Citation
Counseling services for older persons as perceived and provided by selected Florida aging program administrators and direct service personnel

Material Information

Title:
Counseling services for older persons as perceived and provided by selected Florida aging program administrators and direct service personnel
Creator:
Murphey, Milledge, 1940-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xiv, 226 leaves : map ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Counselor training ( jstor )
Educational counseling ( jstor )
Gerontology ( jstor )
Older adults ( jstor )
Questionnaires ( jstor )
Rehabilitation counseling ( jstor )
Retirement counseling ( jstor )
Service programs ( jstor )
Standard deviation ( jstor )
Transportation ( jstor )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Social case work with the aged -- Florida ( lcsh )
Social workers -- Attitudes -- Florida ( lcsh )
City of Gainesville ( local )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 215-224.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Milledge Murphey.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
028113652 ( ALEPH )
05871994 ( OCLC )
AAK6630 ( NOTIS )

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COUNSELING
PROVIDED BY


SERVICES FOR OLDER PERSONS AS PERCEIVED AND
SELECTED FLORIDA AGING PROGRAM ADMINISTRATORS
AND DIRECT SERVICE PERSONNEL


MILLEDGE MURPHY


A DISSERTATION
THE UNIVERSITY
REQUIREMENTS


PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF
OR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY




































Copyright


Milledge


Murphey


1979


































z4 1bytre Frfael ~t Arch


in 2011 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries with support from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation


















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


want


to thank some of


the many people who


have


assisted me


in completing this


study.


Dr. Harold Riker


been a


personal


friend,


counselor


, pro-


fessional


peer,


professor,


and supporter


of my work in aging


number


years.


As chairman


of my


doctoral


committee,


he spent many


hours working with me


in all facets


of the


program,


with specific and


invaluable assistance


in the design and


completion


of the dissertation.


sincere


appreciation and


gratitude


are extended


to him


for his


guidance.


Having


known me


for a number


years


Robert


Stripling


served as


a doctoral


committee


member


consistently provided me


with guidance


and inspiration when


was


in need.


interest


in me


as a person,


and his


thoughtful


counsel


with me,


will


always


sincerely


Ed.S.


appreciated.

committee in


Dr. James


Educational


L. Wattenbarger was

Administration and h


chairman of


as continued


to give


personal


support


and assistance


to me


at the doctoral


level.


His knowledge


of the broad spectrum of higher


education and


willingness


to assist me with many varied problems


is sincerely


appreciated.

aRn a et*Tn n n


Dr. Hannelore


Wass


has demonstrated


that


scientific


ha no l-,.t.n n-4 n mnIflnnnr^ Un


Ir a nnn rtll A C d~


f, _


I"F


A nr~ n n nn rl


F>











Harold Mitchum,


Hachi-Dan,


Isshinryu Karate,


my Sense,


friend,


time


has provided me


tested


with


perspective.


an understanding


His humble


of life


quiet


from a


example of


unique


strength


with


softness


will


continue


to set the


tone


for my


life--"If


want


to know


something


a short


period


of time


you will


know nothing


good.


am grateful


for the assistance


in the Florida Aging Network.


Especially


of the professional


helpful


was


staff


Dr. June Duggar


of the State


Aging


and Adult


Services


Program


Office


in Tallahassee.


thanks


to E. Bentley


Lips comb,


Director


of the Aging


and Adult


Program


Office,


whose


support


of this


project


enabled


me to have


access


to a wide


variety


of individuals


and records


which would


otherwise


have


been


unavailable


special


appreciation


goes


to the Aging and Adult


Services


Pro-


gram Supervisors


throughout


Florida,


cooperated


with


me in


con-


ducting


the study.


Without


their


assistance,


the study


could not


have


been


accomplished.


supervisors


and workers


of the Specialized


Adult


Services


Units


throughout


Florida,


who,


though


overworked,


under-


paid,


unsung,


not only


aided


in the study,


but continue


to provide


services


for older persons


are in need.


Aging Project


staff


administrative


personnel


are due


my gratitude


for their participation,


and more


importantly,


for the important


services


they


render


to the


elderly

staffs


of Florida.


and especially


gratitude


the District


goes


to the Areawide


ILL A.AA


for their


Agency


support


on Aging

in both


4~ ~~n C ,.me e- -I nn mnr n


me.


t n Fnumn t rl nn










have


been


unable


to equal


terms


of being a


totally valuable


human


being,


of the highest


possible


integrity.


While


he did not


live


see the completion of


this


pursuit,


believe


his example


provided


greatest


share


of motivation


for my


undertaking and


completing


















TABLE


OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.


LIST


OF TABLES.


ABSTRACT


CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION.


Background


Need for the Study .
Purpose of the Study
Research Questions .


Rationale.
Definition


of Terms


REVIEW


OF THE


LITERATURE.


Characteristics
Persons .


and Needs


Older


Economics, Income
Health Needs and


and Retirement


Characters


tics


Living Arrangements.


. a 20


Social,


Activity,


Family


Needs


. .22


Perceptions


Areas


and Attitudes


of Research


Towards


on Attitudes


Aging


Towards


Aging
Attitudes


and the Aged;


Towards


Aging


Instruments


Among


Trainees


Practitioners


and Administrators.


Organization
Services


and Funding


For Older


Counseling


persons


METHODOLOGY


a, an a\ a a


U I.JLU.LUJu UIat..LUJLL .


* a a a a a *
. a a a a .
* a a


Page












RESULTS


Resulting
Analysis


Sample .
of Questionnaire


SUMMARY, DISCUSSION
AND SUGGESTIONS FOR


Summary. *
Discussion a
Implications
Suggestions


Responses.


AND CONCLUSIONS,
FURTHER RESEARCH.


nd Conclusions .
S S S S *


for Future


IMPLICATIONS,
. S .


* *
* *
r rO Q
I D


Research


APPENDICES


QUESTIONNAIRE


S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S 160


STANDARDIZED PROCEDURES
QUESTIONNAIRE. *


FOR ADMINISTRATION


FLORIDA AGING PROGRAM JOB DESCRIPTION


FLORIDA AGING AND ADULT
TITLE III
COUNSELING PROJECTS


SUMMARY


SERVICES

1977-78


AGING


ADULT


SERVICES.


S S S S S S S S S 5 9 5180


HRS DIRECT SERVICES
SEPTEMBER 25,


CLASS
1978


STUDY,
* *


CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
SUBJECT IN WHICH HIGHEST DEGREE WAS
EARNED BY SEX AND RACE


CROSSTABULATION
EDUCATION


CROSSTABULATION OF
WORK LOCATION


SAMPLE CHARACTERISTIC
SEX AND RACE. .


SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS
BY SEX AND RACE. .


CROSSTABULATION
EDUCATION


CROSSTABULATION


SAMPLE
SUBJECT


OF SAMPLE


CHARACTERISTICS:
. S S 5 4 5 5 5


CHARACTERISTICS


Inc


Page










Page


CROSSTABULATION
POSITION BY


OF SAMPLE
AGE AND


CHARACTERISTICS:
SEX. .


S. 202


ITEM MEAN
AND


S (AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS)
FEMALES. .


FOR MALES


ITEM MEANS

ITEM MEANS

ITEM MEANS


(AND

(AND

(AND


STANDARD

STANDARD

STANDARD


DEVIATIONS)

DEVIATIONS)

DEVIATIONS)


FOR EDUCATION.

FOR AGE. .

FOR RACE .


REFERENCES.


BIOGRAPHICAL


S. . 215


SKETCH


















LIST


OF TABLES


Page


TABLE


LEVEL OF EDUCATION OF TEST RETEST
BY SEX AND RACE. .. .


SAMPLE
. .


WORK LOCATION OF TEST
BY SEX AND RACE.


RETEST


SAMPLE


MEAN,


STANDARD DEVIATION
CORRELATION COEFFIC


AND T
IENTS


EST RETEST
FOR PILOT TEST.


. 58


CROSSTABULATION OF TOTAL SAMPLE
LOCATION BY POSITION .


CHARACTERISTICS


SUMMARY


CROSS


OF DEMOGRAPHIC


TABULATION
SEX BY RACE.


CHARACTERISTICS


SAMPLE


OF SAMPLE.


CHARACTERISTICS


CROSSTABULATION OF
POSITION TITLE


SAMPLE CHARACTERISTIC
BY SEX AND RACE .


CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
SPECIAL TRAINING OR EXPERIENCE IN WORKING
WITH OLDER PERSONS AND COUNSELING BY SEX
AND RACE .


CROSSTABULATION
POSITION BY


CROSSTABULATION O
NUMBER OF YE
SEX AND RACE


OF SAMPLE
EDUCATION


F SAMPL
ARS IN


CHARACTERISTICS
AND SEX. .


E CHARACTERISTICS:
PRESENT POSITION BY


nfl as, j,., fl rtr A ** a't' an e,&fn-ta-an r -nl


rnr r rr r nmn*rr nmr











Page


FREQUENCY OF RESPONSE CHOICES, MEAN AND
STANDARD DEVIATION OF SURVEY ITEMS


14-25


FREQUENCY RESPONSE CHOICES
STANDARD DEVIATION OF


MEAN
SURVEY


AND
ITEMS


36-46


ITEM MEANS (AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS)
SPECIFIED POSITION TITLES. .


ITEM MEANS (AND STANDARD
WORK LOCATION. .


FOR
. .


DEVIATIONS)


SUMMARY OF F RATIO
VARIANCE FOR
ITEMS.. .


S FOR ONE-WAY
QUESTIONNAIRE


ANALYSIS OF
AND DEMOGRAPHIC


PEARSON CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN
ITEMS AND QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS.


DEMOGRAPHIC


















stract


of Dissertation Presented


of the University


of Florida


to the Graduate


in Partial


Fulfillment


Council
of the


Requirements


COUNSELING


for the Degree


SERVICES


of Doctor


OLDER PERSONS


of Philosophy


AS PERCEIVED


PROVIDED


BY SELECTED


FLORIDA AGING PROGRAM ADMINISTRATORS


AND DIRECT


SERVICE


PERSONNEL


Milledge Murphey


June,


1979


Chairman:


Harold


Major Department :


C. Riker
Counselor


Education


This


staff

fined


study


towards

counsel


investigated


counseling se

ng, attitudes


the perceptions


rvices


of Florida


for older persons.


and perceptions


of subjects


Aging Program


subjects


toward


existing


services,


role


counseling,


self-evaluation


of training


in counseling


and gerontology,


and rating


of counseling against


other


services


were


assessed.


An instrument


to elicit


this


information


was


developed


field


tested


prior


to administration


to the whole


sample.


A 12


item


demnoranhi c


information


form and


a 61 item


u


questionnaire were


constructed.










A sample


of 414 subjects


was


identified


and chosen


at random.


Subgroups


consisting


program


administrators,


direct


service


providers,


and purchase


of service


project


staff were


included


from


each


of the


11 HRS Districts


and the State


Aging


and Adult


Services


Program


Office


in Tallahasse

administered


The researcher


the instrument


or his trained


statewide,


counterpart


and 373 usable


personally


questionnaires


were


obtained.


The resulting


data were analyzed


computer


using Pearson


Correlation


and One-Way


Analysis


of Variance


procedures.


Cross-tabulations


of 12


demographic


factors


and 60 questionnaire


item


responses


are


also


reported.


Item


61 of the instrument


and Items


10 and 12 of the demographic


form


required


open-ended


Each q

it discussed.


responses


questionnaire

Differences


and these


item was

among s


are reported


separately


ample


analyzed


separately.


responses


location,


subgroups, geographic


and other


factors


are


included.


In general,


the results


indicate


that


differences


in perceptions


of counseling


services


are most


notable


among

direct


State


Program Office


service


care


staff


and those


to older persons.


Lega


in positions

1 and other


which


provide


counseling


services


were


consistently


rated


below


those


of other


federally


funded


priority


services


such


as transportation


and home


services.


Subjects


tended


to evaluate


their


level


of knowledge


about


older


persons


as more


adequate


than


their


knowledge


about


counseling.


Overall


responses


tended


to support


the federally


established


definition


of counseling;


however,


differences


were


found


in the


extent


to which


subgroups


agreed


that


current


programs










counselors and


to provide


of the use


counseling


of paraprofessionals,


to the elderly


age-peers,


General agreement


or volunteers


was found


concerning


the adequacy


current


services.


Subject s


largely


agreed


that


counseling


services


should


be de-centralized


throughout


programs


rather


than


confined


specifically


to Aging


and Adult


Services


or Mental


Health


components.


Differences


were noted


between direct


service-workers


state


level


administrators


concerning


the adequacy


current


funding


levels


to provide


improved


counseling services


for older persons.


study


concludes


with a


discussion of


results


, suggested


explanations


of the data,


implications


of the study,


and suggestions


further


research,


counseling,


gerontological


training,


theory


practice.

















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


Background


Information


It is well


documented


that


the United


States


population


rapidly


growing older.


Over


22 million


persons


are age


or over


and they


comprise


approximately


10% of the total


population


(Health,


Education


Welfare,


1976


- 1977


1979;


Neugarten


1973


Rose,


1962).


year


over


000,


it is estimated


The state of


Florida


that


ranks


there


first


will


be 30,600,000 persons


in proportion


elderly


residents


(now more


than


20%),


and fourth


in actual


numbers


of older


persons


and it is experiencing


continued


rapid


migration


of additional


elderly


Giordano


into


state


Seaman,


1968


(Cutler


H.E.W.,


Haryoot an,


1977b;


1975;


Kincaid,


Florida,


1975).


1974;


Between


years


1890-1970,


Florida's


older population


experienced


a phenomenal


8,041.9%


increase.


In 1900


3,086


persons


over


60 resided


in Florida.


In the decade


between


1960


-1970


this


population


grew


from


774,000


1,348,000


(H.E.W.,


1977


United


States


Bureau


of Commerce


Bureau of


Census,


1972).


A considerable


amount


of data


now


available


about











opinions


has also


been


gathered,


although


a lesser


extent


(Butler,


1975,


Fact


Book


on Aging,


1978;


Harris,


1976).


Much


remains


to be learend


about


older


persons


from


both


biological


and psycho-social


perspectives.


In the field


of counseling


there


also


exists


a considerable


void


in both


research


and practice


in relation


to older


persons


(Blake,


1975


Boyd


Oakes


, 1973;


Jackson,


1977


Pressey,


1973;


Pressey


Pressey,


1972;


Schmidt,


1976).


Many


older


persons


do have


significant


problems.


They


experience


physical


decline,


tend


to be


more


conservative


than


younger persons,


more


greater


isolation


resistant


to change.


and loneliness,


They


can experience


be living


on reduced


a sense

and/or


fixed


incomes,


and may


lack


access


to adequate


social


services.


These


characteristics,


however,


are suggestive


only


some


older


persons.


In most


cases


the larger


in and


the problems


society


of itself


than


does


of the aged


of the older


not produce


are more


persons


poverty


correctly


themselves.


lack


problems


Aging


of transportation.


Such


problems


are situational


and reflect


the youth


oriented


commer-


cialism of


our society which


rather


systematically


undervalues


potentials


of aging.


Older


persons


are thus


frequently


denied


access


to resources


and means


to meet


their needs


(Bellak


Karasu,


1976


Boyd


Oakes,


1973;


Butler,


1975;


Fact


Book


on Aging,


1978,


H.E.W.,


1974).


The impact


an aging


society


on its educational,


economic,


and social

It nrTsaa r 4


institutions


significant.


Much


of this


information,


1on, AI a'vrnn r a o A n


in nr tmerir~l


rr 1 nrR~11


riaFn r; nt;~tn


n~tn nnr; nal











in coordination,


or duplicative


(Butler,


1975


Pfeiffer,


1976;


Vasey,


1975).

hensive


They

study


are frequently

of the issues


planned

related


without reference

to growing older.


any compre-


It is suggested


that


progress


in program development


for older


persons


may be impeded


by the negative

older persons t


views


hat


of aging


persist


and the


in the large


stereotyped

r population


attitudes


(Bellak


about


Karsu,


1976;


Florida,


1978c;


Harris,


1976


H.E.W.,


1975


Tuckman


Lorge,


1953).


That


these


attitudes


or "ageism,


use Butler's


term,


also


exist


among professionals


in the human


service


field


has also


been


deter-


mined


numerous


researchers


(Burdman,


1974;


gan,


1976


Frank-


father,


1977;


Garfinkel


, 1975;


Keith,


1977


Mutschler,


1971).


has also


been


noted


that


the devaluing


of older


persons


social


service


quality


personnel


type


can result


services


in their placing


provided


lesser


to the aged


importance


(Bellak


on the


Karasu,


1976;


Bennett,


1976;


Frankfather,


1977


Vasey,


1975).


Exploration


this


tendency


in terms


of perceptions


of counseling


services


for the aged


was the


purpose


of this


study.


Need


for the Study


This


study was


prompted


several


circumstances


relative


to the


role


of counseling


services


for older persons.


First


the counselor


role


a logical


one to be significantly


instrumental


in diminishing


ageism and


in facilitating


the delivery


other


social


services


-1


flI tlL nr rtarnj1eL


( Ri i fr-


1 Q7S


Tn ,Aditinn


tn nrrnr7ri


I! .'


direct


rnunselinf


-- A -- -










retirement,


are areas


in which


counseling


expertise


can


be of signifi-


cant


benefit


to the aged


(American Personnel


and Guidance


Association


1978;


Blake,


1975;


Bennett,


1976;


Boyd


& Oakes


, 1973;


Buckley,


1972;


Pressey


Pressey


1972)


However,


among


the variety


programs


servi

been


ces


currently


recognized


provided


and included.


Eor the aged,

Counseling


counseling

for older


has only

adults ha


recently


s largely


been


neglected


not developed as


a speciality within


the profession


itself


and a paucity


of research


exists


in both


theory


and field


practice


(Buckley,


1972


Pressey


Pressey


1972


Schmidt,


1976


Vontress,


1975)


Second,


recent


studies


have


attempted


to develop


means


assessing the


counseling


needs


of older persons


(Ganikos,


1977;


Myers


1978)


However,


little


data


have


been


generated


to date.


the interim,


appears


valid


assume


that


older persons


counseling


needs


are more


similar


than not


to those


persons


of other


ages,


and that


they


differ more


in degree


than


in kind


of need


(Boyd


Oakes,


1973


Butler,


1975


Kimmel,


1974


Pfeiffer,


1976)


Older


persons'


expressed needs


their


needs


as perceived


by others may


form


the basis


on which


counseling and


other


social


service


programs


are


developed and


justified.


It is these


perceptions


as currently


evidenced


in the field,


of the need


for counseling


servi


ces


that


this


study


has investigated.


Third,


there


is a need


for a clarification


and acceptance of


definitions of


counseling


in general


for counseling with


1n -f fri nfl l l r


P1 rj Prl V


Tn nrilpv


tn nmar' ~P


~nltncPlinb


nmtrrrm


Sn r









of other


services


as counseling


(such


as financial,


tax,


diet


counseling)


in aging program narratives,


Similarly,


a variety


personnel


in aging programs


are given


title


of "counselor,


although

include

Florida,


their

little

1978c


functions


both


counseling


Garfinkel,


1975;


description


(Florida,

H.E.W., 1


1978a


.976)


and actual


Florida


This


practice)


1978b


confusion


definitions


does


influence


the role


of counseling


servi


ces


in aging


programs.


Fourth, an

of accountability


d related


to the need


for the results


for definition,


of counseling


activity


is the problem


Lack


definition

counseling


leads


to difficulties


in programs.


in demonstrating


contrast


the effectiveness


can be clearly


demonstrated


that


certain


and that


this


classes


deficiency


older persons

has certain


not receive


predictable


adequate


effects


nutrition


on their


health.


need


It is relatively


(Meals-on-Wheels)


simple


to develop


and then measure


a program for meeting


the results


terms


this


of numbers


served and


health


benefits


to participants.


Counseling


servi


not readi

at best,


defined


to quantify


and many

. Yet,


of the benefits of counseling

such a mechanism is necessary


are difficult

if these


servi


ces


are to be provided


government


funded


programs


that


require


such accountability.


assessment


of perceptions


counseling


servi


for the aged


those


in the field


was


viewed


as needed


to form a


base-


line on which


to build


a more


accurate


and favorable


impression of


counseling


and its contributions.


ces


are


ces











programs


funded by


government


sources.


Included


among


the four major


areas


of need addressed


the Act


are


transportation,


housing


health,


and legal


other


counseling


servi


ces.


It is noted


that


the problem


of definition may


originate


in the wording


of the Older


Americans


which


ties


counseling with legal


services.


Each state


is charged


with


developing


a comprehensive


plan


describing


its methodology


for provision


of services


in these


four


areas.


However,


the Act


leaves


to the


state


the option


of deciding


for which


of the four


areas


it will


plan.


States


can,


legally,


concentrate


solely


on one


or two


areas,


although


this


not interpreted as


the intent


the Act


(Florida,


1977a;


Florida,


1977b;


19 7T


H.E.W.,


1977b)


a result,


counseling


servi


ces


have


received


little


attention


in terms


of both


funding


and program develop-


ment.


Although a


clear mandate


exists,


counseling


servi


ces


for older


persons


are not


receiving


adequate


coverage.


This


is also


true


other

1976;


allied


Boyd


health

Oakes,


programs


1973


such


Frankfath


as mental

er. 1977)


health

There


services

is a neei


(Bellak,


gener-


ate support


and acceptance


of the value


of counseling


for older persons


so that


such services


will


receive


an equitable


share


of funding


programming


along with


more


tangible


easily


defined,


and obvious


problems


such


as food,


housing


and transportation.


It is


suggested


that


the attitudes


of practitioners


and policy


makers


towards


counseling


services


for the aged


influence


the degree


to which


serving r


such


a IIeni as


services


-incl t ude


are provided.


nrnprams


Most


driei oned


federally


to meetP


funded


the needs


social


inL L


all eviat


H.E.W.,


.









form of


"means


test"


as a prerequisite for participation.


This


true


some


but by


no means


all aging programs.


The majority


programs


funded with


Older


Americans


Act monies


are without


a financial


eligibility


requirement.


Services


provided


under Title


Social


Security


Act do have


this


limitation.


Yet,


there


a tendency


to locate


servi


ces


for the elderly


in a


central


place


or agency


that


is often


tied


to the low income or welfare


population


This


practice


tend


to reinforce


the low


esteem with


which


social


service


pro-


viders


view programs


for the aged.


"extras,


such


as counseling,


be perceived as


unnecessary


frill


for programs


already


considered


welfare


based


and further


reinforce


the negative


attitudes


held


providers


towards


older persons,


aspect


of aging


programs


been


studied


with


relationship


to attitudes


towards


counseling


services


for older persons.


In summary,


it has been


stated


that


counseling


servi


older


persons


have


been mandated


law,


that monies


are available


fund


them,


that


the programmatic


planning


system


exists


to develop


these


servi


ces.


Fortunately,


some


assessments


of counseling needs


the aged are


being made.


That


counseling


for the aging


is not being


practiced may


be related


to the perceptions


of policy makers


and servi


providers


who believe


that


such servi


ces


are not


necessary,


are not


clearly


defined,


are difficult


to measure.


Programs


for future


generations


are being planned now,


and if counseling


is to be


integral


part


of them,


research must


demonstrate why,


and attitudes


ces


1 I r








Purpose


of the Study


It has been shown


that


the elderly


are currently,


and will


continue


to form,


a significant


segment


our population.


Many


these


older


persons


are or will


be potential


consumers


a variety


of social


services.


lack of


readily


identifiable


professional


counseling

attitudes


functions

of those i


in aging


n the fiel


programs

d towards


is perhaps


a reflection


such services,


This


of the


lack of


definition


of counseling may


reinforce


the tendency


for administrators,


social


service


providers


and agency


heads


to give


counseling a


priority


in relation


to other


services


aimed


at meeting more measurable


human


needs.


Should


counseling


be viewed


as a catalytic,


supportive


service


adj unctive


to other


services,


its funding


status


and practice


would


be enhanced.


Thus, the

attitudes towards


purpose


of this study was


counseling of


selected


to compare


employees


and contrast


in aging programs


funded


Florida


s Department


of Health and


Rehabilitative


Servi


ces.


This


study


has also


attempted


to determine whether


or not


a relation-


ship


exists


between


these


attitudes


the relative


importance


given


to counseling


program developers,


administrators,


and direct


service


personnel.


Additionally,


the study


has attempted


to determine with


what


relative


importance


subjects


viewed


counseling


as related


to other


services


provided


for older


persons.


Research Questions









did subjects


counselors


perceive


in aging programs


the role


of counseling


and how


they


and of


differ


their perceptions?


subjects


perceive


counseling


in relation


to other


services


provided


programs


for older persons,


they


differ


in their perceptions?


subjects


evaluate


current


status


of counseling


services


in aging


projects


programs,


and how did


they


differ


in their


evaluations?


did subjects


ability with


of the aged,


rate


respect


counseling


their


own


needs


services


level


of knowledge


of the aged,


techniques


characteristics


for the


elderly


client,


and how


did they


differ


in their


self-ratings


Rationale


Information


baseline


and conclusions


of information relative


drawn


to the


from t

current


his


study provide


status


of counseling


services


in Florida


s aging programs.


Although


the generalizability


these


results


be limited,


their


usefulness


for planning


com-


prison


purposes


should


be valuable.


Further implications


for other


research


and for program planning


can be expected


in several


areas


including


administration


, funding,


and other


areas.


The study


has implications


counseling


in terms


of research,


theory


practice,


and counselor


education


and the results


constitute






needed


attention.


Counselors


in training need


to be


aware


of the


current


services


actually


being provided


and attitudes


of administrators


staff


in aging programs


in the field may


obtain


towards cou

new insight


nseling.


into


Those


their


practitioners


positions


already


and the priori-


ties


given


to counseling


services


for the aged.


New roles


for counselors,


consultants


and trainers


, may


be recognized.


Finally,


the need


for further


research as


well


as maintaining professional


identity


integrity may


be implied.


Implications


for the field


of gerontology


also


include


possible


clearer


delineation


of the role of


counseling


in relation


other


social


services.


Clarification


of the role


of counseling


could


lead


to its re-evaluation


are established


for social


as national,


services


state,


and local


to the elderly


priorities


study


has also


made needed


contributions


to the body


of gerontological


research


that


it has


provided


a field


evaluation


of gerontological


counseling


terms


of the application


of research


theory.


Participation

to their increased a


the subjects


awareness


in the study


of the counseling


has probably


function


for older


persons,

attitudes

counseling


and has hopefully

which may be due


study


contributed

to ignorance


has perhaps


to the

both


encouraged


elimination


of aging process

participants to


negative

and of


become


more knowledgeable about


both


areas.


dat a


generated


this


study


will


be useful


to present


to state


and higher


level


policy makers


program planners


support


increased


counseling


servi


ces


and will


encourage


full


implementation


of the federal mandates.


Results


will


S--I


,,,.,1 3,


t


_


L )


-










Finally,


to improved


it is hoped


quality


that


of services


results


for older persons.


of the study will


Counseling


contribute


services


have


a needed


and beneficial


contribution


to make


to the welfare


of the


aged.


Perhaps


this


study


can serve


to enhance


quality


of older


persons


' lives


through


improved


counseling services


and improved


attitudes


towards


these


people.


Definition


of Terms


The following


list


refers


to terms,


acronyms,


and agencies,


to which


frequent


reference


been made


throughout


the study


- Counseling:


process


whereby


assistance


is given


to help


resolve


social


and/or


emotional


problems


through


the establish-


ment


a therapeutic


relationship


and application of


skilled


interviewing


, listening


and problem solving


techniques


(Florida,


1978b).


- Older


Person:


A person


or over


limit


definition,


as "older,


" "aged,


or "elderly"


varies


between


and 65 and above.


Sixty


appears


the most


commonly


agreed


upon


classification


(H.E.W


,1977a


Neugarten,


1973)


- Aging


Program:


Those


programs


funded


a combination


federal


, state,


and local monies


that


are channeled


through


the Florida Department


of Health


and Rehabilitative


Servi


and administered


the Offi


of Aging


and Adult


Servi


(including Areawide


Agencies


on Aging).


ces


ces










- Older


Americans


Act:


initial


legislation


that


mandated and


provided


funds


for major programs


and services


for older perosns


nationwide.


- Employee:


Administrative


staff


in the


state


program office,


administrative


staff


in the district


program offices,


Areawide


Agency


on Aging


staff,


aging


projects


staff


, specialized


adult


services


staff,


and community


care


proj ect


staff.


- Specialized Adult


Services


(SAS)


direct


social


services


component


of Aging


and Adult


Services


offices


that


provides


face-


to-face


client


contact,


resulting


in the provision


trans-


portation,


medical,


housekeeping,


chore,


escort,


guardianship,


and other


services


for older persons.


Organization


of the Remainder


of the Study


The remainder


of the study


is presented


in four


additional


chapters.


Chapter


II provides


a review


of the


current


literature


on topics


germane


to the study.


Chapter


III describes


the methodology used


to conduct


research.


Chapter


presents


the results


of the study


including


data


analysis.


Chapte

implications


V includes


of the study.


a summary,


discussion


su2eestions


of the results,


for further research.
















CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF THE


LITERATURE


Characteristic


and Needs


of Older


Persons


An understanding


of the


basi


needs,


characteristic


and changes


that


can accompany


growing older


necessary


for counselors


other


social


services


providers.


Misconceptions


about


aging


and the


abilities


of older persons


can lead


to development


of negative


per-


ceptions.


type


As noted


and quality


previously


of servi


ces


such


provided


negative


to older


views


can influence


persons.


Additionally,


there


some


evidence


that


exposure


to gerontological


information


through


training


and/or


cont act


with


older persons


does


tend


to improve


unfavorable


understand


attitudes


the origins


(Ernst


Shore,


of commonly


1975)


held


In order to


stereotyped


views


adequately


of aging


older persons,


a review


of major


areas


of need


and characteristic


the elderly


necessary


Attention


is also


directed


towards


identifying


those


areas


of needs


and problems


which


can be effectively


addressed


counselors.


Demographi


data and


broad


categorizations


of the older population


have


been generated


several


comprehensive national


and state


surveys.


recent


years


the Harris


Poll,


Bureau


of the


Census


data,


the Florida










individual


older persons.


Some


categorization is necessary,


however,


needs


are to be identified


and effective


programs


developed


to meet


them.


Several


facilitated


social


the rapid


economic


increase


forces


in this


have


country


led to conditions


s population


which


of older


persons.


With


few exceptions,


the fertility


rat e


has continually


declined


until


the United


States


now


approaches


a "zero"


population


growth


level.


Simultaneously,


improvements


in nutrition,


medical


knowledge


and servi


ces


and control


of infant


mortality


have


increased


Americans


average


age by more


than


six years


1900.


Further,


predicted


that


our population will


experience


a change


from


average


(H.E.W.


of 23


1978)


years


in 1900,


It is thus


to an average


apparent


that


age of 38 years


the problems


in 2035


and issues


face


today


in dealing with


the needs


of older persons


will


continue


be of increasing importance


in both


very near


future


and the coming


decades.


Prior


to a discussion


of specific needs


of this


group,


it is


important


to note


that,


in general


, socio-economic


conditions


for most


older persons


can be expected


to improve


as the population


as a whole


ages.


However,


problems


will


still


exist.


one source


states,


. .the


segments


of the older population


that will


be growing most


rapidly


[the


oldest


of the old,


women,


persons


races


other than


white]


will


be the


same


groups


that


have


suffered more


from such


common


problems


the elderly


as poor


health,


social


isolation,


poverty"


(H.E.W


1978,











in income


generally


follows


retirement


and older


families


frequently


begin


to depend


upon


outside


sources


of financial


assistance.


Although


by no means


are all older persons


living


poverty,


many must


exist


on lowered and/or

of older widows s


fixed


ubsist


incomes.

on incomes


For example,


below


an estimated


established


one-fourth


governmental


poverty


levels


alterations


(H.E.W.,


in other


1976)


areas


Economic


including


fluctuations


changes


also necessitate


in lifestyle,


residential


relocation,


and loss


of financial


security


for emergencies


(H.E


1978a)


Reduced


incomes


frequently


require


older persons


to turn


social


service


agencies


to meet


their needs


for housing,


food,


trans-


portation,


and medical


care.


For a generation


unaccustomed


to receiving


financial


aid,


both


the fact


of being


needy


and the


process


of becoming


a recipient


such services


can be emotionally


devastating g


(Bellak,


1976;


Bennett


, 1976;


Butler,


1975


; Hollender,


1952


Frankfather,


1977)


This


problem is


further


compounded


the negative


attitudes


held


social


service


providers


towards


their


elderly


clients.


Although


only


a minority


older persons


are wholly


dependent


on agency


support,


many


staff


workers


tend


to view


all in this


see the aged


less


capable


than


they


are (Burdman,


1974;


Bellak,


1976;


Bennett,


1976


Frankfather,


1977)


Counselors


and counseling


techniques


could


facili-


tate and


humanize


agency


procedures


as well


as educate


social


workers


the needs


and sensitivities


older


persons with


restricted


incomes


PrPQCCPvn A


1 Q71t


fundtt pu


1Q79


1Q7S


Prp $sv -


IRnv~l


fi, n~tpC


Rtit 1 Pt


. .


-


-


.










changes


accompanying


retirement


can be detrimental


to the welfare


older persons


(Andersen,


1969;


Maddox,


1970


Jackson,


1977).


This


is particularly


true


for the


current


generation


of elderly who


were


reared


in an era which


placed


a high


value


on work,


productivity,


and economic


independence.


youth


and leisure


orientation


today


s society


further


devalues


the older


retirees'


position.


only


do they


not work,


they


frequently


lack


the ability,


interests


means


to play


successfully


(Kleemeier,


1962;


Carp,


1972).


Retirement,


particularly


for men,


also


means


a tremendous


shift


downward


status


and in feelings


of self-worth.


effects


of these


changes


have


been


fairly well


researched,


as have


the corresponding


changes


affecting


older women


left


with


the "empty nest"'


syndrome


(Berardo,


1972;


Bloom


& Munro,


1972;


Bock,


1972


McKain,


1969;


Shanas,


1969).


need


adequate


pre-retirement


planning


has been stressed


and such


planning


would


assist


in preventing many


of these


related


problems which


accompany


this


change.


counselor'


role


in meeting


this


need


been


described


and emphasized


several


authors


(Andersen,


1969;


Baker,


1952;


Buckley,


1972;


Carp,


1972;


Monk,


1971,


Schmidt,


1976)


Although retirement may


still


be mandatory


some


older per-


sons


today,


many wish


to continue working


either


from


economic


necessity


or personal


desire.


difficulties


faced


by middle-aged


workers


seeking


career


changes


loom even larger


for persons


past


Enforced


retirement


indicates


an attitude


that


older workers


are less


necessary,


less


capable,


and should make


room for younger


employees,


one











older


employees.


the origin


many


A review of


commonly


these


held


capacities


stereotyped


is helpful


and negative


in clarifying


attitudes


about


mature


workers.


Palmore


notes


that


itself


should not


the sole


criterion


for retirement.


Increased


life


span


and improved


health


should


encourage


employers


to retain


older workers.


Flexible


rather


than mandatory


retirement


systems


would


benefir


economy


and allow


employers


to retain


the skills


and expertise


of older


workers.


Poor


attendance,


illness,


and lowered


safety


performance


not inevitably


correlated


with


increasing


age among workers.


Finally,


it is noted


that


providing


late-life


career


options


improves


older


persons


' self-sati


faction


and esteem while


reducing


somewhat


economic


hardships


imposed


retirement


(Palmore,


1976;


Rehm,


1971).


summary,


can be


seen


that


these


aspects


of retirement


have


significantly


contributed


to devaluation


older


people,


particularly


in economic


terms.


The older person seeking


a new


career


or retraining


a post-


retirement


also


encounter


resistance


and problems.


Social


ser-


vice


and rehabilitation


priority


despite


agencies


considerable


tend


research


to give older

evidence that


applicants


their


potential


success


placement


is realistically


high


(Donahue,


Berry,


1953;


Ernst


Shore,


1975;


Rasch,


Crystal,


Thomas,


1977


Rehm,


1971;


Sheppard,


1971).


s conceptions


about


older workers


' abilities


limited

f r t t-


program


funding,

n1 -i pn t Q T*


n thncp


r th


an attitude


n 1 nnop'


7


that


services

nrndir t ir


should

Tu Pnrc


given


are


tP rm I-i


nhParl


I










programs


are frequently


oriented more


towards


recreation


than


vocational


development.


The employment


and educational needs


of older


persons


are predicted


to continue


increasing


and social


service


agencies will


also


become more


involved


in these


concerns


(Donahue,


1953;


O'Dell,


1957


Vontress


, 1970).


Thus,


it is important


that


employees


of these


agencies


become


better


informed


about


the needs


and capabilities


of the elderly


terms


of work


and school.


Coun-


selors


access


can play


to the


a very vital


employment


role


in facilitating


and educational


services,


older persons'


in dispelling


the negative


images


and attitudes


of social service


and rehabilitation


workers


towards


older persons'


intellectual


and vocational


potentials


(Buckley,


1972;


Grawbowski,


1972;


Griswold,


1971; Vontress, 1970).


Health Needs


and Characteristics


Despite


commonly


held misconceptions


not a disease


state


and does


not produce


one identifiable


debilitating


condition.


health


problems


of older


persons


are chronic,


complex,


and frequently


are not


significantly


improved with


treatment.


Although


geriatric


research


has produced


some


remarkable


insights,


causes


of most


degenerative


changes


associated with


remain


unknown


(Busse


Pfeiffer


, 1976;


Fact


1978


1974)


This


situation


further


compounds


attempts


consisting of


at medical


treatment


care


symptoms


frequently


only


results


and maintenance


a regimen


of the


status


quo (H.E.W.,


1974).


H. E. W.









and personality


changes


and the psychological


effects


attributed


aging


are in large measure


reactions


to health


states


rather


than


chronologically


determined


processes


alone"


(H.E.W.,,


1974


this


area,


common


belief


that


older persons


are very


concerned


with


their


health


more


realistic


than


not.


In truth,


the incidence


of ongoing,


and these


debilitating,


illnesses


disablin


do restrict


conditions


older persons


does


increase with


mobility,


sensory


acuity


and general


feelings


of well-being


(H.E.W.


1978)


, These


changes


in health


and physical


functioning which


characterize


older persons


can result


in development


Health


concerns


several


areas


of older persons


of problems


living


on reduced


and needs.


incomes


lead


to their


dependence


on public


agencies


and subsidized medi


care.


some


cases,


older


persons


go without


needed medi


attention


because


of lack of money,


ignorance


of available


services,


or reluctance


to become


dependent


on agency


assistance


(Bellak


1976)


These


health


problems


are compounded


practitioners


towards


by the


elderly


attitudes


clients


of social


and patients.


workers


Thus


despite


increased


need


for medical


services


among the


aged,


medical


providers


are sometimes


reluctant


ive them


adequate


or appropriate


attention


(Bellak,


1976


H.E.W


., 1974;


H.E.W.,


1978).


origins


of negative


attitudes


among


allied medical


pro-


fessionals


towards


the health needs


of older


persons


are


complex


and are


discussed


more


fully


in succeeding


sections.


At this


point,


it is


relevant


to note


that


dispelling


these misconceptions


difficult,


can











mature


families


who must


deal


with


an older parent


s or spouse


declining


health and


the dilemma


of increased


life


span


coupled


with


physical


limitation.


Living Arrangements


living


significant

persons sug


patterns


change and need.


guestss that most


of older


Although


of them


persons


constitute


a prevailing


are frail,


an area


image


incapacitated


of older

residents


centers


(approximately

so confined, i


and nursing


are in such


t is estimated


homes, in reality


institutions


that


only


(H.E


a considerable


a small


., 1978)


number


percentage


Of those


could


capable


of independent


or semi


-independent


living if


adequate


supportive


servi


ces


were


readily


available.


A detailed


discussion


of the


cost


inadequacies


of institutional


care


for the elderly


beyond


scope


of this


review.


Yet,


counselors


need


to be


aware


these


factors


can make


a valuable


of nursing home


contribution


residents


(Manney,


towards


1975;


meeting


Montgomery


the specialized


1972


needs


Pressey


Pressey,


1972).


Alternative


living arrangements


for older persons


are available


which


reflect


their


housing needs


Housing


complexes


government


subsidized


residences


make


affordable


housing


access


ible


to older


persons


on limited


incomes.


Such


complexes


can also meet


the personal


security needs


of older


persons


as well


as be


access


to the


-ar -


04 '-.~ 1 1 n 4 2 -t i- -ra. -- -C ,- -A 2 -A.


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z


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i"


I










which

group


counselors


can direct


and consultant


their


services


efforts


(Boyd


toward


& Oakes,


providing


1973


Stevens


individual,


1972


Non-government


housing


for older persons


frequently


takes


form of


age-segregat
aCT~k-Ca~rVQ~af


subdivisions,


apartments


and restricted


"adult"


communities.


These


developments


do meet


the needs


and the residential


preferences


of a large number


of older persons


for whom


such


arrange-


ments


are economically


feasible.


As with subsidized housing


residents


of these


projects could also


benefit


from


counseling


servi


ces


(Fact,


1978;


Stevens,


1972).


A noticeable


trend


among


older persons


is that


an increasing


number


of them are living


alone.


source


notes


that


in the


past


years,


the number


of lone


older


persons


grown


three


times


faster


than


would


be estimated


from overall


population


growth.


Further,


proportion


of non-ins


titutionalized


elderly


living alone


increased


from one-sixth


(1960)


to one-fourth


(1976)


(H.E


1978)


The largest


increases


single-person


households


are among women


the "old


old"


subgroups


(H.E.W.,


1978)


Should


this


trend


continue,


then


the demands


for social


service


programs


to meet


the special


needs


of lone older persons


can also


be expected


to increase.


The need


home


services


is particularly


evident


in light


of the intent


and focus


of aging


legislation


that mandates


maintenance


independent


living


in the community


for the elderly


(Florida


, 1978a)


. In


terms


per-


ceptions


and attitudes


the notions that most


older persons


require


great


amounts of


care,


need


to be institutionalized


or are incapable


of self-


r











Attention


should


also


be drawn


to the living


arrangements


widows,


particularly


because


these


older women


constitute


a substantial


number


of those who


reside


alone.


Several


factors


give


rise


to the


special


families


needs


through


problems


geographic


of older women


mobility


and widows.


has contributed


Separation


to the decline


multi-generational


families


living


together


and thus


to widows


' isola-


tion


(Field,


1972;


H.E.W.,


1978;


Kent


1972).


The majority


remarry


and so continue


to live


alone


on limited


incomes


(H.E.W.,


1978).


Social


services


have


only


recently


focused


on the needs


of this


group


and projects


such


as the Displaced


Homemaker programs


have


helped


to solve


some


of the problems


of these


persons


(Florida,


1978b).


Counselor


contributions


to the situations


faced


by widows


and widowers


have


been


noted


several


authors


(Buckley


1972


Jackson,


1977


Kalish,


1971,


Moberg,


1972).


Social,


Activity


Family


Needs


The changes


in lifestyle


which


can accompany


retirement


have


been


noted


previously.


There


are additional


implications


in terms


the social


and activity


needs


of older


persons


and the changes


that


characterize


more defined,

system. The


viable

current


the mature


roles

trend


family.


for older

towards m


Previous


generations


persons within


maintenance


included


an extended


an isolated,


family

nuclear


family


has largely


negated


these


roles


(Berardo,


1972


Jackson,


1977


q l-A 1Q7 1 1 ntor-cn ?rnn nn


i mnmnrninsd


r 9 cl 9 ~


Sh nn a c


1973


UnwPtrP r


rnn t a r t










many


older


people


reside


alone


. .almost


no one is without


some


kind


contact


with


other


members


of his


family"


(Thompson


Streib,


1961,


. Indeed,


some


sources


predict


a resurgence


of multi


generational


families,


and renewed


importance


the grandparent


role.


These


changes


are partially


attributed


to the longer


life


span


the economic dependence


of more


older persons


on their


adult


children


(Hader,


1965


1978;


Tartler


, 1963


Streib,


1965)


Another


event


characterizing


adult


family


changes


is the


marriage


of older parents.


family problems


and may meet


Such

with


a decision c

significant


an lead


to considerable


resistance


from


adult


children.


Whether


the late marriage


between


two older persons


or one younger


or one older,


opposition


to these matches


is indicative


of several


commonly


held


prejudices


stereotypes


about


older persons.


It i


believed


some


that


older


persons


continual


interest


in and


need


for marital


closeness


and sexual


relationships


are unnatural


worst


and not


normal


at best


treib,


1965;


Sussman,


1972;


Sweetser,


1963)


This


an area


in which


marital


and family


counseling


services


can be of

children


significant


as they


benefit


cope with


to both


the realities


der parents

of older p


and their


persons


adult


needs


(Bock,


1972


McKain,


1969).


problems


and needs


older


persons


encounter when


facing


death


and dying have


received


considerable


attention


in the literature of


recent

that


years.


affect


most


loss


areas


a spouse

an older


or older


person


parent


s life.


requires

The grief


adjustments

process


re-


H.E.W.,










Wass


(1979)


indicated


that


while


one man


six,


or over


widowed,


women


have much more


prominent


marital


bereavement


problems.


years


age,


50% of


women


have


lost


their husbands


and by


years


two-thirds


have


experienced


loss


spouse.


These


data


support


the contention that older persons


are survivors


In addition


to the 1


oss


spouse


older persons


must


also


cope with


the 1


oss


of relatives,


friends


and acquaintances


many


of whom may


younger.


Older persons


experience


bereavement


overload,


that


the phenomenon


not having


enough


time


to deal


with


the grieving of


one 1


oss


before others


occur.


As stated,


only


recently


have


we learned


that


grieving


takes


much


longer


than


believed and


and physical


that


among


illness


the gri


even


reactions we


death.


Grief,


find


then,


are psychological


a constant


companion


in old age


" (Wass,


1979


200)


Connected with bereavement


changes


is the tendency


for many


older persons


to experience what


has been


termed


the life


review


(Butler,


1975)


Further,


life


review therapy


been


recommended as


an effective means


for counseling


older persons.


kind


of therapy


does


not require


a psychotherapist,


nor


an office


or medical


setting


necessary


can be carried


out in the home,


at recreation


centers,


in the home of


the older person,


or in


a nursing


home.


The counselor


must


possess


basi


skills


in active


listening,


must


have


a great


deal


empathy,


and should have


a basi


knowledge


process


aging.


However


. 2rief


counseling


can be provided by


persons


with


relatively


was










life


review


and related


reminiscing


activities


contribute


to the stereotyped


views


that


older persons


are entering


a second


child-


hood,


that


they


are incapable


of coping with


present,


and, therefore,


that


they prefer


to retreat


into


past


memories.


Again,


informed


coun-


selors


can both


facilitate


psychological


process


and help


dispel


erroneous


interpretations


of it.


Increased amounts


of leisure


time


availabi


to older persons who


are no


longer


employed


constitute


a marked


change


from


their


earlier


years.


Recreation


leisure


activities


and volunteerism have


been


commonly


sought


avenues


of meaningfully


using


this


time


(Harper


Garza


, 1969


Messer,


1968


Stickle,


1977)


increased


free


time


for retired


lessness,


older persons


inactivity


can produce


isolation.


boredom,


The elderly


feelings


have


use-


a particular


need


at these


times


for continued


involvement


stimulation.


Stereo-


typed


perceptions


of older persons


as incapable


of learning


further


restrict


their


access


to needed


programs


and activities


(Butler,


1975


Carp


1972


Fact,


1978


Frankfather


, 1977


Kilty


Feld,


1976)


Social


service ag

the social

realize th


encies


and workers may


and recreational


e potential


needs


spin-off


tend


to place


of their


benefits


older


active


little


importance


clients,


involvement


and not

can bring


to older persons.


These


benefits


can al


be realized


for the elderly


reside


of need


in nursing


which


homes


can effectively


and institutions.


be addressed


Again,


this


counselors


an area


(Miller


Lowen-


ata ~ 1Jn TAI t nn


1Q76*


S n1ischiir


19 74r


S t pue s~


1973*


Vnntress.


1975)


~5ain










Percept ions


and Attitudes


Towards


Aging


preceding discussion


of characteristics


of older persons


has emphasis

percept ions


the origins


and negative


from which


attitudes


several


towards


commonly


the elderly


held erroneous

derive. The


existence


of such


stereotyped


views


of the elderly


can influence


quality


notes


of social

. how


servi

aging


programs


and the aged


provided fo

are viewed


r them.


a vital


one author


factor


determining the


policy


set for


aging services


by program developers"


(Vasey


, 1975


. Although


virtually no


research


has been


done


attitudes


towards


counseling


servi


ces


for older persons,


there


been


substantial


investigation


into


attitudes


towards


aging.


Some


of this


work has


focused


on the perceptions


of program administrators


direct


service


providers,


and trainees


in the allied


helping


professions.


This


section


factors


will


that


review


have


these


been


studies,


identified


types


as influencing


of instruments


attitudes


used,


towards


older persons


and the effects


of such


perceptions


on service


delivery


Attitudes


have


been


defined


. .ideas,


opinions,


beliefs,


sets,


prejudi


ces


values


, etc.,


that


are acquired


through


learning


that


predispose


one


to react


a certain manner


to other


ideas,


persons,

towards


objects


aging and


etc." (Hopke,

older persons


1968,


are not


That


uncommon


negative


attitudes


is evidenced


coining of


terms


such


as "ageism"


and "gerontophobia"


to d


describe


these


disparaging perceptions.


Counselors


need


to be concerned


about


such


n tt1 t wit-Inc


anA r o fl onI- rno7 nI .-~ TO nf "a t nl a knl -.-n:~


A-1---


I-


S*n w_


~nrl tha


rnotr n


t,,,


i mn ant


t ,,,


,c, cl


fk /


n r~u










Areas


of Research


on Attitudes


Towards


Aging


the Aged;


Instruments


Investigators


into


attitudes


towards


older persons


towards


aging


have


concentrated


their


studies


on several


main


categories


subjects.


A considerable number


of studies


have


been


done


using students


of varying ages


and college


trainees


enrolled


in health


oriented


curricula.


Similarly,


pioneer researchers


in these


areas


developed


the most


frequently used


instruments


using


student


age subjects


(Ivester


& King,


1977)


Such


studies


as these


tend


to concentrate


on correlations


of attitudes


towards


the aged


characteristic


of the respondents


terms


of the subjects


' own


age,


educational


level,


amount


contact


with


older persons


This


approach


to attitude


research


has been


considered


deficient


in its omission


of other


cor-


relating factors


such


as characteristic


of different


groups


of older


persons


(those who


live


independently


versus


the institutionalized,


example)


(Keith,


1977).


Another


category


of research


into


attitudes


towards


aging


identifies


three


major


areas


investigation


(Mutschler,


1971)


First


are the measures


of attitudes


towards


aging


the aging process


perceived


subject s


of various


ages.


This


approach


also


includes


those


studies


dealing with


attitudes


of older persons


themselves


toward


growing older


early works


of Tuckman,


Lorge,


and Kogan


are representative


of this


aspect


Second,


measures


psychological


characterist i


of individual


are studied which mav


be relevant


*u


LJ


I











adjustments


made


older persons


to growing


older.


Studies


using


instruments


such


as the Life


Satisfaction


Ratin g


Scale


fall


into


this


area.


Research


in these


areas


generally


relied


on relatively


questionnaire


to different


oped


and survey


subj ect


questionnaires


instruments


groups


utilizing


that


purposes


semantic


have


Early


been modified


investigators


Likert


differential


or adapted


devel-


and other


types


of rating scales


and most


recent


studies


have


relied


on these


or modifications


of these


instruments


(Burdman,


1974 ;


Colgan,


1976;


Eisdorfer


& Altrocchi,


1961;


Garfinkel,


1975;


Ivester


& King,


1977;


Keith


1977


; Mutschler,


1971;


Rasch,


Crystal


Thomas,


1977


Ross


& Freitag


, 1976;


Walter


, 1976)


early works


of Tuckman


Lorge


resulted


in the


development


of the frequently used Attitudes


Towards


Old People


Scale.


Based


studies


using graduate


students


in the early


1950


this


questionnaire


probes


areas


relating


to physical,


sensory,


financial,


conservatism


and other


factors


influencing misconceptions


and stereotypes


about


aging


and older


persons


(Tuckman


Lorge,


1953)


These


two researchers


have


also


developed


an Older


Workers


Questionnaire


however,


it is not


as widely used


(Mutschler,


1971)


Kogan


has developed


another


frequently


used


instrument


similarly


titled


Attitudes


Towards


Old People


Scal


This


a 34 item Likert


type


scale studying areas


commonly


held


stereotypes


towards


aging


(Ivester


& King,


1977;


Kogan


1 flCI\\


yr,~1 ,


C IT an


I "n I~ o It I us. l glu


(1QSQ1


hnuVP


a1 Qn


nrvlPl nnonA


a _qnt pnrs


romnl ~ietlo


II


I








including dependency,


instrumentality,


and accredibiltiy


(Ras ch,


Crystal


Thomas,


1977


Ross


Freitag,


1976


Walter,


1976)


In addition


to these most


frequently used


instruments,


several


others


have


been


developed


to study


different


aspect s


of attitudes


and adjustments


towards


aging.


Oberleder


s Attitudes


Toward


Aging


Scale


(1961)


has received


some


use


(Garfinkel,


1975).


Sroles


developed


an instrument


in 1956


assess


factors


related


to choice


work


with


the aged


(Mutschler,


1971).


Several


instruments


have


been


created


study


satisfaction,


adjustment,


and emotional


well-being


older


persons.


Notable


among


these


are the Maddox Morale


Scale


(1963),


Neugarten


& Associates


Life


Satisfaction


Rat ing


Scale


(1963)


Lowenthal


s Measurement


of Interaction


(1965),


and Kastenbaum


Hospital


Questionnaire


(1967)


(Mutschler


, 1971)


Of the few studies


devoted


to research


on attitudes


program


administrators


and others who


determine


policy towards


servi


older


persons,


several


of the above


mentioned


instruments


have


been


utilized.


studies


Oberleder


involving


s Attitudes


psychiatrists


Towards Aging


clinic


Scale


directors


been


used


(Garfinkel,


1975)


However,


several


the most


informative


studies


using


this


category


subj


ects


have


relied


on instruments


developed


the researchers


modifications


of existing


scal


es.


Keith'


study


stereotypes


about


older persons


among


administrators


used


an eight


item,


five


point


Likert


scale


developed


the author


(Keith,


1977)


A particularly


compre-


hensive


study


administrators,


planners


and legislators


used


Qsri PQf


,i f nfnrf' rmnrinn


cPQopk-l no


niiec I nnen


rntliar


tfh 9n


I If-S


tTT^oa nt


ces











using


a questionnaire


format


which


he developed.


The works


of these


authors

attitude


mine


suggest t

s towards


perceptions


hat


the traditional


aging


and older


subjects


such


instruments


persons


used


assess


may be inadequate


as administrators


to deter-


and direct


service


providers

available


sufficient,


towards


measure

it would


services


for the elderly.


perceptions

seem necessa


and attitude


Although

s towards


and justified


the tools

aging appear


to create


a new


instrument


to investigate


social


service


personnel


attitudes


towards


counseling


services


for older persons.


The rating


scale


and question-


naire type formats


appears


most


frequently


used


and appropriate


for this


area


of inquiry.


Attitudes


Towards


Practitioners


Aging Among Trainees,
and Administrators


A closer


examination


of several


studies


into


the attitudes


student


trainees,


social


service


and health


practitioners,


and policy


makers


and administrators


is helpful


for several


reasons.


Although


these


studies


not focus


specifically


on counseling


services


older


persons,


there


are some


commonalities


and a number


of the authors


noted


the need


for the contributions


counselors


can make.


Second,


subjects


of these


studies


will


enter


or are currently


engaged


in health


and social


service


programs


older


persons


and their


attitudes


towards


their


clients


and their work


are crucial


to the successful


provision


of services.


Many


such


personnel


are the


ones


with


whom


new










A number


of studies


have


looked


at the attitudes


various


groups


those


ages


dealing with


of students.


perceptions


This


review will


of college


concentrate mainly


and graduate


students


because


these


findings


seem


to be more


pertinent


than


those


involving


much


younger


younger


persons


subjects.


' attitudes


Bennett


towards


has reviewed


a number


the elderly.


of studies


notes


that,


overall


the results


have


indicated


that


training


and/or


contact


with


older persons

although such

She concludes


tends


to reduce


improvements


advising


or develop


are not


that


always

terms


ess


negative


significant


of attitudes


attitudes,

or lasting.


A concerted


effort


should


be made


to stop


perpetrating


the view


the aged


'them'


young


as us'


Everyone


ages


aged


are not


exotic minority


group


towards


whom


some


people


can feel


detached


sympathetic"


(Bennett,


1976,


137).


Burdman


s study


of student


and trainee


attitudes


noted


. .void


in terms


of reciprocal


professional


understanding"


between


students


in gerontology


and rehabilitation


counseling


(Burdman,


1974,


. 66).


This


lack of


mutual


erstanding


further


compounds


problems


generated


the subj


ects


' negative


views


of older


persons


(Burdman,


1974)


Colgan


noted


that


attitudes


toward


older


persons


improved


slightly with


participation


students


in a gerontology


course (Colgan,


1976).


Ivester


& King


also


reviewed


research


involving


older


adolescents


perceptions


of old


er persons.


They noted


-. tenepnnrv


for all


Rap Qrf1nn


tn view


the a ed


as nossessinae


stereo-


h











Differential,


they


assessed


rehabilitation


counseling


students


attitudes


towards


both able


and disabled


older


persons.


Results


dictated


a tendency


to view


older


persons


as less


feasible


habilitation


servi


ces


than


younger


handicapped


clients.


These


findings


are particularly noteworthy


in view of


other


research


which


the authors


state


workers


. .clearly

to profit f


demonstrated


rom vocational


the abilities o

rehabilitation


f older


services


sailed


" (Rasch,


al.,


1977


126)


The authors


conclusions


from


study


particularly


relevant


in view


the existence


of rehabilitation


counsel-


and similar


service


programs


within


the Florida


system.


As they


state


. .this


apparent contradiction between


counselor


opinions


objective


research


suggests


the possibility


of biased


attitudes


towards


the old


among


rehabilitation


personnel


And,


further,


they


note,


"Although


gated

this


the aging


issues

research


stereotype


in gerontology,


concerned


one of the most


it is only recently


the attitudes


extensively

that a major


of human service


investi-


focus


professionals"


(Rasch


et al., 1977,


124).


Ross


Freitag


have


compared


adolescent


and adult


attitudes


toward


the aged and


also


noted


that


such


perceptions


improve


with


and with


contact


with


older


persons


(Ross


Freitag,


1976)


Seltzer


& Atchley


reviewed


literature


young persons


to evaluate


presence


therein


stereotyped


views


of aging


and older


persons.


They


noted


a consistent


tendency


towards


negative


portrayals


of older


ners os


(Rel tzer


& Atrhlpv.


1Q71\


Ac nntf-oA


nr-cnrl ?l 1,7 \r n


re-


are


/V-


Tll~tm~n










attitudes


of undergraduates


in social


work and


in non-related


fields


towards


work students


elderly


held more


His results


positive


indicated


attitudes


that


than


graduating


did either


social


beginning


social


work


students


or students


in other fields


(Walter,


1976)


Research


into


attitudes


of social


service


providers


practitioners


has dealt mainly with social


workers


mental


health


personnel


nurses


and physicians.


Studies


of this


type


have


been made


more


difficult


because


the dynamic


the influence


the subjects'


fears


and attitudes


about


aging


as well


as their


opinions


about


older persons.


invest i


at ions


into


physicians


' attitudes


perhaps


best


illustrates


situation


for their professional


competencies


(the need


to "cure"


and to


preserve


life)


have


been noted


as contributors


to their


negative


views


of aging.


one author notes,


the goal


medicine


seen


as victory


over


death,


then


those


patients


because


are closest


to death


are bound


to be viewed


negatively"


(Bellak,


1976


17).


This


author


further


points


the threats


to a physician

relationship


s sense


he has with


of control,


older


authority,


patient s


competence


and the effects


these


in the

conditions


have


on doctors


' perceptions


of the elderly


Physi


cians may mis-


interpret


the older patients


own attitudes


and motivations


as self-


pity


dependency,


or stubbornness


all of which


further


intrude


upon


an open,


communicative


relationship


(Bellak,


1976).


Negative


reinforced


views


, perhaps


of older


unavoidably


persons among

, because they


medical

rarely


personnel


are


see the majority


own











the aged,


that


nothing


can be done


about


it, and


that


the little


that


can be done


is hardly worth


doing"


(Palmore,


1976


37).


potential


a circular


type


of self-fulfilling


prophecy to


develop


from


these


attitudes


apparent,


and similar


circumstances


have


been


noted with


other


health


and social


service


providers


working with


the aged.


Other


sources


have


also noted


the tendency


among


physicians


to disregard


symptoms


presented


older


patients


as being


either untreatable or simply


due to the


uncertainties


aging


(Bellak,


1976;


Boyd


& Oakes


, 1973;


Pfeiffer,


1976).


attitudes


of mental


health


workers


towards


the elderly


have


also


been


extensively


investigated.


As Pfeiffer notes,


. .there


evidence


that


prejudices


against


the elderly


are not


confined


to lay


society,


1976,


attitudes


but als

192).


are also


are present


As with


among


the physician


affected


their


the health

ns studied,


personal


professions"


mental


fears


(Pfeiffer,


health workers


aging,


older


persons


frequently


embody


these


fears.


Butler


also


noted


the influence


ference


of what


for mental


is termed


health


the YAVIS


personnel


syndrome,


to work with


that


patients


pre-


are young,


attractive,


verbal,


intelligent,


and successful


(Butler,


1975).


spend


time with


older


clients


is frequently perceived


as the opposite


this


situation


and thus


is deemed


non-productive


both


in terms


client


progress


and monetary


payment s


(Fact


1978;


Mut schler,


1971).


It has been


estimated


that


approximately


three million


or over


13% of


.AL-n u .-..1n:~ 2.. -.- t fl na .w.r4ann -~1 b ~ 4, n rt o n to


Bn nt h a v


1~ nnllh


mnCnl


on nti naE










is projected


that, by


1980,


approximately


80% of those who


need


them


will not


ment al


health


services


(Fact


1978).


The mental


health needs


of older


persons


are not


substantially


different


from


those


of other


groups


but reflect


the difficulties


encountered


in any period


of marked


change


and adjustments


(Boyd


Oakes,


1973;


Buckley,


1972).


one


source


notes,


"Most


elderly


diagnosed


as having


fundamental


disturbances


can be helped


. most


of the difficulties


that


arise


are treatable with


minor


counseling


intervention"


(Fact,


1978,


167).


Yet,


despite


the substantial


numbers


of older persons


needing mental


health


services


and the relative


simplicity of their treatment,


the older population


receives


an estimated


less


than


2% of private


psychiatric


time and


about


2.3%


of total


out-


patient


psychiatric services


(Fact


1978).


Older persons


are in need


of supportive,


informational,


and empathetic


counseling


relationships,


these


kinds


of mental


health


services


are frequently


denied


them


the attitudes


of professionals


in the field


(Butler,


1976


Eisdorfer


& Altrocchi,


1961;


Fact,


1978;


Frankfather,


1977;


Garfinkel,


1975;


Mutschler,

the notion


1971).

that o


Garfinkel


ilder persons


found


are not


agreement


inclined


among her


subjects with


to be verbally


active


a relationship.


This


attitude,


notes,


leads


the therapist


assume


that working with


older persons will


not be productive.


Since


such patients


won't


"talk"


they


can


more


or less


legitimately


avoided.


As Garfinkel


states.


irony


of this


attitude


is that


trh nnniil n+inn mnct I.-


*1 l'Enin1


t n hnn oi f


fnmm


ciinn nrt 11 70o


~ffP~t"e


I 1 J











Compounding


the problem of


negative attitudes


toward


the elderly


and misconceptions


about


their potential


to benefit


from


treatment


the relative paucity


of theory


and practice


in the realm of


psychiatric


and mental


health


techniques


for working with


this


group.


It is noted


that


practitioners may


avoid


the older


client


partially


because


they


are ignorant


of appropriate methods


for use


with


them


(Bellak,


1976;


Fact,


1978;


Mutschler,


1971).


On the other


hand,


although


counseling


with


older persons


a relatively new


specialty,


most


sources


suggest


that


existing


techniques


and approaches


should


be adequate


to deal


with


the majority


of the older


clients'


problems.


The tendency


for mental


health workers


to overlook or


de-emphasize


the physical


and psycholo-


gical


causes


and influences


on older persons'


mental health


status


lead


erroneous


diagnoses


and nonproductive


treatment


(Boyd


Oakes,


1973;


Fact,


1978;


Mutschler,


1971).


Many


practitioners,


not unlike


most


laymen,


assume


. .that mental


or emotional


difficulties


are an


inevitable


product


of old


age.


. .these


negative


attitudes


can severely


limit


access


care


and,


access


achieved,


limit


the appropriate-


ness


of the


care


received


" (Fact,


1978, pp. 166-167).


Thus,


can be seen


that


older


persons


have


generally not


ceived


adequate mental


health


services,


despite


demonstrated


needs


responsiveness


to treatment.


Attitudinal


resistance


to working with


this


group


is partly


responsible


and apparently much


more


gerontological


ucation

d... n


a


is needed


for mental


~Y~nr: n a


i-


health


practitioners.


-% fi -S, U -- nf


A ma 14 nn An


Persistence

fin^ -Cat. 4-lc4n


stereo-


fl 4" 44 a..


can


re-


I


r











persons


and towards


the efficacy


of counseling


services


for them


crucial.


attitudes


of other


groups


of direct


service


providers


towards


the elderly


have


also


been


studied.


The general


category


social


worker will


be taken


to include


those


personnel


whose


functions


include


provision


a variety


of outreach


and social


services


aimed


at meeting


the health,


housing,


financial,


and other needs


of older


persons.


Generally,


those


are


the workers


have


the most


direct,


frequent


and personal


contact


with


older


persons


and who


are most


likely


to be


aware


of their


environmental


needs


and conditions.


many


cases,


they


are representative


a larger


bureaucracy


and the link


between the older

Obviously, then,


to the successful


person


and various


the attitudes


provision


levels


of direct


of assistance


of governmental


service


to older


providers


clients


agencies.

are important


(Pfeiffer,


1976).


Attitudes


of direct


service


social


workers


have


been


investigated


several


authors.


study


provides


examples


comments


made


social


workers


about


their


elderly


clients


and these


comments


enlightening.


As this


author


notes,


"These


workers


experience


conflict


between


their


traditional


roles


direct


services.


The worse


the client,


the less


likely


he is


et help.


one wants


the job


of direct


services"


(Frankfather,


1977


Several


comments


the subjects


in this


study


suggest


the difficult


of their


assignments


anrl the n prea 1itv


fnr mnrr


nPrsonnnsl


tn rin th-i


-I ~n pwp r 2


1


are


are


tP VP


HS


I









that'


what'


needed"


(Frankfather,


1977,


41).


These


duties


contrasted wit

arranging and


training


the geriatric


coordinating


and practice


social


services


are contributiv


workers'


traditional


the resulting

e to negative


role of


differences


views


between


of older


clients.


Another


geriatric


social


worker


commented,


"You


have


schizophrenics


depressed


people


need


therapy.


They


also


have


very


concrete needs--money,


housing,


food--as


well


as complex


personal


problems.


You don't


separate


one


from


the other.


There


aren't


services


to handle


both,


so you


do it"


(Frankfather,


1977,


40).


These


comments


are instructive,


for they


emphasize


several


points


relative


to the development


of stereotyped


views


older persons


the resulting lowered quality


of services


provided


them.


necessity


for meeting


the basic


human needs


of the elderly


apparent


and these


mus t


be satisfied


services.


That


prior


professionally


or simultaneous


trained


with


social


provision


workers must


of counseling

provide


direct


custodial


services


to older persons


as reported


Frankfather,


believed


to be wasteful


of their


expertise, and not


likely


to make


them


over-fond of


such


clients.


Social


workers


in consultation


with geron-


tological


counselors


might


enhance


both


their


abilities


to deal


with


these


realities


their


attitudes


towards


the aged


clients.


In another


study,


factors


were


reviewed


which


influence


the choices


perserverence


of work with


the aged among


social


workers,.


These


factors,


which


tended


to focus


on the negative


aspects


of older persons,


included


the low


status


of older persons


contemporary


society,


are











older


clients


(Mutschler,


1971).


It is suggested


that


these


same


factors


could


be influential


in determining


the choice


of other


pro-


fessionals


reducing


to work with


or eliminating


older


some


persons.


these


Counselors


influences


could


be useful


and in providing


overall


leadership


for enhancing


the attitudes


of all social


service


providers


towards


older


clients.


As Mutschler


notes,


"Thus


the low ranking


both


the client


group


and the therapeutic


techniques


associated


with


it by


fellow professionals


from entering


the field"


deter


social


(Mutschler,


workers,


1971


psychologists,


235).


In addition


etc.


to the


above


mentioned


influences


this


study


revealed


a stereotyped


view


older persons


attitude


as rigid


increased


and incapable


the professional's


of growth a

reluctance


nd insight

to enter


This


or remain


gerontological


service.


was further


noted


that


the underlying


fears


of death


and aging


held


the subjects


further


contributed


to the


reluctance


to work with older


persons


or to view


services


for them


beneficial


(Mutschler,


1971).


implications


of this


type


of study


suggest


that


workers


' attitudes


towards


clients


influence


both


quality


care


they


offer


and the


type


of services


believed


to be


appropriate.


Thus,


social


workers


believe


that


counseling


services


for older


persons may


be of little


use because


the elderly


lack


ability


to benefit


from


them


or because


the social


workers


themselves


are unaware


that


counseling


techniques


suitable


for this


type


of work


are available.





J











because


their


decisions


are crucial


to the development


of program policy


and implementation and


in the


case


of institutional


administrators,


the kind


study


and quality


Kasschau


servi


(1976)


ces


provided.


investigated


A particularly


the attitudes


comprehensive


and opinions


large


sample


trators


agency


dealt


with


business


the income,


and governmental


housing,


planners


transportation,


and adminis-


employment


and other needs


the elderly


Legislators who


voted


on relevant


bills


or served


on such


committees


concerned


with


aging needs


were


also


sur-


veyed.


These


subj


ects


were


chosen


part


because


"the


extent


to which


the elderly


are abl


to participate


in the


food


stamp


program or


able


find


housing


in the Model


Cities


Program is


often


largely


the function of


the discretionary


decision making powers


of these


top-level


administra-


tive agency


indicated


official


the existence


s" (Kasschau,


1976


of a number


. 16)


stereotyped


Results


views


of the study


of the elderly


However,


most


planners


believed


that


programs


and servi


ces


were


needed


for older


generally


persons.


felt


The deficiencies


to be the result


of social


services


of the attitudes


systems were


actions


of the


social


workers


and other


direct


care


providers.


subjects


were


also


concerned over


the increasing


amounts


of free


time


available


to older


persons


Even so


, they


frequently


failed


to consider


leisure


activities


in program planning or


the positive


effects


of such


activities


on the


health


of older persons


or their


abilities


to effectively


use this


time.


summary,


it would


seem


that


high


level


administrators


and policy


*- 1 r *


_1.


I 1










A diversity


of programming


and opportunities


for the older


person


become active


in the community was


noted


as was


need


for more


systematized


services


(Kasschau,


1976).


Another


study


investigated


attitudes


of nursing


home


administra-


tors


towards


older


persons


and services


for them.


Some


relationship


between


attitudes and


level


of subjects


' education


was


demonstrated


stronger


influences


were


shown


between


age,


sex,


and socio-economic


levels


of older residents.


As the author


notes,


"the


age of


clients


alone or


in combination


with


the effects


of other


status


characteristics,


also


influence


professional


recommendations


for their


care


or even


career


decisions


to work with


the aged"


(Keith,


1977,


465).


Thus,


it is suggested


on service


that


provision


attitudes

as those


of administrators


of direct


can be


care workers.


as influential

As another


author puts


"We now realize


the importance


a positive


attitude


toward


care


and rehabilitation


of the


aged.


In a


good


nursing


home


philosophy


care


projected


from


the administrator


through


all levels


of staff


is evident"


(Ernst


& Shore,


1975,


p. 5).


Another


paper


reviews


factors


influencing


both


policy makers


and the public


which


through


their


taxes must


support


programs


older


persons.


These


factors


include


aging


and the aged


are


viewed


and the level


of confidence


held


the public


and policy makers


in the


efficacy


programs


and services


(Vasey,


1975).


Vasey


states


problem well:


we do


not like


or approve


of the


neoDle


are


. .


i.&*v










spending money
restoration.


to provide measures of


policies will


more


treatment


likely


reflect
custody.


a preference for re


we believe


sidual


they


are


programs
too old


care


to learn,


will


probably not


want


to do much about


educational


programs


that


designed


research and


erase


the false


for them.
experience


Let me
which


stereotypes


that


emphatically


demolish


have


suggest


these myths


grown


around


aging and


on the conditions


elderly
of life


can have


for older


a profound


people


effect


and a telling


impact


on public


policy


(Vasey


1975,


This


statement


succinctly


summarizes


the prevailing


theme


this


literature


review,


that


attitudes


can and


do influence


program


planning


and service


delivery


for older


persons.


Although not


specifically


addressed


in the literature


it seems logical


to assume


that


counseling


services


for older


persons may


be viewed


a similar


light.


summary


it is suggested


that


a relationship


exists


between


misconceptions


about


the needs


and characteristics


of older


persons


and the quality

to the negative


type


attitudes


of social


held


servi


by workers


ces


provided


at all


them.


levels


In addition


the fears


aging


and death


represented


older


persons


serve


as strong


influences


on their mode of


dealing with


the elderly


and of the choice


to work


with


them.


That


there


a strong need


for counseling


and a viable


role


for counselors


' leadership


in interrupting


this


cycle


of negative


attitudes


poor


services


is evident.


This


need


an immediate


and

will


can


be expected


review


to increase


extent


to which


in the near

programs cu


future.


rrently


The next


section


address


counseling needs


of older


persons


in Florida.


one











Organization and


Fundin


For Older


g of Counseling Services
Persons


As has been


indicated,


the attitudes


of both


professionals


and the public


can


influence


the quality


of social


servi


ces


provided


to older persons.


Several


sources


have


commented


on the form or


organization


through


which


these


services


are delivered


to older


persons.


In general,


noted


that


service


programs


for today


older


persons


lack planning


and direction


focused


on realistically


meeting


their needs.


This


section


will


discuss


the criticisms


suggestions


offered


concerning


service


programs


for older


persons


the major


funding sources;


and organizational


structure


as it relates


to provision of


counseling


services.


A recurrent


theme


found


in discussions


of service


delivery


older persons


ary approach


relates


to meeting


to the need


their needs.


for a comprehensive,


one


source


multi-disciplin-


states,


elderly


patient


a problem


one area,


it is extremely


likely that


he will


have


problems


in other


areas


as well"


(Pfeiffer,


1976,


193)


This


author


further notes


that


the existence


of multiple


problems


among older


persons


frequently


compounded


because


they


lack


means


or the


resources


to reach


the different


locations


where


these


needs


can


be met.


The role


a service


coordinator


suggested


one who


could


facilitate


such


travel


for older


persons when a


central


facility


is unavailable


(Pfeiffer


1976)


ra


L,, L,,,


L\ 1 -AIln-C


u


I(r


r











been


implemented with considerable


success


in many


areas.


Such


centers,


however,


not generally


provide


screenings nor


do they


administer


social s

included


service p

in this


programs.

type of


Counseling


setting


servi


ces


or as a base


could


be logically


for conducting


outreach


counseling


(Sylvester,


1976)


Boyd


Oakes


further note


that


concept


comprehensive


services


depends


on a recognition


that,


many


older


persons,


economic


and social


needs


are as pressing as


medical


ones.


The organizational


barriers


encountered


the elderly


are noted as


more


formidable


when


seeking


these


kinds


of services.


stated,


"Likewi


, a person


with an


emotional


problem


or psychiatric


illness


should


receive


or appropriate


help


as soon as


p055


ible


without


having


go through all


sorts of


unnecessary


channels


(Boyd


& Oakes,


1973,


140)


These authors


suggest


a central


service


agency


for older


persons


which


includes


an information


and referral


service,


diagnostic


center


and a "well-aging"


clinic.


The emphasis


in this approach would


on prevention,


particularly with


regard


mental


health


concerns


(Boyd


& Oakes,


1973).


summary,


those


authors


have


investigated


attitudes


towards


aging


older


persons


tend


to note


the need


for a comprehensive


center


for services designed


to meet


multiple


needs


The bureaucratic


barriers


are also

advocate


imposed


cited


, a guide


n p-a I1 a n


governmentally


hindrances


funded


in meeting


or a coordinator


4 n~


to lead


a


and/or


these


administered


needs.


older

r 4-. ^-J -& -


person

UrTLa-


programs


The need


through


I- a- -1


a a A n an n -


-


A











recipients


is not


solely


aimed


at the elderly;


however


the negative


view with


this


which older


tendency


persons


Providing


are seen


professional


believed


and social


to further


service


strengthen


workers


with


greater


knowledge about


older


persons


will


not automatically


reduce negative


attitudes


or improve


services.


As Mower notes,


"Understanding aging processes


does


not necessarily


guarantee


that


will


approach an


older


person


a different


manner


However,


through


this

aged


understanding,

while negative


positive

behavior,


behavior


which actually


staff members may


impedes


encour-


the independence


the aged,


be reduced"


(Mower


Shore,


1975,


The literature


seems


to emphasize


that


comprehensive


services


for older


persons


are needed


and that


negative attitudes


towards


aged


can limit


the effectiveness


of exis


ting


programs


the develop-


ment


new


ones.


As Butler


has noted,


"We know what


services


older


people need and


that


these


needs


are extensive.


The financing


logistical


problems


are not insoluble.


Now,


however


services


of all


kinds


for old people are


fragmented,


limited


, discriminatory,


inacces-


sible


or non-existent.


When


services


are available


e. their


quality


questionable"


(Butler,


1975,


140).


comment


suggests


it is


necessary

become fa


and helpful


miliar with


for counselors

the legislation


concerned

sources


with older

of funding,


persons


and organiza-


tion


of service


programs


for older


persons.


The Older


Americans


of 1965


with


its subsequent


amendments


a1


..L 42..Zfl7


- ~~~~~ ~ ~ ,* t~l -- -. -l-a 4-nd tt A r


one


LI\nL


Ckn


I











does not


rate


one of these


four


areas


of need


ahead


of another;


housing,

services


transportation,

are given equal


homemaker,

stature in


and 1


egal


the Act


and other


(H.E.W.


197


counseling

5). Addition-


ally,


the Act


does


not specifically


require


that


each of


the four


areas


of need


be addressed


equally.


State


governments


are only


required


"provide


for the establishment


or maintenance


programs


[including


related


training]


for the


provision


some or


all,


of the


following


servi


ces" (H.E.W


1975,


Thus,


can be


seen


that


state


local


governments


could


concentrate


their


efforts


solely


on one or more


services


to the exclusion of


the others,


still


be in technical


compliance with


presents


the Act.


a problem with


Additionally,


respect


the wording


to counseling


of the Act


services.


further


Personal


counseling


services


are included


a statement


that


seems


to emphasize


legal


counseling.


appears


that


the Older


Americans


Act makes


it possible


programs


to be developed which may meet


some


not all needs


older


persons.


This


precisely


the kind


of fragmented


, incomplete


service


program


result


which


of this


was


wording


criticized


by previously


has led to varied


reviewed authors.


interpretations


of the


intent


of the legislation.


Apparently many


states,


including


Florida,


were

areas


considered to

. A directive


be providing


from


inadequate


the Administration


attention

on Aging


to all p

recently


priority

sought


to clarify


this


portion


of the 1965


Act.


As i


stated,


"Despite


t4r rf- lr l 1on1r nT ,i a


-r It


iL!t nr~l


tlrdt


;nt ~rnrafat; nn


n T


in rt~F~tO~


JLi A --m


, ,--


rnn rorm cnmo


n











focus


on the national


priorities


service,


but that


counseling


services


were


not listed


among


them.


statement,


"legal


and other


counseling


services,


was reduced


to legal


services


only


(H.E.W.,


1977).


Those


concerned


with


counseling


services


for older


persons


need


to be


aware


of these


legislative


provis ions


and their


interpretation.


Attention

counseling


should be directed

services receives


towards

an equal


insuring

share o


that


the full


f funding


range


program


development


states.


To assist


in the effort


to meet


the counseling


needs


of older


persons,

adequate


a legislative

counseling se


bill


rvices


was


developed


for the


in 1977


elderly.


This


aimed


at providing


proposal,


(HR1118:


Guidance


and Counseling


for the Elderly)


outlines


a comprehensive


counseling program


for older


persons.


Counseling


in this


instance was


defined


as "the


process


through


which


a trained


counselor


assists


individual


or group


to make


satisfying


and responsible


decisions


con-


cerning


personal,


educational,


social,


and vocational


development"


(U.S.,


1977,


. 36).


Inclusion


of this


or a similar


definition


in the


portion


of the Older


Americans


Act dealing with


the priority


services


would


have


perhaps


given


counseling


a clearer


identity


and stronger


position


relative


to other


priority


services.


Regretfully


this


bill


not been


passed.


Federal


funds


for Older


Americans


programs


are provided


*1_


- A- S --


tHl~m ut to n l c nn Mn c


thP Tm ri nlle


th mtloh


rpntr~]


ct~tPE


ctstP


rf-


W1 r, n ~Fnr











Services


which


was re-organized


in 1975.


purpose


of this


change was


to "integrate


the delivery


of all health,


social, and


rehabilitative


services


(Florida,


offered by


1978a,


state


112)


to those


Thus,


citizens


the intent


was


in need


to provide


of assistance"


type


comprehensive


service


delivery


system


that


previously mentioned


authors


felt


was


best


suited


for meeting


the needs


of older persons.


success


However,

of Aging


of this


the shift

and Adult


re-organization


did lead

Services,


not been


thoroughly


to the establishment


which


evaluated


a separate


has the major responsibility


office

for


admini


station


of all aging


programs.


current


(1978-79)


Florida


State Plan


on Aging outlines


several


overall


objectives.


Of particular


relevance


to counseling


is the


statement


that


the State


will


develop


program standards


for a minimum


of three


social


service programs


funded


under Older


Americans


auspices.


Thus


more


emphasis


a greater number


of the priority


services


is anticipated


(Florida,


1978c).


More


specific


to counseling


is the proposed


obj ective


to provide


counseling


services


to a minimum of


23,538


older


persons


statewide.


These


services


will


include


assistance


with


psychological,


family


and social


concerns


to be "explored


within


the confines


a confidential


relationship with


trained


professionals


leading


an improved


sense


of mental


well-being


for the elderly


per-


sons


" (Florida,


1978c,


It is


apparent


that


a great


deal


more


than


legal


advice


is implied


in this


statement.


proposed


priori-


*,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ at ~ r nF14 A An +, n CD 4- finC.. nn C-- 4 3.-


tinn


Fnr ~ln r: ~n


nn nrltl~nh ij


,,f ,


rr EfUc,


*C Yllf~r.











Plan


for Florida


gave


increased


attention


to counseling needs


servi


ces.


review


on the relationship


of literature


between


pertinent


attitudes


to thi


towards


study


older persons


focused


and servi


provided


for them.


Areas


of general


need


and characteristic


commonly


associated


with


older persons were


discussed with


emphasis


on the


probable


origins


of prevalent


active


stereotypes


about


the elderly


Attitudes


of various


social


servi


and health


professionals


were


shown


to be largely


negative


to have


an effect


on the quality


care


servi


ces


provided


to older


persons


Program planners


and administrators


attitudes were


also


examined with


attention


to their


roles


in service


delivery


to the elderly.


Possible


roles


of counseling


servi


ces


programs


for older


persons were


reviewed and


was


indicated


such


services


should


be given


greater


emphasis


both


administrators


and direct


servi


providers.


It is


apparent


that


there


a need


assess


extent


to which


these


predominantly negative


impressions


influence


the attitudes


held


workers


towards


counseling


services


for older persons,


Although


counseling has


implementation


been


of this


established


goal


as a national


not been


and state priority,


achieved


full


in Florida.


the literature


suggests


negative


attitudes


influence


servi


delivery,


then


it is important


that


this be established


with


respect


to counsel-


From


this informational


base,


appropriate


corrective


plans


hea dpv o1 nnr


ti r\ nPri a ni A


,n nin-rn-a


ces


can


hnth


slttitll~ac


nlri~r


CO r~ll ~P


















CHAPTER


METHODOLOGY


The results


of the literature


review


indicate


that


little


been


done


to develop


counseling


services


as components


of aging pro-


grams


in Florida


priority,


programming


and in the nation.


counseling


in Florida


has received


(Florida,


Of the four


the least


services


emphasis


1978a,


given


in funding


purpose


of this


national

and


study


was to determine


the perceptions


towards


counseling


services


for older


persons


held


selected


employees


of the Florida


Health


and Rehabilita-


tive


Services


Aging


and Adult


Services


Program Staff,


study


also


attempted


assess


the relationship


between


the perceptions


or at-


titudes


services


held


Administrators


offered


for older


and Direct


persons


Service


the relative


Personnel


toward


importance


given


to counseling


Aging Program developers,


administrators,


and direct


service


personnel.


This


information


then


serve


as a baseline


from


which


strategies


and plans


for funding


and implementation


of specialized


counseling


services


for older persons


be made.


The research


questions


did the subjects


investigated


define


this


counseling


study

and how


included:

did they


A4Ffarn F 4n r' ntr r AFn~rrnn


rliF Far in


T-


n 1 s











did subjects


perceive


counseling


in relation


to other


services


provided


programs


for older persons,


and how


did they


differ


in their perceptions?


did subjects


services


evaluate


in aging projects


current


programs


status


of counseling


and how did


they


differ


in their


evaluations?


did subjects


ability with

of the aged,


rat e


respect


counseling


their


own level


needs

services


of knowledge


of the aged,

and technique


characteristics

es for the


elderly


client,


did they


differ


in their


self-ratings?


Instrumentation


As the literature


review


indicates,


there


are no instruments


currently


available


which


adequately


assess


the perceptions


of aging


program personnel


towards


counseling


services


for older persons.


Several


instruments


evaluated


attitudes


towards


aging


and toward


older


persons


however,


these were


not sufficiently


specific


for the


purposes


of this


study.


Consequently,


a new


instrument


was


developed


researcher


based


on the literature


review


and discussions with


appro-


private


Aging Program staff


and faculty


at the University


of Florida.


The following


actions


describe


the development


of this


instrument


steps


planned


assure


its validity


and reliability.


First,


five


maj or


areas


were


selected


for investigation.


These


-. -n A. .. .


i.. 1 1 ii


- -


/-


~un~n









Definition of


Role


Counseling


of Counseling/Counselors


Counseling


Current
Level o


Second


in Relation


Status


to Other


of Counseling


f Knowledge


the conceptual


Services


Services


Counseling


validation of


and Aging)


the comprehensiveness


importance of


these


five


areas was


accomplished.


researcher


identified


and contacted


ten professionals


currently


employed


in the


Florida


Program.


Health


Four


and Rehabilitative


administrative


Services


personnel,


Aging and


five direct


Adult


service


Services


staff,


one from the


State


Office


in Tallahassee,


were


selected.


These


indivi-


duals


were


representative


of the three


groups


from which


the larger


sample


of subjects


was finally


drawn.


A member


of the University


Florida


Counselor


Education


faculty,


skilled


in instrument


development,


was asked


to participate


in this


procedure.


Each


person was


asked


review


comment


on the five


areas


proposed


for development


in the


questionnaire.


interviews,

participants


Comments were


or written


received


communications


The researcher


compiled


telephone,


between

these


face-to-face


the researcher and th

comments .and developed


questions


based


on their


content.


These


topics


provided


the basis


from


which


the initial


draft


of the questionnaire was


developed.


Approxi-


mately


ten question


items were


developed


in each


of the five


areas,


suggested


the reviewers'


comment s.


first


draft


of the instrument


was


presented


to the reviewers


for the


purpose


of obtaining


additional


comments


on the


content,


wording,


and format.


a result


of their


appraisals


approximately


one-half











These


personnel


were


asked


to review


comment


on the revised


instru-


ment,


which


they


had not


previously


read.


Their


comments


and suggestions


were


incorporated


into


those


previously


obtained.


A final


version


the instrument


was developed


consisting


of 61 items


related


to the


original


five major


component


areas.


Items


1-60


followed


the Likert


scale


response


instrument


was


format;

then re


item


was


.submitted


an open-ended


to both


reviewing


question.


groups


revised


comment


(Appendix A).


A third


group


ten reviewers


with


same


classifications


as the first


and second


groups


had not


seen


previous


versions


the questionnaire


was


chosen


to participate


in this


procedure.


Com-


ments


were


solicited


regarding


appropriateness


of form,


content,


readability,


language,


clarity,


length


of time


needed


to complete,


types


of demographic


data


requested.


The results


of these


three


reviews


indicated


that


commen-


tators


agreed


that


the terminology


utilized


was


appropriate


for the


topics.


questions


were


stated


terms


which were


familiar


to them


and which


were


felt


to be suitable


for the proposed


subjects.


instructions

and clear.


demographic


No further


data,


changes


and format


were


were


suggested


considered


appropriate


the reviewers.


procedures


involved


in the development


review


and revision


of the


instrument


were


accomplished


during


a three


month


time


period.


These


methods


established


the conceptual


content


validity


of the instru-


-] I-4-,


IIEm mT 1 1I










HRS and the State Program Office,


were


chosen


to represent


larger


sample


identified


for the study.


Figure


illustrates


geographic


division of


the 11 HRS districts


in Florida.


These


subj ects


included administrators


of aging


programs


direct


service


supervisors


and social


workers,


and purchase


of service


staff.


Additionally,


variations


level


of education,


sex,


race


were


analyzed,


noted


in Table


Table


indicates


work locations,


sex and


race


the 30 selected subjects.


The instrument


was administered


to the subjects


at their work


sites


in each


district,


in the State


Program Office,


searcher,


using


the Standardized


Procedures


for Administration


of the


Questionnaire


(Appendix B).


After


a two week


interval,


the instrument


was readministered


same


group


of subjects


at their work


locations


the researcher.


Responses


from


these


two administrations


were


analyzed


to determine


reliability


co-efficient


of each


item included


in the instrument


shown


in Table


Fifty-eight


of the items


were


statistically


signifi-


cant


at the


.01 level


and items


21 and 57


were


significant


at the


level.


The data


for the reliability


study were


analyzed


employing


Statistical Package


for the Social


Sciences


Program


for correlation


analysis


acceptable

items. Ac


using


level


cordingly,


the Pearson


r statistic.


of reliability


the instrument


originally


or better was


in its final


selected


met by


form was


all 60


used


statewide


administration.


re-



























Inr
'U~a


J as


& ~










TABLE


LEVEL


OF EDUCATION OF TEST


RETEST


SAMPLE


BY SEX AND


RACE


Level


Sex and Race


Total


Education


Male


Female


Ethni


Ethnic


White


Minority


White


Minority


Total


Grades


High


0-11


School


10.0


A.A.


16.7


Degree


Year


College


Degree


20.0


33.3


56.7


. Master


s Degree


13.3


20.0


Total


Total


26.7


60.0


13.3


100.0


Total


Male


Female


Category


and %


26.7


73.3


Caucasian


Ethnic


86.7


Minority


13.3






57



TABLE 2


WORK LOCATION
BY


OF TEST
SEX AND


RETEST
RACE


SAMPLE


Work


Sex and Race


Total


Location

%


Male
Ethnic


White


Minority


Female
Ethnic


White


Minority


Total


District


District


4
13.3


District


4
13.3


14
46.7


20
66.7


District


0
3 0.0


State


Office


0
3 0.0


3
10.0


Total
%o


18
60.0


4
13.3


30
100.0






58





TABLE 3

MEAN, STANDARD DEVIATION AND TEST RETEST CORRELATION
COEFFICIENTS FOR PILOT TEST


Item


Item


Number


Mean


S.D.


Number


Mean


S.D.


1.47

1.83

1.83
2.33

2.37

1.87
1.60

1.57

1.33

1.47
1.80

1.83

1.70
1.63

1.93


1.03


.58**
.80**

.93**

.88**

.91**

.83**
.75**
.72**

.78**
.87**

.76**
.74**

.88**
.83**
.66**


3.10

3.17

1.57

2.00

2.77

3.67

1.83


1.06

1.02


.71**

.58**

.77**
.75**

.67**


.38*


1.09


1.02


3.30


.83**

.75**

.72**

.63**

.71**
.71**

.79**

.55**
.76**






59



TABLE 3--continued


Item


Item


Number


Mean


S.D.


Number


Mean


S.D.


.92

1.04

.90

.79

.84

.73


1.90


.72**
.75**

.64**

.74**

.66**

.79**

.84**

.70**

.80**

.80**

.68**

.78**

.76**

.83**

.66**


1.63


.64**

.61**
.78**

.77**

.83**

.60**

.84**

.66**

.75**

.61**

.76**


.38*


1.70


2.17

2.33


3.47


.66**

.53**

.80**


Summary:


Mean


Range of Mean
Range of S.D.


= 1.47


- 3.67
- 1.09


Pearson r


Mean
Media


Range


S.D.


Mode


.66,


.75,


S.E.M


p < .01
+ two week interval










Subjects


and Selection


of Sample


Selection


of subjects


to participate


in this


study was


based


the following


considerations.


Subjects


were


selected


from


current


employees


of the Florida Department


Health and


Rehabilitative


Services


Aging


and Adult


Services


Program staff.


It was


considered


important


assess


the perceptions of


these


groups


because


their


responsibilities


services

funds al


include


programs


located


the planning,


for Florida's


for expenditure


funding,


and implementation


older population.


in aging


programs


in Florid


federal

a are ad-


ministered


or monitored


the Florida


Department


of Health


habilitative


Services.


attitudes


HRS employees


towards


counseling


services


for older


persons were deemed


crucial


to the planning,


plementation,


administration,


and monitoring


of these


programs.


Subjects


were organized


studied


category


researcher


identified


three major


groups


from


which subjects were


selected.


These


included:


Category
Category


Administrators of


Direct
Workers


Service


Aging


Programs


Casework Supervisors


Social


Category


Purchase


of Service


Staff


In Category One were


all professional


State


Program Office


staff

staff


District


in Florida.


Program Office


Included


staff,


in this


and Areawide


category were


Agency


on Aging


the State Aging


Adult


Services


Program Office


Director,


Program Administrators,


Progrnm glner'in i qt-q.


Pi r-rncran Cn4 nl -^ flw. a nm


n; ctriFt


nYn rr yr nm


f\ % /











category


This number


changes


frequently


due to routine


personnel


changes

staff a


position


ttrition.


additions

Included


and deletions,

in Category One


budget


were


limitations,


persons


and normal


employed


in the State Aging


and Adult


Services


Program


Office


(PDAA)


in Tal-


lahassee,


persons


employed


in the 11 district Aging


and Adult


Services


Program


Offices,


and 55


persons


employed


in the


ten Areawide


Agencies


on Aging


statewide.


attempt


survey


all 128 of


these


persons was made and


were


surveyed.


Persons


in thi


group


have


policy-making authority


in aging


programs


in Florida,


and determine


funding


and programming


priorities.


Thus,


this


group


direct


impact


on provision of


second


services


category


and fund


consisted


expenditure.


of Specialized Adult


Service


Direct


Service


Casework Supervisors


Social


Workers who


were


sampled, using a


random


select ion


procedure.


There were


approximately


persons


in this


group


in Florida.


This number


changes


frequently


due to the


reasons


cited


for Category


One.


In each


of the 11 Health


and Rehabilitative


Services


Districts


in Florida,


ten individual


Aging


and Adult


Servi


ces


Specialized Adult


Services


Casework


Supervisors


Social


Workers


(SAS)


and three


alternates


were


selected


for a total


of 143 subjects


in this


category


There


were


134 subjects


from


this


group


event


surveyed.


The three


one or more of


alternates were


ten primary


subjects


selected


were


for use


absent


in the


on the day


the instrument


was


administered.


During


the actual


administ ration,


, A.- *1-a


-. -In


1 *


.1


.1


r


.r r.


..J











to the Aging


and Adult


Services


Specialized Adult


Services


category


position number)


was


reviewed,


each


position


entity on


the listing


was assigned


a number


from a


table


of random numbers


(Downie


Heath,


1970


328-329)


. A second


table


of random


numbers


was


used


to select


those numbers


from each of


the 11


districts)


which were


surveyed


as primary


(ten)


and alternate


(three)


subjects.


Category Three


included


Health


and Rehabilitative


Services


Purchase


of Service Project


Directors


and staff


(POS)


Included


this


Category were


portation


service


other project


staff


Project

providers


There


Directors,

. outreach


meal


program directors,


coordinators,


are currently more


than


homemakers,


220 proj


trans-

and


ects


Florida


of which


provide


counseling


services


(Appendix


same


random selection


procedures


described


for Category Two


were


used


in sample


selection


for Category Three.


There


were


approximately


1,300


Purchase


of Service


Project


staff


in Florida


were


employed


approximately


220 projects


statewide.


total


number


of projects


and project


staff


fluctuates


to funding availability.


Category


Three


consisted


ten primary


three


alternate


Purchase


of Service


project


staff


from


each


of the 11 districts


for a total


of 143


persons.


A total


persons


from


this


group were surveyed.


Total


subjects


contacted


for the study was


persons.


total


included


128 in Category One;


143 in Category Two;


and 143 in


Category


Three.


There


were


373 questionnaires


completed


at ,. -C.


*tVL- 1 -- ------


-----1


use


--U-E1


d


r


r


.T A









rural/urban geographic


location.


A listing


services


older


persons


provided


these Aging


Program


Staff


shown


in Appendix


The minimum acceptable


total


sample


size


was


300 which


repre-


sented a


72% rate of


return.


A minimum of


100 subjects


was


expected


in each


of the three


categories.


N of 373 which


was achieved


represented


a 90.1%


rate of


return.


procedure of


sampling


location and


position


resulted


in the distribution


of subjects


shown


in Table


Procedures


following


procedures


were


developed


for the administration


of the questionnaire,


to insure


confidentiality,


assurances


cooperation,


follow-up methods,


and other


considerations


relevant


the implementation


of the study


The researcher


developed


a form


to insure


that


each


participant


was made


aware


of the


purpose


of the study


of the confidentiality


of the data


gathered


(Appendix A)


form was


approved


Human


Subjects


for each


Review


subject


Board at


as a part


the University


of Florida,


of the questionnaire


was


packet.


provided


Questions


regarding confidentiality were


answered


by the


researcher


at each


administration


site,


of the Questionnaire


instrument


the Standardized


were


followed


. Each participant's


Procedures


at all administrations


signature


on the form


for Administration


of the


indicated


voluntary


participation


in the study.


























Ce" ~~cO O\N lc


rH O


Oerj


'no


0304c~


LflVH(


004~


rO


'no


-40


cO N


O N


[r\ CJ


rS ri


rl O


O


O O


rl O

























Nt4 O


r40O


r-IO


c~j0


CNCI


o\C J


tfl,-I


r-r-


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tn C~'


-4-4f


trH


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was given


verbally


and a written


statement


to this


effect


obtained.


This


endorsement


of the study was


made


available


to the subjects


referenced


the researcher when


contacting


participants


for the study.


The researcher


announce d


the study


at the statewide meeting


of Aging


and Adult


Services


administrative


staff


in November


1978.


this


means,


the cooperation


support


of each


of the 11 HRS Aging


Adult


Services


Program Supervisors were


obtained.


Administration


of the questionnaire was


accomplished


methods.


First,


the researcher


administered


the questionnaire


personal-


at nine


work


sites;


and second,


questionnaires


were


mailed


when


impossible


for the researcher


to visit


work sites


personally.


With


both


methods,


the Standardized


Procedures


for Administration


of the


Questionnaire were


used


exclusively


to insure


uniformity


of administra-


tion.


visits


to the districts


and State Program


Office


were


pre-


ceeded


letters


the proposed


date


to the participants


mailed


of the administration,


which


two weeks


was


in advance


previously


agreed


upon


telephone


contact


with


the district


Aging


and Adult


Services


Program Supervisor


or Specialist.


A telephone


call


was


made


to the


district


Program Office


one week


in advance


of the visit


as a final


reminder.


The researcher


contacted


each HRS


District


Office


and the State


Agin


and Adult


Services


Program Office


for the


purposes


of administer-


was


-











field


staff


at the


same


location and


time


in all instances.


This


group


administration

questionnaire


was


accomplished


at the time


scheduling


of regularly


scheduled


the administration


district-wide meetings


for the


prupose


of reducing


travel


cost


and time


investment


participants.


Questionnaire


administration


was conducted


in the


District


headquarters'


building


conference


room or


Areawide


Agency


Aging


conference


room,


in all


cases.


Questionnaires


were


completed


no less


than


10 and


no more


than


30 minutes


in all


cases.


percent


of return of


the districts


the questionnaires


having Areawide


was


90.1


Agencies


for the statewide


on Aging,


sample.


the HRS district


headquarter


s office


is located


in the


same


city


as the Areawide


Agency


on Aging


in all


cases


, enabling


the researcher


to visit


both


agencies


with minimal


travel


between


offices.


In those


two districts


where


the researcher was


unable


schedule


an on-site


visit,


the Aging


and Adult


Services


Program Super-


visor


or Specialist


for the district


was


trained


telephone


prior


the administration


of the questionnaire


in the administration


of the


questionnaire


using


the Standardized


Procedures


for Administration


the Questionnaire


(Appendix


questions


were


answered


potential


problems


discussed


at that


time.


researcher


then mailed


the questionnaires


to the district


Program Supervisor with


each


questionnaire


identified


the position


number


of the


person


to whom


was to be administered.


A listing


of the Standardized


Procedures


a C a-. -., fl s--A-'.


Fn* A rlmJ ~: ncue ~ ,,


d


r


1^


L


I










Following


collection


and analysis


of the data,


results


of the


research


were


provided


to the participants.


A summary


of the results


of the study was


mailed


to the State


Aging


and Adult


Services


Program


Office


and to each


district


Aging


and Adult


Services


Program Office


and Areawide Agency


on Aging.


subjects were


mailed


a copy


of the


summary


of the results


the study


and copies


of the discussion


section


of the study.


Data


Analysis


After


the questionnaires


were


administered


and collected,


resulting


data


were


prepared


for statistical


analysis.


All question-


naires


with


no less


than


75% of the items


completed


of the possible


61 items)


were


researcher


considered

transferred


complete

the data


for the

from t


purposes


of the analysis.


he 373 completed


questionnaires


to computer


coding


be key punched


onto


forms.

data


Arrangements


cards


were


and prepared


then made


computer


for the data


analysis.


Appropriate


computer programs


for the desired


statistical


analyses


were


selected


from


the Statistical


Package


for the Social


Sciences


Program Guidelines


(Nie,


1970).


The main


purpose of


this


study


was to determine what


perceptions


Aging


Program Staff


in Florida


held


regarding


counseling


services


older persons.


In order


to determine


what these


perceptions


for the


total


sample studied


were,


the mean


and standard


deviation


response


each


item were


calculated.


Frequency


counts


were


calculated


to deter-










accomplished

groups of su


determine


to determine


objects.


the degree


if differences


The Pearsonian


of relationship


were


r correlation


between


significant


was


between


calculated


the demographic


items


test


items.


The Alpha


level


.05 was


chosen


to represent


statistical


significant


significance.


differences


Levels


were


were


calculated


also


and reported


reported.


as they


Non-


occurred


in various


categories


of interest.


Responses


to the open-ended


items


on the instrument


were


tabulated manually


to determine


nature


range


of their


content.


Results


obtained


for these


items


are reported


in Chapter


Limitations


of the Study


References


dealing with


research


design


denote


several


factors


which may


limit


the valid


interpretation


of results


(Campbell


Stanley,


1963;


Isaac


& Michael,


1971)


In connection


with


this


study,


several


factors


should


be noted which may


have


affected


its validity


and the usefulness


of its results.


Bias


have


been


introduced


through


the selection


procedures


used.


Although


subjects


were


randomly


chosen,


there


have


been


other


factors


which


determined


those


subjects


actually participated


in and completed


the study.


Since


participation


was voluntary,


there


have


been


differences


between


those who


chose


to join


in the study


and those who


did not.


Addit i onal


hias may


h snw


bee~n


intrnrlodird


n 1PrPrpe-linc


thP natnal











of the topic,


of their


performance with


respect


to counseling,


their


attitudes


towards


However,


prior notification was


essential


to insure


adequate


participation.


No methods


of determining


the effects


of this


procedure


appeared


feasible


for this


research.


Pre-existing


attitudes may


have


also


influenced


the perceptions


of subjects


toward


counseling


services.


However,


use of the federal-


state


term by


ceptions


definition


of counseling


all subjects.


largely


Otherwise,


constituted


insured


a standard


previously


type


held


of information


interpretation


attitudes


which was


of the


per-


sought.


Threats


to the external


validity


and generalizability


of this


research may


have


been


generated


from several


sources.


As noted


pre-


viously,


the attitudes


of participants


in Florida may


differ


signifi-


cantly fr

sequently


om persons


in similar


generalizations


positions


beyond


this


in other


locations.


population may


Con-


be limited.


How-


ever,


it is believed


that


the sampling


of the diverse


geographic


population


sites


in Florida


should


have minimized


this


problem.


addition,


although


there


are organizational


differences


among


states,


the administration


of aging


programs


and funds


across


nation


Aging


is probably more


are part


alike


of a nationwide


than


not.


structure


Areawide


and are


Agencies


similar


in many


respects.


The possible


reactive


effects


of the research


procedures


them-


selves


have


had an effect


on some


participants.


presence


trhno nitool-- rnnn, n f


t hrr rrr~a rr rrhnr


nn13 Wk n


hnth


?I rlm;n i c t ~ ra rl


snn











or small


group


discussions


on the subject


of counseling


services


older persons.


Although


was


stressed


that


participation


voluntary


some


subjects


have


felt


an obligation


to participate,


and this


sense


of obligation may


have


some


influence


on responses.


As much


as possible,


the researcher


administered


the questionnaire


same


the effects


identical.


that


manner


possible


at each


procedural


location


an effort


variations


have


to reduce


introduced.


It is also


noted


that


changes


in staffing


patterns


nomenclature


for HRS positions


are under


consideration


currently,


reviewed


in Appendix


While


position


descriptions


and educational


requirements


"Social


remain


Worker


unchanged,


Counselor.


the job


" Should


titles


these


be changed


changes


from


occur,


definitions


of counseling and


the assignment


of duties


which


fall


under


this


definition might


chan


Such


alterations


could


affect


future


attitudes


towards


counseling


held


employees


in these


positions.


was


















CHAPTER :

RESULTS


results


of the data


analysis


as described


in Chapter


III,


are discussed


resulting


in this


sample,


chapter


analysis


following


of individual


topi


questionnaire


are included:


items


responses


and discussion


of the results


terms


of the research


questions.


with


Analytical


the discussion


table


pertinent


and additional


data


to these


tabl


topics


are inclu


are presented

ded in the


appendi


ces.


Significant


items


or those


of particular


interest


noted and


discussed


in detail.


Responses


to the open-ended


Item 61


are reviewed.


Resulting


Sample


As indicated


in Chapter


III, completed


questionnaires were


obtained


from


373 Aging Program Staff


in Florida.


Responses


to the


demographic


information section


of the instrument


form


the basis


this discussion.


Table


presents


a summary


of all sample


demographic


characteristic


CS.


following


discussion


examines


major


components


of these


factors.


are










TABLE


SUMMARY


OF DEMOGRAPHIC


CHARACTERISTICS OF


SAMPLE


Characteristic N % Total



1. Age
Under 25 17 4.6
25-35 157 42.2
36-45 62 16.7
46-55 79 21.2
56-60 32 8.6
61-70 21 5.6
71-80 4 1.1
Over 80 0 0.0

2. Sex
Male 103 27.7
Female 269 72.3

3. Race
Caucasian 323 86.6
Ethnic Minority 50 13.4










TABLE


5--Continued


Characteristic N % Total


Work


Location


District
District
District
District
District


District VI


strict


District VIII
District IX
District X
District XI


State


Program Office


Education
Completed


Grades


0-11


High


School


Graduate


13.7


Associate


Four


Master'


Ed.S.
Ph.D.
Other


Arts


Year Coll


Degree


Graduate


53.0
24.5


Degree


Degree


Subject


in Which


Highest


Degree was


Earned


Administration
Counseling


Social


Work


25.2


Gerontology
Psychology
Sociology
Other


43.7










TABLE


5--Continued


Characteristic N % Total


resent


Position


Title


State


Program Office


District


Area Agency


Aging


Project


Program Office


on Aging


Staff


Staff


Specialized Adult


Services


Staff


12.1
33.1
36.0


Number


of Years


in Present


position


Less


than


years


Lz- years
6-10 years


11-15
16-25
26-35
Over


41.9
37.1
12.1


years
years
years


years


Special


Training


or Experience


in Working with Older


Persons


63.9
36.1


10. Special


Training


or Experience


in Counseling


55.8
44.2


Staff










younger


than


years.


It is of interest


that


only


6.7%


of these


employees


were


years


or older


Most


subj


ects


fell


in the 25-35


year


age range


with


persons,


representing


42.2%


of the total


sample,


occurring


in this


range.


smallest


numbers


were


found


among


the oldest


group,


the 71-80


years


old,


with


four persons


the total


sample


in this


range.


Sex and Race


sample


women;


and 27.7% m


was predominantly

lale. Similarly,


female:

a large


72.3%


majority


the subjects


of parti


were


cipants


were


Caucasian;


86.6%.


The remaining


13.4% described


themselves


representing an


Educational


ethnic minority


Level


The educational


level


fessional


fields of


the subjects


provided an


interesting


profile.


Overall,


the sample


was well-


educated,


with more


than


half


reporting


completion


of a four


year


college


degree.


Associate


of Arts


grees


or less


education


reported


19.6% of the


group.


Advanced


degrees


were


held


27.9%


of the sample.


terms


had degrees


area


in social


specialization


work


or academic


and several


major,


in Sociology


most


Degrees


administration


were


reported


8.3%


Least


represented


were


counseling


and gerontoloev(


Among


those with advanced


degrees


four


was


re 7 IV


\ rvrul











degrees


in education


nursing


nutrition


and criminal


, history


justice


music


Two or fewer


education


subjects


also


reported


grees


in each


of the following


academic


areas:


urban


planning,


fine


arts


, humanities,


anthropology


recreation


therapy,


speech,


art,


public


relations,


Spanish, zoology


and business


administration.


Job Classification


Sample


participants


the aging network.


The Agi


represented

ng and Adult


the various job

Services State


categories


Program Office


in Tallahassee


comprised


or 24


persons.


At the District


level,


and Adult


Services


Staff


totalled


persons


or 9.7


Area-


wide


Agency


on Aging


programs


were


represented


persons


or 12.1%


of the sample

the total.


Aging


Specialize


project

d Adult


staff in

Services


eluded


employees


persons

composed


or 33.1%


the remaining


36.0%


or 135 subjects.


Number


of Years


Worked


Those


subjects


reporting


less


than


years


in their


current


classifications


represented


41.9%


of the total,


or 156


persons.


Those


working


from


two to five


years


included


138 subjects


or 37.1%


of the total.


In the six


to ten


year


category were


persons


or 12.1%


of the sample.


Those


employed


the lon


gest


eriods


of time


included:


for 11


to 15


years,


persons


or 5


for 16-35


years


persons


V) 70/ .~n. -t


a tnt art ~U- -~ ~-CI a-a.a. -f-a t ....52C--


n ~o! .I,


tl


e,,,


rn nn n











Special


Training


in Gerontology


Of those


subjects


who answered


this


item,


257 (63.9%)


indicated


they


had received


some


type of


special


training relating


to working with


older persons.


The remaining


persons


reported


no such


experiences.


In conjunction with


this


question


subject s


responding


in the affirm-


ative were


asked


to briefly


describe


their


special


training.


Many


these


responses


indicated


the training was


received


in the form of


workshops


they


attended


after


becoming


employed


in their present


positions.


Relatively


few subjects


reported


specific


education


training


Special


in gerontology prior


Training


to employment.


in Counseling


Subjects


were


also


asked


to indicate


their preparation


in the


field


training


of counseling.


in this


Of those


area.


responding,


The remainder,


206 or 55.8% noted


163 or 44.2%


some


, reported


preparation.


As in the item


related


to gerontological


training,


majority


of respondents


during and/or


because of


described


their


their


current


counseling

employment.


training

Again,


as occurring

few subjects


were


prepared


in counseling


prior


to becoming


employed


in their


present


positions.


Participants,


however,


indicate


more


training


gerontological


topics


then


they


claimed


in counseling


skills.


Data


for the demographic


information


portion


of the questionnaire


were


also


analyzed


cross


tabulations


of items.


Tabular


displays











Table


displays


the crosstabulation


of the sex and racial


group


characteristics of the sample.


Of the respondents,


or 25%


were


male


Caucasians


228 or


61.0%


were


female


Caucasians.


Fifty


persons


indicated


belonging


an ethnic minority,


comprising


13.4%


of the


sample.


Ethnic minority males


were


the least


represented,


providing


2.1%


or 8


persons


in the sample.


Female minority members


totalled


or 11.3%.


A crosstabulation


of sample


characteristics


classified


position


title,


sex,


race,


is displayed


in Table


The State


Program Office


for Aging


and Adult


Services


included


15 Caucasian males


and 17


Caucasian


females,


which


accounted


for 4.0%


4.6%


of the total


sample,


Caucasian


respectively.


males


District


and 20 Caucasian


Program


females,


Office


Staff


or 3.0%


included


and 5.4%


of the total


sample


occurring


in these


categories,


respectively.


Six ethnic


minority


females


and one minority male


were


employed


in the district


and state Aging and Adult


Services


Program Offices


combined.


Areawide


Agency


on Aging


staff


included


ten Caucasian males,


or 2.6%


of the sample,


and 33


Caucasian


females,


or 8.9%


of the sample.


There were


two ethnic


minority


females


sampled


from


this


subgroup.


ethnic minority


males


were


reported


in the Areawide


Agency


on Aging


sub-


sample.


Specialized Adult


Services


staff


included


one ethnic minority


male;


however,


there were


Caucasian


males,


Caucasian


females


1~ ~ ~ A. 1 .----7~- ~-- ...


and

9


ill -Lrt,


*


r






80



TABLE 6


CROSS


TABULATION


OF SAMPLE


CHARACTERISTICS


SEX BY RACE


Race


Total


Caucasian


Ethnic Minority


Male


25.5


Female


61.1


11.3


Total


86.6


13.4










TABLE


CROSSTABULATION


OF SAMPLE


POSITION TITLE


CHARACTERISTICS:


BY SEX AND


RACE


Position


Race


Caucasian


Ethnic Minority


Total


Male


Female


Male


Female


State


Offi


District
Staff

AAA Staff


Project


Program


11
3.0

10
2.6


Staff


20.2


SAS Staff


22.0

227


Total


25.5


61.0


11.3











Demographic


items


nine


and 11 related


to special


training


experience


in working with


older persons


or in counseling


were


crosstabulated


sex and


race.


As shown


in Table


Caucasian


males


reported


special


training


or experience


in working with


elderly,


37 subjects


in this


category


reported no


such


experience.


Minority


males


indicated


special


training


in four


cases


and four


others


in this


subgroup


reported


no special


training


or experience.


Caucasian


females were

ience, while


evenly divided; 14

79 others did not.


,7 reported


receiving


Twenty-eight


minori


training o

ty females


r exper-

indicated


training

Ta

experience


or experience; 14

ble 8 presents a

e and specialized


in this


similar b

training


group re

reakdown


sponded


negatively.


of the respondents'


in counseling.


Caucasian


reported


female


respondents


reported


affirmatively


in 118


cases;


subj ects


indicated


no such


backgrounds


ethnic minority


in either


females


report


training

ed traini


or experience. T

ng or experience;


wenty-seven

15 of the


subjects


reported


none.


Caucasian males


were


apparently


trained


experienced


in 58


cases


not so in 37


Minority


males


were


evenly


divided


on this


variable:


four


reported


no training or


experience


counseling


while


four


responded


positively.


Table


provides


a crosstabulation


of position


education


sex.


In the


extreme,


the State


Program


Office


group


contained


the only


two Ph.D.


staff


sampled,


while


there


were


persons


on the specialized


adult


services


staff,


one person


working


an aging


proj ect


--A -


A-- A. r 7 -1 1


1-- -I


- S


i.











TABLE


CROSSTABULATION OF
SPECIAL TRAINING OR
OLDER PERSONS AND


SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
EXPERIENCE IN WORKING WITH
COUNSELING BY SEX AND RACE


Race


Caucasian


Ethnic


Minority


Total


Male


Female


Male


Female


Working with
Older Persons


58
15.6

37
10.0


147
39.6


Total


95
25.6


8
.9 2.2


42
11.3


Counseling


57
15.4


118
32.0


38
10.3


106
28.


15
4.1


Total


95
"Ct 7


224
Cn 7


42
11i /I,


























CI)


r-4


Cil

44 Cu
04-4 S
C)4 Clr






10)


-4




"ar





0)
P'H
is to
S1




QC)
441
UA
~~p4


tL~ -4


040-?




0


rlr0-r C tOC'J0 0 cN0rlI00 0 ol-
~cN r- 004i


00Q0000a\ r- rtr-400o oo o0
Cl cn


04 Cl


r10 cf lOrI Cfl O1 000


04CN


00Of il l C [)C'JQ00 rOnO~r 0


'H N


00-40-r


04 Cl CO Nt 00 0000 tfl


0000 r-4FlC~0r00-c'4000000
r4


000000 r400000%t\O0 \
F04


0000rOO~l" lrl ~rJr400000C'4Cfl
'-4


Sbdo So S'O


d~ o 1.
0) 00 0


0) Cd Cfl Ci


000000no ~f mr10~1000 ul










for 4.


of the sample.


The State


Program


Office


persons


with


Master


degrees


or 6.5%


of the total


sample.


A crosstabulation


of number


years


in present


position


race


is presented


in Table


Caucasian


females


included


the sample


had been


employed


for 26-35


years,


while


108 of this


category


had been


employed


for less


than


years.


Only


one ethnic minority


female


fell


in the 16-25


years


service


category,


while


17 of these


females


reported


that


they


had been


in their


present


positions


less


than


years.


Four


Caucasian males


were


in the 11-15


years


of service


category


and there


was one ethnic minority


male


with


to ten


years


tenure


in his present


position.


Of the Caucasian


males,


46 of the 95 reporting


on this


item


had been


employed


in their


present


positions


from


two to


five


years.


Further


analysis


of sample


characteristics


is shown


in Table


This


table


includes


a crosstabulation


of position


education


subject.


Of the 34 respondents


employed


in the State


Program


Office,


one individual


had a Master's


degree


in Gerontology.


None


among


those


sampled


in the District


Program Office


staff


reported


degrees


in the


field


of gerontology.


However,


five


Areawide


Agency


on Aging


staff


indicated


that


they


held Master'


degrees


in Gerontology.


remainder


of respondents


in this


category


included


one four year


degree


Master's


degree


among


project


staff,


one Master's


degree


among


the specialized


adult


services


staff.


To summarize.


there


were


nine


sex


one


I










TABLE


CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
NUMBER OF YEARS IN PRESENT POSITION BY SEX AND


RACE


Years


Race


Caucasian


Ethnic Minority


Total


Male


Female


Male


Female


Less


Than


30
8.1


108
29.0


2-5 Years


46
12.4


72
19.4


14
3.8


6-10


Years


11-15


Years


11
3.0


16-25


26-36


Over


Years


Years


36 Years


Total


95
25.5


227
61.0


42
11.3




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COUNSELING SERVICES FOR OLDER PERSONS AS PERCEIVED AND
PROVIDED BY SELECTED FLORIDA AGING PROGRAM ADMINISTRATORS
AND DIRECT SERVICE PERSONNEL
BY
MILLEDGE MURPHEY
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF
THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1979

Copyright by
Milledge Murphey
1979

Digitizá&teyíítere Íiíféhfst Archive
in 2011 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries with support from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation
http://www.archive.org/details/counselingservicOOmurp

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I want to thank some of the many people who have assisted me
in completing this study.
Dr. Harold Riker has been a personal friend, counselor, pro¬
fessional peer, professor, and supporter of my work in aging for a
number of years. As chairman of my doctoral committee, he spent many
hours working with me in all facets of the program, with specific and
invaluable assistance in the design and completion of the dissertation.
My sincere appreciation and gratitude are extended to him for his
guidance. Having known me for a number of years, Dr, Robert Stripling
served as a doctoral committee member and consistantly provided me
with guidance and inspiration when I was in need. His interest in me
as a person, and his thoughtful counsel with me, will always be
sincerely appreciated. Dr. James. L. Wattenbarger was chairman of
my Ed.S. committee in Educational Administration and has continued
to give his personal support and assistance to me at the doctoral
level. His knowledge of the broad spectrum of higher education and
willingness to assist me with many varied problems is sincerely
appreciated. Dr. Hannelore Wass has demonstrated that scientific
endeavor can be conducted in a caring and humanistic manner. Her
unselfishness with her time and knowledge regarding professional
publication was particularly appreciated.
iv

Harold Mitchum, Hachi-Dan, Isshinryu Karate, my Sensei, and
friend, has provided me with an understanding of life from a unique
and time tested perspective. His humble and quiet example of strength
with softness will continue to set the tone for my life—"If you want
to know something in a short period of time you will know nothing good.
I am grateful for the assistance of the professional staff
in the Florida Aging Network. Especially helpful was Dr. June Duggar
of the State Aging and Adult Services Program Office in Tallahassee.
My thanks go to E. Bentley Lipscomb, Director of the Aging and Adult
Program Office, whose support of this project enabled me to have access
to a wide variety of individuals and records which would otherwise
have been unavailable to me.
My special appreciation goes to the Aging and Adult Services Pro
gram Supervisors throughout Florida, who cooperated with me in con¬
ducting the study. Without their assistance, the study could not have
been accomplished. The supervisors and workers of the Specialized
Adult Services Units throughout Florida, who, though overworked, under¬
paid, and unsung, not only aided in the study, but continue to provide
services for older persons who are in need. Aging Project staff and
administrative personnel are due my gratitude for their participation,
and more importantly, for the important services they render to the
elderly of Florida. My gratitude goes to the Areawide Agency on Aging
staffs and especially the District III AAA for their support in both
information and material.
Personal thanks go to my Mother who encouraged me to continue
with advanced study and took pride in the work I did in both vocational
and academic pursuits, and to my Father, who set an example which I
v

have been unable to equal in terms of being a totally valuable human
being, of the highest
see the completion of
the greatest share of
possible integrity. While he did not live to
this pursuit, I believe his example provided
motivation for my undertaking and completing it.
vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES x
ABSTRACT xii
CHAPTER
IINTRODUCTION 1
Background Information 1
Need for the Study 3
Purpose of the Study 8
Research Questions 8
Rationale 9
Definition of Terms 11
IIREVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 13
Characteristics and Needs of Older
Persons 13
Economics, Income and Retirement 14
Health Needs and Characteristics 18
Living Arrangements 20
Social, Activity, Family Needs 22
Perceptions and Attitudes Towards Aging 26
Areas of Research on Attitudes Towards
Aging and the Aged; Instruments 27
Attitudes Towards Aging Among Trainees,
Practitioners and Administrators 30
Organization and Funding of Counseling
Services For Older Persons. . 43
IIIMETHODOLOGY 50
Instrumentation 51
Subjects and Selection of Sample 60
Procedures 63
Data Analysis 68
Limitations of the Study 69
vii

Page
IV RESULTS 72
Resulting Sample 72
Analysis of Questionnaire Responses 89
V SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS,
AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 143
Summary 143
Discussion and Conclusions 144
Implications 153
Suggestions for Future Research 156
APPENDICES
A QUESTIONNAIRE 160
B STANDARDIZED PROCEDURES FOR ADMINISTRATION OF
QUESTIONNAIRE 172
C FLORIDA AGING PROGRAM JOB DESCRIPTION SUMMARY 174
D FLORIDA AGING AND ADULT SERVICES
TITLE III
COUNSELING PROJECTS 1977-78 177
E AGING AND ADULT SERVICES 180
F HRS DIRECT SERVICES CLASS STUDY,
SEPTEMBER 25, 1978 189
G CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
SUBJECT IN WHICH HIGHEST DEGREE WAS
EARNED BY SEX AND RACE 192
H CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
EDUCATION BY SEX AND RACE 193
I CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
WORK LOCATION BY SEX AND RACE 194
J CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
EDUCATION BY SUBJECT 197
K CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
AGE BY SEX AND RACE 198
L CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
WORK LOCATION BY AGE AND SEX 200
viii

Page
M CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
POSITION BY AGE AND SEX 202
N ITEM MEANS (AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS) FOR MALES
AND FEMALES 203
0 ITEM MEANS (AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS) FOR EDUCATION. . . 206
P ITEM MEANS (AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS) FOR AGE 210
Q ITEM MEANS (AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS) FOR RACE 213
REFERENCES 215
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 225
ix

LIST OF TABLES
Page
TABLE
1 LEVEL OF EDUCATION OF TEST RETEST SAMPLE
BY SEX AND RACE 56
2 WORK LOCATION OF TEST RETEST SAMPLE
BY SEX AND RACE 57
3 MEAN, STANDARD DEVIATION AND TEST RETEST
CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR PILOT TEST 58
4 CROSSTABULATION OF TOTAL SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
LOCATION BY POSITION 64
5 SUMMARY OF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMPLE. ... 73
6 CROSS TABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
SEX BY RACE 80
7 CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
POSITION TITLE BY SEX AND RACE 81
8 CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
SPECIAL TRAINING OR EXPERIENCE IN WORKING
WITH OLDER PERSONS AND COUNSELING BY SEX
AND RACE 83
9 CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
POSITION BY EDUCATION AND SEX 84
10 CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
NUMBER OF YEARS IN PRESENT POSITION BY
SEX AND RACE 86
11 CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
POSITION BY EDUCATION AND SUBJECT 87
12 FREQUENCY OF RESPONSE CHOICES, MEAN, AND
STANDARD DEVIATION OF SURVEY ITEMS,
1-13, 27-35, 47-60 91
X

Page
13 FREQUENCY OF RESPONSE CHOICES, MEAN AND
STANDARD DEVIATION OF SURVEY ITEMS 14-25 93
14 FREQUENCY RESPONSE CHOICES, MEAN AND
STANDARD DEVIATION OF SURVEY ITEMS 36-46 94
15 ITEM MEANS (AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS) FOR
SPECIFIED POSITION TITLES 95
16 ITEM MEANS (AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS) FOR
WORK LOCATION 98
17 SUMMARY OF F RATIOS FOR ONE-WAY ANALYSIS OF
VARIANCE FOR QUESTIONNAIRE AND DEMOGRAPHIC
ITEMS 103
18 PEARSON CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHIC
ITEMS AND QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS 106

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
COUNSELING SERVICES FOR OLDER PERSONS AS PERCEIVED
AND PROVIDED BY SELECTED FLORIDA AGING PROGRAM ADMINISTRATORS
AND DIRECT SERVICE PERSONNEL
By
Milledge Murphey
June, 1979
Chairman: Harold C. Riker
Major Department: Counselor Education
This study investigated the perceptions of Florida Aging Program
staff towards counseling services for older persons. How subjects de¬
fined counseling, attitudes and perceptions of subjects toward existing
services, role of couneling, self-evaluation of training in counseling
and gerontology, and rating of counseling against other services were
assessed.
An instrument to elicit this information was developed and
field tested prior to administration to the whole sample. A 12 item
demographic information form and a 61 item questionnaire were constructed.
The instrument was administered to 30 persons twice during a two-week
period. The resulting test-retest reliability coefficients indicated
the instrument to be reliable for all items.
xii

A sample of 414 subjects was identified and chosen at random.
Subgroups consisting of program administrators, direct service providers,
and purchase of service project staff were included from each of the
11 HRS Districts and the State Aging and Adult Services Program Office
in Tallahassee. The researcher or his trained counterpart personally
administered the instrument statewide, and 373 usable questionnaires
were obtained.
The resulting data were analyzed by computer using Pearson Correlation
and One-Way Analysis of Variance procedures. Cross-tabulations of 12
demographic factors and 60 questionnaire item responses are also reported.
Item 61 of the instrument and Items 10 and 12 of the demographic form
required open-ended responses and these are reported separately.
Each questionnaire item was separately analyzed and responses to
it discussed. Differences among sample subgroups, geographic location,
and other factors are included. In general, the results indicate that
differences in perceptions of counseling services are most notable
among State Program Office staff and those in positions which provide
direct service care to older persons. Legal and other counseling services
were consistently rated below those of other federally funded priority
services such as transportation and home services. Subjects tended
to evaluate their level of knowledge about older persons as more adequate
than their knowledge about counseling. Overall responses tended to support
the federally established definition of counseling; however, differences
were found in the extent to which subgroups agreed that current programs
are fulfilling the definition. Subjects also varied in their evaluation
of the current status of counseling services for older persons in aging
programs. Differences were found in the evaluation of the role of
xiii

counselors and of the use of paraprofessionals, age-peers, or volunteers
to provide counseling to the elderly. General agreement was found
concerning the adequacy of current services. Subjects largely agreed
that counseling services should be de-centralized throughout programs
rather than confined specifically to Aging and Adult Services or Mental
Health components. Differences were noted between direct service-workers
and state level administrators concerning the adequacy of current funding
levels to provide improved counseling services for older persons.
The study concludes with a discussion of the results, suggested
explanations of the data, implications of the study, and suggestions for
further research, counseling, and gerontological training, theory and
practice.
xiv

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background Information
It is well documented that the United States population is
rapidly growing older. Over 22 million persons are age 60 or over
and they comprise approximately 10% of the total population (Health,
Education & Welfare, 1976 - 1977, 1979; Neugarten, 1973; Rose, 1962).
By the year 2000, it is estimated that there will be 30,600,000 persons
over 65. The state of Florida ranks first in proportion of elderly
residents (now more than 20%), and fourth in actual numbers of older
persons; and it is experiencing continued rapid migration of additional
elderly into the state (Cutler & Haryootan, 1975; Florida, 1974;
Giordano & Seaman, 1968; H.E.W., 1977b; Kincaid, 1975). Between the
years 1890-1970, Florida's older population experienced a phenomenal
8,041.9% increase. In 1900, 23,086 persons over 60 resided in Florida.
In the decade between 1960-1970, this population grew from 774,000 to
1,348,000 (H.E.W., 1977a: United States Bureau of Commerce Bureau of
Census, 1972).
A considerable amount of data is now available about the
elderly. Demographic data are available about where older persons live,
their income levels, health, and education, and their racial, religious,
and ethnic backgrounds. Information on their needs, problems, and
1

2
opinions has also been gathered, although to a lesser extent (Butler,
1975, Fact Book on Aging, 1978; Harris, 1976).
Much remains to be learend about older persons from both the
biological and psycho-social perspectives. In the field of counseling
there also exists a considerable void in both research and practice
in relation to older persons (Blake, 1975; Boyd & Oakes, 1973; Jackson,
1977; Pressey, 1973; Pressey & Pressey, 1972; Schmidt, 1976).
Many older persons do have significant problems. They experience
physical decline, tend to be more conservative than younger persons,
and may be more resistant to change. They can experience a sense of
greater isolation and loneliness, may be living on reduced and/or
fixed incomes, and may lack access to adequate social services. These
characteristics, however, are suggestive of only some older persons.
In most cases the problems of the aged are more correctly problems of
the larger society than of the older persons themselves. Aging
in and of itself does not produce poverty or lack of transportation.
Such problems are situational and reflect the youth oriented commer¬
cialism of our society which rather systematically undervalues the
potentials of aging. Older persons are thus frequently denied access
to resources and means to meet their needs (Beliak & Karasu, 1976; Boyd
& Oakes, 1973; Butler, 1975; Fact Book on Aging, 1978, H.E.W., 1974).
The impact of an aging society on its educational, economic,
and social institutions is significant. Much of this information,
however, is largely descriptive, categorical, and expressed in numerical
and statistical terms. Little has been done to research the basic
issues and underlying forces that influence the way older persons age.
Existing programs for older persons tend to be fragmented, lacking

3
in coordination, or duplicative (Butler, 1975; Pfeiffer, 1976; Vasey,
1975). They are frequently planned without reference to any compre¬
hensive study of the issues related to growing older. It is suggested
that progress in program development for older persons may be impeded
by the negative views of aging and the stereotyped attitudes about
older persons that persist in the larger population (Beliak & Karsu,
1976; Florida, 1978c; Harris, 1976; H.E.W., 1975; Tuckman & Lorge, 1953).
That these attitudes or "ageism," to use Butler's term, also exist
among professionals in the human service field has also been deter¬
mined by numerous researchers (Burdman, 1974; Colgan, 1976; Frank-
father, 1977; Garfinkel, 1975; Keith, 1977; Mutschler, 1971). It
has also been noted that the devaluing of older persons by social
service personnel can result in their placing lesser importance on the
quality and type of services provided to the aged (Beliak & Karasu,
1976; Bennett, 1976; Frankfather, 1977; Vasey, 1975). Exploration of
this tendency in terms of perceptions of counseling services for the aged
was the purpose of this study.
Need for the Study
This study was prompted by several circumstances relative to the
role of counseling services for older persons. First, the counselor
role is a logical one to be significantly instrumental in diminishing
ageism and in facilitating the delivery of other social services to
older persons (Butler, 1975). In addition to providing direct counseling
services, counselors can also function as consultants or advisors to
other personnel who work with, or on behalf of, the aged. The various
concerns of older persons, including social, family, educational, and

4
retirement, are areas in which counseling expertise can be of signifi¬
cant benefit to the aged (American Personnel and Guidance Association,
1978; Blake, 1975; Bennett, 1976; Boyd & Oakes, 1973; Buckley, 1972;
Pressey & Pressey, 1972). However, among the variety of programs and
services currently provided for the aged, counseling has only recently
been recognized and included. Counseling for older adults has largely
been neglected and not developed as a speciality within the profession
itself and a paucity of research exists in both theory and field
practice (Buckley, 1972; Pressey & Pressey, 1972; Schmidt, 1976;
Vontress, 1975).
Second, recent studies have attempted to develop means of
assessing the counseling needs of older persons (Ganikos, 1977;
Myers, 1978). However, little data have been generated to date. In
the interim, it appears valid to assume that older persons' counseling
needs are more similar than not to those of persons of other ages,
and that they differ more in degree than in kind of need (Boyd & Oakes,
1973; Butler, 1975; Kimmel, 1974; Pfeiffer, 1976). Older persons'
expressed needs and their needs as perceived by others may form the basis
on which counseling and other social service programs are developed and
justified. It is these perceptions, as currently evidenced in the field,
of the need for counseling services that this study has investigated.
Third, there is a need for a clarification and acceptance of
definitions of counseling in general and for counseling with the
elderly specifically. In order for a program to provide counseling
services these must be defined in terms of goals, methods, and outcomes.
At present, no such precision exists within either the literature or
legislation on aging. Consequently, there is considerable "mislabeling"

of other services as counseling (such as financial, tax, and diet
counseling) in aging program narratives. Similarly, a variety of
personnel in aging programs are given the title of "counselor,"
although their functions (by both job description and actual practice)
include little if any counseling (Florida, 1978a: Florida 1978b;
Florida, 1978c; Garfinkel, 1975; H.E.W., 1976). This confusion in
definitions does influence the role of counseling services in aging
programs.
Fourth, and related to the need for definition, is the problem
of accountability for the results of counseling activities. Lack of
definition leads to difficulties in demonstrating the effectiveness of
counseling in programs. By contrast, it can be clearly demonstrated
that certain classes of older persons do not receive adequate nutrition
and that this deficiency has certain predictable effects on their
health. It is relatively simple to develop a program for meeting this
need (Meals-on-Wheels) and then measure the results in terms of numbers
served and health benefits to participants. Counseling services are
not readily defined and many of the benefits of counseling are difficult,
at best, to quantify. Yet, such a mechanism is necessary if these
services are to be provided by government funded programs that require
such accountability. An assessment of perceptions of counseling services
for the aged by those in the field was viewed as needed to form a base¬
line on which to build a more accurate and favorable impression of
counseling and its contributions.
Fifth, counseling services for the elderly have been mandated
by federal and state legislation. The Older Americans Act of 1965 and
its amendments are the landmark legislation for the majority of aging

6
programs funded by government sources. Included among the four major
areas of need addressed by the Act are transportation, housing, health,
and legal and other counseling services. It is noted that the problem
of definition may originate in the wording of the Older Americans Act
which ties counseling with legal services. Each state is charged with
developing a comprehensive plan describing its methodology for provision
of services in these four areas. However, the Act leaves to the state
the option of deciding for which of the four areas it will plan. States
can, legally, concentrate solely on one or two areas, although this is
not interpreted as the intent of the Act (Florida, 1977a; Florida, 1977b;
H.E.W., 1977a; H.E.W., 1977b). As a result, counseling services have
received little attention in terms of both funding and program develop¬
ment. Although a clear mandate exists, counseling services for older
persons are not receiving adequate coverage. This is also true of
other allied health programs, such as mental health services (Beliak,
1976; Boyd & Oakes, 1973; Frankfather, 1977). There is a need to gener¬
ate support and acceptance of the value of counseling for older persons
so that such services will receive an equitable share of funding and
programming along with the more tangible, easily defined, and obvious
problems such as food, housing, and transportation.
It is suggested that the attitudes of practitioners and policy
makers towards counseling services for the aged influence the degree
to which such services are provided. Most federally funded social
service agencies include programs designed to meet the needs and alleviate
the problems of specific target groups within the large population.
Generally, the common denominator for eligible consumers of such services
is based on economic classification. Most such programs still have some

form of "means test" as a prerequisite for participation. This is true of
some but by no means all aging programs. The majority of programs
funded with Older Americans Act monies are without a financial
eligibility requirement. Services provided under Title XX of the
Social Security Act do have this limitation. Yet, there is a tendency
to locate services for the elderly in a central place or agency that
is often tied to the low income or welfare population. This practice
may tend to reinforce the low esteem with which social service pro¬
viders view programs for the aged. The "extras," such as counseling,
may be perceived as unnecessary frills for programs already considered
welfare based and further reinforce the negative attitudes held by
providers towards older persons. This aspect of aging programs has
been studied with relationship to attitudes towards counseling services
for older persons.
In summary, it has been stated that counseling services for
older persons have been mandated by law, that monies are available to
fund them, and that the programmatic planning system exists to develop
these services. Fortunately, some assessments of counseling needs of
the aged are being made. That counseling for the aging is not being
practiced may be related to the perceptions of policy makers and service
providers who believe that such services are not necessary, are not
clearly defined, and are difficult to measure. Programs for future
generations are being planned now, and if counseling is to be an
integral part of them, research must demonstrate why, and attitudes
must be changed.

Purpose of the Study
It has been shown that the elderly are currently, and will
continue to form, a significant segment of our population. Many of
these older persons are or will be potential consumers of a variety
of social services. The lack of readily identifiable professional
counseling functions in aging programs is perhaps a reflection of the
attitudes of those in the field towards such services. This lack of
definition of counseling may reinforce the tendency for administrators,
social service providers, and agency heads to give counseling a low
priority in relation to other services aimed at meeting more measurable
human needs. Should counseling be viewed as a catalytic, supportive
service adjunctive to other services, its funding status and practice
would be enhanced.
Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare and contrast
attitudes towards counseling of selected employees in aging programs
funded by Florida's Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services.
This study has also attempted to determine whether or not a relation¬
ship exists between these attitudes and the relative importance given
to counseling by program developers, administrators, and direct service
personnel. Additionally, the study has attempted to determine with
what relative importance subjects viewed counseling as related to other
services provided for older persons.
Research Questions
This study has addressed the following research questions:
1. How did the subjects define counseling and how did they
differ in their definitions?

2. How did subjects perceive the role of counseling and of
counselors in aging programs and how did they differ in
their perceptions?
3. How did subjects perceive counseling in relation to other
services provided in programs for older persons, and how
did they differ in their perceptions?
4. How did subjects evaluate the current status of counseling
services in aging projects and programs, and how did they
differ in their evaluations?
5. How did subjects rate their own level of knowledge and
ability with respect to: needs of the aged, characteristics
of the aged, counseling services and techniques for the
elderly client, and how did they differ in their self-ratings
Rationale
Information and conclusions drawn from this study provide a
baseline of information relative to the current status of counseling
services in Florida's aging programs. Although the generalizability of
these results may be limited, their usefulness for planning and com¬
parison purposes should be valuable. Further implications for other
research and for program planning can be expected in several areas
including administration, funding, and other areas.
The study has implications for counseling in terms of research,
theory, practice, and counselor education and the results constitute an
addition to the growing specialization in gerontological counseling.
The noted lack of definition and accountability for counseling services
has been demonstrated and thus counseling for older persons may receive

needed attention. Counselors in training need to be aware of the current
services actually being provided and attitudes of administrators and
staff in aging programs towards counseling. Those practitioners already
in the field may obtain new insight into their positions and the priori¬
ties given to counseling services for the aged. New roles for counselors,
as consultants and trainers, may be recognized. Finally, the need
for further research as well as maintaining professional identity and
integrity may be implied.
Implications for the field of gerontology also include a
possible clearer delineation of the role of counseling in relation to
other social services. Clarification of the role of counseling could
lead to its re-evaluation as national, state, and local priorities
are established for social services to the elderly. The study has also
made needed contributions to the body of gerontological research in
that it has provided a field evaluation of gerontological counseling in
terms of the application of research and theory.
Participation by the subjects in the study has probably led
to their increased awareness of the counseling function for older
persons, and has hopefully contributed to the elimination of negative
attitudes which may be due to ignorance both of aging process and of
counseling. The study has perhaps encouraged participants to become
more knowledgeable about both areas. The data generated by this study
will be useful to present to state and higher level policy makers and
program planners in support of increased counseling services and will
encourage full implementation of the federal mandates. Results will
provide a base for comparing counseling services in other states.

11
Finally, it is hoped that the results of the study will contribute
to improved quality of services for older persons. Counseling services
have a needed and beneficial contribution to make to the welfare of the
aged. Perhaps this study can serve to enhance the quality of older
persons' lives through improved counseling services and improved
attitudes towards these people.
Definition of Terms
The following list refers to terms, acronyms, and agencies,
to which frequent reference has been made throughout the study:
- Counseling: A process whereby assistance is given to help
resolve social and/or emotional problems through the establish¬
ment of a therapeutic relationship and application of skilled
interviewing, listening, and problem solving techniques
(Florida, 1978b).
- Older Person: A person age 60 or over. The age limit for
definition, as "older," "aged," or "elderly" varies between 55
and 65 and above. Sixty appears the most commonly agreed upon
age classification (H.E.W.,1977a; Neugarten, 1973).
- Aging Program: Those programs funded by a combination of
federal, state, and local monies that are channeled through
the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services
and administered by the Office of Aging and Adult Services
(including Areawide Agencies on Aging).
- Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services (DHRS or HRS):
The umbrella organization that provides a variety of services
aimed at promoting the health, social and economic well being
of Florida residents.

12
- Older Americans Act: The initial legislation that mandated and
provided funds for major programs and services for older perosns
nationwide.
- Employee: Administrative staff in the state program office,
administrative staff in the district program offices, Areawide
Agency on Aging staff, aging projects staff, specialized adult
services staff, and community care project staff.
- Specialized Adult Services (SAS): The direct social services
component of Aging and Adult Services offices that provides face-
to-face client contact, resulting in the provision of trans¬
portation, medical, housekeeping, chore, escort, guardianship,
and other services for older persons.
Organization of the Remainder of the Study
The remainder of the study is presented in four additional
chapters.
Chapter II provides a review of the current literature on topics
germane to the study.
Chapter III describes the methodology used to conduct the
research.
Chapter IV presents the results of the study including data
analysis.
Chapter V includes a summary, discussion of the results,
implications of the study, and suggestions for further research.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Characteristics and Needs of Older Persons
An understanding of the basic needs, characteristics and changes
that can accompany growing older is necessary for counselors and
other social services providers. Misconceptions about aging and the
abilities of older persons can lead to development of negative per¬
ceptions. As noted previously, such negative views can influence the
type and quality of services provided to older persons. Additionally,
there is some evidence that exposure to gerontological information
through training and/or contact with older persons does tend to improve
unfavorable attitudes (Ernst & Shore, 1975). In order to adequately
understand the origins of commonly held stereotyped views of aging and
older persons, a review of major areas of need and characteristics of
the elderly is necessary. Attention is also directed towards identifying
those areas of needs and problems which can be effectively addressed by
counselors.
Demographic data and broad categorizations of the older population
have been generated by several comprehensive national and state surveys.
In recent years, the Harris Poll, Bureau of the Census data, the Florida
HRS Needs Assessments, and similar studies have provided an extensive
factual foundation. As with most studies involving large numbers of
people, generalizations are made which do not necessarily apply to
13

14
individual older persons. Some categorization is necessary, however, if
needs are to be identified and effective programs developed to meet them.
Several social and economic forces have led to conditions which
facilitated the rapid increase in this country's population of older
persons. With few exceptions, the fertility rate has continually
declined until the United States now approaches a "zero" population
growth level. Simultaneously, improvements in nutrition, medical
knowledge and services, and control of infant mortality have increased
Americans' average age by more than six years since 1900. Further, it
is predicted that our population will experience a change from the
average age of 23 years in 1900, to an average age of 38 years in 2035
(H.E.W., 1978). It is thus apparent that the problems and issues we
face today in dealing with the needs of older persons will continue to
be of increasing importance in both the very near future and the coming
decades. Prior to a discussion of specific needs of this group, it is
important to note that, in general, socio-economic conditions for most
older persons can be expected to improve as the population as a whole
ages. However, problems will still exist. As one source states,
". . .the segments of the older population that will be growing most
rapidly [the oldest of the old, women, and persons of races other than
white] will be the same groups that have suffered more from such common
problems of the elderly as poor health, social isolation, and poverty"
(H.E.W., 1978, p. 8).
Economics, Income and Retirement
Changes in economic status and income level are among the most
notable characteristics that can accompany growing older. A reduction

15
in income generally follows retirement and older families frequently
begin to depend upon outside sources of financial assistance. Although
by no means are all older persons living in poverty, many must exist
on lowered and/or fixed incomes. For example, an estimated one-fourth
of older widows subsist on incomes below established governmental
poverty levels (H.E.W., 1976). Economic fluctuations also necessitate
alterations in other areas including changes in lifestyle, residential
relocation, and loss of financial security for emergencies (H.E.W.,
1978a).
Reduced incomes frequently require older persons to turn to
social service agencies to meet their needs for housing, food, trans¬
portation, and medical care. For a generation unaccustomed to receiving
financial aid, both the fact of being needy and the process of becoming
a recipient of such services can be emotionally devastating (Beliak,
1976; Bennett, 1976; Butler, 1975; Hollender, 1952; Frankfather, 1977).
This problem is further compounded by the negative attitudes held by
social service providers towards their elderly clients. Although only
a minority of older persons are wholly dependent on agency support,
many staff workers tend to view all in this way and to see the aged as
less capable than they are (Burdman, 1974; Beliak, 1976; Bennett, 1976;
Frankfather, 1977). Counselors and counseling techniques could facili¬
tate and humanize agency procedures as well as educate social workers to
the needs and sensitivities of older persons with restricted incomes
(Boyd & Oakes, 1973; Buckley, 1972; Butler, 1975; Pressey & Pressey,
1972) .
Retirement brings a loss of status, social value, and lessened
self-esteem as well as a loss of income. These psycho-emotional

16
changes accompanying retirement can be detrimental to the welfare of
older persons (Andersen, 1969; Maddox, 1970; Jackson, 1977). This
is particularly true for the current generation of elderly who
were reared in an era which placed a high value on work, productivity,
and economic independence. The youth and leisure orientation of
today's society further devalues the older retirees' position. Not
only do they not work, they frequently lack the ability, interests, or
means to play successfully (Kleemeier, 1962; Carp, 1972). Retirement,
particularly for men, also means a tremendous shift downward in status
and in feelings of self-worth. The effects of these changes have been
fairly well researched, as have the corresponding changes affecting
older women left with the "empty nest" syndrome (Berardo, 1972; Bloom
& Munro, 1972; Bock, 1972; McKain, 1969; Shanas, 1969). The need for
adequate pre-retirement planning has been stressed and such planning
would assist in preventing many of these and related problems which
accompany this change. The counselor's role in meeting this need has
been described and emphasized by several authors (Andersen, 1969; Baker,
1952; Buckley, 1972; Carp, 1972; Monk, 1971, Schmidt, 1976).
Although retirement may still be mandatory for some older per¬
sons today, many wish to continue working either from economic necessity
or personal desire. The difficulties faced by middle-aged workers
seeking career changes loom even larger for persons past 60. Enforced
retirement indicates an attitude that older workers are less necessary,
less capable, and should make room for younger employees. As one
author suggests, this practice is discriminatory and not based on factual
understanding of older persons' vocational abilities (Palmore, 1976).
This author has delineated several concepts about the capacities of

17
older employees. A review of these capacities is helpful in clarifying
the origin of many commonly held stereotyped and negative attitudes
about mature xíorkers. Palmore notes that age itself should not be
the sole criterion for retirement. Increased life span and improved
health should encourage employers to retain older workers. Flexible
rather than mandatory retirement systems would benefir the economy
and allow employers to retain the skills and expertise of older
workers. Poor attendance, illness, and lowered safety performance are
not inevitably correlated with increasing age among workers. Finally,
it is noted that providing late-life career options improves older
persons' self-satisfaction and esteem while reducing somewhat the
economic hardships imposed by retirement (Palmore, 1976; Rehm, 1971).
In summary, it can be seen that these aspects of retirement have
significantly contributed to devaluation of older people, particularly
in economic terms.
The older person seeking a new career or retraining for a post¬
retirement job also may encounter resistance and problems. Social ser¬
vice and rehabilitation agencies tend to give older applicants low
priority despite considerable research evidence that their potential for
successful placement is realistically high (Donahue, Rae, & Berry,
1953; Ernst & Shore, 1975; Rasch, Crystal, & Thomas, 1977; Rehm, 1971;
Sheppard, 1971). Misconceptions about older workers' abilities,
limited program funding, and an attitude that services should be given
first to those clients with a longer term of productive years ahead
are common barriers to the elderly (Birren, 1964; Hiemstra, 1972; Pal¬
more, 1976; Rasch, Crystal, & Thomas, 1977). Schools are beginning to be
more responsible to the educational needs of the aged, however, their

18
programs are frequently oriented more towards recreation than
vocational development. The employment and educational needs of older
persons are predicted to continue increasing and social service
agencies will also become more involved in these concerns (Donahue,
1953; O'Dell, 1957; Vontress, 1970), Thus, it is important that
employees of these agencies become better informed about the needs
and capabilities of the elderly in terms of work and school. Coun¬
selors can play a very vital role in facilitating older persons'
access to the employment and educational services, and in dispelling
the negative images and attitudes of social service and rehabilitation
workers towards older persons' intellectual and vocational potentials
(Buckley, 1972; Grawbowski, 1972; Griswold, 1971; Vontress, 1970).
Health Needs and Characteristics
Despite commonly held misconceptions, old age is not a disease
state and does not produce any one identifiable debilitating condition.
The health problems of older persons are chronic, complex, and frequently
are not significantly improved with treatment. Although geriatric
research has produced some remarkable insights, the causes of most
degenerative changes associated with age remain unknown (Busse &
Pfeiffer, 1976; Fact, 1978; H.E.W., 1974). This situation further
compounds attempts at medical care and frequently results in a regimen
consisting of treatment of symptoms only and maintenance of the status
quo (H.E.W., 1974).
The importance of physical health (or its decline) to older
persons cannot be over-emphasized. As one source states, "... health
has a greater influence on a person's concept of himself than does age

and personality changes and the psychological effects attributed to
aging are in large measure reactions to health states rather than to
chronologically determined processes alone" (H.E.W., 1974, p. 1). In
this area, the common belief that older persons are very concerned
with their health is more realistic than not. In truth, the incidence
of ongoing, debilitating, and disabling conditions does increase with
age and these illnesses do restrict older persons' mobility, sensory
acuity, and general feelings of well-being (H.E.W., 1978). These changes
in health and physical functioning which characterize older persons
can result in development of several areas of problems and needs.
Health concerns of older persons living on reduced incomes can
lead to their dependence on public agencies and subsidized medical
care. In some cases, older persons may go without needed medical
attention because of lack of money, ignorance of available services,
or reluctance to become dependent on agency assistance (Beliak, 1976).
These problems are compounded by the attitudes of social workers and
health practitioners towards elderly clients and patients. Thus,
despite increased need for medical services among the aged, medical
providers are sometimes reluctant to give them adequate or appropriate
attention (Beliak, 1976; H.E.W., 1974; H.E.W., 1978).
The origins of negative attitudes among allied medical pro¬
fessionals towards the health needs of older persons are complex and are
discussed more fully in succeeding sections. At this point, it is
relevant to note that dispelling these misconceptions is difficult,
but is an area in which counselors may be helpful and must be know¬
ledgeable (Beliak, 1976; Bennett, 1976; Buckley, 1972). Other con¬
siderations in terms of health related needs include the impact on

20
mature families who must deal with an older parent's or spouse's
declining health and the dilemma of increased life span coupled with
physical limitation.
Living Arrangements
The living patterns of older persons constitute an area of
significant change and need. Although a prevailing image of older
persons suggests that most of them are frail, incapacitated residents of
old age centers and nursing homes, in reality only a small percentage
(approximately 5%) are in such institutions (H.E.W., 1978). Of those
so confined, it is estimated that a considerable number could be
capable of independent or semi-independent living if adequate supportive
services were readily available. A detailed discussion of the cost and
inadequacies of institutional care for the elderly is beyond the scope
of this review. Yet, counselors need to be aware of these factors and
can make a valuable contribution towards meeting the specialized needs
of nursing home residents (Manney, 1975; Montgomery, 1972; Pressey &
Pressey, 1972).
Alternative living arrangements for older persons are available
which reflect their housing needs. Housing complexes and government
subsidized residences make affordable housing accessible to older
persons on limited incomes. Such complexes can also meet the personal
security needs of older persons as well as be accessible to the
physically frail and handicapped resident. This type of age-restricted
housing can bring into focus the social and activity needs of the
elderly and many such projects do have staff and programming for these
needs. Thus, the age restricted housing setting is another area in

21
which counselors can direct their efforts toward providing individual,
group, and consultant services (Boyd & Oakes, 1973; Stevens, 1972).
Non-government housing for older persons frequently takes the
form of age-segregated subdivisions, apartments, and restricted "adult"
communities. These developments do meet the needs and the residential
preferences of a large number of older persons for whom such arrange¬
ments are economically feasible. As with subsidized housing, residents
of these projects could also benefit from counseling services (Fact,
1978; Stevens, 1972).
A noticeable trend among older persons is that an increasing
number of them are living alone. One source notes that in the past
16 years, the number of lone older persons has grown three times
faster than would be estimated from overall population growth. Further,
the proportion of non-institutionalized elderly living alone has
increased from one-sixth (1960) to one-fourth (1976) (H.E.W., 1978).
The largest increases in single-person households are among women and
the "old old" subgroups (H.E.W., 1978). Should this trend continue,
then the demands for social service programs to meet the special needs
of lone older persons can also be expected to increase. The need for
home services is particularly evident in light of the intent and focus
of aging legislation that mandates maintenance of independent living
in the community for the elderly (Florida, 1978a). In terms of per¬
ceptions and attitudes, the notions that most older persons require great
amounts of care, need to be institutionalized, or are incapable of self¬
maintenance need modification (Beliak, 1976; Butler, 1975; Frankfather,
1977).

22
Attention should also be drawn to the living arrangements of
widows, particularly because these older women constitute a substantial
number of those who reside alone. Several factors give rise to the
special needs and problems of older women and widows. Separation of
families through geographic mobility has contributed to the decline of
multi-generational families living together and thus to widows' isola¬
tion (Field, 1972; H.E.W., 1978; Kent, 1972). The majority do not
remarry and so continue to live alone on limited incomes (H.E.W.,
1978). Social services have only recently focused on the needs of this
group and projects such as the Displaced Homemaker programs have helped
to solve some of the problems of these persons (Florida, 1978b).
Counselor contributions to the situations faced by widows and widowers
have been noted by several authors (Buckley, 1972; Jackson, 1977;
Kalish, 1971,; Moberg, 1972).
Social, Activity, Family Needs
The changes in lifestyle which can accompany retirement have
been noted previously. There are additional implications in terms of
the social and activity needs of older persons and the changes
that characterize the mature family. Previous generations included
more defined, viable roles for older persons within an extended family
system. The current trend towards maintenance of an isolated, nuclear
family has largely negated these roles (Berardo, 1972; Jackson, 1977;
Shanas, 1972, 1969). However, inter-generational contact is maintained
today and patterns of kinship assistance and communication are im¬
portant sources of emotional and other support for older persons
(Duvall, 1962; Leach, 1964; Reiss, 1969; Rosenmayer, 1968). Although

many older people reside alone . .almost no one is without some
kind of contact with other members of his family" (Thompson & Streib,
1961, p. 179). Indeed, some sources predict a resurgence of multi-
generational families, and renewed importance for the grandparent role.
These changes are partially attributed to the longer life span and
the economic dependence of more older persons on their adult children
(Hader, 1965; H.E.W., 1978; Tartler, 1963; Streib, 1965).
Another event characterizing adult family changes is the re¬
marriage of older parents. Such a decision can lead to considerable
family problems and may meet with significant resistance from the
adult children. Whether the late marriage is between two older persons
or one younger or one older, opposition to these matches is indicative
of several commonly held prejudices and stereotypes about older persons
It is believed by some that older persons' continual interest in and
need for marital closeness and sexual relationships are unnatural at
worst and not normal at best (Streib, 1965; Sussman, 1972; Sweetser,
1963). This is an area in which marital and family counseling services
can be of significant benefit to both older parents and their adult
children as they cope with the realities of older persons’ needs
(Bock, 1972; McKain, 1969).
The problems and needs older persons encounter when facing death
and dying have received considerable attention in the literature of
recent years. The loss of a spouse or older parent requires adjustment
that affect most areas of an older person's life. The grief process
has been defined and the role of counseling in facilitating it has been
well described (Altameir, 1957; Buckley, 1972; Jackson, 1977; O'Dell,
1976; Pfeiffer, 1976; Pressey, 1973; Salisbury, 1974).

24
Wass (1979) indicated that while one man in six, age 65 or over
is widowed, women have much more prominent marital bereavement problems.
By 65 years of age, 50% of women have lost their husbands and by 75
years of age two-thirds have experienced loss of spouse. These data
support the contention that older persons are survivors.
In addition to the loss of spouse, older persons must also
cope with the loss of relatives, friends, and acquaintances, many
of whom may be younger. Older persons may experience "bereavement
overload," that is, the phenomenon of not having enough time to deal
with the grieving of one loss before others occur. As stated, "only
recently have we learned that grieving takes much longer than was
believed and that among the grief reactions we find are psychological
and physical illness and even death. Grief, then, may be a constant
companion in old age" (Wass, 1979, p. 200).
Connected with bereavement changes is the tendency for many
older persons to experience what has been termed the life review
(Butler, 1975). Further, life review therapy has been recommended as
an effective means for counseling older persons. This kind of therapy
does not require a psychotherapist, nor is an office or medical setting
necessary. It can be carried out in the home, at recreation centers,
in the home of the older person, or in a nursing home. The counselor
must possess basic skills in active listening, must have a great deal of
empathy, and should have a basic knowledge of the process of aging.
However, grief counseling can be provided by persons with relatively
little formal training. Volunteer programs have proven successful in
reducing negative feelings brought on by grieving (Wass, 1979).

25
The life review and related reminiscing activities may contribute
to the stereotyped views that older persons are entering a second child¬
hood, that they are incapable of coping with the present, and, therefore,
that they prefer to retreat into past memories. Again, informed coun¬
selors can both facilitate this psychological process and help dispel
erroneous interpretations of it.
Increased amounts of leisure time available to older persons who
are no longer employed constitute a marked change from their earlier
years. Recreation, leisure activities, and volunteerism have been
commonly sought avenues of meaningfully using this time (Harper &
Garza, 1969; Messer, 1968; Stickle, 1977). The increased free time
for retired older persons can produce boredom, feelings of use¬
lessness, inactivity and isolation. The elderly have a particular
need at these times for continued involvement and stimulation. Stereo¬
typed perceptions of older persons as incapable of learning further
restrict their access to needed programs and activities (Butler, 1975;
Carp, 1972; Fact, 1978; Frankfather, 1977; Kilty & Feld, 1976). Social
service agencies and workers may tend to place little importance on
the social and recreational needs of their older clients, and not
realize the potential spin-off benefits active involvement can bring
to older persons. These benefits can also be realized for the elderly
who reside in nursing homes and institutions. Again, this is an area
of need which can effectively be addressed by counselors (Miller, Lowen-
stein & Winston, 1976; Salisbury, 1974; Stevens, 1973; Vontress, 1975).

L O
Perceptions and Attitudes Towards Aging
The preceding discussion of characteristics of older persons
has emphasized the origins from which several commonly held erroneous
perceptions and negative attitudes towards the elderly derive. The
existence of such stereotyped views of the elderly can influence the
quality of social service programs provided for them. As one author
notes, ". . . how aging and the aged are viewed is a vital factor in
determining the policy set for aging services by program developers"
(Vasey, 1975, p. 5). Although virtually no research has been done on
attitudes towards counseling services for older persons, there has been
substantial investigation into attitudes towards aging. Some of this
work has focused on the perceptions of program administrators, direct
service providers, and trainees in the allied helping professions. This
section will review these studies, the types of instruments used,
factors that have been identified as influencing attitudes towards
older persons, and the effects of such perceptions on service delivery.
Attitudes have been defined as ". . .ideas, opinions, beliefs,
sets, prejudices, values, etc., that are acquired through learning and
that predispose one to react in a certain manner to other ideas,
persons, objects, etc." (Hopke, 1968, p. 35). That negative attitudes
towards aging and older persons are not uncommon is evidenced by the
coining of terms such as "ageism" and "gerontophobia" to describe these
disparaging perceptions. Counselors need to be concerned about such
attitudes and the impact they have on services for, as has been stated,
". . .one of the main sources of stress that the elderly face are the
many negative stereotypes or prejudices against them that most people
in our society share" (Palmore, 1976, p. 37).

27
Areas of Research on Attitudes Towards Aging and
the Aged; Instruments
Investigators into attitudes towards older persons and towards
aging have concentrated their studies on several main categories of
subjects. A considerable number of studies have been done using students
of varying ages and college trainees enrolled in health oriented
curricula. Similarly, pioneer researchers in these areas developed
the most frequently used instruments using student age subjects
(Ivester & King, 1977). Such studies as these tend to concentrate
on correlations of attitudes towards the aged and characteristics
of the respondents in terms of the subjects' own age, educational level,
and amount of contact with older persons. This approach to attitude
research has been considered deficient in its omission of other cor¬
relating factors such as characteristics of different groups of older
persons (those who live independently versus the institutionalized, for
example) (Keith, 1977).
Another category of research into attitudes towards aging
identifies three major areas of investigation (Mutschler, 1971). First
are the measures of attitudes towards aging and the aging process as
perceived by subjects of various ages. This approach also includes
those studies dealing with attitudes of older persons themselves
toward growing older. The early works of Tuckman, Lorge, and Kogan
are representative of this aspect. Second, measures of psychological
characteristics of individuals are studied which may be relevant to
their attitudes towards older persons. This area also includes studies
which assess characteristics of subjects that correlate with choice of
work with older persons. The third area deals with research into the

28
adjustments made by older persons to growing older. Studies using
instruments such as the Life Satisfaction Rating Scale fall into this
area.
Research in these areas has generally relied on relatively few
questionnaire and survey instruments that have been modified or adapted
to different subject groups and purposes. Early investigators devel¬
oped questionnaires utilizing semantic differentials, Likert and other
types of rating scales, and most recent studies have relied on these
or modifications of these instruments (Burdman, 1974; Colgan, 1976;
Eisdorfer & Altrocchi, 1961; Garfinkel, 1975; Ivester & King, 1977;
Keith, 1977; Mutschler, 1971; Rasch, Crystal & Thomas, 1977; Ross
& Freitag, 1976; Walter, 1976).
The early works of Tuckman & Lorge resulted in the development
of the frequently used Attitudes Towards Old People Scale. Based on
studies using graduate students in the early 1950’s, this questionnaire
probes 13 areas relating to physical, sensory, financial, conservatism
and other factors influencing misconceptions and stereotypes about
aging and older persons (Tuckman & Lorge, 1953). These two researchers
have also developed an Older Workers Questionnaire; however, it is not
as widely used (Mutschler, 1971). Kogan has developed another
frequently used instrument similarly titled the Attitudes Towards
Old People Scale. This is a 34 item Likert type scale studying areas of
commonly held stereotypes towards aging (Ivester & King, 1977; Kogan,
1961). Golde & Kogan (1959) have also developed a sentence completion
procedure for assessing attitudes towards older persons. Rosencranz &
McNevin developed, in 1969, an Aging Semantic Differential which has
been used to clarify several dimensions of attitudes towards aging

including dependency, instrumentality, and accredibiltiy (Rasch,
Crystal & Thomas, 1977; Ross & Freitag, 1976; Walter, 1976).
In addition to these most frequently used instruments, several
others have been developed to study different aspects of attitudes
and adjustments towards aging. Oberleder's Attitudes Toward Aging
Scale (1961) has received some use (Garfinkel, 1975). Sroles developed
an instrument in 1956 to assess factors related to choice of work with
the aged (Mutschler, 1971). Several instruments have been created to
study satisfaction, adjustment, and emotional well-being of older
persons. Notable among these are the Maddox Morale Scale (1963),
Neugarten & Associates' Life Satisfaction Rating Scale (1963),
Lowenthal's Measurement of Interaction (1965), and Kastenbaum's
Hospital Questionnaire (1967) (Mutschler, 1971).
Of the few studies devoted to research on attitudes of program
administrators and others who determine policy towards services for
older persons, several of the above mentioned instruments have been
utilized. Oberleder's Attitudes Towards Aging Scale has been used in
studies involving psychiatrists and clinic directors (Garfinkel, 1975).
However, several of the most informative studies using this category
of subjects have relied on instruments developed by the researchers or
modifications of existing scales. Keith's study of stereotypes about
older persons among administrators used an eight item, five point Likert
scale developed by the author (Keith, 1977). A particularly compre¬
hensive study of administrators, planners, and legislators used a
series of information seeking questions rather than the types of
scales discussed above (Kasschau, 1976). Similarly, Vasey (1975)
conducted his inquiries into attitudes of aging program policy makers

30
using a questionnaire format which he developed. The works of these
authors suggest that the traditional instruments used to assess
attitudes towards aging and older persons may be inadequate to deter¬
mine perceptions by subjects such as administrators and direct service
providers towards services for the elderly. Although the tools
available to measure perceptions and attitudes towards aging appear
sufficient, it would seem necessary and justified to create a new
instrument to investigate social service personnel attitudes towards
counseling services for older persons. The rating scale and question¬
naire type formats appears most frequently used and appropriate for this
new area of inquiry.
Attitudes Towards Aging Among Trainees,
Practitioners and Administrators
A closer examination of several studies into the attitudes of
student trainees, social service and health practitioners, and policy
makers and administrators is helpful for several reasons. Although
these studies do not focus specifically on counseling services for
older persons, there are some commonalities and a number of the authors
noted the need for the contributions counselors can make. Second, the
subjects of these studies will enter or are currently engaged in health
and social service programs for older persons and their attitudes
towards their clients and their work are crucial to the successful
provision of services. Many such personnel are the ones with whom
older persons must deal directly and with whom counselors can work to
improve understanding and acceptance of their older clients.

31
A number of studies have looked at the attitudes of various
groups and ages of students. This review will concentrate mainly on
those dealing with perceptions of college and graduate students
because these findings seem to be more pertinent than those involving
much younger subjects. Bennett has reviewed a number of studies of
younger persons' attitudes towards the elderly. She notes that,
overall, the results have indicated that training and/or contact with
older persons tends to reduce or develop less negative attitudes,
although such improvements are not always significant or lasting.
She concludes by advising that, in terms of attitudes, "A concerted
effort should be made to stop perpetrating the view of the aged as
'them' and the young as 'us'. Everyone ages. The aged are not an
exotic minority group towards whom some people can feel detached but
sympathetic" (Bennett, 1976, p. 137).
Burdman's study of student and trainee attitudes noted a
". . .void in terms of reciprocal professional understanding"
between students in gerontology and rehabilitation counseling (Burdman,
1974, p. 66). This lack of mutual understanding further compounds
the problems generated by the subjects' negative views of older persons
(Burdman, 1974). Colgan noted that attitudes toward older persons
improved slightly with participation by students in a gerontology
course(Colgan, 1976). Ivester & King also reviewed research involving
older adolescents' perceptions of older persons. They noted a
". . .tendency for all age groups to view the aged as possessing stereo¬
typed traits and this tendency becomes stronger with increasing age"
(Ivester & King, 1977, p. 88). Rasch and associates have also studied
trainees' perceptions of older persons. Using the Aging Semantic

32
Differential, they assessed rehabilitation counseling students'
attitudes towards both able and disabled older persons. Results in¬
dicated a tendency to view older persons as less feasible for re¬
habilitation services than younger handicapped clients. These findings
are particularly noteworthy in view of other research which the authors
state ". . .clearly demonstrated the abilities of older disabled
workers to profit from vocational rehabilitation services" (Rasch, et
al., 1977, p. 126). The authors' conclusions from this study are
particularly relevant in view of the existence of rehabilitation counsel¬
ing and similar service programs within the Florida HRS system. As they
state ", . .this apparent contradiction between counselor opinions and
objective research suggests the possibility of biased attitudes towards
the old among rehabilitation personnel." And, further, they note,
"Although the aging stereotype is one of the most extensively investi¬
gated issues in gerontology, it is only recently that a major focus of
this research concerned the attitudes of human service professionals"
(Rasch, et al., 1977, p. 124).
Ross & Freitag have compared adolescent and adult attitudes
toward the aged and also noted that such perceptions improve with
age and with contact with older persons (Ross & Freitag, 1976).
Seltzer & Atchley reviewed literature for young persons to evaluate the
presence therein of stereotyped views of aging and older persons.
They noted a consistent tendency towards negative portrayals of older
persons (Seltzer & Atchley, 1971). As noted previously, Tuckman &
Lorge's original studies involved graduate student subjects and de¬
termined the existence of substantial misconceptions of older persons
(Tuckman & Lorge, 1953). In an unpublished study, Walter compared

attitudes of undergraduates in social work and in non-related fields
towards the elderly. His results indicated that graduating social
work students held more positive attitudes than did either beginning
social work students or students in other fields (Walter, 1976).
Research into attitudes of social service providers and
practitioners has dealt mainly with social workers, mental health
personnel, nurses and physicians. Studies of this type have been made
more difficult because of the dynamics of the influence of the subjects'
own fears and attitudes about aging as well as their opinions about
older persons. The investigations into physicians' attitudes perhaps
best illustrates this situation for their professional competencies
(the need to "cure" and to preserve life) have been noted as contributors
to their negative views of aging. As one author notes, "If the goal of
medicine is seen as victory over death, then those patients who
because of age are closest to death are bound to be viewed negatively"
(Beliak, 1976, p. 17). This author further points out the threats
to a physician's sense of control, authority, and competence in the
relationship he has with older patients and the effects these conditions
have on doctors' perceptions of the elderly. Physicians may mis¬
interpret the older patients' own attitudes and motivations as self-
pity, dependency, or stubbornness, all of which further intrude upon
an open, communicative relationship (Beliak, 1976) .
Negative views of older persons among medical personnel are
reinforced, perhaps unavoidably, because they rarely see the majority
of older persons who are relatively healthy and not institutionalized
(Palmore, 1976). As Palmore states ". . .this bias may lead to the
belief that illness and senility are natural and inevitable among

34
the aged, that nothing can be done about it, and that the little that
can be done is hardly worth doing" (Palmore, 1976, p. 37). The potential
for a circular type of self-fulfilling prophecy to develop from these
attitudes is apparent, and similar circumstances have been noted with
other health and social service providers working with the aged. Other
sources have also noted the tendency among physicians to disregard
symptoms presented by older patients as being either untreatable or simply
due to the uncertainties of aging (Beliak, 1976; Boyd & Oakes, 1973;
Pfeiffer, 1976).
The attitudes of mental health workers towards the elderly have
also been extensively investigated. As Pfeiffer notes, ". . .there is
evidence that prejudices against the elderly are not confined to lay
society, but also are present among the health professions" (Pfeiffer,
1976, p. 192). As with the physicians studied, mental health workers'
attitudes are also affected by their personal fears of aging, and
older persons frequently embody these fears. Butler has also noted
the influence of what is termed the YAVIS syndrome, that is, the pre¬
ference for mental health personnel to work with patients who are young,
attractive, verbal, intelligent, and successful (Butler, 1975). To
spend time with older clients is frequently perceived as the opposite
of this situation and thus is deemed non-productive both in terms of
client progress and monetary payments (Fact, 1978; Mutschler, 1971).
It has been estimated that approximately three million or over 13% of
the older population need immediate mental health services. Another
seven million are described as living in conditions conducive to the
development of mental illness. Should this present trend continue, it

35
is projected that, by 1980, approximately 80% of those who need them
will not get mental health services (Fact, 1978).
The mental health needs of older persons are not substantially
different from those of other age groups but reflect the difficulties
encountered in any period of marked change and adjustments (Boyd &
Oakes, 1973; Buckley, 1972). As one source notes, "Most elderly
diagnosed as having fundamental disturbances can be helped . . . most
of the difficulties that arise are treatable with minor counseling or
intervention" (Fact, 1978, p. 167). Yet, despite the substantial
numbers of older persons needing mental health services and the relative
simplicity of their treatment, the older population receives an estimated
less than 2% of private psychiatric time and about 2.3% of total out¬
patient psychiatric services (Fact, 1978). Older persons are in need
of supportive, informational, and empathetic counseling relationships,
yet these kinds of mental health services are frequently denied them
by the attitudes of professionals in the field (Butler, 1976; Eisdorfer
& Altrocchi, 1961; Fact, 1978; Frankfather, 1977; Garfinkel, 1975;
Mutschler, 1971). Garfinkel found agreement among her subjects with
the notion that older persons are not inclined to be verbally active
in a relationship. This attitude, she notes, leads the therapist to
assume that working with older persons will not be productive. Since
such patients won't "talk" they can be more or less legitimately
avoided. As Garfinkel states, "The irony of this attitude is that it
affects the population most likely to benefit from the supportive,
accepting, therapeutic relationship" which could sustain older
persons through the loneliness, depression, and lowered self-esteem
that characterize the various losses occurring in late life (Garfinkel,
1975, p. 136).

36
Compounding the problem of negative attitudes toward the elderly
and misconceptions about their potential to benefit from treatment is
the relative paucity of theory and practice in the realm of psychiatric
and mental health techniques for working with this group. It is noted
that practitioners may avoid the older client partially because they
are ignorant of appropriate methods for use with them (Beliak, 1976;
Fact, 1978; Mutschler, 1971). On the other hand, although counseling
with older persons is a relatively new specialty, most sources suggest
that existing techniques and approaches should be adequate to deal with
the majority of the older clients' problems. The tendency for mental
health workers to overlook or de-emphasize the physical and psycholo¬
gical causes and influences on older persons' mental health status can
lead to erroneous diagnoses and nonproductive treatment (Boyd & Oakes,
1973; Fact, 1978; Mutschler, 1971). Many practitioners, not unlike
most laymen, assume ". . .that mental or emotional difficulties are an
inevitable product of old age. . .these negative attitudes can severely
limit access to care and, if access is achieved, limit the appropriate¬
ness of the care received" (Fact, 1978, pp. 166-167).
Thus, it can be seen that older persons have generally not re¬
ceived adequate mental health services, despite demonstrated needs and
responsiveness to treatment. Attitudinal resistance to working with this
group is partly responsible, and apparently much more gerontological ed¬
ucation is needed for mental health practitioners. Persistence of stereo¬
typed, negative perceptions has important implications for this study.
As will be discussed later, funds and programs to provide counseling
services for older persons currently are located mainly in mental health
centers. Thus, the attitudes of these providers towards both older

37
persons and towards the efficacy of counseling services for them are
crucial.
The attitudes of other groups of direct service providers
towards the elderly have also been studied. The general category of
social worker will be taken to include those personnel whose functions
include provision of a variety of outreach and social services aimed
at meeting the health, housing, financial, and other needs of older
persons. Generally, those are the workers who have the most direct,
frequent, and personal contact with older persons and who are most
likely to be aware of their environmental needs and conditions. In
many cases, they are representative of a larger bureaucracy and the link
between the older person and various levels of governmental agencies.
Obviously, then, the attitudes of direct service providers are important
to the successful provision of assistance to older clients (Pfeiffer,
1976).
Attitudes of direct service social workers have been investigated
by several authors. One study provides examples of comments made by
social workers about their elderly clients and these comments are
enlightening. As this author notes, "These workers experience conflict
between their traditional roles and direct services. The worse off
the client, the less likely he is to get help. No one wants the job
of direct services" (Frankfather, 1977, p. 40). Several comments of
the subjects in this study suggest the difficulty of their assignments
and the necessity for more personnel to do this level of work. As
one states, "But who's going to do the work? Who do you send in when
feces are smeared all over the house? You have to be tough. We do
direct services even though we're not supposed to. We do it because

JO
that's what's needed" (Frankfather, 1977, p. 41). These duties are
contrasted with the geriatric social workers' traditional role of
arranging and coordinating services; the resulting differences between
training and practice are contributive to negative views of older
clients. Another geriatric social worker commented, "You have
schizophrenics and depressed old people who need therapy. They also
have very concrete needs—money, housing, food—as well as complex
personal problems. You don't separate one from the other. There
aren't services to handle both, so you do it" (Frankfather, 1977, p. 40).
These comments are instructive, for they emphasize several points
relative to the development of stereotyped views of older persons and
the resulting lowered quality of services provided them. The necessity
for meeting the basic human needs of the elderly is apparent and these
must be satisfied prior to or simultaneous with provision of counseling
services. That professionally trained social workers must provide
direct custodial services to older persons is, as reported by Frankfather,
believed to be wasteful of their expertise, and not likely to make them
over-fond of such clients. Social workers in consultation with geron¬
tological counselors might enhance both their abilities to deal with
these realities and their attitudes tox^ards the aged clients.
In another study, factors were reviewed which influence the choices
and perserverence of work with the aged among social workers. These
factors, which tended to focus on the negative aspects of older persons,
included the low status of older persons in contemporary society, the
lack of research and theoretical background for clinical practice, and
stereotyped concepts of adequate clinical techniqeus with which to serve

39
older clients (Mutschler, 1971). It is suggested that these same
factors could be influential in determining the choice of other pro¬
fessionals to work with older persons. Counselors could be useful in
reducing or eliminating some of these influences and in providing overall
leadership for enhancing the attitudes of all social service providers
towards older clients. As Mutschler notes, "Thus, the low ranking of
both the client group and the therapeutic techniques associated with
it by fellow professionals deter social workers, psychologists, etc.
from entering the field" (Mutschler, 1971, p. 235). In addition to the
above mentioned influences, this study revealed a stereotyped view of
older persons as rigid and incapable of growth and insight. This
attitude increased the professional's reluctance to enter or remain in
gerontological service. It was further noted that the underlying fears
of death and aging held by the subjects further contributed to the
reluctance to work with older persons or to view services for them as
beneficial (Mutschler, 1971). The implications of this type of study
suggest that workers' attitudes towards clients influence both the
quality of care they offer and the type of services believed to be
appropriate. Thus, social workers may believe that counseling services
for older persons may be of little use because the elderly lack the
ability to benefit from them or because the social workers themselves
are unaware that counseling techniques suitable for this type of work
are available.
Although the majority of research has focused on attitudes of
medical, social work, and mental health personnel, several studies
deal with the perceptions of administrators and planners towards older
persons. It is apparent that more study is needed with these groups

40
because their decisions are crucial to the development of program policy
and implementation and, in the case of institutional administrators, for
the kind and quality of services provided. A particularly comprehensive
study by Kasschau (1976) investigated the attitudes and opinions of a
large sample of agency, business, and governmental planners and adminis¬
trators who dealt with the income, housing, transportation, employment
and other needs of the elderly. Legislators who voted on relevant bills
or served on such committees concerned with aging needs were also sur¬
veyed. These subjects were chosen in part because "the extent to which
the elderly are able to participate in the food stamp program or able to
find housing in the Model Cities Program is often largely the function of
the discretionary decision making powers of these top-level administra¬
tive agency officials" (Kasschau, 1976, p. 16). Results of the study
indicated the existence of a number of stereotyped views of the elderly.
However, most planners believed that programs and services were needed
for older persons. The deficiencies of social services systems were
generally felt to be the result of the attitudes and actions of the
social workers and other direct care providers. The subjects were also
concerned over the increasing amounts of free time available to older
persons. Even so, they frequently failed to consider leisure activities
in program planning or the positive effects of such activities on the
health of older persons or their abilities to effectively use this time.
In summary, it would seem that high level administrators and policy
makers are concerned but inadequately aware of the needs and characteri¬
stics of older persons and of the logistical difficulties faced by direct
service providers. Further, it was noted that such subjects could
profit from the input of older persons themselves in developing programs.

41
A diversity of programming and opportunities for the older person to
become active in the community was noted as was the need for more
systematized services (Kasschau, 1976).
Another study investigated attitudes of nursing home administra¬
tors towards older persons and services for them. Some relationship
between attitudes and level of subjects' education was demonstrated
but stronger influences were shown between age, sex, and socio-economic
levels of older residents. As the author notes, "the age of clients
alone or in combination with the effects of other status characteristics,
may also influence professional recommendations for their care or even
career decisions to work with the aged" (Keith, 1977, p. 465). Thus,
it is suggested that attitudes of administrators can be as influential
on service provision as those of direct care workers. As another
author puts it, "We now realize the importance of a positive attitude
toward care and rehabilitation of the aged. In a good nursing home a
philosophy of care projected from the administrator through all levels
of staff is evident" (Ernst & Shore, 1975, p. 5).
Another paper reviews the factors influencing both policy makers
and the public which through their taxes must support programs for
older persons. These factors include how aging and the aged are viewed
and the level of confidence held by the public and policy makers in the
efficacy of programs and services (Vasey, 1975) . Vasey states the
problem well:
If we do not like or approve of the people who are
being served, we are not likely to support services
developed on their behalf. ... We are inclined to be
detrimentally influenced by negative views of the
aging process. If we think they are suffering from
an irreversible decline of mental and physical
faculties, we are not likely to feel committed to

42
spending money to provide measures of treatment or
restoration. Our policies will be more likely to
reflect a preference for residual programs of care and
custody. If we believe they are too old to learn, we
will probably not want to do much about educational
programs designed for them. Let me emphatically suggest
that research and experience which demolish these myths
and erase the false stereotypes that have grown up
around aging and elderly can have a profound effect
on the conditions of life for older people and a telling
impact on public policy. (Vasey, 1975, p. 29)
This statement succinctly summarizes the prevailing theme of
this literature review, that attitudes can and do influence program
planning and service delivery for older persons. Although not
specifically addressed in the literature, it seems logical to assume
that counseling services for older persons may be viewed in a similar
light.
In summary, it is suggested that a relationship exists between
misconceptions about the needs and characteristics of older persons
and the quality and type of social services provided them. In addition
to the negative attitudes held by workers at all levels, the fears of
aging and death represented by older persons serve as strong influences
on their mode of dealing with the elderly and of the choice to work
with them. That there is a strong need for counseling and a viable
role for counselors' leadership in interrupting this cycle of negative
attitudes and poor services is evident. This need is an immediate one
and can be expected to increase in the near future. The next section
will review the extent to which programs currently address the
counseling needs of older persons in Florida.

43
Organization and Funding of Counseling Services
For Older Persons
As has been indicated, the attitudes of both professionals
and the public can influence the quality of social services provided
to older persons. Several sources have commented on the form or
organization through which these services are delivered to older
persons. In general» it is noted that service programs for today's
older persons lack planning and direction focused on realistically
meeting their needs. This section will discuss the criticisms and
suggestions offered concerning service programs for older persons;
the major funding sources; and organizational structure as it relates
to provision of counseling services.
A recurrent theme found in discussions of service delivery for
older persons relates to the need for a comprehensive, multi-disciplin
ary approach to meeting their needs. As one source states, "If an
elderly patient has a problem in one area, it is extremely likely that
he will have problems in other areas as well" (Pfeiffer, 1976, p. 193)
This author further notes that the existence of multiple problems
among older persons is frequently compounded because they lack the
means or the resources to reach the different locations where these
needs can be met. The role of a service coordinator is suggested as
one who could facilitate such travel for older persons when a central
facility is unavailable (Pfeiffer, 1976).
The concept of the community care center has been suggested
as a way to meet the various social, recreational, and emotional
needs of older persons (Boyd & Oakes, 1973; Burdman, 1974; Sylvester,
1976). Coupling these services with nutrition programs has already

44
been implemented with considerable success in many areas. Such centers,
however, do not generally provide screenings nor do they administer
social service programs. Counseling services could be logically
included in this type of setting or as a base for conducting outreach
counseling (Sylvester, 1976). Boyd & Oakes further note that the
concept of comprehensive services depends on a recognition that, for
many older persons, economic and social needs are as pressing as
medical ones. The organizational barriers encountered by the elderly
are noted as more formidable when seeking these kinds of services. As
is stated, "Likewise, a person with an emotional problem or psychiatric
illness should receive aid or appropriate help as soon as possible
without having to go through all sorts of unnecessary channels"
(Boyd & Oakes, 1973, p. 140). These authors suggest a central service
agency for older persons which includes an information and referral
service, diagnostic center, and a "well-aging" clinic. The emphasis
in this approach would be on prevention, particularly with regard to
mental health concerns (Boyd & Oakes, 1973).
In summary, those authors who have investigated attitudes towards
aging and older persons tend to note the need for a comprehensive
center for services designed to meet multiple needs. The bureaucratic
barriers imposed by govemmentally funded and/or administered programs
are also cited as hindrances in meeting these needs. The need for an
advocate, a guide, or a coordinator to lead older persons through
existing agencies is noted. As one source states, "The general
complaint is that professionals treat their clients more as items to
be processed than as people to be served" (Manney, 1975, p. 101).
It is acknowledged that the dehumanizing treatment of social service

45
recipients is not solely aimed at the elderly; however, the negative
view with which older persons are seen is believed to further strengthen
this tendency. Providing professionals and social service workers
with greater knowledge about older persons will not automatically
reduce negative attitudes or improve services. As Mower notes,
"Understanding aging processes does not necessarily guarantee that one
will approach an older person in a different manner. However, through
this understanding, positive behavior of staff members may be encour¬
aged while negative behavior, which actually impedes the independence
of the aged, may be reduced" (Mower & Shore, 1975, p. 3).
The literature seems to emphasize that comprehensive services
for older persons are needed and that negative attitudes towards the
aged can limit the effectiveness of existing programs and the develop¬
ment of new ones. As Butler has noted, "We know what services older
people need and that these needs are extensive. The financing and
logistical problems are not insoluble. Now, however, services of all
kinds for old people are fragmented, limited, discriminatory, inacces¬
sible or non-existent. When services are available, their quality is
questionable" (Butler, 1975, p. 140). This comment suggests it is
necessary and helpful for counselors concerned with older persons to
become familiar with the legislation, sources of funding, and organiza¬
tion of service programs for older persons.
The Older Americans Act of 1965, with its subsequent amendments
and revisions, is the initial legislative action that established the
majority of nationwide aging programs and services. The Act delineates
four national priorities for services towards which the majority of
funds and efforts should be directed. The language of the Act, however,

46
does not rate any one of these four areas of need ahead of another;
housing, transportation, homemaker, and legal and other counseling
services are given equal stature in the Act (H.E.W., 1975). Addition¬
ally, the Act does not specifically require that each of the four areas
of need be addressed equally. State governments are only required to
"provide for the establishment or maintenance of programs [including
related training] for the provision of some or all, of the following
services" (H.E.W., 1975, p. 25). Thus, it can be seen that state and
local governments could concentrate their efforts solely on one or more
services to the exclusion of the others, and still be in technical
compliance with the Act. Additionally, the wording of the Act further
presents a problem with respect to counseling services. Personal
counseling services are included in a statement that seems to emphasize
legal counseling.
It appears that the Older Americans Act makes it possible for
programs to be developed which may meet some but not all needs of
older persons. This is precisely the kind of fragmented, incomplete
service program which was criticized by previously reviewed authors.
The result of this wording has led to varied interpretations of the
intent of the legislation. Apparently many states, including Florida,
were considered to be providing inadequate attention to all priority
areas. A directive from the Administration on Aging recently sought
to clarify this portion of the 1965 Act. As is stated, "Despite the
interpretation of the tern 'some' the legislative history indicates that
Congress intended all four services to receive priority attention"
(H.E.W., 1977a, p. 140). It is of interest to note that an earlier
instruction from the Administration on Aging recommended that the states

47
focus on the national priorities for service, but that counseling
services were not listed among them. The statement, "legal and other
counseling services," was reduced to legal services only (H.E.W.,
1977).
Those concerned with counseling services for older persons need
to be aware of these legislative provisions and their interpretation.
Attention should be directed towards insuring that the full range of
counseling services receives an equal share of funding and program
development by the states.
To assist in the effort to meet the counseling needs of older
persons, a legislative bill was developed in 1977 aimed at providing
adequate counseling services for the elderly. This proposal, (HR1118:
Guidance and Counseling for the Elderly) outlines a comprehensive
counseling program for older persons. Counseling in this instance was
defined as "the process through which a trained counselor assists an
individual or group to make satisfying and responsible decisions con¬
cerning personal, educational, social, and vocational development"
(U.S., 1977, p. 36). Inclusion of this or a similar definition in the
portion of the Older Americans Act dealing with the priority services
would have perhaps given counseling a clearer identity and stronger
position relative to other priority services. Regretfully, this bill
has not been passed.
Federal funds for Older Americans Act programs are provided to
the various states through a central state administration. Each state
develops a state plan on aging which describes the goals and methods
by which needs are met and services are provided. In Florida, the
state plan is prepared by the Department of Health and Rehabilitative

48
Services which was re-organized in 1975. The purpose of this change was
to "integrate the delivery of all health, social, and rehabilitative
services offered by the state to those citizens in need of assistance"
(Florida, 1978a, p. 112). Thus, the intent was to provide the type of
comprehensive service delivery system that previously mentioned authors
felt was best suited for meeting the needs of older persons. The
success of this re-organization has not been thoroughly evaluated.
However, the shift did lead to the establishment of a separate office
of Aging and Adult Services, which has the major responsibility for
administration of all aging programs.
The current (1978-79) Florida State Plan on Aging outlines several
overall objectives. Of particular relevance to counseling is the
statement that the State will develop program standards for a minimum
of three social service programs funded under Older Americans Act
auspices. Thus, more emphasis to a greater number of the priority
services is anticipated (Florida, 1978c). More specific to counseling
is the proposed objective to provide counseling services to a minimum of
23,538 older persons statewide. These services will include assistance
with psychological, family, and social concerns to be "explored within
the confines of a confidential relationship with trained professionals
leading to an improved sense of mental well-being for the elderly per¬
sons" (Florida, 1978c, p. 28). It is apparent that a great deal more
than legal advice is implied in this statement. The proposed priori¬
ties for Florida as outlined in the State Plan include efforts to reduce
negative stereotypes and attitudes associated with aging and older
persons (Florida, 1978c, p. ii). It is clear that the 1978-79 State

49
Plan for Florida gave increased attention to counseling needs and
services.
The review of literature pertinent to this study has focused
on the relationship between attitudes towards older persons and services
provided for them. Areas of general need and characteristics commonly
associated with older persons were discussed with emphasis on the
probable origins of prevalent negative stereotypes about the elderly.
Attitudes of various social service and health professionals were shown
to be largely negative and to have an effect on the quality of care and
services provided to older persons. Program planners and administrators'
attitudes were also examined with attention to their roles in service
deliery to the elderly.
Possible roles of counseling services in programs for older
persons were reviewed and it was indicated such services should be given
greater emphasis by both administrators and direct service providers.
It is apparent that there is a need to assess the extent to which these
predominantly negative impressions influence the attitudes held by
workers towards counseling services for older persons. Although
counseling has been established as a national and state priority, full
implementation of this goal has not been achieved in Florida. If, as
the literature suggests, negative attitudes influence service delivery,
then it is important that this be established with respect to counsel¬
ing. From this informational base, appropriate corrective plans can
be developed to improve both attitudes and service to Florida's older
population.

CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
The results of the literature review indicate that little has
been done to develop counseling services as components of aging pro¬
grams in Florida and in the nation. Of the four services given national
priority, counseling has received the least emphasis in funding and
programming in Florida (Florida, 1978a, c). The purpose of this study
was to determine the perceptions towards counseling services for older
persons held by selected employees of the Florida Health and Rehabilita¬
tive Services Aging and Adult Services Program Staff, The study also
attempted to assess the relationship between the perceptions or at¬
titudes held by Administrators and Direct Service Personnel toward
services offered for older persons, and the relative importance given
to counseling by Aging Program developers, administrators, and direct
service personnel. This information may then serve as a baseline from
which strategies and plans for funding and implementation of specialized
counseling services for older persons may be made.
The research questions investigated by this study included:
1. How did the subjects define counseling and how did they
differ in their definitions?
2. How did subjects perceive the role of counseling and of
counselors in aging programs and how did they differ in their
perceptions?
50

51
3. How did subjects perceive counseling in relation to other
services provided in programs for older persons, and how
did they differ in their perceptions?
4. How did subjects evaluate the current status of counseling
services in aging projects and programs, and how did they
differ in their evaluations?
5. How did subjects rate their own level of knowledge and
ability with respect to: needs of the aged, characteristics
of the aged, counseling services and techniques for the
elderly client, and how did they differ in their self-ratings?
Instrumentation
As the literature review indicates, there are no instruments
currently available which adequately assess the perceptions of aging
program personnel towards counseling services for older persons.
Several instruments evaluated attitudes towards aging and toward older
persons; however, these were not sufficiently specific for the purposes
of this study. Consequently, a new instrument was developed by the
researcher based on the literature review and discussions with appro¬
priate Aging Program staff and faculty at the University of Florida.
The following actions describe the development of this instrument and
the steps planned to assure its validity and reliability.
First, five major areas were selected for investigation. These
areas corresponded to the topics suggested by the five research
questions listed above and included the following:

Definition of Counseling
Role of Counseling/Counselors
Counseling in Relation to Other Services
Current Status of Counseling Services
Level of Knowledge (of Counseling and Aging)
Second, the conceptual validation of the comprehensiveness and
importance of these five areas was accomplished. The researcher
identified and contacted ten professionals currently employed in the
Florida Health and Rehabilitative Services' Aging and Adult Services
Program. Four administrative personnel, five direct service staff, and
one from the State Office in Tallahassee, were selected. These indivi¬
duals were representative of the three groups from which the larger
sample of subjects was finally drawn. A member of the University of
Florida Counselor Education faculty, skilled in instrument development,
was asked to participate in this procedure. Each person was asked to
review and comment on the five areas proposed for development in the
questionnaire. Comments were received by telephone, face-to-face
interviews, or written communications between the researcher and the
participants. The researcher compiled these comments and developed
questions based on their content. These topics provided the basis from
which the initial draft of the questionnaire was developed. Approxi¬
mately ten question items were developed in each of the five areas, as
suggested by the reviewers' comments.
The first draft of the instrument was presented to the reviewers
for the purpose of obtaining additional comments on the content, wording,
and format. As a result of their appraisals, approximately one-half of
the initial items were revised. A second revision was prepared, follow¬
ing discussions with these reviewers-. Another group of ten employees
was then selected with the same job classifications as the first group.

53
These personnel were asked to review and comment on the revised instru¬
ment, which they had not previously read. Their comments and suggestions
were incorporated into those previously obtained. A final version of
the instrument was developed consisting of 61 items related to the
original five major component areas. Items 1-60 followed the Likert
scale response format; item 61 was an open-ended question. The revised
instrument was then resubmitted to both reviewing groups for comment
(Appendix A).
A third group of ten reviewers, with the same job classifications
as the first and second groups, who had not seen previous versions of
the questionnaire was chosen to participate in this procedure. Com¬
ments were solicited regarding appropriateness of form, content,
readability, language, clarity, length of time needed to complete, and
types of demographic data requested.
The results of these three reviews indicated that the commen¬
tators agreed that the terminology utilized was appropriate for the
topics. The questions were stated in terms which were familiar to them
and which were felt to be suitable for the proposed subjects. The
instructions, demographic data, and format were considered appropriate
and clear. No further changes were suggested by the reviewers. The
procedures involved in the development, review and revision of the
instrument were accomplished during a three month time period. These
methods established the conceptual and content validity of the instru¬
ment .
Verification of the realiability of the questionnaire was
accomplished using the test-retest approach. Thirty subjects, including
personnel from districts one, two, three and four of the Department of

54
HRS and the State Program Office, were chosen to represent the
larger sample identified for the study. Figure 1 illustrates the
geographic division of the 11 HRS districts in Florida. These subjects
indluded administrators of aging programs, direct service supervisors
and social workers, and purchase of service staff. Additionally,
variations by level of education, sex, and race were analyzed, as
noted in Table 1. Table 2 indicates work locations, sex and race of
the 30 selected subjects.
The instrument was administered to the subjects at their work
sites in each district, and in the State Program Office, by the re¬
searcher, using the Standardized Procedures for Administration of the
Questionnaire (Appendix B).
After a two week interval, the instrument was readministered to
the same group of subjects at their work locations by the researcher.
Responses from these two administrations were analyzed to determine the
reliability co-efficient of each item included in the instrument as
shown in Table 3. Fifty-eight of the items were statistically signifi¬
cant at the .01 level and items 21 and 57 were significant at the .05
level. The data for the reliability study were analyzed employing the
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Program for correlation
analysis using the Pearson r statistic. The originally selected
acceptable level of reliability of ,05 or better was met by all 60
items. Accordingly, the instrument in its final form was used for
statewide administration.

55
FIGURE 1
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND REHABILITATIVE
SERVICES DISTRICT BOUNDARIES

56
TABLE 1
LEVEL OF EDUCATION OF TEST RETEST SAMPLE
BY SEX AND RACE
Level of
Education
//
%
Sex and
Male
Ethnic
White Minority
Race
Female
Ethnic
White Minority
Total
% Total
1. Grades 0-11
0
0
1
0
1
0.0
0.0
3.3
0.0
3.3
2. High School
0
0
2
3
5
0.0
0.0
6.7
10.0
16.7
3. A.A. Degree
0
0
1
0
1
0.0
0.0
3.3
0.0
3.3
4. 4 Year
6
0
10
1
17
College Degree
20.0
0.0
33.3
3.3
56.7
5. Master's Degree
2
0
4
0
6
6.7
0.0
13.3
0.0
20.0
Total
8
0
18
4
30
% Total
26.7
0.0
60.0
13.3
100.0
Total by
Male
8
Female
22
Category and %
26.7
73.3
Caucasian
26
Ethnic
4
86.7
Minority 13.3

57
TABLE 2
WORK LOCATION OF TEST RETEST SAMPLE
BY SEX AND RACE
Work
Location
#
%
Sex and
Male
Ethnic
White Minority
Race
Female
Ethnic
White Minority
Total
% Total
1. District I
0
0
1
1
2
0.0
0.0
3.3
3.3
6.7
2. District II
2
0
1
1
4
6.7
0.0
3.3
3.3
13.3
3. District III
4
0
14
2
20
13.3
0.0
46.7
6.7
66.7
4. District IV
0
0
1
0
1
0.0
0.0
3.3
0.0
3.3
5. State Office
2
0
1
0
3
6.7
0.0
3.3
0.0
10.0
Total
8
0
18
4
30
%
26.7
0.0
60.0
13.3
100.0

58
TABLE 3
MEAN, STANDARD DEVIATION AND TEST RETEST CORRELATION
COEFFICIENTS FOR PILOT TEST
Item
Number
Mean
S.D.
+
r
Item
Number
Mean
S.D.
+
r
1
1.47
.63
.58**
16
3.10
1.06
.71**
2
1.83
.99
.80**
17
3.17
1.02
.58**
3
1.83
.87
.93**
18
1.57
.82
.77**
4
2.33
.99
. 88**
19
2.00
.83
. 75**
5
2.37
1.03
.91**
20
2.77
.82
.67**
6
1.87
.86
.83**
21
3.67
.71
.38*
7
1.60
.67
. 75**
22
1.83
1.09
.83**
8
1.57
.73
. 72**
23
2.07
.83
. 75**
9
1.33
.48
.78**
24
2.83
1.02
.72**
10
1.47
.63
.87**
25
3.30
.88
.63**
11
1.80
.66
.76**
26
2.93
.83
.71**
12
1.83
.75
.74**
27
2.77
.90
.71**
13
1.70
.79
00
00
*
*
28
2.27
.94
.79**
14
1.63
.67
.83**
29
2.70
.75
. 55**
15
1.93
.69
.66**
30
2.03
.76
.76**

59
TABLE 3—continued
Item
Number Mean
S.D.
+
r
Item
Number
Mean
S.D.
+
r
31 2.03
.81
.72**
46
2.20
.85
.64**
32 2.23
.90
.75**
47
1.63
.72
.61**
33 2.70
.92
. 64**
48
2.23
.94
.78**
34 2.50
1.04
.74**
49
2.67
.88
.77**
35 1.77
.90
.66**
50
2.47
.82
.83**
36 2.00
.79
.79**
51
3.30
.75
.60**
37 2.10
.84
. 84**
52
2.33
.92
.84**
38 1.77
.73
.70**
53
3.27
.87
.66**
39 1.90
.80
. 80**
54
2.13
.68
.75**
40 2.07
.98
.80**
55
1.57
.63
.61**
41 2.33
.88
.68**
56
2.17
.95
. 76**
42 2.20
.76
.78**
57
1.70
.60
.38*
43 2.20
.76
.76**
58
2.60
.93
.66**
44 2.17
.87
. 83**
59
3.47
.73
.53**
45 2.33
.92
. 66**
60
2.90
.80
.80**
Summary:
Mean & S.D.
Range of Mean
Range of S.D.
= 1.47 -
= .60 -
3.67
1.09
Pearson r
Mean - .73
Media - .75
Mode - .66, .
75, .83
Range
S.D. -
S.E.M
M
- .38 -
- .11
- .01
.93
* p < .05
** p <5 .01
+ two week
interval

60
Subjects and Selection of Sample
Selection of subjects to participate in this study was based on
the following considerations. Subjects were selected from current
employees of the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative
Services Aging and Adult Services Program staff. It was considered
important to assess the perceptions of these groups because their job
responsibilities include the planning, funding, and implementation of
services and programs for Florida’s older population. All federal
funds allocated for expenditure in aging programs in Florida are ad¬
ministered or monitored by the Florida Department of Health and Re¬
habilitative Services. The attitudes of HRS employees towards counseling
services for older persons were deemed crucial to the planning, im¬
plementation, administration, and monitoring of these programs.
Subjects were organized and studied by categories. The
researcher identified three major groups from which subjects were
selected. These included:
Category 1. Administrators of Aging Programs
Category 2. Direct Service Casework Supervisors and Social
Workers
Category 3. Purchase of Service Staff
In Category One were all professional State Program Office
staff, District Program Office staff, and Areawide Agency on Aging
staff in Florida. Included in this category were the State Aging and
Adult Services Program Office Director, Program Administrators, and
Program Specialists, District Program Supervisors and Program
Specialists, and Areawide Agency on Aging Directors and staff. A
summary of job descriptions for all subjects involved in the study is
included in Appendix C. There were approximately 128 persons in this

61
category. This number changes frequently due to routine personnel
changes, position additions and deletions, budget limitations, and normal
staff attrition. Included in Category One were 34 persons employed
in the State Aging and Adult Services Program Office (PDAA) in Tal¬
lahassee, 39 persons employed in the 11 district Aging and Adult
Services Program Offices, and 55 persons employed in the ten Areawide
Agencies on Aging statewide. An attempt to survey all 128 of these
persons was made and 115 were surveyed. Persons in this group have
policy-making authority in aging programs in Florida, and determine
funding and programming priorities. Thus, this group has direct
impact on provision of services and fund expenditure.
The second category consisted of Specialized Adult Service
Direct Service Casework Supervisors and Social Workers who were
sampled, using a random selection procedure. There were approximately
433 persons in this group in Florida. This number changes frequently
due to the reasons cited for Category One. In each of the 11 Health
and Rehabilitative Services Districts in Florida, ten individual Aging
and Adult Services Specialized Adult Services Casework Supervisors and
Social Workers (SAS) and three alternates were selected for a total
of 143 subjects in this category. There were 134 subjects from this
group surveyed. The three alternates were selected for use in the
event one or more of the ten primary subjects were absent on the day
the instrument was administered. During the actual administration,
most districts had all 13 persons at the site, consequently both
primary and alternate subjects were surveyed for this category.
The selection procedure involved two steps. First, the
Statewide Position Control Listing (a listing of all persons assigned

62
to the Aging and Adult Services Specialized Adult Services category by
position number) was reviewed, and each position entity on the listing
was assigned a number from a table of random numbers (Downie & Heath,
1970, p. 328-329). A second table of random numbers was used to select
those numbers (13 from each of the 11 districts) which were surveyed
as primary (ten) and alternate (three) subjects.
Category Three included Health and Rehabilitative Services
Purchase of Service Project Directors and staff (POS). Included in
this Category were Project Directors, meals program directors, trans¬
portation service providers, outreach coordinators, homemakers, and
other project staff. There are currently more than 220 projects in
Florida of which 21 provide counseling services (Appendix D). The
same random selection procedures described for Category Two were used
in sample selection for Category Three. There were approximately
1,300 Purchase of Service Project staff in Florida who were employed in
approximately 220 projects statewide. The total number of projects
and project staff fluctuates due to funding availibility. Category
Three consisted of ten primary and three alternate Purchase of Service
project staff from each of the 11 districts for a total of 143 persons.
A total of 124 persons from this group were surveyed.
Total subjects contacted for the study was 414 persons. This total
included: 128 in Category One; 143 in Category Two; and 143 in
Category Three. There were 373 questionnaires completed for use in
the study. The random selection procedure resulted in a sample which
was representative of Health and Rehabilitative Services Aging and
Adult Services social service personnel along major dimensions such as

63
rural/urban geographic location. A listing of the services for older
persons provided by these Aging Program Staff is shown in Appendix E.
The minimum acceptable total sample size was 300 which repre¬
sented a 72% rate of return. A minimum of 100 subjects was expected
in each of the three categories. The N of 373 which was achieved and
represented a 90.1% rate of return. The procedure of sampling by
location and position resulted in the distribution of subjects shown
in Table 4.
Procedures
The following procedures were developed for the administration
of the questionnaire, to insure confidentiality, for assurances of
cooperation, follow-up methods, and other considerations relevant to
the implementation of the study.
The researcher developed a form to insure that each participant
was made aware of the purpose of the study and of the confidentiality
of the data gathered (Appendix A). This form was approved by the Human
Subjects Review Board at the University of Florida, and was provided
for each subject as a part of the questionnaire packet. Questions
regarding confidentiality were answered by the researcher at each
administration site, and the Standardized Procedures for Administration
of the Questionnaire were followed at all administrations of the
instrument. Each participant's signature on the form indicated
voluntary participation in the study.
The study was made known to the Department of Health and
Rehabilitative Services State Program Director for Aging and Adult
Services. The approval and cooperation of the State Program Office

TABLE 4
CROSSTABULATION OF TOTAL SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
LOCATION BY POSITION
Location
N
% Total
State
Office
District
Supervisor
District
Specialist
Area
Agency
Position
Proj ect
Administrator
Proj ect
Workers
SAS
Supervisor
SAS
Worker
Row
Total
1
1
2
0
8
4
2
10
27
0.3
0.5
0.0
2.1
1.1
0.5
2.7
7.2
2
1
2
3
5
4
4
8
28
0.3
0.5
0.8
1.6
1.1
1.1
2.1
7.5
3
1
1
5
3
10
4
9
33
0.3
0.3
1.3
0.8
2.7
1.1
2.4
8.8
4
0
3
3
10
3
4
9
32
0.0
0.8
0.8
2.7
0.8
1.1
2.4
8.6
5
1
4
4
1
9
5
8
32
0.3
1.1
1.1
0.3
2.4
1.3
2.1
8.6
6
1
4
4
11
1
1
12
34
0.3
1.1
1.1
2.9
0.3
0.3
3.2
9.1

TABLE 4—Continued
Location
N
% Total
State
Office
District
Supervisor
District
Specialist
Area
Agency
Position
Proj ect
Administrator
Proj ect
Workers
SAS
Supervisor
SAS
Worker
Row
Total
7
1
2
5
3
7
5
7
30
0.3
0.5
1.3
0.8
1.9
1.3
1.9
8.0
8
0
3
5
12
1
6
4
31
0.0
0.8
1.3
3.2
0.3
1.6
1.1
8.3
9
1
2
5
9
2
4
9
32
0.3
0.5
1.3
2.4
0.5
1.1
2.4
8.6
10
1
1
7
9
1
1
10
30
0.3
0.3
1.9
2.4
0.3
0.3
2.7
8.0
11
0
4
4
4
6
8
4
30
0.0
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.6
2.1
1.1
8.0
State
34
Office
9.1
Column
34
8
28
45
76
48
44
90
373
Total
9.1
2.1
7.5
12.1
20.4
12.9
11.8
24.1
100.0

66
was given verbally and a written statement to this effect obtained.
This endorsement of the study was made available to the subjects and
referenced by the researcher when contacting participants for the study.
The researcher announced the study at the statewide meeting of Aging
and Adult Services administrative staff in November, 1978. By this
means, the cooperation and support of each of the 11 HRS Aging and
Adult Services Program Supervisors were obtained.
Administration of the questionnaire was accomplished by two
methods. First, the researcher administered the questionnaire personal¬
ly at nine work sites; and second, questionnaires were mailed when it was
impossible for the researcher to visit work sites personally. With
both methods, the Standardized Procedures for Administration of the
Questionnaire were used exclusively to insure uniformity of administra¬
tion.
The visits to the districts and State Program Office were pre-
ceeded by letters to the participants mailed two weeks in advance of
the proposed date of the administration, which was previously agreed
upon by telephone contact with the district Aging and Adult Services
Program Supervisor or Specialist. A telephone call was made to the
district Program Office one week in advance of the visit as a final
reminder.
The researcher contacted each HRS District Office and the State
Aging and Adult Services Program Office for the purposes of administer¬
ing the instrument. Visits were made to these HRS headquarters offices
and to field sites, to contact those participants who were unable to
travel to the HRS District and State Headquarters Offices. The
questionnaire was given to district administrative, supervisory, and

67
field staff at the same location and time in all instances. This group
administration was accomplished by scheduling the administration of the
questionnaire at the time of regularly scheduled district-wide meetings
for the prupose of reducing travel cost and time investment by the
participants. Questionnaire administration was conducted in the
District headquarter's building conference room or Areawide Agency on
Aging conference room, in all cases. Questionnaires were completed in
no less than 10 and no more than 30 minutes in all cases. The percent
of return of the questionnaires was 90.1 for the statewide sample. In
the districts having Areawide Agencies on Aging, the HRS district
headquarter's office is located in the same city as the Areawide
Agency on Aging in all cases, enabling the researcher to visit both
agencies with minimal travel between offices.
In those two districts where the researcher was unable to
schedule an on-site visit, the Aging and Adult Services Program Super¬
visor or Specialist for the district was trained by telephone prior to
the administration of the questionnaire in the administration of the
questionnaire using the Standardized Procedures for Administration of
the Questionnaire (Appendix B). All questions were answered and
potential problems discussed at that time. The researcher then mailed
the questionnaires to the district Program Supervisor with each
questionnaire identified by the position number of the person to whom
it was to be administered. A listing of the Standardized Procedures
for Administration of the Questionnaire was included with the mailing to
insure uniformity of administration. Also included was a stamped,
self-addressed envelope for return of the questionnaires when completed.
All questionnaires were completed and returned in a period of two weeks.

68
Following collection and analysis of the data, results of the
research were provided to the participants. A summary of the results
of the study was mailed to the State Aging and Adult Services Program
Office and to each district Aging and Adult Services Program Office
and Areawide Agency on Aging. All subjects were mailed a copy of the
summary of the results of the study and copies of the discussion
section of the study.
Data Analysis
After the questionnaires were administered and collected, the
resulting data were prepared for statistical analysis. All question¬
naires with no less than 75% of the items completed (46 of the possible
61 items) were considered complete for the purposes of the analysis.
The researcher transferred the data from the 373 completed questionnaires
to computer coding forms. Arrangements were then made for the data to
be key punched onto data cards and prepared for computer analysis.
Appropriate computer programs for the desired statistical analyses
were selected from the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
Program Guidelines (Nie, 1970).
The main purpose of this study was to determine what perceptions
Aging Program Staff in Florida held regarding counseling services for
older persons. In order to determine what these perceptions for the
total sample studied were, the mean and standard deviation response for
each item were calculated. Frequency counts were calculated to deter¬
mine if responses were normally distributed. Means and standard
deviations for subgroups were calculated to determine if different
subgroups responded similarly. The one-way analysis of variance was

69
accomplished to determine if differences were significant between
groups of subjects. The Pearsonian r correlation was calculated to
determine the degree of relationship between the demographic items and
the test items. The Alpha level of .05 was chosen to represent
statistical significance. Levels of .01 were also reported. Non¬
significant differences were calculated and reported as they occurred
in various categories of interest.
Responses to the open-ended items on the instrument were
tabulated manually to determine the nature and range of their content.
Results obtained for these items are reported in Chapter IV.
Limitations of the Study
References dealing with research design denote several factors
which may limit the valid interpretation of results (Campbell &
Stanley, 1963; Isaac & Michael, 1971). In connection with this study,
several factors should be noted which may have affected its validity
and the usefulness of its results.
Bias may have been introduced through the selection procedures
used. Although subjects were randomly chosen, there may have been
other factors which determined those subjects who actually participated
in and completed the study. Since participation was voluntary, there
may have been differences between those who chose to join in the study
and those who did not.
Additional bias may have been introduced preceding the actual
administration of the questionnaire. The pre-test notifications and
publicity may have had some unforeseen effects on some subjects, This
advance notice may have served to increase some participants’ awareness

70
of the topic, of their job performance with respect to counseling, and
their attitudes towards it. However, prior notification was essential
to insure adequate participation. No methods of determining the effects
of this procedure appeared feasible for this research.
Pre-existing attitudes may have also influenced the perceptions
of subjects toward counseling services. However, the use of the federal-
state definition of counseling insured a standard interpretation of the
term by all subjects. Otherwise, previously held attitudes and per¬
ceptions largely constituted the type of information which was sought.
Threats to the external validity and generalizability of this
research may have been generated from several sources. As noted pre¬
viously, the attitudes of participants in Florida may differ signifi¬
cantly from persons in similar positions in other locations. Con¬
sequently, generalizations beyond this population may be limited. How¬
ever, it is believed that the sampling of the diverse geographic and
population sites in Florida should have minimized this problem. In
addition, although there are organizational differences among the
states, the administration of aging programs and funds across the
nation is probably more alike than not. The Areawide Agencies on
Aging are part of a nationwide structure and are similar in many
respects.
The possible reactive effects of the research procedures them¬
selves may have had an effect on some participants. The presence of
the researcher as one who both administered the questionnaire and
observed its completion may have, in some manner, influenced some
subjects. It is acknowledged that somewhat different responses might
be obtained by using other procedures, such as individual interviews

71
or small group discussions on the subject of counseling services for
older persons. Although it was stressed that participation was
voluntary, some subjects may have felt an obligation to participate,
and this sense of obligation may have had some influence on responses.
As much as possible, the researcher administered the questionnaire in
the same identical manner at each location in an effort to reduce
the effects that possible procedural variations may have introduced.
It is also noted that changes in staffing patterns and
nomenclature for HRS positions are under consideration currently, as
reviewed in Appendix F. While position descriptions and educational
requirements remain unchanged, the job titles may be changed from
"Social Worker" to "Counselor." Should these changes occur, the
definitions of counseling and the assignment of duties which fall
under this definition might change. Such alterations could affect
future attitudes towards counseling held by employees in these
positions.

CHAPTER IV
RESULTS
The results of the data analysis, as described in Chapter III,
are discussed in this chapter. The following topics are included:
resulting sample, analysis of individual questionnaire items and
responses, and discussion of the results in terms of the research
questions. Analytical tables pertinent to these topics are presented
with the discussion and additional data tables are included in the
appendices. Significant items or those of particular interest are
noted and discussed in detail. Responses to the open-ended Item 61
are reviewed.
Resulting Sample
As indicated in Chapter III, completed questionnaires were
obtained from 373 Aging Program Staff in Florida. Responses to the
demographic information section of the instrument form the basis of
this discussion. Table 5 presents a summary of all sample demographic
characteristics. The following discussion examines major components
of these factors.
Age
As shown in Table 5, the age range of participants was from
below 25 years to 71-80 years. Nearly one-half of the subjects were
72

73
TABLE 5
SUMMARY OF DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMPLE
Characteristic
N
% Total
1.
Age
Under 25
17
4.6
25-35
157
42.2
36-45
62
16.7
46-55
79
21.2
56-60
32
8.6
61-70
21
5.6
71-80
4
1.1
Over 80
0
0.0
2.
Sex
Male
103
27.7
Female
269
72.3
3.
Race
Caucasian
323
86.6
Ethnic Minority
50
13.4

74
TABLE 5—Continued
Characteristic
N % Total
Work Location
District I
27
7.3
District II
28
7.5
District III
33
8.9
District IV
32
8.6
District V
32
8.6
District VI
34
9.1
District VII
30
8.1
District VIII
31
8.3
District IX
32
8.6
District X
29
00
District XI
30
8.1
State Program Office
34
9.1
Education
Completed Grades 0-11
3
0.8
High School Graduate
51
13.7
Associate of Arts Degree
19
5.1
Four Year College Graduate
198
53.0
Master's Degree
91
24.5
Ed.S. Degree
4
1.2
Ph.D.
2
0.5
Other
4
1.2
Subject in Which Highest
Degree was Earned
Administration
31
8.3
Counseling
17
4.8
Social Work
93
25.2
Gerontology
9
2.4
Psychology
26
7.0
Sociology
32
8.6
Other
164
43.7

75
TABLE 5—Continued
Characteristic
N
% Total
7.
Present Position Title
State Program Office
34
9.1
District Program Office Staff
36
9.7
Area Agency on Aging Staff
45
12.1
Aging Project Staff
124
33.1
Specialized Adult Services Staff
134
36.0
8.
Number of Years in Present
Position
Less than 2 years
156
41.9
2-5 years
138
37.1
6-10 years
45
12.1
11-15 years
21
5.7
16-25 years
10
2.7
26-35 years
2
0.5
Over 35 years
0
0.0
9.
Special Training or Experience
in Working with Older Persons
Yes
237
63.9
No
134
36.1
10.
Special Training or Experience
in Counseling
Yes
206
55.8
No
163
44.2

76
younger than 35 years. It is of interest that only 6.7% of these
employees were 60 years or older. Most subjects fell in the 25-35
year age range, with 157 persons, representing 42.2% of the total
sample, occurring in this range. The smallest numbers were found
among the oldest group, the 71-80 years old, with four persons or
1.1% of the total sample in this range.
v
Sex and Race
The sample was predominantly female: 72,3% of the subjects were
women; and 27.7% male. Similarly, a large majority of participants
were Caucasian; 86.6%. The remaining 13.4% described themselves as
representing an ethnic minority.
Educational Level
The educational level and professional fields of the subjects
provided an interesting profile. Overall, the sample was well-
educated, with more than half (53.0%) reporting completion of a four
year college degree. Associate of Arts degrees or less education was
reported by 19.6% of the group. Advanced degrees were held by 27.9%
of the sample.
In terms of area specialization or academic major, most (25.2%)
had degrees in social work and several (8.6%) in Sociology. Degrees in
administration were reported by 8.3%. Least represented were counseling
(4.8%) and gerontology(2.4%). Among those with advanced degrees, four
persons (1.2%) had law degrees.
Most subjects (42.7%) received their college training in a
variety of "other" fields. Included in this category were those with

77
degrees in education (16), nutrition (8), history (3), music education
(3), nursing (3), and criminal justice (3). Two or fewer subjects also
reported degrees in each of the following academic areas: urban planning,
fine arts, humanities, anthropology, recreation therapy, speech, art,
public relations, Spanish, zoology, and business administration.
Job Classification
Sample participants represented the various job categories of
the aging network. The Aging and Adult Services State Program Office
in Tallahassee comprised 9.1% or 24 persons. At the District level,
Aging and Adult Services Staff totalled 36 persons or 9.7%. The Area¬
wide Agency on Aging programs were represented by 45 persons or 12.1%
of the sample. Aging project staff included 123 persons or 33.1% of
the total. Specialized Adult Services employees composed the remaining
36.0% or 135 subjects.
Number of Years Worked
Those subjects reporting less than two years in their current
job classifications represented 41.9% of the total, or 156 persons.
Those working from two to five years included 138 subjects or 37.1%
of the total. In the six to ten year category were 45 persons or 12.1%
of the sample. Those employed the longest periods of time included:
for 11 to 15 years, 21 persons or 5.7%; for 16-35 years, 10 persons or
2.7%; and two persons, representing 0.5% who had worked from 26-35
years. None of the sample had been employed longer than 35 years in
his/her present position.

78
Special Training in Gerontology
Of those subjects who answered this item, 257 (63.9%) indicated
they had received some type of special training relating to working with
older persons. The remaining 134 persons reported no such experiences.
In conjunction with this question, subjects responding in the affirm¬
ative were asked to briefly describe their special training. Many of
these responses indicated the training was received in the form of
workshops they attended after becoming employed in their present
positions. Relatively few subjects reported specific education or
training in gerontology prior to employment.
Special Training in Counseling
Subjects were also asked to indicate their preparation in the
field of counseling. Of those responding, 206 or 55.8% noted some
training in this area. The remainder, 163 or 44.2%, reported no
preparation. As in the item related to gerontological training, the
majority of respondents described their counseling training as occurring
during and/or because of their current employment. Again, few subjects
were prepared in counseling prior to becoming employed in their present
positions. Participants, however, did indicate more training in
gerontological topics then they claimed in counseling skills.
Data for the demographic information portion of the questionnaire
were also analyzed by crosstabulations of items. Tabular displays
of the results of these procedures are included in this chapter and in
the Appendices. The following sections discuss these results.

79
Table 6 displays the crosstabulation of the sex and racial group
characteristics of the sample. Of the respondents, 95 or 25% were male
Caucasians and 228 or 61.0% were female Caucasians. Fifty persons
indicated belonging to an ethnic minority, comprising 13.4% of the
sample. Ethnic minority males were the least represented, providing
2.1% or 8 persons in the sample. Female minority members totalled 42
or 11.3%.
A crosstabulation of sample characteristics classified by
position title, sex, and race, is displayed in Table 7. The State
Program Office for Aging and Adult Services included 15 Caucasian males
and 17 Caucasian females, which accounted for 4.0% and 4.6% of the total
sample, respectively. District Program Office Staff included 11
Caucasian males and 20 Caucasian females, or 3.0% and 5.4% of the total
sample occurring in these categories, respectively. Six ethnic
minority females and one minority male were employed in the district
and state Aging and Adult Services Program Offices combined.
Areawide Agency on Aging staff included ten Caucasian males,
or 2.6% of the sample, and 33 Caucasian females, or 8.9% of the sample.
There were two ethnic minority females sampled from this subgroup. No
ethnic minority males were reported in the Areawide Agency on Aging sub¬
sample.
Specialized Adult Services staff included one ethnic minority
male; however, there were 32 Caucasian males, 82 Caucasian females and
19 ethnic minority females. In contrast, the aging project staff sampled
included 75 Caucasian females, 15 ethnic minority females, 27 Caucasian
males, and six ethnic minority males.

80
TABLE 6
CROSS TABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
SEX BY RACE
Sex Race
N
% Total Caucasian Ethnic Minority
Male
95
8
25.5
2.1
Female
228
42
61.1
11.3
Total
323
50
86.6
13.4

81
TABLE 7
CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
POSITION TITLE BY SEX AND RACE
Position
N
% Total
Race
Caucasian
Sex
Male Female
Ethnic Minority
Sex
Male Female
State Office
15
17
0
2
4.0
4.6
0.0
.5
District Program
11
20
1
4
Staff
3.0
5.4
.3
1.1
AAA Staff
10
33
0
2
2.6
8.9
0.0
.5
Project Staff
27
75
6
15
7.3
20.2
1.6
4.0
SAS Staff
32
82
1
19
8.6
22.0
.3
5.1
Total
95
227
8
42
25.5
61.0
2.2
11.3

82
Demographic items nine and 11 related to special training and
experience in working with older persons or in counseling and were
crosstabulated by sex and race. As shown in Table 8, 58 Caucasian
males reported special training or experience in working with the
elderly, 37 subjects in this category reported no such experience.
Minority males indicated special training in four cases and four others
in this subgroup reported no special training or experience. Caucasian
females were evenly divided; 147 reported receiving training or exper¬
ience, while 79 others did not. Twenty-eight minority females indicated
training or experience; 14 in this group responded negatively.
Table 8 presents a similar breakdown of the respondents' reported
experience and specialized training in counseling. Caucasian female
respondents reported affirmatively in 118 cases; 106 subjects indicated
no such backgrounds in either training or experience. Twenty-seven
ethnic minority females reported training or experience; 15 of the
subjects reported none. Caucasian males were apparently trained or
experienced in 58 cases, and not so in 37. Minority males were evenly
divided on this variable: four reported no training or experience in
counseling, while four responded positively.
Table 9 provides a crosstabulation of position by education and
sex. In the extreme, the State Program Office group contained the only
two Ph.D. staff sampled, while there were two persons on the specialized
adult services staff, and one person working in an aging project, who
had not attained high school education. Female Specialized Adult
Service staff who had received four year college degrees numbered 84
persons, or 22.6% of the sample. There were 18 Areawide Agency on
Aging female staff with Master's degrees and this sub-group accounted

83
TABLE 8
CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
SPECIAL TRAINING OR EXPERIENCE IN WORKING WITH
OLDER PERSONS AND COUNSELING BY SEX AND RACE
1
N
% Total
Race
Caucasian
Sex
Male Female
Ethnic Minority
Sex
Male Female
Working with
Older Persons
Yes
58
147
4
28
15.6
39.6
1.1
7.5
No
37
79
4
14
10.0
21.3
1.1
3.8
Total
95
226
8
42
25.6
60.9
2.2
11.3
Counseling
Yes
57
118
4
27
15.4
32.0
1.1
7.3
No
38
106
4
15
10.3
28.7
1.1
4.1
Total
95
224
8
42
25.7
60.7
2.2
11.4

TABLE 9
CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
POSITION BY EDUCATION AND SEX
Education
N
% Total
State
Program
Office Staff
District
Program
Staff
Position
AAA
Staff
Project
Staff
SAS
Staff
Male Female
Male Female
Male Female
Male Female
Male Female
Grades 0-11
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.5
High School
0
0
1
0
0
1
7
38
0
4
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.3
1.9
10.2
0.0
1.1
AA Degree
0
0
0
0
1
4
5
8
0
1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
1.1
1.3
2.2
0.0
0.3
Four Year Degree
1
3
5
14
7
12
12
31
29
84
0.3
0.8
1.3
3.8
1.9
3.2
3.2
8.3
7.8
22.7
Master's Degree
10
14
5
9
2
18
8
11
4
10
2.7
3.8
1.3
2.4
0.5
4.8
2.2
3.0
1.1
2.7
Ed.S. Degree
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0.0
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
Ph.D.
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.3
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Other
3
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
Total
15
19
12
24
10
35
33
90
33
101
4.0
5.1
3.2
6.5
2.7
9.4
8.9
24.2
8.9
27.2
00
â– S'

85
for 4.8% of the sample. The State Program Office had 24 persons with
Master's degrees or 6.5% of the total sample.
A crosstabulation of number of years in present position by sex
and race is presented in Table 10. Two Caucasian females included in
the sample had been employed for 26-35 years, while 108 of this category
had been employed for less than two years. Only one ethnic minority
female fell in the 16-25 years of service category, while 17 of these
females reported that they had been in their present positions less
than two years.
Four Caucasian males were in the 11-15 years of service category
and there was one ethnic minority male with six to ten years tenure
in his present position. Of the Caucasian males, 46 of the 95 reporting
on this item had been employed in their present positions from two to
five years.
Further analysis of sample characteristics is shown in Table 11.
This table includes a crosstabulation of position by education and
subject. Of the 34 respondents employed in the State Program Office,
one individual had a Master's degree in Gerontology. None among those
sampled in the District Program Office staff reported degrees in the
field of gerontology. However, five Areawide Agency on Aging staff
indicated that they held Master's degrees in Gerontology, The remainder
of respondents in this category included one four year degree and one
Master's degree among the project staff, and one Master's degree among
the specialized adult services staff. To summarize, there were nine
total respondents who indicated that they had four year or Master's
degrees in Gerontology.

86
TABLE 10
CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
NUMBER OF YEARS IN PRESENT POSITION BY SEX AND RACE
Years
N
% Total
Race
Caucasian
Sex
Male Female
Ethnic Minority-
Sex
Male Female
Less Than 2
30
108
1
17
8.1
29.0
.3
4.6
2-5 Years
46
72
6
14
12.4
19.4
1.6
3.8
6-10 Years
15
25
1
4
4.0
6.7
.3
1.1
11-15 Years
4
11
0
6
1.1
3.0
0.0
1.6
16-25 Years
0
9
0
1
0.0
2.4
0.0
.3
26-36 Years
0
2
0
0
0.0
.5
0.0
0.0
Over 36 Years
0
0
0
0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Total
95
227
8
42
25.5
61.0
2.2
11.3

TABLE 11
CROSSTABULATION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:
POSITION BY EDUCATION AND SUBJECT
Position
N
Education Subject
Social
Administration Counseling Work Gerontology Psychology Sociology Other Total
1. State Program 0-11
Office Staff H.S.
AA
Four Yr.
M.S.
Ed.S.
Ph.D.
Other
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 10
3 12 1
0 0 0
10 0
0 0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 2 4
2 5 24
0 0 1
0 0 2
0 2 3
2. District Program 0-11 0
Office Staff H.S. 0
AA 0
Four Yr. 0
M.S. 1
Ed.S. 1
Ph.D. 0
Other 0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
7
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0 0 0
0 11
0 0 0
3 5 19
0 4 14
0 0 2
0 0 0
0 0 0

TABLE 11—Continued
Position
N
Education Subject
Social
Administration Counseling Work Gerontology Psychology Sociology Other Total
3. Area Agency 0-11 0
On Aging H.S. 0
AA 3
Four Yr. 4
M.S. 2
Ed.S. 0
Ph.D. 0
Other 0
4. Project Staff 0-11 0
H.S. 1
AA 0
Four Yr. 4
M.S. 1
Ed.S. 0
Ph.D. 0
Other 0
5. Specialized 0-11 0
Adult Services H.S. 0
Staff AA 0
Four Yr. 10
M.S. 0
Ed.S. 0
Ph.D. 0
Other 0
31
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 4 0
3 5 5
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 2 0
3 11 1
16 1
10 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 10
13 0
2 5 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
17 93 9
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
4
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
1
0
0
0
26
0 0 0
0 11
0 2 5
2 7 18
0 5 20
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 11
0 43 45
0 11 13
4 17 44
2 7 19
0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 2 2
0 4 4
0 0 1
17 40 103
1 3 13
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
32 164 372
00
Oo
Total

89
. The largest category in terms of education subject area included
those persons with degrees in social work. Thirteen persons on the
State Program Office staff reported degrees in social work. District
Program staff had 15 social work degree recipients; Areawide Agency on
Aging staff had nine; Project staff, 19; and Specialized Adult Services
staff, 37. The total of 93 social work degree recipients is second
only to the "other" category, previously discussed (Table 5) which
included 164 persons.
The least educated subgroup was the project staff category.
These included 46 individuals with high school or below educational
attainment, and 13 persons with Associate of Arts degrees. In contrast,
District Program Office staff had only one person in the high school
and below category; 19 persons had four year degrees; 14 persons,
Master's degrees; and two persons, with Specialist degrees.
Additional information concerning the sample characteristics
may be found in Appendices G through M. These appendices include cross¬
tabulations of sample characteristics for academic subject in which high¬
est degree was earned, by sex and race; educational level, by sex and
race; work location, by sex and race; education by subject in which
highest degree was earned; age, by sex and race; work location, by age
and sex; and position, by age and sex.
Analysis of Questionnaire Responses
Subjects' responses to the individual items of the survey
instrument are discussed in this section. An overview is provided of
the analyses performed, general response patterns, and significant

90
results. Specific item analysis follows the discussion of the tabular
display of results.
Summary of Tables
The results of the investigation are presented in tabular form
representing various analyses of subjects' responses to the questionnaire
and demographic data forms. As all questionnaire items are not alike in
format and response categories, the summary tables vary also. There¬
fore, a brief overview of the structure and content of data tables is
necessary to facilitate understanding of the discussion of the results.
Tables 12, 13, and 14 provide summaries of the frequencies of
response choices, means, and standard deviations of the survey items.
The three tables are divided by those sections of the questionnaire
which include similarly structured items and response formats. Table
12 includes questionnaire items 1-13, 26-35, and 47-60. Table 13
(items 14-25) includes the questions regarding rank ordering of several
variables. Table 14 presents the frequencies of responses, means, and
standard deviations for items 35-46.(Survey item 61, an open-ended
question, is discussed separately in a later section of this Chapter).
Tables 15 and 16 display statistical summaries for responses of
subjects when classified by specific position titles and work locations.
These two factors were considered of major significance and interest
for the study. Means and standard deviations calculated for the other
demographic characteristics appear in Appendices N through Q. Table
17 summarizes F ratios obtained through the one-way analysis of variance
procedures completed for questionnaire items 1-60. Table 18 displays

91
TABLE 12
FREQUENCY OF RESPONSE CHOICES, MEAN, AND
STANDARD DEVIATION OF SURVEY ITEMS, 1-13, 27-35, 47-60
Item
Number
% of
Strongly
Agree
Subj ects
Agree
Responding:
Disagree
Strongly
Disagree
X
S.D.
1
42.1
53.4
4.0
0.5
1.63
.59
2
7.4
57.7
26.9
8.0
2.35
.73
3
20.3
51.4
22.7
5.7
2.14
.80
4
10.5
39.1
43.4
7.0
2.47
.77
5
8.6
34.1
46.0
11.3
2.60
.80
6
22.3
53.1
21.7
2.9
2.05
.75
7
53.4
42.9
2.7
1.1
1.51
.61
8
43.4
46.4
7.8
2.4
1.69
.72
9
53.6
41,3
4.0
1.1
1.53
.63
10
46.4
45.3
7.0
1.3
1.63
.67
11
23.5
51.1
22.7
2.7
2.05
.75
12
19.9
52.7
24.7
2.7
2.10
.74
13
33.3
43.5
17.5
5.6
1.95
.86
26
1.6
26.3
54.8
17.2
2.88
.70
27
10.3
31.3
37.5
20.9
2.69
.92
28
7.3
51.8
33.9
7.0
2.41
.73
29
4.8
34.7
39.5
21.0
2.77
.84
30
10.2
58.3
26.9
4.6
2.26
.70
31
9. 7
60.8
23.1
6.5
2.26
.72
32
7.0
50.3
37.0
5.7
2.41
.71
33
2.4
39.6
46.3
11.7
2.67
.71
34
10.8
28.6
45.8
14.8
2.65
.86
35
17.3
25.6
44.7
12.4
2.52
.92
**

92
TABLE 12—Continued
Item
Number
% of
Strongly
Agree
Subj ects
Agree
Responding:
Disagree
Strongly
Disagree
X
S.D.
47
43.4
37.3
17.7
1.6
1.77
.79
48
16.4
63.2
18.3
2.2
2.06
.66
49
5.6
40.5
41.0
12.9
2.61
.78
50
9.9
54.4
30.0
5.6
2.31
.73
51
1.6
5.4
39.9
53.1
3.45
.67
52
12.6
20.7
54.6
21.1
2.66
.85
53
1.1
2.4
45.2
51.3
3.47
.60
54
6.0
61.8
26.6
5.7
2.32
.67
55
40.9
55.4
3.5
0.3
1.63
.57
56
7.8
14.2
52.2
25.8
2.96
.84
57
32.8
56.7
9.4
1.1
1.79
.65
58
4.8
27.1
59.5
8.6
2.72
.69
59
0.3
9.9
53.0
36.8
3.26
.64
60
1.4
18.2
61.2
19.2
2.98
.66
Summary
Range of X = 151-347
Range of S.D. = .57-,92
* Items 14-25 have a different
eluded in Table 13.
response
format
and are
in-
** Items 36-46 have a different
eluded in Table 14.
response
format
and are
in-

TABLE 13
FREQUENCY OF RESPONSE CHOICES,
MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION OF SURVEY ITEMS 14-25
Rank Order of
Priority Services
Item it
Greatest
Need
Great
Need
Less
Need
Least
Need
X
S.D.
14
Transportation
47.5
41.8
8.3
2.4
1.66
.73
15
Home Services
45.6
39.7
12.3
2.4
1.72
.77
16
Legal and Other Counseling
9.1
10.2
37.3
43.4
3.15
.94
17
Residential Repair
4.8
8.3
40.2
46.6
3.29
.81
18
Transportation
48.8
35.1
9.4
6.7
1.74
.86
19
Home Services
41.0
41.3
12.9
4.8
1.82
.84
20
Legal and Other Counseling
9.1
14.5
45.6
30.8
2.98
.91
21
Residential Repair
2.1
8.3
28.7
60.9
3.48
.74
22
Transportation
43.4
22.5
18.2
15.8
2.06
1.12
23
Home Services
27.6
35.4
25.5
11.5
2.21
.98
24
Legal and Other Counseling
25.2
26.3
29.2
19.3
2.43
1.07
25
Residential Repair
6.2
13.9
25.5
54.4
3.28
.92
Summary
Range of X = 1.66 - 3.48
Range of S.D. = .73 - 1.12

TABLE 14
FREQUENCY RESPONSE CHOICES,
MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION OF SURVEY ITEMS 36-46
Item it
Level of Knowledge
Comprehensive
Adequate
Limited
Inadequate
X
S.D
36
44.0
43.2
9.7
3.2
1.72
.77
37
25.0
43.3
27.4
4.3
2.11
.83
38
39.7
46.9
12.1
1.3
1.75
.71
39
32.2
44.8
20.4
2.7
1.94
.79
40
40.9
43.3
11.3
4.6
1.80
.82
41
16.3
39.7
37.8
6.3
2.34
.82
42
16.6
37.0
36.2
10.2
2.40
.88
43
18.8
39.1
32.2
9.9
2.33
.89
44
18.4
43.5
30.8
7.3
2.27
.84
45
11.8
36.6
41.9
9.7
2.49
.83
46
11.0
40.2
37.8
11.0
2.49
.83
Summary:
Range of X = 1.72 -
Range of S.D. = .71
2.49
- .89

95
TABLE 15
ITEM MEANS (AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS) FOR SPECIFIED POSITION TITLES
Item
Number
State
Program
Office
District
Program
Office
Area
Agency
On Aging
Staff
Proj ect
Staff
Specialized
Adult
Services
Staff
1
* 1.79
1.64
1.76
1.60
1.57
(.77)
(.64)
(.68)
(.52)
(.54)
2
2.79
2.64
2.56
2.24
2.20
(.84)
(.80)
(.84)
(.67)
(.62)
3
2.44
2.14
1.98
2.06
2.19
(.82)
(.80)
(. 66)
(.79)
(.83)
4
2.71
2.53
2.44
2.31
2.54
(.76)
(.77)
(.66)
(.77)
(.80)
5
2.85
2.61
2.64
2.53
2.58
(.70)
(.84)
(.68)
(.80)
(.84)
6
2.47
1.97
2.20
2.10
1.87
(.79)
(.65)
(.73)
(.77)
(.69)
7
1.56
1.56
1.60
1.50
1.48
(.70)
(.69)
(.72)
(.59)
(.53)
8
1.56
1.58
1.60
1.73
1.75
(.66)
(.69)
(.65)
(.78)
(.70)
9
1.79
1.50
1.53
1.60
1.40
(.77)
(.56)
(.59)
(.66)
(.56)
10
2.09
1.58
1.60
1.78
1.40
(.79)
(.65)
(.62)
(.67)
(.58)
11
2.50
2.11
1.98
1.99
1.98
(.99)
(.80)
(.66)
(.70)
(.72)
12
2.53
2.17
2.13
2.15
1.92
(.86)
(.70)
(.76)
(.71)
(.68)
13
2.62
2.14
2.00
1.97
1.71
(.89)
( .72)
(.83)
(.90)
(.75)
14
1.62
1.81
1.62
1.52
1.77
(.65)
( .71)
(.78)
(.69)
(.77)
15
1.79
1.56
1.67
1.89
1.60
(.88)
( .77)
(.71)
(.80)
(.72)
16
3.12
3.19
3.22
3.16
3.11
(.91)
(.89)
(.82)
(.97)
(.98)
17
3.47
3.44
3.44
3.17
3.25
(.66)
(.65)
(.66)
(.91)
(.83)
18
1.59
1.89
1.64
1.73
1.78
(.61)
(.85)
(.71)
(.97)
(.92)
19
1.53
1.56
1.78
1.98
1.82
(.56)
(.69)
(.82)
(.93)
(.81)
20
3.24
3.03
3.04
2.99
2.87
(.70)
(.84)
(.97)
(.93)
(.91)

22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
96
TABLE 15—Continued
Area
Specialized
State
Program
Office
3.65
(.49)
2.15
(1.10)
2.38
(1.04)
2.41
(1.05)
3.06
(1.13)
3.15
(.66)
2.41
(.78)
2.68
(.77)
3.09
(. 75)
2.47
(.86)
2.53
(.86)
2.62
(.82)
2.79
(.77)
2.73
(.84)
2.59
(.99)
1.85
(.66)
2.21
(.84)
1.76
(.65)
2.00
(.82)
1.85
(.70)
District
Program
Office
3.56
(.73)
2.19
(1.14)
2.30
(1.06)
2.58
(1.13)
2.92
(1.05)
3.22
(.68)
2.64
(.96)
2.31
(.67)
2.67
(.72)
2.50
(.74)
2.33
(.68)
2.43
(.65)
2.78
(.64)
2.75
(.77)
2.55
(.88)
1.64
(.68)
1.83
(.81)
1.58
(.69)
1.64
(.59)
1.56
(.56)
Agency
On Aging
Staff
3.49
(. 66 )
2.73
(1.10)
1.87
(.89)
2.20
(1.14)
3.16
(.90)
3.18
(.53)
2.64
(.83)
2.40
(.65)
2.82
(.81)
2.33
(.56)
2.26
(.65)
2.40
(.54)
2.64
(.53)
2.67
(.83)
2.62
(.89)
1.71
(.97)
2.20
(.76)
1.78
(.79)
1.84
(.93)
1.53
(.73)
Proj ect
Staff
3.28
(.84)
2.04
(1.16)
2.25
(.98)
2.52
(1.11)
3.14
(.95)
2.78
(.68)
2.57
(.91)
2.53
(.71)
2.63
(.84)
2.26
(.69)
2.28
(.70)
2.46
(.69)
2.56
(.71)
2.68
(.94)
2.53
(.96)
1.84
(.89)
2.35
(.89)
1.85
(.75)
2.06
(.81)
2.01
(.90)
Adult
Services
Staff
3.60
(.68)
1.81
(.99)
2.22
(.94)
2.38
(.99)
3.61
(.70)
2.70
(.69)
2.90
(.94)
2.26
(.75)
2.81
(.87)
2.11
(.67)
2.15
(.72)
2.32
(.74)
2.73
(.76)
2.56
(.83)
2.46
(.90)
1.60
(.67)
1.91
(.73)
1.71
(.67)
1.92
(.76)
1.73
(.81)

41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
97
TABLE 15—Continued
State
Program
Office
District
Program
Office
Area
Agency
On Aging
Staff
Proj ect
Staff
Specialized
Adult
Services
Staff
2.62
(.82)
2.21
(.98)
2.09
(.90)
2.35
(.92)
2.74
(.83)
2.79
(.77)
1.68
(.77)
2.12
(.73)
2.53
(.79)
2.09
(.71)
3.41
(.66)
2.53
(.83)
3.53
(.51)
2.45
(.56)
2.45
( .56)
1.56
(.50)
1.71
(.58)
2.53
(.71)
3.38
(.55)
3.15
(.66)
2.11
(.82)
2.11
(.92)
2.06
(.92)
2.03
(.86)
2.20
(.80)
2.22
(.76)
1.69
(.75)
2.17
(.65)
2.69
(.67)
2.42
(.69)
3.61
(.64)
2.58
(.77)
3.56
(.50)
2.78
(.61)
2.28
(.61)
1.61
(.69)
1.75
(.65)
2.81
(.67)
3.31
(.52)
3.28
(.51)
2.42
(.84)
2.38
(.98)
2.33
(1.00)
2.33
(.95)
2.56
(.87)
2.49
(.90)
1.73
(.81)
2.02
(.78)
2.71
(.90)
2.44
(.76)
3.58
(.54)
2.42
(.92)
3.49
(.73)
2.40
(.69)
2.40
(.69)
1.62
(.53)
1.82
(.49)
2.67
(.74)
3.38
(.58)
3.18
(.53)
2.41
(.87)
2.57
(.87)
2.55
(.92)
2.38
(.85)
2.56
(.85)
2.57
(.89)
1.75
(.86)
1.96
(.64)
2.46
(.74)
2.36
(.76)
3.35
(.75)
2.69
(.86)
3.46
(.58)
2.37
(.69)
2.37
(.69)
1.65
(.57)
1.90
(.69)
2.67
(.66)
3.15
(.70)
2.97
(.68)
2.23
(.75)
2.37
(.81)
2.27
(.78)
2.19
(.76)
2.43
(.78)
2.40
(.77)
1.86
(.74)
2.13
(.60)
2.72
(.79)
2.25
(.69)
3.46
(.63)
2.77
(.83)
3.43
(.63)
2.22
(.68)
2.22
(.68)
1.64
(.56)
1.70
(.66)
2.18
(.69)
3.29
(.65)
2.81
(.65)

TABLE 16
ITEM MEANS (AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS) FOR WORK LOCATION
4
Item // State Districts
Office
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
1
1.79
1.63
1.64
1.67
1.69
1.53
1.59
1.60
1.81
1.47
1.63
1.50
(.77)
(.57)
(.49)
(.60)
(.54)
(.57)
(.66)
(.56)
(.54)
(.57)
(.61)
(.51)
2
2.79
2.30
2.15
2.50
2.26
2.10
2.45
2.27
2.43
2.26
2.23
2.41
(.84)
(.82)
(.78)
(.80)
(.58)
(.65)
(.67)
(.69)
(.57)
(.82)
(.50)
(.82)
3
2.44
2.00
2.30
1.91
2.06
2.06
2.24
2.13
2.35
2.03
2.03
2.07
(.82)
(.88)
(.82)
(.80)
(.67)
(.84)
(.83)
(.82)
(.84)
(.82)
(.61)
(.75)
4
2.71
1.96
2.54
2.24
2.50
2.56
2.65
2.57
2.74
2.31
2.33
2.43
(.76)
(.76)
(.84)
(.71)
(.57)
(.72)
(.77)
(.90)
(.63)
(.90)
(.76)
(.73)
5
2.85
2.19
2.61
2.56
2.56
2.56
2.79
2.70
3.00
2.38
2.47
2.43
(.70)
(.74)
(.88)
(.84)
(.76)
(.72)
(.73)
(.84)
(.63)
(.91)
(.82)
(.82)
6
2.47
1. 74
2.00
2.00
2.03
1.81
2.24
2.10
2.10
1.96
2.03
2.47
(.79)
(.76)
(.67)
(.83)
(.65)
(.69)
(.65)
(.76)
(.60)
(.82)
(.78)
(.76)
7
1.56
1.33
1.68
1.45
1. 72
1.41
1.38
1.53
1.65
1.63
1.40
1.43
(.70)
(.48)
(.67)
(.67)
(.52)
(.50)
(.49)
(.51)
(.66)
(.66)
(.56)
(.73)
8
1.56
1.67
1.71
1.73
1.72
1.84
1.85
1.77
1.68
1.75
1.50
1.50
(.66)
(.79)
(.76)
(.84)
(.52)
(.95)
(.78)
(.68)
(.65)
(.72)
(.57)
(.57)
9
1.79
1.41
1.68
1.39
1.63
1.47
1.76
1.47
1.39
1.47
1.50
1.30
(.77)
(.57)
(.55)
(.61)
(.49)
(.72)
(.82)
(.51)
(.56)
(.57)
(.57)
(.54)
10
2.09
1.41
1.54
1.48
1.63
1.59
1.68
1.71
1.71
1.63
1.67
1.40
(.79)
(.50)
(.51)
(.76)
(.49)
(.76)
(.68)
(.71)
(.64)
(.61)
(.71)
(.62)
11
2.50
1.67
2.14
1.85
2.06
2.00
2.12
2.00
2.23
1.88
2.24
1.80
(.99)
(.48)
(.59)
(.67)
(.67)
(.84)
(.64)
(.67)
(.72)
(.79)
(.83)
(.71)
12
2.53
1.89
2.18
1.76
2.19
2.06
2.38
2.00
2.10
2.03
2.27
1.77
(.86)
(.75)
(.55)
(.75)
(.59)
(.85)
(.70)
(.74)
(.60)
(.69)
(.83)
(.50)

TABLE 16—Continued
Item #
State
Districts
Office
1
2
3
4
5 6
7
8
9
10
11
13
2.62
1.56
2.04
1.94
1.94
2.00
2.18
1.83
1.81
1.77
1.90
1.73
(.89)
(.58)
(.74)
(.93)
(.62)
(.88)
(1.11)
(.79)
(.83)
(.85)
(.80)
(.69)
14
1.62
1.59
1.46
1.70
1.34
1.84
1.82
1.67
1.71
1.78
1.70
1.90
(.65)
(.69)
(.51)
(.73)
(.55)
(.68)
(.97)
(.80)
(.78)
(.71)
(.77)
(.71)
15
1.79
1. 70
1.82
1.67
1.91
1.34
1.97
1.93
1.42
1.47
1.90
1.67
(.88)
(.82)
(.77)
(.82)
(.73)
(.60)
(.87)
(.83)
(.56)
(.72)
(.55)
(.80)
16
3.12
3.52
3.39
2.73
3.28
3.34
2. 76
3.03
3.23
3.00
3.47
3.07
(.91)
(.70)
(.88)
(1.13)
(.85)
(.79)
(1.13)
(1.10)
(.72)
(.98)
(.62)
(.98)
17
3.47
3.19
3.00
3.18
3.34
3.38
3.26
3.27
3.45
3.28
3.23
3.33
(.66)
(.68)
(.98)
(1.01)
(.70)
(.71)
(.86)
(.83)
(.62)
(.85)
(.86)
(.92)
18
1.59
1.89
1.54
1.76
1.34
1.97
1.71
2.13
2.06
1.69
1.60
1.63
(.61)
(.97)
(.79)
(.90)
(.70)
(.74)
(.84)
(1.20)
(1.03)
(.82)
(1.07)
(.61)
19
1.53
2.04
1.68
2.00
2.21
1.38
2.12
1.83
1.52
1.84
1.87
1.77
(.56)
(.94)
(.61)
(1.09)
(.75)
(.75)
(.84)
(.87)
(.77)
(.95)
(.57)
(.82)
20
3.24
2.74
3.21
3.33
2.78
3.00
2.62
2.70
3.06
2.94
3.23
2.90
(.70)
(1.23)
(.79)
(.85)
(.83)
(.80)
(.92)
(.95)
(.73)
(.88)
(.97)
(.96)
21
3.65
3.33
3.34
3.24
3. 72
3.50
3.47
3.53
3.68
3.47
3.10
3.70
(.49)
(.68)
(.83)
(.87)
(.52)
(.67)
(.93)
(.68)
(.65)
(.88)
(.84)
(.47)
22
2.15
1.67
1.89
1.88
1.75
2.03
2.44
2.27
2.35
2.00
2.50
1.77
(1.10)
(1.04)
(1.07)
(.96)
(.98)
(1.00)
(1.11)
(1.31)
(1.14)
(1.08)
(1.31)
(1.07)
23
2.38
2.52
1.96
2.09
2.22
1.88
2.29
2.40
2.00
2.19
2.13
2.57
(1.04)
(.89)
(.88)
(1.10)
(.91)
(.98)
(.76)
(1.07)
(1.18)
(.82)
(1.08)
(.86)
24
2.41
2.41
2.54
2.82
2.38
2.53
1.91
2.13
2.68
2.47
2.57
2.30
(1.04)
(1.15)
(1.10)
(1.21)
(.94)
(1.02)
(1.06)
(.94)
(.91)
(1.19)
(1.00)
(1.06)

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
TABLE 16—Continued
State Districts
Office
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
3.06
3.33
3.46
3.15
3.69
3.44
3.21
3.37
3.16
3.41
2.77
3.37
(1.13)
(.78)
(.79)
(.87)
(.69)
(.76)
(1.01)
(.81)
(.97)
(.98)
(1.07)
(.89)
3.15
2.67
2.79
3.03
2.84
2.94
2.94
2.93
2.94
2.63
2.90
2.70
(.66)
(.68)
(.57)
(.85)
(.68)
(.67)
(.55)
(.80)
(.57)
(.75)
(.61)
(.84)
2.41
2.73
2.64
2.79
2.66
2.88
2.56
2.46
2.81
2.78
3.00
2.60
(.78)
(1.04)
(.78)
(1.02)
(.79)
(1.04)
(.93)
(.96)
(.87)
(.94)
(.72)
(1.04)
2.68
2.38
2.39
2.53
2.47
2.25
2.41
2.31
2.36
2.38
2.34
2.33
(.77)
(.57)
(.74)
(.80)
(.62)
(.67)
(.66)
(.71)
(.66)
(.79)
(.77)
(.92)
3.09
2.92
2.86
2.85
2.81
2.44
2.38
2.73
2.77
2.88
2.97
2.53
(.75)
(.84)
(.80)
(.87)
(.78)
(.95)
(.70)
(.74)
(.85)
(.94)
(.81)
(.78)
2.47
2.04
2.50
2.03
2.16
2.16
2.47
2.40
2.36
2.13
2.38
2.00
(.86)
(.59)
(.75)
(.59)
(.68)
(.72)
(.66)
(.77)
(.49)
(.61)
(.73)
(.70)
2.52
2.30
2.20
2.33
2.19
1.94
2.41
2.43
2.19
2.16
2.28
2.17
(.86)
(.78)
(.63)
(.65)
(.59)
(.72)
(.70)
(.77)
(.60)
(.72)
(.70)
(.79)
2.52
2.30
2.44
2.61
2.25
2.22
2.24
2.33
2.55
2.55
2.48
2.37
(.82)
(.67)
(.64)
(.70)
(.62)
(.66)
(.65)
(.80)
(.51)
(.68)
(.74)
(.85)
2.79
2.70
2.79
2.72
2.66
2.50
2.65
2.77
2.67
2.74
2.38
2.70
(.77)
(.61)
(.74)
(.85)
(.55)
(.72)
(.69)
(.73)
(.55)
(.77)
(.68)
(.79)
2.73
2.48
2.68
2.39
2.66
2.88
2.53
2.47
2.61
3.03
3.00
2.30
(.84)
(1.05)
(.86)
(.90)
(.75)
(.75)
(.96)
(.94)
(.72)
(.74)
(.65)
(.92)
2.59
2.04
2.68
2.06
2.55
2.69
2.97
2.40
2.35
2.41
2.97
2.53
(.99)
(.98)
(.77)
(.93)
(.77)
(.78)
(.87)
(.81)
(.80)
(1.07)
(.82)
(.97)
1.85
1.81
1.82
1.88
1.94
1.88
1.85
1.57
1.45
1.44
1.53
1.60
(.66)
(.79)
(.82)
(.74)
(.84)
(.91)
(.78)
(.82)
(.51)
(.62)
(.57)
(.93)
100

TABLE 16—Continued
♦
Item // State Districts
Office
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
37
2.21
2.11
2.43
2.45
2.47
2.00
2.06
1.97
1.90
1.97
2.03
1.70
(.84)
(.93)
(.88)
(.83)
(.76)
(.82)
(.65)
(.85)
(.54)
(.90)
(.81)
(.84)
38
1.76
1.81
1.68
1.94
2.03
1.75
1.91
•1.57
1.68
1.66
1.63
1.53
(.65)
(.79)
(.61)
(.70)
(.82)
(.80)
(.79)
(.63)
(.60)
(.70)
(.67)
(.68)
39
2.00
2.04
1. 71
2.21
2.19
1.91
2.00
1.67
2.00
1.84
1.80
1.80
(.82)
(.81)
(.66)
(.74)
(.82)
(.96)
(.78)
(.76)
(.73)
(.81)
(.71)
(.81)
40
1.85
1.93
2.15
2.03
1.94
1.84
1.82
1.67
1.58
1.53
1.50
1.73
(.70)
(.83)
(.99)
(.77)
(.84)
(.85)
(.80)
(.84)
(.50)
(.72)
(.68)
(1.05)
41
2.62
2.35
2.39
2.59
2.48
2.28
2.47
2.10
2.26
2.19
2.13
2.14
(.82)
(.75)
(.79)
(.80)
(.72)
(.77)
(.83)
(.90)
(.77)
(.78)
(.90)
(.95)
42
2.21
2.22
2.89
2.58
2.63
2.22
2.41
2.27
2.42
2.31
2.40
2.27
(.98)
(.80)
(.79)
(.90)
(.75)
(.83)
(.82)
(.98)
(.67)
(1.03)
(.97)
(.87)
43
2.08
2.07
2.75
2.64
2.47
2.28
2.32
2.17
2.35
2.31
2.30
2.23
(.90)
(.78)
(.80)
(.99)
(.76)
(.85)
(.73)
(1.02)
(.80)
(1.06)
(.92)
(.94)
44
2.35
2.11
2.61
2.50
2.56
2.13
2.38
2.17
2.10
2.03
2.24
2.03
(.92)
(.64)
(.88)
(.92)
(.80)
(.75)
(.74)
(.99)
(.65)
(.91)
(.79)
(.93)
45
2.74
2.41
2.74
2.64
2.69
2.41
2.59
2.33
2.42
2.41
2.23
2.30
(.83)
(.89)
(.81)
(.86)
(.74)
(.67)
(.78)
(.84)
(.56)
(1.01)
(.90)
(.88)
46
2.79
2.59
2.68
2.58
2.69
2.47
2.38
2.37
2.35
2.41
2.40
2.13
(.77)
(.93)
(.86)
(.90)
(.78)
(.67)
(.78)
(.93)
(.71)
(.94)
(.81)
(.78)
47
1.68
1.96
2.00
1.45
2.16
1.72
1.50
1.87
2.00
1.81
1.63
1.60
48
(.77)
(.76)
(.86)
(.62)
(.77)
(.68)
(.66)
(.90)
(.82)
(.93)
(.76)
(.72)
2.12
1.96
2.25
1.97
2.03
1.88
1.79
2.27
2.00
2.25
2.07
2.21
(.73)
(.52)
(.75)
(.77)
(.74)
(.55)
(.48)
(.52)
(.58)
(.57)
(.58)
(.86)
TOT

TABLE 16—Continued
Item //
State
Office
1
2
3
4
Districts
5 6
7
8
9
10
11
49
2.53
2.52
2.57
2.73
2.44
2.41
2.50
2.70
2.55
2.63
2.90
2.90
(.79)
(.75)
(.84)
(.80)
(.72)
(.84)
(.79)
(.60)
(.62)
(.83)
(.76)
(.92)
50
2.09
2.11
2.43
2.55
2.25
2.19
2.29
2.47
2.10
2.44
2.37
2.50
(.71)
(.85)
(.79)
(.79)
(.67)
(.69)
(.68)
(.63)
(.47)
(.72)
(.72)
(.86)
51
3.41
3.30
3.29
3.55
3.25
3.41
3.53
3.27
3.52
3.50
3.53
3.77
(.66)
(.72)
(.66)
(.67)
(.72)
(.50)
(.51)
(.87)
(.68)
(.62)
(.68)
(.68)
52
2.53
2.81
2.96
2.30
3.91
2.81
2.85
2.57
3.06
2.35
2.70
2.10
(.83)
(.74)
(.69)
(.77)
(.69)
(.64)
(.70)
(1.01)
(.81)
(1.05)
(.75)
(.96)
53
3.53
3.31
3.39
3.48
3.44
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.52
3.38
3.37
3.67
(.51)
(.68)
(.57)
(.62)
(.50)
(.57)
(.51)
(.51)
(.68)
(.83)
(.67)
(.55)
54
2.45
2.33
2.39
2.27
2.16
2.25
2.24
2.33
2.42
2.32
2.39
2.30
(.56)
(.68)
(.79)
(.57)
(.63)
(.67)
(.74)
(.71)
(.72)
(.54)
(.63)
(.84)
55
1.59
1.81
1.68
1.52
1.72
1.53
1.59
1.62
1.68
1.63
1.63
1.63
(.50)
(.48)
(.55)
(.57)
(.52)
(.72)
(.56)
(.68)
(.48)
(.61)
(.49)
(.61)
56
2.88
3.11
3.00
2.94
2.88
3.19
3.00
2.97
3.16
2.81
2.87
2.73
(.98)
(.70)
(.90)
(.90)
(.75)
(.74)
(.78)
(.96)
(.73)
(.91)
(.73)
(.98)
57
1.71
1.63
1.75
1.58
1.88
1.78
1.94
1.73
1.77
1.94
2.00
1.72
(.58)
(.56)
(.65)
(.56)
(.49)
(.75)
(.74)
(.69)
(.50)
(.72)
(.74)
(.70)
58
2.53
2.74
2.36
2.58
2.63
2.88
2.85
2.90
2.65
2.75
2.77
3.00
(.71)
(.71)
(.78)
(.71)
(.61)
(.71)
(.56)
(.71)
(.61)
(.57)
(.57)
(.83)
59
3.38
3.22
3.21
3.15
3.32
3.09
3.15
3.17
3.48
3.31
3.40
3.27
(.55)
(.75)
(.74)
(.71)
(.54)
(.59)
(.61)
(.65)
(.63)
(.69)
(.56)
(.64)
60
3.15
2.78
2.93
3.09
2.93
2.81
3.15
3.00
3.13
2.88
3.13
2.77
(.66)
(.80)
(.60)
(.81)
(.58)
(.54)
(.57)
(.71)
(.50)
(.71)
(.51)
(.73)
102

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
X ¿VLIXiXj J- /
SUMMARY OF F RATIOS FOR ONE-WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR QUESTIONNAIRE AND DEMOGRAPHIC ITEMS
9
Demographic Category Training & 10
4
1
Age
2
Sex
3
Race
Wo rk
Location
0.66
0.32
0.14
0.99
1.37
3.45
11.97**
2.15*
1.21
0.33
1.65
1.30
0.56
0.00
4.30*
2.54**
1.23
0.38
7.25**
2.44**
0.85
1.01
5.73*
2.04*
2.76*
0.04
0.30
1.41
0.85
0.00
0.13
0.85
0.55
1.27
0.11
2.08*
0.43
0.57
0.08
2.41**
0.86
0.13
0.41
2.98**
0.48
0.16
1.53
3.42**
0. 75
0.03
5.39*
3.29**
1.37
3.23
0.16
1.87*
0.56
0.12
0.41
2.48**
0.86
4.16*
1.46
2.43**
1.46
0.60
27.76**
0. 75
3.44**
2.00
5.93*
2.19*
2.95**
0.18
0.05
3.22**
0.28
0.15
2.33
2.29*
7
5
6
Present
Education
Subj ect
Position
0.62
1.57
1.62
4.81**
2.85**
8.09**
0.86
0.72
2.13
2.28*
1.42
2.45*
1.64
1.01
1.15
1.85
1.99
5.57**
2.09*
1.57
0.45
1.77
1.21
1. 00
4.01**
0.73
3.49**
3.76**
1.17
10.10**
0.55
2.11*
3.72**
1.28
2.79**
5.43**
2.87**
0.66
9.06**
1.12
1.88
2.37
0.78
1.48
2.90*
1.75
1.07
0.16
5.89**
1.19
1.85
1.71
1.19
0.69
1.42
0.54
3.06*
0.88
0.90
1.23
8
Years
in
Position
Experience
with
Older
Persons
Training &
Experience
in
Counseling
0.94
1.49
0.94
2.49*
0.48
0.23
0.56
4.07*
0.95
0.36
2.41
0.05
1.77
1.67
0.23
1.19
1.06
0.84
1.70
1.10
4.25*
0.44
3.07*
8.20**
0.42
0.63
2.37
1.40
6.92**
1.65
2.50*
3.52*
1.24
1.28
1.32
2.36
0.80
0.94
1.19
0.60
0.41
1.92
2.41*
0.52
3.31*
1.19
0.42
3.47*
0.49
3.02
4.50*
0.53
1.32
0.61
1.16
0.53
0.94
0.69
1.72
3.30*
103

TABLE 17—Continued
Item
1
2
3
Demographic Category
4
Work 5
6
7
Present
8
Years
in
9
Training &
Experience
with
Older
10
Training &
Experience
in
Number
Age
Sex
Race
Location Education
Subject
Position
Position
Persons
Counseling
21
1.75
0.00
0.43
2.20*
3.13**
0.60
3.81**
0.26
1.43
0.80
22
1.61
0.31
1.85
2.01*
2.98**
1.40
6.35**
1.03
5.36**
2.73
23
1.54
7.91**
0.00
1.60
0.80
2.05*
1.82
0.68
2.17
3.39*
24
1.44
3.39
0.58
1.67
1.92
1.69
0.98
0.56
0.13
3.21
25
0.93
0.39
0.87
2.07*
2.02
0.82
7.66**
2.12
4.05*
1.35
26
0.64
0.91
7.92**
1.55
3.23**
0.84
9.00**
2.98*
0.15
1.29
27
0.94
0.73
0.93
1.06
2.40*
1.51
3.13*
1.79
1.64
0.82
28
1.07
0.51
1.10
0.78
0. 76
0.68
3.56**
0.81
0.22
0.23
29
1.43
0.67
0.88
2.22*
1.14
1.15
2.35
1.29
2.52
3.90*
30
2.07
0.16
4.71*
2.38**
1.07
1.33
3.56**
1.14
0.46
2.58
31
2.67*
0.21
3.80
1.55
0.57
1.65
2.03
1.37
0.08
2.46
32
0.65
0.09
2.11
1.43
0.10
1.65
1.38
2.35*
0.18
0.48
33
0.37
0.08
1.49
0.88
1.76
1.61
1.41
2.71*
0.38
1.12
34
1.56
0.21
0.02
2.31**
0.99
0.86
0.60
0.97
1.11
0.28
35
1.87
0.02
0.12
3.39**
2.59*
1.40
0.37
2.13
0.14
0.61
36
1.36
0.25
1.84
1.87*
6.04**
2.47*
1.88
1.06
15.90**
6.17**
37
0.53
0.11
0.21
2.71**
4.45**
2.84**
6.07**
1.40
7.02**
18.08**
38
0.43
0.01
0.51
1.47
3.95**
1.96
1.31
1.28
16.57**
3.37*
39
0.59
0.94
5.53*
1.49
3.87**
2.40*
2.23
1.07
12.48**
1.46
40
1.45
3.42
7.04**
1.88*
6.99**
2.47*
4.42**
0.32
4.76**
2.68
104

TABLE 17—Continued
Item
Number
i
Age
2
Sex
3
Race
Demographic Category
4
Work 5
Location Education
6
Subj ect
7
Present
Position
8
Years
in
Position
9
Training &
Experience
with
Older
Persons
10
Training &
Experience
in
Counseling
41
0.93
0.32
0.00
1.52
2.51*
1.28
2.60*
0.88
5.77**
7.24**
42
1.24
1.78
0.11
1.66
4.63**
7.03**
2.65*
0.99
3.24*
41.69**
43
1.35
4.48*
0.06
1.58
6.08**
7.53**
3.58**
1.56
7.02**
53.23**
44
0.46
0.88
0.30
1.88*
3.49**
3.66**
1.73
2.01
6.87**
11.68**
45
0.83
0.25
0.32
1.43
2.52*
3.15**
2.29
0.79
13.37**
13.90**
46
0.77
0.64
0.71
1.55
1.05
2.51*
2.80*
0.99
7.76**
8.37**
47
2.20*
6.13*
0.17
2.55**
3.00**
2.61*
0.66
0.96
0.92
1.89
48
0.85
0.06
0.90
1.81
1.53
1.24
1.43
1.41
1.28
1.88
49
0.95
0.02
8.29**
1.37
1.65
0.69
2.19
0.62
1.24
0.27
50
3.61**
0.00
0.02
1.65
1.78
1.41
1.75
2.21
2.27
0.87
51
2.26*
0.14
9.06**
1.58
4.11**
2.50*
1.69
1.49
4.82**
3.41*
52
1.48
0.02
0.28
4.08**
2.23*
2.18*
1.75
1.66
0.24
4.39*
53
1.49
0.51
1.80
0.73
4.88**
2.77**
0.44
1.64
1.15
0.72
54
0.89
8.59**
4.09*
0.51
0.99
1.99
1.47
1.91
0.24
0.49
55
0.61
0.01
0.44
0.61
2.84**
0.81
0.09
1.05
9.70**
7.64**
56
0.91
1.16
25.62**
0.84
1.46
0.72
0.91
0.95
2.74
2.95
57
1.26
1.10
4.30*
1.25
2.38*
0.53
1.81
3.60**
1.08
2.32
58
5.73**
0.46
0.22
2.17*
1.63
1.89
1.57
1.03
3.52*
1.96
59
1.92
0.15
2.09
1.09
4.92**
1.44
1.80
1.11
0.83
1.44
60
0.66
0.69
9.76**
1.64
5.12**
1.39
5.94**
1.21
1.26
1.00
** p <
.01
* p <
.05
105

1 /VDJLIli _lo
PEARSON CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHIC ITEMS AND QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS
Item
Number
1
Age
2
Sex
3
Race
Demographic Category
4
Work 5
Location Education
6
Subj ect
7
Present
Position
8
Years
in
Position
9
Training &
Experience
with
* Older
Persons
10
Training &
Experience
in
Counseling
1
-0.04
0.03
-0.03
0.00
-0.04
-0.02
-0.11*
-0.03
0.08
0.06
2
-0.10*
-0.08
-0.16**
0.12**
0.22**
-0.14**
-0.25**
-0.15**
0.02
-0.00
3
0.03
-0.03
-0.09*
0.07
0.12*
-0.07
-0.03
-0.02
0.07
0.06
4
0.00
0.00
-0.10*
0.11*
0.15**
-0.08
-0.03
-0.03
0.03
-0.00
5
-0.08
-0.04
-0.13**
0.09*
0.13**
-0.07
-0.07
-0.13**
0.02
0.03
6
-0.05
-0.05
-0.12**
0.15**
0.08
-0.10*
-0.19**
-0.05
0.03
0.07
7
0.10*
0.01
0.04
0.01
-0.10*
-0.01
-0.05
0.13**
0.07
0.14**
8
0.05
0.00
-0.01
-0.09*
-0.15**
0.08
0.10*
0.03
0.12**
0.20**
9
0.04
0.06
-0.01
0.01
-0.12**
0.02
-0.15**
-0.01
0.05
0.09*
10
0.02
-0.03
0.03
0.14**
-0.04
0.05
-0.24**
-0.09*
0.03
0.09*
11
0.07
-0.01
-0.03
0.13**
0.03
-0.01
0.15**
0.10*
0.02
0.03
12
0.01
0.02
-0.07
0.10*
0.07
-0.02
-0.21**
-0.11**
0.05
0.04
13
-0.02
0.01
-0.12**
0.10*
0.15**
-0.04
-0.29**
-0.08
0.05
0.06
14
-0.12**
-0.09*
-0.01
0.06
0.07
-0.02
0.04
-0.02
0.01
-0.07
15
0.04
-0.02
0.03
-0.01
-0.09*
0.04
-0.04
-0.00
-0.05
-0.08
16
0.08
0.11*
0.06
-0.04
-0.05
-0.09*
-0.02
0.11*
0.04
0.13**
17
-0.04
-0.04
-0.27**
0.09*
0.28**
-0.02
-0.10*
-0.08
-0.12**
-0.15**
18
0.19**
-0.07
-0.12**
-0.02
0.03
0.01
0.03
0.00
-0.07
-0.06
19
-0.12**
-0.02
0.01
-0.11*
-0.10*
0.04
0.11*
-0.06
0.01
0.06
20
0.02
0.02
0.07
0.04
-0.02
-0.07
-0.11*
0.03
0.09*
0.12**
106

TABLE 13—Continued
Item
Number
1
Age
2
Sex
3
Race
Demographic Category
4
Work 5
Location Education
6
Subject
7
Present
Position
8
Years
in
Position
9
Training &
Experience
with
* Older
Persons
10
Training &
Experience
in
Counseling
21
-0.09*
-0.00
-0.03
0.08
0.19**
0.04
0.00
0.04
0.07
-0.07
22
0.04
-0.03
-0.09
0.11*
0.09*
-0.07
-0.15**
-0.04
-0.15**
-0.12*
23
-0.10
-0.14**
-0.01
0.06
0.06
-0.07
-0.02
-0.02
0.Q9*
0.10*
24
0.10
0.10
-0.04
-0.03
-0.11**
0.09*
-0.02
0.02
-0.01
0.01
25
0.02
0.03
0.07
-0.11*
0.02
0.06
0.24**
0.12*
0.14**
0.07
26
-0.05
-0.06
-0.14**
0.04
0.17**
-0.06
-0.27**
-0.12**
-0.03
-0.03
27
0.01
0.05
-0.06
-0.04
0.08
-0.00
0.11*
0.01
-0.07
-0.01
28
0.08
0.03
-0.06
0.04
0.02
-0.07
0.12**
-0.07
-0.02
0.03
29
-0.09*
0.04
-0.06
0.05
0.09*
-0.08
-0.04
0.05
-0.10*
-0.05
30
-0.01
-0.03
-0.10
0.05
0.06
-0.13**
-0.19*
-0.07
-0.04
0.03
31
-0.04
-0.03
-0.09*
0.04
0.06
-0.09*
-0.14**
-0.12*
0.01
0.03
32
0.04
0.01
0.06
0.07
0.02
-0.02
-0.09*
-0.11*
-0.01
0.03
33
-0.07
-0.04
-0.04
-0.02
0.13**
-0.06
-0.05
-0.07
-0.00
0.00
34
0.04
-0.03
-0.00
0.04
0.05
-0.05
-0.06
-0.04
-0.08
-0.02
35
-0.11*
-0.02
0.01
0.11*
0.08
0.03
-0.05
-0.14**
0.00
0.02
36
-0.00
0.03
0.08
-0.12**
-0.24**
0.11*
-0.07
-0.05
0.28**
0.18**
37
-0.03
0.01
0.03
-0.16**
-0.23**
0.16**
-0.07
-0.11*
0.19**
0.29**
38
-0.04
-0.01
0.05
-0.11*
-0.23**
0.08
0.01
-0.07
0.28**
0.29**
39
-0.02
-0.05
0.12**
-0.07
-0.22**
0.05
0.04
-0.09
0.24**
0.08*
40
0.03
0.09*
0.14**
-0.15**
-0.29**
0.14**
0.02
0.01
0.15
0.11*
107

TABLE 18—Continued
Item
Number
1
Age
2
Sex
3
Race
Demographic Category
4
Work 5
Location Education
6
Subj ect
7
Present
Position
8
Years
in
Position
9
Training &
Experience
with
4 Older
Persons
10
Training &
Experience
in
Counseling
41
-0.06
-0.05
0.03
-0.04
-0.10*
0.11*
-0.09*
-0.9*
0.18**
0.19**
42
-0.01
0.07
-0.02
-0.11*
-0.26**
0.23**
0.08
-0.05
0.13**
0.42**
43
0.03
0.11*
0.00
-0.11*
0.30**
0.27**
0.07
-0.11*
0.19*
0.46**
44
-0.03
0.03
-0.00
-0.11*
-0.21**
0.20**
-0.01
-0.12*
0.19**
0.24**
45
0.06
-0.01
0.05
-0.05
-0.19**
0.15**
-0.02
-0.07
0.26**
0.26**
46
0.02
-0.04
-0.03
-0.07
-0.11*
0.07
-0.06
-0.04
0.20**
0.21**
47
-0.03
0.13**
0.03
-0.08
-0.20**
0.09*
0.08
0.10*
0.06
0.10*
48
0.06
0.01
-0.04
0.06
0.06
-0.12**
-0.01
0.10*
0.00
-0.10*
49
0.06
0.01
-0.14**
0.09*
0.07
-0.09*
0.05
0.03
-0.08
-0.01
50
0.23**
0.00
-0.00
-0.01
-0.09*
-0.09*
-0.00
0.14**
-0.10*
-0.04
51
-0.11*
-0.02
-0.16**
0.11*
0.18**
-0.10*
-0.03
-0.13**
-0.16**
-0.13**
52
-0.01
0.00
0.03
-0.15**
-0.11*
0.14**
0.09*
0.Q7
0.02
0.11*
53
-0.06
0.06
-0.07
0.09*
0.23**
0.04
-0.08
-0.09*
-0.07
-0.05
54
0.05
-0.12**
-0.09*
0.01
0.06
-0.00
-0.08
-0.12*
-0.03
-0.03
55
-0.02
0.00
0.03
-0.04
-0.21**
0.01
0.02
0.05
0.02
0.20**
56
-0.01
0.05
-0.27**
-0.09*
0.16*
0.03
0.01
-0.01
0.12*
0.08
57
0.04
-0.06
0.09*
0.05
-0.20**
0.00
-0.03
-0.14**
-0.04
0.05
58
-0.28**
0.04
0.02
0.08
0.04
0.06
0.08
-0.03
-0.11*
-0.02
59
-0.10
0.01
-0.08
0.11*
0.21**
-0.06
-0.04
0.06
-0.04
-0.07
60
-0.05
-0.04
-0.16**
0.07
0.24**
-0.05
-0.22**
-0.08
-0.04
-0.05
** p <
.01
* p <
.05
108

109
the Pearson correlation coefficients between demographic and question¬
naire items.
Table 12 reports frequency of response choices, means, and
standard deviation scores for the bulk of the survey items. The
response means ranged from 1.51 to 3.47 and the range of standard
deviations for these items was .57 to .92. Table 13 reports responses
♦
to those items that required subjects to rank order several factors.
The mean responses to these items ranged from 1.66 to 3.48. The range
of standard deviations was .73 to 1.12. Of the four priority service
areas for older persons, transportation was rated as the greatest need
by most respondents.
Table 14 summarizes response to those items related to under¬
standing older persons and their needs as well as items assessing
relationships of counseling theory and practice and service provision
for older clients. The range of mean responses for these items was 1.72
to 2.49. Standard deviations ranged from .71 to .89.
Table 17 includes results of one-way analysis of variance
based on questionnaire and demographic items. The greatest number of
differences were found in the comparisons made on the basis of geo¬
graphic location and job position, the two major variables used in
selecting the sample. Twenty-nine signficaint F ratios were reported
related to subjects' location and 24 were significant based on position.
Additionally, 30 significant F ratios were found related to respondents'
level of education. Other areas of major significance included experi¬
ence and training in working with older persons and experience and
training in counseling. There were several significant results in other

110
categories of demographic information; however, their incidence of
occurrance was small.
Pearson correlation coefficients between demographic and
questionnaire items yielded the results displayed in Table 18.
Variables of particular significance occurred between areas such as job
position, location, education, counseling experience and experience in
working w?th older persons. The following discussions present these
results in greater detail and draw on the information contained in
Tables 12-18.
Analysis of Questionnaire Items
Each item (1-60) of the survey instrument is reviewed indivi¬
dually. Statistical results including mean, standard deviation, and
response frequencies are reported. Other correlations or F ratios
of significance are presented where appropriate.
Item 1. To what extent do you agree that this definition describes
counseling and counseling activities with older persons?
The mean response to this item was 1.63 and the standard
deviation was .59. As indicated in Table 12, only 4.5% of the subjects
disagreed or strongly disagreed. By far, most subjects, 95.5%, were
in agreement with the established definition's description of counseling
services. Analysis by job position yielded the following range of mean
scores: Specialized Adult Services (SAS), 1.57, to State Program Office
(PDAA) at 1.79. The standard deviation of the SAS subgroup was among
the lowest at .54 while the PDAA staff had the highest standard
deviation at .77. When compared to the whole sample, scores for the
SAS staff were six points less than the sample mean and the PDAA mean
was 16 above the mean.

Ill
. Table 16 reports mean responses by geographic location. Subjects
in District 9 (X = 1.47), District 11 (1.50), and District 5 (1.53)
were among the lowest means. PDAA staff had the highest mean response,
that of 1.79. Again, it is noted that answers of strongly agree or
agree to this item were given scores of one or two, respectively, on the
Likert Scale.
None of the ANOVA's reported for Item 1 were significant
(Table 17). One correlation, that of subject's position and Item 1,
was significant at -0.11 (p < .05) as shown in Table 18. Responses
were increasingly in agreement with the definition as position varied
from administrative to direct service jobs.
Item 2. To what extent do you agree that counsleing services as
currently provided in HRS Aging and Adult Services programs
are consistent with this definition?
The sample mean response to this question was 2.35 with a stand¬
ard deviation of .73. Of all subjects, 8% reported SD, 26.9% D,
57.7% A, and 7.4% SA. Thus, more than half (65.1%) of those re¬
sponding indicated agreement that current provision of counsleing ser¬
vices is within the scope of the present definition of counseling.
Breakdown by job position (Table 15) yielded a range of mean
scores from a low of 2.20 for SAS staff to 2.79 for PDAA personnel.
Standard deviations were .62 for SAS, to .84 for both PDAA and Areawide
Agency on Aging (AAA) workers. As compared to the whole sample, the
PDAA and AAA staff standard deviations were 11 points higher and the
SAS standard deviation was 11 points lower.
Responses as categorized by location showed District 5 at 2.10,
District 2 at 2.15 and District 10 at 2.25 as among the lowest means.
As in Item 1, the PDAA subgroup was most variable in its responses with

112
a SD of .84. Among the least variable were District 10 (.50), District
8 (.57) and District 4 (.58).
Six significant ANOVA scores were found for question two. At the
.01 level, race (11.97), position (8.09), education (4.81) and educa¬
tional area (2.85) were significant. Other variables significant at
.05 were years in present position (2.49) and work location (2.15). In
addition, seven of the ten demographic variables were found to be
significantly correlated with this item and these are noted in Table 18.
Item 3. To what extent do you agree that the following services can
be considered as "counseling" according to the definition
given above: Legal Counseling?
The mean response to this item was 2.14 with 71.7% of subjects
indicating either agreement or strong agreement. A standard deviation
of .80 was computed for this question. Subgroup responses ranged from
2.44 (PDAA) to 1.98 (AAA). District Program Office staff and project
staff yielded mean scores of 2.14 and 2.06, respectively. When compared
by geographic location, subjects in District 7 averaged the highest
responses (2.73) while those in District 3 reported the least agreement
with this item.
Analysis of variance procedures yielded one significant F ratio
between demographic characteristics and question 3. At the .05 level,
a score of 4.27 was found with subjects indicating they had some
training or experience in working with older persons. Two significant
correlation coefficients were found between Item 3 and race (-0.09)
and education (0.12), both at .05 level. Mean responses for males
(2.18) and females (2.12) were similar, as noted in Appendix N,

113
Item 4. To what extent do you agree that the following services can
be considered as "counseling" according to the definition
given above: Tax Counseling?
The mean response for all subjects to this item was 2,47 with
a standard deviation of .77, Slighly more than half of the respondents
were in disagreement or strong disagreement that tax counseling is
included in the given definition of counseling (50.4%). A breakdown
by job position yields a range of mean responses of 2.71 (PDAA) to
2.31 (Project staff). In terms of geographic location, personnel in
District 1 averaged a response of 1.96 while those in District 8 scored
2.74. State Program Office staff averaged their responses at 2.71.
Several significant F ratios resulted from the analysis of
variance on question 4. Race (4.30 at .05), work location (2.54 at
.01), and present position (2.45 at .05) were significant. Significant
correlation coefficients included race (-0.10 at .05), work location
(0.11 at .05), and education (0.15 at .01). Males and females produced
the same mean response (2.47) to this question.
Item 5. To what extent do you agree that the following services can
be considered as "counseling" according to the definition
given above: Investment Counseling?
Subjects responding to this item averaged 2.60 with a standard
deviation of .80. Over half of those answering (57.3%) felt that this
service did not fall within the established definition of counseling.
When categorized by job position, project staff averaged lowest (2.53)
and State Program Office staff highest (2.85). In terms of work loca¬
tion, mean responses ranged from 3.00 in District 8 to 2.19 in District
1.
As shown in Table 17, only one item yielded a significant result
from the one-way ANOVA. Work location produced an F ratio of 2.44 (.01).

114
Sex and training or experience in counseling were the least significant
items for Question 5. A number of meaningful correlations were noted,
including the following: work location, 0.09 (.05), race, -0.15 (.01),
education, 0.15 (.01), and years in current job position, -0.13 (.01).
There was little difference in the average scores of males (2.64) and
females (2.58) to this question.
Item 6. To what extent do you agree that the following services can
be considered as "counseling" according to the definition
given above: Budgeting?
The mean response to this item for the sample as a whole was
2.05 with a standard deviation of .75. As this score indicates, a large
majority of participants (75%) believed budgeting to be a valid part of
counseling services. More persons in the State Program Office (2.47)
disagreed while those subjects in Specialized Adult Services (SAS)
were most in agreement with the statement (1.87). As shown in Table
16, the range of mean responses by location was from 1.74 in District
1 to 2.47 (PDAA and District 11).
Two significant F ratios were reported, work location (2.04 at
.05) and present job position (5.5 at .01). Several significant
correlation coefficients were found, including race (-0.12 at .01),
work location (0.15 at .01), education subject area (-0.10 at .05) and
present position (-0.19 at .01). When reported in terms of educational
level, mean responses ranged from 1.95 for subjects with four year
degrees to 2.75 for those in the Other category.
Item 7. To what extent do you agree that the following services can
be considered as "counseling" according to the definition
given above: Mental Health Counseling?
The mean response to this item was 1.51, indicating an overall
agreement that mental health services were considered by most subjects

115
to be included in the counseling definition. In total, 96.3% of
those responding either agreed or strongly agreed with the statement.
Breakdown by job position indicates, again, an overall similarity of
response, with a range of 1.48 (SAS) to 1.60 (AAA). Greater variation
was found when subjects were grouped by location, with a range from
1.55 in District 1 to 1.72 in District 4.
Two variables, age and education, produced significant results
from the analysis of variance, as shown in Table 17. Four significant
correlation coefficients were found, including: age (0.10 at .05),
education (-0.10 at .05), years in job position (0.13 at .01), and
counseling experience (0.14 at .01). Mean scores grouped by level of
education showed highest agreement among subjects with Ph.D. degrees
(1.00) and least among those with Ed.S. degrees (2.00).
Item 8: To what extent do you agree that the following services can
be considered as "counseling" according to the definition
given above: Marital Counseling?
Most respondents indicated a belief that this item is consistent
with the established definition of counseling. The sample mean was
1.69 (standard deviation of .72) and 89.8% of those answering were in
agreement. Responses grouped by job position ranged from 1.75 (SAS)
to 1.56 (PDAA). Geographic location reponse means ranged from 1.50
(Districts 10 and 11) to 1.85 in District 6.
Two variables produced significant results from the ANOVA
performed. Training and experience in counseling (8.20 at .01) and
working with older persons (3.07 at .05) were significant. Work
location, education, present job, training in counseling, and
gerontology were all significantly correlated x^ith responses to Item 8.
Average responses for males and females were equal (1.69). Responses

116
varied somewhat by age (Appendix P), from 1.81 (56-60 years) to 1.35
(under 25 years).
Item 9. To what extent do you agree that the following services can
be considered as "counseling" according to the definition
given above: Social Service Counseling?
Subjects predominantly considered social service counseling
services appropriately included in the larger definition. Mean response
for the sample as a whole was 1.53 with 94.9% either agreeing or strongly
agreeing. A standard deviation of .63 was found for this item. Grouping
by job position yielded the following: 1.50 for SAS, 1.50 for District
Program Staff, 1.53 for AAA, 1.60 for Project Staff, and 1.79 for PDAA.
Geographic location categories showed District 11 in most agreement
(1.30) and subjects in the State Program Office less so (1.79),
Work location, education, and present job position were variables
found significant from the analysis of variance. Similarly, three
demographic items (education, present position, and counseling back¬
ground) produced significant correlation coefficients. Males' and
females' mean responses were 1.47 and 1.55, respectively.
Item 10. To what extent do you agree that the following services can
be considered as "counseling" according to the definition
given above: Protective Services?
The group mean response to Question 10 was 1.63 with a standard
deviation of .67. The largest group of subjects (91.7%) indicated
agreement that protective services are within the scope of the counseling
definition. Breakdown by job position yielded a range of average
responses from 2.09 (PDAA) to 1.40 (SAS). Differences noted by
geographic location ranged from 1.40 (District 11) to 2.09 in the State
Program Office.

117
Analysis of variance yielded four significant results, including
work location (2.41 at .01), education (3.76 at .01), present position
(10.10 at .01), and experience or training in gerontology (6.92 at
.01). Several demographic items were also found to be significantly
correlated with this question. Work location (0.14 at .01), present
position (-0.24 at .01), years in job (0.09 at .05), and counseling
experience (0.09 at .05). Responses varied somewhat by level of
education as well, ranging from 2.50 (Ph.D) to 1.50 (4 year degree and
Ed.S. degree).
Item 11: To what extent do you agree that the following services can
be considered as "counseling" according to the definition
given above: Nursing Home Ombudsman?
Mean responses for those answering this question was 2.05, with
23.5% in strong agreement and 51.1% in agreement that this service is
a component of counseling. State Program Office staff were in least
agreement (2.50) and AAA and SAS personnel were most in agreement (1.98).
State Program Office employees were also in least agreement when grouped
by geographic location (2.50) and most supportive were subjects in
District 1 (1.67).
Analysis of variance produced significant results for demographic
variables of work location (2.98 at .01), educational subject (2.11 at
.05), present position (3.72 at .01), years in position (2.50 at .05).,
and training or experience in working with older persons (3.52 at .05).
Significant correlation coefficients were found for work location
(0.13 at .01), present position (0.15 at .01) and years in job (0.10
at .05) .
Item 12. To what extent do you agree that the following services can
be considered as "counseling" according to the definition
given above: Consumer Education?

118
The mean response for the sample as a whole to this item was
2.10, with a standard deviation of .74. More than half the respondents,
72.6%, indicated they agreed or strongly agreed that consumer education
services fall within the established definition of counseling.
Specialized Adult Services staff were most in agreement with this
statement (1.92) while workers in the State Program Office were least
supportive (2.53). When grouped by geographic location, mean responses
ranged from 1.77 in District 11 to 2.53 in the State Program Office.
Significant demographic items resulting from the ANOVA included
work location (3.42 at .01), educational major (2.79 at .01), and
present position (5.43 at .01). Significant correlations included
work location (0.10 at .05), present position (-0.21 at .01), and years
in position (-0.11 at .01).
Item 13. To what extent do you agree that the following services can
be considered as "counseling" according to the definition
given above: Information and Referral?
Information and referral services were considered by most
participants to be a function of counseling. With a mean response of
1.95, 76.8% of those responding indicated either agreement or strong
agreement. Subjects in the State Program Office were least inclined
to consider this service a part of counseling (2.62) while SAS workers
were most in agreement (1.71). The range of mean responses when
grouped by location was 2.62 (PDAA) to 1.56 (District 1).
Four items were found significant from the analysis of variance
procedures: race (5.39 at .05), location (3.29 at .01), education
(2.87 at .01) and present position (9.06 at .01). Significant
correlations were found for race, work location, education, and present
position. As reported in Appendix P, when grouped by age, respondents

119
in the under 25 category were not in agreement (1.65) while those
in the 46-55 age range (2.00) were least likely to agree with the
statement.
Items 14-17. Please rank these services (transportation, home
services, legal and other counseling, residential
repair and renovation) according to which you feel
are the most important (areas of greatest need) for
older persons (1 = greatest need, to 4 = least need).
As noted previously, these four services constitute the areas of
major national priority for federally funded aging programs. Mean
responses to Items 14-17 resulted in the following ranking (most
v
important to least important): transportation (1.66), home services
(1.72), legal and other counseling services (3.15) and residential
repair (3.29). There were notable differences between the percentages
of subjects ranking the first two items as most important and the
support given the last two. Questions 14 (transportation) and 15
(home services) produced 89.5% and 85.3%, respectively. Responses
placed these two services as being most needed (combining greatest
need and great need responses). By contrast, legal and other counseling
services were considered in the greatest and great need categories by
only 19.3% of respondents.
Responses varied by geographic location and no pattern was
discernible for these questions based on location. Groupings by
job position indicated that Project Staff were most supportive of
transportation needs (1.52) while District Office staff were least
supportive (1.81). Home services were ranked higher (1.56) by District
Program staff than by Project staff (1,89). Mean responses by job
position on Item 16 (legal and other counseling services) varied from
3,22 (AAA) to 3.11 (SAS). Item 17 (Housing Repair) produced a

120
range of mean rankings by job position from 3.47 (PDAA) to 3.17
(Project Staff).
Analysis of variance for Questions 14-17 produced several
significant results. As reported in Table 17, sex, race, work loca¬
tion, education, present position, and previous training were notable
variables associated with this section. Similar results were found
in the significant correlation coefficients as reported in Table 18.
Mean responses for males and females to Question 16 (regarding counseling
services) were 2.99 and 5.21, respectively. When reported in terms of
educational level, mean responses to Question 16 ranged from 4.00
(0-11 years) to 2.58 (A.A. degree).
Items 13-21. Please rank these areas (transportation, home services,
legal and other counseling services, residential repair)
according to which you believe are currently being
provided with most emphasis in HRS Aging and Adult
Services Programs in your area (1 = most emphasis; 4 =
least emphasis).
Mean responses for those subjects answering these items pro¬
duced the following ranking of these priority services in terms of
perceived emphasis: transportation, 1.74; home services, 1.82;
legal and other counseling services, 2.98; and residential repair, 3.48.
As in the previous section, the first two services were believed to
receive most emphasis by a much larger percentage of respondents than
those who felt Items 20 and 21 were most stressed. Transportation was
ranked highest by 48.8% of those responding to Question 18. To Item
19, home services, 41.0% rated this as receiving greatest emphasis. By
contrast, only 9.1% of the respondants to Question 20 (counseling
services) rated it as receiving greatest emphasis. Home repair was
rated highest by 2.1% of those answering Item 21.

121
Mean responses by job position yielded the following extremes
of scores. For Item 18 (transportation), means ranged from 1.59
(PDAA) to 1.89 (District Program Staff). The rating of home services,
Item 19, produced a range of means from 1.53 (PDAA) to 1.98 (Project
Staff). Rankings for Item 20 (counseling services) were from 2.87
(SAS) to 3.24 (PDAA). Item 21 (residential repair) had mean scores of
3.28 (Project Staff) to 3.65 (PDAA).
In terms of geographic location, subjects in District 4 rated
Item 18 as receiving most emphasis while those in District 7 gave it
least emphasis (1.34 and 2.13, respectively). Home services, Item 19,
was most emphasized in District 5 (1.58) and least emphasized in
District 4 (2.21). Counseling services were considered most emphasized
in District 6 (2.62) while subjects in District 3 reported least
emphasis on this priority (3.33). Finally, residential repair tías
reported most emphasized in District 10 (3.10), least in District
11 (3.70).
Analysis of variance for these items (18-21) yielded significant
F ratios for age, race, location, education, position, and training in
counseling. Work location was significant for each question in this
section, as reported in Table 17. Pearson correlation coefficients
produced significant relationships between these items and several
demographic variables. Age, race, location, education, position,
and training in counseling and gerontology were significant. As shown
in Table 18, age was correlated significantly with items 18, 19, and
21. Item 20, which deals with counseling services, was found most
highly correlated with present job position, and work or training in
counseling and with older persons.

122
Items 22-25. Please rank these areas from one (1) to four (4)
according to which you believe are the most easily
provided to older persons (1 - most easily provided, 4 =
most difficult to provide).
Group mean responses to this section produced the following
ranking of services in terms of the ease with which subjects felt they
are provided: transportation, 2.06; home services, 2.21, legal and
other counseling services, 2.43; residential repair, 3.28,
Areawide Agency on Aging staff considered transportation more
difficult to provide than did other job position groups, with a mean
score of 2.73, while SAS staff felt it was easier to provide (1.81).
Responses to Item 23, indicated a range of 1.87 (AAA) to 2.38 (PDAA)
for home services. Subjects in District Program Offices indicated
they felt counseling was more difficult to provide than did other job
groupings (2.58 to 2.20 for AAA Staff). Residential repair, Item 25,
produced a range of 2.92 for District Program Staff to 3.61 for SAS
subjects. When considered by geographic location, no pattern of
responses to Items 23 to 25 was noted. High and low rankings varied
by District to each question and no single district produced more than
one extreme score.
Analysis of variance yielded several items of significance to
these four questions. Transportation (Item 22) was significant with
work location, education, present position, and training in working
with older persons. Item 23, home services, was significant with sex,
educational subject, and training in counseling. Work location, present
position, and training in working with older persons were significant
with Item 25, residential repair. Specific values for these F ratios
are reported in Table 17. No significant items were found for Question

123
24, legal and other counseling services. Pearson correlation coeffi¬
cients were found significant with work location, education, present
position, and training in counseling and gerontology with Question 22.
Home services, Question 23, yielded significant correlations for sex
and training or experience in counseling and working with older
persons. Question 24, legal and other counseling services, was signifi¬
cantly correlated with education and educational subject major.
Residential repair, Question 25, was significantly correlated with
location, present position, years in position, and experience or
training in working with older persons.
Item 26. To what extent do you agree that counseling needs of older
persons served by HRS Aging and Adult Services Programs are
currently being adequately met.
The sample as a whole produced a mean response of 2.88 to this
question, indicating that the majority of subjects were in disagreement
with the statement. Thus, 54.8% disagreed and 17.2% strongly disagreed
that the counseling needs of older persons are currently being met by
HRS programs. Respondents in District 9 were most in agreement (2.63)
while those in the State Program Office were least supportive of the
statement (3.15). When grouped by job description, SAS staff were most
in agreement (2.70) while those in District Program Offices were least
supportive (3.22).
Analysis of variance for Question 26 indicated race (7.92 at
.01), education (3.23 at .01), present position (9.00 at .01), and
years in position (2.98 at .05) were associated with this question.
Race (0.14 at .04), education (0.17 at .01), present position (0.27 at
.01), and years in position (-0.12 at .01) were significantly correlated
with responses to this item.

124
Item 27. To what extent do you agree that better quality, more com¬
prehensive counseling services can be provided with existing
funding and staff levels than those currently being provided
within the aging network?
Most respondents indicated disagreement with this statement,
with a mean score of 2.69. Over half, 58.4%, either disagreed or
strongly disagreed with the statement that better quality services
can be provided with existing resources. In terms of job position,
SAS staff were least supportive, 2.90, while subjects in the State
Program Office were not in agreement (2.41). Responses from District
10 were most negative (3.00) and those from the State Program Office
most supportive when grouped by location.
Two items, education and present position were found significant
from the ANOVA. Only one factor, present position, was found to be
significantly correlated with the question. Males and females responded
similarly, 2.62 and 2.70, respectively. A difference was noted in
responses by level of education, from 2.00 (Ph.D. and other) to 3.00
(0-11 years).
Item 28. To what extent do you agree that counseling services
currently available in HRS Aging and Adult Services
programs are providing significant assistance to older
persons?
A slight majority of participants was more in agreement than
not with this statement, with a mean score of 2.41. Combining agree
and strongly agree responses, 59.1% of the subjects answering believed
current services are providing significant assistance to older persons.
Only 7.0% strongly disagreed with this item. Responses grouped by
location were fairly uniform with a range of 2.68 (PDAA) to 2.25
(District 5). Job position produced a similarly even response pattern
with mean scores ranging from 2.26 (SAS) to 2.68 (PDAA), Only one item

125
was found significant from ANOVA: present position, with an F ratio of
3.56 (at .01). Present job position was also the only item found
significant from the correlation done (0.12 at .01). Males and females
tended to respond the same as well, 2.36 and 2.42, respectively.
Item 29. To what extent do you agree that counseling services
currently available through community mental health centers
are providing significant assistance to older persons?
Responses to this item were fairly evenly divided between agree
and disagree choices, with 34.7% and 39.5% selecting each, respectively.
Mean response for the sample as a whole was 2.77 with a standard
deviation of .85. Answers by job position ranged from 2.09 (PDAA) to
2.63 (Project Staff). A limited range of responses was found when
grouped by location with a high of 3.09 (PDAA) and a low of 2.38
(District 6).
Analysis of variance for Item 29 yielded two significant items,
work location (2.22 at .05) and training or experience in counseling
(3.90 at .05). Three items were significantly correlated: age, educa¬
tion, and training or experience in working with older persons. Specific
values for these correlations are reported in Table 18. Little differ-
*
ence was found between male and female mean responses, 2.71 and 2.79,
respectively.
Item 30. Counseling services currently available are providing
significant assistance to older persons in their attempts to
avail themselves of existing transportation.
The majority of respondents agreed that counseling services are
currently facilitating older persons' efforts to obtain transportation.
Of the whole sample, 58.3% agreed with the statement and 10.2% strongly
agreed. The mean response for the total group was 2.26, with a standard
deviation of .70. Responses by location varied from 2.00 (District
11) to 2.50 (District 2). Responses by job position ranged

126
from most agreement among SAS subjects (2.11) to least support from
District Program Office staff (2.50).
Analysis of variance yielded only two items of significance,
work location (2.38 at .01) and present position (3.56 at .01).
Likewise, two items were significantly correlated, educational subject,
(-0.13 at .01) and present position(-0.19 at .01). Males and females
produced mean responses of 2.28 and 2.25, respectively.
Item 31. Counseling services currently available are providing
significant assistance to older persons in their attempts
to avail themselves of existing home services.
A large majority, 60.8%, of those answering this question were in
agreement that counseling does assist the elderly in obtaining home
services. Only 4.6% strongly disagreed with this statement and the
overall mean response was 2.26. Males and females were very similar
(2.29 and 2.25, respectively) in their answers. Differences by location
ranged from 2.53 (PDAA) to 2.15 (SAS). A greater difference was found
when responses were compared by location. Mean response varied from
1.94 (District 5) to 2.52 (PDAA). Only age (2.67 at .05) was signifi¬
cant from the ANOVA. However, four items were found to be correlated
with Question 21: race, educational subject, present position, and
years in position.
Item 32. Counseling services currently available are providing
significant assistance to older persons in their attempts
to avail themselves of existing legal and other counseling
services.
A slight majority (50.3%) of respondents indicated agreement
that current services do facilitate older persons access to counseling
services. The mean response for the whole sample to this item was 2.41.
A sizable percentage (37.0%) disagreed with the statement. There was

127
little variability across job positions, with a high mean response of
2.62 (PDAA) and a low of 2.32 (SAS). The range of mean scores
categorized by geographic location was 2.22 in District 5 to 2.62 in
the State Program Office.
Analysis of variance results yielded only one significant item,
years in current job position (2.35 at .05). Similarly, two items were
found to be correlated with Question 32. Present position and years in
present position were significant with values of -0.09 and -0.11 (at .05)
respectively. Very little difference was found between male (2.43) and
female (2.41) mean responses.
Item 33. Counseling services currently available are providing
significant assistance to older persons in their attempts
to avail themselves of existing residential repair and
renovation.
Mean responses to this item were fairly evenly split between
agree and disagree choices, with 39.6% and 46.3%, respectively.
Average group response was 2.67, with a standard deviation of .71.
Little difference was noted between job groupings with State
Program Office staff in most disagreement (2.79) and Project Staff
most agreeable (2.56). Males and females responded similarly as well,
2.69 and 2.67, respectively. A larger range of mean responses was found
with geographic differences. State Program Office personnel and those
in District 2 were least supportive of the statement (2.79) while sub¬
jects in District 10 were most in agreement. Only one item, education
(0.13 at .01) was found correlated, and one item, years in position,
was found significant through ANOVA.
Item 34. Publicly funded counseling services should be provided only
in existing AAS Programs or in community mental health
centers to maximize benefits for older persons.

128
The mean sample response to this item was 2.65. The largest
percentage (45.8%) of subjects disagreed with this statement and only
10.8% were in strong support of it. Responses by job position ranged
from 2.56, SAS, to 2.75, District Program Staff. A greater range
was found in terms of location. Subjects in District 9 were most in
disagreement, 3.03, and those in the State Program Office were most
supportive, 2.73. No items were found to be correlated with Question
34, and only one, work location, was significant from the analysis of
variance.
Item 35. Counseling services for the elderly should be provided
primarily by existing AAS programs (rather than community
mental health centers) in order to maximize access to such
services for older persons.
Most responses to this item indicated disagreement with the
statement (44.7%). Approximately one-fourth of the subjects (25.6%)
expressed agreement. 'The mean sample response was 2.52, with a standard
deviation of .92. Responses grouped by job position ranged from
2.46, SAS, to 2.62, AAA. Location means ranged from 2.04 (District 2)
to 2.97 (Districts 6 and 10). Three items were found significantly
correlated: age, location, and years in present position. Two F
ratios were found significant, location and education. Males and females
responded similarly, 2.53 and 2.52, respectively.
Item 36. Please evaluate the level of your knowledge concerning needs
of older persons.
Mean response to Item 36 was 1.72, Most subjects felt at least
adequately prepared in this area. A large percentage (87.2%) responded
that their preparation was either comprehensive or adequate. Only 3.2%
indicated inadequate levels of knowledge concerning the needs of the
elderly. Males (1.69) felt slightly more prepared than did females

129
(1.73). Subjects in the State Program Office indicated poorest
background (1.85), while direct service providers in SAS believed they
were best prepared (1.60). Geographic differences ranged from 1.94
(District 4) to 1.44 (District 9). A number of significant correlation
coefficients were found, including location, education, subject, and
training in counseling and working with older persons. Two items, loca¬
tion and education, were significant through ANOVA. Specific values
for these results are found in Tables 17 and 18.
Item 37. Please evaluate the level of your knowledge concerning
counseling needs of older persons.
Again, most respondents (43.3%) indicated adequate levels of
knowledge concerning the counseling needs of the elderly. Mean sample
response was 2.11, with a standard deviation of .83, One-fourth of the
responses, 25.0%, indicated that those subjects assessed their level of
preparation as comprehensive. Only 4.3% felt inadequately skilled.
Responses categorized by job position ranged from 1,83 (District Program
Office staff) to 2.35 (Project Staff), Location means ranged from 1.70
(District 11) to 2.47 (District 4). Significant correlations included
location, education, subject, years in position, and training in counsel¬
ing and gerontology. Significant F ratios included location, education,
subject, present position, and training or experience in counseling
and working with older persons.
Item 38. Please evaluate the level of your knowledge concerning
characteristics of older persons.
Only a small percentage, 1.3%, of subjects felt inadequately
knowledgeable about the characteristics of older persons. The majority,
39.7%—comprehensive, 46.9%—adequate, evaluated their knowledge at a
high level. The mean sample response was 1.75, Differences by location

130
ranged from 2.03 in District 4, to 1.53 in District 11. Staff responses
varied from the District Program Staff, 1.58, to 1.85 for the Project
Staff. Three items were found to be significant through the analysis of
variance: education, training or experience in counseling, and training
or experience working with older persons. These same three items and
location were also found to produce significant correlation coefficients
as well.
Item 39. Please evaluate the level of your knowledge concerning the
process of aging.
The mean sample response, 1.94, indicated that most subjects felt
adequately prepared or better in their knowledge of the processes of
aging. Those indicating adequate or comprehensive levels combined equal¬
led 77.0% of the total sample. Those in District 11 (2.04) felt least
prepared and those in District 2 (1.71) indicated highest level of
knowledge. District Program Office staff (1.64) believed they were most
prepared and those on Project Staffs felt least knowledgeable about aging
processes. Four significant correlation coefficients were found with
Question 39: race, education, and training or experience in counseling
and in gerontology. Significant results from the analysis of variance
included race, education, academic subject, and training in working with
older persons.
Item 40. Please evaluate the level of your knowledge concerning
services available for older persons.
The mean response to this item, 1.80, was the highest in terms of
level of knowledge on the questionnaire items. By far, most subjects felt
they had adequate or comprehensive levels of knowledge concerning services
for the elderly, 40.9% and 43.3%, respectively. Only 11.3% indicated
limited knowledge and 4.6% indicated inadequate preparation. Variation
of response by job position produced the following means: 1.85 (PDAA),

131
1.56 (District Program Office), 1.53 (AAA), 2.01 (Project Staff), and
1.73 (SAS). Range of response by location was 1.5C in District 10,
to 2.15 in District 2. Significant correlation coefficients included
sex, race, education, location, academic subject, and counseling training
or experience. Analysis of variance also produced a number of significant
items including race, location, education, subject, present position,
and experience or training in working with older persons. Some differ¬
ence was noted in mean responses for males (1.67) and females (1.84).
Item 41. Please evaluate the level of your knowledge concerning impact
of counseling services on quality of life of older persons.
Responses were fairly evenly divided between adequate and
limited levels of knowledge on this topic, 39.7% and 37.8%, respectively.
Mean response for the entire sample was 2.34, with a standard deviation
of .82. State Program Office staff indicated the most inadequate level
of knowledge (2.62) while subjects in the District Offices felt most
prepared (2.11). Similarly, categorization by location indicated
lowest knowledge levels among State Program Office staff and highest
in District 11. Six items were significantly correlated with Question
41, and four items were found to be significant from the ANOVA (see
Tables 17 and 18).
Item 42. Please evaluate the level of your knowledge concerning
counseling theory.
Subjects were about equally divided between adequate (37.0%)
and limited (36.2%) levels of knowledge of counseling theory. Mean
response was 2.40, with males, 2.30, and females, 2.44. Subjects in
the District Program Office rated themselves best prepared and those in
Project Staff positions felt least knowledgeable in this subject
area. Breakdown by location revealed highest levels in the State

132
Program Office and those least knowledgeable in counseling theory were
in District 2. Five items, location (-0.11 at .05), education (-0.26
at .01), subject (0.23 at .01), and training/experience in counseling
(0.42 at .01), and gerontology (0.13 at .01) were significantly
correlated. Education, subject, present position, and training or
experience in counseling or working with older persons were significant
from the analysis of variance.
Item 43. Please evaluate the level of your knowledge of counseling
techniques.
The mean response for the sample to this item was 2.33. Choices
were divided between adequate (39.1%) and limited (36.2%) preparation.
Comprehensive level of knowledge was selected by 18.8% and 9.9% felt
inadequately skilled in counseling techniques. Project Staff (2.55)
were least knowledgeable and District Program Office subjects felt
more prepared in this field. Other direct service providers, the SAS
Staff, indicated a mean response of 2.27. Those in District 1 (2.07)
and in District 2 (2.75) produced the extremes in mean response, in
terms of location. A large number of demographic items, seven, were
correlated with this question. Education, subject of education,
present position, and training/experience in counseling or gerontolog}'
were found to be significant in the analysis of variance.
Item 44. Please evaluate the level of your knowledge in counseling
concerns of older persons.
Most subjects felt adequately prepared in this area (43.5%),
while only 7.3% indicated inadequate levels of knowledge. Mean response
was 2.27, with a standard deviation of .84. A large number, 30.8%,
felt only a limited level of knowledge about counseling concerns of
the elderly, and 18.4% indicated comprehensive skills in this area.

133
District Program Office staff indicated the highest level of competency
in this field, 2.03, while SAS staff, 2.19, and Project Staff, 2.38, felt
the least prepared. Subjects in Districts 9 and 11 indicated most know¬
ledge, and those in District 2 appeared least knowledgeable. Significant
correlation coefficients were found for location, education, subject,
years in present position, and training/experience in counseling and in
working with older persons. Knowledge of the elderly's counseling con¬
cerns was found significant through the ANOVA with education and subject,
and work/training in counseling and gerontology. Males (2.20) and fe¬
males (2.30) differed somewhat in their mean responses.
Item 45. Please evaluate your level of knowledge concerning older
persons' understanding of their attitudes about counseling
services.
Most subjects indicated limited knowledge of this aspect (41.9%),
while 36.6% felt adequately prepared. The mean group response was
2.49. District Program Office staff were most knowledgeable (2.20)
and State Program Office staff least skilled (2.74) in this area.
Those in District 10 felt best prepared (2.23) and State Office Staff
and those in District 2 (2.76) were least knowledgeable. Four items
were significant from the analysis of variance: education (2.52 at
.05), subject (3.15 at .01), and training/experience in counseling
(13.90 at .01) and in working with older persons (13.37 at .01).
Significant correlation coefficients included education (-0.19 at .01),
subject (0.15 at .01), counseling experience (0.26 at .01) and exper¬
ience with older persons (0.26 at .01).
Item 46, Please evaluate your level of knowledge concerning older
persons' perceptions and attitudes about counselors.

134
Of those responding to this item, 37.8% indicated limited
knowledge; 40.2%, adequate knowledge; 11.0%, comprehensive preparation;
and 11.0% inadequate preparation in this area. The mean response to the
question was 2.49, with a standard deviation of .83. When subjects were
grouped by current job position, District Program staff indicated the
highest level of knowledge at 2.22, and State Program Office staff the
least, at 2.79.
By location, District 11 staff felt most knowledgeable, at 2.13,
and State Program Office staff the least, at 2.79. Analysis of variance
produced four significant F ratios: educational subject (2.51 at .01),
present position (2.80 at .01), experience/training in counseling (8.37
at .01) and experience/training in working with older persons (7.76 at
.01). Significant correlation coefficients included three items:
education (-0.11 at .05), experience/training in gerontology (0.20 at
.01) and counseling (0.21 at .01).
Item 47. To what extent do you agree that professionally trained
counselors are needed to provide adequate counseling services
for older persons.
Most subjects strongly agreed (43.4%) that the statement was
true; 37.3% indicated agreement. Only 1.6% strongly disagreed with
the item. The mean group response was 1.77, one of the lowest reported.
Range of mean response by job position was 1.68 (PDAA) to 1.86 (SAS).
By location, 1.60 (District 11) and 2.16 (District 4) was the range.
Five items were significantly correlated with Question 27: sex,
education, subject, years in position, and experience/training in
counseling and in working with the elderly. Analysis of variance was
significant with age (2.20 at .05), sex (6.13 at .05), location (2.55
at .01), and education (3.00 at .01). Some difference 1.61 and 1.84,
respectively, was noted between male and female mean responses.

135
Item 48. To what extent do you agree that trained paraprofessionals
can provide adequate counseling services for older persons.
Mean response for the sample as a whole to this item was 2.06,
with a standard deviation of .66. By far, most subjects indicated
agreement (63.2%) with the concept of paraprofessional counselors.
Only 2.2% of those responding strongly disagreed with the statement.
Responses by job position varied from 1.96 (Project Staff) to 2.17
(District Program Staff). Respondents in Districts 2 and 8 had mean
scores of 2.25 and those in District 6 were most in agreement (1.79).
Significant correlation coefficients were educational subject (-0.12
at .01) and years in position (0.10 at .05). Analysis of variance did
not produce any significant items.
Item 49. To what extent do you agree that trained volunteers can
provide adequate counseling services for older persons.
Most responses were evenly divided between "agree" and "dis¬
agree," with 40.5% and 41.0%, respectively. The mean group response
was 2.61. Project Staff were most supportive of this idea (2.46)
and AAA staff were least in agreement (2.71). By location, subjects in
Districts 10 and 11 were least in agreement (2.90) and those in District 5
were most in agreement. Three significant items from the correlation
analysis were race, location, and educational subject. The ANOVA yielded
one significant F ratio (8.29 at .01) for race.
Item 50. To what extent do you agree that trained peer counselors
(other older persons) can provide adequate counseling
services for older persons.
The majority of those answering (54.4%) were in support of the
use of peer counselors in working with older persons. Only 2,31%
strongly disagreed with this concept. Thirty percent disagreed and
9.4% strongly agreed. For the sample as a whole, the mean response

136
was 2.31. Areawide Agency on Aging personnel were most in disagreement
with the statement (2.44) and State Program Office staff were most
supportive (2.09). Location grouping again placed State Office sub¬
jects most in agreement , and those in District 3 least supportive.
Significant correlation coefficients were developed for five items, and
analysis of variance produced one significant F ratio. Males and fe¬
males had the same mean response (2.31).
Item 51. To what extent do you agree that no specialized education/
training is needed to provide adequate counseling services
for older persons.
Mean group response was 3.45, indicating one of the highest
levels of disagreement reported. The standard deviation was .67.
Over 53.1% of those answering indicated strong disagreement with the
idea that no special training is needed to provide counseling for the
elderly. Only 1.6% felt strong agreement, and 65.4% agreed with the
statement. Males and females were similar in their responses (3.47,
males; 3.44, females). By job position, mean responses ranged from
3.35 for the Project Staff to 3.61 for the District Program Staff. The
range in terms of location was 3.77 (District 11) to 3.25 (District 4).
Analysis of variance yielded six significant F ratios (Table 17) and
eight significant correlation coefficients (Table 18).
Item 52. To what extent do you agree that persons functioning as
counselors for older persons should be professionally
trained and licensed to insure provision of adequate
counseling services for older persons.
Of those responding, 54.6% disagreed that licensure and pro¬
fessional training were necessary. Those who agreed or who strongly
agreed totaled 33.3% of the total sample. Mean group response was
2.66, and 12.1% indicated strong disagreement. Responses grouped by

137
job position ranged from 2.77 (SAS) to 2.42 (AAA), By location,
District 11 was most supportive and District 9 the least in agreement
(2.10 and 3.06, respectively). Significant correlation coefficients
included education, location, subject, present position, and training/
experience in counseling. Analysis of variance yielded significant
values in location, education, subject, and experience/training in
counseling. Little difference was noted between male and female
responses.
Item 53. To what extent do you agree that no specialized training
in needs and characteristics of older persons is needed
in order to provide adequate counseling services for the
elderly.
Mean group response to this item was 3.47 with a standard
deviation of .60. By far, most subjects disagreed or strongly
disagreed (45.2% and 51.3%, respectively) with the statement. Only
12.6% strongly agreed that no special training in these aspects of
gerontology was needed in order to provide adequate counseling to
older persons. Mean responses by job position were uniformly negative,
with a range of 3.43 (SAS) to 3.56 (District Program Office). In
terms of location, subjects were also in disagreement with the item,
ranging from 3.31 (District 1) to 3.67 (District 11). Significant
correlations were found for three items: location, education, and
years in position. Analysis of variance yielded two significant
values: location (4.88 at .01) and education (2.77 at .01).
Item 54. To what extent do you agree that professional counselors
functioning as District Level Staff consultants can train
existing direct service staff to adequately provide
counseling services for older persons.
Mean response to this item was 2.32 and most subjects were in
agreement (61.8%) that counselor-consultants can adequately train

138
others to work with the elderly. In the extreme response categories,
6.0% strongly agreed and 5.7% strongly disagreed. District Program
Office Staff were most opposed to the question (2.78) and SAS staff
most supportive. Subjects in District 4 (2.16) were most in agreement
while those in the State Program Office (2.45) agreed least. Three
items yielded significant correlation coefficients: sex (-0.12 at .01),
race (-0.09 at .05), and years in position (-0.12 at .05). Analysis of
variance was significant for sex (8.59 at .01) and race (4.09 at .05).
Males (2.49) and females (2.26) varied somewhat in their responses.
Item 55. To what extent do you agree that, by helping staff to focus
on older persons as human beings, counseling services can
enhance the effectiveness of all other services for older
persons.
The overall mean response to this statement was 1.63, indicating
a high level of agreement. Most respondents were in agreement (55.4%)
and 40.9% strongly agreed. Only 0.3% strongly disagreed with this
concept. Responses by job position ranged from 2.22 (SAS) to 2.45
(PDAA) and, by location, from 1.81 (District 1) to 1.52 (District 3).
Analysis of variance yielded significant values for education (2.84 at
.01), training/experience in counseling (7.64 at .01), and training/
experience in working with older people (9.70 at .01). Items found to
have significant correlation coefficients included education (-0.21 at
.01) and training/experience in counseling (0.20 at .01).
Item 56. To what extent do you agree that counseling services should
be provided solely as a separate and distinct rather than
an integral part of other existing service programs for
older persons.
The majority of respondents indicated disagreement with the
statement (52.5%), and the mean group response was 2.96. Only 14.2%
agreed that counseling should be provided as a separate service.

139
Responses varied little by job position, as shown in Table 15. In
terms of location, the range of mean responses was from 2.73 in District
11 to 3.19 in District 5. Analysis of variance resulted in only one
significant value (25.62 at .01) for race. Four items were significantly
correlated with Question 56. These included race, location, education,
and training/experience in working with older persons.
Item 57. To what extent do you agree that counseling services should
be carried out as a part of all other HRS services for
older persons.
The mean group response was 1.79, indicating strong support for
the integration of counseling into other HRS services for the elderly.
Most responses, 56.7%, were in the agree category, and 1.1% were in
strong disagreement. Analysis of variance produced three items of
significance: race (4.30 at .05); education (2.38 at .05); and years in
position (3.60 at .01). Significant correlation coefficients were
found for race (0.09 at .01), education (-0.20 at .01), and years in
position (-0.14 at .01). Range of mean responses by job position was
from 1.90 (Project Staff ) to 1.70 (SAS). Location groupings ranged
from 2.00 in District 10 to 1.58 in District 3.
Item 58. To what extent do you agree that older pesons are more
effective counselors with their peers than are younger
persons functioning as counselors for older persons.
Most subjects disagreed with this statement; 59.5% indicated
that they did not believe age-peer counselors were more effective than
younger persons in working with the elderly. The mean response for
the sample to this item was 2.72. Less than one-third of the total were
in agreement with the concept, with 27.1% agreeing and 4.8% strongly
agreeing. Differences noted by job description ranged from 2.53
(PDAA) to 2.81 (District Program Staff and SAS). In terms of location,

140
subjects in District 11 were most in disagreement, 2.00, and those in
District 2 the most supportive with a mean response of 2.36.
Analysis of variance for this question yielded three significant
F ratios including age (5.73 at .01); location (2.17 at .05); and
training or experience in working with older persons (3.52 at .05).
Significant correlation coefficients were reported for these items:
age (-0.28 at .01); and work or training with older persons (-0.11 at
.05). Males and females responded somewhat differently, with mean scores
of 2.68 and 2.73, respectively.
Item 59. To what extent do you agree that community mental health
centers are currently meeting the counseling needs of
older persons in your service area.
The mean response to this item for the sample as a whole was
3.26, indicating that most subjects disagreed. Of those responding,
53.0% selected the disagree choices. Only 0.3% strongly agreed and
9.9% agreed that mental health centers were currently meeting the
counseling needs of older persons. Those strongly disagreeing com¬
prised 36.8% of the whole. Responses grouped by job description were
uniformly negative, ranging from 3.31 in District Program Offices to
3.15 among Project Staff. A similar response pattern was noted when
viewed by geographic region. Respondents in District 5 were most in
agreement, 3.09, while those in District 8, 3.48, agreed least.
Analysis of variance procedures yielded significant values for only
one item; education (4.92 at .01). Correlation coefficients were found
significant for two items; location (0.11 at .05) and education (0.21 at
.01). Males (3.24) and females (3.27) responded similarly. A greater
variation in response was noted when subjects were grouped by level of
education. The range of mean responses to this variable was from

141
4.00 for those with Ed.S. degrees to 2.98 for those with 0-11
years of schooling.
Item 60. To what extent do you agree that HRS Aging and Adult
Services programs are currently meeting the counseling
needs of older persons in your service area.
The group mean response to this item was 2.98, suggesting that
most respondents viewed HRS Aging Programs as deficient in meeting the
counseling needs of older persons. The largest percentage of responses
fell into the disagree, 61.2%, or strongly disagree categories, 19.2%.
Only a small group, 1.4% strongly agreed with the statement, while
18.2% indicated agreement. Males and females differed slightly with
mean responses of 3.03 and 2.97, respectively. In terms of job
position, SAS staff responded with a mean of 2.81, while those in Dis¬
trict Program Offices responded with a mean of 3.28. The range of mean
responses by location varied from 2.77 in District 11 to 3.15 in the
State Program Office.
From analysis of variance, significant values were found for the
following items: race (9.76 at .01); education (5.12 at .01); and
present job position (5.94 at .01). Correlation coefficients were
significant for three items also: race (-0.16 at .01); education (0.24
at .01); and present position (-0.22 at .01). Response patterns on the
basis of education yielded a range of mean scores from 2.00 (0-11 years)
to 3.75 (Ed.S. degrees). When subjects were grouped by age, the range
of average response was from 3.12 for under 25 years to 2.50 for those
in the 71-80 age category.
Item 61. What specific counseling needs do you believe older
persons have which are not currently being met by
existing counseling programs (such as grief counseling,
employment counseling, leisure counseling, family counseling,
or drug counseling)? Please list:

142
To this open-ended question, a large variety of responses was
made. All 373 subjects commented that some additional counseling
services are needed by older persons. Responses were categorized into
two subgroups on the basis of location: those in the Districts and
those in the State Program Office, Several subjects added narrative
comments as well as listing other counseling needs. These comments
might best be summarized in the words of a social worker from District
IV:
Adequate counseling is rare—the Mental Health Center
does not know the client and his/her needs or problems.
HRS/AAA staff are not well trained and don't have time
due to over-work, staff cuts, paperwork, etc. Most
needed are leisure, mental health and personal growth
counseling.
Reportedly unmet counseling needs, each listed by less than ten
subjects, could be included in the following categories: home safety,
insurance, sex, crime, understanding bureaucracy, taxes, assertive¬
ness, ethics, retirement, home management, religion, legal aid, and
financial aid. These areas were apparently considered as being
marginally met by current programs and services.
Listed counseling needs, each of which were mentioned by from
10-50 subjects, were financial, physical health, alcohol abuse, personal
growth, death, legal aid, reality orientation, adjustment, leisure,
anxiety, and understanding the aging process. Items receiving most
support among subjects included the following: death, drugs, family,
grief, employment, leisure, and health counseling needs. Specific
counseling needs were emphasized by the number of subjects indicated:
employment, 60; family, 68; drugs, 83; nutrition, 89, leisure, 92; and
grief counseling, 118.

CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS,
IMPLICATIONS, AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
Summary
The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions held
by employees of HRS Aging and Adult Services Programs towards counsel¬
ing services for older persons. An understanding of the relative
importance these subjects gave to counseling in relation to other
services was sought. Differences in these attitudes towards counseling
among aging program administrators and direct service providers were
investigated.
Subjects were selected form state program office personnel in
Tallahassee and from each of the 11 HRS Districts throughout Florida.
Major groups of subjects included Areawide Agency on Aging staff,
District Program Office staff, Project staff, Specialized Adult Services
staff, and State Program Office staff. The total number of subjects
selected was 414 and 373 actually participated in the study.
The review of pertinent literautre revealed that no adequate
instruments existed with which to measure attitudes towards counseling
services for the elderly. There were some instruments available to
assess attitudes towards aging, towards older persons, and towards
counseling; however, none of these was adequate for the purposes of this
research. Consequently, the researcher developed and field tested a
143

questionnaire designed to assess the attitudes of administrators and
workers in programs for the aged towards counseling services for older
persons.
The instrument was then administered to the selected sample by
the researcher or by his representatives at selected work sites.
Results were collected and analyzed by the procedures outlined in
Chapter III. The resulting responses and statistical analyses are
reported in Chapter IV. The following discussion relates these results
to the research questions and conclusions are drawn from these data.
Implications resulting from the research are also discussed.
Discussion and Conclusions
The item by item analysis of the information provided by the
research instrument is summarized in Tables 12-18 and Appendices N-Q.
References are made to these tables throughout this discussion.
The purpose of this study was guided by the five research
questions related to the subjects' perceptions of counseling services
for older persons. This discussion centers on relating the collected
data to these questions and on the resulting conclusions which may be
drawn.
Research Question 1 asked: How do the subjects define counseling
and how do they differ in their definitions? Items 1-13 of the
questionnaire related to this question. As shown in Table 12, most
respondents agreed with the definition of counseling as defined by
Florida guidelines. Direct services workers were more in agreement
than any other group of subjects. Respondents in the State
Program Office (PDAA) were least supportive of this definition. This

145
difference is particularly interesting in light of the fact that the
State Program Office staff has major responsibility for the develop¬
ment of the definition itself. Few differences were noted when responses
were compared by location or sex of subjects. The items relating to
the services which can be considered as part of counseling received
mixed responses from most subjects. Most participants agreed that
legal, budgeting, mental health, marital, social service, protective
service, nursing home ombudsman, consumer education, and information
and referral services all fell within the parameters of the larger
definition of counseling. Only two items, tax counseling and investment
counseling, received a sufficiently negative response to be omitted as
counseling functions.
These results are of interest because of the confusion over
definitions of counseling and what it involves. Although mean responses
to items 3-13 varied somewhat (from 1.51 to 2.60) most subjects did
tend to assume a liberal interpretation of the definition. There is an
apparent need to make a clearer distinction between counseling to
resolve social and emotional problems or adjustment needs and services
which are primarily informational or of a social service nature.
Research Question 2 asked: How did subjects perceive the role of
counseling and of counselors in aging programs, and did they differ in
their perceptions? Questionnaire items 47 through 60 sought clarifica¬
tion about subjects' perceptions of the positions counselors should
occupy in programs for the elderly, what roles they should assume, the
importance of training, and the status of counseling services within the
overall aging program in Florida. Responses to these items produced some
of the greatest differences in perceptions noted in the study. Overall,

146
it appears that HRS aging program workers favor an integration of
counseling services within other programs rather than their separation,
as a distinct service component (Items 55, 56, 57). This perception
was relatively constant across job categories and few differences were
noted between responses of administrators and direct service providers
to this concept. In terms of the role of counselors, most respondents
were in agreement that trained professional counselors are needed. At
the same time, most agreed, but not strongly so, that paraprofessionals,
age peers, or volunteers could adequately fulfill the counselor's role
(Items 48, 49, 50). It is interesting to note that Project Staff, those
with the least educational attainment, were most in agreement with the
use of paraprofessionals. Of interest is the fact that subjects in
this category are most likely to fall under the paraprofessional
designation themselves. However, when subjects were grouped by
educational level, those persons with the highest educational attain¬
ment were also most supportive of paraprofessionals and volunteers as
counseling providers. Respondents holding two-year degrees were less
supportive of this viewpoint.
With regard to the role of mental health centers in meeting the
counseling needs of older persons, most respondents felt strongly that
mental health programs were not meeting these needs. This response
should be of particular importance to program planners who tend to
view mental health centers as the main source of counseling services
for the majority of publicly supported clients. This tendency is
dramatically demonstrated by the level of funding provided for
counseling services based in mental health centers as compared with
funding of such services in other programs. Yet, only 0,3% of

participants in this study strongly agreed that mental health programs
were meeting the counseling needs of older persons. Integration of
counseling into the existing aging program network would appear to be
a logical alternative rather than to isolate it in centralized mental
health facilities. In addition, respondents agreed that professionally
trained counselors are needed to provide adequate counseling services
for older persons. They agreed also that paraprofessionals could
serve a useful role.
Research Question 3 asked: How did subjects perceive counseling
in relation to other services provided in programs for older persons and
how did they differ in their perceptions? Items 14-25 of the question¬
naire asked subjects to rank the major service components in relation
to counseling. As noted in Chapter IV, legal and other counseling
services were ranked third overall by those responding to these items.
As might have been expected, Project Staff were most in favor of
transportation services, since they perceived transportation as being
the most acute of older persons' practical problems. As the researcher
has noted, transportation needs are common to all age groups, par¬
ticularly in rural areas, as well as to older persons. Since the
various job classifications differed little in the ranking given to
counseling, responsibilities in the organizational structure do not
seem to influence attitudes toward counseling in relation to the other
priority services.
When counseling was viewed in terms of what subjects believe to
be the reality of existing levels of service, the same order of ranking
occurred. Respondents were consistent in their evaluations. As
transportation was considered most important, so it was perceived to be

148
receiving most emphasis in actuality. Similarly, there was a con¬
siderable difference between attitudes toward the first two priority
services, transportation and home service, and toward the second two,
legal and other counseling and residential repair and renovation.
Attitudes toward legal and other counseling services produced a large
range of mean scores when classified by job position. As in the
case of Question 2, direct service providers (SAS and Project Staff)
appeared more supportive of counseling while those in the State and
District Program offices seemed to be less supportive.
When subjects were asked to rank the four priority services in
terms of the ease with which they can be provided, the same ordering
occurred. However, the mean scores for transportation, home services,
and legal and other counseling services were clearly grouped. A
greater difference appeared between the responses for these three
services and for the lowest ranked service, housing repair.
When subjects were grouped by job classification, no consistent
pattern of response was discernible in the ranking of the four services.
In the use of transportation and legal and other counseling services,
the direct service respondents tended to score at the extremes of the
range as compared with the administrative staff. However, the Areawide
Agency on Aging staff considered the transportation service more
difficult to provide than did direct service providers. This situation
is of interest as the SAS and Project staff are the workers who must
deal most directly with the problems of transporting elderly clients.
Mean responses were less varied for ratings of the ease of providing
legal and other counseling services. A greater difference was found in
the range of responses to the other two, namely home services and housing
repair.

149
In the case of Research Question 3, it appears that the sample
overall was fairly consistent in its ratings of the four priority
services. Legal and other counseling services were not considered as a
great a need by any of the subject groups. Several factors may have
been involved. First, the pairing of legal and other counseling
services may have created an impression among respondents that the
services in question pertained primarily to legal assistance. And,
second, because many older persons need transportation in order to
avail themselves of other services, this need may have seemed basic
to obtaining other services.
Research Question 4 concerned subjects’ evaluation of the current
status of counseling services being provided by HRS programs. Question¬
naire items 26-35 focused on this topic. As presented in Chapter IV,
responses to this section in general indicated a low level of agreement
with these items. Relatively few subjects strongly agreed or strongly
disagreed in their evaluations. Although it has been shown that
counseling services were not considered a high priority, the majority
of subjects disagreed with the statement that current programs are
adequate to meet counseling needs. Direct Service staff (SAS, Project
Staff) were more in agreement that counseling needs are being met than
were program administrators. In terms of funding for counseling
services, it is particularly significant that State Program Office
staff and District Program Office staff tended to agree that current
funding levels were adequate. Direct service providers, those who
must actually work with the older clients, were strongly in disagree¬
ment with this conclusion. Although subjects were fairly evenly
divided between those who agreed and those who disagreed that counseling

150
services can be provided within existing funding and staff levels, the
majority did agree (Item 28) that current programs are providing
significant assistance to older persons. There was little variation in
mean response to this item when subjects were considered by job classi¬
fication. Although subjects felt existing services were having a
noticeable impact on meeting counseling needs, they apparently felt
that additional funds and staff are needed in order to improve the
quality of services.
When subjects were grouped by job position, extremes of response
differences were noted to the statement that community mental health
centers are providing significant assistance to older persons. Direct
service providers were generally more supportive of mental health
services that provide counseling to the elderly. However, State Office
Staff, those responsible for administration and program planning, were
most in disagreement with this statement.
Subjects in general agreed that counseling services currently
facilitate older persons' access to other services such as transporta¬
tion, home services and legal services. Little difference was noted
among the responses to these items dealing with transportation and
counseling services (numbers 30 and 32), when subjects were grouped by
job title. The response that counseling was helping older persons obtain
access to other services might be interpreted as support for the concept
that counseling assistance should be integrated throughout aging programs,
rather than confined to one component or location. This view was
further strengthened by the subjects' responses to Items 34 and 35, which
concern the integration of counseling services with aging programs.
Most subjects disagreed that counseling be limited to only one program.
This view was uniformly upheld by each of the sample sub-groups.

In summary, responses to items related to Research Question 4
indicated several attitudes towards the current level of counseling
services. While most felt the counseling needs of the elderly were
not adequately met, they did tend to feel current programs are pro¬
viding meaningful assistance. Responses also indicated support for a
decentralized counseling approach that would be present in both Aging
and Adult Services and Mental Health programs.
Subjects differed in their assessment of the adequacy of service
and funding; program administrators tended to view current services
more favorably than did direct service providers. It might be con¬
cluded that administrators would defend current levels of service since
they are responsible for the planning and implementation of them.
Administrators may also have been more knowledgeable of the overall,
state-wide program concepts and functions, and this may have influenced
their perceptions. Conversely, as direct service workers must do their
best with existing funding and programs; their evaluations, therefore,
could be influenced by examples of extreme need they see in
individual clients. Also, the case worker's view is perhaps limited
to his/her particular assignment or District; thus these subjects would
have less basis of comparison for their responses.
Research Question 5 sought information on the levels of knowledge
and training held by subjects with respect to counseling skills and
gerontological background. Questionnaire items 36-46 dealt with these
areas. To all items but one (45), responses by the entire sample in¬
dicated that respondents generally felt adequately prepared in the
areas listed. Indeed, to almost half of the items in this section, a
substantial percentage of the sample indicated an adequate level of

152
knowledge related to counseling and gerontology. Greater strength was
noted in knowledge about the needs and characteristics of older persons.
Subjects apparently felt they had somewhat less expertise in counseling
knowledge and skills.
Sub-groupings by job position yielded some interesting differences
in response to the items involved. No consistent pattern was noted in
this section, as in others where extremes of response were generally
found between direct service workers and State Program Office Staff.
Responses to the items dealing with counseling skills were fairly
uniform across job lines. In generaly, PDAA staff did indicate less
preparation in counseling than other subjects. However, no other
single group consistently reported a high level of ability in this area.
Knowledge about older persons was reported to be greater among
direct service providers in most cases, but again the differences in
mean scores were slight. It is of interest to note that Project
Staff were frequently among those who considered themselves least
prepared in knowledge of older persons and their needs. This finding
is significant, as personnel in this group are largely responsible for
much of the direct daily contact with older clients. Their responses
were in contrast to those of SAS workers who generally reported the
highest level of knowledge in this area.
When subjects were grouped by level of educational attainment,
responses consistently showed that those with the most years of
education rated themselves most knowledgeable on all items in this
section. This finding was to be expected because those with higher
educational levels were more likely to be employed in administrative
positions. Administrators as a total group did not rate their level of

153
knowledge nearly so high. The low ratings of those with little
education, however, was consistent with responses of the Project Staff
subgroup. Many employees in the Project Staff subgroup have little
formal education.
Evaluation of Research Question 5 suggests that additional
training is needed for Project Staff particularly, and for others in
Aging and Adult Services programs in general. The lower self ratings
among program planners and administrators regarding knowledge of older
persons and their counseling needs could be interpreted as influencing
the lower assessment given to counseling services by these personnel.
A limited knowledge of older persons' needs and/or of counseling skills
could conceivably influence the importance given these services in
program planning. It is of interest that SAS staff generally were
most critical of existing counseling services and yet they frequently
indicated the highest level of reported knowledge of counseling needs
of older persons. It is suggested that these data and similar in-put
from field staff should be considered by program administrators and
planners when services are planned, funded, and implemented. The
probability is that additional knowledge is needed at all levels.
Implications
The foregoing discussion of the five research questions suggests
some general implications which can be drawn from the data.
First, the questionnaire was developed using the federal/state
definition of counseling and the federal/state listing of priority
services for older persons, in the exact language used in the statutes.
As expected, subjects in all job categories responded in general

154
agreement with these federal/state mandates. These responses may have
been influenced by the knowledge that funding is most readily obtained
for services as defined by the statutes.
Second, it is important to consider that defining counseling as
a separate service, yet by definition integral with legal services,
might have limited its effectiveness in the opinions of subjects
participating in this study. A more supportive position for counseling
services for older persons might have been possible had counseling been
included as a component of the so-called "life support" services,
specifically transportation, meals, and homemaker programs. The
integration of counseling with the "life support" programs appears to
be the most reasonable approach to improvement of all programs.
Counseling might well assume the role of facilitator for "life support"
services in Florida's Aging Programs.
Third, it is imperative that counseling professionals and
educators communicate directly with Aging professionals in order to
increase awareness of the contributions counseling can make to programs
for older persons. Field research, such as this study, should be
conducted with aging program professionals so that the useful results
of the counseling effort for older persons can be demonstrated.
Counseling professionals and educators may find that the development
of counseling services for older persons is facilitative to other
existing programs provided for the elderly, and may well enhance accept¬
ance and expansion of counseling services in Florida, and elsewhere.
Fourth, as was discussed earlier, direct service staff tended
to view most of their work tasks as counseling. This tendency again
focuses attention on the need for a better defined, yet flexible

1JJ
conceptualization of the counseling function as a part of aging
programs. As reported, only 21 of more than 220 projects throughout
Florida indicated counseling as a program function. This may be due
to program staff assuming that counseling is being done and not claiming
credit for it.
Fifth, the need for counseling services in aging programs has
been emphasized throughout the study. The question of what elements
make up counseling, i.e., information-giving versus personal problem
solving and development, should be addressed in the literature and
ultimately clarified in federal and state statutes. With the current
movement to change staff titles from "social worker" to "counselor,"
the issue of definition has become critical for professionally trained
counselors concerned with the development of viable counseling programs
for older persons.
Sixth, it is suggested that counselor education departments in
Florida give more emphasis to training staff personnel working with and
for older persons. The results of this study indicate a need at all
aging program staff levels for additional training in counseling
theory, technique, and practice. To a lesser degree, better under¬
standing of the process of aging was indicated as a need.
Seventh, it is suggested that a higher proportion of older
persons be employed in Aging programs, thus supporting a positive view
of the abilities of older persons to function productively in society.
This study reveals that 42.4% of those sampled were in the 25-35 year
age range, while 6.7% were 61 years of age and older; the conclusion is
that Florida's aging programs have not hired older persons in proportion
to their numbers in the state's population. Should this suggestion be

156
acted upon, more older persons might then be trained as counselors
to fill vacancies in aging programs.
Eighth, this study has demonstrated that there is a considerable
need for provision of training in the areas of counseling and geron¬
tology. As has been indicated, employees in aging programs by and
large lack adequate preparation and/or experience in working with older
persons. This situation seems to exist across job positions, among
program administrators as well as direct service providers. This
inexperience also holds true for training and skills in counseling. This
research has shown that most of the training reported by subjects was
that which they had received after becoming employed in their present
job positions.
Counselor educators have a role in meeting this training need.
It would seen reasonable to insure that all students in counselor
training programs be given at least minimal exposure to gerontological
counseling, because of increasing numbers of older persons whom all
counselors should better understand and appreciate. For the immediate
future, counselor educators should concentrate on developing and imple¬
menting comprehensive on-the-job training programs for current staff
employed in aging programs.
Suggestions for Future Research
In terms of future research, this study provides a data base
from which other investigations could be undertaken in several areas.
First, a greater, in-depth analysis of counseling functions in
programs for older persons is needed. Such an analysis could focus on

157
both the planned or stated counseling components of aging programs
and on those that are actually performed by employees.
Second, attitudes of workers in aging programs towards older
persons should be assessed and correlated with the findings of this
research.
Third, the study has also underscored the need for further
exploration into practical gerontology and its relationship to training
counselors for older persons.
Fourth, more research is needed in the study and development of
skills, techniques, and methods which may be specifically applied to
working with older persons.
Fifth, the study has shown that subjects differ in their
assessment of who should or who can best provide counseling to older
persons. There is a need for additional research to determine the
characteristics and qualities of counselors that are most effective
with the elderly.
Sixth, replication of this study in other states or areas should
provide a basis for useful and needed comparisons and future planning in
Aging programs.
Theories of aging, applied gerontology, and counseling can be
augmented by the research results presented here. There is a need for
the factual, data-based field research that this study provides, to
add to and facilitate evaluation of theoretical conceptualizations in
these areas. Traditional theories concerning the processes and functions
of aging in our society have already undergone alterations recently
(i.e., disengagement). It is expected that the research presented

158
herein will continue to facilitate this process of change and modifica¬
tion of theory.
In terms of gerontological counseling, this research has under¬
scored the problems encountered in defining counseling and counseling
services. Most respondents tended to consider any and all aging program
components as parts of counseling services. This study has demonstrated
that there is considerable confusion over definitions and what falls
into the counseling realm. Concentrated efforts are needed to bring
about a greater consensus of this issue. One cannot expect field staff
to realistically identify counseling needs, to provide counseling
services, or make referrals to counselors if the counseling profession
itself does not make clearly and widely known the definitions and
limits of its field.
This study has implications for job opportunities for counselors.
It is apparent from the research results that most workers perceive
considerable need for the kinds of assistance counseling can provide.
Additionally, it is clear that, of the four nationally mandated services,
counseling is currently receiving least emphasis in Florida. The lack
of adequate training among all program personnel further emphasizes the
need for trained gerontological counselors. Such counselors are
currently needed to provide direct services to older clients, to serve
as consultants for other field and supervisory workers, and as trainers
or training consultants. Input from counselors is needed in program
planning and administration at district and state levels. It is
reasonable to expect that these current needs will be translated into
significantly increased job opportunities for qualified gerontological
counselors in the near future.

Finally, this research has immediate implications for those
responsible for the funding, planning, and administration of programs
for Florida’s older population. It is hoped that administrative staff
will make use of these data in the planning and implementation of
significant counseling services for the elderly. The categorization
of research data by district and job position should facilitate
identification of staff and locations most in need of attention with
respect to counseling services. Training needs can be determined
and planned for, based on this research. Clearly, this and other
applications of the study will result in an improved quality and quantity
of counseling services for older persons. Above all, this study will
hopefully lead to service programs which are more humanistic and more
responsive to the needs of the older citizens of Florida,

APPENDIX A
QUESTIONNAIRE
DEAR PARTICIPANT:
THIS QUESTIONNAIRE IS PART OF A RESEARCH PROJECT STUDYING THE
ROLE OF COUNSELING SERVICES IN FLORIDA'S HEALTH AND REHABILITATIVE
SERVICES AGING AND ADULT SERVICES PROGRAMS. WE ARE INTERESTED IN
LEARNING ABOUT THE PERCEPTIONS HRS PERSONNEL HOLD TOWARDS COUNSELING FOR
OLDER PERSONS (PERSONS OVER 60) AND THEIR OPINIONS REGARDING THE
RELATIONSHIP OF COUNSELING TO OTHER SERVICES CURRENTLY BEING PROVIDED
FOR THE ELDERLY. THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY WILL BE USED TO HELP PLAN
FUTURE SERVICES FOR OLDER PERSONS, IMPROVE CURRENT PROGRAMS, AND MEET
STAFF TRAINING NEEDS.
AS AN HRS OR PROVIDER AGENCY EMPLOYEE WORKING WITH OLDER PERSONS,
YOUR OPINIONS CONCERNING COUNSELING SERVICES FOR THE ELDERLY ARE VITALLY
IMPORTANT. YOUR COOPERATION IS ESSENTIAL FOR THIS STUDY TO BE A
SUCCESS, AND ULTIMATELY TO IMPROVE SERVICES FOR OLDER PERSONS. IT IS
HOPED THAT THE RESULTS WILL BE OF BENEFIT TO HRS EMPLOYEES, LIKE
YOURSELF, TO BETTER PERFORM THEIR DUTIES IN WORKING WITH OLDER PERSONS.
PLEASE BE ASSURED THAT YOUR ANSWERS ARE CONFIDENTIAL AND THAT
YOUR IDENTITY WILL NOT BE KNOWN. THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY WILL BE
REPORTED IN GROUP TERMS WITH NO INDIVIDUAL RESPONDENT IDENTIFICATION.
RESULTS OF THE STUDY WILL BE MADE AVAILABLE TO ALL PARTICIPANTS. THE
RESEARCHER WILL BE AVAILABLE TO ANSWER ANY QUESTIONS OF INDIVIDUAL
160

161
PARTICIPANTS. PARTICIPATION IS VOLUNTARY. YOUR COMPLETION OF THIS
SURVEY AND THE FORM BELOW INDICATE YOUR CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE.
YOU WILL NOT BE PAID FOR PARTICIPATING.
"I HAVE READ AND I UNDERSTAND THE PROCEDURE DESCRIBED ABOVE. I
AGREE TO PARTICIPATE IN THE SURVEY AND HAVE RECEIVED A COPY OF THIS
DESCRIPTION."
SUBJECT
WITNESS
THE INVESTIGATOR HAS EXPLAINED THE CONTENT OF THIS STATEMENT OF
INFORMED CONSENT TO THIS SUBJECT IN DETAIL.
, INVESTIGATOR MILLEDGE MURPHEY
PROGRAM SUPERVISOR, AGING AND ADULT
SERVICES
2002 N.W. 13th STREET, 3rd FLOOR
GAINESVILLE, FL 32601
PHONE SUNCOM 325-1145

IbZ
THIS QUESTIONNAIRE IS PART OF A PROJECT DESIGNED TO STUDY THE
ROLE OF COUNSELING SERVICES IN FLORIDA'S HEALTH AND REHABILITATIVE
SERVICES AGING AND ADULT SERVICES PROGRAMS. COUNSELING SERVICES ARE
DEFINED AS:
ASSISTANCE IN RESOLVING SOCIAL, HEALTH, OR EMOTIONAL
PROBLEMS THROUGH ESTABLISHMENT OF A THERAPEUTIC
RELATIONSHIP, AND APPLICATION OF SKILLED INTERVIEWING,
LISTENING, AND PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES. (FACT,
1978, p. 29).
WE ARE INTERESTED IN LEARNING ABOUT THE UNDERSTANDINGS PERSONNEL
WORKING IN AGING PROGRAMS HAVE REGARDING COUNSELING SERVICES FOR OLDER
PERSONS (PERSONS OVER 60) AND THEIR OPINIONS REGARDING THE RELATIONSHIP
OF COUNSELING TO OTHER SERVICES CURRENTLY BEING PROVIDED FOR THE
ELDERLY. THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY WILL BE USED TO HELP PLAN FUTURE
SERVICES FOR OLDER PERSONS, IMPROVE CURRENT PROGRAMS, AND MEET STAFF
TRAINING NEEDS.
AS AN HRS OR PROVIDER AGENCY EMPLOYEE WORKING WITH OLDER PERSONS,
YOUR OPINIONS CONCERNING COUNSELING SERVICES FOR THE ELDERLY ARE
VITALLY IMPORTANT. YOUR COOPERATION IS ESSENTIAL FOR THIS STUDY TO
BE A SUCCESS, AND ULTIMATELY TO IMPROVE SERVICES TO OLDER PERSONS.
PLEASE BE ASSURED THAT YOUR ANSWERS ARE CONFIDENTIAL AND THAT
YOUR IDENTITY WILL NOT BE KNOWN. THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY WILL BE
REPORTED IN GROUP TERMS WITH NO INDIVIDUAL IDENTIFIED. PARTICIPATION
IS VOLUNTARY, AND YOUR COMPLETION OF THIS SURVEY WILL BE THE INDICA¬
TION OF YOUR CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE.
IT IS IMPORTANT THAT YOU ANSWER EACH ITEM. THE QUESTIONNAIRE
SHOULD TAKE ONLY A LIMITED AMOUNT OF YOUR TIME.

163
PLEASE GIVE ONE ANSWER TO EACH ITEM BY CHOOSING THE RESPONSE
THAT BEST DESCRIBES YOUR CURRENT FEELINGS. IT IS YOUR FIRST IMPRESSION,
THE IMMEDIATE "FEELING" ABOUT THE ITEMS, THAT IS IMPORTANT.
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ASSISTANCE AND COOPERATION.

164
INFORMATION FORM
THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION IS REQUESTED SO THAT WE CAN MAKE
MEANINGFUL COMPARISONS AMONG AND BETWEEN THE GROUPS OF RESPONDENTS.
PLEASE CIRCLE ONE RESPONSE FOR EACH QUESTION. FOR EXAMPLE
THE OLDER AMERICANS ACT WAS FIRST PASSED IN:
(T) 1965
B.1973
********************
1.
AGE:
A. UNDER 25
D.
46-55
G.
71-80
B. 25-35
E.
56-60
H.
OVER 80
C. 36-45
F.
61-70
2.
SEX:
A. MALE
B.
FEMALE
3.
RACE:
A. CAUCASIAN
B.
ETHNIC MINORITY
4.
WORK LOCATION:
A. DISTRICT I
E.
DISTRICT V
I.
DISTRICT IX
B. DISTRICT II
F.
DISTRICT VI
J.
DISTRICT X
C. DISTRICT III
G.
DISTRICT VII
K.
DISTRICT XI
D. DISTRICT IV
H.
DISTRICT VIII
L.
STATE PROGRAM OFFICE
5. EDUCATION:
A. COMPLETED GRADES 0-11
B. HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATE
C. ASSOCIATE OF ARTS DEGREE
D. FOUR YEAR COLLEGE GRADUATE
E. MASTERS DEGREE
F. Ed.S. DEGREE
G. Ph.D. DEGREE
H. OTHER (SPECIFY)
6. SUBJECT IN WHICH HIGHEST DEGREE WAS EARNED:
A. ADMINISTRATION
B. COUNSELING
C. SOCIAL WORK
D. GERONTOLOGY
E. PSYCHOLOGY
F. SOCIOLOGY
G. OTHER (SPECIFY)

165
7.YOUR PRESENT POSITION TITLE:
A. STATE PROGRAM OFFICE STAFF F
B. DISTRICT PROGRAM SUPERVISOR G
C. DISTRICT PROGRAM SPECIALIST
D. AREA AGENCY ON AGING STAFF H
E. PROJECT STAFF ADMINISTRATION
I
PROJECT STAFF SERVICE WORKER
SPECIALIZED ADULT SERVICES
CASEWORK SUPERVISOR
SPECIALIZED ADULT SERVICES
WORKER
OTHER (SPECIFY)
8.NUMBER OF YEARS IN PRESENT POSITION:
A. LESS THAN 2 YEARS
B. 2-5 YEARS
C. 6-10 YEARS
D. 11-15 YEARS
E. 16-25 YEARS
F. 26-35 YEARS
G. OVER 35 YEARS
9.SPECIAL TRAINING OR EXPERIENCE IN WORKING WITH OLDER PERSONS:
A. YES
B. NO
10. * IF YES, PLEASE DESCRIBE:
11. SPECIAL TRAINING OR EXPERIENCE IN COUNSELING:
A. YES
B. NO
12. * IF YES, PLEASE DESCRIBE:

166
EACH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS AND QUESTIONS EXPRESS A CONCERN
REGARDING THE PROVISION OF COUNSELING SERVICES FOR OLDER PERSONS. TO
THE RIGHT OF EACH STATEMENT ARE FOUR (4) RESPONSE CHOICES:
SA - STRONGLY AGREE D - DISAGREE
A - AGREE SD - STRONGLY DISAGREE
READ EACH STATEMENT AND CIRCLE THE RESPONSE WHICH MOST ACCURATELY
DESCRIBES YOUR PRESENT FEELING TOWARD THE STATEMENT. PLEASE ANSWER
EVERY ITEM, AND MAKE ONLY ONE RESPONSE FOR EACH STATEMENT.
********************
COUNSELING MAY BE DEFINED AS: ". . .ASSISTANCE IN RESOLVING
SOCIAL, HEALTH, OR EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS THROUGH ESTABLISHMENT OF A
THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP, AND APPLICATION OF SKILLED INTERVIEWING,
LISTENING, AND PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES."
1. TO WHAT EXTENT DO YOU AGREE THAT THIS
DEFINITION DESCRIBES COUNSELING AND
COUNSELING ACTIVITES WITH OLDER PERSONS: SA A D SD
2. TO WHAT EXTENT DO YOU AGREE THAT COUNSELING
SERVICES AS CURRENTLY PROVIDED IN HRS AGING
AND ADULT SERVICES PROGRAMS ARE CONSTANT
WITH THIS DEFINITION: SA A D SD
TO WHAT EXTENT DO YOU AGREE THAT THE FOLLOWING SERVICES CAN BE
CONSIDERED AS "COUNSELING" ACCORDING TO THE DEFINITION GIVEN ABOVE:
3. LEGAL COUNSELING SA A D SD
4. TAX COUNSELING SA A D SD
5.INVESTMENT COUNSELING
SA A D SD
6. BUDGETING
SA A D SD
7. MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELING
SA A D SD
8. MARITAL COUNSELING
SA
A
D
SD

167
9.
SOCIAL SERVICE COUNSELING
SA
A
D
SD
10.
PROTECTIVE SERVICES
SA
A
D
SD
11.
NURSING HOME OMSBUDMAN
SA
A
D
SD
12.
CONSUMER EDUCATION
SA
A
D
SD
13.
INFORMATION AND REFERRAL
SA
A
D
SD
THE OLDER AMERICANS ACT OF 1965,
AS AMENDED, MANDATES THAT
PROGRAMS
FOR OLDER PERSONS PROVIDE SERVICES IN FOUR (4) MAJOR AREAS:
TRANSPORTATION HOME SERVICES
LEGAL AND OTHER COUNSELING RESIDENTIAL REPAIR AND RENOVATION
PLEASE RANK THESE SERVICES FROM ONE (1) TO FOUR (4) ACCORDING TO
WHICH YOU FEEL ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT (AREAS OF GREATEST NEED) FOR OLDER
PERSONS (1 = GREATEST NEED: 4 = LEAST NEED):
14. TRANSPORTATION
15. HOME SERVICES
16. LEGAL AND OTHER COUNSELING
17. RESIDENTIAL REPAIR AND RENOVATION
PLEASE RANK THESE AREAS FROM ONE (1) TO FOUR (4) ACCORDING TO WHICH
YOU BELIEVE ARE CURRENTLY BEING PROVIDED WITH MOST EMPHASIS IN HRS AGING
AND ADULT SERVICES PROGRAMS IN YOUR AREA (1 = MOST EMPHASIS; 4 = LEAST
EMPHASIS):
18. TRANSPORTATION
19. HOME SERVICES
20. LEGAL AND OTHER COUNSELING
21. RESIDENTIAL REPAIR AND RENOVATION
PLEASE RANK THESE AREAS FROM ONE (1) TO FOUR (4) ACCORDING TO WHICH
YOU BELIEVE ARE THE MOST EASILY PROVIDED TO OLDER PERSONS (1 = MOST
EASILY PROVIDED, 4 = MOST DIFFICULT TO PROVIDE):

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22. TRANSPORTATION
23. HOME SERVICE
24. LEGAL AND OTHER COUNSELING
25. RESIDENTIAL REPAIR AND RENOVATION
TO WHAT EXTENT TO YOU AGREE:
26. COUNSELING NEEDS OF OLDER PERSONS SERVED
SA A D SD
SA A D SD
SA A D SD
SA A D SD
BY HRS AGING AND ADULT SERVICE PROGRAMS
ARE CURRENTLY BEING ADEQUATELY MET:
27. BETTER QUALITY, MORE COMPREHENSIVE
COUNSELING SERVICES CAN BE PROVIDED
WITH EXISTING FUNDING AND STAFF LEVELS
THAN THOSE CURRENTLY BEING PROVIDED
WITHIN THE AGING NETWORK:
28. COUNSELING SERVICES CURRENTLY AVAILABLE
IN HRS AGING AND ADULT SERVICE PROGRAMS
ARE PROVIDING SIGNIFICANT ASSISTANCE TO
OLDER PERSONS.
29. COUNSELING SERVICES CURRENTLY AVAILABLE
THROUGH COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH CENTERS
ARE PROVIDING SIGNIFICANT ASSISTANCE TO
OLDER PERSONS:
COUNSELING SERVICES CURRENTLY AVAILABLE ARE PROVIDING SIGNIFICANT
ASSISTANCE TO OLDER PERSONS IN THEIR ATTEMPTS TO AVAIL THEMSELVES OF
EXISTING:
30. TRANSPORTATION
31. HOME SERVICES
32. LEGAL AND OTHER COUNSELING
33. RESIDENTIAL REPAIR AND RENOVATION
34. PUBLICLY FUNDED COUNSELING SERVICES SHOULD
BE PROVIDED ONLY IN EXISTING AAS PROGRAMS
OR IN COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH CENTERS TO
MAXIMIZE BENEFITS FOR OLDER PERSONS:
SA
A
D
SD
SA
A
D
SD
SA
A
D
SD
SA
A
D
SD
SA
A
D
SD

169
35. COUNSELING SERVICES FOR THE ELDERLY
SHOULD BE PROVIDED PRIMARILY BY
EXISTING AAS PROGRAMS (RATHER THAN
COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH CENTERS) IN
ORDER TO MAXIMIZE ACCESS TO SUCH
SERVICES FOR OLDER PERSONS: SA A D SD
PLEASE EVALUATE THE LEVEL OF YOUR KNOWLEDGE IN THE LISTED AREAS
BY CIRCLING ONE OF THE FOUR (4) RESPONSE CHOICES TO THE RIGHT OF EACH
STATEMENT.
COMP. (COMPREHENSIVE) ADQ. (ADEQUATE)
LIM. (LIMITED) INADQ. (INADEQUATE)
36.
NEEDS OF OLDER PERSONS
COMP.
ADQ.
LIM.
INADQ.
37.
COUNSELING NEEDS OF OLDER PERSONS
COMP.
ADQ.
LIM.
INADQ.
38.
CHARACTERISTICS OF OLDER PERSONS
COMP.
ADQ.
LIM.
INADQ.
39.
PROCESS OF AGING
COMP.
ADQ.
LIM.
INADQ.
40.
SERVICES AVAILABLE FOR OLDER
PERSONS
COMP.
ADQ.
LIM.
INADQ.
41.
IMPACT OF COUNSELING SERVICES ON
QUALITY OF LIFE OF OLDER PERSONS
COMP.
ADQ.
LIM.
INADQ.
42.
COUNSELING THEORY
COMP.
ADQ.
LIM.
INADQ.
43.
COUNSELING TECHNIQUES
COMP.
ADQ.
LIM.
INADQ.
44.
COUNSELING CONCERNS OF OLDER
PERSONS
COMP.
ADQ.
LIM.
INADQ.
45.
OLDER PERSONS" UNDERSTANDINGS OF
THEIR ATTITUDES ABOUT COUNSELING
SERVICES
COMP.
ADQ.
LIM.
INADQ.
46.
OLDER PERSONS PERCEPTIONS AND
ATTITUDES ABOUT COUNSELORS
COMP.
ADQ.
LIM.
INADQ.
TO WHAT EXTENT DO YOU AGREE:
47.
THAT PROFESSIONALLY TRAINED COUNSELORS
ARE NEEDED TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE
COUNSELING SERVICES FOR OLDER
PERSONS
SA
A
D SD

170
48. THAT TRAINED PARAPROFESSIONALS CAN
PROVIDE ADEQUATE COUNSELING SERVICES
FOR OLDER PERSONS: SA A D SD
49. THAT TRAINED VOLUNTEERS CAN PROVIDE
ADEQUATE COUNSELING SERVICES FOR
OLDER PERSONS: SA A D SD
50. THAT TRAINED PEER COUNSELORS (OTHER
OLDER PERSONS) CAN PROVIDE ADEQUATE
COUNSELING SERVICES FOR OLDER PERSONS: SA A D SD
51. THAT NO SPECIALIZED EDUCATION/TRAINING
IS NEEDED TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE COUNSELING
SERVICES FOR OLDER PERSONS: SA A D SD
52. THAT PERSONS FUNCTIONING AS COUNSELORS
FOR OLDER PERSONS SHOULD BE PROFESSIONALLY
TRAINED AND LICENSED TO INSURE PROVISION
OF ADEQUATE COUNSELING SERVICES FOR
OLDER PERSONS:
53. THAT NO SPECIALIZED TRAINING IN NEEDS
AND CHARACTERISTICS OF OLDER PERSONS
IS NEEDED IN ORDER TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE
COUNSELING SERVICES FOR THE ELDERLY:
54. THAT PROFESSIONAL COUNSELORS FUNCTIONING
AS DISTRICT LEVEL STAFF CONSULTANTS CAN
TRAIN EXISTING DIRECT SERVICE STAFF TO
ADEQUATELY PROVIDE COUNSELING SERVICES
FOR OLDER PERSONS:
55. THAT, BY HELPING STAFF TO FOCUS ON OLDER
PERSONS AS IMPORTANT HUMAN BEINGS,
COUNSELING SERVICES CAN ENHANCE THE
EFFECTIVENESS OF ALL OTHER SERVICES
FOR OLDER PERSONS:
56. THAT COUNSELING SERVICES SHOULD BE
PROVIDED SOLELY AS A SEPARATE AND
DISTINCT SERVICE RATHER THAN AS AN
INTEGRAL PART OF OTHER EXISTING
SERVICE PROGRAMS FOR OLDER PERSONS:
57. THAT COUNSELING SERVICES SHOULD BE
CARRIED OUT AS PART OF ALL OTHER HRS
SERVICES FOR OLDER PERSONS:
58. THAT OLDER PERSONS ARE MORE EFFECTIVE
COUNSELORS WITH THEIR PEERS THAN ARE
YOUNGER PERSONS FUNCTIONING AS
COUNSELORS FOR OLDER PERSONS:
SA A D SD
SA A D SD
SA A D SD
SA A D SD
SA A D SD
SA A D SD
SA A D SD

171
59. THAT COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH CENTERS
ARE CURRENTLY MEETING THE COUNSELING
NEEDS OF OLDER PERSONS IN YOUR SERVICE
AREA: SA A D SD
60. THAT HRS AGING AND ADULT SERVICES PROGRAMS
ARE CURRENTLY MEETING THE COUNSELING NEEDS
OF OLDER PERSONS IN YOUR SERVICE AREA: SA A D SD
61. WHAT SPECIFIC COUNSELING NEEDS DO YOU BELIEVE OLDER PERSONS HAVE
WHICH ARE NOT CURRENTLY BEING MET BY EXISTING COUNSELING PROGRAMS
(SUCH AS GRIEF COUNSELING, EMPLOYMENT COUNSELING, LEISURE COUNSELING,
FAMILY COUNSELING OR DRUG COUNSELING)? PLEASE LIST:

APPENDIX B
STANDARDIZED PROCEDURES FOR ADMINISTRATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE
I.GENERAL:
1. The questionnaire will be administered in group settings
only. No individual administrations are planned or
anticipated.
2. The questionnaire will be administered either by the re¬
searcher or by a designated representative who will be given
a copy of these procedures.
3. The researcher will telephone the personnel selected to
administer the instrument, in those districts to which the
researcher cannot travel, to discuss these procedures and to
insure that they are followed, and that all questions re¬
garding them are answered.
II. ADMINISTRATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE:
1. Participants will be welcomed and the researcher (or sub¬
stitute), will introduce himself/herself and briefly
explain the purpose of the study, as outlined on the cover
sheet of the instrument.
2. Questionnaire will be distributed to participants by
researcher or substitute.
3. Researcher (or substitute) will read aloud the instructions
contained in the questionnaire, the informed consent form,
and the introductory comments, and answer any questions
regarding these items.
4. Researcher (or substitute) will read aloud the sample question
and directions for answering the questionnaire.
5. Time will be allowed for questions at this point. Only
questions that deal with the mechanics of answering the
questionnaire will be answered.
6. Participants will be informed that they should use their
best judgement in responding to the questions and no subject-
related information will be provided during the administration.
172

173
7. Subjects will be instructed not to discuss the questionnaire
among themselves while completing it.
8. All subjects will be asked to remain in the room until all
participants have completed the questionnaire.
9. Researcher (or substitute) will collect all questionnaires,
reviewing them to insure that all data forms, consent forms,
etc. have been completed.
10. Researcher or substitute will thank participants for their
cooperation and participation.
11. Researcher (or substitute) will invite participants to comment
on the questionnaire and topics it raises. Pertinent comments
will be recorded on a sheet separate from the questionnaire
forms by the researcher or substitute.
III. MAIL ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURES
1. The District Aging and Adult Services Program Supervisor or
Specialist will administer the questionnaire in those
Districts which the researcher is unable to visit personally.
2. The researcher will send the random listing (by position
control number) of those persons to be sampled to the
Program Supervisor after discussing the standardized
procedures in detail by telephone. In the same mailing,
numbered copies of the questionnaire will be mailed to the
program supervisor with adequate copies for all district
program of fice staff, all AAA staff, 13 SAS workers, and 13
POS workers. The copies for each grouping will be in
individually labled envelopes with a listing of the exact
individuals to be sampled as determined by the random
selection procedure.
3. The program supervisor will be advised to telephone the
researcher with any qestuions that occur prior to or during
administration of the questionnaire.
4. Following completion of the questionnaire, the completed
consent forms and instruments w