginia


Department


of Community Colleges


(1975)


determined


sources


information


about


Virginia


community


college


programs


cited by all


enrolled


first


occupational-technical


time


students


Virginia Community College


System


in Summer


and Fall,


1974-75.


,535


occupa-


tional-technical


students who responded,


1,266


(3 6%)


said


friends were


their


sources


information,


(26%)


said


college publications,


and


(17%)


said


they


learned about


.


K


- -


1.J


_ -


K JK


B


__









said sources


(4%)


other


said


than


newspaper,


response


and


categories


(2%)


provided,


said radio or


television.


Thus,


Virginia Department of Community


Colleges


study,


mass


media


appeared


to have


been


least


important


sources


information


those


occupational-technical


students.


Krej cie


national

junior

that su


(1


sample e


colleges


cceeded


968) survey

to determine

to promote

in inducing


junior


practices


enrollment

students


colleges

and media

practices


to enroll


in a

used by

and media

technician


programs,


relationships


between


effective


and


ineffective practices


and media.


Results


Krej cie


study


included:


Counselors


and


teachers


had


a relatively


high


influence


on students'


decisions


to enroll;


radio and


television


announcements were


used


extensively and


did


not


exert


major


influence


enrollment


decisions;


print


media appeared


to have


more


influence


than


picture


media;


college


catalogs and


program descriptions were


most


used


most


influential


print media;


cent


the students were


influenced by advertisements


in college


newspapers; a


descriptions


employment and


career


oppor-








Information Campaigns


Salcedo,


Read,


Evans,


and Kong


(1974:91)


stated


that


relatively few


information


campaigns


have


been


evaluated


and when


systematic tests


the effectiveness


informa-


tion


campaigns


have


been


conducted,


"the results


have


been


discouraging to


the


campaigners.


Budd


Strayton


(1969:19)


stated


that


typical


evidence

(i.e., n


gathered


newspaper


prove


and magazine


the worth


clippings)


public relations


"puny documenta-


tion


the worth


a major


investment


such


as public


relations.


" However,


uses


computer


discussion by Budd


public relations


and Strayton


indicates


that


even


use


computer


focused on such


documentation.


Cunningham


(1962)


pointed


out


that


provision must be


made


measuring results


of public relations


programs


order


to determine


pertinent


audiences


are


reached


information


campaign.


Salcedo et al.


conducted


a one-month


(May


1-31,


1972)


information


campaign


on pesticide


safety;


campaign was


run


in Quincy,


Illinois, t


increase


levels


of knowledge








pesticide


label


safe


use of pesticides.


The


campaign


was


entitled


"Take A Look and Live" because


previous


research


had


indicated


that


pesticide


users


often


read


pesti-


cide


labels


and,


therefore,


are


aware


of potential


dangers.


The City of Decatur,


Illinois,


was


"control"


community in


study;


Quincy


and Decatur were


comparable


terms


mass


media


availability,


age-sex


composition,


median


education,


occupational


composition


of residents.


information


campaign,


a set


of four


one-minute


television


vision


spots was


stations


produced and


in Quincy;


distributed


spots were


to both


broadcast


tele-


times,


about


three


spots


a day.


A set


of four


one-minute


radio


spots was


produced and


dis tribute


to all


radio


stations


Quincy;


these were


broadcast


times,


or about


five


spots


a day.


Two


news


articles


and


five


public


service


advertise-


ments


stating


the message


appeared


the Quincy daily


newspaper.


Also,


four


versions


a direct


mail


piece were


sent


heads


of households


16,000)


in Quincy at


one-week


intervals.


Respondents were


drawn


from current


city directories


each


city and randomly divided


into


pretest and


posttest








In June,


1972,


posttest


interviews


were


conducted


with


respondents


Quincy


and


Decatur.


Findings


Salcedo


et al.


study


showed


that


respondents'


levels


of knowledge


increased


Quincy


and


their


attitudes


pesticides


toward


were


pesticide


strengthened.


label


The


and


safe


information


use


campaign


was


credited


with


these


results.


However


the


findings


revealed


a relatively


audience


exposure


rate


campaign;


only


answered


per c

"ye s


ent


when


the p

asked


osttest


they


respondents

remembered


from Quincy

seeing or hear-


slogan


"Take


A Look


and


Live"


during


month


May,


1972.


those


respondents


who


answered


cent


mail


gave


radio


piece,


cent


their


said


source,


cent


television,


said


cent


said


newspaper


, and


cent


said


friend s


and


group


meetings


wer e


their


sources


exposure


slogan.


A much


earlier


experimental


approach


to conducting


information


campaign


was


reported


Star


and


Hughes


(1950).


Although


was


this


less


campaign


successful


was


a massive


than


study


informational


conducted


effort,


Salcedo


et al.


In September,


1947,


American


Association


the


t~- -S t~. .11 t~ I. .71 4 1 .-~ -.--- I 4- .1 -- r


I -I,


_r-


1


I _


~- 1 I


* ^ _









Foundation


of Cincinnati,


conducted a


six-month


information


campaign


to make Cincinnati


mor e


informed


about


United


Nations.


to conduct


determine


National


pretreatment and


Opinion Research Center was


posttreatment


effectiveness


engaged


surveys


information


campaign.


objective of


campaign


was


to reach


every


adult


among the


1,155,703


residents


of Cincinnati's


retail


trading


zone.


In an attempt


to meet


this


objective,


almost every


conceivable method was


used


to convey the


information.


Among


information


campaign activities were


following:


12,868


people were


reached


through


parent-Teachers


Associations which


devoted


program s


the topic of world


understanding;


every school


child was


given


literature


United Nations


take


home;


14,000


children


Weekday Church


Schools


held


a World


Community


Day program;


leaders


the Cincinnati


Council


of Church


Women


took


training


courses


arranging


of United Nations


programs;


10,000 members


Catholic


parent-Teachers Association


wer e


exhorted by their


archbishop


to support


United


Nations;


radio


stations


broadcast


facts


about


United


Nations,


one


them scheduling


spot


programs


times








literature


were


distributed


and


2,800


clubs


were


reached


speakers


hundreds


supplied


of documentary


a speakers


films


' bureau


were


and


shown;


circular;


slogan


"Peace


Begins


with


United


Nations--the


United


Nations


Begins


with


You"


was


exhibited


practically


everywhere,


every


imaginable


form


(blotters


, matchbooks,


streetcar


cards,


etc.).


Resul

according


to changes


information campaign

in responses to the


were


analyzed


pretreatment


posttreatment


information,


surveys


opinion


in respect


concerning


to respondents'


world


interest,


affairs


United


Nations.


researchers


then


determined


how


much


the


changes


could


attributed


information


campaign.


The


conclusion


was


that


months


campaign


did


not


alter


respondents


' interest,


level


of information,


or opinion


very


much.


Also,


was


determined


tha t


people


reached


campaign


were


those


least


in need


information


that


the


people


who


were


reached


were


audience


primarily


hoped


researchers.


When


campaign


was


planned,


researchers


had


recommended


that


campaign


be parti-


--- 1 1 -


-~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ IT---I I --- a .--- 4 .4


Ll..r7


.1 n 1 -^,.- ^ .


-~.. ~ I. I









survey had revealed


to be most


in need


such


information.


However,


posttreatment


survey


showed


that


the people who


were reached by the


campaign were


the


better


educated,


the


younger


people,


and


men--people most


likely to be


interested


in the


issues


campaign


and,


therefore,


most


likely


to be


informed


about


them.


Thus,


information


apparently did not


stir


interest


people who were


not


already


interested.


Findings


a study


by Hesser


(1973)


also were


dis-


appointing.


Hesser


conducted an


information


campaign


1969


County,


an attempt

Florida,


create


juvenile


public


court.


interest


interviewed


Alachua


a panel


readers


the Gainesville Sun


shortly before


after


that


newspaper


published


eight articles


about


juvenile


court.


The


interviews


were


conducted


to determine


respondents'


knowledge


attitudes


about


juvenile


court.


Results


the Hesser


study revealed


that


few respondents


had read


articles


about


juvenile


court;


only


27.3


per


cent


had


noticed


articles,


18.2


cent had read at


least


one


artic le,


4.5


cent


had read


or more


articles.


significant


change


occurred


in respondents'








Media


Use


Numerous


studies


have


been


conducted on media


use


patterns


preferences


of various


population


groups


and


subgroups.


The


Dobson


and Edwards


(1971)


study reported


above


also


found


that


single most


frequently mentioned source


information about


vocational


education


in Florida was


tele-


vision


(34.8% of


the respondents)


followed by newspapers


(22.8%)


Radio was


reported


a primary source


of informa-


tion by only


cent


the respondents.


Anderson


(1973)


investigated


differences


uses


mass


media by urban and nonurban


residents


in Southeastern


Ohio.


found


that


television


was


ranked highest


a media


source


of entertainment by both


urban


nonurban respondents.


Urban respondents


print media,


generally


second,


favored


entertainment,


television,


news,


first,


and


and


information.


Nonurban respondents


relied heavily on


television


three


functions


(entertainment,


news,


and


information)


but


also


favored radio as


Allen


1968)


a source


surveyed black


of entertainment and news.


ghetto residents


Pittsburgh


to determine


use


patterns


effects


of mass









study showed


that


these ghetto


residents were


almost t


entirely


dependent


television


news


and


viewed


television


ex-


tensively for


entertainment;


they also spent a


considerable


amount


time


listening


to radio


(an average


of five-and-a-


half hours a day).


Greenberg


and Dervin


(1970)


studied mass


media behaviors


(media


and


use,


attitudes)


availability,


poor


content


children,


preferences,


adolescents,


functions,


adults.


Among


the results was


that


members


low-income groups


especiallyl


blacks


watched


television more


than


the general


population.


Lyle


(1967)


conducted


a study to determine


use


daily general


and weekly black newspapers


by blacks


in Los


Angeles


their


attitudes


towar d


those


newspapers.


Results


indicated


that


black respondents


interviewed


read


one


daily newspaper


least occasionally.


Respondents'


use


of other


media


also


was


investigated.


Exposure


television


and radio


was


high;


cent


subjects


reported regular


radio news


listening,


cent regular


viewing


television


newscasts.


Also,


most respondents


said


they read


a magazine


regularly;


only


10 per


cent


said


they








Bogart


(1968)


studied


relationship of race with


media


use


habits.


He reported


on an Opinion Research


Corporation study which


included


interviews with blacks


out


of a national


showed


that


sample of


blacks


1,991


received


adults.


a flow


The results


of media similar


that


the whites,


and


that


most


racial


differences


in media


exposure reflected social


status


and


geographical


differences


rather


than racial


or cultural


factors


per


The


study


revealed t

paralleled


hat


media


those


exposure patterns


of whites when


income,


of blacks


generally


educational,


and


regional


comparisons were made.


The


Opinion Research Cor-


portion


newspapers


magazines,


study did


than


show that


whites


listened


less


blacks


blacks


radio,


read


slightly fewer


also read


watched


fewer


television


less


than whites.


Bogar t


(1972)


followed


that


study with


special


analyst is


data


from


1970


national


study of media


audiences.


The


1970


study had


a more


recent


much


larger


national


proba-


ability


sample of


15,322


persons.


After


reviewing


the results


data


analysis,


Bogart


(1972)


revised his


1968 con-


clusion


that


"most


the differences


in media


exposure


'I~~ ~ ~ .. ---


I ~-


I ft *


1


*








alienation of Negroes


earlier


as a group.


conclusion remained


" Bogart


very true


(1972)


newspaper


said his


reading


and on


the whole


true


radio


listening,


but


1970 data


suggested


that


television plays


a somewhat


different


role


lives


of blacks


than


of whites


at similar


levels


income


and


education.


Results


of Bogart's


analysis


1970 data


showed


that,


in general,


daily newspaper


reading


followed


same


patterns when


whites


and blacks were


compared,


though


overall


figures


blacks were


lower.


the white


popula-


tion,


cent


said


they read


a daily newspaper


"yesterday,


" compared with


cent


black


popula-


tion.


Among whites,


men


and women were


identical


their


rates


of daily newspaper readership,


but among


blacks


(especially


lower


educated


level)


women


were more


apt


than men to

no newspaper


be daily newspaper


readers.


readership difference


by race


here wa

among


virtually


college


graduates,


but


among


those with


high


school


education


less,


black readership was


substantially below that


whites.


Similarly,


poverty


level


(below


a $5,000


family income),


newspaper


readership


fell


sharply








readership dipped sharply among


those


blacks


in nonmetro-


politan areas who


had not


graduated


from high


school.


News-


paper readership generally was


lower


small


towns


and rural


areas


than


in metropolitan


centers,


but


the difference was


much


sharper


among


blacks.


The


effects


of income,


education,


city


size,


region


of residence were


interrelated


complementary.


Bogart


(1972)


results


on radio


listenership were


identical


black


and white women,


but


black men


listened


16 per


cent


more


than


white men.


Among whites,


radio


listen-


ing was


greatest


among


both men and women


middle


come bracket


heaviest


$10,000).


($5,000


among


Analysis


$10,000),


upper


by educational


but among


income


level


blacks


level


showed


it was


(over


that


greatest


amount


of radio


listening


among


whites was


those


middle


educational


level


(high


school


graduates who


had not


attended


college).


Among


black men


same


pattern


occurred,


but


among


black women


heaviest radio


listening


was


the


lowest


educational


level


(less


than high


school


graduate).


Rural


Southern


whites


and blacks


alike


showed


less


radio


listening


time


than


people


other


regions.


Also,


_









listening time


Television


seemed more


significant


viewing results


than


Bogart


deviations.


analysis


the


1970 data


showed


that


women


watched


television more


than men,


especially


in daytime


and


time


other


than


prime


time.


Since


men watch daytime


television


extensively on


the weekends,


seven-day


totals


television


viewing


were


not


as different


for men


and women


working week.


they were


In prime evening


five days


time,


during


television


viewing


of whites


blacks was


very


similar,


with


black


viewership


slightly


less


than


that


of whites.


blacks watched sub-


stantially more


television


outside


prime


time


than did


whites.


Black


women


spent


cent


more


daytime


time


other


than


prime


time


hours watching


television


than


did


white


women.


Among the white


population,


television


viewing


creased


among


older


people


both


prime


time


and


other


times.


lightest


Among


blacks,


viewers,


however,


young


older


people


people were


(especially those


between


years


were


heaviest


viewers


of prime


time


television.


The


Bogart


1972)


results


also


showed


that


differences


in geography and


climate


influenced


television


viewing








both blacks and whites


than


it was


the North


and West.


When


income


and


education were


taken


into account,


the dif-


ference


between


prime


time


and daytime


viewing patterns


also


was


apparent;


the white population,


television


viewing


decreased


education


income


increased;


however,


upper


income


blacks watched


more


television


than


those


lower


income


scale,


and


women


upper


income


bracket


accounted


the difference.


Women


upper


bracket


also were


heaviest daytime


and


other


than


prime


time


viewers,


while middle


income


black men watched more


television


these


times


than did black men


of higher


lower


incomes.


Meyersohn


(1968)


studied


the differences


that


various


kinds


of leisure


activities


make


the rate


television


viewing.


Data


study were drawn


from a national


sample done


1961


by Elmo Roper


National Research


Center.


Among


results were


that


poor


read


fewer


newspaper s


books,


attended


fewer movies,


but watched more


television


than


more


affluent.


Sargent and Stempel


(1968)


studied


relationship of


poverty


alienation


with


media


use,


interviewing respon-


dents


from


families


on relief


in Athens,


Ohio,


and


other


1 _I









that


the relief


subjects


used


newspaper


less,


listened


to the radio more,


and watched


television


more


than subjects


from the


general


population.


The daily newspaper was


read


20 minutes


or more


by 67


per


cent


the relief


subjects


compared with


cent


general


population


subjects;


49 per


cent


relief


subjects


listened


radio


or more


hours daily compared


per


cent


subjects


from


the general


population;


cent


relief


sub-


jects watched


television


five


hours or more


daily compared


20 per


cent


general


population


subjects.


The above


studies


suggest


that


television and radio would


be prime


channels


distributing


information


to low-income


groups.


However,


another


study


(Stojanovic,


1972)


found


otherwise.


Stojanovic


low-income women


determined sources f

Southeastern United


rom whict

States


rural


(Alabama,


Mississippi,


North


Carolina,


and


Tennessee)


had heard about


Medicare.


The popularity of


television


and radio


again


was


established.


However,


results


also showed


that


persons


of extremely


low socioeconomic


status were


least


likely to


have


been reached by radio


Lazarsfeld


(1940:xii)


and


television.


reported


on an early study com-








Rockefeller


Foundation


to Princeton


University to


study the


role played by radio


different


groups


listeners


United


States.


Results


showed


that radio


listening


correlated


with


socioeconomic


level--the amount


of radio


listening


increased


lower


socioeconomic


levels.


Also,


findings


indicated


that


people


had a


choice


between radio


and


print


media


fairly comparable


subject matter,


higher


their


socioeconomic


level


the more


likely they would


prefer


to read rather


than


listen.


After


surveying


low-income persons


in St.


Louis,


Block


(1970)


found


that


television and


newspapers were


the most


effective


modes


communication


reaching


urban


poor.


Murdoff


(1967)


surveyed householders


in Napa,


California,


to determine what


community members


understood about


local

that


junior


college


newspaper was


and


functions.


the


best


single


The

source


results revealed


information


groups


surveyed.


studying


social


class


and


ethnic differences


relative


to readership


a War


on Poverty newsletter,


Williams


Lindsay


(1971)


found


that media


use


habits


and attitudes


varied


far more


function


social


stratification


than









various


studies


relating to media


use


by blue-collar workers.


pointed


out


that media


coverage


is extremely broad


the United States;


and


thus


media


use


patterns


are generally


related


sex,


ethnic,


age,


avocational,


or occupational


groupings which may


be only


indirectly related


to social


class.


Bogar t


also


stated


that


many studies


have


supported


observation


that


people


lower


income and


education


were


oriented


"eas ier


absorb" broadcast media,


while


those


of higher


income


education


gravitated


toward


print media.


Other


results mentioned


include:


People with


less


education


look


television


entertainment rather


than


information;


and


daily newspaper


reading among


blue-


collar workers


a whole,


is almost


but regularity of


universal


newspaper


reading


population

increases with


education.


Parker


and paisley


(1966)


studied


information-seeking


behavior


adults


to determine what


kinds


people


seek


what kinds


were


information


conducted with


through


total


wha t


1,869


channels.


adults


Interviews


in San Mateo and


Fresno,


education,


California.


occupation,


Responses were


income,


tabulated by age,


length


sex,


community








the kinds of


information sought.


Among the


findings


Parker


and Paisley study


were data on


subjects'


use of


television,


radio,


news-


papers,


and magazines


information.


The


results


television


usage


included:


Education


was


found


to be


the most


potent


determinant


television


viewing;


college-educated


adults


consistently watched


less


television


than


less


educated


subjects.


Sex,


age,


and


educa-


tion were


simultaneous


determinants


television


usage;


women


under


40 with


only a


high


school


education or


less


watched


levels;


television more


there was


viewing with


than men


a slight decrease


for women


high


same age


volume


school


education


television


level.


When


education


was


held


constant,


television


use


varied


at different


occupational


levels


(except


that


unemployed


adults

income


watched


television more


subjects were


television


usage


found more


categories;


than


the employed)


frequently


this was


Higher

lower


particularly true


the over


$15,000


income


group


in which


cent


used


television


less


than


an hour-and-a-half


a day,


compared


with


less


than


cent


lower


income


groups.


Also,









the


low education group and


slightly positive


high


education group.


Findings


dined with


on radio


use


subjects


indicated


age,


but


that radio


older


usage de-


subjects were more


likely than


tional rather


younger


than


respondents


entertainment


use radio


purposes.


informa-


Education was


found

college


to have


little


graduates


effect


on the amount


adults with


less


radio


than a high


usage;

school


education


spent


about


same


amount


time


listening to


the radio.

with radio


annual


Data

usage


incomes


relationship


showed


that


of $7,000


of occupation and


white-collar


$9,999


had


income


workers with


highest rate


radio


usage.


Parker


Paisley


study results


on newspaper


use


patterns


of respondents


showed


that


newspaper


usage


in-


creased


with


small


subjects


amount


who had


with


a college


of respondents


education when


and


was greater


age was


held


constant.


When


education was


controlled,


occupation


had a


direct relationship with


newspaper


usage;


volume


of news-


paper


reading


increased with


occupational


status.


The


un-


employed had different


newspaper


use


patterns;


an average








education


than


those with


a high


school


education.


Results


on magazine


use


of respondents


Parker


and Paisley study showed


that magazine


reading volume


increased with


college-educated


men,


but


the authors


attributed


this more


to occupation


of respondents


than


age.


Overall,


there was


much


greater magazine reading


adults with


college


education


than


those with


only a


high


school


education


less.


Also,


when


education was


con-


trolled,


there was


a steady


increase


in magazine


usage


occupational


status


and


income


level


increased.


In a national


study


conducted


primarily to determine


attitudes


and


feelings


of Americans


toward


television and


content,


Steiner


(1963)


compared


use


television


with


use of


that


level


radio,


magazines,


of education


and newspapers.


the respondent


found


was


factor


that made


greatest


difference


relative capacities


and


limitations


attributed


four


media by the respon-


dent.


Where


differences


did


exist


according


such


other


characteristics


residency,


a lwa ys


age,


income,


a direction


sex,


family


they were


consistent


less


with


composition,


pronounced


educational


urban-rural


and were


differences








"educational" material.


However,


educational


levels


found


television


to be


"most


entertaining"


four


media


studied.


Rees


and Paisley


(1967)


studied


25 media and


informa-


tion-seeking


behaviors,


using


data


from a


study


in Fresno,


California.


Results


showed


that


income


and


education


were


strong predictors


newspaper


use;


newspaper reading


doubled


from


low to


high


income


levels;


and


the more


educa-


tion,


higher


percentage who


read newspapers.


McLeod,


Ward,


Tancill


(1965-66)


explored


re-


lationship of


ducted


alienation


in Madison


to mass


Wisconsin.


media


The


usage


results


in a study


revealed


con-


little


evidence


rejection


that


alienated


social


(alienation was


institutions


processes)


defined as


spend more


time with


mass


media


than


does


the general


public.


Findings


indicated


that


best


predictor


of media


use was


education,


alienation.


Using


education


a measure


of mass


media


use,


there was


a positive


correlation


with


print


media


usage


negative


correlation with


electronic media


usage.


Also,


the more


education


a person


had


the more


apt


he was


use


mass


media


information reasons


rather


than


vicarious








different t


patterns


information-seeking to different


levels


of public


knowledge


three


areas--public affairs,


SCience,


health.


Data


study came


from secondary analysis


of national


sample


surveys


conducted between


1952


and


1964.


Among


results was


that


education was


found


to be


a power-


predictor


of mass


media


use;


the more education


a person


had,


the more


likely he was


use


print media


major


source of


news


and


information.


Greenberg


(1966)


investigated


relationship of


age,


sex,


and


education with


mass


media


credibility and


usage.


Only


television


and newspapers were


compared.


Results


showed


that


relationship between


education


mass


media


usage


was


stronger


than


relationship


between education


mass media


credibility.


Findings


also


revealed


that


age


alone


was


a determinant


of mass


media


usage;


however,


there


was


a strong


correlation


between age,


education


level,


and mass


media


education


usage.


less


used


Younger


television


subjects with


extensively,


years


but respondents


with


a college degree


used


television much


less.


The


heavy


user


telev


vision


tended


to be


less


educated,


and


this


group


had


one-fifth more women


than men.


The


heavy user









Lazars field


public's


and


attitudes


Kendall


toward


(1948)


radio.


reported


The


on a


study,


study on


conducted


1947


by the National


Opinion Research Center,


also


examined


the general


communications


behavior


American


population.


Results


included:


90 per


cent


respondents


said


they read


a daily newspaper


cent had


attended


movies


the month


previous


their


interview;


cent


said


they


listened


radio


one


or more


hour s


on an


average


weekday evening;


cent read


at least one


book


during


month;


cent


read


least one


magazine


regularly.


Also


among the


Lazarsfeld


and


Kendall


results was


that


cent


college-educated respondents


read magazines


regularly as


compared with


cent


high


school-


educated


respondents;


cent


college-educated


read


least


one


book


the month


previous


their


inter-


view as


compared with


cent


the respondents with


only a


high


school


education;


cent


college-


educated


listened


radio


three


or more


hours


evening


as compared with


cent


the


high


school-


educated;


cent


the college-educated


and


28 per







Another


Lazarsfeld and Kendall


finding was


strong


relationship


between age and movie attendance;


a higher


proportion


older


respondents did not attend movies


(73%


respondents


over


age


and 19%


of respondents


between


the ages


21 and


29 reported


they


did not attend


movies).


Case


studies


conducted by


MacLean


(1952)


suggest


that


a number


munications


factors may


behavior


important


different


to variations


types of


com-


communities


(city,


small


city,


village,


and


farm) .


this


study,


results


indicated


that


persons


with a high school


level


education


were


strongest


radio


fans;


also,


women


listened


to radio much more


than men.


How many magazines


a person


read


clearly


was


related


to his


income,


occupation,


educa-


tion,


levels


social


activity,


proportion


people

papers,


attending

radio, m


agazines,


live media

movies,


in MacLean's


studies--news-


books--decreased


consistently


from metropolis


through


small


city


and


village


farms.


Samuelson,


Carter,


and Ruggels


(1963)


also


found


that


radio


use was


at a peak with


persons who were


high school


graduate


level


education,


as did


MacLean.









Conclusions


from Review


of Related


Research


and Literature


obvious


from


studies


information


levels


that


methods


tion have


(1971)


disseminating


little


study and


success.


the London


occupational


Both


Wenker t


education


Dobson


1964)


informa-


and Edwards


study revealed


that not


only


have


levels


information


about


occupational


education been


found


to be extremely


low,


but


individuals


most in need


such


informant ion--persons


lower


status


groups


such as


unskilled and


semiskilled blue-collar


workers--


are


least


likely to


have


information


essential


enrolling


occupational


programs.


Research


on media


preference


use patterns


indicates


that


such


patterns


can


vary according to


such


factors


urban


nonurban


residency,


types


community


of residence,


geography and


climate,


social


stratification,


education,


income,


race,


occupation,


age,


sex.


Thus,


media


use


patterns


cannot


be generalized


easily


from


one


population


another.


studies


on media


use patterns


and


information


levels


of respondents


imply a


theory that


different


socioeconomic








The


studies


by Lazarsfeld


(1940),


Lazarsfeld and Kendall


(1948),


and MacLean


(1952)


indicate


that


the construct


"different


population


subgroups


have different media


use


patterns "


stable


over


time.


This


emphasizes


importance


of determining media


use patterns


information campaign


target


population


groups


before


disseminating


information


those groups.


From

apparent


the review


that


information


research


approach was


sources


those


and


needed


population


literature,


that determined


subgroups


was

the


having the


lowes t


levels


information about


occupational


education.


Media


us e


patterns


disseminating

programs. Kn


should be


information


determined


materials


owing which media


are


in each


area


on occupational


used


before


education


predominantly by


population


subgroups


will


indicate


appropriate


media


used


channels


communicating


information


those


groups.


The review


related


studies


revealed


that


previous


research has


focused


on either


determining the


information


held by population


information


subgroups


sources


about


students


occupational


enrolled


education,


educational


* S -


L III


1


q









media


which


use


media


patterns


should


of population


used


subgroups


channeling


in order


occupational


learn


educa-


tion


information


those


subgroups


having


levels


information.













CHAPTER


RESULTS


AND


DISCUSSION


Response


Rate


Telephone


Surveys


Relatively


high response


rates were realized


telephone


surveys.


This


was


line with


Nunnery and


Kimbrough


(1971)


statement


that


telephone


surveys


yield


refusal


rates


among persons


contacted.


drawn


cases


reassessment


survey


consisted


of 1,917


telephone


listings.


this


number,


1,204


(62.8%)


persons were


contacted


successfully contacted;


to disconnected


remaining


numbers


were


no answers.


1,204


cooperate.


persons


Thus,


contacted,


only


the cooperating


(14.1%)


1,034


persons


refused


comprised a


response


rate


85.9


cent.


The drawn


cases


the postassessment


survey


consisted


of 1,915

persons


telephone


were


listings.


successfully


this


contacted;


number,


1,165


remaining


(60.8%)

750 were


not contacted due


to disconnected numbers


answers.








cooperate.

a response


Thus,

rate c


the


1,008 cooperating persons


)f 86.5


comprised


cent.


Target Groups


Their


Media Use


This


study was


intended


a model


identifying


target


groups


to be


recipients


information


about


occupational


education programs


determining


information


levels


target


groups


could


be raised.


model


entails


population


identification


subgroups


identifiable


information needs


by demographic


characteristics


of citizens


institution's


service


area.


Because


literature


frequently used


income


and racial


groups


population


subgroups


study,


target


groups


this


study were defined


Specifically,


target


terms


groups


these


study were


characteristics.


"low-income


black"


and


"low-income white.


Although


high-income


black


and high-income white


categories


were


considered


to be


target


groups,


data


them were


available


and,


there-


fore,


they were


included


study to determine


they


also


showed


change


levels


information.


A dividing


line


$7,000


year


was


used


to separate


categories


_








Thus,


"high


of $7,000 or


income" refers


more,


"low


to an annual


income" refers


family


to an


income


annual


family


income


of below $7,000.


The


distributions


of respondents


both


surveys


are


shown


in Table


table


shows


that


<10.3%)


preassessment


respondents were


low-income


blacks,


(36.8%/)


were


low-income whites;


(12.4%)


post-


assessment respondents were


low-income


blacks,


and


(39.2%)


were


low-income whites.


percentages


the


income/racial


group categories were


similar


both


reassessment and


postassessment


surveys.


In order


appr opr ia te


to determine


conveying


what


existing media would be


occupational


education


most


program


information


target


population


groups,


data


on media


use


were


collected


categorized


according


income/racial


groups.


The most


appropriate media


were


those


used


most by


target


population


groups.


Television


Usage


cross tabulation


income/racial


groups


by the


time


respondents


said


they


spent


daily watching


television













Table


Income/Racial


Groups


Postassessme


of reassessment
nt Respondents


Preassessment


Postassessment


Absolute
Frequency


Relative
Frequency


Absolute
Frequency


Relative
Frequency


Group


Low-Income


Black


10.3


12.4


Low-Income White


High-Income


36.8


39.2


Black


4.1


High-Income White


45.0


429


42.6


Missing


Total


1,034


100.0


1,008


100.0









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said


they watched


television


four


or more


hours


a day.


Also,


Table


and


revealed


91.5


that


cent


88.8


low-income


cent


whites


low-income


indicated


blacks


they


viewed at


least


some


television


daily.


These


television


viewing


patterns


low-income groups


agree with results


of previous media


use


research,


parti-


cularly


studies


by Allen


(1968)


and by Greenberg


and Dervin


(1970)


Allen


found


that


black


ghetto


residents


in Pitts-


burgh


viewed


television


extensively,


Greenberg and


Dervin


found


that


low-income


groups,


particularly blacks,


devoted


considerable


time


television


viewing.


The


crosstabulation


income/racial


groups


by time


day respondents watch


income/racial


television most


categories,


shown


the majority of


in Table


respondents


who


indicated


they


were


television


viewers


said


they watched


television most


Table


during


4 presents


the

data


6:00-10:00


on the


p.m.


preferred


period.

television


channels


those


respondents who


indicated


they watched


television.


The


table


reveals


a strong


preference


for WESH,


Channel


in Daytona


Beach,


Florida;


72.0


cent


low-income


blacks


47.7


cent


low-income


1






































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residents


signal s


of this


on this


area receive


channel.


best


addition


video and


to WESH,


audio


television


stations


mentioned by respondents were:


WFTV,


Channel


Orlando;


Orlando;


WTLV,


WJXT,


Channel


Channel


Jacksonville;


Jacksonville;


WDBO,


WJKS,


Channel


Channel


Jacksonville;


, Largo;


WUFT,


WCJB,


Channel


Channel


Gainesville;


20, Gainesville;


WLCY,


WFLA,


Channel


Channel


Tampa;


and WEDU,


Channel


, Tampa.


Radio


Usage


The


cross tabulation


income/racial


groups with


time


respondents


spent


daily


listening


radio


shown


Table


can


observed


from


this


table


that


62.6


cent


low-income


blacks


61.1


cent


low-income whites


listened


radio daily.


Further,


54.2


cent


low-income


blacks


and


46.9 per


cent


low-income whites


listened


to radio


least


one


hour


or more daily.


These


findings


on radio


listenership


suggested


less


radio


usage


by Allen


low-income


(1968)


. Allen


blacks


found


than reported


that black


study


ghetto residents


























































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14.0 per


cent


low-income


blacks


this


study said


they


spent


four


or more


hour s


a day


listening to


radio.


Table

income/raci


6 presents

al groups


results


by time


crosstabulation


of day respondents


listen


radio.


highest number


responses


fell


6:00-10:00


a.m.


period,


with


second


highest


percentages


occurring


"all


day"


category.


low-income


blacks who answered


the question,


70.0


cent


said


they


wer e


most


likely to


listen


radio


6:00-10:00


a.m.


period,


and


10.0 per


cent


indicated


"all


day.


low-income whites who answered


question


time


day they


listen


radio,


40.4


cent responded


6:00-10:00


a.m.


category and


30.1


cent


answered


"all


day"


category.


The


preferred radio


stations


of radio-listening


respon-


dents


are


given


in Table


The


radio


stations mentioned by


respondents


stations


they preferred


were:


WMOP,


Ocala


WTMC,

Ocala7


Ocala;

WSLC,


WAPE,


Jacksonville;


Clermont


WORJ,


WPDQ,


Orlando;


Jacksonville;


WTRS,


WWKE,


Dunnellon;


WF UZ-FM,


Ocala;


WOKB,


Winter


Garden;


WDBO,


Orlando;


WZST,











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Clearwater;


WYSE,


Inverness ;


WHOO,


Or lando ;


WLCY,


Petersburg;


WQIK,


Jacksonville;


WGTO,


Cypress Gardens;


WWJB,


Brooksville.


Table


shows


that


two stations


(WMOP,


16.0%,


and


WTMC,


46.0%)


were


chosen


"preferred radio


stations" by the


highest


percentages


low-income


black respondents who


answered


highest


the question.


number


Five


responses


radio


from


stations received


low-income whites who


answered


the question:


WMOP,


23.0


cent,


WTMC,


12.5


cent;


WTRS,


15.1


cent;


WFUZ-FM,


14.5


cent;


and WYZE,


12.5


have


cent.


been


Two


most


radio


stations--WMOP and


popular with


WTMC--appear


income/racial


groups.


Newspaper


Usage


The


daily


amounts


time


that


respondents


said


they


spent reading


newspaper s


are


shown


in Table


This


table


shows


that


77.5


cent


low-income


blacks


and


79.5


per


cent of


low-income


whites


said


they read newspapers daily;


cent


of high-income


blacks


88.7


cent


high-income whites


said


they read


newspapers daily.


These


results


are


somewhat


similar


findings


.rV7 I r\T%11


morq A


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newspaper


reading doubling from


low-


to high-income


levels.


The preassessment


survey


showed an


average


11.8 per


cent


difference


between


percentages of


low-income


respondents


who said


they read newspapers daily and


high-income


respondents


who gave


similar


responses,


with


high-income


respondents


reporting the


higher


percentages


of newspaper


daily readership.


newspapers


that


newspaper -reading


respondents


said


they read most


are


shown


Table


9 which


crosstabula-


tion


income/racial


groups with


news papers


read


most.


The


newspapers


respondents


mentioned


when


asked


what newspapers


they read most


were:


Ocala Star-Banner,


the Orlando


Sentinel,


Tampa


Tribune,


Florida


Times-Union,


Miami Herald,


Marion


Gazette,


Petersburg Times,


the Lake County Lake


News,


Voice


of South Marion,


Gainesville


Sun,


Jacksonville


Journal,


Williston Sun,


Levy County


Journal,


the Chiefland


Citizen,


the Citrus


County Chronicle,


the Crystal River


Suncoast Sentinel,


The


poster


in Homosassa Springs,


Beverly Hills


Inquirer,


Inverness


Advertiser,


and


the Tampa


Times.


Table


shows


that


the Ocala


Star-Banner was


the most










I



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they read


Ocala Star-Banner


more


than


any other news-


paper.


Movie


Usage


Table


shows


by income/racial


frequency


groups.


of movie theater


table reveals


that


attendance


25.1


cent of


low-income


blacks


and


15.7


cent


low-


income whites


high-income


said


blacks


they attend movies;


39.7


cent


50.0 per


cent


high-income


whites


said


they attend


movies.


Data


on respondents'


favorite


nights


attending


movies


are


presented


in Table


The


highest


percentage


(5.6%)


low-income


black respondents


said


they had no


favorite


night


or nights


attending


movies.


However,


cent


indicated


"Sunday,


.9 per


cent said


"Saturday,


and


cent


indicated


"weekends";


thus,


10.3


cent


low-income


black respondents


favored movie


attendance


on weekends.


highest


percentage


low-income whites


(7.6%)


said


they had no


favorite


night


or nights


for movie


attendance.


The movie


theaters


that


movie-going respondents


said










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Florida


Theater


Ocala,


the Ocala


Twin


Theater,


Ocala Drive


In Theater,


the Skylark Drive


In Theater


Ocala,


Springs Theater


Ocala,


Plaza


Theater


Eustis,


Vista


Theater


in Leesburg,


Suburbia Drive


In Theater


in Gainesville,


Arcade Theater


Williston,


the Chief Theater


Chiefland,


Inverness


Theater,


and


Springs Theater


Crystal River.


Table


indicates


movie-going


low-income


blacks


pri-


marily preferred


theaters ;


Florida


Theater was


mentioned by


42.9


cent and


Ocala


Twin


was


mentioned


28.6


cent.


Movie-going


low-income whites


primarily


preferred


theaters:


Ocala


Twin


(37.0%)


and


Springs Theater


(22.2%).


Conclusions


on Media


Use


Findings


from


the preassessment


survey


media


use


habits


of respondents


illustrate


that


different


popula-


tion subgroups


have different media


use


patterns.


These


patterns

campaign


should be considered when

to disseminate occupation


designing an

1 education


information

program


information


target


population


groups.










Comparison


of Reassessment and


Postassessment


Sample Characteristics


possible


that


random


variation


could have


resulted


in differences


duals


demographic


the preassessment


characteristics


survey and


indivi-


the postassessment


survey.


Al though


same


sampling


procedures were


used


the postassessment


survey


reassessment


survey,


comparison


samples


' demographic


data


was


made


order


assure


their


similarity.


The


comparison


showed


that


any


variations were


very minor


thus


could


account


possible differences


in preassessment


postassessment


information


County of


levels.


Residence


Findings


61.2%)


from


the respondents


reassessment


were


survey


from Marion


show


County


that


(of which


were


from


Ocala),


(27.7%)


were


from Citrus County,


and


were


from Levy County.


postassessment


survey,


.5%)


were


from Marion County


(of which


were


from


Ocala)


(22.4%)


were


from


Citrus County,


(12.1%)


were


from Levy County.









Urban/Nonurban Residency


purpose of


this


study,


"urban" was


considered


to be


any


incorporated


area


2,500


or more


residents.


According


the Chambers


of Central Florida


of Commerce


Community College,


the service


five


area


incorporated


areas


were


urban according to


this


definition.


In Marion


County,


Ocala


was


only


area


considered


urban.


In Citrus County,


Crystal River


Inverness were


classified


urban;


Levy County,


Williston


and Chiefland


were


classified


urban.


the preassessment


survey


, 620


(60%o)


the


respon-


dents were


considered


urban


and


remaining


(40/o)


were


considered


nonurban.


postassessment


survey


(57.


were


considered


urban


remaining


430


(42.7%)


were


considered


nonurban.


Length


Area


Residency


preassessment


survey results


revealed


that


(63.6%)


respondents


said


they had


lived


in the


area


more


than


five


years,


(29.9/%))


said between


one


five


years.


Thus,


1,034


reassessment


respondents


lived


area


over


a year.


The


Dost-


1 I


. I


A- V









(27.80)


said between


one


five


years.


Thus,


(94.


,008 postassessment respondents


had


lived


area


over


year.


These


high


percentages


in both


surveys


indicate


that


any


lack


information


respondents


had about


occupational


education


could


attributed


the respondents


living


area


only a


short while


Occupation


The


primary reason


asking


the respondents


both


their


occupations


income


levels was


to assis t


de-


termining


their


income


levels


they refused


state


their


annual


family incomes.


planning


occupational


However,


education


these data may


programs


of value


identify-


ing target

of housewiv


population

es in both


groups.

surveys


Clearly,

reveal oC


large


)tential


percentages

improving


family


income


through


occupational


education.


Results


the preassessment


survey show


that


.2%)


1,034


respondents


said


they were


housewives


.2%)


said


they were


retired;


(8.4%


said


they


were


were


professional


or technical


service workers;


(5.0%)


workers;


said


they were


said


they


salesworkers;








the postassessment


survey,


(27.5%)


of the


1,008 respondents


they were

or technic


said


housewives;

al workers;


they were


.0/o)


(6.0%)


retired


said

said


(22.4%)


they were

they were


said


professional

service


workers


said


they were


unemployed,


said


they were


students;


and


.2%)


said


they were clerical


workers.


their


Less


than


occupations


cent


each


of respondents


the other


occupation


classified


categories.


Education


reassessment


survey results


show


that


respondents


said


completion


of high


school


was


their


educational


level.


However,


said


they


had


complex ted


less


than


a high


school


education.


The


remaining


(32.


respondents


said


they had


completed


least


one


three


year s


of college.


postassessment


survey,


(34.0%)


1,008


respondents


said


completion


high


school


was


their


educational


level ,


(31.6%)


said


they had


less


than


a high


school


education,


remaining


(29.3%)


the respondents


said


they had


completed


least


one


three


year s


of college.









Age


The


preassessment


survey results


indicated


that


the


1,034


respondents


said


they were


older;


.6%)


were


between


45 and


years


age;


65.1


cent


Another


respondents


were


between


were


year s


and


years


older.


age.


the postassessment


survey,


(33.8/,%)


the


1,008


respondents


reported


they


were


between


years


old;


said


they were


year s


or older


; 61.6


cent


were


year s


or older.


Also,


(25.5%)


said


they


were


between


and


years


age.


Sex


preassessment


survey,


(68.2%)


1,034


respondents


were


female


(31.


wer e


male.


postassessment


survey,


.3%)


1,008


respondents


were


female


and


were


male.


Race


Because e


small


number


of nonblack


and


nonwhite


resnnndents (Q


S-l 1 1


reassessment


survey


and


the


,








white and black races were


analyzed in


this


study.


preassessment


survey,


(81.8%/)


said


they were white


and


(15.2%)


said


they were


black.


postassessment


survey,


.7/%)


said


they were white


and


(16.5%)


said


they were


black.


Family


Income


preassessment


survey


, 502


(48.5%)


of the


1,034


respondents


reported


it was


estimated)


that


they


had


annual


family


had annual


incomes


family


of less


incomes


than


7,000 or more.


post-


assessment


survey,


1,008 respondents


reported


was


estimated)


that


they


had


annual


family


incomes


less


than


476


.2%)


had annual


family


incomes


000 or


more.


Annual


family


income


information


was


not available


in 44


cases


pre-


assessment


survey and


cases


postassessment


survey.


Comparison


Preassess


ment and


Postassessment


Information Level


Description


Levels









Level


Respondents


did not


know that


occupational


education


courses were


offered


area,


where


such


courses were


offered,


or why such


courses were


offered.


Level


Respondents


knew


that


occupational


education


courses were


offered


area,


but


did


know where


why they were


offered.


Level


Respondents


knew that


occupational


education


courses


were


offered


the area


and were


able


nam e


some


places


area


where


such


courses were offered.


They


did not


know why


such


courses were


offered.


Level


Respondents


knew


that


occupational


education


courses were


offered


area,


were


able


name


some


places


area


where


such


courses


were offered,


gave


acceptable


reasons


to why


such


courses were


offered.


relationships of


levels


information


the questions


assessment


on Level


asked


reassessment


survey questionnaires


(why the


were


courses were


survey and


straightforward


offered).


post-


except


Question


("Do you


think


tax money ought


to be


used


pay


*tr^ 1; i lt


r',1 clO eM-l r r 1i


( "TAT1h-i


C- n 1 0I 0 N


/"** nT"cri3 c


7


-- t r~,


\ /









The


following were deemed


acceptable reasons why


occupational


education


courses


are offered:


Occupational


education


-- helps

-- gives


people

people


find


jobs.


entry-level


skills.


provides


people with skills


promotion


their


jobs.


helps


improve


job productivity by providing


skills.


-- helps


provide more


tax revenue


(more-skilled


people


would


pay higher


taxes


than


they would without such


skills)


-- helps

and/or


-- helps


community by generating more


training people


tax revenue


jobs.


country/state/community


by providing


skills


persons


receiving welfare


assistance


and


thus


helping those people


find


jobs.


Findings


Information


Levels


Table


shows


classification


target


groups


according


information


level


the preassessment














Table


Selected


Target


Groups Classified by Occupational


Education


Information Levels


Pr ior


to and


After


Information Dissemination


No
Information That Where Why N
Group (%) (%) (%) (%)

Low-Income prior 63.0 3.3 31.2 2.5 365
White After 54.7 7.3 33.7 4.3 395
Difference -8.3* 4.0* 2.5 1.8

Low-Income Prior 84.9 1.9 12.3 .9 106
Black After 69.6 4.8 22.4 3.2 125
Difference -15.3* 2.9 10.1* 2.3

High-Income Prior 42.0 3.9 41.1 12.9 457
White After 35.9 4.4 49.9 9.8 429
Difference -6.1* .5 8.8* -3.1

High-Income Prior 57.1 6.1 22.4 14.3 49
Black After 61.0 .0 34.1 4.9 41
Difference 3.9 -6.1 11.7 -9.4


*Significant


level.









groups


had


loss


percentage


Information"


level


(-8.3% and


-15.3%,


respectively) .


These


losses


percentage


each were


statistically significant at


level.


The


negative


numbers


Information"


category indicate


that


subjects


gained


information


about


occupational


education between


reassessment


survey and


the postassessment


survey.


It also should be


noted


that


next


level


(knew that


courses were offered)


showed


per-


centage


income


increases


black


both


target groups 7


low-income white


only the


and


increase


low-


low-


income white


group was


significant


level.


*Statistical


(P1



Where


- P2)



e p1


formula:


significance


hA
Pl 91
nl


is proportion


was


determined


from


A A
+ p2q2
n2


in postassessment survey


proportion


in preassessment


survey


Zo .05%


centage


level


under


curve


distribution


1.96


nl and n2 are
preassessment


samples
survey s


postassessment and


respectively.


and


A
1-p2


A
1-pl









However,


(knew where


increase


courses were


in percentage


the next


offered)


level


low-income


black


group


increased


significantly at


level.


There were


increases


in both


groups


"why"


level,


but


the


increases were


statistically significant at


level.


Apparently,


loss


of percentages


Information"


level


resulted


increases


percentages


higher


levels.


While


high-income white


high-income


black were


not


target


groups


of prime


interest


this


study,


it was


interest


include


them


information


on them was available


as a result


sampling procedure.


It can be


observed


that


Information"


level


there was


loss


high-income white


group of


cent


(significant


level) .


An increase


in percentage


8.80/0)


can


be noted


this


group


"Where"


level


(significant


level)


However,


no other


statistically significant


increase


decrease


in percentage


occurred


high-


income


Sources


groups.


of Occupational


Education


Information











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The


single


source cited by the most respondents was


"personal


contact";


this


source


comprised


20.0 per


cent of


respondents.


The newspaper was


mentioned by


12.7


cent


respondents,


cent mentioned multiple


sources.


other


sources were mentioned


less


frequently.


While


a media


effect


may operate


through


personal


con-


tact,


reason


comparatively high


frequency of


personal


contact may be


lack


organized


effort


disseminate


information


past.


Since


little


organized


effort had been made


newspaper


previously,


and radio most


the


percentage


likely were


related


cited


to efforts


this


project.


Therefore,


newspaper


radio


are


the most


promising


media


to raise


effectively the


levels


occupational


education


information


service


area


Central


Florida Community College.














CHAPTER


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


This


study determined


leave is


information about


occupational


education


held


by persons


service


area


of Central


Florida Community College.


The


number s


of per-


sons


in income/racial


groups


each


level


were


determined


prior


to and


after


information


dissemination


campaign


was conducted


to raise


information


levels.


analysis


results


revealed


that


significant


change


both


occurred


low-income


numbers


white


persons


low-income


various


black


levels


groups.


Specifically,


fewer


persons


were


Information"


level


and


more


persons were


higher


levels


after


in formation


campaign.


The


results of


reassessment


survey on


levels


information


substantiate


findings


reported by Dobson


Edwards


(1971)


on their


1971


statewide


survey


of Florida


residents.


Dobson


and Edwards


found


that


levels


specific









status groups--those most likely to benefit


from vocational


technical


education


courses--had


less


information about


vocational


and


technical


education


than


other


groups.


This


study


supports


theory that different


SOCio-


economic


different


It also


about


groups


levels


supports


occupational


have different


information


hypothesis


education


media


about


that


could


use


patterns


occupational


levels of


be raised by


education.


information


channelling


information


target


population


groups


through media


pre-


dominantly used by the


target


population


groups.


Clearly,


study shows


that


the occupational


education


information


levels


lower


income


groups


can


signi-


ficantly raised


through


appropriate


use of media.


condition


having


basic


information


about


occupational


education


a prerequisite


desire of


citizens


improve


their


economic


situation


and/or


to adequately support


occu-


national


education


through


structure,


implementa-


tion


similar


information


projects


raise


information


levels would be worthwhile.


Recommendations









communities


is beyond question.


However,


literature


and


results


this


study indicate


that


persons who


could


profit


most


from occupational


education


programs


know


very


little


about


such


programs.


If knowledge of


program


information


a prerequisite


for

that


enrollment


equal


in educational


access


programs,


is being provided


is questionable


currently by postsecondary


educational


institutions


offering


occupational


education


programs


when


discrepancies


exist


in levels


information


between


income/racial


groups.


Further,


should


be noted


that


public


support


occupational


education may relate


levels


informa-


tion of


citizens.


these


reasons,


postsecondary educational


institu-


tions


offering


occupational


education


should


assume re-


sponsibility


assessing


attempting


raise


informa-


tion


levels


citizens


their


service


area.


The purpose


this


study was


to assist


institutions


which


are


assuming


this


responsibility;


specifically,


multi-media materials


were


developed


and


evaluated


order


to present


information


about


occupational


education


to specific


target


groups.









Appendices A and B


contain


the questionnaires


used


this


study.


is recommended


that


postsecondary educa-


tional


institutions


offering


occupational


education


construct


similar


questionnaires


assessing


levels


information


and media


use patterns


citizens


their


service


areas.


Data


collected with


these


instruments will


facilitate the


identification


target


groups


to be recipients


occupa-


tional


education


program information.


Appendix C


contains


media


materials


used


information


types


campaign


of outlines,


advertisement copy


this


study.


radio and


that


can be


film

used


These are recommended

scripts, and newspaper


information


campaigns.


Appendix D


shows


comparative


costs


paid


ad-


vertising


ments


time


of media


space


and


considered


free


thi


public

s study


service


announce-


can


be observed


from


this


appendix


that


cost


of prime


television


time'


prohibitive


most postsecondary educational


institu-


tions


offering


occupational


education


programs.


Further,


few


free


public


service


announcements


that


are


available


are


run


times when


few persons


target groups


are


watching


television.


However,


radio and newspaper


time








study were


attributed


to radio and newspaper,


these media


are recommended as


effective


channels


disseminating


occupational


education


program


information.


Only one


movie


theater


three


approached


would


pro-


vide


free


or paid


advertisement


time


because of


prohibitive


policies


other


theaters.


Movie


theaters


service area


of postsecondary educational


institutions


offering


occupational


education


programs


should be


contacted


before e


any movies


are made


to be


shown


theaters.


Should


it be


ascertained


that


theaters


will


run


films


about


occupa-


tional


could be


education


used


programs,


a movie


the movie


script


script-writing


in Appendix C


guide.


Also,


actual


film


used


this


study


could be


borrowed


from


Florida State


Advisory Council


on Vocational


and


Technical


Education.


Implications


Further


Research


This


study was


concerned


with


raising


occupational


education


levels


of information held by


lower


income


population


subgroups.


Because


public


support


of occupational


education may relate


levels


of occupational


educa-









levels of higher


research,

channeled


income


occupational

through media


population

education

used most


subgroups.


information

by the hig


In such

should be


h-income white


and black subgroups rather


than


low-income white


and


black


subgroups


as was


done


this


study.


This


suggested


research


could


focus


on disseminating


information


on why


occupational


education


offered


a method


increasing


public


tax support


occupational


education.


Research


between


also


occupational


suggested

education


to determine the

information levels


relationship

held by


low-income white


and black


subgroups


their


repre-


sentation


in occupational


education


programs.


Curtis


(1970)


discovered


that


percentage


of high


school


graduates


enrolling

munity co


in occupational


alleges was


education


program s


positively related


in Florida


scores


on a


com-


test


information.


A similar


finding was


reported by Matthews


(1970)

North


concluded


Carolina


that


community


growth

college


in overall

occupation


enrollment

1 programs


was


indicative


tion.


obvious


Both


of effective


the Curtis


conclusion


that


dissemination


Matthews


enrollment


program


studies


in occupational


informa-


suggest


education




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