Citation
Ethics and esthetics in Andre Gide's Les Faux-monnayeurs

Material Information

Title:
Ethics and esthetics in Andre Gide's Les Faux-monnayeurs
Alternate Title:
Ethics and esthetics in André Gide's Les Faux-monnayeurs
Creator:
Lambeth, John Addison, 1950-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
viii, 243 leaves : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Aesthetics ( jstor )
Irony ( jstor )
Literary criticism ( jstor )
Morality ( jstor )
Narratives ( jstor )
Narrators ( jstor )
Novelists ( jstor )
Novels ( jstor )
Poetry ( jstor )
Writing ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- Romance Languages and Literatures -- UF
Romance Languages and Literatures thesis Ph. D

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1988.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by John Addison Lambeth.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
023728672 ( ALEPH )
19349387 ( OCLC )
AFH5917 ( NOTIS )

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Full Text











ETHIC
IN
LES


S AND ESTHETICS
ANDRE GIDE'S
FAUX-MONNAYEURS


JOHN


ADDISON


LAMBETH


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE 0
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY





















































Copyright 1988

by

John Addison Lambeth



































Dedicated to

Philip Stanhope Lambeth

whose recent arrival helped put everything
in proper perspective















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS


ABSTRACT


. ..................... vI


. S S S S S S U U S 5 0 S S 5 4 U S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S


CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION . .
NOTES


CHAPTER


THIRD REPUBLIC BELIEFS AND VALUES


. .... 7


POSITIVISM AND EDUCATIONAL REFORM .............
ZOLA AND THE EXPERIMENTAL NOVEL
CLASSICAL AND SPIRITUAL VALUES .. ... ....
SUBJECTIVITY AND VITALISM
NOTES


CHAPTER 3: THE FOUNDATIONS AND FLUIDITY OF GIDE'S


ESTHETIC


THE SYMBOLIST MOVEMENT
PALUDES AND THE CRITIQUE OF IDEALISM
GIDE'S READERS
A MOSAIC OF NOVELS
NOTES ... .


* S S S S S S S S S
* S U U U S S S S
* U S S S S S S S *
* S S S S S p p S
* 5 5 5 P U S *


CHAPTER 4: NARRATIVE ELEMENTS IN LES FAUX-MONNAYEURS


DESCRIPTION AND
DIALOGUE
NARRATIVE VOICE
FRAGMENTATION OF
NOTES


SETTING


THE NARRATIVE


* U p p a S S S C S U P U S U U
* S S S p p a a S p a a a U S S
* S S S S S 5 5 5 5 S S S S
* U S S S S S U S S S S S S S
* S S S S S p p p a S S S S S S


CHAPT


ER 5: L


HISTORY
MISE EN
MISE EN
MISE EN
NOTES


A MISE EN ABYME


AND USE OF THE TERM ....
ABYME OF THE STATEMENT
ABYME OF THE ENUNCIATION
ABYME OF THE CODE


. ..S U S S C .


CHAPTER 6: TIME AND HISTORY IN LES FAUX-MONNAYEURS











CHAPTER


BIBLIOGRAPHY


CONCLUSION


229


S S 5 9 S S S S S S S S S S S S S S


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH












KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS


Journal d'Andr. Gide I


(JAG I)


Journal d'Andre Gide II


(JAG II)


Romans.


R4cits et Soties.


Oeuvres Ivrioues


(Plaide Edition)


(III)


Oeuvres Compltes d'Andr6 Gide


(15 vols.)


(OC I,II,III,... )













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


ETHICS AND ESTHETICS IN ANDRE GIDE'S
LES FAUX-MONNAYEURS


By

John Addison Lambeth


April, 1988

Chairman: Professor Raymond Gay-Crosier
Major Department: Romance Languages and Literatures


Andrd Gide's experimental novel,


Les Faux-Monnaveurs,


has frequently been criticized


aesthetically flawed and as


ethically naive.


Gide '


novel


Critics have,


on the one hand,


exercise


considered


self-absorption,


attempting


normalize


the


notion


homosexual


relationships


between men and boys,


interesting novelistic


experiment bul


or on the other, an

t lacking coherence.


Many of his social-minded contemporaries found his novel to


overly


concerned with


esthetics,


totally


ignoring a


deepening social


crisis


wake


of World War


recent years there has been a reevaluation of Gide's novel


and


critics


have


tended


put


aside


any


ethical


considerations, judging Les Faux-Monnaveurs solely on formal










subtle ethical


foundations,


blinded by the rigorous


construction that they have discovered. They have failed to

grasp the significant marriage of the medium and the message

in this novel.

Gide described his early novels as a mosaic of works

that he conceived simultaneously, all dealing with the same


problem,


authenticity,


from


different


perspectives.


considered none of them to be truly novels precisely because


they were


told


from


single


perspective.


Faux-


Monnaveurs


was


true novel,


told from multiple


perspective.


Les Faux-Monnaveurs


is a synthetic work,


referring to


and reproducing many


styles


novelistic discourse and


form.


novel


about


writing


and


reading.


counterfeit gold coin functions as a metaphor for literature


and the counterfeit reality that it represents.


The coin is


also symbolic of the relationship between the novelist and

his public and it calls into question the whole problem of

relative values in the modern world. Gide's use of the mise


en abyme narrative


technique creates a novelistic puzzle


that forces the reader to actively participate in the search


for meaning.


The mise en abyme is a formal analog to


paradoxical structure of irony. They are both models of the


al teritv


of hP.in


and se r v


as vehi ni e


tn rnnvspv th
















CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION


AndrB


Gide began to write Les Faux-Monnaveurs


in 1919


at the age of fifty. By this time he was a widely read and


respected


critic,


essayist,


playwright,


translator


and


'fictional


author.


This


last circumlocution derives


from


Gide's


idiosyncratic genre distinctions.


The dedication at


the beginning of Les Faux-Monnayeurs reads



A Roger Martin du Gard
je dedie mon premier roman
en t4moignage d'amiti4 profonde.


A.G.


That Gide


(III,p.932)


should consider this work his first novel


might come as a surprise to some who have read his earlier

works such as 1'Immoraliste, la Porte 4troite, Isabelle, les


Caves du Vatican


and la Symphonie pastorale.


These works


are commonly considered to be novels today and


they were


in Gide's


time as well.


Gide himself had,


prior to


publication of Isabelle,


referred


his


early work


novels.













nature


and


function


the


novel.


This


reflection


germinated and blossomed forth in the context of an ongoing


debate among various


their respective


literary


journals


tendencies


and magazines.


represented by

Auguste Angl&s


describes this literary quarrel




Qu'il s'agisse d'esth6tique, de politique, de


religion,


morale,


toutes


ces


recoupent 1'un des ddbats enchevetrd


"directions"
s de 1'6poque


qui voit la restauration des valeurs "classiques"


et la critique du "romantisme"


C'est un example


de ces "captures" qu'on rencontre dans 1'histoire


des


iddes


come


dans


celle


des


fleuves


progressivement,


une


question


prend


tant


d'importance dans les pol6miques qu'elle attire a


elle


ses


voisines.-


this


rather


confusing debate of


accusations and


counter-accusations, Angl&s isolates three major themes


celui


des


quality4


classiques'


opp


os6es


aux


'aberration
considered


romantiques';


comme


seule


celui


du classicisme


expression


genie


frangais,
dernier;


et de


celui


la pr6cellence


des


mdrites


attribute a ce


'esprit


d'exploration psychologique et morale.


This


debate may be understood as symptomatic of what


various critics have called the crisis of the novel3 or the


.-r4 c?4 a nf rh nnnon nP 1 4 n 4n f rt i r Q a'fr 1T


M *? I nh ol Pmn fi Tnrl













symbolist movement,


also


1890s.


In an attempt to


better understand Andr6 Gide's esthetic position in relation


this


crisis,


propose


to examine his evolution as a


writer


the


historical


context


Third


French


Republic.


It is not my purpose here


to reduce Gide


to a


simple product of this period, but rather to examine certain

influences that helped to shape his vision of the novel and


eventually


led him


to write


Les


Faux-Monnaveurs.


I am


encouraged


this


endeavor


Gide's


own


essay


, "De


1'influence en literaturee" published in 1900, in which he

says of the artist


Que peut-il? Seul!


--Il est d6bordd.


il n'a


assez


ses


cinq


sens pour palper le monde;


ses


penser,
sent.


vingt-quatre heures par jour,


s'exprimer


II a besoin d'adjoints,


pour vivr


n'y suffit pas,


de substitute,


secr6taires. (OC III


, p.251)


I shall begin by examining the intellectual climate in


which Gide grew up,

philosophical bases


giving particular


for the


attention


literary movements


that had


formed


France at


time


of Gide's


entry


into


literary


scene in 1889 with


the composition of his first


'novel,


' Les


Cahiers d'Andr. Walter.


It is my contention













remain his primary concerns


through all of his subsequent


work.


will


first look at the dominant philosophical and


esthetic movements of his early years before describing the

reaction of which he was a part.


third chapter concerns Gide's literary production


up until 1919 when he began work on Les Faux-Monnayeurs.


discuss


his


early


writing


the


importance


his


involvement


with


the


Symbolist movement


and


Stdphane


Mallarm6 in particular and his involvement with the dominant


literary journal of his time,


La Nouvelle Revue franchise.


Gide has explicitly rejected the notion of an evolution in


his


literary


production,


claiming


rather


that


had


conceived of the totality of his literary works up until Les


Faux-Monnaveurs from the beginning and that his


individual


works should be seen as pieces of a mosaic, each exploring a

different aspect of narrative technique.

The fourth chapter is an examination of certain classic


narrative


elements


Les


Faux-Monnaveurs


such


description,


dialogue and narrative voice. The point of the


chapter


show


the


one


hand


multitude


techniques that Gide employs and the subtlety with which he

blends them, and on the other hand the paradoxical nature of


f a 1 C ,, -^ 1C I n a -r ^* 1


jj^ + i ^ ^ I*


I





nnnnnnn n


Ckn


p.













Les


Faux-Monnaveurs


refer


particularly


recent


structuralist critiques of Gide's novel


that help reveal


both the complexity of his project and its coherence.


The


last chapter


then


a critique of


the certain


reductionist aspects


structuralist approach


that


reveal Gide's subtle technique but in so doing conceal major


thematic


concerns


ethical


nature


well


ethical nature of his formal concerns.


Gide' s predilection


for


a subversive


form of


argumentation by misdirection


gradually


draws


reader


into


web


uncertainty,


raising question but offering no answers or only inadequate

ones.


Faux-Monnaveurs


first


glance


seems


to stand


outside of history.


There are contradictory references


people


historical


events


that


could


not


logically


coexist, although the basic field of historical reference is


the early


20th


century before World War


the other


hand


there is a very rich social milieu within the novel.


Besides


novelists


there


are


educators


and


students,


scientist,


psychiatrist,


preacher,


musician,


housewives,


lawyers


and criminals.


Furthermore,


money,


dominant form of social interaction,


is a central metaphor


4 n 4-l~~~n nn~~.n1 .s 4 1 1 n 4.. 4.. a m rrn 4- 4. a a na..ea,4.an*4


Les


*- **-^ n i~ r 1 T"


Cf-r l- AhC ^+*^ h ^










6



NOTES


Auguste Angles,


Andr6 Gide et le premier groupe de


Nouvelle Revue franchise, Paris, Gallimard, 1978, p.199.

2. Ibid., p.200.


Michel Raimond,


Cris


e du roman aux


lendemains du


Naturalisme aux annees vingt, Paris, Josd Corti, 1966.


Albert


Leonard,


La Crise du concept de


France au XXe Siecle, Paris, Jos4 Corti, 1974.


litt6rature en
















CHAPTER 2



THIRD REPUBLIC BELIEFS AND VALUES



Positivism and Educational Reform


Positivism, as a philosophical movement, has its roots


in the writings of Auguste Comte.


He used the term


'positive' in opposition to what he perceived as negative

thought in Hegelian dialectics. Although Comte was a rather


crude empiricist,


deriving his method from scientific


investigation,


added


the


interesting


twist of


historicism. He believed in stages in the history of ideas,

from the religious to the metaphysical and finally to the


scientific .


Comte denied metaphysics and attempted to


transform philosophical theory into scientific theory.

Marcuse says of Comte's project,



'Philosophie positive' is, in the last analysis, a


contradiction


in adjecto.


refers


the


synthesis of all empirical knowledge ordered into
a system of harmonious progress following an


inexorable course.


All opposition to social


r afO l 4+4 /^ 4 C nkl 4 *ar* aA nTll nnnni n4n l













In other words,


Comte wanted


develop an independent


science of


society


that would concern itself


only with


facts, not with transcendental illusions. He saw society


organized


system,


like


nature,


that


science


sociology would eventually


elucidate completely.


Comte's


writings were very clear and common-sensical, which perhaps


accounts at least in part,


for his great popularity.


Comte


read the works of the German philosopher Emmanuel Kant and


agreed with his fundamental


distinction between


noumenaa,


things in themselves, and 'phenomena,


them.


' things as we perceive


Comte decided that the search for true knowledge was


necessarily


limited


the systematic study of phenomena


from which one could derive


general laws.


Any speculation


concerning first causes or ultimate ends was disallowed


was


not


subj ect


scientific


verification


through


observation.


Positivism was,


in a very real sense,


a program for


society because Comte believed that from scientific method

one could make predictions and from these predictions one


could act.


In his Cours de Philosophie Positive Comte gives


four primary applications of positivism: 1) the rational and


objective search for the laws governing the human mind,


a .. n a e 4 rt 1 C< I .S 4 I n ,^ 4 n 1 a( n -t ww n I- Ja n S .a 4- a C


nmn 1, AAJ ,, ci, A U: 1 rr










9

organization of society.2 In his explanation of the first

point Comte rejects out of hand any possibility of knowledge

through introspection



Mais quant a observer de la meme manire les


phenom&nes
s'ex4cutent,


intellectuals pendant qu' ils
ii y a impossibility manifeste.


L'individu pensant ne sau
don't 1'un raisonnerai
regarderait raisonner


rait se partager en deux,
t, tandis que 1'autre
L'organe observe et


1'organe


observateur


etant,


dans


cas,


identiques comment 1'observation pourrait-elle
avoir lieu?)



I will have occasion to return to this problem of the

divided subject in the discussion below of realist

literature and the problem of the narrator. Before coming

back to this point it will be useful to look at some of the

effects of Comte's method in three other areas: educational


reform,


delineating fields of


inquiry


, and the re-


organization of society.


Positivism,


with its pragmatic vision and its naive


belief in inexorable human progress through science, was the

ideal philosophy for the managerial Republicans who were to

gain control of France in the wake of the debacle of the


Franco-Prussian War in 1871.


Indeed the Republicans


4i 1 a r- a Av 4 a 1 n a it on nra a ^ n^ r^ n^- ^ k ^ n it r aF % Trt wn 4 r n a TI 4












perceived as a primitive world view.


They gradually sought


eradicate all


traces


religious


teaching from the


public school system.

the idea of religion,


Comte was not necessarily hostile to

but he opposed both the unverifiable


dogmas


Catholicism


and


critical


metaphysics


Protestantism. Charles Lalo writes that


D'une part, avec les conservateurs,


11 affirme le


besoin


d'une


autoritd,


d'une


hidrarchie,


meme


d'une tradition,


voire d'une religion,


pourvu que


toutes ces forces d'organisation
du novel esprit scientifique 4


soient pendtries


When the Republicans took over the school system they


distributed new textbooks on history,


literature and morals


the


primary


and secondary


schools.


They


replaced


religious teaching with their own lay morality.


In the


late nineteenth century a new attack


the


Catholi


Church


this


time


the


Republicans


(many of them Protestants) ,


repeated


the process in areas where the Church had hitherto


been supreme.


Till


then ,


been basically religious


tradition


popular education had
keeping with this


the Republicans made their primary


schools concentrate on morals 5


The Third Republic is rightfully called "la republique des


on













and they tended,


of course,


to hire assistants with similar


ideas;


this was


especially the


case


the educational


system.


Fernand Buisson,


for


instance,


was


director of


primary education from 1879 until 1896. He was a well known


author,


a member of the Radical Party and of the League of


the Rights of Man, and later president of the powerful Ligue


d'Enseignement.


Buisson developed a neo-Protestant doctrine


in his


book Christianisme


liberal


calling for a radical


separation but complementarity between Church and school. He

promoted what he called "la foi laique.".6


Buisson was


greatly influenced by a Catholic heretic


who spent his


life attacking the Church,


the philosopher


Charles Renouvier. He was the author of numerous textbooks

for teachers of Republican morals. In 1873, he converted to


Protestantism and later,


the pages of his


journal La


Critiaue


philosophique,


recommended the conversion of


France to Protestantism

moral decadence. This x


a solution to social unrest and


leo-Protestant tendency grounded its


moral system in the writings of Kant and in the belief in

human progress through the development of the intellect.


These


ideas dovetailed nicely with


the positivism of


Comte's


disciple Jules


Ferry.


appointed a Protestant


- ,-, I-_


n a n r m a i C a r n n* 4- a V n 1 a U a -A n 1 n si 4-


*n a c^ rn r^n v M ^ va i nty u ^ rr^^ T













minister o

giving him


f education,


large place


preserved Comte's

e in the syllabus.


popularity by

Comte believed


that education should be both emotional and esthetic, using

the observation of concrete phenomena and active methods to


promote sociability in the masses.


He also gave primacy to


moral


Jesuits'


education and


educational


even


skills,


expressed


admiration


specifically


for


because


they


sought active and voluntary submission


opposed to sterile


and


disorganized


discussion. 8


Comte


went


recommend


that education be


governed by an independent,


autonomous corporation of intellectuals which provided Ferry


with the theoretical


justification to make the university


self-governing body.


Ferry


also


introduced


composition


into


primary


education,


stressing a positive method of


Zeldin provides evidence


that,


observation.


not only was near-universal


literacy achieved during this period in France but that the

children learned to write well.


After the decline of religion,


was laid on choosing the


most admired writers


great str


very best pro


Reading,


as a whole continued to be seen
values.9


ess


by the


eed education
a conquest of













believed


that


every


child


should


serve


moral


apprenticeship.


The day would begin in lay schools with a


lesson in morals replacing the catechism of Church schools.

Although the Republican morality was quite conservative, the


Catholic


Church,


in reaction to


the real


threat of being


supplanted among the people by a secular state, placed these


new textbooks


of morals


Index.


This seems a bit


extreme by today's standards. Paul Bert's textbook of 1882,


although it favored progress,


was intended to inculcate the


masses


with


social


values


and


sense


voluntary


submission to the state.10


spread


of primary


education,


stimulated by


competition between public and Church schools, had produced


near-universal


literacy


in France


turn


century


, secondary


education


catered


only


small


minority. Between 1881 and 1920 the percentage of boys 11 to


17 in secondary schools never surpassed


percent. In 1887


fifty-six percent of secondary schools were state lycdes or


colleges,


thirteen percent were


private


lay schools and


thirty-one percent were Church private 11 During the


Third Republic,


long


the amount of time students spent in seven


years of secondary school studying 'Letters'


slowly declined


n^ t-11- n r- m r .n F -- n 4-n a 4- n 1 -- n o 4 n +-,, 1, n ,. 4 l1 ,nnA..1













even


though


remained


the numbers


virtually


static


of new bacheliers f<

, they were having


)r each year

increasing


difficulty finding jobs.


Their options were either to go on


the university in order to specialize,


occasionally to


step


into a lucrative family business,


or most often,


simply


take


what they could get:


jobs


clerks,


tutors,


journalists or civil servants.


Undoubtedly,


they were an


elite group:


six


percent of their generation was to receive


secondary


education while


rest of


their peers were


serving


apprenticeships


for


trades,


setting


small


businesses or working in mines,


in factories or on farms;


but


they were


often


disappointed


discover


that


rhetoric


equality was hollow


and privilege was


still


divided according to class lines. Gide recalls his childhood


education


autobiography,


particularly


"J taiss


lucid


priviligid sa


statement from his

ns le savoir, comme


j' tals


Frangais et protestant sans


le savoir


XIII ,


p .226)


Les


Faux-Monnaveurs


vividly


portrays


atmosphere of


a Protestant lay


lycde,


drawn directly from


Gide's own experience


recounted in Si le rain ne meurt.


The


teaching of literature and history,


especially in


the state and private lay lyc6es, was greatly influenced by


A-. -


-- -r


.-i- -


n -


S- -1


---S A-


- S -


r, '1 u f rn r\ a c c2 n r 2 n r nn n n n r- a U f I n '. a n fly i r n n^ m U -->


1













moment.


' He meticulously developed these three parameters in


his analysis of the history of English literature and did it


eloquently


that


his


approach


became


standard


textbooks of literature. 12 Once again


, in his autobiography,


Gide


recalls


avidly reading all


of Taine' s books while a


student in the lycde.


(OC XIII,p.300)


Ironically,


Taine,


progressive Republican,


was later to see his ideas on race


used by the most conservative elements in France to justify


a rising nationalism accompanied by xenophobia.


In a later


work,


Orieines de


la France contemporaine,


Taine


tried to


define, in the wake of the debacle of the Second Empire, the

essence of the French nation and to give a unified identity


to its people.


However, as Zeldin states,


The effects


of his Oriains of Contemporary


France


was


thus not


turn Frenchmen against


Germany,


but


to urge


them


to move on


the same


conservative, indeed
Germany was following.13


reactionary


path


that


Ernest Renan was


at odds with


Taine concerning the


essence of a nation.


1882 called


In a famous lecture at the Sorbonne in


"Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?" Renan declared race


be an inadequate criterion,


as was


language.


A nation


S.1


* -- '


*fl fl t -r a a^ 'vn r l rn n n am r T / ra rn n r i a n .t nn


--


__


_


1













ideas


were


basically


conservative


and


served


justification of the status quo.


In an early essay called


L' Avenir de


la science,


written in 1848 but not published


until 1890, Renan expresses a firm belief in the progress of


humanity through


the marriage


scientific spirit with


imagination. Science, he said, was his religion.15 From 1865


until


general


1885


published a


title Histoire


des


series


ori ines


of volumes under


du christianisme


which,


using


positive methods,


argued


against


divinity


Christ and generally portrayed religion


cultural byproduct.16 His work obviously found its place in

the Republican syllabus.


It is difficult to


judge


true


impact of positive


philosophy on French society.


Being a part of the syllabus


in public


schools,


course,


did not ensure


universal


acceptance, nor did it ensure even an adequate understanding


teachers or their students.


is always


case


with the popularization of theories, they were watered down,


revised,


and associated with


other ideas or currents of


thought.


But positivism had the advantage of appealing to a


very


pragmatic


sense


empirical


observation.


The


systematic organization of knowledge into fields of inquiry

I n iia cn Q -? 7a-t lran4 ci 4 ai nn a a cn n a r -P nn rroaa t-rnran ana nh a










17

intellectuals and, through them, on many others of

generations to come. In a more general sense, in alliance

with pure and particularly applied sciences, it contributed

to the scientific spirit that was to dominate the Third

Republic not only in the development of human sciences but

even in the elaboration of a new esthetic. Indeed,

observation of concrete reality and the verisimilitude of an

author or an artist's representation of reality gradually

supplanted the Romantic esthetic revolving around the

individual, emotion and introspection.



Zola and the Experimental Novel


Balzac and Flaubert were the models of realism for the

young writers of the 1870s. They told their stories through

omniscient third-person narrators, concentrating,

particularly in the case of Balzac, on minute descriptions

of places, people and causally linked events. Their

narrators told their stories much as an historian would and

they frequently incorporated actual historical events into

the narrative both to increase the feeling of identification

in the reader and to appeal to his sense of verisimilitude.

R 'wa r tn tI >r i n v al in noi rr 4 I *r r? n t Q b0 n + t v rlrr t 1












a style


pure and objective as the 'Code Civil.


' It should


not be assumed that these writers were the dominant ones of

their generation. Balzac was the only one of the three


mentioned who achieved durable popular


success


in his time.


Hugo, Georges Sand, Prosper MHrimbe and Eugene Sue, among

others, were very popular Romantic writers of the period.

But it was nevertheless the inheritors of Balzac, above all

Emile Zola, who, in the 1870s, constituted a movement based

on scientific principles of observation and experimentation

- -the naturalist school.

The esthetic of the naturalist school was formulated in

the pages of the Soirees de Medan by Emile Zola, Maupassant,

the Goncourt brothers and J.K. Huysmans and others. The most

extensive statement of this esthetic is found in Zola's 1882

work, Le Roman experimental. Zola uses the term

'experimental' not in the sense of formal experimentation,

but rather in a scientific sense based on data observation

and cause to effect, or inductive inference, which he had

found in a book by the physiologist Dr. Claude Bernard


entitled Introduction la mddecine exD4rimentale.


Zola saw


the novel


a type of laboratory in which to experimentally


observe the behavior of human beings. He


states










19

parait et institute 1'experience, je veux dire fait


mouvoir le


s personnages dans une histoire


particulibre pour y montrer que la succession des
faits y sera telle que 1'exige le d4terminisme des
ph6nomfnes mis a l'6tude.17



Already in 1864, in their Journal, the Goncourt brothers


portrayed themselves


historians of the present and


expressed a desire to bring the 'lower classes' into the

novel. The naturalists believed that their works were a


transcription of 'life


it is,


' were true representations


of reality. Not, to be sure, the reality of actual events,

but the reality of natural laws represented by fictional

events and characters. Their pseudo-scientific position did

not last long under the pressure of more rigorous critics,

discussed below, and there were numerous defections within


this loosely connected group.


Maupassant soon abandoned his


naturalist style novel of manners in favor of psychological

novels. Huysmans began to write, with LA-Bas, what he called


a 'naturalisme spiritualiste.


' Gustave Flaubert, present at


the early elaborations of the naturalist esthetic, quickly

distanced himself from the others, following his own line of

reasoning which soon led him to his last and probably most


enigmatic novel, Bouvard et P4cuchet.


This ironic and


Fln~ nn.n AC nran# 1 1 *v nan r.4. n na a~ 1 4: n n nnrn a k 4 n .~ ar an i. an 4~ 1












clerks,


find only disaster in their experiments and only


disillusionment in their quest for knowledge.

Certainly the enduring popularity of Zola's works owes


more to the pathos,


the politics and his epic style than to


his ideas on social determinism,


but his rapid ascension


a best selling author does reflect the scientistic spirit of


his times. As previously mentioned, through the active

intervention of men like Jules Ferry, the new scientistic


doctrine was disseminated to the middle and lower classes

through an increasingly state dominated educational system.

Zola's massive book sales rose along with the literacy rate


in France. As reactionary


may seem today,


his ideas of social determinism


Zola represented social progress for his


contemporaries. He lent his eloquent pen to creating

sympathy for the condition of the working class.

Michel Raimond shows clearly that the writers of the

Naturalist group organized a veritable public relations


campaign in favor of their novels.


18 They scandalized the


literary world with their graphic depictions of daily


life


among the poor and with their equally graphic display of


language hitherto censured in literature.


their detractors with insolence,


They replied to


causing further scandal and


so a C 4 A C O a --4-A 4 4-1 it a .. c. a a a 1.. .. 4 a ..^--- *













better condemn them,


but it seems evident,


in light of their


tremendous commercial success,


particularly that of Zola,


that they had struck a chord of common scientistic vision


among the readers of the period.


This


"scientific" vision


had invaded such diverse areas of intellectual activity as


sociology,


history,


literary criticism,


literature and


painting,


not to mention politics and education.


Observation


and analysis were the touchstones of the objective positive

method.


Classical and Spiritual


Values


Naturalism had its detractors from the beginning.


Ferdinand BrunetiBre of the Acaddmie Frangaise,


for example,


criticized the naturalists in his La Banaueroute du


naturalisme in the name of classical values.


J.K.


Huysmans,


a defector,


came to criticize them for their


lack of


esthetic,


spiritual and moral


values.


Eugene Melchior de


Vogtd6,


in his Roman russe


(1885) compared the naturalist


novelists to their Russian counterparts,

clear superiority of the latter. De Vogu


pointing to the


ie saw in the novels


of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky an instrument for the study of


* 4 4


-~~ a a n n a a I a1 .r -. a 4 a- I a a a -


I










22

accordance with their own changing perspectives, gradually

orienting themselves either toward psychological studies or

toward a spiritualist, a poetic or a fantastic realism.19 If

the naturalists seem to dominate the literary scene of the

early Third Republic, it is probably because they represent

so well the spirit of the times. But it should not be

assumed that they were the only interesting writers of the

period nor the only popular ones.


Idealist novelists such


Octave Feuillet, Georges


Ohnet and Victor Cherbuliez enjoyed moderate


success


especially among upper middle class readers. In their works,

one often finds disenfranchised aristocrats searching for

ideals to give meaning to their lives in a materialistic

world. Gobineau, Barbey d'Aurevilly and Villiers de l'Isle-

Adam all shared an equal contempt for the modern world and

Paul Adam, in Le Mvst&re des foules (1888), is stridently


anti-scientistic.


These writers received


enthusiastic


support from the Catholic reaction and often took up the

banner of anti-naturalist, anti-scientistic sentiment in the

literary journals.20

One of the most talented critics of naturalism was the


young Catholic writer Paul Bourget. As early


1883, in an


n. .4..- 1 C a,. 1" f .. 1 n.. 4- .-1i ,, r. A I -la 1 4.1A 1 N^. ,.. -










23

novels were psychological and moral studies designed to

clarify the complexities of the human mind, but there i

invasion of bourgeois ideology in his writing and he


frequently falls into the 'roman B thhse.'21


His style was


very traditional and his characters rather conventional, but

he was recognized as one of the masters of the genre by the

turn of the century. Gide was later to give qualified praise

to Bourget whose ability he admired, but whose style he

chose not to imitate.


La "vraisemblabilitd" (je crois que


c'es


t son


mot) chez Bourget est parfaite


Emule de Balzac,


il est profonddment enfonc6 dans la realitd. Ii ne


s'y empetre jamais, comme j


e ferai


s surement


j'essayais d'y rdussir. Ma r6alit4 r


quelque peu fantastique.


te toujours


(JAG I, p.992)


Pierre Loti was a brilliant and non-conventional writer

of this period, blending fantasy with emotion to produce

poetic and often exotic novels. Loti characterized great

novels by their capacity to "ddpasser 1'anecdote pour en


faire un symbol de la condition humane.


He condemned


the 'naturalist vulgarities' in his acceptance speech before

the Acaddmie Frangaise.23

Jules Renard is perhaps one of the most original















Renard a 4t6,


au sortir du naturalisme,


sur


la voie d'une esth6tique nouvelle:


melange du reel


et de l'id6al,
et du rAve, qu


du s6rieux et de 1'ironie,


Li devait s'6panouir.


..


z Francis de Miomandre,


du rde


avant 1914,


Giraudoux et Colette.24


Yet none of these dissenting voices ever formed a


coherent group,


linked only by their unanimous condemnation


of naturalism and the materialist bent of their rivals.

Their repeated attacks eventually succeeded in discrediting

the naturalist esthetic but they were never able to find a


new esthetic of their own and so left a void.


Their


refutation of the Medan dogmas ended in a crisis of the


novel.


This cursory summary of the novel in France during the

first two decades of the Third Republic is an attempt to set


the scene for Andr6 Gide's entry into literature.


I have


dealt primarily with the novel and the quarrels about its

form and content because I want to trace the general

problematic of the relationship between representation and


reality.


This problematic relationship may be artificially


divided into two fundamental aspects,


ethical,


the esthetic and the


which are in practice difficult to separate.


- 1. -- -,. -L -,, -1 .-. -~ -.. -t 2 L1. -- -- -1. .










25

form and technique of the idealist and the naturalist

writers mentioned above are similar--primarily third-person

narration and alternating sequences of description,


dialogues and analysis.


On the level of content,


however,


they differ radically.


Zola was criticized by the idealists


not for his style as such,


but for the vulgar


language and


situations that he depicted which,


abstracting the ethical


implications in these ju

what constitutes beauty.


idgments,


comes down to a question of


For the naturalists,


esthetic


beauty was a function of thematic coherence and the


objective truth of the


situation presented.


The idealists


certainly agreed as concerns the


thematic coherence,


they appealed to subjective truths that they found,


not in


science,


but in philosophy and religion.


Furthermore,


whereas the idealists tended to portray individual


a metaphysical order,


crises of


the naturalists portrayed social


situations in which the individual was merely


living out his


biologically or socially determined existence.


From the ethical point of view,


one could again


separate form from content.


Obviously,


as described in the


preceding paragraph,


characters and situations are subject


to ethical


judgments.


The decisions that the characters make


L, L .- IL a. -I -L,. at 'L. -- -l 1. 1










26

historically, naturalist writers removed moral

responsibility from their characters as individuals because

they were subject to forces beyond their control. Their

condition was a social problem, not an individual one, and

this appealed to a progressive sentiment of social reform to


alleviate the conditions that caused their 'depravity.


' On


the other hand, this very determinism that liberates them

from responsibility also denies their individual freedom to

control their own destiny. Furthermore, a primary formal

question, the position of the narrator in relation to the

situations and events in the novel, complicates the

narrative situation. Is the narrator, as presented, truly


objective and reliable? Is he subject to the


same forces as


those dictating the behavior and judgements of his

characters? By what criteria does the narrator analyze the

characters and situations he has created?

One may speak of ethics in another sense as regards the

relation of the novel to the public. It is, after all, an

act of communication that carries a message or messages and

that, by the act of publication, invites comment and

interpretation. What is the function of the novel in

relation to its readers? The novel, since its inception, has













interests of their readers.


This relationship between writer


and reader is also a question of form;


not only what


information is presented but how it is presented,


mouth and with what tone.


in whose


These questions involve complex


answers that shall be treated further in the course of the

discussion of Gide's novels.

One last point before leaving the discussion of Zola


and his naturalist colleagues.


The commercial


success


of a


novel is,

quality,


though by no means a definitive measure of

at least a reliable measure of its wide public


echo. As mentioned above,


the naturalists were very astute


in their use of public relations techniques and after Zola's


astounding commercial


success


with Nana in 1879,


they


parlayed this popularity into a power base that seemed to


feed on itself.


Zola's novels prior to Nana were reprinted


and sold by the tens of thousands


as were his subsequent


volumes in the Rougon-Macquart series. As much


naturalist novels were a result of a certain social


situation and a confluence of ideas,


too did they


serve


to disseminate and consecrate certain values by giving them


voice within a symbolic context. In

has an ideological function that is,


other words, th

in an absolute


e novel

sense,


- 9 I -1


1 -- "U


* I 1


11 eqyn nr i h nor.. aa rI an i- a.. r 9 n ne % .I a


c 1,, e


rl










28

didactic and moralistic; the plots became formulaic, the

characters conventional.

This dilemma was not to be resolved. In 1905, in a

response to a questionnaire by Le Cardonnel and Vellay,

Edmond Jaloux stated that French novelists had to search for


new techniques;


Gide responding to the same questionnaire,


expressed the belief that the French novel was entering a

period in which the appearance of new characters would


transform the novel. 26


As Gide was later to write in his


1936 preface to L'Immoraliste,


en art, il n' y


pas


de problem don't 1'oeuvre d'art ne soit la suffisante

solution." (III,p.367)



Subiectivitv and Vitalism


Andr6 Gide began writing his Journal in 1889; he had

finished his year of philosophy at the Lycee Henri IV and

was completing his first novel, Les Cahiers d'Andr6 Walter.

Before discussing this novel, it will be useful to consider


some of the events and publications of that year


example of the turmoil and contradictions of the period.


That year, the centenary of the French Revolution,


saw


.. at- CL a.I 1,1 T It__: -.-- ... .-t--










29

is a description from the pen of Frantz Jourdain in the

weekly magazine L'Illustration



Le plAtre, le moellon, la brique ne
dissimulent plus, sous un mensonger d6cor, le fer


ou la fonte


Les staffs, les faiences


terres cuites, les laves 4maillBes, les brique
vernisstes, les zincs laqu s, les mosaiques
chatoyantes, les enduits colori4s, les verres
flamboyants, toute la vaillante palette de la
polychromie architectonique rejouit la vue,


miroite sous le


soleil et chante le triomphe de


1'esprit frangais, de la gaiety gauloise, du
rationalisme dur une morne et pr6historique
scolastique 27



Jourdain goes on, in the same exalted tone, to describe

the Eiffel Tower, controversial centerpiece of this


centennial exhibition,


a new divinity,


"math4matiquement


implacable comme la destinde."28 The World Exhibition was a

source of great national pride and its opulence served as a

consecration of the embattled Third Republic and its

scientistic spirit.


The major literary


successes


of 1889 were Zola's La


Bete humane, Fort comme la mort by Maupassant, George

Ohnet's idealist novel Docteur Rameau, Japoneries d'Automne

by Pierre Loti and Bob A l'Exposition by Gyp. It was also


the year that Taine published his L'Avenir de la


Science,










30

in the influential Revue des Deux Mondes entitled "PriBre

sur la Tour Eiffel." He wrote,



Toi, fille du savoir, courbe ton orgueil


c'est peu d'dclairer 1'esprit


si l'on ne


guerit pas 1'dternelle peine du coeur
fonder le temple de la nouvelle alliance
science et de la foi.30


Sache
e de la


The most devastating attack, though little noticed at the

time, came that same year from the young philosopher Henri

Bergson in his work Essai sur les donndes immddiates de la


conscience.


Bergson's subtle and rigorous arguments were


later to be very influential in laying the groundwork for a

reaction against determinism and current scientific dogma.

In his 1889 essay, Bergson attacked the contradictions

inherent in both mechanist and dynamist approaches to

psychological phenomena. In both he saw a tendency toward

dualism as they both speak of objective and subjective

reality, giving precedence to one or the other of these two

aspects of experience. One of Bergson's primary critiques is

what he described as the spatialization of that which should

be more properly understood in terms of its duration. This

spatialization or quantification of sensory experience tends

a *,, n a a a: at 1 4.a4 *t a .J 4l it 4 -. Jr 4~ a a .* 1 a











31

vitalist principles led him to revalorize the notions of


duration,


intuition and what he termed


'creative evolution.


His teaching had a major impact on esthetic values--Proust

is only the most striking example--during the Belle Epoque.


Gide,


in an entry in his Journal in 1908 comments on his


reading of L'Evolution crdatrice


Importance admirable de ce livre
s'6chapper de nouveau la philosophies.
Que notre intelligence d4coupe,


, par ou peut


dans


continue ext~rieur,


des surfaces sur


lesquelles


elle pui


sse opdrer


: que le reste lui 6chappe;


qu'elle ne tienne compete que de cela
p.269)


Another interesting part of Bergson's


which he continued to develop in his later work,


critique of language.


(JAG I,


1889 essay and


is his


In the preface to Les Donnees


imm6diates he points to a fundamental contradiction that

arises in any philosophical investigation that attempts to

juxtapose in space phenomena that don't occupy space at all,


une traduction illegitime de 1'in6tendu en 6tendu,


la qualityd en quantity


,,31 He constantly examines


idiomatic expressions of everyday language which give a

notion of extensivity to sensations: 'une grande douleur'


tin A^ a 4 nr an 4H j .1 n 4- q C .h -- 1n


Tl *-


C 1













represent the duration of sensations,


not a predicative


language that fixes phenomena in time through definition,

but rather a metaphorical language.


It is easy to


see


the esthetic parallels that can be


drawn from this type of philosophical investigation,


Bergson's influence should not be overstated.


In fact,


did not really create a new 'intensive'


language.


His prose


style remained rigorously classical and its very clarity

represented an underlying contradiction of content by form.


Moreover,


although Bergson was to achieve great popularity


in the coming years with his optimistic philosophy of


creative evolution,


his ideas sustained a probing


reevaluation following the death and destruction of World


War I.


Gide was later to criticize Bergson


Ce qui me ddplait dans la doctrine de


Bergson,
qu'il le


c'est tout


et tout


que je pens


e ddja sans


qu'elle a de flatteur,


de care


ssant meme,


pour


1' esprit.


Plus tard on


croira decouvrir partout son influence sur notre


4poque,


simplement parce que lui-m&me est de


epoque et qu'il cede sans


cess


son


e au movement


son importance representative


(JAG I,


p.782)


The tone is harsh but Gide's point is well


taken.


Bergson


an important representative of the ideas of his time and


. D'ou










33

governments was rapidly secularizing daily life and Bergson

was correct to point out the linguistic pervasiveness of

positivist thought.

Gide's position within this period of conflicting

values can be traced through his Journal, which he began in

1889, his autobiography, Si le grain ne meurt, Jean Delay's

biography, La Jeunesse d'Andr4 Gide, and Claude Martin's

remarkable work, La Maturitd d'Andrd Gide. The first two

works offer an interesting contrast in both style and

judgement concerning Gide's early interests and ambitions.

Si le grain ne meurt was written concurrently with Les Faux-

Monnayeurs and so offers some interesting insights not only

with regard to his early life, but to his preoccupations in

the early 1920s. This is not an attempt to explain Gide's

work simply through biographical data, rather I intend to

choose elements of this data that indicate certain literary

and philosophical preferences that he exhibited and the

influences that contributed specifically to the development

of his fluid esthetic of the novel in the context of a

generalized crisis in esthetic and moral values. Without a

doubt the most important of these formative influences was

his involvement in the Symbolist movement and particularly
L.2 I.. l, ar 1 .. 1. ... 1, 1.. -Ilu Ct a.-i --T I.-- --- --










34

Gide was an introverted child and adolescent raised in

a wealthy and liberal Protestant family surrounded by women.

His father died with he was a young child and his mother

subsequently uprooted her little family of two several times

before finally returning to Paris to settle when young Andr6

was fifteen. Andr4's secondary education came to an abrupt

halt because of 'nervous disorders' when he was thirteen and

attending school in Montpellier. These problems were to


prevent him from returning to a regular classroom for


years. In the meantime he had a series of tutors whom he

describes in unflattering terms in his autobiography. The

last two years of this six year hiatus he spent working

assiduously with several tutors at the Pension Keller, a

Protestant boarding school that is obviously the model for

the Pension Vedel in Les Faux-Monnayeurs. He managed to

catch up with his former classmates in time to join them in

1887 for his Rhetorique at the Ecole Alsacienne, a private

lay lycee in Paris. Gide could hardly be considered a

representative product of the Republican school system.

However, it is certain that the Gide family, without

being fervently partisan, sympathized with the Republican


government,


did many liberal Protestants at the time. In


C 4 1 1 a n 4 a .I wr(v C 4 4 a .. a 1 a C a n a a a a a. n 1










35



Si nous allions voir une exposition de
tableaux--et nous ne manquions aucune de celles
que Le Temps voulait bien nous signaler--ce
n'dtait jamais sans emporter le numero du journal


qui en parlait, ni


sans relire sur place les


appreciations du critique, par grand peur


d'admirer de travers


, ou de n'admirer pas du tout.


(OC XIII, p.211)



The principal organ of the Republican government served then

as a mediator of cultural values for the Gides.

In another reference to Le Temps Gide recounts a

sequence of events that came from an article in the paper.

Having read an article concerning reports of moral turpitude

in a small street near the Pension Keller, Andrd's mother

warns him to avoid the street. Andre, for unexplained

reasons, suspects that his best friend may have frequented

this place and is so overwrought that when he finally

confronts his friend Bernard, who seems unaware of the

existence of any foul play on the street, AndrB breaks down

in tears, begging his friend not to go there. The reasons

behind such an extreme reaction are more a result of the

young Gide's vivid imagination than of the newspaper article


itself, but the reference is significant.


(Once again this


memory finds its way into Les Faux-Monnayeurs in two













editor of Le Temps.


(OC XIII,


p.240-241) Jean Delay tells us


that Gide even participated in a pro-Ferry demonstration


while attending the Ecole Alsacienne,


though he further


states that Gide was rather indifferent to politics.32 The

point here is not to determine whether Gide was a partisan


or not,


but to portray the subtle influences in his


environment.

Gide mentions a Cours de litterature dramatique by

Saint-Marc-Girardin that he and his mother used to read


aloud,


a chapter at a time,


during the year before he


entered the Pension Keller.


He also writes several


interesting pages about his first memories of his father's


library,


which he describes


a sanctus sanctorum full of


mysterious works in Latin and Greek,

classics in beautiful bindings. But


law books and great


the ones he chose


read were the small volumes of poetry.


He particularly


liked


Victor Hugo and Thdophile Gaut

great prestige in those days,


whose work had achieved


though Gautier's sensuality


caused Gide some embarrassment to read in front of his


mother.


He discovered the Greeks through translations by the


Parnassien poet Leconte de Lisle:


les


Grecs


, qui


eurent sur mon esprit une influence decisive.


n-fl'


" (OC XIII,


nJ vs a* rt I Ua 1 a r 1 a n ar A a a a 4 n a s. 4 a n rr a a i 1 4r- a ,a 4- i i a u /


n 'lk












the Scriptures: "


.1'art et la religion en moi


d6votieusement s'apousait et je goutais ma plus parfaite

extase au plus fondu de leur accord." (OC XIII, p.265)

also enjoyed the poetry of Heinrich Heine, first in


translation and then in the original


, and that of the


Parnassien poets Sully Prudhomme and FranCois Coppee.

One may assume that Gide gained a familiarity with the

French tradition during his Rh6torique. He speaks of early


attempt


s to write poetry but found his


verses


to be awkward


and "A la maniere de Sully Prudhomme." (OC XIII, p.266) He


progressively gave more attention to writing prose and, a


he entered his year of philosophy at the Lycde Henri IV, he


began to write his Cahiers d'Andr6


Walter.


This book


literally overflows with references to Greek and Latin

classics, to German and English authors and to a panoply of

French writers.

But as he entered his class in philosophy, he happened

upon Schopenhauer's Le Monde comme representation et come

volont6 which he read and reread (OC XIII, p.296), adopting

Schopenhauer's subjectivist and vitalist ideas for his own

credo. Though he claims later to have rid himself of

Schopenhauer's influence, in favor of Spinoza, Leibnitz,

fl a n n rn t nv iTt 4 a n n a v 4, $1 .. a 4 ar n e 4. 14 n 1 n n r n A n










38

attributes this statement to the influence of the German


philosopher.


(OC XIII,


p.321)


At another moment,


when


questioned by an insistant colleague at a Symbolist


gathering as to the


'formula'


which would guide his future


work,


Gide finally responded impatiently,


"Nous devons


tous


representer,"


a statement that was


later to appear in the


mouth of one of his characters.


(OC XIII


, p.332)


Schopenhauer's influence on French literature of the


Third Republic was ambiguous.


There were echoes of his


thought in such varied writers as Taine,


Bruneti&re,


Claude


Bernard and Paul Bourget.


Neo-Kantians such as Renouvier


found much to agree with in this German idealism



A ceux que la foi et la contemplation


esth6tique ne rdussi


ssaient plus & apaiser,


s'offrait une doctrine de renoncement et de
-c -. a- .- -a1 1 ;a- 6-- .. -...-.- 33


puri ication,


Brunetiere,


for instance was greatly influenced by


Schopenhauer and Darwin. He shared the former's fundamental


pessimism and belief in the perversity of human nature;


their most fundamental accord was on the dogma of original

sin.


ce le de Sc openhauer











39



Paul Bourget often quotes the German philosopher in his


Essais de psychologie contemporain,


particularly drawn to


Schopenhauer's notion that the material world is only a

projection of man's will and his radical idealism has much

to do with Bourget's development of the psychological novel


at the end of the century.


Bourget approved of


Schopenhauer's aversion to democracy as being hostile to the

superior individual and he believed that superior men,


disgusted by vulgarity,


should withdraw into contemplation


and mark their disdain for the common man.


The young French


writer was also drawn to the irrationalist pessimism of

Schopenhauer and used it in his critique of scientist.


Devant la banqueroute
connaissance ascientifque,
tomberont dans un disespoir


finale de la
beaucoup d'ames


comparable


e a


celui


qui aurait saisi Pascal,
la foi.35


s'il eit et6 priv6 de


Bourget played an active role in the struggle against

naturalism in favor of analytical novels and paved the way


for the psychological novel.


France,


In fact,


Pierre Loti and Maurice Barris,


along with Anatole


were to be


a4-L .... .. ... C t--- 1 2 a-1-- ... 1 -


~,1


~C1











40

It was a short subjectivist sketch that reveals more about


its author than about the French province. It was drawn from

notes Gide took while writing his first novel, Les Cahiers


d'Andr6 Walter,


in an isolated provincial cottage.


This work


was originally published in a very


limited edition in 1891


by the Librairie de 1'Art Ind6pendant in Paris


posthumous work of Andr4 Walter.


There was a preface by a


friend of the defunct author,


Pierre Chrysis


(pseudonym for


Pierre Lou$s,


Gide's best friend),


though within a year it


was generally known that Gide himself was the author.


times overwhelmingly maudlin, this novel is nevertheless

fascinating for its interesting form, the weaving together


of dialogues,


reflective monologues,


descriptions,


letter


fragments,


literary and biblical quotes,


poems and prayers,


all in diary entries of a young novelist who is writing a


novel about a young novelist.


There are numerous references


to this novel


that AndrB Walter is writing,


a long theoretical passage in the


"Cahier No


Allain including

ir," though we


never actually read any fragments of this novel.


In his summary biography of AndrB Walter,


Pierre


Chrysi


s includes this statement:


d'un livre qu'il


voulait faire:


"Ii parlait quelquefois

oeuvre strange,


a a -11 a s-


. a -


- a


V .-i a.Cin at. a -j a J n a- a a-. .n l r


4A A











41

early pages of the first part, the "Cahier Blanc," in which

AndrB Walter speaks of his literary inspiration


Puis avec 1
Baudelaire,


s ambitions rv414les, ce fut Vigny,
--Flaubert, 1'ami toujours souhaite


Les


subtilitds rhdtoriques des


Goncourts


affilaient notre esprit;
alerted, et plus ergoteur


tendhal le faisait plus
(OC I, p.33)


However, the work most often cited by far is the Bible,

a continual source of consolation and inspiration for the

protagonist, in the throes of a spiritual crisis which

eventually degenerates into madness (fievre c6rdbrale) and

finally death, leaving his work unfinished. Gide tells us

that he had eliminated about half the references to the

Bible in his final version on the advice of his friend and


mentor Emile Verhaeren. (OC XIII, p.310) Andr6 Walter


very much a Romantic hero in the tradition of Werther or

Ren6 and this is indeed a Bildungsroman in which we follow


the author through his spiritual and emotional crises.


it is


But


if a Romantic archetype were placed in a world of


symbols where passion is not so much an effect of the senses


of thought images. In a phrase redolent of Schopenhauer,


AndrB Walter writes: "L'Ame,


c'est


en nous la Volontd


. .,- -- r- x I V. i


_ _













write,

"Ainsi,


is preceded by this phrase from Corinthians V,


dts maintenant,


selon la chair."


(OC I,


nous ne connaissons plus personne--

p.92) Andr4 Walter retires to the


countryside and gradually withdraws into his own mind


living a studious life of abnegation.


The references to


other characters and events are gradually reduced to a

minimum and the introspection becomes more metaphysical.


"Pas un 4vtnement


la vie touj ours intime -tout


s'est


jou6 dans l'Ame,


il n'en a rien paru."


(OC I,


p.xvii)


Schopenhauer is also evoked repeatedly to


justify the


author's fascination with himself,


the subject:


"Ce qui


connait tout et n'est connu de personnel,


c'est le Sujet.


est done le support du monde.


" (OC I,


p.100)


This


extreme idealism is intentionally nourished in search of a

vision that goes beyond the materiality of objects. Andrd


Walter writes:


choses,


"Perdre le sentiment de son rapport


de sorte que la representation


avec


degage toute pure


et qu'aucune connaissance ext6rieure ne distraie de la


connaissance intuitive et de la vision commencee tout


coup


ne s'6veille.


" (OC I,


p .114)


His three catch words are


vie spontan6e,


' 'la connaissance intuitive'


and


'la foi.


(OC I,


p .112)


- I-


--- ^1 I- 1Z ... 1_ -1 -------------... 1 -


IId


m


T-Tr 1 1













in a macabre race


toward death.


By the end of the


text,


author confuses himself with Allain as both succumb to


madness.


Earlier,


in a long footnote presented


notes for


the composition of Allain,


we find other similarities


between the novel he is writing and the novel we are


reading.

cerveau,


"Un personnage seulement


. ou plut6t son


n'est que le lieu commun oh le drame


champ clos ou les adversaires s'assaillent.


livre,


"(OC I,


p.95)


These adversaries are not two separate passions,


aspects of a single passion,


but two


'l'ame et la chair.


from the struggle between the spirit and the flesh that the


novel is created. He also calls this the struggle between

materialism and idealism. "Non point une veritd de r4alisme,


contingent fatalement;


mais une v6rit4 theorique,


absolue


(du moins humainement).


" (OC I,


p.94)


He wants to create an


ideal world,


la vie phdnomenale absent,


--seul les


noumenes


by transposing Spinoza's ethical principles


into an esthetic for the novel,


les lines


gdomdtriques.


Un roman c'est un th6oreme.


" (OC I,


p.94)


Les Cahiers d'Andr6 Walter,


for all its


excesses,


represents,


in kernel form,


esthetic preoccupations that


Gide would go on to elaborate for the rest of his career.

ml- -. 1 A.* 4 *












awareness would remain.


Andr6 Walter is an odd work with


its episodic narration and shifts of narrative voice, using

letter fragments in which dialogues are reported that in

turn elucidate some other part of the text. This structural

play, putting a conversation inside a diary entry inside the

novel within the context of a false preface, is a narrative


procedure that Gide continued to employ.


We will in fact


point to similar narrative strategies, though more subtly

executed, thirty-five years later in his Les Faux-


Monnaveurs


The diary form gives an impression of linear


development, but the diary fragments


presented seem to


represent more an absorption of a discontinuous reality in

which memory and especially other texts blend the past into

the present, each fragment subject to abstraction in the

present moment of the diary writing. The narrator is

continually looking backward, analyzing past events and

drawing general conclusions about himself, his relation to


human nature and to literature.


But the journal form is by


nature a deferred presence, that is to


say,


the narrator's


presence in the first person


presence


writing subject and his


object of the analysis only coincide with one


another through the abstraction of the past into a web of

.











45

Jean Rousset, in his brilliant work L'Intdrieur et

1'ext rieur, comments on Gide's radical subjectivity in the

young author's Notes de Bretagne, written during the

composition of Les Cahiers d'Andrd Walter


VoilA, me semble-t-il, 1'essentiel


dans le caracthre radicalement subjectif de


visions.


~ -r A 4- S 4- a. -


: 11 est


ces


Le rapport entire le spectacle et 1
a 36


spectateur tend A


renverser


In Andrd Walter the narrator gradually replaces the

spectacle of the material world with the spectacle of


himself, his inner world. He


says,


"les choses deviennent


vraies: il suffit qu'on les pense.


--C'est en nous qu'est la


rdalitd


notre esprit crde


ses


Vdrites." (OC I, p.54)


This


radical denial of exterior reality leads to a paradoxical

negation of the subject that only attains the purity it is

seeking through the death of the protagonist and of his

double. The conclusion of the text corresponds with the

death of its author; the text then is the image of the

author's life.

A few years later Gide was to write in his Journal,



On peut dire alors ceci, que je vois come


- .- 4 I V











46

The text is, in this sense, a higher reality; it is the

ideal that governs his actions. In the same 1892 entry in


his Journal Gide


says


"Toute notre vie s'emploie a tracer de


nous-memes un ineffagable portrait." (JAG I, p.29)


portrait we


see


of Andr6 Walter is a composite portrait of


his soul, and inevitably, the soul and will are all that


remain


cerebrale.


his body and his reason succumb to the 'fi&vre

I


The young AndrB Gide saw his first novel


a response


to a pressing need of his generation; in fact, he states in


Si le grain ne meurt that he expected great


success


this


work seemed to him to correspond to Melchior de VogOu's call

for innovation and to Paul Desjardin's Devoir present. (OC


XIII, p.304)


He was bitterly disappointed by the absence of


critical acclaim, not to say the indifference, of the large


majority of his contemporaries.


the praise of the 'happy few.


However, he took solace in

Pierre Louys lavished


enthusiastic praise on his friend's work and it was read and

admired within a small circle of habitues at Mallarm6's


courses du mardi soir.


' They admired his style and his


rigorous use of language in his effort toward perfect


limpidity of expression. Gide later said of hi


s Cahiers


. 9 .- 3 TI f A S -


1 1 __ ~











47

Gide began writing for various literary journals over


the coming years


a critic and essayist. The previously


mentioned "Notes de Bretagne" was published, still under the

pseudonym of Andrd Walter, in Albert Mockel's literary

magazine Wallonie and he finally published, under his own

name, the Traitd du Narcisse in Tristan Bernard's Entretiens


nolitiaues et litt~raires in 1892.


The Traitd du Narcisse,


with a subtitle "Thdorie du Symbole"


reads like a manifesto


of the Symbolist movement, of which Gide had become


a part.


Indeed certain critics


see


a major statement of


Symbolist esthetics. The following chapter will delve more

deeply into Gide's participation in the Symbolist movement.



NOTES

1. Herbert Marcuse, Reason and Revolution, London,
Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973, p.341.


Charl


Lalo,


"Introduction." Cours de philosophie


positive, Paris, Hachette, 1927


3. August


, p.xxiv


e Comte, Cours de philosophie positive, Paris,


Hachette, 1927


, p.39.


4. Lalo, p.xiv.


Theodore Zeldin, France 1848-1945,


vol.II, London,


Clarendon Press, 1977


, p.14


6. Ibid., p.155.


-- -- a 101










48

11. Ibid., p.292.

12. Ibid., p.121.

13. Ibid.

14. Ibid., p.123.

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid., p.124.

17. Emile Zola, Le Roman experimental, Les Oeuvres Completes
d'Emile Zola, Paris, Francois Bernouard, 1927-1929,vol.41,
p.1.

18. Michel Raimond, Le Roman depuis la Rdvolution, Paris,
Armand Colin, 1972, p.133.

19. Ibid., p.124.

20. Ibid. p.131.

21. Ibid., p.133.

22. Ibid., p.131.

23. Ibid.

24. Ibid., p.132.

25. Ibid.

26. Ibid., p.134.

27. Jacques Chastenet, Histoire de la TroisiBme R4publique,
Paris, Hachette, 1974, p.535.

28. Ibid.

29. Ibid., p.534.

30. Ibid., p.535.










49


34. Ibid., p.301-302.

35. Ibid., p.302.

36. Jean Rousset, L'Interieur et 1'exttrieur, Paris, Jose
Corti, 1968, p.227.
















CHAPTER 3




THE FOUNDATIONS AND FLUIDITY OF GIDE'S ESTHETIC




The Symbolist Movement


Although it is evident from remarks in Si le grain ne


meurt,


in Delay's


biography


and


in Gide's early


journal


entries that he was an avid reader of novels and philosophy,


his first love was poetry.


"Mais en


temps-lA, je n'avais


de regards que pour l'Ame, de goit que pour la poedsie." (OC


VII,p.316)


Gide


became


friends with Josd-Maria Herddia


through his


friend Pierre


Louys and spent his


Saturday


evenings at Hdrddia's home in the company of many poets and


artists whom he also


saw


on Tuesday evenings at Mallarm 's


apartment.


The


formative


influence of this


loosely knit avant-


garde


group,


and most particularly Stdphane Mallarmd,


Gide's career can hardly be overstated.


This is not to


that the young Gide was a sycophant who blindly followed his


guru ,


because


was


active


participant


the


-,1 -1t .?_ -_-


rfl t A- A_ A _


-S


-I


a a a n r ra n fl f r f Tr 1 r Vi rI V r 1' 0 r7 t I f fl r fl 0 T 1 fl 1 '1 T 0 0 1 0 f l


L










51

milieu was more of a catalyst that liberated him from any

realist penchant and reinforced his classical belief in the

primacy of style and the word. A closer examination of this

period will clarify some of the major and recurrent themes

in Gide's work.

The Symbolist movement derived its name from an 1886


article published by the poet Jean Moreas


in the Figaro.


Most of


journals


and magazines called it the


colee


d6cadente


Neither


these


expressions


truly


characterizes


the movement which,


dessinait en reaction contre


in Gide's words,


le rdalisme,


avec un remous


centre


Parnasse


6galement.


(OC


VII,p 321)


The


Parnassians, particularly in the person of Leconte de Lisle,


espoused a poetry of detachment and total objectivity.


their


scientific pretensions


defining


their esthetic


ideas were often as categorical as those of the Naturalists.


The


Symbolists


opposed


rigorous


precision


description of objects and the pristine clarity of ideas in


the


Parnassian


esthetic.


They put


greater


emphasis


fleeting


feeling


impressions


arising


from


the


subconscious.2


They


looked back


Baudelaire for their


vision of art.











52

Baudelaire is commonly regarded as a poet with one foot

in the past, Romanticism, and another in modernist idealism.


This dualism is certainly evident in much of his work


attempts to reconcile the material world with the spiritual.


dark moments,


his


nostalgia


for


a lost paradise of


natural harmony and purity gives way to irrational pessimism

about the oppressive world of material existence. He escaped


this


dilemma


through an abstract


idealism


in which the


harmonious paradise


could be


recreated


through art,


rather,


intuited


through


the mediation of


art.


But his


yearning for the sensuality of the material world constantly

crept back to burst his spiritual bubble.


The Symbolists,


particularly Mallarmd,


ambivalence concerning the material


world;


shared no such

they magnified


the idealism into a credo of pure art. Michel Ddcaudin,


his


Crise


des valeurs symbolistes,


says


that art,


in the


second half of the nineteenth century became a moral system,

a religion and a metaphysics:


refuse


sollicitation


monde


politique


positiviste,
ou sociales,


r6alitd


s matdrielles,


des


conventions


contraintes de


la vie police


on affirme


que 1'art est necessairement iddaliste.4













Camille Mauclair describes the symbol as,


"1'expression


d'une pensee par un 6tre,


un objet,


un acte n'intervenant


pas pour eux-memes, mais seulement pour cette expression."5

Mauclair goes on to enumerate the means of expressing these


ideas--allegory,


transposition,


allusion


and all


other


procedures of synthesis--which leads him to conclude


that


Symbolism was more a movement of forms than of ideas. 6

Mauclair is generally correct as concerns the majority


of symbolist poets such as Verlaine, R6gnier,


Vi61"-Griffin among others,


Verhaeren and


but his statement is misleading


for the more complex case of St6phane Mallarmd.


Yuen Park,


his


L'Id6e


chez Mallarm6,


points


precisely


difficulty one has in separating idea and form in Mallarm6's


poetry.


"La forme pure est ce qui n'existe pas. Elle est le


n6ant en


tant qu' absence du concrete" 7


Park further


says


that Mallarm6's poetry strives toward absolute purity,


the absolute is not in the realm of truth in a moral sense;

rather it is in the realm of order in a geometric sense.

It is certainly this rigorous approach to language that


made


his


poetry


hermetic,


the


point


of being


incomprehensible


for most of his contemporaries.


Anatole


France,


as editor


of Parnasse contemporaine,


originally


_- L? .I .. _I I* _1 1 1 1 *













Leconte


Lisle


and his


'c6nacle.


In Diva.ations


writes,


la po6sie est 1'expression par


language


human


ramene


son


rythme


ess


entiel


sens


mystdrieux


l'existence:


elle


doue


ainsi


d'authenticitd notre s6jour et constitute la seule
tache spirituelle.8


Art,


in effect,


replaced religion,


or perhaps constituted


its highest form of expression for Mallarm6.


essential for the discussion here


juxtapose


the great poet's ideas to those of his young disciple Gide

whose first work published under his own name, Le Traite du


Narcisse,


bears


subtitle


"ThBorie


symbole"


explain the symbol, Gide has recourse to Greek and Christian


myths --Narcissus


and the Garden of Eden.


He rewrites


myth of Narcissus, beginning in a time before the hero had

found his own image. "En la monotonie inutile de 1'heure il


s'inquiete,


et son coeur incertain s'interroge."


(III,p.3)


He leaves the monotony to search for his own image and stops


along the banks of the River of Time,


"fatale et illusoire


rivibre ou les


annees


passent et


s' coulent."


(IllI,p.3)


Narcissus looks into the present of events flowing past; he


- -


-~~L -. -. -1 ---A t .


I


1













du flot seul les diff6rencie. "


(III,p.4)


This leads him to


conclude


that they all must come from some paradisiac and


crystalline


formee


premiere


perdue,"


and Narcissus


then


dreams of paradise


The Garden of Eden is a place of perfect harmony: "Tout


s'y crystallisait en une floraison ndcessaire "


Alone within this garden is Adam;

les formes apparaissent." (III,p.


(III,p.5)


pour lui, par lui,


5) But Adam tires of being


the privileged and eternal


spectator


and desires,


like


Narcissus,


see


his own image,


"Car,


c 'est un esclavage


enfin,


l'on n'ose


risquer un geste,


sans crever tout


l'harmonie." (III,p.6) In a rebellious gesture of free will,


Adam breaks a branch of Ygdrasil,


"1'arbre logarithmique,"


and in so doing destroys the harmonious order of paradise,

forever lost. Henceforth man will only know paradise through

the words of the prophets and


des
pieusement
immemorial


poete
les


feuill


lisait


voici, qui
ets ddchir


vdrit6


recueilliront
4s du Livre


qu' il


faut


connaitre. (III,p


Paradise


total harmony of form;


exists


beneath


appearances inside of objects


each salt has within it the













v6rit6.


Son seul


devoir est qu'il


la manifeste.


Son seul pdch6: qu'il se pr6fhre. (III,p.8)


It is


likely that Gide drew these last two ideas from the


German philosopher Schopenhauer--that the will by necessity


manifests


itself


and


that


the poet must suspend his own


subjective will.


L' artiste


, le


savant, ne doit pas


prdfdrer


Vdritd


qu'ili


veut


dire:


voil&a


toute


morale;


le mot ni


veut montrer:


toute 1'esth4tique


la phrase,


dirais presque,
. (III,p.8)


a 1'idde qu'il
aue c'est la


But


poet and scientist are both looking for


these primary forms


from which


sense


emanates,


latter is limited by his meticulous inductive method, by his


need


for


innumerable


examples,


and


stops


appearance


things.


The


scientist,


obsessed


with


certainty,


refuses


to guess


intuitively.


The poet intuits


the


archetype


object--the


symbol --behind


the


appearances. For Gide the work of art is like a crystal,


paradise partial
puret6 superieure


et sures,


ou l'idde refleurit en


ouh les phras


symbols encore, mais


rythmique


symbols purs, ou


1 --1-- A- A_- I 1 -


1,,,,,,1


11













Gide's


"poete


pieux"


in Narcisse answers


the call


master's "tache spirituelle;" and Gide's "phrases rythmiques


sures"


correspond to


the previously quoted phrase from


Divagations,


"rythme


essential


du sens


myst r i e ux


1'existence." Undoubtedly Gide's


idea of spirituality is


more


properly


religious


than Mallarm 's


metaphysical


spirituality.


There is a flavor of Calvinism in the crucial


role Gide gives to Adam's free will in the preordained unity


paradise


and


poet


becomes a


tragic figure


Romantic


tradition


a demi-god mediator between man and


paradise. Furthermore, Gide's notion of the transparency of


words


another Romantic notion of


immanence


to which


Mallarmd surely would not subscribe. However, many critics,


then


now,


view Narcisse


a primary theoretical document


the


Symbolist


movement


despite


certain


criticisms


proffered at the


time of


its publication,


most notably by


Gide's best friend, Pierre Louys, in his Ldda ou la louange


des Bienheureuses T6nebres. Beyond certain differences on


theoretical level,


Louts


well


Gide's other Symbolist


friends admired the Traitd du Narcisse


a beautiful work


of art.9


George


Lukacs,


his


Thdorie


roman,


briefly


_a ----_------------A_-U _- n __ u .: _A- ------- _- La -r __ 3


I I








* 1 I L













LA, on exigeait du monde ext6rieur qu'il se
recr4e A neuf sur le module des id6aux; ici, c'est


une


intdriorit4


qui,


s'achevant elle-mlme comme


creation


littgraire


, exige


du monde


extbrieur


qu'il s'offre A elle comme mati&re adequate
autostructuration.10


This relationship to the exterior world


autostructuration of


son


raw material for


literary work is a crucial


notion that Gide retained from his Symbolist association and

I shall have occasion to return to this point later in the


discussion of Les


Faux-Monnaveurs.


But Gide owes more


Mallarm6 than this basic vision of the artist's relationship


the exterior world;


appreciate


under his


importance of language


tutelage Gide came


itself and of


speaking subject.


Mallarme,


perhaps more


than any other poet,


believed


that the subject of all poems was poetry. His poems are an


attempt


to reverse


process


objectivation of


words.


undermines


and


obliterates


the


denotative


relationships between words and objects to create a higher


meaning. In Maurice Blanchot's words,


"Le language est


d6truit le monde pour le faire renaitre &a 1'tat de sens, de


valeurs signifi6es."11 This


idealist notion of language


best reflected in a famous quote from the preface Mallarm6













leve, id6e
bouquets 12


meme


suave,


1' absente


tous


this


absence of


the concrete


that Mallarmd seeks


through


the


form


poetic


expression.


This


abstract


idealism resembles closely some of Hegel's pronouncements on


poetry. 13


But Mallarm6


was


poet


and so


shifted


his


emphasis from objective reason to a subjective sensitivity.


In Mallarmd's poetry,


the subject becomes an integral part


of the texture, not as an end in itself, but as a universal

subject, a totalizing means of expressing the ideal. Order,


says Mallarm6,


"est saisi non par


la raison mais par


sensibility


le Beau n'est que 1'ordre immanent de la


totality


1'univers."14 Mallarme,


like


jet


pilot


breaking the sound barrier,


pushed the envelope of language


and form to the limit. To quote from Lukacs once again,


forme


1'immanence du sens


nait


justement du fa


telle que ]
it d'aller


l'exige la
jusqu'au


bout, et sans aucun management, dans la mise a nu
de son absence.15


lofty heights


of Mallarmean idealism fascinated


Gide


and


continued


admire


master's


mn: r~, ~ 1 I. -r











60

ideas remained, however, particularly the notion of critical


distance


and dialectical couples of subject/object and of


presence/absence.


The


subtlety


of Mallarmd's


dictum,


"Peindre, non la chose, mais 1'effet qu'elle produit,"16 was


remain


a point of


reference for Gide's view


suggestive magic of words,


importance of


form and


general problematic of language.


I shall return to Gide's


conception


form


and


problem


subj activity


language below.

It must be said that Gide was not particularly happy

with his chosen vocation as a poet, if one is to believe his

retrospective statements in Si le grain ne meurt. He could


not


remain


content


with


the


contemplative


peace


Narcissus,


seeing only his own reflection in the people and


objects that surrounded him. He writes,



1'ami qu'il m'eQt fallu, c'est quelqu'un qui


m'eat appri


s & m'int6resser a autrui et qui m' et


sorti de moi-meme


: un romancier. (OC VII,p.316)


Gide became friends with the English novelist Oscar Wilde in

1891 and Wilde certainly did much to open Gide up to himself


and


to others,


though it isn't certain that this was


C. t 1 ,1













of Nietzsche was


equally strong and perhaps accounts


some of his differences with others in the Symbolist group.

He writes at one point that the guests at Mallarmd's Tuesday

gatherings were enthralled with Plato, whereas he considered

Schopenhauer to be far superior. For the German philosopher,


artist


concerned


not


with


action


but


with


contemplation or what he termed will-less perception.


From


the


vantage


point


this


detachment,


all


esthetic


judgements would be disinterested and beauty sufficient unto


itself,


exterior


the


cause/effect


reasoning


conventional perception.


Schopenhauer


also held that there


is a shift in the subject's mode of perception in relation

to an esthetic object and consequently a shift in the object

perceived. The esthetic object is exterior to normal spatio-


temporally


and causally related


things


and events.


esthetic


observer is presented with,


"permanent essential


forms of the world and all its phenomena,"17 which he calls

archetypal forms. Schopenhauer approved Kant's separation of


noumena


(things


themselves)


from


phenomena


(one's


perception of things)


and agreed that one could only know


things through their appearances.


But he differs from Kant


that he proposes


two separate modes of


self-awareness.


- -


-, -. ,, -., -, ..- -- --- --. 4 I- 6 -- a-.- *


I. I


A


L ..













the Cartesian dualism of body and mind,


seeing instead the


body


merely an objectification of the will.


Though Gide


was


later


renounce


these


beliefs


favor of a more


materialist


doctrine,


Schopenhauer's


early


influence,


particularly regarding the double nature of the subject, was


remain.


Nietzsche,


another


disciple


Schopenhauer,


helped Gide overcome his fascination with the author of The


World As


Will


and Representation while


reinforcing his


vitalist penchant.


It is always difficult to


assess


the precise influence


that


ideas of one man produce


in another.


More often


than not


new ideas


are


integrated into an existing


framework


ideas


and ,


under


the


influence


personality of the reader and of the events of the time, are


selected and modified


to conform


much


they exert


pressure to change. Gide writes, in 1892,


remue


chaque
toutes


pens6e
les aut


nouvelle


res.


tout


ddplagant,
se confond


dans ma t&te


peu & tous les autres


. chaque concept


s'accroche un


(JAG I,p.30)


shall


return


Nietzsche's


place


in Gide's web


beliefs after


a discussion of the sophisticated irony of











63

Paludes and the Critiaue of Idealism


Gide maintained the


greatest respect for Mallarmd and


for


his


other


friends


Symbolist


group,


but


gradually


became


critical


the


closed


circle


they


represented, resisting exterior influences and making a cult


idealist beauty.


His novel Paludes,


published in 1895,


was


a reaction against the


egocentrism of


Parisian


milieu and many of its characters are easily recognizable

members of the group.


But


this


satire is


in good humor


and,


although Gide


mocks


the pretentions of many of his colleagues, his most


biting


satire


reserved


his


own


alter


ego,


nameless narrator. There is a significant shift in tone from

Gide's earlier works and Gide was later to classify Paludes

as a sotie. The original subtitle for this work was "Trait6


la Contingence"


and it was meant to be a complement to


his Narcisse. In the intervening period Gide had undergone a

radical change; his vision was different


Tout au plus pouvais-je pardonner aux autr


ae ne pas
j 'avais a


pouvais


reconnaitre que


dire


plus


des choses


leur


parler.


j' tais change
nouvelles, et


J'eusse


voulu


je ne
leur


I -I----------











64

To show this change in himself and the new ideas he wanted

to express, he conceived a different form of prose. Paludes

is a very lively, amusing and ironic narrative. The narrator


exaggerates


his


obsessions


and is


self-deprecatory


analysis


structure of this novel,


particularly


regards


the


levels


irony,


will


useful


discussion of Gide's development as a novelist.


Paludes,


broad


structural


outline,


closely


resembles the earlier Cahiers d'Andr6 Walter.


It is also


written in


poems,


journal form, it

is open-ended and,


contains


letter fragments and


in a strange sense,


it also


recounts the spiritual quest of a young novelist writing a


novel.


But between these


two novels,


similar in form,


lies


the


distance


ironic


consciousness.


One


finds


character


Emmanuelle


from Andrd


Walter,


a very serious,


spiritual companion, metamorphosed into Angble, a lively and

frivolous companion. The earlier sedentary and introspective

narrator has become a peripatetic extrovert. Moreover, while


Andre


Walter


there


are


really


only


two


essential


characters who rarely speak,


in Paludes there are many and


dialogue


abound.


If Andr4


Walter's


dilemma


was wholly


within his


soul and apparent to no one,


the narrator


0 -,,1 ,,~ 1 .E Al nIhl nI a i Aa .1 n*


An













more


than


journal entries.


Furthermore,


these chapters qua


journal


entries


are not


simply


accounts


the events,


encounters


and


abstraction,


readings


but


truly


the


narrative


day


with


units


appropriate


with


reported


dialogues, character analysis and descriptions, all of which


concern,


Paludes,


directly


which


indirectly,


in effect,


novel


the novel


in progress,


we are reading.


Indeed at one point on the last day, after what appears to


be an extemporaneous


affabulation,


the narrator preempts


Angle's comment saying,


"Et ne me dites pas que je devrais


mettre


cela


dans


Paludes.


D'abord,


est


d6ja "


(Ill,p. 125)

The narrator promotes our confusion of the two Paludes,


one


we


are


reading


and


one


writing,


constant references to


things he has seen,


heard or


just


written that should be included in Paludes; and of course,


in a very obvious sense,


in a few very


they are.


important aspects.


Yet the two texts differ

The frame narrative is


written in the first person while the fragmentary narrative


within


told


third


person.


The


first


person


narrator


has no name,


but the


protagonist


third


person narrative is named Tityre, a character borrowed from


174 .a...*1 I *~ 4- -S 1 S a .....~* .3.31 a ...C a -


tt f t 1 I n A -*


I -


rF!L













How


completely


different


setting of


frame


narrative--an urban landscape full of movement and lively


conversation.


The narrator never seems to stop moving, from


his


apartment


the street,


to Angle's


apartment,


someone's salon, and back again to his own apartment.


There


is a constant stream of brief visits by or to the narrator


and


there


are constant digressions


from his


discourse.


However


both


versions


Paludes,


for


all


their


differences,


give


the same


impression- -the


inutility of


action.


narrator's


Despite


claim


the agitation of


that he writes


the frame narrative,


in order to act and his


exhortations to his colleagues to change their habits, what


see


an endless


repetition of the same actions and


words. The story of Tityre is a transposition of the vicious


circle of


the narrator's existence in the literary scene


into a landscape of monotony.


The narrator writes


down an agenda each evening of


things to do the following day, but his lists are bizarre in


that


they


rarely


involve


concrete


actions


and


tend


accentuate the narrator's objectification of self (s'dtonner

de, penser a, s'inqui6ter de, tAcher d'avoir). He begins the


second day by


looking


at his


list of


things


to do and


. .


a~l CLn 4 .1 a. 4-l 1. ai nr -E a.~w ~ aA 1 4 .1.4. .a A a.


k"-^ h^ il J^ h b ^ i ^ *













give him "des id6es morales. "


(III,p.96)


This said, he has


no compunction about ignoring items on the list or modifying


them


fit


his


impulses.


The


distance


between


intentions and his actions sets the text in an ironic mode

which is made all the more obvious by the triviality of his


agenda items and his


lengthy moral rationalization of


function of such lists.


So he finds written in his agenda for the


"ticher de


second day,


lever a six heures," and beside it he writes,


"lev6 A sept." (III,p.96) He calls the difference 'l'imprivu


ndgatif.


Two days


later,


his agenda qua moral


calendar


reaches absurd proportions. He arises at eight,


sees


on the


agenda "tAcher de


lever a six heures,"


crosses


it out and


writes


instead,


"tAcher de


lever b onze heures,"


then


goes back to bed.


Unable to sleep, he nevertheless refuses


out of self-discipline to arise before the newly appointed

hour. (III,p.128)

He also finds noted in his list for the second day that


should


think


about


individuality


of his


friend


Richard and


says,


illogically,


"Je m'appretais


penser a


1'individualit6 de Richard." (III,p.97) He begins by pulling


out a file


that he


keeps


on Richard who,


that very


we ,. fl 4-*% Ylte r tA n a ~rnmel n *- U-lt l -l* l4 -.. 4 ne n


nJrv ^ 4i rn ^- nt1 r^ + ^ ^


m A OI II II C













narrator's notes on Richard.


It is as if he were called to


life


by the


text to concretize


the narrator's


incongruous


phrases, giving an impression of repetitive absurdity.

Richard's presence quickly turns out to be more of a


hindrance


narrator


than a


help ,


writes,


"J'6tais ladgrement ennuy4 ne pouvant bien penser aux gens


en leur presence."


(III,p.99) This comical situation points


a serious


esthetic


principle,


necessary distance


between


narrator and his subject.


The narrator


later


says


that the


third person is


the one who


is absent;


subsequently


, in


conversation


with


group


intellectuals at Angele's party, he defines the third person

as the 'normal' man, generalized man who resembles everyone

equally. In fact, this is the very subject of his novel.


Paludes


c'est


l'histoire du


terrain


neutre


qui


est


tout


1'histoire de la troisibme personnel


parle
nous.


mond
cell


--qui vit en chacun et qui ne meurt p
(IIIp.116)


e don't on


avec


Tityre


essence


this


third


person-- faceless,


malleable ,


content


and


absent


never


speaks)


narrator tells AngBle that Tityre


modeled after Richard,


9a 4 .. an 1rn ,, I r. anvk lnnn a n iI n 4 nf e n 4 ,ra 4 an n i na a C n













phenomenological


leitmotif of presence/absence


throughout


the novel.


There


is another playful reference


to repetition and


inutility in a scene that takes place just before Angele's

party in the stairwell of her building. As the narrator sits


on a


bench


composing


letter,


man


whom


addressed arrives and,


without having read the note,


sits


down to write a response.


Their first exchange concerns the


idea


'ignorance


is bliss,


' but they draw diametrically


opposed conclusions. The second exchange of notes begins, in


each


case,


with an example of a mistranslated Latin


text.


But whereas


narrator


uses


his


example


show


necessity of lucidity to achieve true happiness, his friend


Martin uses


his example


to demystify the notion of moral


necessity.

respective


Finally,


in their third and last exchange,


notes coincide perfectly:


"Plus


their


j'y rdfldchis,


plus


trouve


ton


example


stupid,


car


enfin


This


unlikely parallelism


thought


and


expression


totally


undermines


seriousness


subject--individual liberty and moral necessity. There is no

progression in this dialogue of notes, only an accumulation


tangents.


The


first exchange of notes recalls Plato's


*v ar it ar n n fl t4 So* 4 L -- t S .-


--T. A_, -l t


M


(II ,p. 115)


I


/ Q 1TQ


f


T













(III,p.114) However absurd the context,


this is one of the


central


questions


awareness and


text- the


implications


consequences of self


it has


for the self and


others.


Whereas Martin argues for passive resignation,


narrator proposes freedom through an act of will. It is also

an argument about the philosophical notion of contingency


and the philosopher,


Alexandre,


arrives at the end of


exchange


say


the narrator,


"Rattachez-vous a


tout,


Monsieur, et ne demandez pas la contingence; d'abord vous ne


1'obtiendrez


pas- -et puis:


a quoi


Ca vous


servirait-il?"


(I The distance between the narrator' intention,p 115)

The distance between the narrator's intentions and his


actions


is perhaps most apparent near the end of the text


when he and AngBle decide to take a trip to get away from


the

days

effe<


stagnant self-complacency of their

of planning and with great hopes


cts


their absence,


milieu


they never make


u. After two

the curative


it any further


than the train station. But the narrator is not discouraged

and rationalizes the setback into a victory


est a


ssez


heureux,


apres


tout,


que


petit voyag


instruire.
un voyage
1 I A A,, 4.4


e ait ratd--pouvant ainsi mieux vous


1


e plaisir que nous peut procurer


n'est qu' accessoire.
4. -w ^ -t 4 o 4


g l l nh I f. I 1


On voyage


pour













In the end,


and Roland who


it is Hubert,


leave on a long trip


the narrator's best friend,


to North Africa.


narrator is


left to his habits and futile repetitions.


immediately begins to worry about how he is going to replace

Hubert's regular six o'clock visits and, as Paludes comes to


a close,


we find him once again sitting in his room


the opening scene.


A friend enters and finds him writing.


When


inquires,


just


beginning,


what


narrator


writing,


told,


"J' cris


Polders."


(III,p.146)


The whole farcical


text has come back to its


point


departure,


leaving the reader with


a feeling of


infinite repetition.


Paludes is,


to say the least,


an enigmatic text,


full


linguistic


and


logical


paradoxes.


constantly


undermining


reliability


narrator,


Gide


decentered the text.


The reader is invited to find his own


truth between


lines.


Indeed,


in a short preface


Paludes, the author writes,


si nous savions


que nous voulions dire,


nous ne savons pas si nous ne disions que


cela


On dit


toujou


plus que CELA.--Et


sur


tout m'y int~resse,


savoir,


- -ce


tte


c'est
part


ce que j'y ai mis
d'inconscient. at


sans


voudrais appeler la part de Dieu.


(III,p.89)













encountered considerable


success and was read and commented


widely,


Paris


albeit


somewhat


literary scene.19


restrained circle of


Gide's contemporaries were


greatly


impressed by this unusual


and masterful


farce.


Camille


Mauclair wrote in the Mercure de France,


je crois bien que depuis Laforgue personnel


n'avait


eu cette


paisiblement


fagon exquisement dd


pret


aux


larmes


lassitude de l'ordinaire et du prdvu


ses


p6ree et


trahir
20


And in an anonymous note in the Figaro of July 17

reference is to Sterne


, 1895, the


Fantaisie


dessus de toute


d'un
s cho


esprit


ses


z616,


qui


sans s'y poser


vole


au-


, un peu


la fagon de Sterne, avec des points d'ironie, de


critique et des Blans de poet


On n'analyse guere


plus un
parfum;
la parol


livre c


omme celui-la qu'on n'explique un


ce sont 1I choses trop subtitles pour que
e suffise A en donner l'impression.21


But perhaps it is Mallarm6 who, in a letter to Gide, sums up

best the impression left by Paludes.


fais


pas


allusion


d' abord


goutte aigrelette et prdcieuse d'ironie qui tient


cent


pages,


elle


est


d'essence


unique;


m


ii I fF 01,.. nr 4I>-4 n' n1 -4 _. 1


.ais


ne


votre


ail^Vfi~t~i -l













Though


the critics were


not equal


their praise,


Paludes made a stir in the Parisian literary community and


Gide's parody of


for considerable polemic.


replace


the salons and cenacles was


Lfon Blum,


the occasion


whom Gide was soon to


literary critic for the Revue Blanche,


saw in


this


strange novel


a major


statement not only of Gide's


esthetic,


saw it


but of a changing esthetic in his generation. He

a novel heralding a new sensitivity.


Paludes,


richesse


dans


gai roman de
la monotonie


l'ennui,


livre de


ou 1'uniformitd du


recit


incroyable


la pensee
abondance


est


varlee


par


une


d'observation


d'imagination psychologique


changent;


Les gdndrations


celle-ci n'est plus romanesque,


r6cit


intime et difficile de


Paludes a bien pu


Atre son Werther. Chaque jour la verra se ddtacher
de 1'homme vers la nature et vers 1'id6e 23


Leon Blum astutely points to one of the major influences on


Gide's esthetic at that time,


Goethe,


who was to remain a


model for Gide's subsequent work.


Blum may have found the


references


Goethe


Gide's


1897


"Postface


pour


deuxibme edition de Paludes et pour annoncer Les Nourritures


Terrestres


which


Gide,


contrary


his


original


preface, attempts to explain the genesis and meaning of his


r. .


S- *


a- 4


nfl n n n r n nt.a ns lk n~e N rn rs n nr nn .a'. an F '4 rrr r I


L*


1













on Human Understandint.


Paludes,


we read,


marked a feeling


of stagnation in a closed literary milieu and a desire to


bannir


soulever
d~polies
' Autre


pour u
rideaux,


qui


qui


tout


tout


long
ouvrir


temps
, briser


livres,


les vitres


s 'paissit entire nous et


ternit


nature,


harmoniser 4
1' optimism
temperament
Goethe et ]
(III,p.1476)


enfin sa vie


6perdu
d'abord,
a lente


ses


I' avaient


puis


ensues, selon
conduit son


son admiration pour


meditation


Leibnitz.


And


in a


letter


his


mother


shortly


before


publication of Paludes,


Gide recommends Goethe


to her in


these terms:


. 1'extraordinaire some de folie que cet


homme raisonnable entire tous put absorber,


neutraliser


faire sienne et


"24 It is Goethe's receptivity to the world


of sensations that Gide admires and would emulate. His long

meditation of Leibnitz had lead him to re-evaluate the worth

of an individual idea as opposed to a universal truth. In an

1894 entry in his Journal, Gide writes


Certains


Leibnitz,


confondent iddes et v6rit6s


Nouveaux


Essais)


verites


(voir
sont


touj ours bonnes;


montrer.


idles souvei


L' on dirait que 1'idde


nt dangereuses A
est la tentation


v6rit


II n'est pas


bon


tenter


autres; Dieu envoie a chacun des tentations selon


S.


SA --* r


nf^ .. %-n- *n, A -- t











75

the novel. One of the two phrases cited is, "Ii faut porter

jusqu' la fin toutes les idees qu'on souleve." (III,p.149)

In his 1897 "Postface" Gide commented on this choice


voil&


sujet


mon


livre


'es


1'histoire d'une id6e plus que 1'histoire de quoi


que


soit


d'autr


c'est


I 'histoir


maladie


qu 'elle


cause


dan


tel


esprit


(III,p.1478)



He then goes on to compare the idea to a cancer that takes


over the body


, to a seed that becomes a majestic tree and to


the kingdom of God.


From


these


comments


one


can


see


that


extreme


receptivity of


the author to his


intellectual


environment


gives birth to and nourishes the idea around which the text


constructed.


The


idea is


ordering principle


that


governs the logic of narrative development much more than do


concerns of verisimilitude. Therefore, in Paludes, it


logic of boredom and stagnation


that


dictates narrative


form--repetition,


digression and circularity. But one might


conclude


from


these comments


that Gide was


promoting a


didactic literature.


To disabuse his readers of this notion


he goes a step further to express an esthetic principle that

n ~,,, ae a oaAa o1 9 .













J'aime qu'il porte en lui de quol


supprimer lui-meme


nier,


(III,p.1479)


It is this dialectical tension between subject and


object, inscribed within the text,


that gives Paludes its


enigmatic quality and assures its enduring modernism beyond

the topical parody of the Parisian literary milieu. To

create this dialectical tension between subject and object

Gide has recourse to a narrative form that he calls a

"construction en abyme." He writes


J 'aime


assez


qu'en une oeuvre d'art,


retrouve


ainsi


transpo


'dchelle


des


personnages, le sujet m&me de cette oeuvre. Rien
ne 1'6claire mieux et n'4tablit plus surement
toutes les proportions de 1'ensemble. (JAG I,p.41)



He gives a series of examples of this interior duplication

to illustrate his idea. He mentions Memling and Quentin

Metzys, whose paintings contain convex mirrors reproducing

the pictural space from within; the Velasquez painting Las


Meninas, in which one


sees


the painter painting; literary


works such as Hamlet, Wilhelm Meister and The Fall of the


House of Usher,


all


of which contain autoreferential


narratives; and his own works, AndrB Walter, Narcisse and













in Les Faux-Monnaveurs,


thirty years later.


I shall explore


this


narrative


procedure


depth


later


chapter.


Suffice


it to say here


that one of


the primary functions


that Gide ascribes to the mise en abyme is the engagement of


the reader in the psychological development of the novel


a dialogic process of becoming.


"Cette r4troaction du sujet


sur


lui -mime


m'a


touj ours


tent4


C'est


roman


psychologique typique." (JAG I,p.41)

In other words the structure of the work of art would,


in this way,


represent the structure of human consciousness


--the subject's awareness of self as an object of thought.


This


translates


radical


subjectivity in Gide's early


works mentioned in the passage above.


Jean Rousset


says


Gide's Narcisse, for instance


Ce Narcisse gidien


est lui aussi aquarelliste;


son


regard


compo


les miroitements


colors


proj&te sur la toile vide du monde


ce


qu'il
n'est


pas


son effigie qu'il


regarded dans


e miroir,


c'est


tout


le visible


qui,


tournant autour de


cette conscience devenue
pensee partout refl6tee.


But Gide's


away from his


'centre'


lui montre


own logic of retroaction eventually


idealist position because


leads him


surely


A-1_ t A 1


---------- -1


- -I-


T- n itlm a 4 cr a- r nnr T.Y f^ 1 a __ if r n r ha


Erll^ Ar^^- / a af A V~ a r a~ ^1 n ^\ nl a *V


h xa












decentering the


subj active


presence


in the


text through


duplication,


but also by representing the subtle dialectic


between interior and exterior. Maurice Nadeau writes,



En tant qu' me promise A Dieu il avait v4cu


dans


s nuees


redescendant sur terre,


faut d4couvrir le fait d'exister
dans le monde) a travers le 'fa


qui est exister
it de conscience'


61mentaire qui assoit dans un unique phenomene le
sujet et 1'objet: la sensation.26



Paludes paved the way for les Nourritures terrestres and the


author's


materialist conversion which Nadeau goes on to


describe in these terms



Par les sens le monde existe; par la sensation il


est


pr~hens ible,


connaissable


rapport de participation.


, a


travers


L'excitation appelle la


reaction qui,
stimuli 27


A son


tour ,


suscite


nouveaux


Les


Nourritures


terrestres,


announced


1897


"Postface" to Paludes as the author's conversion to a more


materialist vision,


critique


a hymn to sensual


of bourgeois mentality.


pleasure and a


By his own account Gide


wanted


"pr4cipiter


sensualisme


d'ou elle ne


litterature


puisse


dans un abime de


sortir que compl&tement











79

reactions to this unusual work and the literary context in

which it first appeared


Quand ont paru mes Nourritures,


plein Symbolisme;


j'ai


cru que


1'art


on dtait en
courait de


grands
natural


risques &


sdparer ainsi r6solument du


vie.


Mais


mon


livre


dtait


beaucoup


trop


natural


pour


point


paraitre


factice A ceux qui n'avaient plus de gott que pour


artificiall


prdcis6ment


parce


qu' il


s' chappait de la littdrature


que


quite


sse


nce


, on n'y vit d'abord
la littdrature.


(III,p.1486)


Although


this book was amply criticized and certainly


did not achieve the commercial success that Gide would have


liked,


did


find


admirers,


particularly


among


young


writers of the time,


and received favorable reviews in the


avant-garde press.28 Contrary to Gide's own assertions, his

break with Symbolism was very much in tune with the esthetic

aspirations of a new generation. Edmond Jaloux, writing for


the Marseille


daily L'Inddpendance


rdpublicaine,


declared


Mdnalque,


protagonist of Les Nourritures terrestres,


to be


the new Werther or Rend of the

profound optimism and love for


going


coming century.


life in


He saw a


this unique work,


to glorify it in these terms:


sais


nombreux esprits qui ont 6td bouleversds par Les Nourritures











80

vision of human existence and an awareness of others. In an

1897 letter to his Belgian friend AndrB Ruijters Gide writes


Crois bien que


qui mange mon Je n'est pas


seulement mon idbe. Si Je suis moins, c'est aussi
que je m'interesse toujours plus aux autres.30


This change in perspective


is marked by a seven year


hiatus of journal entries. Gide had come to


see


Journal


narcissistic


device


that


lead


him


obsessive


introspection and prevented a more genuine contact with the


world around him.


traveled extensively in North Africa


and, most significantly recovered from a terrible bout with


tuberculosis.


In fact,


he came


see


illness


wellspring of his art;


the uneasiness and difference from


others that one feels through illness produces a feeling of


disequilibrium and a search for a new order:

propose a 1'homme une inquietude nouvelle, qu


"La maladie


'il s'agit de


16gitimer." (JAG 1,98)


previously


stated,


although


Nourritures


terres trees


represented a radical break with contemporary


ideas


of literature and particularly with


the Symbolists,


Gide was not merely a voice crying out in the desert. His

a~r~ al 1.r a a a -1 a 1r a- St a 31.. a. a S, -L -


Les













Saint-Pierre.


They


published


harsh


criticism


Symbolists,


especially Mallarm4 and Henri


de REgnier,


called for


a return


nature,


to an expression of


senses


rather


than


intellect.


They


expressed


great


admiration for Gide and his long- time friend Francis Jammes.

Gide found much to agree with in the Naturist movement, but


was


bothered by the unbridled attacks against R4gnier and


Mallarme.


Bouhdlier,


with


the help of Emile Zola,


published a


manifesto of Naturism in the January


1897


issue of Le


Figaro in which he defined the esthetic principles of


new movement as an amor fati of the material world.



Au lieu d'dvoquer de charmantes et de suaves


seigneur
fetes d


s chim6riques,
e 1 homem.


nous chanterons les hautes


Pour


splendeur


spectacle,
les 6toiles,


es podtes convoqueront les plants,
les vents et les graves animaux. Une


litt&rature naitra qui glorifiera les marines, les
laboureurs nes des entrailles du sol et les
pasteurs qui habitent pres des aigles.31


But


Gide


could


find


common


ideas


this


introduction,


one


can only


imagine his reaction


to what


followed and which Claude Martin correctly qualifies as,

". sans ambiguity, une morale xenophobe, une esth4tique













defigure 1'esprit de la race


"33 At this point, without


publicly denouncing the Naturists,


Gide nevertheless


began


distance himself from their movement.


But despite his


very tentative involvement with this movement and subsequent


denial


their


esthetic


principles,


his


Nourritures


terrestres came to be seen as the only true Naturist work.


naturisme,


comme


le crois,


n'est


qu'une
retour
nature


revendication


aux


theories


droit


conception
le la vie,


plus


par


individualistes


lyrisme,
large de


opposition aux
u mystiques,


1'affirmation d'une sorte de pantheisme a la fois
r4aliste et moral, alors 1'oeuvre de Gide est bien


une oeuvre naturiste,
nommer au premier rang
nommer au premier rang.


faudra


Once again,


and despite Gide's


affirmations


contrary, he had crystallized the new esthetic concerns of a


rising


generation


writers.


But


if Les


Nourritures


terrestres


illustrates perfectly the


thrust of


new


Naturist esthetic, it also contains structural elements that

continue to appear as leitmotifs in his subsequent works.

The two structural elements in question for the purpose

of this study have been mentioned in connection with Gide's


earlier works and will be discussed at length


in a later


- U- ---~ f n- -'I ~ -S -- ~ L


m 4


I _


I


zl rr.., r.











83

Nourritures terrestres by inserting "Le R6cit de Mdnalque."


Gide


regretted


previous


publication of


this


text


excerpted form and originally planned not to include it in


the final version. He finally did so, at least in part,

add this extra narrative dimension to his work.35


The


second


structural


element


best


resumed


Francis Jammes in a letter he sent to Gide immediately after


publication of Les Nourritures


terrestres


in which he


writes:


"Chacune


tes


pens6es


portrait


elle,


DIRECTEMENT,sa


propre


refutation.


.36


Gide's


text


continually undermined by a vacillating point of view as the


narrator


balances


affirmation with negation--success may


also be a type of failure, goodness may also be evil, good


intentions


may


disguise


selfish motives.


This


play


opposites maintains a narrative tension throughout the text


and prevents


it from becoming didactic,


it would by


offering simplistic moral lessons.

Finally, although at first glance a disordered text of

lyrical effusion, Les Nourritures terrestres is, like Gide's


other works, carefully and purposefully assembled,


Claude


Martin demonstrates. 37


Henri


GhBon,


soon


to become one of


Gide's closest friends and collaborators, was one of the few


- ,.t A- -- -A --- .. _. -1 t r


t





1


I


I~











84

d'avoir su developper une thbse philosophique avec
un tel lyrisme, et de nous avoir offert une oeuvre


complete


triomphent


tous


dons que nous


avions admires un a un,
livres.38


dpars dans chacun de


ses


The intimate tone of this book engages the reader to enter


the


subj active


world


the


narrator s


thoughts


and


sensations, but also demands that he shed his traditionally


anonymous


and


passive


reader'


role.


asked


participate actively in the deciphering of the narrative, to


use it for his own purposes and go beyond. Already,


in the


preface


Paludes,


the author called upon his


reader to


explain his text to him.




Un livre est toujours une collaboration,


tant plus le livre vaut-il


, que plus


la part du


scribe y est petite
revelation des chosi


Attendons de partout la
es; du public, la rtvdlation de


nos oeuvres. (III,p.89)




Gide's Readers


The idea of reader participation was always a concern


of Gide's


and he was


often disappointed not only by the


frequent misinterpretation of his works,


but also by the


- -. -- r __ -- 1- .


__ I


__ 1













previously mentioned,


Gide


did have


substantial


and


sympathetic readership. But he was rarely satisfied with the


reactions of his readers.


Throughout his career he readily


responded to any criticism in the press. It is certain that

he didn't expect his works to be great commercial successes

and, happily, he didn't depend on the sales of his works for

his livelihood, but he remained acutely aware of the public

reaction to his writing.

In two brilliant lectures given in Brussels in 1900 and

in Weimar in 1903, Gide discusses the role of the artist in


relation


literary


tradition


and


relation


his


readers.


The first,


called De 1'influence en litterature,


revolved around two basic ideas: first, influence isn't good

or bad in any absolute sense, only in relation to the person


influenced


and


second,


impossible


avoid


influence.


(OC III,p.250)


the contrary,


truly


great


individual


need not fear


losing his personality through


influence; he should be receptive to it.


Un grand home n'a qu'un souci:


devenir


plus
BANAL.


human


possible,


Devenir banal,


--dison


Shakespeare,


mieux:


banal


DEVENIR
Goethe,


Molibre


devient


, Balzac,


Tolstoi


le plus personnel.


. c'est ainsi qu'il
Tandis que celui qui


fuit


1'humanit6


pour


lui-meme,


n'arrive


qu'A


t 4 -.-


p t r


.1 vT on vn 4 4 ar F n l -r


nnrt rn ny ^" t ^^^yr'^^^lui^











86

certain sense, only in virtual form before finding its place


the mind of


a reader;


but


the artist


bears


a heavy


responsibility for the influence of his


ideas.


To relieve


him of the torment of this responsibility he needs the help

of a group


Chez


1'artiste


, souvent,


soumission


d autrui


qu' i11


obtient


causes


tres


diff4rentes


mot


pourrait,


crois


, les


resumer: il ne se suffit pas & lui-meme.


II a besoin d'adjoints,


Ii influence:


de substitute


d'autre


de secretaires.


s vivront et joueront pour


i ses id6e
sa place.


s; risqueront le danger de les experimenter
(OC III,p.262)


important


to note


this


series of dialectical


opposition in Gide's esthetic. In the discussion of Paludes

and of Les Nourritures terrestres I pointed out the dynamic


nature of writing and reading,


that is,


the retroactive


influence of the work on its author and the reader's active


role


interpretation.


Here one may see


the relationship


broadened to indicate the mutual influence of the writer and


literary


community


writer's


work


inscribed


within the tradition of literary production.


Gide makes it


clear


in his


1903


lecture


in Weimar,


1' importance du


public (OC IV,p.181-197), that


the writer cannot ignore his











87

Auguste Angl&s synthesizes these two lectures well.



Ces deux conferences complementaires sont une


profession
bienfaits


de
de


en


n6cessit6


1'interaction.


en


L'4crivain


les
doit


s'ouvrir aux influences et influence A son tour;
Goethe a 4t6 bonnifid par la cour de Weimar autant


qu'ili


ses


1'a dduquee;


l'artiste qui s'isole,


contemporains condamnent & 1'isolement,


ou que
verse


dans


l'extravagance


ou s' tiole.


Lorsque Gide


languit apr&s un public, ce n'est pas une action a


sens


unique


qu 'il


ambitionne:


souhaite


retour Otre modifi6.


ii salt qu'entre autrui


et lui
etre 40


joue


l'avenir


son


talent,


de son


The reader Gide had in mind was an enlightened friend


and,


indeed,


Claude Martin remarks that Gide always seemed


to need a closely knit group of friends,


in whom he could


confide and whose judgment he could trust.41 Gide had begun

collaborating with various literary journals quite early in


his


career


and,


near the


end of


century,


was a


frequent contributor to


La Revue Blanche and L'Ermitage,


among others.


He was easily persuaded to contribute pieces


to new,


often short-lived


journals,


but was reluctant to


become


identified with any particular group.


Although he


greatly valued his independence, he did seem to need a solid

support group, as previously stated, and often attempted to

a1.9













periodically discussing political,


philosophical and moral


problems.


also


showed


great


sensitivity


these


articles to foreign authors still largely unknown in France,


such as Nietzsche,


Tolstoy,


Dostoevsky


and Dickens.


encouraged the translation and diffusion of foreign works in


France


time


when


more


established


critics


were


proposing nationalistic and at times even racist criteria

for literary selection.

At a time when polemic often became grossly insulting,


Gide


sought a higher ground for criticism,


often praising


the work of those with whom he disagreed fundamentally. His


treatment of Les


D6racin6 s


by Maurice


Barres


is a good


example of his method.


respect,


He treated BarrBs with the greatest


praising his brilliant style and imagery as well as


his character portrayal. He expressed unqualified agreement

with the importance of the problem treated by Barrds but, in


the end,


found two basic faults: a heavy-handed ideological


bent that bordered on the didactic and a misunderstanding of

the true dilemma that his characters faced. Gide maintained


that


in fact,


novel


clearly


demonstrated the exact


opposite of Barrbs' stated thesis.


Putting aside


the question of


the validity of Gide's


-9 ~--.., .9 .9 9 I I- I 0


I













the author can,


through a close reading, be reversed. It is


through such subtle and objective critiques that Gide became


known


and


respected


new


voice


the


literary


community.

Gide's judgment of Barrbs is symptomatic of his view of

much of contemporary French literature which he found to be


stagnating within


confines


strictly


defined


ideology


national


consciousness


and


middle


class


morality.


It was


time,


felt,


like


the protagonist of


Paludes,


to open all the windows and doors to let in fresh


air .


With


idea of promoting new ideas in literature,


foreign and domestic,


Gide began making plans


to create a


literary journal with a closely knit group of friends.


result of their association was the Nouvelle Revue Francaise


which soon became a


forum for new ideas and continually


refused to be co-opted by political or religious movements.

The various contributors maintained their independent voices

and, despite inevitable clashes of opinion, they continually

offered their readers the best in new writing and criticism.


A list of early


contributors to


the N.R.F.


reads


like


Who's Who of 20th century French literature and criticism,

though at the time these authors were largely unknown.


S S -- S -- n













analysis


current trends.


Auguste Angles writes of his


impressions on reading the early issues of the N.R.F.


d'une curiosity en veil,


d'une riflexion


murie


pourtant


enthousiaste


, d'une


ample


conversation qui


va


diversifiant &


travers


maintes


incidents,


que de


grands


themes relient


et dominant. leur promptitude A faire surgir
un probleme gn4Bral.43


The poised


judgment of the editorial board and


'regulars'


came


perhaps


from


years


informal


conversations


and


elective affinities that brought them together. The strength

of their common project was then evident in the style and

presentation of their journal.


Three unifying themes


that Angles finds


in the early


issues of the journal are, 1) classical qualities


opposed


romantic


aberrations,


classicism as


the only true


expression


the


French


genius


and


value


psychological and moral exploration.44 The debate with the


different


'chapelles '


of Paris was engaged on far-reaching


questions and,


though the attacks and responses sometimes


degenerated into sterile posturing, they forced attention to

be focused on the nature of current French literature and

its place within history.











91

literature' by pointing to the fundamental ambiguity of any

such definition. Over the course of these three articles, he

gradually abandoned the questions of national literature and

classicism to lead his readers toward a more subtle vision

of literary works, to be viewed in terms of their individual


coherence


rather


than


expressions


sound moral


principles.45

It is in this sense that we understand Gide's repeated

request that his own works be judged only for their esthetic


qualities.


Many


of his


contemporaries


focused


their


attention exclusively on the moral implications of a text

and their incursions into questions of form served only to

define the author as part of a particular literary tradition

which in turn led them back to moral concerns of national

character. It should be evident from Gide's own criticism as


well


from his


fiction


that he


was not opposed


to a


discussion of ethical principles represented by the various


voices


in a text,


but he did oppose a superficial reading


that


reduced


all


the


voices


one


and


ignored


complexities of narrative structure and ironic distancing.



A Mosaic of Novels













during


two decades preceding Les Faux-Monnayeurs.


intention here


is not to formulate extensive analyses of


these


fictional


works themselves,


but rather to highlight


certain aspects


regarding narrative


technique,


modes of


irony and the mediation of experience in novelistic form.


One


hesitates


speak


evolution


Gide's


esthetic ideas because he himself argued explicitly against

such an interpretation of his works. He claimed, on several

occasions, to have conceived the whole of his works from the


beginning,


and


there


exists


solid corroborative evidence


from his friends and acquaintances. As Auguste Angles


says,


n'a


cesse


revendiquer


son appartenance


1'ordre du simultand."46 In one of his famous


"Billets &


AngHle" Gide claims to have conceived all of his fictional


works


from L'Immoraliste


through La Symphonie pastorale


before


the


age


thirty.


(III,p.1582)


This


seems


contradict Gide's previously mentioned statements concerning

the dynamic relationship between an author, his work and his


public.


In order to reconcile


these


ideas of simultaneity


with dynamic interaction,


one must consider the context of


their utterance.

It is a particular characteristic of Gide's work that


-~~ ~~ a


I




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ETHICS AND ESTHETICS
IN ANDRE GIDE'S
LES FAUX-MONNAYEURS
By
JOHN ADDISON LAMBETH
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1988

Copyright 1988
by
John Addison Lambeth

Dedicated to
Philip Stanhope Lambeth
whose recent arrival helped put everything
in proper perspective

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS vi
ABSTRACT vii
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1
NOTES 6
CHAPTER 2: THIRD REPUBLIC BELIEFS AND VALUES 7
POSITIVISM AND EDUCATIONAL REFORM 7
ZOLA AND THE EXPERIMENTAL NOVEL 17
CLASSICAL AND SPIRITUAL VALUES 21
SUBJECTIVITY AND VITALISM 28
NOTES 47
CHAPTER 3: THE FOUNDATIONS AND FLUIDITY OF GIDE'S
ESTHETIC 50
THE SYMBOLIST MOVEMENT 50
PALUDES AND THE CRITIQUE OF IDEALISM 63
GIDE'S READERS 84
A MOSAIC OF NOVELS 91
NOTES 99
CHAPTER 4: NARRATIVE ELEMENTS IN LES FAUX-MONNAYEURS 102
DESCRIPTION AND SETTING 102
DIALOGUE 108
NARRATIVE VOICE 117
FRAGMENTATION OF THE NARRATIVE 133
NOTES 142
CHAPTER 5: LA MISE EN ABYME 143
HISTORY AND USE OF THE TERM 143
MISE EN ABYME OF THE STATEMENT 149
MISE EN ABYME OF THE ENUNCIATION 157
MISE EN ABYME OF THE CODE 174
NOTES 186
CHAPTER 6: TIME AND HISTORY IN LES FAUX-MONNAYEURS 189
PROBLEMS OF CHRONOLOGY 191
SUBJECTIVE VERSUS OBJECTIVE TIME 202
ESTHETICS AND ETHICS 207
IRONY 221
NOTES 226
iv

CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSION
229
BIBLIOGRAPHY 235
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 242
v

KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS
Journal d'André Gide I (JAG I)
Journal d'André Gide II (JAG II)
Romans. Récits et Soties. Oeuvres lvriques
(Pléaide Edition) (Ill)
Oeuvres Completes d'André Gide
(15 voIs.)
(OC 1,11,111, ...)

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
ETHICS AND ESTHETICS IN ANDRE GIDE'S
LES FAUX-MONNAYEURS
By
John Addison Lambeth
April, 1988
Chairman: Professor Raymond Gay-Crosier
Major Department: Romance Languages and Literatures
André Gide's experimental novel, Les Faux-Monnaveurs.
has frequently been criticized as esthetically flawed and as
ethically naive. Critics have, on the one hand, considered
Gide's novel to be an exercise in se1f-absorption,
attempting to normalize the notion of homosexual
relationships between men and boys, or on the other, an
interesting novelistic experiment but lacking coherence.
Many of his social-minded contemporaries found his novel to
be overly concerned with esthetics, totally ignoring a
deepening social crisis in the wake of World War I. In
recent years there has been a reevaluation of Gide's novel
and critics have tended to put aside any ethical
considerations, judging Les Faux-Monnaveurs solely on formal
criteria.
I believe that Les Faux-Monnaveurs is both esthetically
and ethically coherent and that many critics have ignored
vi i

its subtle ethical foundations, blinded by the rigorous
construction that they have discovered. They have failed to
grasp the significant marriage of the medium and the message
in this novel.
Gide described his early novels as a mosaic of works
that he conceived simultaneously, all dealing with the same
problem, authenticity, from different perspectives. He
considered none of them to be truly novels precisely because
they were told from a single perspective. Le s Faux -
Monnaveur s was to be a true novel, told from multiple
perspective.
Les Faux-Monnaveurs is a synthetic work, referring to
and reproducing many styles of novelistic discourse and
form. It is a novel about writing and reading. The
counterfeit gold coin functions as a metaphor for literature
and the counterfeit reality that it represents. The coin is
also symbolic of the relationship between the novelist and
his public and it calls into question the whole problem of
relative values in the modern world. Gide's use of the mise
en abyme narrative technique creates a novelistic puzzle
that forces the reader to actively participate in the search
for meaning. The mise en abyme is a formal analog to the
paradoxical structure of irony. They are both models of the
alterity of being and serve as vehicles to convey the
fundamental problem of ethical uncertainty and relative
values.
vi i i

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
André Gide began to write Les Faux-Monnaveurs in 1919
at the age of fifty. By this time he was a widely read and
respected critic, essayist, playwright, translator and
'fictional author.' This last circumlocution derives from
Gide's idiosyncratic genre distinctions. The dedication at
the beginning of Les Faux-Monnaveurs reads
A Roger Martin du Gard
je dédie mon premier roman
en témoignage d'amitié profonde.
A.G. (Ill,p.932)
That Gide should consider this work his first novel
might come as a surprise to some who have read his earlier
works such as 1'Immoralis te. la Porte étroite. Isabelle. les
Caves du Vatican and la Svmphonie pastorale. These works
are commonly considered to be novels today and so they were
in Gide's time as well. Gide himself had, prior to the
publication of Isabelle. referred to his early work as
novels.
But in the period following the founding of the
Nouvelle Revue Francaise Gide began a serious reflection on
1

2
the nature and function of the novel. This reflection
germinated and blossomed forth in the context of an ongoing
debate among various literary tendencies represented by
their
journals and magazines. Auguste Angles
describes this literary quarrel
Qu'il s'agisse d'esthétique, de politique, de
religion, de morale, toutes ces "directions"
recoupent 1'un des débats enchevétrés de l'époque
qui voit la restauration des valeurs "classiques"
et la critique du " romantisme". C'est un exemple
de ces "captures" qu'on rencontre dans l'histoire
des idées comme dans celle des fleuves:
progressivement, une question prend tant
d'importance dans les polémiques qu'elle attire á
elle ses voisines.^
In this rather confusing debate of accusations and
counter - accusations, Angles isolates three major themes
celui des 'qualités classiques' opposées aux
'aberrations romantiques'; celui du classicisme
considéré comme seule expression du génie
fran?ais, et de la précellence attribuée á ce
dernier; celui des mérites de l'esprit
d'exploration psychologique et morale.^
This debate may be understood as symptomatic of what
various critics have called the crisis of the novel^ or the
crisis of the concept of literature.^ Michel Raimond finds
the roots of this crisis in the dissolution of the
naturalist school in the 1890s, while Albert Léonard finds
them in the esthetics of Mallarmé, spiritual leader of the

3
symbolist movement, also in the 1890s. In an attempt to
better understand André Gide's esthetic position in relation
to this crisis, I propose to examine his evolution as a
writer in the historical context of the Third French
Republic. It is not my purpose here to reduce Gide to a
simple product of this period, but rather to examine certain
influences that helped to shape his vision of the novel and
eventually led him to write Les Faux - Monnaveur s . I am
encouraged in this endeavor by Gide's own essay, "De
l'influence en littérature," published in 1900, in which he
says of the artist
Que peut-il? Seúl! --I1 est débordé. il n'a
pas assez de ses cinq sens pour palper le monde;
de ses vingt-quatre heures par jour, pour vivre ,
penser, s'exprimer. II n'y suffit pas, il le
sent. Il a besoin d'adjoints, de substituís, de
secrétaires. (OC III, p.251)
I shall begin by examining the intellectual climate in
which Gide grew up, giving particular attention to the
philosophical bases for the literary movements that had
formed in France at the time of Gide's entry into the
literary scene in 1889 with the composition of his first
'novel,' Les Cahiers d'André Walter. It is my contention
that the ideas Gide expresses in his early work,
particularly regarding the relation between subjective
reality and objective reality, and by extension, the
relation between the text and the 'real' world, were to

4
remain his primary concerns through all of his subsequent
work. I will first look at the dominant philosophical and
esthetic movements of his early years before describing the
reaction of which he was a part.
The third chapter concerns Gide's literary production
up until 1919 when he began work on Les Faux - Monnaveur s . I
discuss his early writings, the importance of his
involvement with the Symbolist movement and Stéphane
Mallarmé in particular and his involvement with the dominant
literary journal of his time, La Nouvelle Revue francaise.
Gide has explicitly rejected the notion of an evolution in
his literary production, claiming rather that he had
conceived of the totality of his literary works up until Les
Faux-Monnaveurs from the beginning and that his individual
works should be seen as pieces of a mosaic, each exploring a
different aspect of narrative technique.
The fourth chapter is an examination of certain classic
narrative elements in Les F a ux - Monnaveurs such as
description, dialogue and narrative voice. The point of the
chapter is to show on the one hand the multitude of
techniques that Gide employs and the subtlety with which he
blends them, and on the other hand the paradoxical nature of
this se1f - ref1ective novel that continually escapes a
standard narratological analysis.
The fifth chapter is an analysis of a hallmark of
Gidian fiction, the 'mise en abyme,' pushed to its limits in

5
Les Faux-Honnaveurs, I refer particularly to recent
structuralist critiques of Gide's novel that help reveal
both the complexity of his project and its coherence.
The last chapter then is a critique of the certain
reductionist aspects of the structuralist approach that
reveal Gide's subtle technique but in so doing conceal major
thematic concerns of an ethical nature as well as the
ethical nature of his formal concerns. Gide's predilection
for a subversive form of argumentation by misdirection
gradually draws the reader into a web of uncertainty,
raising question but offering no answers or only inadequate
ones.
Les Faux-Monnaveurs at first glance seems to stand
outside of history. There are contradictory references to
people or historical events that could not logically
coexist, although the basic field of historical reference is
the early 20th century before World War I. On the other
hand, there is a very rich social milieu within the novel.
Besides novelists there are educators and students, a
scientist, a psychiatrist, a preacher, a musician,
housewives, lawyers and criminals. Furthermore, money, a
dominant form of social interaction, is a central metaphor
in the novel. I will attempt to reintegrate the notion of
history in a broad sense as a subliminal leitmotif in Les
Faux-Monnaveurs. a novel fundamentally concerned with the
problems of communication and values.

6
NOTES
1. Auguste Angles, André Glde et le premier eroune de la
Nouvelle Revue francaise. Paris, Gallimard, 1978, p.199.
2 . Ibid. , p . 200.
3. Michel Raimond, La Crise du roman aux lendemains du
Naturalisme aux années vingt. Paris, José Corti, 1966.
4. Albert Léonard, La Crise du concept de littérature en
France au XXe Siecle. Paris, José Corti, 1974.

CHAPTER 2
THIRD REPUBLIC BELIEFS AND VALUES
Positivism and Educational Reform
Positivism, as a philosophical movement, has its roots
in the writings of Auguste Comte. He used the term
'positive' in opposition to what he perceived as negative
thought in Hegelian dialectics. Although Comte was a rather
crude empiricist, deriving his method from scientific
investigation, he added the interesting twist of
historicism. He believed in stages in the history of ideas,
from the religious to the metaphysical and finally to the
scientific. Comte denied metaphysics and attempted to
transform philosophical theory into scientific theory.
Marcuse says of Comte's project,
'Philosophie positive' is, in the last analysis, a
contradictio in adjecto. It refers to the
synthesis of all empirical knowledge ordered into
a system of harmonious progress following an
inexorable course. All opposition to social
realities is obliterated from philosophical
discuss ion. ^
7

8
In other words, Comte wanted to develop an independent
science of society that would concern itself only with
facts, not with transcendental illusions. He saw society as
an organized system, like nature, that the science of
sociology would eventually elucidate completely. Comte's
writings were very clear and common-sensical, which perhaps
accounts at least in part, for his great popularity. Comte
read the works of the German philosopher Emmanuel Kant and
agreed with his fundamental distinction between 'noumena,'
things in themselves, and 'phenomena,' things as we perceive
them. Comte decided that the search for true knowledge was
necessarily limited to the systematic study of phenomena
from which one could derive general laws. Any speculation
concerning first causes or ultimate ends was disallowed as
it was not subject to scientific verification through
observation.
Positivism was, in a very real sense, a program for
society because Comte believed that from scientific method
one could make predictions and from these predictions one
could act. In his Cours de Philosophie Positive Comte gives
four primary applications of positivism: 1) the rational and
objective search for the laws governing the human mind, 2)
educational reform with special emphasis on the spirit of
scientific inquiry and the interdependency of the sciences,
3) the systematic perfection and definition of each of the
specialized fields of scientific inquiry, and 4) the re-

9
organization of society.^ in his explanation of the first
point Comte rejects out of hand any possibility of knowledge
through introspection
Mais quant á observer de la méme maniére les
phénoménes intellectuels pendant qu'ils
s ' exécutent, il y a impossibilité manifesté.
L'individu pensant ne saurait se partager en deux,
dont 1'un raisonnerait, tandis que l'autre
regarderait raisonner. L'organe observé et
l'organe observateur étant, dans ce cas,
identiques, comment 1'observation pourrait-elle
avoir lieu?-*
I will have occasion to return to this problem of the
divided subject in the discussion below of realist
literature and the problem of the narrator. Before coming
back to this point it will be useful to look at some of the
effects of Comte's method in three other areas: educational
reform, delineating fields of inquiry, and the re¬
organization of society.
Positivism, with its pragmatic vision and its naive
belief in inexorable human progress through science, was the
ideal philosophy for the managerial Republicans who were to
gain control of France in the wake of the debacle of the
Franco-Prussian War in 1871. Indeed the Republicans
immediately began to make far-reaching reforms in economic
policy, administrative organization, and the educational
system. They found a certain justification for their anti¬
clericalism in Comte's notion of stages; religion was

10
perceived as a primitive world view. They gradually sought
to eradicate all traces of religious teaching from the
public school system. Comte was not necessarily hostile to
the idea of religion, but he opposed both the unverifiable
dogmas of Catholicism and the critical metaphysics of
Protestantism. Charles Lalo writes that
D'une part, avec les conservateurs, il affirme le
besoin d'une autorité, d'une hiérarchie, méme
d'une tradition, voire d'une religion, pourvu que
toutes ces forces d'organisation soient pénétrées
du nouvel esprit scientifique.^
When the Republicans took over the school system they
distributed new textbooks on history, literature and morals
in the primary and secondary schools. They replaced
religious teaching with their own lay morality.
In the late nineteenth century a new attack
on the Catholic Church, this time by the
Republicans (many of them Protestants), repeated
the process in areas where the Church had hitherto
been supreme. Till then, popular education had
been basically religious . . . keeping with this
tradition . . . the Republicans made their primary
schools concentrate on morals.
The Third Republic is rightfully called "la république des
professeurs" in which even the "instituteurs" had become the
chosen agents of Republican propaganda among the people.
Theodore Zeldin documents the presence of a large
contingent of Protestants in the Third Republic government

11
and they tended, of course, to hire assistants with similar
ideas; this was especially the case in the educational
system. Fernand Buisson, for instance, was director of
primary education from 1879 until 1896. He was a well known
author, a member of the Radical Party and of the League of
the Rights of Man, and later president of the powerful Ligue
d'Enseignement. Buisson developed a neo - Protestant doctrine
in his book Christianisme libéral calling for a radical
separation but complementarity between Church and school. He
promoted what he called "la foi laique."^
Buisson was greatly influenced by a Catholic heretic
who spent his life attacking the Church, the philosopher
Charles Renouvier. He was the author of numerous textbooks
for teachers of Republican morals. In 1873, he converted to
Protestantism and later, in the pages of his journal La
Critique philosophiaue . he recommended the conversion of
France to Protestantism as a solution to social unrest and
moral decadence. This neo - Protestant tendency grounded its
moral system in the writings of Kant and in the belief in
human progress through the development of the intellect.
These ideas dovetailed nicely with the positivism of
Comte's disciple Jules Ferry. He appointed a Protestant
pastor, Félix Pécaut, as headmaster of the Ecole Nórmale at
Fontenay-aux-Roses, the primary teacher training college for
"institutrices." Pécaut gave frequent lessons on morals and
inspired devoted admiration in the young women.^ Ferry, as

12
minister of education, preserved Comte's popularity by
giving him a large place in the syllabus. Comte believed
that education should be both emotional and esthetic, using
the observation of concrete phenomena and active methods to
promote sociability in the masses. He also gave primacy to
moral education and even expressed admiration for the
Jesuits' educational skills, specifically because they
sought active and voluntary submission as opposed to sterile
and disorganized discussion.® Comte went so far as to
recommend that education be governed by an independent,
autonomous corporation of intellectuals which provided Ferry
with the theoretical justification to make the university a
self-governing body.
Ferry also introduced composition into primary
education, stressing a positive method of observation.
Zeldin provides evidence that, not only was near-universal
literacy achieved during this period in France but that the
children learned to write well.
After the decline of religion, great stress
was laid on choosing the very best prose, by the
most admired writers. Reading, indeed education
as a whole continued to be seen as a conquest of
values.^
The core of the new educational system remained the
teaching of moral and civic values. Jules Ferry and Paul
Bert made morals teaching a part of the syllabus; they

13
believed that every child should serve a moral
apprenticeship. The day would begin in lay schools with a
lesson in morals replacing the catechism of Church schools.
Although the Republican morality was quite conservative, the
Catholic Church, in reaction to the real threat of being
supplanted among the people by a secular state, placed these
new textbooks of morals on the Index. This seems a bit
extreme by today's standards. Paul Bert's textbook of 1882,
although it favored progress, was intended to inculcate the
masses with social values and a sense of voluntary
submission to the state.
If the spread of primary education, stimulated by
competition between public and Church schools, had produced
n e a r - un i v e r s a 1 literacy in France by the turn of the
century, secondary education catered only to a small
minority. Between 1881 and 1920 the percentage of boys 11 to
17 in secondary schools never surpassed six percent. In 1887
fifty-six percent of secondary schools were state lycées or
colleges, thirteen percent were private lay schools and
thirty-one percent were Church private.^ During the long
Third Republic, the amount of time students spent in seven
years of secondary school studying 'Letters' slowly declined
to the primary benefit of science in both the classical and
modern options. It should be noted though that about half
the science instruction was in mathematics and the
scientific training itself was primarily theoretical. Also,

14
even though the numbers of new bacheliers for each year
remained virtually static, they were having increasing
difficulty finding jobs. Their options were either to go on
to the university in order to specialize, occasionally to
step into a lucrative family business, or most often, to
simply take what they could get: jobs as clerks, tutors,
journalists or civil servants. Undoubtedly, they were an
elite group: six percent of their generation was to receive
secondary education while the rest of their peers were
serving apprenticeships for trades, setting up small
businesses or working in mines, in factories or on farms;
but they were often disappointed to discover that the
rhetoric of equality was hollow and privilege was still
divided according to class lines. Gide recalls his childhood
education in a particularly lucid statement from his
autobiography, "J'étais privilégié sans le savoir, comme
j'étais Franqais et protestant sans le savoir . . ." (OC
XIII, p.2 2 6 ) Les Faux-Monnaveurs vividly portrays the
atmosphere of a Protestant lay lycée, drawn directly from
Gide's own experience as recounted in Si le grain ne meurt.
The teaching of literature and history, especially in
the state and private lay lycées, was greatly influenced by
two professors at the Sorbonne imbued with Comtian
positivism: Hippolyte Taine and Ernest Renan. It was in his
Histoire de la littérature anglaise. published in 1863, that
Taine exposed his influential theory of 'race, milieu et

15
moment.' He meticulously developed these three parameters in
his analysis of the history of English literature and did it
so eloquently that his approach became a standard for
textbooks of literature.^ Once again, in his autobiography,
Gide recalls avidly reading all of Taine's books while a
student in the lycée. (OC XIII,p.300) Ironically, Taine, a
progressive Republican, was later to see his ideas on race
used by the most conservative elements in France to justify
a rising nationalism accompanied by xenophobia. In a later
work, Origines de la France contemporaine. Taine tried to
define, in the wake of the debacle of the Second Empire, the
essence of the French nation and to give a unified identity
to its people. However, as Zeldin states,
The effects of his Origins of Contemporary
F r anee was thus not to turn Frenchmen against
Germany, but to urge them to move on the same
conservative, indeed reactionary, path that
Germany was following.^
Ernest Renan was at odds with Taine concerning the
essence of a nation. In a famous lecture at the Sorbonne in
1882 called "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?" Renan declared race
to be an inadequate criterion, as was language. A nation
was, he said, a common tradition and a consent in the
present, that is, a desire to live together and to continue
to develop one's cultural heritage. ^ Although Renan's
approach scandalized Catholic and Monarchist sentiment, his

16
ideas were basically conservative and served as a
justification of the status quo. In an early essay called
L'Avenir de la science, written in 1848 but not published
until 1890, Renan expresses a firm belief in the progress of
humanity through the marriage of scientific spirit with
imagination. Science, he said, was his religion.From 1865
until 18 8 5 he published a series of volumes under the
general title Histoire des origines du christianisme in
which, using positive methods, he argued against the
divinity of Christ and generally portrayed religion as a
cultural byproduct.^ His work obviously found its place in
the Republican syllabus.
It is difficult to judge the true impact of positive
philosophy on French society. Being a part of the syllabus
in public schools, of course, did not ensure universal
acceptance, nor did it ensure even an adequate understanding
by the teachers or their students. As is always the case
with the popularization of theories, they were watered down,
revised, and associated with other ideas or currents of
thought. But positivism had the advantage of appealing to a
very pragmatic sense of empirical observation. The
systematic organization of knowledge into fields of inquiry
and specializations gave a sense of progress toward palpable
truths. It is certain that Comte's notion that society and
man could be analyzed objectively through proper techniques
of observation and verification had great influence on

17
intellectuals and, through them, on many others of
generations to come. In a more general sense, in alliance
with pure and particularly applied sciences, it contributed
to the scientific spirit that was to dominate the Third
Republic not only in the development of human sciences but
even in the elaboration of a new esthetic. Indeed,
observation of concrete reality and the verisimilitude of an
author or an artist's representation of reality gradually
supplanted the Romantic esthetic revolving around the
individual, emotion and introspection.
Zola and the Experimental Novel
Balzac and Flaubert were the models of realism for the
young writers of the 1870s. They told their stories through
omniscient third-person narrators, concentrating,
particularly in the case of Balzac, on minute descriptions
of places, people and causally linked events. Their
narrators told their stories much as an historian would and
they frequently incorporated actual historical events into
the narrative both to increase the feeling of identification
in the reader and to appeal to his sense of verisimilitude.
Balzac frequently used physiological traits to portray the
personalities of his characters. Stendhal, though he was not
to attain great prestige until later, believed that his text
was like a mirror of the real world and he strove to create

18
a style as pure and objective as the 'Code Civil.' It should
not be assumed that these writers were the dominant ones of
their generation. Balzac was the only one of the three
mentioned who achieved durable popular success in his time.
Hugo, Georges Sand, Prosper Mérimée and Eugéne Sue, among
others, were very popular Romantic writers of the period.
But it was nevertheless the inheritors of Balzac, above all
Emile Zola, who, in the 1870s, constituted a movement based
on scientific principles of observation and experimentation
--the naturalist school.
The esthetic of the naturalist school was formulated in
the pages of the Soirées de Medan by Emile Zola, Maupassant,
the Goncourt brothers and J.K. Huysmans and others. The most
extensive statement of this esthetic is found in Zola's 1882
work, Le Roman expérimental. Zola uses the term
'experimental' not in the sense of formal experimentation,
but rather in a scientific sense based on data observation
and cause to effect, or inductive inference, which he had
found in a book by the physiologist Dr. Claude Bernard
entitled Introduction á la médecine expérimentale. Zola saw
the novel as a type of laboratory in which to experimentally
observe the behavior of human beings. He states
Le romancier est fait d'un observateur et
d'un expérimentateur. L'observateur, chez lui,
donne les faits tels qu'il les a observés, pose le
point de départ, établit le terrain solide sur
lequel vont marcher les personnages et se
développer les phénoménes. Puis 1'expérimentateur

19
parait et institue 1'expérience, je veux dire fait
mouvoir les personnages dans une histoire
particuliére pour y montrer que la succession des
faits y sera telle que l'exige le déterminisme des
phénoménes mis á l'étude. ^
Already in 1864, in their Journal. the Goncourt brothers
portrayed themselves as historians of the present and
expressed a desire to bring the 'lower classes' into the
novel. The naturalists believed that their works were a
transcription of 'life as it is,' were true representations
of reality. Not, to be sure, the reality of actual events,
but the reality of natural laws represented by fictional
events and characters. Their pseudo - scientific position did
not last long under the pressure of more rigorous critics,
discussed below, and there were numerous defections within
this loosely connected group. Maupassant soon abandoned his
naturalist style novel of manners in favor of psychological
novels. Huysmans began to write, with La -Bas. what he called
a 'naturalisme spiritualiste.' Gustave Flaubert, present at
the early elaborations of the naturalist esthetic, quickly
distanced himself from the others, following his own line of
reasoning which soon led him to his last and probably most
enigmatic novel, Bouvard et Pécuchet. This ironic and
fundamentally pessimistic novel is a scathing attack on the
middle class and on the naive vision of progress through
positive science. Flaubert's unlikely heroes, two obscure

20
clerks, find only disaster in their experiments and only
disillusionment in their quest for knowledge.
Certainly the enduring popularity of Zola's works owes
more to the pathos, the politics and his epic style than to
his ideas on social determinism, but his rapid ascension as
a best selling author does reflect the scientistic spirit of
his times. As previously mentioned, through the active
intervention of men like Jules Ferry, the new scientistic
doctrine was disseminated to the middle and lower classes
through an increasingly state dominated educational system.
Zola's massive book sales rose along with the literacy rate
in France. As reactionary as his ideas of social determinism
may seem today, Zola represented social progress for his
contemporaries. He lent his eloquent pen to creating
sympathy for the condition of the working class.
Michel Raimond shows clearly that the writers of the
Naturalist group organized a veritable public relations
campaign in favor of their novels.^ They scandalized the
literary world with their graphic depictions of daily life
among the poor and with their equally graphic display of
language hitherto censured in literature. They replied to
their detractors with insolence, causing further scandal and
profited from the attention they received by issuing
manifestoes denouncing idealistic and Romantic writers.
Undoubtedly, a great number of their readers bought their
works because of the scandal they caused or in order to

21
better condemn them, but it seems evident, in light of their
tremendous commercial success, particularly that of Zola,
that they had struck a chord of common scientistic vision
among the readers of the period. This "scientific" vision
had invaded such diverse areas of intellectual activity as
sociology, history, literary criticism, literature and
painting, not to mention politics and education. Observation
and analysis were the touchstones of the objective positive
me thod.
Classical and Spiritual Values
Naturalism had its detractors from the beginning.
Ferdinand Brunetiére of the Académie Fran?aise, for example,
criticized the naturalists in his La Banaueroute du
naturalisme in the name of classical values. J.K. Huysmans,
a defector, came to criticize them for their lack of
esthetic, spiritual and moral values. Eugene Melchior de
Vogüé, in his Roman russe (1885) compared the naturalist
novelists to their Russian counterparts, pointing to the
clear superiority of the latter. De Vogue saw in the novels
of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky an instrument for the study of
morals, psychology, society and philosophy.
The writers of the naturalist school, including Zola,
though not until after the completion of his Roueon-Macquart
series in 1892, evolved in reaction to criticism and in

22
accordance with their own changing perspectives, gradually
orienting themselves either toward psychological studies or
toward a spiritualist, a poetic or a fantastic realism.^ If
the naturalists seem to dominate the literary scene of the
early Third Republic, it is probably because they represent
so well the spirit of the times. But it should not be
assumed that they were the only interesting writers of the
period nor the only popular ones.
Idealist novelists such as Octave Feuillet, Georges
Ohnet and Victor Cherbuliez enjoyed moderate success
especially among upper middle class readers. In their works,
one often finds disenfranchised aristocrats searching for
ideals to give meaning to their lives in a materialistic
world. Gobineau, Barbey d'Aurevilly and Villiers de l'lsle-
Adam all shared an equal contempt for the modern world and
Paul Adam, in Le Mvstére des foules (1888), is stridently
anti-scientistic. These writers received enthusiastic
support from the Catholic reaction and often took up the
banner of anti-naturalist, anti-scientistic sentiment in the
literary journals.^0
One of the most talented critics of naturalism was the
young Catholic writer Paul Bourget. As early as 1883, in an
article for Le Parlement called "Vers l'idéal," Bourget
expressed an unqualified condemnation of naturalism. His
1889 novel Le Disciple is a subtle, impassioned denunciation
of the scientific materialism of his contemporaries. His

23
novels were psychological and moral studies designed to
clarify the complexities of the human mind, but there is an
invasion of bourgeois ideology in his writing and he
frequently falls into the 'roman á these.'^ His style was
very traditional and his characters rather conventional, but
he was recognized as one of the masters of the genre by the
turn of the century. Gide was later to give qualified praise
to Bourget whose ability he admired, but whose style he
chose not to imitate.
La "vraisemb1abi1ité" (je crois que c'est son
mot) chez Bourget est parfaite. Emule de Balzac,
il est profondément enfoncé dans la réalité. II ne
s'y empétre jamais, comme je ferais surement si
j'essayais d'y réussir. Ma réalité reste toujours
quelque peu fantastique. (JAG I, p.992)
Pierre Loti was a brilliant and non-conventional writer
of this period, blending fantasy with emotion to produce
poetic and often exotic novels. Loti characterized great
novels by their capacity to "dépasser l'anecdote pour en
faire un symbole de la condition humaine.He condemned
the 'naturalist vulgarities' in his acceptance speech before
the Académie Fran?aise.^
Jules Renard is perhaps one of the most original
writers of the period. He refused the false dramatization of
situations, so common to other idealist novels, and eschewed
conventional forms. L'Ecornif1eur is written in concise and
ironic style. Raimond says,

24
. . . Renard a été, au sortir du naturalisme, sur
la voie d'une esthétique nouvelle: mélange du réel
et de l'idéal, du sérieux et de l'ironie, du réel
et du réve, qui devait s'épanouir, avant 1914,
chez Francis de Miomandre, Giraudoux et Colette.^
Yet none of these dissenting voices ever formed a
coherent group, linked only by their unanimous condemnation
of naturalism and the materialist bent of their rivals.
Their repeated attacks eventually succeeded in discrediting
the naturalist esthetic but they were never able to find a
new esthetic of their own and so left a void. Their
refutation of the Medan dogmas ended in a crisis of the
nove1.25
This cursory summary of the novel in France during the
first two decades of the Third Republic is an attempt to set
the scene for André Gide's entry into literature. I have
dealt primarily with the novel and the quarrels about its
form and content because I want to trace the general
problematic of the relationship between representation and
reality. This problematic relationship may be artificially
divided into two fundamental aspects, the esthetic and the
ethical, which are in practice difficult to separate. The
esthetic aspect may be characterized as the way in which the
novel presents itself as art, that is, its normative aspect
inasmuch as it represents coherent genre distinctions
revolving around the questions of form and content. The

25
form and technique of the idealist and the naturalist
writers mentioned above are simi1ar--primarily third-person
narration and alternating sequences of description,
dialogues and analysis. On the level of content, however,
they differ radically. Zola was criticized by the idealists
not for his style as such, but for the vulgar language and
situations that he depicted which, abstracting the ethical
implications in these judgments, comes down to a question of
what constitutes beauty. For the naturalists, esthetic
beauty was a function of thematic coherence and the
objective truth of the situation presented. The idealists
certainly agreed as concerns the thematic coherence, but
they appealed to subjective truths that they found, not in
science, but in philosophy and religion. Furthermore,
whereas the idealists tended to portray individual crises of
a metaphysical order, the naturalists portrayed social
situations in which the individual was merely living out his
biologically or socially determined existence.
From the ethical point of view, one could again
separate form from content. Obviously, as described in the
preceding paragraph, characters and situations are subject
to ethical judgments. The decisions that the characters make
in the situations created by the author reflect moral
judgments and the eventual results of these decisions, in a
certain sense, reflect the moral judgments of the author.
However, this is not always an easy point to decide. Viewed

26
historically, naturalist writers removed moral
responsibility from their characters as individuals because
they were subject to forces beyond their control. Their
condition was a social problem, not an individual one, and
this appealed to a progressive sentiment of social reform to
alleviate the conditions that caused their 'depravity.' On
the other hand, this very determinism that liberates them
from responsibility also denies their individual freedom to
control their own destiny. Furthermore, a primary formal
question, the position of the narrator in relation to the
situations and events in the novel, complicates the
narrative situation. Is the narrator, as presented, truly
objective and reliable? Is he subject to the same forces as
those dictating the behavior and judgements of his
characters? By what criteria does the narrator analyze the
characters and situations he has created?
One may speak of ethics in another sense as regards the
relation of the novel to the public. It is, after all, an
act of communication that carries a message or messages and
that, by the act of publication, invites comment and
interpretation. What is the function of the novel in
relation to its readers? The novel, since its inception, has
been judged by moral standards, particularly, as mentioned
above, as regards its content. Flaubert had to stand trial
for his sympathetic portrayal of Emma Bovary. The
naturalists were attacked for appealing to the prurient

27
interests of their readers. This relationship between writer
and reader is also a question of form; not only what
information is presented but how it is presented, in whose
mouth and with what tone. These questions involve complex
answers that shall be treated further in the course of the
discussion of Gide's novels.
One last point before leaving the discussion of Zola
and his naturalist colleagues. The commercial success of a
novel is, though by no means a definitive measure of
quality, at least a reliable measure of its wide public
echo. As mentioned above, the naturalists were very astute
in their use of public relations techniques and after Zola's
astounding commercial success with Nana in 1879, they
parlayed this popularity into a power base that seemed to
feed on itself. Zola's novels prior to Nana were reprinted
and sold by the tens of thousands as were his subsequent
volumes in the Rougon-Macauart series. As much as the
naturalist novels were a result of a certain social
situation and a confluence of ideas, so too did they serve
to disseminate and consecrate certain values by giving them
voice within a symbolic context. In other words, the novel
has an ideological function that is, in an absolute sense,
unavoidable. The problem though, in this period, was that
both the naturalist and the idealist novels, tributary to
ideological systems, became novels of ideas and, as such,

28
didactic and moralistic; the plots became formulaic, the
characters conventional.
This dilemma was not to be resolved. In 1905, in a
response to a questionnaire by Le Cardonnel and Vellay,
Edmond Jaloux stated that French novelists had to search for
new techniques; Gide responding to the same questionnaire,
expressed the belief that the French novel was entering a
period in which the appearance of new characters would
transform the novel.^ As Gide was later to write in his
1936 preface to L’Immoraliste, ". . . enart, iln'yapas
de probléme dont l'oeuvre d'art ne soit la suffisante
solution." (Ill,p.367)
Subjectivity and Vitalism
André Gide began writing his Journal in 1889; he had
finished his year of philosophy at the Lycée Henri IV and
was completing his first novel, Les Cahiers d'André Walter.
Before discussing this novel, it will be useful to consider
some of the events and publications of that year as an
example of the turmoil and contradictions of the period.
That year, the centenary of the French Revolution, saw the
opening of the World Exhibition in France, covering the
whole of the Champs de Mars, with large annexes on the
Esplanade des Invalides and in the Trocadero Gardens. Here

29
is a description from the pen of Frantz Jourdain in the
weekly magazine L'Illustration
Le plátre, le moellon, la brique ne
dissimulent plus, sous un mensonger décor, le fer
ou la fonte . . . Les staffs, les faiences, les
terres cuites, les laves émaillées, les briques
vernissées, les zincs laqués, les mosaiques
chatoyantes, les enduits coloriés, les verres
flamboyants, toute la vaillante palette de la
polychromie architectonique réjouit la vue,
miroite sous le soleil et chante le triomphe de
l'esprit franjáis, de la gaieté gauloise, du
rationalisme dur une morne et préhistorique
scolastique.^7
Jourdain goes on, in the same exalted tone, to describe
the Eiffel Tower, controversial centerpiece of this
centennial exhibition, as a new divinity, "mathématiquement
implacable comme la destinée.The World Exhibition was a
source of great national pride and its opulence served as a
consecration of the embattled Third Republic and its
scientistic spirit.
The major literary successes of 1889 were Zola's La
Béte humaine. Fort comme la mort by Maupassant, George
Ohnet's idealist novel Docteur Rameau. Janoneries d'Automne
by Pierre Loti and Bob á 1'Exposition by Gyp. It was also
the year that Taine published his L'Avenir de la Science,
stating in the preface, "La science est ma religion."^
The same year saw the publication of Bourget's bitter
attack on the republic of scientific experimentation, Le
Disciple: and Eugéne-Melchior de Vogue published an article

30
in the influential Revue des Deux Mondes entitled "Priére
sur la Tour Eiffel." He wrote,
Toi, filie du savoir, courbe ton orgueil
. c'est peu d'éclairer l'esprit si l'on ne
guérit pas l'éternelle peine du coeur . . . Sache
fonder le temple de la nouvelle alliance de la
science et de la foi. u
The most devastating attack, though little noticed at the
time, came that same year from the young philosopher Henri
Bergson in his work Essai sur les données immédiates de la
conscience. Bergson's subtle and rigorous arguments were
later to be very influential in laying the groundwork for a
reaction against determinism and current scientific dogma.
In his 1889 essay, Bergson attacked the contradictions
inherent in both mechanist and dynamist approaches to
psychological phenomena. In both he saw a tendency toward
dualism as they both speak of objective and subjective
reality, giving precedence to one or the other of these two
aspects of experience. One of Bergson's primary critiques is
what he described as the spatialization of that which should
be more properly understood in terms of its duration. This
spatialization or quantification of sensory experience tends
to ignore qualitative distinctions which can only be
properly understood through intensive rather than extensive
aspects of their existence. During his long career Bergson
continued to develop his critique of positivism and his

31
vitalist principles led him to revalorize the notions of
duration, intuition and what he termed 'creative evolution.'
His teaching had a major impact on esthetic values--Proust
is only the most striking example--during the Belle Epoque.
Gide, in an entry in his Journal in 1908 comments on his
reading of L'Evolution créatrice
Importance admirable de ce livre, par ou peut
s'échapper de nouveau la philosophie.
Que notre intelligence découpe, dans le
continu extérieur, des surfaces sur lesquelles
elle puisse opérer: que le reste lui échappe;
qu'elle ne tienne compte que de cela . . . (JAG I,
p.269)
Another interesting part of Bergson's 1889 essay and
which he continued to develop in his later work, is his
critique of language. In the preface to Les Données
immédiates he points to a fundamental contradiction that
arises in any philosophical investigation that attempts to
juxtapose in space phenomena that don't occupy space at all,
". . . une traduction illégitime de l'inétendu en étendu, de
la qualité en quantité . . . "^1 He constantly examines
idiomatic expressions of everyday language which give a
notion of extensivity to sensations: 'une grande douleur' or
'un désir grandissant' for example. Positive science,
playing on these common-sensical expressions, erroneously
attributed extensive measures to qualities. Bergson saw the
need to develop an intensive language that could properly

32
represent the duration of sensations, not a predicative
language that fixes phenomena in time through definition,
but rather a metaphorical language.
It is easy to see the esthetic parallels that can be
drawn from this type of philosophical investigation, but
Bergson's influence should not be overstated. In fact, he
did not really create a new 'intensive' language. His prose
style remained rigorously classical and its very clarity
represented an underlying contradiction of content by form.
Moreover, although Bergson was to achieve great popularity
in the coming years with his optimistic philosophy of
creative evolution, his ideas sustained a probing
reevaluation following the death and destruction of World
War I. Gide was later to criticize Bergson
Ce qui me déplait dans la doctrine de
Bergson, c'est tout ce que je pense déjá sans
qu'il le dise, et tout ce qu'elle a de flatteur,
de caressant máme, pour l'esprit. Plus tard on
croira découvrir partout son influence sur notre
époque, simplement parce que lui-méme est de son
époque et qu'il cede sans cesse au mouvement. D'oü
son importance représentative. (JAG I, p.782)
The tone is harsh but Gide's point is well taken. Bergson is
an important representative of the ideas of his time and
should be given credit for his reasoned and eloquent
expression of discontent and reservations concerning the
impingement of positive science into the human sciences and
by extension into art. A succession of managerial Republican

33
governments was rapidly secularizing daily life and Bergson
was correct to point out the linguistic pervasiveness of
positivist thought.
Gide's position within this period of conflicting
values can be traced through his Journal. which he began in
1889, his autobiography, Si le grain ne meurt. Jean Delay's
biography, La Jeunesse d'André Gide. and Claude Martin's
remarkable work, La Maturité d'André Gide. The first two
works offer an interesting contrast in both style and
judgement concerning Gide's early interests and ambitions.
Si le grain ne meurt was written concurrently with Les Faux-
Monnaveurs and so offers some interesting insights not only
with regard to his early life, but to his preoccupations in
the early 1920s. This is not an attempt to explain Gide's
work simply through biographical data, rather I intend to
choose elements of this data that indicate certain literary
and philosophical preferences that he exhibited and the
influences that contributed specifically to the development
of his fluid esthetic of the novel in the context of a
generalized crisis in esthetic and moral values. Without a
doubt the most important of these formative influences was
his involvement in the Symbolist movement and particularly
with the brillant poet Stéphane Mallarmé. I have reserved a
large part of the following chapter for a fuller discussion
of Gide's involvement in and contribution to the Symbolist
movement.

34
Gide was an introverted child and adolescent raised in
a wealthy and liberal Protestant family surrounded by women.
His father died with he was a young child and his mother
subsequently uprooted her little family of two several times
before finally returning to Paris to settle when young André
was fifteen. André's secondary education came to an abrupt
halt because of 'nervous disorders' when he was thirteen and
attending school in Montpellier. These problems were to
prevent him from returning to a regular classroom for six
years. In the meantime he had a series of tutors whom he
describes in unflattering terms in his autobiography. The
last two years of this six year hiatus he spent working
assiduously with several tutors at the Pension Keller, a
Protestant boarding school that is obviously the model for
the Pension Vedel in Les Faux-Monnaveurs. He managed to
catch up with his former classmates in time to join them in
1887 for his Rhétorique at the Ecole Alsacienne, a private
lay lycée in Paris. Gide could hardly be considered a
representative product of the Republican school system.
However, it is certain that the Gide family, without
being fervently partisan, sympathized with the Republican
government, as did many liberal Protestants at the time. In
Si le grain ne meurt we find several references to a single
newspaper in the Gide household, Le Temps. an anti-clerical,
Protestant weekly that strongly supported government policy.
Gide writes

35
Si nous allions voir une exposition de
tableaux--et nous ne manquions aucune de celles
que Le Temps voulait bien nous signaler--ce
n'était jamais sans emporter le numéro du journal
qui en parlait, ni sans relire sur place les
appréciations du critique, par grand peur
d'admirer de travers, ou de n'admirer pas du tout,
(OC XIII, p.211)
The principal organ of the Republican government served then
as a mediator of cultural values for the Gides.
In another reference to Le Temps Gide recounts a
sequence of events that came from an article in the paper.
Having read an article concerning reports of moral turpitude
in a small street near the Pension Keller, André's mother
warns him to avoid the street. André, for unexplained
reasons, suspects that his best friend may have frequented
this place and is so overwrought that when he finally
confronts his friend Bernard, who seems unaware of the
existence of any foul play on the street, André breaks down
in tears, begging his friend not to go there. The reasons
behind such an extreme reaction are more a result of the
young Gide's vivid imagination than of the newspaper article
itself, but the reference is significant. (Once again this
memory finds its way into Les Faux-Monnaveurs in two
different scenes involving Bernard, Olivier and Georges.)
Besides being a cultural mediator, Le Temps was a moral
watchdog. Furthermore, he frequently listened to Sunday
sermons by a Protestant pastor who was the father of the

36
editor of Le Temps. (OC XIII, p.240-241) Jean Delay tells us
that Gide even participated in a pro-Ferry demonstration
while attending the Ecole Alsacienne, though he further
states that Gide was rather indifferent to politics.The
point here is not to determine whether Gide was a partisan
or not, but to portray the subtle influences in his
environment.
Gide mentions a Cours de littérature dramatiaue by
Saint-Marc-Girardin that he and his mother used to read
aloud, a chapter at a time, during the year before he
entered the Pension Keller. He also writes several
interesting pages about his first memories of his father's
library, which he describes as a sanctus sanctorum full of
mysterious works in Latin and Greek, law books and great
classics in beautiful bindings. But the ones he chose to
read were the small volumes of poetry. He particularly liked
Victor Hugo and Théophile Gautier, whose work had achieved
great prestige in those days, though Gautier's sensuality
caused Gide some embarrassment to read in front of his
mother. He discovered the Greeks through translations by the
Parnassien poet Leconte de Lisle: ". . . les Grecs, qui
eurent sur mon esprit une influence décisive." (OC XIII,
p.262) He developed a great passion for Greek literature
and mythology equalled only by his passion for the Bible;
the esthetic feeling evoked by the first was difficult to
distinguish from the religious fervor he felt while reading

37
the Scriptures: . . l'art et la religion en moi
dévotieusement s'épousait et je goütais ma plus parfaite
extase au plus fondu de leur accord." (OC XIII, p.265) He
also enjoyed the poetry of Heinrich Heine, first in
translation and then in the original, and that of the
Parnassien poets Sully Prudhomme and Francois Coppée.
One may assume that Gide gained a familiarity with the
French tradition during his Rhétorique. He speaks of early
attempts to write poetry but found his verses to be awkward
and "á la maniere de Sully Prudhomme." (OC XIII, p.266) He
progressively gave more attention to writing prose and, as
he entered his year of philosophy at the Lycée Henri IV, he
began to write his Cahiers d'André Walter. This book
literally overflows with references to Greek and Latin
classics, to German and English authors and to a panoply of
French writers.
But as he entered his class in philosophy, he happened
upon Schopenhauer's Le Monde comme représentation et comme
volonté which he read and reread (OC XIII, p.296), adopting
Schopenhauer's subjectivist and vitalist ideas for his own
credo. Though he claims later to have rid himself of
Schopenhauer's influence, in favor of Spinoza, Leibnitz,
Descartes and Nietzsche, the influence is evident in his
early writings. In discussing, ironically, his intellectual
pose in the Symbolist salons, he says: ". . . je tenais pour
'contingent' . . . tout ce qui n'était pas 'absolu'" and

38
attributes this statement to the influence of the German
philosopher. (OC XIII, p.321) At another moment, when
questioned by an insistant colleague at a Symbolist
gathering as to the 'formula' which would guide his future
work, Gide finally responded impatiently, "Nous devons tous
représenter," a statement that was later to appear in the
mouth of one of his characters. (OC XIII, p.332)
Schopenhauer's influence on French literature of the
Third Republic was ambiguous. There were echoes of his
thought in such varied writers as Taine, Brunetiére, Claude
Bernard and Paul Bourget. Neo-Kantians such as Renouvier
found much to agree with in this German idealism
A ceux que la foi et la contemplation
esthétique ne réussissaient plus á apaiser,
s'offrait une doctrine de renoncement et de
purification, celle de Schopenhauer . . . ^3
Brunetiére, for instance was greatly influenced by
Schopenhauer and Darwin. He shared the former's fundamental
pessimism and belief in the perversity of human nature; but
their most fundamental accord was on the dogma of original
sin.
Le dogme du péché originel et de la
rédemption par la souffrance est la clef de voúte
de la philosophie morale et sociale de Brunetiére.
Ce dogme est le seul qui soit respecté par
Schopenhauer, qui le considére comme la pierre
angulaire du christianisme.^

39
Paul Bourget often quotes the German philosopher in his
Essais de psvchologie contemporain, particularly drawn to
Schopenhauer's notion that the material world is only a
projection of man's will and his radical idealism has much
to do with Bourget's development of the psychological novel
at the end of the century. Bourget approved of
Schopenhauer's aversion to democracy as being hostile to the
superior individual and he believed that superior men,
disgusted by vulgarity, should withdraw into contemplation
and mark their disdain for the common man. The young French
writer was also drawn to the irrationalist pessimism of
Schopenhauer and used it in his critique of scientism.
Devant la banqueroute finale de la
connaissance aseientifque, beaucoup d'ámes
tomberont dans un désespoir comparable a celui
qui aurait saisi Pascal, s'il eüt été privé de
la foi.
Bourget played an active role in the struggle against
naturalism in favor of analytical novels and paved the way
for the psychological novel. In fact, he, along with Anatole
France, Pierre Loti and Maurice Barrés, were to be
recognized as the new masters of the novel in the early
1900s .
Gide's first publication was an article entitled "Notes
de la Bretagne" in a small literary journal, La Wallonie.

40
It was a short subjectivist sketch that reveals more about
its author than about the French province. It was drawn from
notes Gide took while writing his first novel, Les Cahiers
d'André Walter, in an isolated provincial cottage. This work
was originally published in a very limited edition in 1891
by the Librairie de l'Art Indépendant in Paris as the
posthumous work of André Walter. There was a preface by a
friend of the defunct author, Pierre Chrysis (pseudonym for
Pierre Louys, Gide's best friend), though within a year it
was generally known that Gide himself was the author. At
times overwhelmingly maudlin, this novel is nevertheless
fascinating for its interesting form, the weaving together
of dialogues, reflective monologues, descriptions, letter
fragments, literary and biblical quotes, poems and prayers,
all in diary entries of a young novelist who is writing a
novel about a young novelist. There are numerous references
to this novel that André Walter is writing, Allain including
a long theoretical passage in the "Cahier Noir," though we
never actually read any fragments of this novel.
In his summary biography of André Walter, Pierre
Chrysis includes this statement: "II parlait quelquefois
d’un livre qu'il voulait faire: oeuvre étrange,
'scientifique et passionnée,' disait-il." (OC I, p.xviii)
Within the text of diary entries are innumerable references
to literary and philosophical texts, classic and modern,
French and foreign. For example, this passage taken from the

41
early pages of the first part, the "Cahier Blanc," in which
André Walter speaks of his literary inspiration
Puis avec les ambitions révélées, ce fut Vigny,
Baudelaire, --Flaubert, l'ami toujours souhaité
. . Les subtilités rhétoriques des Goncourts
affilaient notre esprit; Stendhal le faisait plus
alerte, et plus ergoteur . . (OC I, p.33)
However, the work most often cited by far is the Bible,
a continual source of consolation and inspiration for the
protagonist, in the throes of a spiritual crisis which
eventually degenerates into madness (fiévre cérébrale) and
finally death, leaving his work unfinished. Gide tells us
that he had eliminated about half the references to the
Bible in his final version on the advice of his friend and
mentor Emile Verhaeren. (OC XIII, p.310) André Walter is
very much a Romantic hero in the tradition of Werther or
René and this is indeed a Bildungsroman in which we follow
the author through his spiritual and emotional crises. But
it is as if a Romantic archetype were placed in a world of
symbols where passion is not so much an effect of the senses
as of thought images. In a phrase redolent of Schopenhauer,
André Walter writes: "L'Ame, c'est en nous la Volonté
Aimante." (OC I, p.57) The Bible serves him in the first
part in his struggle to resolve his ambivalent passion for
Emmanuelle. The second part, following the death of his
mother and his subsequent self-exile to the countryside to

42
write, is preceded by this phrase from Corinthians V, 16:
"Ainsi, des maintenant, nous ne connaissons plus personne--
selon la chair." (OC I, p.92) André Walter retires to the
countryside and gradually withdraws into his own mind,
living a studious life of abnegation. The references to
other characters and events are gradually reduced to a
minimum and the introspection becomes more metaphysical.
"Pas un événement ... la vie toujours intime--tout s'est
joué dans l'áme, il n'en a rien paru." (OC I, p.xvii)
Schopenhauer is also evoked repeatedly to justify the
author's fascination with himself, the subject: "Ce qui
connait tout et n'est connu de personne, c'est le Sujet. II
est done le support du monde. . ." (OC I, p.100) This
extreme idealism is intentionally nourished in search of a
vision that goes beyond the materiality of objects. André
Walter writes: "Perdre le sentiment de son rapport avec les
choses, de sorte que la représentation se dégage toute pure
et qu'aucune connaissance extérieure ne distraie de la
connaissance intuitive et de la vision commencée tout á coup
ne s'éveille." (OC I, p.114) His three catch words are 'la
vie spontanée,' 'la connaissance intuitive' and 'la foi.'
(OC I, p.112)
Finally, though we never actually see the novel,
Allain. that André Walter is writing, we have ample reason
to believe that it also concerns a spiritual quest that
ressembles perfectly that of its author. They become rivals

43
in a macabre race toward death. By the end of the text, the
author confuses himself with Allain as both succumb to
madness. Earlier, in a long footnote presented as notes for
the composition of Allain. we find other similarities
between the novel he is writing and the novel we are
reading. "Un personnage seulement . . . ou plutót son
cerveau, n'est que le lieu commun oü le drame se livre, le
champ dos oü les adversaires s'assai1lent."(OC I, p.95)
These adversaries are not two separate passions, but two
aspects of a single passion, '1'ame et la chair.' It is
from the struggle between the spirit and the flesh that the
novel is created. He also calls this the struggle between
materialism and idealism. "Non point une vérité de réalisme,
contingente fatalement; mais une vérité théorique, absolue
(du moins humainement)." (OC I, p.94) He wants to create an
ideal world, ". . .la vie phénoménale absente,--seul les
nouménes . . ." by transposing Spinoza's ethical principles
into an esthetic for the novel, ". . . les lignes
géométriques. Un roman c'est un théoréme." (OC I, p.94)
Les Cahiers d'André Walter, for all its excesses,
represents, in kernel form, esthetic preoccupations that
Gide would go on to elaborate for the rest of his career.
The radical subjectivity and idealism were subsequently to
undergo considerable alteration, but the problem of the
relation between material reality and its representation in
a text and the problems of narrative voice and self

44
awareness would remain. André Walter is an odd work with
its episodic narration and shifts of narrative voice, using
letter fragments in which dialogues are reported that in
turn elucidate some other part of the text. This structural
play, putting a conversation inside a diary entry inside the
novel within the context of a false preface, is a narrative
procedure that Gide continued to employ. We will in fact
point to similar narrative strategies, though more subtly
executed, thirty-five years later in his Les Faux-
Monnaveurs . The diary form gives an impression of linear
development, but the diary fragments as presented seem to
represent more an absorption of a discontinuous reality in
which memory and especially other texts blend the past into
the present, each fragment subject to abstraction in the
present moment of the diary writing. The narrator is
continually looking backward, analyzing past events and
drawing general conclusions about himself, his relation to
human nature and to literature. But the journal form is by
nature a deferred presence, that is to say, the narrator's
presence in the first person as writing subject and his
presence as object of the analysis only coincide with one
another through the abstraction of the past into a web of
meaning for the narrator's personal salvation. It is the
organizing principle of his project, to write Allain. which
gives the events of his life meaning.

45
Jean Rousset, in his brilliant work L'Intérieur et
1'extérieur. comments on Gide's radical subjectivity in the
young author's Notes de Bretagne, written during the
composition of Les Cahiers d'André Walter
Voilá, me semble-t-il, l'essentiel: il est
dans le caractére radicalement subjectif de ces
visions. Le rapport entre le spectacle et le
spectateur tend á se renverser . .
In André Walter the narrator gradually replaces the
spectacle of the material world with the spectacle of
himself, his inner world. He says, "les choses deviennent
vraies: il suffit qu'on les pense. --C'est en nous qu'est la
réalité; notre esprit crée ses Vérités." (OC I, p.54) This
radical denial of exterior reality leads to a paradoxical
negation of the subject that only attains the purity it is
seeking through the death of the protagonist and of his
double. The conclusion of the text corresponds with the
death of its author; the text then is the image of the
author's life.
A few years later Gide was to write in his Journal.
On peut dire alors ceci, que je vois comme
une sincérité renversée (de l'artiste): Il doit,
non pas raconter sa vie telle qu'il l'a vécue,
mais la vivre telle qu'il la racontera. (JAG I,
P • 2 9 )

46
The text is, in this sense, a higher reality; it is the
ideal that governs his actions. In the same 1892 entry in
his Journal Gide says "Toute notre vie s'emploie á tracer de
nous-mémes un ineffaqable portrait." (JAG I, p.29) The
portrait we see of André Walter is a composite portrait of
his soul, and inevitably, the soul and will are all that
remain as his body and his reason succumb to the 'fiévre
cérébrale.'
The young André Gide saw his first novel as a response
to a pressing need of his generation; in fact, he states in
Si le grain ne meurt that he expected great success as this
work seemed to him to correspond to Melchior de Vogüé's call
for innovation and to Paul Desjardin's Devoir nrésent. (OC
XIII, p.304) He was bitterly disappointed by the absence of
critical acclaim, not to say the indifference, of the large
majority of his contemporaries. However, he took solace in
the praise of the 'happy few.' Pierre Louys lavished
enthusiastic praise on his friend's work and it was read and
admired within a small circle of habitués at Mallarmé's
'cours du mardi soir.' They admired his style and his
rigorous use of language in his effort toward perfect
limpidity of expression. Gide later said of his Cahiers
d'André Walter. ". . . je m'essayais á un style qui
prétendait á une plus secrete et plus essentielle beauté.
(JAG I, p.347)

47
Gide began writing for various literary journals over
the coming years as a critic and essayist. The previously
mentioned "Notes de Bretagne" was published, still under the
pseudonym of André Walter, in Albert Mockel's literary
magazine Wallonie and he finally published, under his own
name, the Traité du Narcisse in Tristan Bernard's Entretiens
politiaues et littéraires in 1892. The Traité du Narcisse.
with a subtitle "Théorie du Symbole", reads like a manifesto
of the Symbolist movement, of which Gide had become a part.
Indeed certain critics see it as a major statement of
Symbolist esthetics. The following chapter will delve more
deeply into Gide's participation in the Symbolist movement.
NOTES
1. Herbert Marcuse, Reason and Revolution. London,
Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973, p.341.
2. Charles Lalo, "Introduction," Cours de philosophie
positive. Paris, Hachette, 1927, p.xxiv.
3. Auguste Comte, Cours de philosophie positive. Paris,
Hachette, 1927, p.39.
4. Lalo, p.xiv.
5. Theodore Zeldin, France 1848-1945. vol.II, London,
Clarendon Press, 1977, p.145.
6 .
Ibid.,
, p.155.
7 .
Ibid.,
, p.181.
8 .
Ibid.,
, p.176.
9 .
Ibid.,
, p.173.
10 .
Ibid.,
, p.178.

48
11.
Ibid.,
p.292 .
12 .
Ibid.,
p.121 .
13 .
Ibid.
14 .
Ibid.,
p.123 .
15 .
Ibid.
16 .
Ibid.,
p.124.
17. Emile Zola. Le Roman exoérimental. Les Oeuvres Completes
d'Emile Zola. Paris. Francois Bernouard. 1927 - 1929.vol.41.
P • 1
18. Michel Raimond. Le Roman deouis la Révolution. Paris.
Armand Colin, 1972, p.133.
19 .
Ibid.,
p.124.
20.
Ibid.,
p.131.
21.
Ibid.,
p.133 .
22.
Ibid.,
p.131 .
23 .
Ibid.
24.
Ibid.,
p .132 .
25 .
Ibid.
26 .
Ibid.,
p.134.
27. Jacaues Chastenet. Histoire de la Troisiéme Républiaue.
Paris, Hachette, 1974, p.535.
00
CM
Ibid.
29 .
Ibid.,
p.534.
30 .
Ibid.,
p.535.
31. Henri
conscience
Bereson. Essai sur les données immédiates de la
, Paris, Librairie Félix Alean, 1926, p.24 .
32. Jean Delay, La Jeunesse d'André Gide. vol.I, Paris,
Gallimard, 1956, p.259.
33. Alexandre Baillot, Influences de la philosonhie de
Schopenhauer en France. Paris, Vrin, 1927, p.240.

49
34. Ibid., p.301-302.
35 . Ibid. , p . 302.
36. Jean Rousset, L'Intérieur et l'extérieur. Paris,
Corti, 1968, p.227.
José

CHAPTER 3
THE FOUNDATIONS AND FLUIDITY OF GIDE'S ESTHETIC
The Symbolist Movement
Although it is evident from remarks in Si le grain ne
meur t . in Delay's biography and in Gide's early journal
entries that he was an avid reader of novels and philosophy,
his first love was poetry. "Mais en ce temps-lá, je n'avais
de regards que pour 1'áme, de goüt que pour la poésie." (OC
VII,p.316) Gide became friends with José-Maria Hérédia
through his friend Pierre Louys and spent his Saturday
evenings at Hérédia's home in the company of many poets and
artists whom he also saw on Tuesday evenings at Mallarmé's
apartment.
The formative influence of this loosely knit avant-
garde group, and most particularly Stéphane Mallarmé, on
Gide's career can hardly be overstated. This is not to say
that the young Gide was a sycophant who blindly followed his
guru, because he was an active participant in the
elaboration of the Symbolist esthetic and was later to
reject many of the idealist and hermetic notions that
characterized this movement. His early association with this
50

51
milieu was more of a catalyst that liberated him from any
realist penchant and reinforced his classical belief in the
primacy of style and the word. A closer examination of this
period will clarify some of the major and recurrent themes
in Gide's work.
The Symbolist movement derived its name from an 1886
article published by the poet Jean Moreas in the Figaro.
Most of the journals and magazines called it the 'école
décadente.'l Neither of these expressions truly
characterizes the movement which, in Gide's words, "se
dessinait en réaction contre le réalisme, avec un remous
contre le Parnasse également." (OC VII,p.321) The
Parnassians, particularly in the person of Leconte de Lisle,
espoused a poetry of detachment and total objectivity. But
their scientific pretensions in defining their esthetic
ideas were often as categorical as those of the Naturalists.
The Symbolists opposed the rigorous precision in the
description of objects and the pristine clarity of ideas in
the Parnassian esthetic. They put greater emphasis on
fleeting feeling or impressions arising from the
subconscious . ^ They looked back to Baudelaire for their
vision of art.
Qu'est-ce que 1'art pur suivant la conception
moderne? C'est créer une magie suggestive
contenant á la fois l'objet et le sujet, le monde
extérieur á l'artiste et l'artiste lui-méme.^

52
Baudelaire is commonly regarded as a poet with one foot
in the past, Romanticism, and another in modernist idealism.
This dualism is certainly evident in much of his work as he
attempts to reconcile the material world with the spiritual.
In dark moments, his nostalgia for a lost paradise of
natural harmony and purity gives way to irrational pessimism
about the oppressive world of material existence. He escaped
this dilemma through an abstract idealism in which the
harmonious paradise could be recreated through art, or
rather, intuited through the mediation of art. But his
yearning for the sensuality of the material world constantly
crept back to burst his spiritual bubble.
The Symbolists, particularly Mallarmé, shared no such
ambivalence concerning the material world; they magnified
the idealism into a credo of pure art. Michel Décaudin, in
his Crise des valeurs svmbolistes. says that art, in the
second half of the nineteenth century became a moral system,
a religion and a metaphysics:
. . . refus du monde positiviste, des
so 11icitati ons politiques ou sociales, des
réalités matérielles, des conventions et des
contraintes de la vie policée. . . . on affirme
que l'art est nécessairement idéaliste.^
Gide adhered totally to this conception of art during his
early association with the Symbolists but gradually began to
nuance his ideas as shall be shown below.

53
Camille Mauclair describes the symbol as, "1'expression
d'une pensée par un étre, un objet, un acte n' inte rvenant
pas pour eux-mémes, mais seulement pour cette expression.
Mauclair goes on to enumerate the means of expressing these
ide as--a11egory, transposition, allusion and all other
procedures of synthesis--which leads him to conclude that
Symbolism was more a movement of forms than of ideas.^
Mauclair is generally correct as concerns the majority
of symbolist poets such as Verlaine, Régnier, Verhaeren and
Viélé-Griffin among others, but his statement is misleading
for the more complex case of Stéphane Mallarmé. Yuen Park,
in his L'Idée chez Mallarmé, points precisely to the
difficulty one has in separating idea and form in Mallarmé's
poetry. "La forme pure est ce qui n'existe pas. Elle est le
néant en tant qu'absence du concret."^ Park further says
that Mallarmé's poetry strives toward absolute purity, but
the absolute is not in the realm of truth in a moral sense;
rather it is in the realm of order in a geometric sense.
It is certainly this rigorous approach to language that
made his poetry so hermetic, to the point of being
incomprehensible for most of his contemporaries. Anatole
France, as editor of Parnasse contemporaine. originally
refused to publish "L'Aprés-midi d'un faune" because he was
afraid of seeming ridiculous. Mallarmé categorically
rejected the ideas of clarity and precision advocated by

54
Leconte de Lisle and his 1cénacle . ' In Divagations he
writes,
. . . la poésie est l'expression par le langage
humain ramené á son rythme essentiel du sens
mystérieux de l'existence: elle doue ainsi
d'authenticité notre séjour et constitue la seule
táche spirituelle.®
Art, in effect, replaced religion, or perhaps constituted
its highest form of expression for Mallarmé.
It is essential for the discussion here to juxtapose
the great poet's ideas to those of his young disciple Gide
whose first work published under his own name, Le Traité du
Narcisse. bears the subtitle "Théorie du symbole." To
explain the symbol, Gide has recourse to Greek and Christian
my th s - - N ar c i s s us and the Garden of Eden. He rewrites the
myth of Narcissus, beginning in a time before the hero had
found his own image. "En la monotonie inutile de l'heure il
s'inquiéte, et son coeur incertain s'interroge." (III,p.3)
He leaves the monotony to search for his own image and stops
along the banks of the River of Time, "fatale et illusoire
riviere oü les années passent et s'écoulent." (111,p.3)
Narcissus looks into the present of events flowing past; he
can see their virtual presence forming in the future,
upstream, before they rush by him downstream into the past.
But this too soon becomes monotonous and Narcissus realizes
that it is always the same forms that pass by; . . . l'élan

55
du flot seul les dif f érenc ie . " (III,p.4) This leads him to
conclude that they all must come from some paradisiac and
crystalline "forme premiere perdue," and Narcissus then
dreams of paradise.
The Garden of Eden is a place of perfect harmony: "Tout
s'y c r y s t a 11 i s a i t en une floraison nécessaire." (III,p.5)
Alone within this garden is Adam; ". . . pour lui, par lui,
les formes apparaissent." (III,p.5) But Adam tires of being
the privileged and eternal spectator and desires, like
Narcissus, to see his own image, "Car, c'est un esclavage
enfin, si 1 ' on n'ose risquer un geste, sans crever tout
l'harmonie." (III,p.6) In a rebellious gesture of free will,
Adam breaks a branch of Ygdrasil, "l'arbre logarithmique,"
and in so doing destroys the harmonious order of paradise,
forever lost. Henceforth man will only know paradise through
the words of the prophets and
des poetes, que voici, qui recuei11iront
pieusement les feuillets déchirés du Livre
immémorial oü se lisait la vérité qu'il faut
connaitre. (III,p.7)
Paradise is total harmony of form; it exists beneath the
appearances inside of objects as each salt has within it the
archetype of its crystal. Gide writes in a footnote,
Les vérités demeurent derriére les formes--
Symboles . Tout phénoméne est le symbole d'une

56
vérité. Son seul devoir est qu'il la manifesté.
Son seul péché: qu'il se préfére. (III, p. 8)
It is likely that Gide drew these last two ideas from the
German philosopher Schopenhauer--that the will by necessity
manifests itself and that the poet must suspend his own
subjective will.
L'artiste, le savant, ne doit pas se préférer
á la Vérité qu'il veut dire: voilá toute sa
morale; ni le mot ni la phrase, á l'idée qu'il
veut montrer: je dirais presque, que c'est la
toute 1'esthétique. (III,p.8)
But if the poet and scientist are both looking for
these primary forms from which all sense emanates, the
latter is limited by his meticulous inductive method, by his
need for innumerable examples, and he stops at the
appearance of things. The scientist, obsessed with
certainty, refuses to guess intuitively. The poet intuits
the archetype of an obj ect- - the symb o 1 - - behind the
appearances. For Gide the work of art is like a crystal,
. . . paradis partiel oú l'idée refleurit en sa
pureté supérieure . . . oü les phrases rythmiques
et sures, symboles encore, mais symboles purs, oü
les paroles se font transparentes et révélatrices .
(Ill,p.10)
It is obvious that Gide was greatly influenced by
Mallarmé ' s teachings, along with those of Schopenhauer.

57
Gide's "poete pieux" in Narcisse answers the call of the
master's "táche spirituelle;" and Gide's "phrases rythmiques
et sures" correspond to the previously quoted phrase from
Divagations . "rythme essentiel du sens mystérieux de
1'existence. " Undoubtedly Gide's idea of spirituality is
more properly religious than Mallarmé's metaphysical
spirituality. There is a flavor of Calvinism in the crucial
role Gide gives to Adam's free will in the preordained unity
of paradise and the poet becomes a tragic figure in the
Romantic tradition as a demi-god mediator between man and
paradise. Furthermore, Gide's notion of the transparency of
words is another Romantic notion of immanence to which
Mallarmé surely would not subscribe. However, many critics,
then as now, view Narcisse as a primary theoretical document
of the Symbolist movement despite certain criticisms
proffered at the time of its publication, most notably by
Gide's best friend, Pierre Louys, in his Léda ou la louange
des Bienheureuses Ténébres. Beyond certain differences on a
theoretical level, Louys as well as Gide's other Symbolist
friends admired the Traité du Narcisse as a beautiful work
of art.®
George Lukács, in his Théorie du roman, briefly
discusses the Symbolist movement and the principles of
abstract idealism it embodied. In an attempt to distinguish
between Romanticism and Symbolism, in that order, he says

58
La, on exigeait du monde extérieur qu'il se
recrée á neuf sur le modéle des idéaux; ici, c'est
une intériorité qui , s ' achevant elle-méme comme
création littéraire, exige du monde extérieur
qu'il s'offre á elle comme matiére adéquate á son
autostructuration.
This relationship to the exterior world as raw material for
the au t o s t r uc t ur a t i on of the literary work is a crucial
notion that Gide retained from his Symbolist association and
I shall have occasion to return to this point later in the
discussion of Les F aux - Monnaveur s . But Gide owes more to
Mallarmé than this basic vision of the artist's relationship
to the exterior world; under his tutelage Gide came to
appreciate the importance of language itself and of the
speaking subject.
Mallarmé, perhaps more than any other poet, believed
that the subject of all poems was poetry. His poems are an
attempt to reverse the process of the objectivation of
words. He undermines and obliterates the denotative
relationships between words and objects to create a higher
meaning. In Maurice Blanchot's words, "Le langage est ce qui
détruit le monde pour le faire renaitre á l'état de sens, de
valeurs signifiées . " ^^ This idealist notion of language is
best reflected in a famous quote from the preface Mallarmé
wrote for René Ghil's Traité du verbe
Je dis une f leur! et hors de l'oubli oil ma
voix relegue aucun contour, en tant que quelque
chose d'autre que les cálices sus, musicalement se

59
léve, idée méme et suave, l'absente de tous
19
bouquets .
It is this absence of the concrete that Mallarmé seeks
through the form of poetic expression. This abstract
idealism resembles closely some of Hegel's pronouncements on
poetry. ^ But Mallarmé was a poet and so shifted his
emphasis from objective reason to a subjective sensitivity.
In Mallarmé's poetry, the subject becomes an integral part
of the texture, not as an end in itself, but as a universal
subject, a totalizing means of expressing the ideal. Order,
says Mallarmé, "est saisi non par la raison mais par la
sensibilité ... le Beau n'est que l'ordre immanent de la
totalité de 1'univers,Mallarmé, like a jet pilot
breaking the sound barrier, pushed the envelope of language
and form to the limit. To quote from Lukács once again,
. . . 1 ' immanence du sens telle que l'exige la
forme nait justement du fait d'aller jusqu'au
bout, et sans aucun ménagement, dans la mise á nu
de son absence.^
The lofty heights of Mallarmean idealism fascinated
Gide and he continued to admire the master's ".
manifestation tranquille d'une beauté morale hors du monde
(OC II,p.454) but the young author couldn't maintain
such an ascetic view and soon, under the pressure of his own
experience, was to modify his position. Certain crucial

60
ideas remained, however, particularly the notion of critical
distance and dialectical couples of subject/object and of
presence/absence . The subtlety of Mallarmé ' s dictum,
"Peindre, non la chose, mais l'effet qu'elle produit,was
to remain a point of reference for Gide's view of the
suggestive magic of words, the importance of form and the
general problematic of language. I shall return to Gide's
conception of form and the problem of subjectivity in
language below.
It must be said that Gide was not particularly happy
with his chosen vocation as a poet, if one is to believe his
retrospective statements in Si le grain ne meurt. He could
not remain content with the contemplative peace of
Narcissus, seeing only his own reflection in the people and
objects that surrounded him. He writes,
. . l'ami qu'il m'eüt fallu, c'est quelqu'un qui
m'eüt appris a m'intéresser á autrui et qui m'eüt
sorti de moi-méme: un romancier. (OC VII,p.316)
Gide became friends with the English novelist Oscar Wilde in
1891 and Wilde certainly did much to open Gide up to himself
and to others, though it isn't certain that this was the
friend he had in mind.
If Gide's association with the Symbolist group and
particularly Mallarmé was to be a determining influence on
his literary career, the influence of Schopenhauer and later

61
of Nietzsche was equally strong and perhaps accounts for
some of his differences with others in the Symbolist group.
He writes at one point that the guests at Mallarmé's Tuesday
gatherings were enthralled with Plato, whereas he considered
Schopenhauer to be far superior. For the German philosopher,
an artist is concerned not with action but with
contemplation or what he termed will-less perception. From
the vantage point of this detachment, all esthetic
judgements would be disinterested and beauty sufficient unto
itself, exterior to the cause/effect reasoning of
conventional perception. Schopenhauer also held that there
is a shift in the subject's mode of perception in relation
to an esthetic object and consequently a shift in the object
perceived. The esthetic object is exterior to normal spatio-
temporally and causally related things and events. The
esthetic observer is presented with, "permanent essential
forms of the world and all its phenomena,which he calls
archetypal forms. Schopenhauer approved Kant's separation of
noumena (things in themselves) from phenomena (one's
perception of things) and agreed that one could only know
things through their appearances. But he differs from Kant
in that he proposes two separate modes of self-awareness.
One is awareness of self as a physical entity occupying
space, enduring through time and responding causally to
stimuli. The second is the awareness of an active being
whose overt behavior is an expression of will. He refused

62
the Cartesian dualism of body and mind, seeing instead the
body as merely an objectification of the will. Though Gide
was later to renounce these beliefs in favor of a more
materialist doctrine, Schopenhauer's early influence,
particularly regarding the double nature of the subject, was
to remain. Nietzsche, another disciple of Schopenhauer,
helped Gide overcome his fascination with the author of The
World As Will and Representation while reinforcing his
vitalist penchant.
It is always difficult to assess the precise influence
that the ideas of one man produce in another. More often
than not the new ideas are integrated into an existing
framework of ideas and, under the influence of the
personality of the reader and of the events of the time, are
selected and modified to conform as much as they exert
pressure to change. Gide writes, in 1892,
chaqué pensée nouvelle, en se déplaqant,
remue toutes les autres. . . . tout se confond
dans ma téte et . . . chaqué concept s'accroche un
peu á tous les autres. (JAG I,p.30)
We shall return to Nietzsche's place in Gide's web of
beliefs after a discussion of the sophisticated irony of
P a 1u d e s and what has been termed Gide's 'materialist
,18
conversion.

63
Paludes and the Critique of Idealism
Gide maintained the greatest respect for Mallarmé and
for his other friends in the Symbolist group, but he
gradually became critical of the closed circle they
represented, resisting exterior influences and making a cult
of idealist beauty. His novel Paludes. published in 1895,
was a reaction against the egocentrism of the Parisian
milieu and many of its characters are easily recognizable as
members of the group.
But this satire is in good humor and, although Gide
mocks the pretentions of many of his colleagues, his most
biting satire is reserved for his own alter ego, the
nameless narrator. There is a significant shift in tone from
Gide's earlier works and Gide was later to classify Paludes
as a sotie. The original subtitle for this work was "Traité
de la Contingence" and it was meant to be a complement to
his Narcisse. In the intervening period Gide had undergone a
radical change; his vision was different
Tout au plus pouvais-je pardonner aux autres
de ne pas reconnaitre que j'étais changé
j'avais á dire des choses nouvelles, et je ne
pouvais plus leur parler. J'eusse voulu leur
persuader et leur délivrer mon message, mais aucun
d'eux ne se penchait pour m'écouter. Ils
continuaient de vivre . . . (OC VII,p.575)

64
To show this change in himself and the new ideas he wanted
to express, he conceived a different form of prose. Paludes
is a very lively, amusing and ironic narrative. The narrator
exaggerates
his
obsessions and is
self -
deprecatory.
An
an alysis of
the
structure of this
nove1,
particularly
as
regards the
levels of irony, will be
useful for
the
discussion of Gide's development as a novelist.
Paludes. in its broad structural outline, closely
ressembles the earlier Cahiers d'André Walter. It is also
written in journal form, it contains letter fragments and
poems, it is open-ended and, in a strange sense, it also
recounts the spiritual quest of a young novelist writing a
novel. But between these two novels, similar in form, lies
the distance of ironic consciousness. One finds the
character Emmanuelle from André Walter, a very serious,
spiritual companion, metamorphosed into Angele, a lively and
frivolous companion. The earlier sedentary and introspective
narrator has become a peripatetic extrovert. Moreover, while
in André Walter there are really only two essential
characters who rarely speak, in Paludes there are many and
dialogues abound. If André Walter's dilemma was wholly
within his soul and apparent to no one, the narrator of
Paludes makes a point of baring his soul publicly.
The journal form used in André Walter becomes an
arbitrary convention in Paludes. covering six consecutive
days, each preceded by a specific title, forming chapters

65
more than journal entries. Furthermore, these chapters qua
journal entries are not simply accounts of the events,
encounters and readings of the day with appropriate
abstraction, but truly narrative units with reported
dialogues, character analysis and descriptions, all of which
concern, directly or indirectly, the novel in progress,
Pa lude s. which is, in effect, the novel we are reading.
Indeed at one point on the last day, after what appears to
be an extemporaneous affabulation, the narrator preempts
Angele's comment saying, "Et ne me dites pas que je devrais
mettre cela dans P a 1u d e s . D'abord, 9 a y est déjá."
(Ill,p.125)
The narrator promotes our confusion of the two Paludes.
the one we are reading and the one he is writing, by
constant references to things he has seen, heard or just
written that should be included in Paludes: and of course,
in a very obvious sense, they are. Yet the two texts differ
in a few very important aspects. The frame narrative is
written in the first person while the fragmentary narrative
within is told in the third person. The first person
narrator has no name, but the protagonist of the third
person narrative is named Tityre, a character borrowed from
Virgil's Ae neid . Tityre lives in the middle of a swamp,
surrounded by a landscape that is as monotonous as his
contemplative existence. Tityre adapts to the monotony and
is content.

66
How completely different the setting of the frame
narrative-- an urban landscape full of movement and lively
conversation. The narrator never seems to stop moving, from
his apartment to the street, to Angele ' s apartment, to
someone's salon, and back again to his own apartment. There
is a constant stream of brief visits by or to the narrator
and there are constant digressions from his discourse.
However, both versions of P a 1u d e s . for all their
differences, give the same imp r e s s i o n - - t he inutility of
action. Despite the agitation of the frame narrative, the
narrator's claim that he writes in order to act and his
exhortations to his colleagues to change their habits, what
we see is an endless repetition of the same actions and
words. The story of Tityre is a transposition of the vicious
circle of the narrator's existence in the literary scene
into a landscape of monotony.
The narrator writes down an agenda each evening of
things to do the following day, but his lists are bizarre in
that they rarely involve concrete actions and tend to
accentuate the narrator's objectification of self (s'étonner
de, penser á, s'inquiéter de, tácher d'avoir). He begins the
second day by looking at his list of things to do and
reflects that keeping a list of things to do, which he can
eventually compare to a list of things done, will give him,
"le sentiment du devoir." (Ill,p.96) Further, keeping a list
of things he should have done will, at the end of the year,

67
give him "des idées morales." (Ill, p. 96) This said, he has
no compunction about ignoring items on the list or modifying
them to fit his impulses. The distance between his
intentions and his actions sets the text in an ironic mode
which is made all the more obvious by the triviality of his
agenda items and his lengthy moral rationalization of the
function of such lists.
So he finds written in his agenda for the second day,
"tácher de se lever á six heures," and beside it he writes,
"levé á sept." (Ill,p.96) He calls the difference 'l'imprévu
négatif. ' Two days later, his agenda qua moral calendar
reaches absurd proportions. He arises at eight, sees on the
agenda "tácher de se lever á six heures," crosses it out and
writes instead, "tácher de se lever á onze heures," then
goes back to bed. Unable to sleep, he nevertheless refuses
out of self-discipline to arise before the newly appointed
hour. (Ill,p.128)
He also finds noted in his list for the second day that
he should think about the individuality of his friend
Richard and says, illogically, "Je m'apprétais á penser á
1'individualité de Richard." (Ill,p.97) He begins by pulling
out a file that he keeps on Richard who, at that very
moment, arrives on an impromptu visit, giving rise to such
an absurd utterance as, "Ah, cher Richard, j'allais penser á
vous ce matin." (Ill,p.99) The two of them then proceed to
have the very same conversation that we just read in the

68
narrator's notes on Richard. It is as if he were called to
life by the text to concretize the narrator's incongruous
phrases, giving an impression of repetitive absurdity.
Richard's presence quickly turns out to be more of a
hindrance to the narrator than a help, as he writes,
"J'étais légérement ennuyé ne pouvant bien penser aux gens
en leur présence." (Ill,p.99) This comical situation points
to a serious esthetic principle, the necessary distance
between the narrator and his subject. The narrator later
says that the third person is the one who is absent; and
subsequently, in a conversation with a group of
intellectuals at Angele's party, he defines the third person
as the 'normal' man, generalized man who ressembles everyone
equally. In fact, this is the very subject of his novel.
Pa lude s . . . c'est l'histoire du terrain
neutre, ce qui est á tout le monde
l'histoire de la troisiéme personne, celle dont on
parle--qui vit en chacun et qui ne meurt pas avec
nous. (Ill,p.116)
Tityre is the essence of this third person --face1ess,
malleable, content and absent (he never speaks). The
narrator tells Angéle that Tityre is modeled after Richard,
but their only ressemblance is their passive acceptance of a
monotonous life and, from a narrative point of view, their
necessary absence. Gide skillfully returns to this

69
phenomenological leitmotif of presence/absence throughout
the nove 1.
There is another playful reference to repetition and
inutility in a scene that takes place just before Angele's
party in the stairwell of her building. As the narrator sits
on a bench composing a letter, the man to whom it is
addressed arrives and, without having read the note, sits
down to write a response. Their first exchange concerns the
idea of 'ignorance is bliss,' but they draw diametrically
opposed conclusions. The second exchange of notes begins, in
each case, with an example of a mistranslated Latin text.
But whereas the narrator uses his example to show the
necessity of lucidity to achieve true happiness, his friend
Martin uses his example to demystify the notion of moral
necessity. Finally, in their third and last exchange, their
respective notes coincide perfectly: "Plus j'y réfléchis,
plus je trouve ton exemple stupide, car enfin . . ."
(Ill,p. 115) This unlikely parallelism of thought and
expression totally undermines the seriousness of the
subject--individual liberty and moral necessity. There is no
progression in this dialogue of notes, only an accumulation
of tangents. The first exchange of notes recalls Plato's
cave: "Etre aveugle pour se croire heureux. . . . L'on ne
peut se voir que malheureux," writes the narrator, to which
his friend has already responded, "Etre heureux de sa
cécité. . . . L'on ne peut étre que malheureux de se voir."

70
(III,p.114) However absurd the context, this is one of the
central questions of the text-- the consequences of self
awareness and the implications it has for the self and
others. Whereas Martin argues for passive resignation, the
narrator proposes freedom through an act of will. It is also
an argument about the philosophical notion of contingency
and the philosopher, Alexandre, arrives at the end of the
exchange to say to the narrator, "Rattachez - vous á tout,
Monsieur, et ne demandez pas la contingence; d'abord vous ne
l'obtiendrez pas--et puis: á quoi qa vous servirait-il?"
(Ill,p.115)
The distance between the narrator's intentions and his
actions is perhaps most apparent near the end of the text
when he and Angele decide to take a trip to get away from
the stagnant self-complacency of their milieu. After two
days of planning and with great hopes for the curative
effects of their absence, they never make it any further
than the train station. But the narrator is not discouraged
and rationalizes the setback into a victory
II est assez heureux, aprés tout, que ce
petit voyage ait raté--pouvant ainsi mieux vous
instruiré. ... le plaisir que nous peut procurer
un voyage n'est qu'accessoire . On voyage pour
l'éducation . . . (Ill,p.141)
What Angele may have learned isn't exactly clear, unless it
be a general sense of resignation.

71
In the end, it is Hubert, the narrator's best friend,
and Roland who leave on a long trip to North Africa. The
narrator is left to his habits and futile repetitions. He
immediately begins to worry about how he is going to replace
Hubert's regular six o'clock visits and, as Paludes comes to
a close, we find him once again sitting in his room as in
the opening scene. A friend enters and finds him writing.
When he inquires, just as in the beginning, what the
narrator is writing, he is told, "J'écris Polders."
(Ill,p.146) The whole farcical text has come back to its
point of departure, leaving the reader with a feeling of
infinite repetition.
Paludes is, to say the least, an enigmatic text, full
of linguistic and logical paradoxes. By constantly
undermining the reliability of the narrator, Gide has
decentered the text. The reader is invited to find his own
truth between the lines. Indeed, in a short preface to
Paludes. the author writes,
. . . si nous savions ce que nous voulions dire,
nous ne savons pas si nous ne disions que cela.- -
On dit toujours plus que CELA.--Et ce qui sur-
tout m'y intéresse, c'est ce que j'y ai mis sans
le savoir , --ce11e part d' inconscient , que je
voudrais appeler la part de Dieu. (Ill,p.89)
Reactions to Paludes were diverse. Claude Martin writes
that, contrary to the common belief today that Gide was a
relatively unknown writer until much later, Palude s

72
encountered considerable success and was read and commented
widely, albeit in the somewhat restrained circle of the
Paris literary scene.Gide's contemporaries were greatly
impressed by this unusual and masterful farce. Camille
Mauclair wrote in the Mercure de France.
. je crois bien que depuis Laforgue personne
n'avait eu cette fa?on exquisement désespérée et
paisiblement prét aux larmes de trahir sa
9 0
lassitude de l'ordinaire et du prévu . . . u
And in an anonymous note in the Figaro of July 17, 1895, the
reference is to Sterne
Fantaisie d'un esprit zélé, qui vole au-
dessus de toutes choses sans s'y poser, un peu á
la fa?on de Sterne, avec des pointes d'ironie, de
critique et des élans de poete. On n'analyse guére
plus un livre comme celui-lá qu'on n'explique un
parfum; ce sont la choses trop subtiles pour que
la parole suffise á en donner 1'impression.^
But perhaps it is Mallarmé who, in a letter to Gide, sums up
best the impression left by Paludes.
Je ne fais pas allusion d'abord á votre
goutte aigrelette et précieuse d'ironie qui tient
cent pages, elle est d'essence unique; mais
autrement, 1'affabulation spirituelle approche la
merveille et vous avez trouvé, dans le suspens et
l'á-cóté, une forme qui devait se présenter et
qu'on ne reprendra plus.^

73
Though the critics were not equal in their praise,
Paludes made a stir in the Parisian literary community and
Gide's parody of the salons and cénacles was the occasion
for considerable polemic. Léon Blum, whom Gide was soon to
replace as literary critic for the Revue Blanche. saw in
this strange novel a major statement not only of Gide's
esthetic, but of a changing esthetic in his generation. He
saw it as a novel heralding a new sensitivity.
Paludes. gai roman de l'ennui, livre de la
richesse dans la monotonie, oü l'uniformité du
récit et de la pensée est variée par une
incroyable abondance d'observation et
d'imagination psychologique . . . Les generations
changent ; celle-ci n'est plus romanesque, et le
récit intime et difficile de Palude s a bien pu
étre son Werther. Chaqué jour la verra se détacher
de l'homme vers la nature et vers l'idée.^3
Léon Blum astutely points to one of the major influences on
Gide's esthetic at that time, Goethe, who was to remain a
model for Gide's subsequent work. Blum may have found the
references to Goethe in Gide's 1897 "Postface pour la
deuxiéme édition de Paludes et pour annoncer Les Nourritures
Terrestres , " in which Gide, contrary to his original
preface, attempts to explain the genesis and meaning of his
sotie as a preface to his 'materialist conversion.' Gide
cites both Goethe and another major influence, Leibnitz, the
Eighteenth century German philosopher, author of New Essays

74
on Human Understanding. Palude s. we read, marked a feeling
of stagnation in a closed literary milieu and a desire to
bannir pour un long temps les livres,
soulever les rideaux, ouvrir, briser les vitres
dépolies, tout ce qui s'épaissit entre nous et
l'Autre, tout ce qui ternit la nature , • -
harmoniser enfin sa vie et ses pensées, selon
l'optimisme éperdu oü l'avaient conduit son
tempérament d'abord, puis son admiration pour
Goethe et la lente méditation de Leibnitz.
(Ill ,p . 1476)
And in a letter to his mother shortly before the
publication of Palude s. Gide recommends Goethe to her in
these terms: . . 1'extraordinaire somme de folie que cet
homme raisonnable entre tous put absorber, faire sienne et
neutraliser . . ."24 Goethe's receptivity to the world
of sensations that Gide admires and would emulate. His long
meditation of Leibnitz had lead him to re-evaluate the worth
of an individual idea as opposed to a universal truth. In an
1894 entry in his Journal. Gide writes
Certains confondent idées et vérités (voir
Leibnitz, Nouveaux Essais). Les vérités sont
toujours bonnes; les idées souvent dangereuses á
montrer. L'on dirait que l'idée est la tentation
de sa vérité. 11 n'est pas bon de tenter les
autres; Dieu envoie á chacun des tentations selon
sa force . . . (JAG I,p.55)
The last page of Palude s is the beginning of a playful
list, for the reader, of the most remarkable phrases from

75
the novel. One of the two phrases cited is, "II faut porter
jusqu'á la fin toutes les idées qu'on souléve." (Ill,p.149)
In his 1897 "Postface" Gide commented on this choice
Et voilá le sujet de mon livre. C'est
l'histoire d'une idée plus que l'histoire de quoi
que ce soit d'autre; c'est l'histoire de la
maladie qu' elle cause dans tel esprit.
(Ill,p.1478)
He then goes on to compare the idea to a cancer that takes
over the body, to a seed that becomes a majestic tree and to
the kingdom of God.
From these comments one can see that the extreme
receptivity of the author to his intellectual environment
gives birth to and nourishes the idea around which the text
is constructed. The idea is the ordering principle that
governs the logic of narrative development much more than do
concerns of verisimilitude. Therefore, in Paludes. it is the
logic of boredom and stagnation that dictates narrative
form--repetition, digression and circularity. But one might
conclude from these comments that Gide was promoting a
didactic literature. To disabuse his readers of this notion
he goes a step further to express an esthetic principle that
was to become a trademark of Gidean irony.
J'aime aussi que chaqué livre porte en lui ,
mais cachée, sa propre réfutation et ne s'assoie
pas sur l'idée, de peur qu'on n'en voie l'autre

7 6
face. J'aime qu'il porte en lui de quoi se nier,
se supprimer lui-méme . . . (Ill,p.1479)
It is this dialectical tension between subject and
object, inscribed within the text, that gives Palude s its
enigmatic quality and assures its enduring modernism beyond
the topical parody of the Parisian literary milieu. To
create this dialectical tension between subject and object
Gide has recourse to a narrative form that he calls a
"construction en abyme." He writes
J'aime assez qu'en une oeuvre d'art, on
retrouve ainsi transposé, á l'échelle des
personnages, le sujet máme de cette oeuvre. Rien
ne 1'éclaire mieux et n'établit plus surement
toutes les proportions de 11 ensemble. (JAG I,p.41)
He gives a series of examples of this interior duplication
his idea. He mentions Memling and Quentin
t o
Metzys, whose paintings contain convex mirrors reproducing
the pictural space from within; the Velasquez painting Las
Meninas. in which one sees the painter painting; literary
works such as Hamlet. Wilhelm Meister and The Fall of the
House of Usher. all of which contain autoreferenti a1
narratives; and his own works, André Walter. Narcisse and
his most recent Tentative Amoureuse. This dialectical
narrative structure now known as the mise en abyme was to
become a trademark of Gide's fiction that reaches its apex

77
in Les Faux-Monnaveurs. thirty years later. I shall explore
this narrative procedure in depth in a later chapter.
Suffice it to say here that one of the primary functions
that Gide ascribes to the mise en abyme is the engagement of
the reader in the psychological development of the novel as
a dialogic process of becoming. "Cette rétroaction du sujet
sur lui-méme m ' a toujours tenté. C'est le roman
psychologique typique." (JAG I,p.41)
In other words the structure of the work of art would,
in this way, represent the structure of human consciousness
--the subject's awareness of self as an object of thought.
This translates as radical subjectivity in Gide's early
works mentioned in the passage above. Jean Rousset says of
Gide's Narcisse. for instance
Ce Narcisse gidien est lui aussi aquare11iste; son
regard compose les miroitements colorés qu'il
projéte sur la toile vide du monde ... ce n'est
pas son effigie qu'il regarde dans le miroir,
c'est tout le visible qui , tournant autour de
cette conscience devenue 'centre', lui montre sa
pensée partout reflétée.^5
But Gide's own logic of retroaction eventually leads him
away from his idealist position because as surely as the
subject orders and colors the material world, so to the
material world reflects back on and influences the subject.
Paludes - - "Traité de la Contingence"•-announced a
heightened consciousness in Gide's work, not only by

78
decentering the
duplication, but
between interior
subjective presence in the text through
also by representing the subtle dialectic
and exterior. Maurice Nadeau writes,
En tant qu'áme promise á Dieu il avait vécu
dans les nuées; redescendant sur terre, il lui
faut découvrir le fait d'exister qui est exister
dans le monde) á travers le 'fait de conscience'
élémentaire qui assoit dans un unique phénoméne le
sujet et l'objet: la sensation.^
Paludes paved the way for les Nourritures terrestres and the
author's materialist conversion which Nadeau goes on to
describe in these terms
Par les sens le monde existe; par la sensation il
est préhensible, conna issab1e , á travers un
rapport de participation. L'excitation appelle la
réaction qui, á son tour, suscite de nouveaux
stimuli.27
Les Nourritures terrestres, announced in the 1897
"Postface" to Palude s as the author's conversion to a more
materialist vision, is a hymn to sensual pleasure and a
critique of bourgeois mentality. By his own account Gide
wanted to, "précipiter la littérature dans un abime de
sensualisme d 'oü elle ne puisse sortir que complétement
régénérée." (Ill,p.1486) The extent to which he succeeded
is open to discussion, but he did manage to disconcert many
of his colleagues of the literary journal Centaure who
accused him of being artificial. Gide later commented on the

79
reactions to this unusual work and the literary context in
which it first appeared
Quand ont paru mes Nourritures . on était en
plein Symbolisme; j'ai cru que l'art courait de
grands risques á se séparer ainsi résolument du
naturel et de la vie. Mais mon livre était
beaucoup trop naturel pour ne point paraitre
factice á ceux qui n'avaient plus de goüt que pour
1 ' artificiel ; et précisément parce qu'il
s'échappait de la littérature, on n'y vit d'abord
que la quintessence de la littérature.
(III ,p . 1486)
Although this book was amply criticized and certainly
did not achieve the commercial success that Gide would have
liked, it did find admirers, particularly among young
writers of the time, and received favorable reviews in the
avant-garde press.Contrary to Gide's own assertions, his
break with Symbolism was very much in tune with the esthetic
aspirations of a new generation. Edmond Jaloux, writing for
the Marseille daily L'Indépendance républicaine. declared
Ménalque, protagonist of Les Nourritures terrestres, to be
the new Werther or René of the coming century. He saw a
profound optimism and love for life in this unique work,
going so far as to glorify it in these terms: "Je sais de
nombreux esprits qui ont été bouleversés par Les Nourritures
terrestres . et moi-méme j ' en ai fait mon évangile . This
seminal work in Gide's career marks a shift away from
sterile idealism and se1f-absorption toward an organic

80
vision of human existence and an awareness of others. In an
1897 letter to his Belgian friend André Ruijters Gide writes
Crois bien que ce qui mange mon J_e n'est pas
seulement mon idée. Si Je suis moins, c'est aussi
que je m'intéresse toujours plus aux autres.
This change in perspective is marked by a seven year
hiatus of journal entries. Gide had come to see his Journal
as a narcissistic device that lead him to obsessive
introspection and prevented a more genuine contact with the
world around him. He traveled extensively in North Africa
and, most significantly recovered from a terrible bout with
tuberculosis. In fact, he came to see his illness as a
wellspring of his art; the uneasiness and difference from
others that one feels through illness produces a feeling of
disequilibrium and a search for a new order: "La maladie
propose a l'homme une inquiétude nouvelle, qu'il s'agit de
légitimer." (JAG 1,98)
As previously stated, although Les Nourritures
terrestres represented a radical break with contemporary
ideas of literature and particularly with the Symbolists,
Gide was not merely a voice crying out in the desert. His
new work was acclaimed by the nascent Naturist movement of
writers forming around St. Georges de Bouhélier and Maurice
Le Blond. These young writers found their avatars in the
early French Romantics--Fénelon, Rousseau and Bernardin de

81
Saint-Pierre. They published harsh criticism of the
Symbolists, especially Mallarmé and Henri de Régnier, and
called for a return to nature, to an expression of the
senses rather than the intellect. They expressed great
admiration for Gide and his long-time friend Francis Jammes.
Gide found much to agree with in the Naturist movement, but
was bothered by the unbridled attacks against Régnier and
Mallarmé.
Bouhélier, with the help of Emile Zola, published a
manifesto of Naturism in the January 10, 1897 issue of Le
Figaro in which he defined the esthetic principles of the
new movement as an amor fati of the material world.
Au lieu d'évoquer de charmantes et de suaves
seigneurs chimériques, nous chanterons les hautes
f é tes de l'homme. Pour la splendeur de ce
spectacle, les poetes convoqueront les plantes,
les étoiles, les vents et les graves animaux. Une
littérature naitra qui glorifiera les marins, les
laboureurs nés des entrailles du sol et les
pasteurs qui habitent prés des aigles.-^
But if Gide could find common ideas in this
introduction, one can only imagine his reaction to what
followed and which Claude Martin correctly qualifies as,
". . . sans ambiguité, une morale xénophobe, une esthétique
O O
raciste . . .In effect, Bouhélier mounted a series of
attacks against Shakespeare, Schopenhauer, Wagner, Nietzsche
and Ibsen as nefarious foreign influences that had
subjugated French literature--"Leur pensée qui nous accapare

82
défigure l'esprit de la race . . .At this point, without
publicly denouncing the Naturists, Gide nevertheless began
to distance himself from their movement. But despite his
very tentative involvement with this movement and subsequent
denial of their esthetic principles, his Nourritures
terrestres came to be seen as the only true Naturist work.
Si le naturisme, comme je le crois, n'est
qu'une revendication du droit au lyrisme, un
retour aux conceptions les plus larges de la
nature et de la vie, et, par opposition aux
théories individualistes ou mystiques,
1'affirmation d'une sorte de panthéisme a la fois
réaliste et moral, alors l'oeuvre de Gide est bien
une oeuvre naturiste, et, . . . il faudra le
34
nommer au premier rang. ^
Once again, and despite Gide's affirmations to the
contrary, he had crystallized the new esthetic concerns of a
rising generation of writers. But if Les Nourritures
terrestres illustrates perfectly the thrust of the new
Naturist esthetic, it also contains structural elements that
continue to appear as leitmotifs in his subsequent works.
The two structural elements in question for the purpose
of this study have been mentioned in connection with Gide's
earlier works and will be discussed at length in a later
chapter concerning Les Faux - Monnaveur s . The first is the
narrative play that consists in inscribing a story within
another story that resembles it. This is the mise en abyme
mentioned earlier and which Gide accomplishes in Le s

83
Nourritures terrestres by inserting "Le Récit de Ménalque."
Gide regretted the previous publication of this text in
excerpted form and originally planned not to include it in
the final version. He finally did so, at least in part, to
add this extra narrative dimension to his work.^
The second structural element is best resumed by
Francis Jammes in a letter he sent to Gide immediately after
the publication of Les Nourritures terrestres in which he
writes: "Chacune de tes pensées portait en elle,
DIRECTEMENT , s a propre réfutation. Gide's text is
continually undermined by a vacillating point of view as the
narrator balances affirmation with negation--success may
also be a type of failure, goodness may also be evil, good
intentions may disguise selfish motives. This play of
opposites maintains a narrative tension throughout the text
and prevents it from becoming didactic, as it would by
offering simplistic moral lessons.
Finally, although at first glance a disordered text of
lyrical effusion, Les Nourritures terrestres is, like Gide's
other works, carefully and purposefully assembled, as Claude
Martin demonstrates. ^ Henri Ghéon, soon to become one of
Gide's closest friends and collaborators, was one of the few
critics to perceive the subtle development of Les
Nourritures terrestres:
Ce livre est doublement admirable parce qu'il
est pensé et senti; et c'est le prodige du poete

84
d'avoir su développer une these philosophique avec
un tel lyrisme, et de nous avoir offert une oeuvre
complete oú triomphent tous les dons que nous
avions admirés un á un, épars dans chacun de ses
livres.3®
The intimate tone of this book engages the reader to enter
the subjective world of the narrator's thoughts and
sensations, but also demands that he shed his traditionally
anonymous and passive reader's role. He is asked to
participate actively in the deciphering of the narrative, to
use it for his own purposes and go beyond. Already, in the
preface to Paludes. the author called upon his reader to
explain his text to him.
Un livre est toujours une collaboration, et
tant plus le livre vaut-il, que plus la part du
scribe y est petite . . . Attendons de partout la
révélation des choses; du public, la révélation de
nos oeuvres. (Ill,p.89)
Gide's Readers
The idea of reader participation was always a concern
of Gide's and he was often disappointed not only by the
frequent misinterpretation of his works, but also by the
small number of readers he attracted. He considered his
public to be quite limited, at one point in 1898 complaining
to André Ruijters that he didn't have twelve good readers in
O Q
France. 7 This is obviously an exaggeration because, as

85
previously mentioned, Gide did have a substantial and
sympathetic readership. But he was rarely satisfied with the
reactions of his readers. Throughout his career he readily
responded to any criticism in the press. It is certain that
he didn't expect his works to be great commercial successes
and, happily, he didn't depend on the sales of his works for
his livelihood, but he remained acutely aware of the public
reaction to his writing.
In two brillant lectures given in Brussels in 1900 and
in Weimar in 1903, Gide discusses the role of the artist in
relation to literary tradition and in relation to his
readers. The first, called De l'influence en littérature.
revolved around two basic ideas: first, influence isn't good
or bad in any absolute sense, only in relation to the person
influenced and second, it is impossible to avoid all
influence. (OC III,p.250) To the contrary, a truly great
individual need not fear losing his personality through
influence; he should be receptive to it.
Un grand homme n'a qu'un souci: devenir le
plus humain possib 1e, --disons mieux: DEVENIR
BANAL. Devenir banal, Shakespeare, banal Goethe,
Moliere, Balzac, Tolstoi . . . c'est ainsi qu'il
devient le plus personnel. Tandis que celui qui
fuit 1'humanité pour lui-méme, n'arrive qu'á
devenir particulier, bizarre, défectueux
(OC III, p.261)
The great artist is one who both undergoes and exerts
influence. The idea expressed by the artist exists, in a

86
certain sense, only in virtual form before finding its place
in the mind of a reader; but the artist bears a heavy
responsibility for the influence of his ideas. To relieve
him of the torment of this responsibility he needs the help
of a group
Chez l'artiste, souvent, la soumission
d'autrui qu'il obtient a des causes tres
différentes . Un mot pourrait, je crois, les
résumer: il ne se suffit pas á lui-méme.
II a besoin d'adjoints, de substituts, de secrétaires.
. . . II influence: d'autres vivront et joueront pour
lui ses idées; risqueront le danger de les expérimenter
á sa place. (OC III,p.262)
It is important to note this series of dialectical
oppositions in Gide's esthetic. In the discussion of Paludes
and of Les Nourritures terrestres I pointed out the dynamic
nature of writing and reading, that is, the retroactive
influence of the work on its author and the reader's active
role of interpretation. Here one may see the relationship
broadened to indicate the mutual influence of the writer and
the literary community; the writer's work is inscribed
within the tradition of literary production. Gide makes it
clear in his 1903 lecture in Weimar, De 1'importance du
public (OC IV,p.181-197), that the writer cannot ignore his
public; he must respond to it. This doesn't imply yielding
to public sentiment, but establishing a true rapport of
communication with the readers, better understanding his
work through them.

87
Auguste Angles synthesizes these two lectures well.
Ces deux conférences complémentaires sont une
profession de foi en la nécessité et en les
bienfaits de 1 ' interacti on. L'écrivain doit
s'ouvrir aux influences et influencer á son tour;
Goethe a été bonnifié par la cour de Weimar autant
qu'il l'a éduquée; l'artiste qui s'isole, ou que
ses contemporains condamnent á l'isolement, verse
dans 1'extravaganee ou s'étiole. Lorsque Gide
languit aprés un public, ce n'est pas une action á
sens unique qu'il ambitionne: il souhaite en
retour étre modifié. . il sait qu'entre autrui
et lui se j oue l'avenir de son talent, de son
The reader Gide had in mind was an enlightened friend
and, indeed, Claude Martin remarks that Gide always seemed
to need a closely knit group of friends, in whom he could
confide and whose judgment he could trust.^ Gide had begun
collaborating with various literary journals quite early in
his career and, near the end of the century, he was a
frequent contributor to La Revue Blanche and L'Ermitage .
among others. He was easily persuaded to contribute pieces
to new, often short-lived journals, but was reluctant to
become identified with any particular group. Although he
greatly valued his independence, he did seem to need a solid
support group, as previously stated, and often attempted to
bring his close friends into a journal he had penetrated.^
In a series of thirteen articles called "Lettres á
Angele" Gide analysed current trends in literature and began
to develop a subtle vision of the intellectual climate,

88
periodically discussing political, philosophical and moral
problems. He also showed a great sensitivity in these
articles to foreign authors still largely unknown in France,
such as Nietzsche, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky and Dickens. He
encouraged the translation and diffusion of foreign works in
France at a time when more established critics were
proposing nationalistic and at times even racist criteria
for literary selection.
At a time when polemic often became grossly insulting,
Gide sought a higher ground for criticism, often praising
the work of those with whom he disagreed fundamentally. His
treatment of Les Déraciné s by Maurice Barres is a good
example of his method. He treated Barres with the greatest
respect, praising his brillant style and imagery as well as
his character portrayal. He expressed unqualified agreement
with the importance of the problem treated by Barres but, in
the end, found two basic faults: a heavy-handed ideological
bent that bordered on the didactic and a misunderstanding of
the true dilemma that his characters faced. Gide maintained
that, in fact, the novel clearly demonstrated the exact
opposite of Barres' stated thesis.
Putting aside the question of the validity of Gide's
judgment, it is interesting to note the thrust of his
critical judgment. On the one hand, he reproaches Barres for
not giving the reader the freedom to judge for himself, and
on the other, he clearly demonstrated how the intentions of

89
the author can, through a close reading, be reversed. It is
through such subtle and objective critiques that Gide became
known and respected as a new voice in the literary
community.
Gide's judgment of Barres is symptomatic of his view of
much of contemporary French literature which he found to be
stagnating within the confines of a strictly defined
ideology of national consciousness and middle class
morality. It was time, he felt, like the protagonist of
Paludes . to open all the windows and doors to let in fresh
air. With the idea of promoting new ideas in literature,
foreign and domestic, Gide began making plans to create a
literary journal with a closely knit group of friends. The
result of their association was the Nouvelle Revue Francaise
which soon became a forum for new ideas and continually
refused to be co-opted by political or religious movements.
The various contributors maintained their independent voices
and, despite inevitable clashes of opinion, they continually
offered their readers the best in new writing and criticism.
A list of early contributors to the N,R.F. reads like a
Who' s Who of 20th century French literature and criticism,
though at the time these authors were largely unknown.
Undoubtedly, one of the reasons that the N.R.F.
encountered such success with the young intellectuals of the
time was its openness to innovation and its quick, confident

90
analysis of current trends. Auguste Angles writes of his
impressions on reading the early issues of the N.R.F,
. . . d'une curiosité en éveil, d'une réflexion
murie et pourtant enthousiaste, d'une ampie
conversation qui va se diversifiant á travers
maintes incidentes, que de grands themes relient
et dominent. . . . leur promptitude á faire surgir
un probléme général.^
The poised judgment of the editorial board and 'regulars'
came perhaps from years of informal conversations and
elective affinities that brought them together. The strength
of their common project was then evident in the style and
presentation of their journal.
Three unifying themes that Angles finds in the early
issues of the journal are, 1) classical qualities as opposed
to romantic aberrations, 2) classicism as the only true
expression of the French genius and 3) the value of
psychological and moral exploration.^^ The debate with the
different 'chapelles' of Paris was engaged on far-reaching
questions and, though the attacks and responses sometimes
degenerated into sterile posturing, they forced attention to
be focused on the nature of current French literature and
its place within history.
Gide wrote a series of three articles in successive
issues of the N . R . F , in 1909 under the general title
"Nationalisme et Littérature" in which he subtly enveloped
the arguments of Henri Clouard concerning a 'national

91
literature' by pointing to the fundamental ambiguity of any
such definition. Over the course of these three articles, he
gradually abandoned the questions of national literature and
classicism to lead his readers toward a more subtle vision
of literary works, to be viewed in terms of their individual
coherence rather than as expressions of sound moral
principles.
It is in this sense that we understand Gide's repeated
request that his own works be judged only for their esthetic
qualities. Many of his contemporaries focused their
attention exclusively on the moral implications of a text
and their incursions into questions of form served only to
define the author as part of a particular literary tradition
which in turn led them back to moral concerns of national
character. It should be evident from Gide's own criticism as
well as from his fiction that he was not opposed to a
discussion of ethical principles represented by the various
voices in a text, but he did oppose a superficial reading
that reduced all the voices to one and ignored the
complexities of narrative structure and ironic distancing.
A Mosaic of Novels
This last section will treat Gide's conception of the
novel as one finds it both in his critical works for the
literary press and in latent form in his fictional works

92
during the two decades preceding Les Faux-Monnaveurs. The
intention here is not to formulate extensive analyses of
these fictional works themselves, but rather to highlight
certain aspects regarding narrative technique, modes of
irony and the mediation of experience in novelistic form.
One hesitates to speak of an evolution in Gide's
esthetic ideas because he himself argued explicitly against
such an interpretation of his works. He claimed, on several
occasions, to have conceived the whole of his works from the
beginning, and there exists solid corroborative evidence
from his friends and acquaintances. As Auguste Angles says,
". . . il n’a cessé de revendiquer son appartenance á
l'ordre du s imultané. In one of his famous "Billets a
Angele" Gide claims to have conceived all of his fictional
works from L'Imm o r a1is t e through La Svmphonie pastorale
before the age of thirty. (Ill,p. 15 82 ) This seems to
contradict Gide's previously mentioned statements concerning
the dynamic relationship between an author, his work and his
public. In order to reconcile these ideas of simultaneity
with dynamic interaction, one must consider the context of
their utterance.
It is a particular characteristic of Gide's work that
he continually surprised his readers by publishing books,
one after the other, with radically different perspectives.
Devotees of one work might very well be outraged by the
abrupt shifts from 1 ' Immoraliste to la Porte étroite to

93
Isabelle to les Caves du Vatican to la Svmphonie pastorale.
For anyone who reads these works in the order in which they
were published, it is easy to see why Gide frustrated his
supporters and confounded his critics by refusing to fix
himself in a niche.
He preferred to see the succession of his works as
pieces of a mosaic for which he had conceived the master
plan, but was obliged to issue the separate parts one after
the other. In a letter to André Beaunier, which Gide copied
in his Journal. we read
Tous ces sujets ( La Porte étroite.
L' Immoraliste. Le s Cave s) se sont développés
parallélement, concurremment--et si j'ai écrit tel
livre avant tel autre c'est que le sujet me
paraissait plus 'at hand' comme dit l'Anglais. Si
j'avais pu, c'est ensemble que je les aurais
écrits. (JAG I, p.437)
Not only were the subjects conceived of in the same
time period, they were also related to one another as
different perspectives on a single problem. In response to
an article by a Catholic clergyman, Gide wrote of
L'Immo r alis te . La Porte étroite. Isabelle and La Svmphonie
pastorale
lis dénoncent tour á tour les dangers de
1'individualisme outranciére, d'une certaine forme
de mysticisme tres précisément Protestant . . . du
romantisme et, dans La Svmphonie pastorale, de la
libre interprétation des Ecritures. (Ill,p.1583)

94
These four books are critical works that ironically
deconstruct their subjects, embodied by the four successive
protagonists (Michel, Alissa, Gérard and the pastor), each
beset by the demon of self-deception. They are all deceived
in the i r
attempts at
lucidity
concerning
the motives
for
their own
actions and
those of
others.
In
each case,
they
interpret
events and
construct their
pe rs ona throu
gh a
lopsided
vision of the world.
In the
case
of Michel,
the
individualism becomes egocentrism and eventually self-
indulgent narcissism. Similarly, Alissa's Protestant
mysticism becomes a narcissistic martyrdom. In the case of
Isabelle. the subject of the story is, "la déception méme de
Gérard aussitót que la plate réalité reprend la place de
1' illusion." (Ill,p.1561) In La Svmphonie pastorale, the
pastor's pretense to altruism and purity of motives,
rationalized through biblical interpretation, becomes
transparently self-serving as well as destructive to those
around him. As for Les Caves du Vatican, it is a variegated
model of deception that culminates in Lafcadio's self-
deception concerning the possible absence of motives in the
'acte gratuit.'
The simultaneous conception of this series of novels is
plausible from the point of view of their related subjects,
but it also represents an idealistic, even reductionist view
of literature seemingly standing in contradiction to Gide's

95
previously exposed ideas of the dynamic nature of his works.
In defense of his works he goes so far as to say that the
different elements correspond to the demands of the subject,
much as a painter is obliged to add certain elements or
change his shading in order to render a harmonious and
unified whole. In defense of La Porte étroite. he writes,
"J'ai seulement cherché de bien peindre et d'éclairer bien
ma peinture." (Ill,p.1551) But from conception to
concretization in novel form is the distance between idea
and act. If the subject is the organizing principle in each
novel that dictates the mode of execution, that is, the
narrative voice, the style and tenor of the prose, then the
dynamic and unpredictable element is present in the
execution where the different aspects (descriptions,
characterizations, imagery and analysis) adjust to a
harmonious orbit around the subject.
This type of internal coherence or harmony then should
be the basis of esthetic judgement. Gide often reiterated
his desire that his works be judged only for their esthetic
qualities and not as a personal moral statement. But
esthetics and ethics were inevitably imbricated in his work.
His expressed desire that his work be judged from an
esthetic viewpoint was a reaction against dominant critical
tendencies of the period. As previously noted, literary
criticism of the time often focused on the conformity of a
work to scientific, ideological or religious principles.

96
Critics searched for a central point of view and attributed
it to the author, often using biographical anecdotes as
proof positive of the presence of the author in a certain
character and the resultant transparency of his intentions.
This was a reduction of literature to a subordinate status
in relation to a particular epistemology, as a didactic tool
to inculcate the masses. At the other extreme, many
modernist critics have taken Gide's esthetic stand in a
'pure art' sense, claiming that the only legitimate
interpretation of Gide's works was through purely esthetic
categories. Yvonne Davet aptly relativizes this purist
posit ion.
Gide cependant, des cette époque, demandait,
en vain, que ses livres fussent jugés du seul
point de vue esthétique. Non tant pour éviter
qu'ils pátissent des contradictions morales
accumulées, que parce qu'il trouvait lui-méme,
dans l'oeuvre d'art, leur seule solution.
Personnellement tiraillé, déchiré, il se
persuadait qu'il allait de 1'enrichissement de son
oeuvre, et ainsi tout était justifié. De sorte
que, plus le sujet lui tenait au coeur, plus il le
touchait de prés, et plus il s'efforqait de le
détacher, á force d'art, de sa vie propre
Gide was a leading member of a young group of
' littérateurs' who wanted to free literature from the
bondage of ideological conformity and reaffirm its autonomy.
This
was
not
an attempt
to
deny
any moral signification
but
to affirm
the
p rimacy,
in
art,
o f
esthetic principles;
no t
art
for
art ,
but art
first. The
Nouvelle Revue Francaise

97
became the forum for literary experimentation, both foreign
and domestic, and for esthetic criticism.
Gide's intention in his own work was not to provide
answers but rather to provoke thought by presenting complex
problems. The most complex of these problems arise from
self-deception. They are, in a broad sense, problems of
language inasmuch as they involve conflicting
interpretations of reality, of the meaning hidden in
gestures and words and the gulf between intention and
action. The intention is a double movement, oriented toward
the future but based on past actions--a certain cause
creates a certain effect. The action produces a retroactive
evaluation to reconcile the effect to the cause and so
prepare for further action. This may seem to be simple logic
when viewed in the singular, but when separate intentions
cross, it becomes considerably more complex and the risk of
deception and misunderstanding increases proportionately.
Crossed intentions exist not only between individuals but
within individuals as conflicting desires. A perfect
illustration of crossed intentions and conflicting desires
is the scene in Les Faux-Monnaveurs where Olivier goes to
the train station to meet his uncle Edouard. We shall return
to this idea in the next two chapters.
But already in Gide's early works one can see this
theme developing not only in the subject of the works, but
translated into the structure of the narrative as irony,

98
marking the distance between subject and object. The subject
of self-deception and the ironic mode in which it is
developed are constants, but their elaboration in each
instance is a dynamic process, dependent on the chosen
perspective--the individualist, the mystic, the romantic or
the altruist.
Gide saw these pieces of the mosaic of self-deception
as a debt incurred to himself at an early age and which he
finally paid off with the publication of La S vmphoni e
pastorale . leaving him free at last to conceive a new work
oriented toward the future rather than toward the past.
. . . que je ne faisais, en l'écrivant [La
Svmphonie pastorale! que m'acquitter d'une
ancienne dette contractée jadis envers moi-méme;
que jusqu'á présent je n'avais pas écrit un seul
livre qui n'eüt été con?u des avant ma trentiéme
année. . . . mais qu'á présent, enfin, j'étais
quitte; que ce livre était ma derniére dette
envers le passé; que je l'avais écrit pour
m'exonérer; que pour l'écrire et le mener á bien
j'avais dü terriblement me contrefaire, ou du
moins entrer dans les plis effacés; que durant
tout le temps que je l'écrivais, je pestais contre
ce travail au petit point qu'exigeait la donnée du
probléme, contre ces demi-tons, ces nuances--
tandis que ce que je souhaitais maintenant,
c'était . . . mais je vous dirais cela une autre
fois. (III,p.1582 )
The reference is, of course, to Les Faux-Monnaveurs
begun two years earlier and in germination since Les Caves
du Vatican. It would be difficult to argue against Gide in
favor of an evolution in the ideas in his successive novels

99
or, for that matter, an evolution in technique.
L'Immoraliste. the first in the series of ironic or critical
novels, is as complex and subtly structured as those that
follow. One might rather speak of a diversification in
technique - -f i rst-person and third-person narratives,
objective descriptions and é tats d'áme. dialogues and
characterization, multiple perspective and auto-
re f e rent i al i ty . With Les Faux-Monnaveurs Gide synthesizes,
in one work, the variegated elements of his previous efforts
and sets them in motion in the absence of a unifying subject
other than their own composition. I will expand on this idea
in the following chapters.
NOTES
1. Chastenet, p.536.
2. Ibid.
3. Charles Baudelaire, Oeuvres Completes. Paris, Gallimard,
1976, p.1099.
4. Michel Décaudin, La Crise des valeurs svmbolistes.
Toulouse, Privat, 1960, p.19.
5. Camille Mauclair, "Le Symbolisme en France," La Nouvelle
Revue Francaise. February, 1927, p.184.
6. Ibid.
7. Yuen Park, L'Idée chez Mallarmé. Paris, Centre de
Documentation Universitaire, 1966, p.90.
8. Stéphane Mallarmé, Oeuvres Complfetes. Paris, Gallimard,
1945, p.281
9.Yvonne Davet, "Notices," André Gide, Romans, récits et
soties , oeuvres lvriaues. Paris, Gallimard, 1958, p.1457.

100
10. George Lukács, Théorie du roman. Paris, Gonthier, 1968,
p . 115 .
11. Maurice Blanchot, Faux Pas. Paris, Gallimard, 1943.
12. Mallarmé, p.857.
13. Mauclair, p.184.
14. Mallarmé, p.280.
15. Lukács, p . 66 .
16. Mallarmé, p.856.
17. Patrick Gardiner, "Schopenhauer," The Encyclopedia of
Philosophv. New York, Macmillan, 1967, vols.7-8, p.330.
18. Claude Martin, La Maturité d'André Gide. Paris,
Klincksieck,1977, p.64.
19. Ibid.
20. Ibid. , p.67 .
21. Ibid.
22 . Ibid. , p.65.
23 . Ibid. , p.71.
24. Ibid. , p.74 .
25. Jean Rousset. L'Intérieur et l'extérieur. Paris, Corti,
1966, p.228.
26. Maurice Nadeau, "Introduction," André Gide, Romans.
récits et soties, oeuvres lvriques. Paris, Gallimard, 1957,
p •
xxi .
27
. Ibid.
28
. Martin,
, p.204
29
. Ibid.,
p . 205 .
30
. Ibid.,
p . 204.
31
. Ibid.,
p . 173.
32
. Ibid.

101
33 .
Ibid.,
p.174.
34 .
Ibid.,
p.206 .
35 .
Ibid.,
p.206.
36 .
Ibid.,
p.207 .
37 .
Ibid.,
p.210-211
LO
00
Ibid.,
p .212 .
39 .
Anglés
, P.17.
40 .
Ibid.,
p . 19 .
41.
Ibid.,
p . 14 .
42 .
Ibid.,
p.22.
43 .
Ibid.,
p.218 .
44 .
Ibid.,
p.200.
45 .
Ibid.
46 .
Ibid.,
p . 14 .
47 .
Dave t,
p.1551.

CHAPTER 4
NARRATIVE ELEMENTS IN LES FAUX-MONNAYEURS
It will be helpful for the analysis that follows to
briefly examine Les Faux-Monnaveurs from the perspective of
traditional components of the novel--description, dialogue
and narrative voice. Having shown Gide's dissatisfaction
with the realist tradition, it will be interesting to
contrast the composition of his novel with that of his
immediate predecessors.
Description and Setting
Physical description is practically absent from the
novel and, when it occurs, it is of an extremely subjective
nature. Though many of the characters are subject to moral
description, only a few of the minor characters merit a
brief physical description. An acquaintance of Olivier,
Dhurmer, is "un petit barbu á pince-nez, sensiblement plus
ágé qu'eux." (Ill,p.935) Alberic Profitendieu is "encore
vert á cinquante-cinq ans , de coffre creux et de démarche
alerte," and his colleague, Oscar Molinier, is "beaucoup
plus court que lui et de moindre développement crural; de
102

103
plus, le coeur capitonné de graisse, il s'essouff1 a it
facilement." (III,p.938) At the 'Banquet des Argonautes, '
Alfred Jarry is presented as "Une sorte de jocrisse étrange,
á la face enfarinée, á l'oeil de jais, aux cheveux plaqués
comme une calotte de moleskine . . (III,p.1169) Lilian
Griffith's pajamas and colorful turbans are mentioned not so
much for
the reader
to
envision
the scene
as to
indicate
Lilian
' s
liberated,
even
lurid behavior.1 Finally,
the
old
Comte
d e
Pass avant
i s
briefly
described
on his
deathbed
after
rigor mortis
has
set in,
but more
to prepare
for
Gontran's struggle to place the cross properly in his hands
than to give the reader a vivid impression of a man on his
deathbed. This is literally the extent of the primary
narrator's descriptions of his characters; the reader never
has the faintest clue as to height, weight, hair color or
facial characteristics of any of the primary characters.
Similarly, Edouard's journal contains but a few brief
descriptions. For instance, Edouard describes Laura's
marriage ceremony and reception with particular attention
directed to his nephew Olivier. But these are what one might
call descriptions of circumstance, that is, descriptions of
a particular attitude or pose at a particular moment, in
particular circumstances; often colored by Edouard's
emotional involvement. There is also a brief description of
his other nephew, Georges Molinier, after a chance encounter
in front of a book store. This passage is unusual in that

104
Edouard very specifically comments on this meeting and
wonders whether it would be suitable for his novel.
(Ill,p. 1001) Finally the description of Madame de La
Pérouse,
Sous sa perruque á bandeaux noirs qui durcit les
traits de son visage blafard, avec ses longues
mitaines noires d' oü sortent des petits doigts
comme des griffes, madame de La Pérouse prenait un
aspect de harpie. (Ill,p.1059)
Edouard, like the narrator, generally eschews
description and, aside from Edouard in his journal, the
other characters never describe one another. The obvious
result is that the reader never develops a visual impression
of the characters.
Both the narrator and Edouard give subjectively charged
descriptions focusing on character traits or on the
emotional state of a given character. The narrator describes
Olivier early in the novel: "Son visage presque enfantin
encore et son regard révélent la précocité de sa pensée. II
rougit facilement. II est tendre." (Ill,p.935) Lucien
Bercail "semble n'exister que par le coeur et par 1'esprit."
(III,p.937) Bernard "aux yeux si francs, au front si clair,
au geste si craintif, á la voix si mal assurée . . ."
(Ill,p.1034) This is the type of description that abounds in
Les Faux-Monnaveurs.

105
There are occasional allusive descriptions of clothes
and a few sketchy descriptions of places, but they are
totally at the service of narrative events. Laura's hotel
room is described in order to set the scene for her fall
into Bernard's arms. Edouard's apartment is described in
order to account for the comings and goings of various
visitors without disturbing the convalescent Olivier. The
only commentary that Bernard and Edouard have concerning the
landscape in the Alps is that it is "déclamatoire."
(Ill,p.1068) The slight description of the classroom where
Boris commits suicide only shows where the teacher is
located in relation to the students' desks and to the spot
where Boris stood to shoot himself. The descriptions of the
rooms in the Pension Vedel are brief, focusing only on
details that render the feeling of decrepitude or that show
how certain characters may observe the movements of others
or be themselves observed. The church of Laura's wedding is
described in terms of its stark oppressiveness as a pretext
for a critique of the Protestant ethic and in contrast to
the narrator's feelings for Olivier.
It is as if the author wanted to reduce the visual
element of his novel as much as possible, giving the sparest
of brush strokes to suggest a scene or a person, thereby
allowing the reader to imagine the true contours and colors.
The space within the novel, the space within which the
events and dialogues take place, is in this way purified

106
and, in a sense, generalized and rendered abstract. Gide
strips his decor down to the bare bones. This is of course
no accident, as Gide had specifically stated in his Journal
des Faux-Monnaveurs that a novel should avoid precise
description as much as possible, leaving the exact visual
portrayal of people and places to photography. (OC VII,p.40)
It is interesting to note that Gide ' s good friend and
collaborator at the Nouvelle Revue Francaise. Jacques
Copeau, had similar ideas about purified space for his
theater productions at the Vieux Colombier. Gide invited
Copeau to come listen to chapters of Les Faux-Monnaveurs
several times during the years of its elaboration. (OC VII,
p.9) The effect of this rarefied space in the novel is, on
the one hand, to give much more importance to other aspects
of the narrative, such as the words or actions (these
actions are themselves often either writing or reading) of
the characters and, on the other hand, when there is precise
description, to focus the reader's attention and make him
search for a justification beyond mere setting. One of the
most striking examples of this comes at the beginning of the
novel and therefore would only be noticed retrospectively or
on a second reading. The narrator describes in detail the
chest of drawers from which Bernard has removed his mother's
letters. This description, however, has less to do with
setting than it does with the thematic of framing, and, as

107
Alain Goulet and others have pointed out, as a symbolic
representation of the novel itself.^
The single generalization that one might make about the
space of the novel, beyond the negative aspect of being
nondescript, is that with a few brief exceptions the entire
narrative takes place within enclosed spaces, mostly in
rooms, occasionally on terraces or in courtyards. This is
especially true of the secondary narrative, Edouard's
journal, in which the only outdoor scene is his first
encounter with his nephew Georges in front of the book
store. The exceptions in the primary narrative are mostly in
the first part. Bernard goes to find Olivier in the Jardin
du Luxembourg. Albéric Profitendieu and Oscar Molinier have
a conversation while walking home from work. Bernard takes a
nap on a park bench. In the second part, Olivier meets
Bernard in front of the lycée and, in the same scene,
Georges, Phiphi and Ghéridanisol are shown passing
counterfeit coins. None of these scenes gives a single
descriptive detail about the surroundings. In this sense,
the narrative transpires in private rather than public space
and reenforces the reader's intimate, even voyeuristic
relationship with the characters. I will return to the idea
of intimacy and voyeurism in a later discussion of narrative
voice.
The setting then is of little consequence except as it
subjectively affects the characters who inhabit it. Bernard

108
feels uncomfortable in the forced intimacy of Olivier's
room. Edouard feels uncomfortable in the church because of
protestant ethic that it embodies and in the Pension Vedel
because of the memories it holds. Both Olivier and his
brother Vincent are intimidated by Robert de Passavant's
salon because of their own feelings of inferiority. Indeed,
physical description as such seems to have little bearing on
either the characters or the action of the narrative. The
identity of such nondescript characters depends entirely on
the words they speak and the actions they take. They are
disembodied voices like the young Gontran de Passavant who,
alone in a room with his dead father, hears a voice say "Nom
de Dieu" and then realizes that it is his own. (Ill,p.967)
Dialogue
This leads to an examination of the nature of dialogue
in Les Faux - Honnaveur s . Gide is not generally known for
being a master at the art of dialogue. It isn’t that his
characters don't have interesting things to say or that they
don't say them at the right moment, but rather that the
words all seem to come from the same source, that is, from
the author. Critics have reproached Les Faux-Monnaveurs for
this, saying that the characters seemed to speak with one
voice, that there weren't speech patterns or lexical traits
specific to individual characters. This is in some sense

109
true, although one might make the case that, recognizing
this weakness, Gide designed a narrative that makes
structural use of homogeneous dialogue. In order to prove
this though it will be necessary to first examine how
dialogue is incorporated into the narrative.
There are certainly numerous examples of traditional
dialogue that, from a formal point of view, provoke no
commentary. They display normal conversational and
colloquial speech patterns. They are indicated in the text
by quotation marks at the beginning of a series of
exchanges. A change of speaker is indicated by a dash and
often a standard attribution of reported speech. This is a
standard procedure for direct discourse. The many letters,
notes and messages are similarly well delineated although
they have the added twist of sometimes containing other
reported speech. Edouard's journal, which could certainly be
considered direct discourse since all of the entries are
contained within quotation marks, also contains reported
speech of other characters either as spoken or written
words. The thoughts of the characters are also at times
reported as direct speech as in the first sentence of the
novel, "C'est le moment de croire que 1' on entend des pas,
se dit Bernard." (Ill,p.933) This particular capacity is
reserved for the primary narrator alone and so designates
him as an omniscient narrator although, as becomes obvious,
his omniscience is mitigated later on. This is part of

110
Gide's general strategy to undermine the reliability of the
narrator.
Dialogues may also be represented by indirect
discourse. This is, of course, a mediated form of brute
discourse, usually summarizing the purported speaker's words
and often translating them into the style of the person
reporting them. This is primarily the domain of the
narrator, although indirect discourse could logically be
contained within the direct discourse of a character when he
in turn begins to narrate. Les Faux-Monnaveurs is rife with
indirect discourse, not only from the primary narrator and
from Edouard, but from numerous other characters as well.
Direct and indirect discourse were long the mainstays
of narrative prose and were a part of verisimilitude.
Fictional prose attempted to resemble history or journalism,
imitating its form of presenting discourse in a believable
manner. Indeed, throughout the eighteenth century novelists
went to great lengths to give the impression that their
fiction was in fact true. They wrote memoirs that were
supposedly found and pretended to be simply conveying them
to the public. Similarly, epistolary novels often contained
prefaces claiming the true existence of the letters. It is
doubtful that many people believed that Les Liaisons
dangereuses was really a collection of letters that
Choderlos de Lacios had found or that Manon Lescaut was the
fruit of a chance encounter along the roads of France, but

Ill
the pretense was a literary device meant to reenforce the
illusion of reality. Such novels were essentially all
discourse that narrated whether the narrator was the
protagonist or not. Balzac and Stendhal abandoned the
illusory first-person narrator for a more objective third-
person using precise description, commonly observed behavior
and realistic dialogue to create their illusion. The
narrator was, in a sense, effaced--the lens through which
the reader viewed the action. The narrator was a god-like
being, omnipresent and omniscient, creator of the characters
and action but exterior to them.
Flaubert, in refining the novelist's tools of illusion,
confronted the paradox of being immersed in the character's
consciousness and at the same time exterior to it. He is
generally credited with the systematic development of a
literary device that renders this paradox evident--free
indirect discourse. This intermediary form of reported
speech allows the narrator to appropriate the speaker's
discourse and reduce the distance between narrator and
character.
Free indirect discourse had become common practice
among novelists by the time Gide began writing. Profiting
from his predecessors, Gide became highly skilled in the use
of this technique and employed it to good end in Les Faux-
Honnayeurs to put into question the distance between the
narrator and speaker. It also demonstrates the narrator's

112
place in relation to the characters and to the story, as the
brief historical view above might indicate and we shall
return to this precise point in our discussion below of
narrative voice.
The most striking examples of free indirect discourse
occur in Chapter 2 of the first part. Bernard's father,
Albéric Profitendie u , is discussing a delicate affair of
prostitution involving the adolescent children of
respectable families with his colleague Oscar Molinier,
Olivier's father. The passage begins with a brief
description of Albéric ' s current mental and resultant
physical state in which the narrator reports the thoughts of
his character, sliding gradually from objective, omniscient
narration into the judge's stream of consciousness.
II songeait au bain qu'il allait prendre: rien ne
le reposait mieux des soucis du jour qu'un bon
bain; en provision de quoi il n'avait pas goüté ce
jourd'hui, estimant qu'il n'est pas prudent
d'entrer dans l'eau, fut-elle tiéde, qu'avec un
estomac non chargé. Aprés tout, ce n'était peut-
étre lá qu'un préjugé; mais les préjugés sont les
pilotis de la civilisation. (Ill,p.938)
There is a subtle movement in verb tense and linguistic
shifters that almost imperceptibly narrows the distance
between the narrator and his character. The narrator begins
the passage with two descriptive imperfects, then an
iterative imperfect, a past perfect and the linguistic
shifter "ce jourd'hui". This archaic form is ambiguous, but

113
would seem to more appropriately emanate from Profitendieu,
the demonstrative functioning as a marker of presence. The
tense then shifts to an iterative present that parallels the
preceding imperfect "reposait" and should, for grammatical
coherence, also be in the imperfect. The "aprés tout," as a
conversational device used to forestall objections, sets up
a confusion between the narrator and Profitendieu for the
last phrase, ". . . les préjugés sont les pilotis de la
civilisation." This is obviously the inner voice of
Profitendieu, not the narrator. The narrator then resumes
control for a satirical description of the two men which
leads to a series of exchanges in reported direct discourse.
Finally, following Molinier's inquiry about his children,
the narrator responds for Profitendieu,
En effet Profitendieu n'avait eu jusqu'á present
qu'á se louer de ses fils; mais il ne se faisait
pas d'illusion: la meilleure éducation du monde ne
prévalait pas contre les mauvais instincts
(III,p.940)
Once again the narrator is giving voice to the judge's
thoughts, then, ". . . Dieu merci, ses enfants n'avaient pas
de mauvais instincts, non plus que les enfants de Molinier
sans doute . . ." (Ill,p.940) The conversational exclamation
"Dieu merci" would be inappropriate in the mouth of the
narrator, as would the phrase "sans doute"; they are a
direct presentation of the judge's thoughts. This gradual

114
immersion into his character is carried to an extreme a few
lines later with, "Quant á l'affaire en question, il y
réfléchirait encore . . . Au surplus, les vacances se
chargerait de disperser les délinquants. Au revoir."
(Ill,p.940 - 941) There are no quotation marks in this entire
passage that moves from third-person narration to free
indirect discourse to direct discourse.
Immediately following Profitendieu's arrival home the
narrator flashes back to Bernard's parting words to the
family servant, Antoine. This passage uses three different
typographic signs to indicate who is speaking.
« Monsieur Bernard ne rentre pas diner? --Ni pour
coucher, Antoine. . . . Bernard répéta plus
intentionnellement: "Je m'en vais", puis il
ajouta: - -J’ai laissé une lettre sur . . . la
table du bureau. Adieu.>> (III,p.941)
Here, instead of an absence of quotation marks, there is an
overabundance and the narrator's commentary is included in
the reported speech. Similarly, this passage immediately
afterwards.
« Avant de s'en aller, Monsieur Bernard a laissé
une lettre pour Monsieur dans le bureau. Phrase si
simple qu'elle risquait de demeurer inapergue .
. Monsieur Profitendieu, qu'Antoine observait du
coin de l'oeil, ne put réprimer un sursaut:
--Comment! avant de . . .>> (III,p.942)

115
It is standard in French quotations to include the
attribution of reported speech within the quotation and even
to finish the sentence with a qualifying clause as in,
"Viens, dit á voix basse Bernard, en saisissant brusquement
Olivier par le bras." (Ill,p.936) However, in both of the
previous examples it would seem more consistant with
grammatical rules to close the quotation or begin a new
paragraph after the direct speech. These quotations have
been abridged, but there are several intervening sentences
between the actual instances of reported. This may seem an
obscure even petty criticism that could simply be considered
a stylistic quirk of the author if it appeared consistently.
It does appear frequently but certainly not as often as the
standard mode of presentation.
The narrator clearly oversteps his bounds and this is
made all the more evident when followed by a dialogue neatly
set off in traditional form with the narrator's intervention
outside of the quotation marks. Whereas the first example
cited above is devoid of quotation marks and includes the
character's speech within the narrator's discourse, the
second and third examples include the narrator within the
characters' speech. The impression on the reader then is one
of a permeability in the traditional boundary between
narrator and characters. The purpose of this narrative
impertinence will be more fully explained in the discussion
of narrative voice, but it should be evident that the author

116
shows a high degree of sophistication in his use of dialogic
presentation.
Furthermore it should be noted that it is not only
speech as such that is reported directly, indirectly or in
free indirect discourse, but the characters' thoughts as
well. This is evident from the first line of the novel:
"«C'est le moment de croire que j ' entends des pas dans le
corridor>>,se dit Bernard." (Ill,p.933) There is nothing
unusual about these occurrences. They simply affirm the
omniscience of the narrator.
Finally, there are numerous examples of what must
surely be considered direct discourse that are written
rather than spoken. They appear in the form of letters and
Edouard's journal and are appropriately surrounded by
quotation marks as are the instances of reported speech.
Also, within both the letters and Edouard's journal, there
are other examples of reported speech, direct and indirect.
Edouard's journal even contains a few examples of free
indirect discourse.
Qu'est-ce que tu veux faire avec ?a? dis-je en le
lui rendant. C'est trop vieux. Ca ne peut plus
servir.
II protesta que si; que, du reste, les guides plus
récents coütaient beaucoup trop cher, et que "pour
ce qu'il en ferait" les cartes de celui-ci
pourraient tout aussi bien lui servir.
(III ,p.1000)

117
These examples offer nothing new in terms of narrative
technique, but they are interesting because they occur at
one further remove from the primary level of narration.
Narrative Voice
It is obvious from the previous discussion that
narrative voice is quite complex in Les Faux-Monnaveurs and,
in fact, difficult to separate from dialogue in certain
cases. The concept of narrative voice is often evoked to
cover a variety of phenomena within a text. It essentially
involves the agent of narration, that is, who is telling the
story at a given moment in the text.
The paradigmatic nineteenth century realist narrator
and addressed the reader as an omniscient third person,
tending toward the purely objective style of a historian or,
as Stendhal would have it, a narrator whose status resembled
that of the author of public registry. Obviously, the
movement toward objectivity of the narrating instance is
only tendential and, even in such purified texts as those of
Balzac, Stendhal and Flaubert, a certain subjectivity
pierces through in the form of value judgements concerning
characters, anthropomorphic descriptions of inanimate
objects and, in a more fundamental sense, in terms of the
ordering of the text. Furthermore, these novels often
contain other agents of narration who are characters in the

118
novel, whether they be extraneous to the plot or directly
concern its exposition.
First-person narrative was very popular in the
eighteenth century French novel and among the Romantics.
These narratives often pretended to an objective origin as
historical fact with an introduction or frame narrative by
the author claiming to transcribe the memoirs of a real or
imaginary person, an intimate diary or letters. The first-
person narrator was often, though not always, the
protagonist of the novel. Vivienne Mylne indicates that the
reason for these false claims to objective origin was
primarily to ensure verisimilitude.^
The novel had an ambiguous status as, on the one hand,
a product of the imagination like poetry and, on the other
hand, written in prose like history or an essay. The first
person narrative, especially when the narrator was the
protagonist, presented an additional problem of proper
narrative distance. It is a delicate balance to strike
between self-indulgence and self flagellation. The first-
person narrator was obliged to maintain a certain distance
from himself as a character through irony yet not allow the
irony to become parodie to the extent that the narrator was
completely undermined. Furthermore, his knowledge of other
characters was necessarily limited to analysis of their
actions and words in his presence. The narrator might
speculate about the thoughts and motivations of other

119
characters and he could point to telling contradictions
between their actions and words but he could never
enter into their minds. One way to circumvent
this problem was for the narrator to overhear conversations
or find letters or diaries, but these indiscretions were
often unreliable because they were conditioned by the person
to whom they were addressed and indeed were intentionally
used to confuse the narrator. The epistolary novel was
another attempt to deal with these problems because it
presented multiple narrators viewing the same events from
different perspectives. Les Liaisons dangereuses is a
brillant example of this technique.
The third-person omniscient narrator of the realist
school attempted to resolve these problems by establishing
the fixed distance of a historian to his historical subject
and by shifting the idea of verisimilitude from an exterior
guarantee of truth to an interior accuracy in the portrayal
of human emotions, words and actions. The omniscient
narrator not only could maintain an intimate relationship
with all of his characters but was also free to move from
character to character in different places without having to
justify his presence. This allowed him to develop a richer,
more detailed social context.
Realism placed heavy emphasis on observation of
physical detail, of exterior phenomena as a sufficient and
truer means of rendering brute reality. Characters were

120
revealed through their actions and words and, to a certain
extent, through their physical appearance, but not through
their innermost subjective being as the Romantics would have
it. Albert Béguin, in his L'Ame romantiaue et le réve .
eloquently expressed the subjective mysticism of the
Romantics whose ultimate truth was attained through an
intuition of the true significance of life beyond the mask
of exterior phenomena.^ They reasoned inductively from a
particular case, an individual's perception of the world, to
a general conclusion about the nature of reality for all
individuals. The realists, on the other hand, reasoned
deductively from a general set of circumstances, a
collective or common perception of the world, to conclusions
about the character and motives of individuals.
The Romantics gave focus to their narrative through the
individual subject's apprehension of the world, whereas the
realists sought a unifying principle in the objective
observation of a multiple experience of reality as observed
through the five senses. It is easy to see that the
relationship between narrator and reader would be different
in the two. Rather than a direct expression of emotion and
motive, an indirect expression of these subjective
experiences through observable detail.
The Naturalists, like Zola, under the influence of
positive science, carried the objective observation of
reality to a pseudo - scientific extreme. They used scientific

121
principles of heredity and environment to guide the
development of their characters and plots. They presented
their stories as case histories of laboratory experiments
that served to confirm their preconceived notions of social
life. The tautology of their pseudo-scientific governing
principles soon became evident and the Naturalist school
began to fall apart. What remained was the lyricism and the
pathos of man's tragic struggle against fate, in this case
biological and social determinism.^
André Gide was certainly familiar with the history of
the novel, not only in France, but throughout the continent,
as a perusal of his J ournal shows. He greatly admired
Dostoevsky and Joseph Conrad and was instrumental in
bringing their work to the attention of the French public.
These two writers were very much in his mind as he was
writing Les Faux-Honnaveurs . There was also a tragic
fatality in their novels, but it was the product of a
psychological realism that reached to depths yet unexplored
by Gide's contemporaries. Conrad and Dostoevsky laid bare
the subjective experience of man's desperate search for
truth and values in a degraded world, but without the
sentimentality and self-indulgence of the Romantics.
Gide experimented with different forms during his
career. His very first novel, Les Cahiers d'André Walter,
was an intense lyrical confession presented in the form of
an intimate journal written by a feverish young author

122
documenting a spiritual journey. Les Cahiers d'André Walter
was presented as a real journal written by a real person;
Gide's name was completely absent from the original
publication. Already in this early novel, Gide is playing
with the narrative instance by using framing techniques.
There is an introduction and brief biography of André Walter
by Pierre Louys and a novel within the novel which reflects
back directly on its author, André Walter. In his next
novel, Paludes. Gide gives free reign to his bent for ironic
distancing by shifting from a third-person to a first-person
narrative concerning a nameless young author who is writing
a novel called Paludes. L'Immoralis te is a highly structured
and stylized first-person narrative within a frame. La Porte
étroite is a third-person narrative that depends heavily on
letters and diaries thus diminishing the role of the primary
narrator. Isabelle has a frame in the first-person but the
primary narrative is in the third-person with the narrator
as a secondary character in the plot. Les Caves du Vatican
has a third-person narrator who frequently intervenes with
first-person commentary. Finally, La Svmphonie pastorale is
told by a first-person narrator writing a journal and
telling his story as it happens to him.
It should be obvious from these varied experiments with
the mode of narration that Gide accorded great importance to
the narrative instance. His conclusions upon beginning Le s
Faux-Monnaveurs were that none of his previous writing

123
qualified as novels and that a true novel needed to be told
from multiple perspective. Already, in 1910, while composing
a preface for Isabelle. Gide wrote,
Pourquoi j'eus soin d'intituler «récit» ce petit
livre? Simplement parce qu'il ne répond á l'idée
que je me fais du roman; ... Le roman, tel que
je le reconnais ou l'imagine, comporte une
diversité de points de vue, soumise á la diversité
des personnages qu'il met en scene; c'est par
essence une oeuvre déconcertée. (OC VI, p.361- 362)
Furthermore, during the elaboration of his novel, Gide
decided to create what might be called a novelistic
paradigm. He decided to purify his novel by eliminating
extraneous elements not specific to the form such as
physical portraits, more adequately accomplished by painting
and photography, or common speech, more adequately rendered
by a phonograph. (OC VII, p.41) At the same time he
multiplied the modes of narration, that is to say he
multiplied the narrators.
There are a variety of ways in which a narrator makes
his presence known. The first-person narrator is obviously
part of the action and is expected to comment on events and
draw conclusions which may be shared with another character,
but ostensibly speaking to the reader or interposed
interlocutor alone. A true third-person narrator, although
his narration is intended for the reader alone, never
addresses him directly.

124
There should be a net separation between 'récit' and
'discours, ' that is, between the objective events of the
story as recounted by the historical narrator and the
subjective speech of characters within the story. As a
general rule, although the discours may contain elements of
the récit, the récit may not contain discours without
ceasing to be récit.® This ideal state described by the
structuralists would be difficult to find in literature.
Even new novelists such as Robb e - G r i 1 le t, who pretended
early on to be writing objective prose, found themselves
obliged to renounce this idea.^
The narrator's place in third-person narration, besides
reporting and summarizing speech and events, is analysis and
commentary. To give the illusion of objectivity one might
denude the text of literary devices such as imagery,
metaphor and perhaps even metonymy, but it would be
difficult, within the confines of a published text, to avoid
the impression of an ordering principle, a subjective
intentionality that chooses and orders events for a reader.
There is no doubt that Gide was aware of the problems
of narrative voice and their importance within the novel. He
considered multiple perspective to be a prerequisite of the
novel form and this is one of the reasons that he labeled
his previous writings differently. In Les Faux-Monnaveurs he
has a primary narrator who is not entirely omniscient and a
secondary narrator, Edouard, who is one of the main

125
characters. The primary narrator offers the reader a variety
of commentaries and analyses, both as a typical realist
third-person narrator and, at times, as a first-person
narrator. He is at times omniscient, as in examples already
cited where he comments on the innermost thoughts of his
characters or when he describes character traits based on a
deeper familiarity with a character than has been shown to
the reader. For example, "Habile á séduire et habitué á
plaire, Passavant avait besoin de sentir en face de lui un
miroir complaisant, pour briller." (Ill,p.1167) Or again, at
the beginning of the novel, speaking of Lucien Bercail,
On le sent faible; il ne semble exister que par le
coeur et l'esprit . . . Que Lucien fasse des vers,
chacun s'en doute; pourtant Olivier est, je crois
bien, le seul á qui Lucien découvre ses projets.
(Ill,p.937)
The narrator analyzes Lucien's personality before allowing
him to speak and his analysis is not only directly in the
first person but undermines his presumed omniscience. Later
his lack of omniscience is clearly stated in the phrase, "Je
ne sais trop comment Vincent et lui [Passavant] se sont
connus." (III,p.960)
The narrator's commentary and analysis is often in the
form of a generalization based on the actions or motivations
of a particular character.

126
Lorsqu'on a le coeur bien en place et qu'une sainé
education vous a inculqué de bonne heure le sens
des responsabilités , on ne fait pas un enfant á
une femme sans se sentir quelque peu engagé vis-a-
vis d'elle, surtout lorsque cette femme a quitté
son mari pour vous suivre. (Ill,p.960)
An intervention of this sort by the narrator borders on the
didactic tending to abstract the character as a universal
type, using him as a springboard for moralizing, but by
shifting from the impersonal third person to a 'vous' at the
end Gide gives the impression that it is Vincent's
conscience speaking rather than the narrator thereby posing
the moral generalization but avoiding overt didacticism. The
"quelque peu engagé vis-á-vis d'elle" is a devastating
indictment of Vincent and the narrator later pitilessly
unveils the self-serving logic of the callous lover's
detachment.
By contrast, describing the meeting between Olivier and
Edouard at the train station, the narrator generalizes about
a character trait that nephew and uncle share,
. . . une singuliére incapacité de jauger son
crédit dans le coeur et l'esprit d'autrui leur
était commune et les paralysait tous deux; de
sorte que chacun se croyait seul ému, tout occupé
par sa joie propre et comme confus de la sentir si
vive, n'avait souci que de ne point trop en
laisser paraitre l'excés. (III,p.991)
This commonly shared trait of self-absorption and timidity
is amply demonstrated by the scene that follows. Here the

127
narrator supplies the reader with an insight into the
foibles of two characters who are unaware of what is
happening to them. This is of course the classic role of the
narrator in psychological realism.
The most obvious example of narrative commentary is the
entire seventh chapter of the second part. Here the narrator
addresses the reader directly and the narration is
effectively abandoned for a retrospective discussion of the
characters and their actions up to that point in the novel.
"Ainsi 1'auteur imprévoyant s'arréte un instant, reprend
souffle, et se demande oü va le mener son récit."
(Ill,p.1108) He analyses the foibles of his characters,
regrets certain actions they have taken and speculates
vaguely on their future. Although the narrator accepts
responsibility for the creation of his characters, they are
now presented as self-perpetuating entities who, like
Pirandello's six characters, must live their story.
Je ne les chercháis point; c'est en suivant
Bernard et Olivier que je les ai trouvés sur ma
route. Tant pis pour moi; désormais je me dois á
eux. (III,p.lili)
In a sense the roles have been reversed and the novel
turned inside out. The narrator, instead of being the
puppetmaster , has created subjective beings and is a
prisoner of his own creation. Like a fallen god he becomes
the hapless spectator to his characters' destiny. Whereas in

128
the first part the narrator frequently spoke in the first
person singular or plural, from this point the narrator
progressively withdraws into the role of an objective
reporter, following the inexorable progress of his
characters, no longer speaking in his own name except to
refer to events in the first two parts.
Finally, as an interesting counterpoint to the primary
narrator whose fictitious characters have gained a reality
of their own, Edouard, as the narrator of his journal, seems
to reduce ostensibly real characters to a fictive status. He
easily abstracts their actions into generalizations, such as
his discussion of " Le Régime Cellulaire" in reference to
family life. (Ill,p. 1021) He quickly slides from a
description of his moribund love affair with Laura to a
general discussion of the decrysta11ization of love.
(Ill, p.9 88 ) Both of these discussions are to take their
place within the novel he is writing. Describing his first
encounter with his nephew Georges at the book store, he
writes, "II sera difficile, dans Les Faux-Monnaveurs. de
faire admettre que celui qui jouera ici mon personnage ait
pu, tout en restant en bonnes relations avec sa soeur, ne
connaitre point ses enfants." (III,p.1001) Edouard even sees
himself as a character in a novel.
Les Faux-Monnaveurs offers the widest possible variety
of narrative commentary and analysis--psychological analysis
of individual character traits and a broader analysis of the

129
psychological mechanism of motives. Gide wrote in his
Journal des Faux-Monnaveurs
Je fus amend, tout en l'écrivant, á penser
que l'intimité, la pénétration, 1'investigation
psycho 1 ogique peut, á certains égards, étre
poussée plus avant dans le 'roman' que dans les
'confessions.' (OC VII, p.27)
There is also considerable analysis of character types
leading to generalizations concerning social groups
(families, adolescents, people in love); moral judgements of
individuals and groups; and analysis of characters from a
literary point of view. There is also a variety of modes of
analysis, from retrospective commentary on language or
action to prospective analysis of actions yet to come; and
from directly subjective commentary in the first person, as
illustrated above, to objective third-person analysis.
Certainly Gide attempted to refract the story of Le s
Faux-Monnaveurs by playing with the possibilities of
narrative voice. In a letter written to Roger Martin du Gard
soon after the publication of Les Faux-Monnaveurs Gide said,
"L' indice de réf raction m'importe plus que la chose
O
réf ractée. 1,0 The primary narrator's status depends not on
the quantity of information that he imparts in relation to
other possible sources of narration, but rather on the
distance that separates him from the narration. To use
Gérard Genette's terminology, there is a primary extra-

130
diegetic narrator--the one who begins the novel as a third-
person omniscient narrator--and a secondary intra-diegetic
narrator, Edouard, who narrates his journal.
Within the primary narration, besides Edouard, there
are a number of what may be called tertiary narrators such
as Olivier, Bernard, Lillian, Vincent, Laura, Passavant,
Sophroniska and La Pérouse. These characters recount,
through speech or letters, parts of the story, often giving
background information about themselves or other characters,
sometimes providing a different version of previously
narrated events or they simply take charge of the narration.
Lillian tells Vincent a long story about the shipwreck
of the Bourgogne in which she almost drowned and learned a
valuable lesson in self-preservation. As an interesting
epilogue to this story, Lillian finally drowns while
traveling with Vincent in Africa, possibly killed by
Vincent. This is told in a letter from Alexandre Vedel to
his brother Armand who, for unexplained reasons, gives the
letter to Olivier to read, but none of them is aware of the
true identity of Vincent who has finally gone mad.
Laura and Edouard reminisce about a former lodger at
the Pension Vedel tens years earlier, the mysterious Victor
Strouvilhou. The story is told in a dialogue between Edouard
and Laura that Edouard has transcribed in his journal and
that, as the reader sees it, is being read by Bernard who
has stolen Edouard's suitcase. Edouard's journal also

131
contains a story that the old La Pérouse has told him about
his son's illicit relationship with Boris's mother. This
story is later filled in when Edouard meets the psychiatrist
Sophroniska who is treating Boris for a nervous disorder.
Lillian tells Passavant the story of Laura and
Vincent's tragic relationship, previously told to her by
Vincent, adding to a summary version of the same story told
by the narrator.The story is finally completed with Laura's
letter to Edouard in which she tells her own version of the
same story including her last desperate meeting with Vincent
on the stairs of his apartment; a meeting that Olivier
overheard and told to Bernard while little brother Georges
was eavesdropping. Bernard later fills Olivier in on his
brother's infamy in a letter.
Olivier tells Bernard of his first encounter with his
uncle, Edouard who had dropped in by surprise the previous
autumn to visit his half-sister Pauline. Later there is a
description of this same lunch in Edouard's journal.
The narrator tells of a number of delinquent incidents
in young Georges Molinier's life, to which are added
incidents reported by his mother Pauline, the old Azais,
Albéric Profitendieu, Edouard in his journal and Edouard's
narrator in the story he gives Georges to read.
Vincent's Darwinian zoology lesson about predators and
victims in the sea and about deep sea fish that project
their own light to see in the dark depths, told to Lillian

132
Griffith and Passavant, reappears later in a letter from
Olivier to Bernard; however, Olivier attributes these ideas
to Passavant. Olivier's letter near the end of the second
part moreover bridges the gap in his and Passavant's story
since they last appeared. Similarly, Bernard's letter to
Olivier at the beginning of the second part picks up the
narration where it left off and brings the reader up to
date .
The characters speak, in their own voices, as it were,
through the primary narrator and also through the secondary
narration of Edouard's journal. The difference between these
two seemingly identical representations of direct speech is
both formal and pragmatic. The omniscient narrator's reports
of direct speech must be accepted as the words of the
characters who speak. However, those reported by Edouard,
the i ntra-dieget i c narrator, may be questioned as
fabrications filtered through the subjectivity of a
character in the novel. Edouard even admits to his
fabrication of dialogue by interspersing them with
parenthetical comments such as, "Je ne cherche pas a
transcrire ses propres paroles . . ." (Ill, p.1000); ".
(je crois bien qu'il m'a dit cela aussi platement) . " (III,
p.1005); "(Je crois que je cite exactement.)" (III, p.1014)
Furthermore, it is evident that Edouard's journal is a
working version of his novel and that his presentation of

133
events and words is therefore suspect. During the story of
his first encounter with Georges he writes,
Nécessaire d'abréger beaucoup cet épisode. La
précision ne doit pas étre obtenu par le détail du
récit, mais bien dans 1'imagination du lecteur,
par deux ou trois traits, exactement á la bonne
place. (Ill,p.1000)
Edouard later states, in a conversation with Bernard, Laura
and Sophroniska, that everything that has happened to him
the past year is material for his novel and that he is
keeping a record in his journal. (Ill,p.1081)
Fragmentation of the Narrative
Les Faux-Monnaveurs contains a primary and a secondary
narrator and a series of characters who, through dialogue or
letters recount portions of the story. If the doubling of
the primary narrator with a secondary one is unusual, the
use of characters to report parts of the story in their own
voices is a common feature of many novels. Gide merely
exploits this possibility to an extreme and, by having the
same events recounted by different characters, he draws
attention to this properly novelistic technique that Mikhail
Bakhtin was to call heteroglossia.^
But there is much more to be said about the voices that

134
speak to the reader of Les Faux-Monnaveurs and Bakhtin's
notion of heteroglossia goes beyond the narrative instance:
Les problémes qui se posent á 1' auteur et á
sa conscience dans le roman polyphonique sont
beaucoup plus complexes et profonds que ceux qu'on
trouve dans le roman homophonique (monologique).
L' unite du monde d'Einstein est plus profond et
plus complexe que celle de Newton, c'est une unité
d'un ordre supérieur (une unité qualitativement
différent).
There is a variety of voices that speak through these
narrator's that have already been identified. The primary
narration is by no means pure and homogeneous. It often
slides into the thoughts or speech of the characters by free
indirect discourse, but more often it assumes an ironic
stance or even a parodie tenor that isn't immediately
attributable to any specific character. Who should the
reader assume is speaking when the modernist narrator of our
novel who has already shown himself to be cynical and
detached says,
Déjá, la douce rive de son pays natal est en vue,
mais , á travers la brume, il faut un oeil exercé
pour la voir. Pas un nuage au ciel, oil le regard
de Dieu va sourire. (Ill,p.975)
The romantic lyricism of this passage is in stark contrast
to the normal detached narration.

135
The primary narrator has also included a selection of
epigraphs that precede certain chapters in the novel. These
epigraphs, appropriately attributed to their authors, serve
a double function. In principle they would give a focus or a
theme to the chapter that follows, orienting the reader's
understanding of the events to follow. This is not always
the case though. The first quote, from Paul Desjardin's book
on Poussin, concerns the artist's abandonment of and total
indifference to his parents. One might think that the
narrator is preparing the reader for a similar action on the
part of Bernard, but it seems to be more a reflection of
Bernard's attitude upon leaving his home and, judging from
the letter he writes to his putative father, his attitude is
anything but indifferent. Later there is a quote from
Shakespeare concerning bastards that would have seemed more
appropriate as an epigraph to the previously mentioned
chapter. Another chapter is preceded by the Shakespeare
quote, "Plenty and peace breeds cowards; hardness ever of
hardiness is mother." (Ill, p.951) This remark seems to
characterize Bernard's bravado more than it truly
characterizes him or his situation. Most of these quotes
seem to be other refractions of meaning. They also serve to
situate the text within a larger context of literature and
history.
However, it isn't only the primary narrator who
appropriates other voices. Bernard is particularly

136
susceptible and quite conscious of the fact that he
expresses himself through the words of others. In his
attempt to express his love to Laura he finally says,
Ah! si vous saviez ce que c'est enrageant d'avoir
dans la téte des tas de phrases de grands auteurs,
qui viennent irrésistiblement sur vos lévres quand
on veut exprimer un sentiment sincére.
(Ill,p.1091)
Bernard is plagued by this problem throughout the novel, as
is Olivier. While speaking with Olivier about one of the
questions on his exam, Bernard first becomes pedantic in
tone then polemic and moralistic as he denounces the state
of literature in France. "Avec de pareilles idées, on
empoisonne la France." (Ill,p.1143) Bernard's phrase was in
response to Olivier's statement that he had taken from
Passavant, ". . . que la vérité, c'est l'apparence, que le
mystére c'est la forme, et que ce que l'homme a de plus
profond, c'est sa peau." (III,p.1142) Passavant himself, the
narrator tells us, had gotten this phrase from Paul
Ambroise. Olivier frequently quotes Passavant and adopts his
cynical tone in speaking. The letter that he writes to
Bernard from Corsica is, in the words of the narrator, a
"lettre de parade." (Ill,p.1105) Passavant also blatantly
steals phrases and ideas from others. "Tout ce qui n'était
pas imprimé, était pour Passavant de bonne prise; ce qu'il

137
appelait 'les idées dans 1 ' air, ' c ' est-á-dire : celles
d'autrui." (Ill,p.1142)
Despite his claims to the contrary, Edouard
appropriates the ideas of others and expresses himself under
the influence of others. He claims to have written his
previous book under the influence of Laura, and it is
because of his love for Olivier that he is writing something
totally different. He also frequently refers to philosophers
and writers to give added weight to his opinions and expand
their meaning. He uses economic and musical terminology to
express his ideas concerning literary phenomena.
It is clear that Les Faux-Monnaveurs is a text composed
of many disparate textual elements. There is constant
reference to real texts and to imaginary texts that exist
solely within the novel. The sheer extent of intertextual
reference in this novel is a comment on the nature of novels
that Roland Barthes was later to describe as, "... a
multidimensional space in which a variety of writings . . .
blend and clash. The text is a tissue of quotations drawn
from innumerable centers of culture.The art of the prose
writer lies in the composition, the ordering of these
disparate elements into a significant whole.
En étudiant la question de la raison d'étre
de l'oeuvre d'art, on arrive á trouver que cette
raison suffisante, ce symbole de l'oeuvre, c'est
sa composition." (OC II, p.4 24)

138
Through the fragmentation of narrative the author is
able to distance himself from the unified point of view of a
single character and thereby represent the world as a
function of perspective. Bahktin, following the logic of
this distancing effect, says that the prose writer not only
distances himself from the languages of his characters, but
in so doing he distances himself from and thereby reifies
language.
The author does not speak in a given language .
. but he speaks . . . through language, a language
that has somehow more or less materialized, become
objectivized, that he merely ventriloquates."i¿
This, in effect, is a different order of mimesis that
goes beyond the mere representation of speech or events that
may ring true to life in the mind of the reader. It is a
representation of the process by which events and speech in
the real world are given meaning. Linda Hutcheon writes,
Le 1 réalisme psycho 1 ogique ' du début du XXe
siécle, que la conscience auto-centrique des
romantiques avait rendu possible, a élargi, encore
une fois á travers une sorte de mouvement
dialectique, le sens de la mimésis romanesque au
point d'y indure aussi bien le processus que le
produit.
Gide was by no means the first writer to attempt to
represent the process of perception. James Joyce, Virginia
Woolf and John Dos Passos were perhaps his most prominent

139
contemporaries to experiment with fragmented narrative
voice. Woolf and Joyce both attempted to render the
fragmentary, discontinuous nature of perception through
stream of consciousness narrative.
Pour Gide comme pour Dos Passos la
structuration du roman s'impose en raison méme des
aspects chaotiques et fuyants (ou artificie1lement
ordonnés) de 1'existence.^
Gide's project was somewhat different in that he was
constructing a paradigm novel that was to be not only a
novel within a novel, but a novel of the novelist and a
novel about the novel.
Bahktin says that novels, "foreground a critique of
literary discourse . . ." and further states that this
"auto-criticism of discourse is one of the primary
distinguishing features of the novel as a genre. Discourse
is criticized in its relationship to reality: its attempt to
faithfully reflect reality, to manage reality and to
transpose it . . .This is, in effect, Edouard's project:
"Ce que je veux, c'est présenter d'une part la réalité,
présenter d'autre part cet effort pour la styliser . . ."
(Ill,p.1081) Later in the same conversation Edouard declares
that the subject of his novel is, "la lutte entre les faits
proposés par la réalité, et la réalité idéale." (Ill,p.1082)
Bahktin identifies two types of novels that foreground
discourse: those whose subject is a character living life

140
through literature, as is the case with Don Quixote and
Madame Bovarv. and those whose subject is a real author
writing a novel, as in Tristram Shandv or Jacques le
fataliste. From the previous discussion, it is evident that
Les Faux-Monnaveurs falls into both categories. The primary
narrator speaks in his own name and discusses his characters
with the reader. He is doubled by the secondary narrator,
Edouard, who discusses the problems of his novel which is
ostensibly the journal we are reading. Edouard also is a
character living his life through literature and in this
double role he bridges the gap between the primary narrator
and the other characters whose perception of themselves and
the events in their lives is mediated through literature.
Edouard is a prime example of what Gide called the reverse
sincerity of the artist: "II doit, non pas raconter sa vie
telle qu'il 1 ' a vécue, mais la vivre telle qu'il la
racontera." (JAG I,p.29) The world becomes a pretext for
narration; the chaos of events, speech and human emotions is
given a form by the novelist.
Finally, there is a process of incorporation of other
genres within Les Faux-Monnaveurs. The novel itself may be
viewed, at different moments, as an epistolary novel, as a
memoir style novel, as a first-person narrative or as a
third-person narrative. Other literary genres are
represented as well, such as Edouard's novel fragment that
he reads to Georges, or Armand's poetry and the La Fontaine

141
stanza, or Passavant's literary manifesto, or the novel in
journal form that Edouard's journal represents. There are a
myriad of quotes from literary sources, not only within the
text, as cited by various characters, but outside of the
narration proper as it were, in the epigraphs that begin a
number of chapters. There are scientific discourses within
the text as represented by Vincent's botany and biology
lessons. There are fragments of philosophical texts
(Descartes, Kant and Nietzsche), history texts (Lucien
Febvre), biography (Desjardins), and political journals
(Action Francaise). There is ample reference to Freudian
psychology and to economic discourse.
We also know from a perusal of Gide's other works,
particularly his Journal des Faux - Monnaveur s . his J ournal
and Si le grain ne meurt that there are elements in his
novel that come from real historical events, either read in
newspapers or in his own experience. Les Faux-Monnaveurs
seems to be a conglomerate cultural document with Gide as
the central subject, the subjective organizing principle.
But André Gide is not content to present the reader
with polyphonic
discourse;
he
demands the
reader's
active
participation in
the text.
He
is able to
draw the
reader
into the text by creating an illusion with a series of
textual mirrors, a seemingly endless series of
reduplications performed using a narrative technique known
as the mise en abyme.

142
NOTES
1. Alain Goulet, Fiction et vie sociale dans l'oeuvre
d * André Gide. Paris, Publications de 1'Association des Amis
d'André Gide, 1985, p.274.
2. Alain Goulet, "Lire Les Faux-Monnaveurs . " André Gide 5 .
Paris, Lettres Modernes, 1975, p.14.
3. Vivienne Mylne, The Eighteenth-Century French Novel.
Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1965.
4. Albert Béguin, L'Ame romantiaue et le réve. Paris, José
Corti, 1939.
5. Michel Raimond, Le Roman deouis la Révolution. Paris,
Armand Colin, 1975, p.124.
6. Gérard Genette, Fipure s III. Paris, Editions du Seuil,
1972, p.66.
7. Alain Robbe-Gri11et, Pour un nouveau roman. Paris,
Gallimard, 1963.
8. André Gide--Roger Martin du Gard: Correspondance. vol. 1
(1913--1934), Paris, Gallimard, 1968, p.214.
9. Mikhail Bakhtine, The Dialogic Imagination. Dallas,
University of Texas Press, 1981, p.302.
10. Ibid., p. 27.
11. Roland Barthes, Image. Music. Text. (trans. Steven
Heath), New York, Hill and Wang, 1977, p.146.
12. Bakhtine, p.299.
13. Linda Hutcheon, "Modes et formes du narcissisme
littéraire," Poétiaue, no.29, 1977, p.97.
14. Michel Zeraffa, Personne et personnage. Paris,
Klincksieck, 1969, p.102.
15. Bakhtine, p.412.

CHAPTER 5
LA MISE EN ABYME
History and Use of the Term
The most current usage of the term 'mise en abyme'
today designates an esthetic procedure of self reflection.
This notion, as a principle of narrative construction, was
elaborated for the first time by André Gide in his Journal
in 1893. Gide didn't really invent this narrative strategy,
but he refined it and brought it to its highest point of
development so far, as I shall attempt to show in this
chapter.
The mise en abyme didn't attract very much attention in
Gide's time and was little understood and utilized, judging
from the critical reaction to Les Faux-Monnayeurs. It
resurfaced years later in the literary criticism surrounding
the New Novel. Jean Ricardou, in a statement at Cerisy,
claims the mise en abyme as a quality of the New Novel
Je crois que la plupart des livres du Nouveau
Roman contiennent, d'une fa?on ou d'une autre, une
mise en abyme ou plusieurs, ou nene , de
continuelles mises en abyme. Cette réduction,
cette image du livre dans le livre . . . a . . .
143

144
la singuliére fonction de souligner que le roman
n'a de rapport avant tout qu'avec lui-méme.
This term was on the lips of numerous critics during
the nineteen-sixties, especially those of the Tel Quel
'tendency,' and, like an Yves St. Laurent design, it spread
throughout the literary ready-made circles. Critics found
mises en abyme everywhere there was a mirror or another
reflecting surface, a reference to language or to literature
or an authorial intrusion. Bruce Morrissette, the first
critic to write of mise en abyme in the New Novel, finally
felt obliged to put a stop to this mania in an article
published in Comparative Literature Studies in 1971.^
Morrissette deplores the indiscriminate use of the term by
critics and endeavors to bring it back to its proper
perspective. However, while pleading for more rigour in the
attribution of the term to define a literary work, he
himself remains rather vague as to the specificity of the
term, giving a series of comparisons. He calls it
alternately an analogy, a duplication, a reflection, a
repetition, and a leitmotif, bringing the conscientious
critic back to the point of departure. Quoting himself in
his early critical remarks on the New Novel, he tries to
show the limitations of his intentions, but one doesn't ever
define the nature of the mise en abyme. His greatest merit
is to refer to the 'Charte' in Gide's J ournal. so putting
readers on the right track.

145
The term 'mise en abyme' comes from the pen of Claude
Edmonde Magny. In a chapter of her book Histoire du roman
francais entitled "La 'mise en abyme' ou le chiffre de la
transcendance, " she writes this about Les Faux-Monnaveurs
. . . il est facile de voir quelle infinité de
miroirs paralléles, quelle 'espace du dedans' ce
procédé introduit au sein méme de l'oeuvre .
avec quelle attirance , quelle vertige métaphysique
nous nous penchons sur cet univers de reflets qui
s'ouvre brusquement á nos pieds; bref, quelle
illusion de mystére et de profondeur produisent
nécessairement ces histoires dont la structure est
ainsi ' en abyme', du mot si heureusement choisi
par les héraldistes.^
Magny likens the notion of mise en abyme to a paradox
or a vicious circle. She quotes the classic paradox of
Epimenides the Cretan, "All Cretans are liars,- I am a
Cretan," and a more amusing example of the professor of
eloquence whose student refuses to pay him unless he wins
his first case. In order to settle his fee, the professor is
obliged to take his novice lawyer to court. In the six pages
of this chapter, Magny formulates three types of mise en
abyme: simple reflection, like the coat of arms within the
coat of arms; infinite reflection, referring to mathematical
models or to parallel mirrors; and paradoxical reflection,
as something contained in another thing it is supposed to
contain.
Pierre Lafille, another major Gide critic, speaks of
Gide's ". . . 'composition en abyme', suivant la

146
terminologie du blasón pour désigner la reproduction
réduite, au coeur de l'écusson, de l'écusson lui-méme .
Lafille then raises a fundamental problem of this narrative
procedure
Les occasions ne sont pas rares oil la double
révolution architecturale provoque une sorte de
vertige et nécessite une réflexion attentive afin
de savoir oú 1' on en est et qui, d'Edouard ou de
Gide, conte.^
The four previously mentioned critics certainly are not
incorrect in their similar assessments of Gide's master
work, often using the same examples; but none of them
explains in systematic fashion the parameters of the
appearance, the process or the economy of the mise en abyme.
In this chapter, I propose to explore the structure of this
narrative procedure, using the works of two structuralist
critics, Lucien Dállenbach and David Keypour, as points of
departure. Dállenbach's brillant and authoritative analysis
of the mise en abyme in his Le Récit snéculaire will serve
as a framework for a structural analysis of Les Faux-
Monnaveurs. I certainly have no intention of reducing Gide's
novel to a single concept, but rather to describe the
structure of the narration, a formal description, before
proceeding, in the following chapter, with an analysis of
other key elements of the narration. The intent of this
chapter is to show that there is a strong relationship

147
between this stylistic procedure, central to the novel, and
the ethical notions of authenticity and sincerity expressed
within. I contend that they come together in the whole
problematic of language and thought.
Here is Gide's comment, commonly called the ' Charte,'
from an 1893 entry in his Journal
J'aime assez qu'en une oeuvre d'art on
retrouve ainsi transposé, á l'échelle des
personnages, le sujet méme de l'oeuvre. Rien ne
l'éclaire mieux et n'établit plus surement les
proportions de 1 1 ensemble, Ainsi, dans les
tableaux de Memling ou de Quentin Metzys, un petit
miroir convexe et sombre refléte, á son tour,
l'intérieur de la piece oü se joue la scene
peinte. Ainsi dans le tableau des Ménines de
Velasquez (mais un peu différemment) . Enfin, en
littérature, dans Hamlet. la scene de la comédie;
et dans bien d'autres pieces. Dans Wilhelm
Meister. les scenes de marionnettes ou de féte au
cháteau. Dans la Chute de la maison Usher, la
lecture que 1' on fait á Roderick, etc. Aucun de
ces exemples n'est absolument juste. Ce qui le
serait beaucoup plus, ce qui dirait mieux ce que
j'ai voulu dans mes Cahiers. dans mon Narcisse et
dans la T e ntative. c'est la comparaison avec ce
procédé du blasón qui consiste, dans le premier, á
en mettre un second 'en abyme'. (JAG I,p.41)
Let us summarize the primary points of this key text.
First of all, the mise en abyme is a sort of reflection; its
function is to clarify the work and establish its
proportions; it is a procedure that has existed for a long
time and is not limited to the novel; and, finally, its
fundamental metaphor is a heraldic technique or procedure.
'En abyme', in this contexte, is a technical term taken from

the vocabulary of heraldry designating the image of a coat
of arms that contains within a miniaturized reproduction of
itself. Gide mentions his three works of fiction to date,
but his next work, Paludes. is an even more striking example
of this procedure. Pa lude s is narrated by a nameless
novelist who is himself writing a novel called Palude s and
which, according to the narrator, contains all of the events
that we are reading.
Dállenbach warns the reader not to make broad
associations with the mise en abyme such as the abyss,
Heidegger's Abgrund. Ponge's obieu or Derrida's différance .
He then proposes a basic definition: ". . . est mise en
abyme tout enclave entretenant une relation de similitude
avec l'oeuvre qui la contient.I shall follow Dállenbach's
structural analysis very closely, replacing his numerous
examples from other texts, when it is possible and
pertinent, with examples from Les Faux-Monnaveurs.
As a point of departure, our critic appropriates three
basic linguistic concepts from Roman Jakobson: 'énoncé',
'énonciation' and code. He states, ". . . une réflexion est
un énoncé qui renvoie á l'énoncé, á 1'énonciation ou au code
du récit."' We shall begin with a topology of the 'énoncé'.

149
The Mise en Abvme of the Statement
The question then is: If reflexivity is the foundation
of any mise en abyme, what types of statements (énoncés) are
likely to be reflected? Some examples are the theme, the
plot, the events of the story, the agent of narration, the
story of Les Faux - Monnaveurs . the esthetics of Les Faux-
Monnaveurs and the criticism of Les Faux-Monnaveurs. This
reflexive quality of certain elements of the text creates a
semantic overload that operates on at least two levels:
first on the level of the story itself, that is, the literal
or directly referential sense; and second, in Dállenbach's
words, "celui de la réflexion oü il intervient comme élément
d'une métasignification permettant au récit de se prendre
8 -
pour theme."° In other words, the statement in question is
overdetermined and its referent both conceals and reveals a
figurative sense.
We discern three types of reflexive statements in
Gide's novel. The first category includes La Pérouse's
perfect chord, the conversation between Strouvilhou and
Passavant about literary 'value', Olivier and Bernard's
conversation concerning the subject of Bernard's
baccalauréat exam and Olivier's conversation with Armand
about limits. Dállenbach calls this category intra - diegetic
reflection because it remains within the narrative stream as
an integral part of the exposition of characters and the

150
advancement of events while reflecting one of the primary
themes of the novel which is the relationship between a
literary text and exterior reality. Vincent's lessons on
biology and botany are emblematic of the relationships
between the strong and weak characters while presenting, at
the same time, Vincent and especially the perverse pleasure
of Lady Griffith and Passavant who see their ideas
valorized. Passavant later uses one of Vincent's lessons as
his own to make a point to Olivier about intellectual
prowess. The discussion of the counterfeit coin that Bernard
has found in Saas-Fee and all of the references to
counterfeit money reflect the theme of authenticity.
Edouard's notebook and his diary reflect the primary
narrative instance, and so forth.
The second category of reflexive statement, Dállenbach
calls metadiegetic , meaning that it occasions a suspension
of the narration without totally liberating itself from
narrative control. Lucien Bercail tells his friend Olivier
of his project for a fantasy play about the Luxembourg
gardens, suspending the development of the plot that had
just begun with Bernard's discovery of his illegitimate
origins and his subsequent plans to run away. Bernard has
just solicited Olivier's help and Olivier listens to
Lucien's project distractedly, further setting off the
tangential nature of Lucien's narration. The reader, of
course, recognizes, within the description of this

151
emblematic play, the space of the novel he is reading. By
the same token, Bernard's dream of an encounter with an
angel steps outside the bounds of the narrative while at the
same time reflecting the themes of authenticity, commitment
and the devil. Armand's discourse on the extreme limits
between being and non-being in which he gives Olivier a
variety of examples involving death and damnation seems, at
first glance, to have nothing to do with anything but
Armand's own bizarre mental meanderings. However, later in
the novel, a number of characters reach just these sorts of
crucial 1imits--Vincent ' s madness, Olivier's attempted
suicide and Boris' successful suicide. One of Armand's
examples involves a life boat carrying six shipwreck
victims, recalling Lillian's story of the sinking of the
Bour go gne in which the life boat had reached the extreme
limit of its capacity and the subsequent actions of the crew
members which so profoundly affected Lillian's view of life.
Edouard's journal also contains a number of similarly extra-
diegetic statements, such as the conversation he overhears
in the train between a mother and her child, leading him to
reflect upon the terrible constrictions of family life and
resultant self-complacency. His conversation with Laura
about Victor Strouvilhou's confrontation with her father ten
years earlier concerning the parable of the barren fig tree
seems totally extraneous until the reader finally meets
Strouvilhou. But Edouard's journal presents a problem in

152
that it is not the primary narration and therefore should,
along with its contents, fall into a different category.
This third type of reflexive statement then is called
the meta-narrative, told by a secondary narrator. Lady
Griffith's story of the sinking of the Bourgogne fits this
category, as does her letter to Passavant concerning her
travels with Vincent and Alexandre's letter to Armand about
his strange house guest whom only the reader recognizes as
Vincent. Also, Olivier and Bernard's exchange of letters
constitute independent narrations, as does Laura's first
letter to Edouard. Edouard's journal is definitely a second
narration that reflects back on the primary narration, but
its sheer volume and complexity in terms of what it contains
make it difficult to qualify. We will return to a discussion
of Edouard's journal later.
A mise en abyme may be integrated into the text in
several different ways; either as a single block, in pieces
that alternate with the story or, finally, a variety of
occurrences. It may also be placed in the chronological
order of the story in three different ways; prospectively,
reflecting beforehand the story to come; retrospectively,
reflecting back on the story that has just been told; or
finally, r e t r o - p r o s p e c t i ve 1 y , reflecting elements of the
story by uncovering events previous and subsequent to its
appearance in the story. This last example is obviously the
most effective because it allows the author to not only

153
maintain interest in and pertinence to the developing plot
but also to enrich the story with a double prospective and
retrospective vector.
Gide uses all three possibilities to varying degrees,
but it is certain that chapter seven of the second part is
the strongest mise en abyme, forcing the reader to rethink
all that has preceded while at the same time preparing him
for what will follow in the third part. Dállenbach would
like to exclude any direct intrusions of the narrator from
his schema of valid mises en abyme, but in the case of Les
Faux-Monnaveurs. if one follows David Keypour's reasoning on
the metaleptic nature of Les Faux - Monnaveur s and the
fundamentally ambiguous status of the narrator as such,
Gide's novel is an exception to this rule.^ The narrator's
intrusions are so pervasive and whimsical that he might be
considered a character within the novel. One example of this
double vector that doesn't involve narrative intrusion is
Vincent's botany lesson concerning the relative strength of
buds farthest from the 'family' trunk of the tree. This
functions as a reduced model of the bastard theme, casting
light on Bernard's situation retrospectively and
prospectively in relation to the discussion of the family
unit in Edouard's journal. Edouard's journal provides the
reader with several other examples of this double vector
movement, but we shall save examples of this until a fuller

154
explanation of the various qualities of the mise en abyme
has been given.
Jean Ricardou makes a point that may seem obvious, but
is crucial to further discussion of the nature of the mise
en abyme
Si je considére la mise en abyme dans sa plus
ample généralité, je constate qu'une nécessité
régit ses dimensions: jamais, semble-t-il , la
micro-histoire ne doit étre plus longue que
l'histoire qu'elle refléte, sous peine de devenir
l'histoire reflétée. C’est dire que l'histoire
contenue ne peut évoquer l'histoire contenante que
sous l'espéce d'un résumé. ®
It is obvious that the mise en abyme must be framed within
the narration, and I shall return to framing techniques
below in the discussion of enunciation. Besides the purely
quantitative aspect of Ricardou's remark, it raises a
related question concerning the effects of the distribution
and the chronology of the reflexive statements in relation
to the narration. Ricardou's remark suggests a parallel
between the mise en abyme and another literary device known
as the synecdoche where a part stands for the whole.
Dállenbach speaks of a logic of transformations and
distinguishes two steps in the passage from the narrated
story to its reflection
. . . une réduction (ou structuration par
enchássement), une élaboration du paradigme de
référence (ou structuration par projection sur

155
l'axe syntagmatique d'un 1 équivalent 1
métaphorique) .
Vincent's aforementioned botany lesson functions along these
lines as a reduced model of the bastard theme. Similarly, La
Pérouse's perfect chord as a resolution of cacophony is a
reduced model of the esthetic principle of the novel.
Based on the above description, it would seem that the
mise en abyme is the epitome of a metonymic operation in
that it is only discernable as such in relation to what
precedes or follows it in the text. The paradigmatic
dimension of the mise en abyme is both particularizing,
compressing the signification of the fiction, and
generalizing, permitting a semantic expansion that the text
could not accomplish alone. The metaphoric relation between
counterfeit money and fiction that recurs in the text
relativizes the notion of fiction as a form of value that
circulates within a social context subject to market forces,
not so much a use value as an exchange value. Bernard, as a
reduced model of the reader, after reading Edouard's
journal, feels compelled to intervene because of his unique
position and his subsequent attempt to aid Laura establishes
a moral dimension to reading.
Gide is playing with the different possibilities that
language offers. The mise en abyme allows him to play on two
different levels. Emile Benveniste speaks of these two
planes of discourse

156
Les unités de la langue relévent, en effet,
de deux plans: syntagmatique quand on les envisage
dans leur rapport de succession matérielle au sein
de la chaine parlée, paradigmatique quand elles
sont posées en rapport de substitution possible,
chacun á son niveau et dans sa classe formelle.^
This movement from the syntagmatic to the paradigmatic
axis converts time into space, sequentiality into
simultaneity, and in so doing, increases the reader's
ability to understand not only the signification of the text
he is reading, but the nature of texts in general. Michel
Foucault writes, "Le discours . . . a le pouvoir de reteñir
la fleche, déjá lancée , en un retrait de temps qui est son
espace propre . Bruce Morrissette quotes an interesting
passage from a letter he received from Ricardou at the time
of the publication of La Prise de Constantinople in which
Ricardou talks about creation by structure and composition
of the mise en abyme. "Le livre á faire est impossible--
paradoxal á tout instant. II faut inventer un nouvel espace
romanesque.It would seem that this novelistic space that
Ricardou refers to is created by the spatio-temporal play of
Les Faux-Monnaveurs.
The Mise en Abvme of the Enunciation
Enunciation is opposed to the statement in the same way
that the process of fabrication is opposed to the thing

157
produced. If the mise en abyme of the statement reflects the
result of an act of production, the mise en abyme of the
enunciation reflects the agent or the process of that
production.
Dállenbach lists three conditions of the mise en abyme
of the enunciation: 1) the representation within the
narration of a producer or a receiver of the story, 2) the
representation of production or reception as such and 3) the
manifestation of the context that conditions this
production/reception.“
Gerald Prince has shown the plethora of writers and
readers within Les Faux-Honnaveurs . as well as the
multiplicity of contexts of production and reception. ^
Passavant is, of course, a published novelist and essayist,
as is Edouard. Lucien Bercail is a poet and is composing a
play. Olivier is a poet and possible editor of Passavant's
literary review. Olivier asks Bernard to contribute to the
review, having previously read his writing. Armand Vedel is
also a poet of sorts. Lillian Griffith finds Vincent's
biology lessons to be as exciting as novels and Passavant
tells Lillian that she should write novels after hearing her
stories. There are any number of letter readers who not only
read and interpret the letters addressed to them, but often
pass them on to other readers to compare interpretations or
simply to see their reaction. Sarah Vedel reads her father's
diary metaphorically, seeing his contrition about smoking as

158
a reference to masturbation and asks Edouard to confirm her
suspicions. Edouard is a reader of Passavant's novels and
Passavant has read his. Bernard is the interposed reader of
Edouard's journal, which we read along with him. Edouard
gives Georges Molinier a passage from his novel to read,
hoping to make him ashamed of his lying and stealing, only
to find that Georges is flattered by the attention Edouard
has given him. There are numerous references to reading
novels. In the opening chapter, Dhurmer speaks disparagingly
about a recent novel he has read, and Caloub Profitendieu
reads adventure novels to console himself after his brother
Bernard's abrupt departure. These are only the most obvious
examples and we shall have occasion to return to some of
them later.
Another primary reader is of course the narrator who
has obviously read Edouard's journal and comments on its
style as well as its content. It would be useful, at this
point, to look more closely at the relationship that
develops between Edouard and the narrator in order to show
how this mise en abyme functions in relation to the
narration.
Edouard's journal and the novel of the narrator
complement one another in relation to the story we read.
Edouard's journal, for instance, establishes the proper link
between past and present; that is its external function. It
permits the reader to date certain events in relation to

159
others, but the dating is strictly limited to the reader's
need to understand a basic chronology. This 'mirror' with
which Edouard walks about is a trick mirror in that it
serves not only to capture the present but also to recapture
the past. The story as told solely by Edouard's journal or
solely by the narrator would be too fragmented to
understand, so they alternate and relay one another, filling
in the gaps left by the other. David Keypour has correctly
remarked that after Edouard's appearance in the novel the
narrator, quite mobile in the beginning, limits himself to
the story of the children and adolescents, leaving the
adults and the families to Edouard.^
Edouard's journal has a double funetion --first, to
bring the reader out of his habitual passive role by
presenting him with a divergent point of view; and second, a
centralizing function in a story told from multiple
perspective. This second function prevents a total
disintegration of the narrative voice. The journal also
fulfills a function of philosophical reflection through
Edouard's long monologues in which general thoughts
transcend particular facts. However, as the novel
progresses, the monologues gradually diminish to become pure
speculative reflection based on minimal observation.^
But the fundamental difference between the journal and
the narrator's story lies in the relationship between the
two narrators and their respective characters. Edouard can

160
report letters, conversations, even the intimate diary of
another character, but he doesn't have the power to report
the monologues of other characters. The consciousness of
these characters remains opaque to him. This point is
brought home several different times. Edouard totally
misunderstands Olivier's intentions when the two of them
meet in the train station; he is frustrated in Saas-Fée not
to know what Bernard is thinking; and his most abject
failure is when he endeavors to influence young Georges'
behavior by presenting him with a fragment of his novel
modeled after Georges. Edouard seems to be able to
understand the minds of his peers much better than his
juniors, and this is perhaps another good reason why he not
only increasingly focuses his journal on the adults and the
families, as Keypour remarked, but, inasmuch as the
adolescents are the only characters who seem to possess
evolving mentalities as opposed to the fixed, even moribund
consciousness of the adults, he is also lead into sterile
abstraction. The situation is somewhat complicated by the
fact that the primary narrator, although able to enter into
the consciousness of his characters, often refuses to do so
or pretends to be unable to.
The narrator, "en tant qu' instance fonctionnelle et
linguistique est le sujet de toute énonciation non
écrite.He is the one who says, at the beginning of the
novel, "C'est le moment de croire que j’entends des pas dans

161
le corridor, se dit Bernard." (Ill,p.933) It is he who says,
"Que Lucien fasse des vers, chacun s ' en doute; pourtant
Olivier est, je crois, le seul á qui Lucien découvre ses
projets." (Ill,p.937) All of chapter seven of the second
part is the narrator speaking. The constant intrusion of the
narrator in the text poses several problems in relation to
the typical realist novel; all the more because there is a
movement back and forth from historical narration to what
Keypour calls live reporting. By deftly playing with
linguistic shifters, verb tenses and free indirect speech,
Gide is able to blend the different levels of narration such
that we are obliged to ask, along with Pierre Lafille: Who
is speaking? Keypour puts it this way
Gide introduit entre la narration historique
et le reportage en direct des scenes de
conversation qui restreignent le champ de vision
et agissent sur la conscience du lecteur comme
autant de gros plans cinématographiques. Le passé,
lié á la voix du narrateur, s'abolit dans
1 ' intempora1ité d’une scene représentée, scéne
visuelle dont l'expression verbale ne peut
recouvrir que la forme du présent.^O
Keypour gives the following example
Monsieur Profitendieu gagna, en chancelant, un
fauteuil. II eut voulu réfléchir, mais les idées
tourbillonnait confusément dans sa téte. De plus,
il ressentait un petit pincement du cóté droit,
la, sous ses cotes; il n'y couperait pas; c'était
la crise de foie. Y avait-il seulement de l'eau de
Vichy á la maison? (Ill,p.944)

162
From historic narration in the simple past and the past
anterior, Gide slides into the imperfect, then uses the
shifter "la" which is a signal not only to the present
tense, but could only logically be linked to a gesture. The
conditional mood that follows is indirect reported speech,
setting up the final sentence, which is in free indirect
discourse.
A few pages earlier, the narrator reports a
conversation between Profitendieu and Oscar Molinier in
indirect then free indirect discourse, but ends the passage,
without quotation marks, by saying "Au revoir" in place of
Profitendieu. The same type of thing happens in Edouard's
journal. Here he is writing about his first encounter with
his nephew Georges
II sera difficile de faire admettre dans Les
Faux-Monnaveurs que celui qui jouera ici mon
personnage ait pu, tout en restant en bonnes
relations avec sa soeur . . . (Ill,p.1001)
Once again there is an illicit intrusion of the shifter
'ici' instead of 'y' and the use of the verb 'ait pu'
instead of 'puisse' . The effect of the tense shift and the
demonstrative pose other questions, in this context, as to
Edouard's relation to the story he is telling. Perhaps the
most bizarre example of narrative intrusion comes in the
third chapter of the second part. At the head of one of

163
Edouard's journal entries, one finds the inscription, "Ce
máme soir." It certainly isn't Edouard who writes 'ce'
because his previous journal entry was from the previous
day, and it is more logical to assume that it is a follow-up
to the conversation that the narrator has just reported.
Keypour calls this 'écriture indirecte libre.' In chapter
seven of this same part, confusion reigns. The narrator says
that whatever feelings of futility he may have, he is now
obliged to follow the characters that he has created, among
them Douviers, La Pérouse and Azais. These characters only
appeared in the first part in Edouard's journal, not in the
primary narration. The reader is forced to wonder, at this
point, who is writing the journal, Edouard or the narrator.
It may seem obvious that it is the narrator, but then why
the pretense and why now unveil it only to return to the
separate narrations in the third part? Another possibility
is to postulate a third narrator, a master puppeteer
controlling both the primary and secondary narration, that
is, it is no longer the primary narrator who is saying "Je";
it is the author. This intrusion of an extra-fictive element
into the narrative stream is called, in structural
narratology, an exterior metalepse. Keypour describes it
this way
La métalepse extérieure se produit par le
mouvement inverse de celui de la 'mise en abyme'.
Ici, au lieu que l'imitation vient de 1'intérieur,
au lieu que ce soit un personnage qui reproduit

164
l'image de l'auteur, c'est l'auteur qui s'immisce
dans le discours des personnages.
This all begs the question as to what Gide is trying to do
by confusing the levels of narration. The supposed author
could no more be identified as Gide than the primary
narrator. What we are seeing is an infinite unveiling that
only reveals another mask. "La mise en abyme se réalise sous
sa forme la plus insidieuse, la plus profonde, au niveau des
structures de la narration. The typical ploy of meta¬
fiction is to force the reader's awareness of the production
of the text, and Gide has certainly accomplished this;
however, there is more at issue than the reader's awareness
of process and I shall attempt to show further function in
Gide's method at the end of this chapter.
Returning to Dállenbach to discuss the reception
. . . il s'agit de montrer qu'á l'égard de son
destinataire diégétique la mise en abyme de
l'histoire narrée fonctionne comme véritable
exemplum.^ ^
Dállenbach indicates three moments of reception: 1) an
interpretation, 2) a new understanding and 3) a subsequent
action. The novel begins after Bernard has read a letter,
that we are not allowed to read, but which he summarizes.
His interpretation is clear. The letter is dated just prior
to his birth and is obviously from his mother's lover,

165
though he can not discern from the initialed signature the
identity of the author. His realization of his illegitimate
origins confirms a feeling he has long had and serves as a
point of departure for an identity quest following a radical
break with a false past. Bernard, destitute of a father, or
rather of the name of a father according to his own words,
will try to profit from this absence of origin to constitute
himself freely as an individual. The abusive letter that he
writes to his putative father is then read and commented by
the father and then by the mother. The father first reacts
with outrage, then with a bizarre sort of pride in the
rebellious nature of his son, then with concern as to how to
break the news of Bernard's departure to the rest of the
family. The mother reacts first with outrage at the father,
then with guilt and despair. The father and mother later
separate and the father comes to the awareness that he loves
his son and tries to convince him to return home.
These two opening letters set a pattern for the
reception of numerous letters to follow in the novel, though
not all of them provoke a new realization or subsequent
action. These letters are models of reading and call for
interpretation, but they remain as if hidden within the
fabric of the plot in that they are read by and directly
implicate their addressee, and so seem quite natural. The
casual reader could easily be unaware of their exemplary
nature .

166
Some letters have a very different effect than their
authors intended. Bernard's letter to Olivier about his trip
to Saas-Fée with Edouard and Laura provokes a jealous rage
in Olivier and convinces him to leave for Corsica with
Passavant. Lillian Griffith's letter to Passavant describing
the disintegration of her love affair with Vincent provokes
nothing but amused curiosity from Passavant and so little
interest from Edouard that he doesn't even bother to finish
it. Alexandre's letter to Armand concerning the mysterious
madman who has moved in with him is only understood by the
reader.
It isn't only letters that are read by the other
characters. Sarah Vedel gives Edouard her father's intimate
diary to read. The passage in question ostensibly concerns
Pastor Vedel's difficult attempt to stop smoking, posed in
moral terms of a test of his character, a test renewed
daily, because he cannot seem to kick the habit. Edouard
ruefully remarks that just recently Vedel had told him how
easy it was to stop smoking, and he takes some satisfaction
in the revelation of his pious friend's hypocrisy. However,
Sarah proposes a different interpretation altogether saying,
"Ou peut-étre bien . . . cela prouve que ’ fumer' était mis
lá pour autre chose." (Ill,p.1021) Sarah reads 'smoking' as
'masturbation,' seeing a hidden meaning behind the apparent
banality. Here are two different interpretations of the same
text, both of which point to Vedel's hypocrisy, but which

167
provoke different realizations in the two readers. One
possible consequence of Sarah's reading is her
disillusionment with the hypocrisy of the bourgeois moral
code and her subsequent development as a libertine.
Bernard provides the most striking exemplar of reading,
early in the first part while reading Edouard's journal. The
radical difference here is that, at the time of his reading
of Edouard's journal, Bernard is in no way directly
implicated in the text he is reading. This stolen text, or
rather, text paid for by the devil (III,p.9 96), is the
beginning of the secondary narration that will become the
second narrative focalisation in the rest of the novel.
Bernard, bereft of father and family and searching for an
identity, and who is outside of this text, will decide to
actively implicate himself and so find his place within
Edouard's journal.
Edouard himself tries to use his novel to influence the
behavior of his nephew Georges. Pauline has told Edouard of
Georges' theft and lies, and so Edouard writes a passage in
his novel modeled on Georges' misbehavior. The passage is
overwhelmingly didactic and, as one might imagine, Georges'
reaction is just the opposite of what Edouard expected.
Georges easily recognizes himself in the text, but beyond
the moral prescription, he feels the affective charge. He
feels valorized for having been able to inspire Edouard to
write a text about him. The semantic intent escapes the

168
author and this is, for Gide, a sine qua non of fiction.
Edouard's error was to underestimate Georges and his ability
to think for himself. In his Journal des Faux-Monnayeurs.
Gide specifically states
Ce n'est point en apportant la solution á
certains problémes que je puis rendre un réel
service au lecteur; mais bien en le for?ant á
réfléchir lui-méme sur des problémes dont je
n'admets guére qu'il puisse y avoir d'autre
solution que particuliére et personnelle. (OC
VII,p.15)
Bernard occupies a special position in relation to the
text. After reading Laura's letter at the end of the
journal, he knows, through Olivier, that Vincent is Laura's
lover and the father of her child. Laura's situation is very
similar to that of Bernard's mother seventeen years earlier.
Laura has deserted her dull husband for an adulterous affair
of passion and is left pregnant with a bastard child. Is it
mere coincidence that Bernard's mother's lover signed his
letter with a 'V' as in Vincent? Bernard cites Kant's
categorical imperative as his impetus to become involved,
but it seems more likely that he is drawn into action by the
parallelism of situations. Having interposed himself as a
surrogate reader, Bernard's involvement in the text leaves a
void that only the reader can fill by himself becoming
actively engaged in the text. The appeal to the reader
couldn't be stronger.

169
Gide's respect for the reader dates back to his
earliest works and he never saw himself as a repository of
truth. He often argued bitterly with critics whom he felt
had misinterpreted his works, but he also realized that he
could profit from the interpretations of others. Here is a
passage at the end of Paludes. a novel written thirty years
before Les Faux-Monnaveurs
Avant d'expliquer aux autres mon livre, j'attends
que d'autres me 1'expliquent. Vouloir expliquer
d'abord c'est en restreindre le sens; car si nous
savons ce que nous voulions dire, nous ne savons
pas si nous ne disions que cela. --On dit
toujours plus que CELA. --Et ce qui sur-tout m'y
intéresse, c'est ce que j'y ai mis sans le savoir,
- - cette part d ' i n conscient, que je voudrais
appeler la part de Dieu. - - Un livre est toujours
une collaboration, et tant plus le livre vaut-il,
que plus la part du scribe y est petite, que plus
l'accueil de Dieu sera grand. --Attendons de
partout la révélation des choses; du public la
révélation de nos oeuvres. (Ill, p.89)
From all evidence, Gide seems to have maintained this same
opinion throughout his career and Les Faux-Monnaveurs only
reenforces the importance of the reader. The only change
that may have occurred in Gide's mind over the thirty years
is that the excess of meaning or the subconscious meaning,
the "part de Dieu" may have become the 'part du diable' in
Les Faux-Monnaveurs . translating a certain pessimism
concerning sincerity. Without wishing to seem enigmatic, I
shall return to the ethical problems of authenticity and
sincerity at the end of this chapter.

170
The problem of interpretation is found elsewhere in the
text as evidenced by all of the misunderstandings among the
characters. The scene that follows Edouard's arrival at the
train station near the beginning of the novel is a
remarkable example of how words and gestures can be twisted.
Both Edouard and Olivier are thrilled to see one another but
each is afraid to seem overly anxious and so burden the
other with his presence
. . . chacun se croyant seul ému, tout occupé par
sa joie propre et comme confus de la sentir si
vive, n'avait souci que de ne point trop en
laisser paraitre l'excés. (III,p.991)
Edouard first tells Olivier that although he wasn't counting
on Olivier to meet him at the station, he was certain that
he would come and affectionately grasps his arm. Olivier
downplays his own presence at the station to meet Edouard by
saying that he had an errand to run in the vicinity. He then
blushes at his own lie just as Edouard grasps his arm,
making Edouard think that Olivier had found his remark
presumptuous and that Olivier is blushing because of his
excessively effusive gesture. Each is afraid of being
harshly judged by the other and neither can think of
anything to say. The discourse of the other systematically
confirms the doubts of each of the two interlocutors in a
particularly painful lesson in interpretation. Each phrase

171
seems to fall into a void confirming what is obvious to each
of them, that the other is bored.
Chacun d'eux se dépitait á ne sortir de soi
rien que de sec, de contraint; et chacun d'eux,
sentant la géne et l'agacement de l'autre, s'en
croyait l'objet et la cause. De tels entretiens ne
peuvent donner rien de bon, si rien ne vient á la
rescousse. Rien ne vint. (Ill,p.993)
Olivier and Edouard are in love with one another, and it is
this very love that prevents them from communicating, afraid
as they are of some indiscretion that will scare the other
away. Gide seems to anticipate Lacan's perception that,
"L'émetteur re?oit du récepteur son propre message sous une
forme inversée .
The conversation between Olivier and Bernard following
the latter's baccalaureate exam provides another example of
miscommunication. Bernard asks his friend what he thinks of
the La Fontaine poem that he had analysed on the exam.
Olivier gives a very flippant and cynical answer, obviously
influenced by his frequentat i o n of Passavant. Bernard
recognizes the influence of Passavant and aggressively
attacks Olivier by telling him that such ideas poison
France. Olivier doesn't understand Bernard's pompous
agression and, in the lunch conversation that follows,
Bernard, so consumed with countering the pernicious effects
of Passavant, fails to recognize Olivier's despair. Both
characters have hidden agenda that prevent communication.

172
There are numerous other examples of conflict of
interpretation and faulty communication, both unintentional
and deliberate. Strouvilhou and Pastor Vedel argue over the
meaning of the parable of the sterile fig tree. Sophroniska
and Edouard argue over the meaning of Boris' behavior.
Strouvilhou and Passavant argue over the meaning of
literature. Passavant misleads Vincent about the reason for
his desire to see Olivier and he later attempts to mislead
Edouard about his feelings toward Olivier. Passavant also
tries to condition Olivier's reading of his novel by placing
an ambiguous dedicatory note at the beginning. The narrator
is also guilty of this same tactic as he places misleading
quotes at the beginning of a number of chapters. Passavant
tries to mislead his readers by having weak criticism of his
novel published so that he may 'courageously' respond; and
he attempts to mislead the readers of his literary magazine
ghost authoring a preface favorable to his ideas without
acknowledging his connection to the magazine. Pastor Vedel
avoids any real communication with people by using empty,
pious phrases and pretending to be busy with his
parishioners. To return to the reader, the narrator misleads
him on several counts. He pretends not to know the
intentions of his characters and to absolve himself for any
responsibility for their acts.
In a larger sense of reading, one can see, through all
of these examples of reading and interpretation throughout

173
the text, the creation of a context of doubt or suspicion as
to the reliability of language to accurately transmit
messages. Gide is conditioning his readers to the terms of
his text by laying bare the central problems of creating a
text. Karl Marx said
L'objet d' art - - de máme que tout autre
produit- -crée un public réceptif á l'art et
capable de jouir de la beauté. La production ne
produit pas seulement un objet pour le sujet, mais
aussi un sujet pour l'objet.^5
The reader of Les Faux-Monnaveurs is called upon to
constitute himself as an active subject, to assume his role
in the process of meaning. The narration with a multiple
perspective places the reader squarely in the alterity of
being. What is the true meaning of the words he is reading?
It is for him to choose or to propose other possibilities.
But the presence of so many readers and writers within this
particular novel also place the reader of Les Faux-
Monnaveurs at the heart of the productive process. The
implicit author or producer and the implicit reader or
receptor, both clearly inscribed in the narration, represent
the relationship between the real author and reader. The
cover of
the book becomes
permeable
and
the
reader,
longer a
passive outsider,
is d r awn
into
the
text.
reader is drawn not to the psychological aspects of the
narration in a movement of identification with the

174
character, but because the character is very obviously a
reader, the reader is drawn into the process of the
narration and the relationship it implies. Paradoxically,
this mise en abyme both draws the reader into the text and
establishes a distance between the reader and the text--the
distance of irony.
The author and the reader are like two people sitting
on opposite sides of a smoked-glass window. Depending on the
focus of their vision and the incidence of light, they may
see a reflection of themselves or the image of the other
piercing through their own. One may think of Gide's metaphor
of the lantern and the parabola that he used to explain to
Roger Martin du Gard the difference between their separate
narrative approaches. As the lantern passes from one side of
this translucent surface of the mise en abyme to the other,
the refracted light yields a different perspective.
The Mise en Abvme of the Code
There remains a series of questions concerning the
text. Where and who is the person narrating? To whom is the
text being narrated, and over what distance? This type of
question brings us to the mise en abyme of the code. After
examining individual statements and the process of stating,
the question now is how the text is spoken or narrated. Once
again, Dállenbach gives us the definition

175
A l'instar de cette réalité á deux faces
qu'est le signe 1inguistique, l'énoncé peut étre
appréhendé ou dans sa référence á autre chose, ou
saisi en lui-méme. Aussi donne-t-il lieu par
constitution á deux mises en abyme distinctes:
l'une ficti onne1le, dédoublant le récit dans sa
dimension référentielle d'histoire racontée,
1'autre, textuelle, le réfléchissant sous son
aspect littérale d'organisation signifiante.^®
Code, in the sense that Dállenbach uses it, isn't the same
as the code that most linguists use to refer to a system of
signs common to a given group, that is, a language. Code, in
the Jakobsonian sense refers rather to the possibility that
a story has to define its signs through its own signs and to
speak of its own mode of operation. These textual mises en
abyme are often symbolized by three thematic fields:
physiology (particularly anatomy), art and technology.
The reference to J.S.Bach's Art of the Fugue during the
literary discussion at Saas-Fée functions in this manner,
telling the reader that Edouard would like to play with all
the possibilities that a novelist has at his disposal to
compose his own novel. Sophroniska is skeptical and tells
Edouard that music, unlike the novel, is a mathematical art,
but that if it accords too much importance to number, it
loses its pathos and humanity. Bach, she concludes, created
a master work of boredom, accessible only to a few experts.
Edouard, however, finds Bach's work to be an admirable
temple and the pinnacle of Bach's art. (Ill,p.1084) This may

176
certainly be seen as a reference to Les Faux-Monnaveurs
which, as the previous discussion has shown, attempts on the
one hand to purify the novel of extraneous elements, and on
the other to use all the possibilities the form offers.
The whole discussion at Saas-Fée of the novel in
general and about Edouard's novel in particular are so many
indications of the manner in which the text we are reading
is organized. For instance, Sophroniska reproaches novelists
for using hackneyed psychological profiles in the
composition of their characters, ". . . ils n'ont ni
fondation, ni sous-sol. . . . tout ce qui n'est créé que par
la seule intelligence est faux." (Ill,p. 1075) Edouard
understands her critique but finds her point of view too
limited
. . . certaines raisons d'art, certaines raisons
supérieures, lui échappent qui me font penser que
ce n'est pas d'un bon naturaliste qu'on peut faire
un bon romancier. (Ill,p. 1076)
Edouard is again pointing to the specificity of the novel as
an art form. Though it may touch upon a broad variety of
subjects while following its characters, the primary
allegiance of the novel is to itself as an art form. In a
journal entry from the previous year, Edouard had already
decided against the use of psychological analysis in his
novels. It is rather the power of imagination that
dominates one's perception of self and others

177
L'analyse psychologique a perdu pour moi tout
intérét du jour oü je me suis avisé que l'homme
éprouve ce qu'il imagine éprouver. . . . Dans le
domaine des sentiments, le réel ne se distingue
pas de 1'imaginaire. (Ill,p.988)
Gide's assertion early in his career seems an even more
valid statement about his own work at the time of the
composition of Les Faux-Monnaveurs
Rh étoriaue. En étudiant la question de la
raison d'étre de l'oeuvre d'art, on arrive á
trouver que cette raison suffisante, ce symbole de
l'oeuvre, c'est sa composition. (OC II,p.424)
Edouard considers the novel to be a basically lawless genre,
but novelists have been afraid to experience the true
freedom it offers and have chosen to remain slaves to the
idea of resemblance
II n'a jamais connu, le roman, cette "formidable
érosion des contours", dont parle Nietzsche, et ce
volontaire éclatement de la vie . . . (Ill,p.1080)
Edouard finds the classical theater of the Greeks or that of
the 17th century in France to be the most perfect works of
art and, at the same time, the most profoundly human
. cela n'est humain que profondément; cela ne
se pique pas de le paraitre, ou du moins de

178
paraitre réel. Cela demeure une oeuvre d'art.
(Ill,p.1080)
He goes on to criticize Balzac and Stendhal for having
wanted to compete with the public registry in clarity.
Edouard has no such pretensions and declares that his work
competes with nothing because it resembles nothing else. He
finally states one of his general principles as a novelist
En localisant et en spécifiant, 1'on restreint. II
n'y a de vérité psychologique que particuliére, il
est vrai; mais il n'y a d'art que général. Tout le
probléme est la, précisément; exprimer le général
par le particulier; faire exprimer par le
particulier le général. (Ill,p.1081)
It is obvious that the author of Les Faux-Monnaveurs wants
the reader to examine his work according to the criteria
that Edouard has just announced. This isn't to say that
Edouard and the author are one and the same or that Edouard
is expressing Gide's opinions, though that may be so in this
case; rather, Gide has let Edouard define the context of the
reading; he has chosen the terrain on which the reader and
author shall meet. However, it is also true that Edouard has
problems and eventually fails in transposing his theory into
practice.
There is another element of the structure of the novel
that is reflected in the composition; there are several
series of framing sequences throughout the novel that serve

179
to illustrate the narrative framing in the composition of
the novel. The most striking examples are found at the
beginning of the novel, in order to orient the reader.
Bernard puts the letter from his true father back in the
envelope, then puts the envelope in the pack of letters,
then puts the pack back in the box, then puts the box back
in the drawer inside of the bureau which he then recovers
with the slats of wood, then with the onyx plaque top.
Buried inside of these successive layers is the text that is
the origin of Bernard's quest for identity.
While in the train from the coast toward Paris, Edouard
finishes re-reading Laura's letter of distress. He puts the
letter back in the envelope, places the envelope in his
journal, places the journal in between his shirts, inside
his suitcase that he will put in the storage area of the
train station upon his arrival. This text, Laura's letter,
takes its place in Edouard's journal at the end of a series
of entries concerning the decrystalization of Edouard's love
for Laura the previous year and her subsequent marriage to
Félix Douviers. The letter stands in stark contrast to the
self-serving opinions that Edouard had expressed at the
time, and is the impetus for his return to Paris and his
involvement in the plot. Bernard reverses the whole sequence
by removing Edouard's suitcase from the baggage claim and
taking it to a hotel room where he eventually makes his way
through the various layers back to Laura's letter. It is her

180
letter that decides his next step in his quest for a new
life .
Bernard's reading of the journal has already been
indicated above as a model for reading in the text, but this
scene also illustrates a series of frames. Bernard reads
Edouard's journal in which there is the story of Laura's
marriage, during which Edouard reports a conversation with
Laura in which she reminds him of a dinner ten years earlier
at the Pension Vedel during which Strouvilhou had infuriated
Pastor Vedel by mocking the parable of the barren fig tree
in the Bible, which, by the way, is a story told by Jesus
and reported by Paul. During the same marriage party we read
of Pastor Vedel's struggle to overcome a bad habit as
recorded in his diary and which Sarah and Edouard both
interpret, as recorded in Edouard's journal that Bernard is
reading after having removed it from the suitcase, etc.
These are but some of the most striking examples. If one
considers this framing technique as a necessary condition
for the mise en abyme, Les Faux - Monnaveurs gives the
impression of ad infinitum framing, like a warehouse full of
Ukrainian dolls. Framing on the level of the organisation of
the text, as illustrated above, could be considered as a
mise en abyme of the mise en abyme procedure itself, and so
it allegorizes the composition of the novel.
In summation of the types of mise en abyme, there are
three possibilities of reflection within the narration: 1)

181
simple reduplication, that is, a fragment that shows a
similarity with the work that includes it, 2) infinite
reduplication; a fragment that maintains a relation of
similitude with the work that contains it while, at the same
time, containing another fragment that ressembles it and 3)
aporistic or paradoxical reduplication, that is, a fragment
that supposedly contains the work in which it is contained.
A mise en abyme is metaphoric if there is a relation of
similitude between the whole of the story and some of its
parts; or it may arise metonymically from the relationships
among the agents implied by the production of the story
either by the effect of a reversal or through psychological
retroaction. A literary work may contain several mises en
abyme, either as a conglomerate, that is to say, ramified
like a star figure; or superimposed and overdetermined as an
agglomerate, with either a single dominant or all of them of
equal value. Finally, from a purely economic point of view,
the importance of a mise en abyme is measured by its
narrative yield. The more the mise en abyme is perceptible,
the greater the yield.^7 Edouard's journal provides the
highest yield mise en abyme in the text. It is a mise en
abyme of the 'énoncé' as the narration of a writer composing
a novel by the same name as the one that contains it. It is
a mise en abyme of the ' é n o n c i a t i o n ' as a sporadic
discussion of the problems of narration and the relationship
between narrator and reader. Finally, it is a mise en abyme

182
of the code as it reflects back on the manner in which the
novel we are reading should be interpreted.
Dállenbach mentions two other possible categories of
mise en abyme besides the three primary categories--énoncé,
énonciation and code --mentioned above. ^ There is a meta-
textual mise en abyme when there is a homology between the
referent statement and the code. The referent statement
could be an esthetic debate, like the one between Edouard
and his friends at Saas-Fée. It could be a manifesto, a
credo or an 'art poétique,' all three of which could be used
to characterize Strouvilhou's speech to Passavant concerning
literary value. Edouard's journal offers numerous examples
of his esthetic ideas concerning the composition of a novel,
which reflect directly on the novel we are reading. A meta-
textual mise en abyme could also be an indication as to the
finality that the author assigns to his work. This is a
difficult category to handle in the context of Gide's work
that refuses to conclude, leaving conclusions to the reader.
Perhaps Bernard's notebook in which he inscribes opinions
that he hears or reads in one column while waiting to hear
or read the opposite opinion so that he can inscribe it in
the facing column in an attempt to avoid all dogmatism,
searching for a synthesis of the two antithetical points of
view. Auguste Angles sees this type of mimetic behavior as a
primary characteristic of Gide's thought, his inability to
understand without feeling something himself

183
C'est la clef de sa double et constante démarche:
éprouver par mimétisme, pour connaitre par le
dedans une autre forme d'esprlt et s'enrichir á sa
fréquentation . .
This calls to mind another mise en abyme that, within this
context, could be considered meta-textua1: La Pérouse's
perfect chord in which all dissonance is resolved. In an
essay at the turn of the century Gide had spoken of this
same perfect chord
C'est dans le sentiment d' un accord, non
d'une rivalité qu'est le bonheur, et quand bien
méme toutes les forces de la nature 1'une contre
toutes autres, chacune lutterait, il m'est
impossible de ne pas concevoir une unité
supérieure présidant á cette lutte méme, initiale
de toute division, oü chaqué áme peut se réfugier
pour son bien étre. (OC II,p.416)
I shall not overwhelm the reader with a long list of
meta-textual mises en abyme, especially since many have
already been mentioned in the context of the discussion of
the three primary categories of mise en abyme. The whole
problem of categories arises from a close reading of Le s
Faux-Monnaveurs because, being at the same time the novel in
the novel, the novel about the novel and the novel of the
novelist, the reflections jump from level to level like so
many electrons around the nucleus of a plutonium atom.
Dállenbach is aware of this rather unique situation in Les

184
Faux-Monnaveurs and briefly discusses Gide's tendency to
play with the topology of his text
Hésitation prolongée entre l'intérieur et
l'extérieur, il nous introduit dans un espace
courbe oü cercles excentriques et concentriques se
recoupent et oü 1'on retrouve le miroir des
peintres avec ce qu'il a pouvoir de symboliser:
l'intégration de l'autre dans le máme,
o n
1'osci11ation du dedans et du dehors. u
Finally, there is the transcendental mise en abyme,
that Dállenbach defines as a statement that serves as an
origin and organizing principle for the text. It is both the
cause and effect of the text that is given birth by it and
gives birth to it. It brings up a historico - phi1osophical
problem in that the metaphor of origin and the text,
dépendent tous deux, ultimement, de la
maniere dont telle oeuvre, á tel moment, pense son
rapport a la vérité et se comporte au regard de la
mimésis.
Although Dállenbach doesn't mention it, it should
nevertheless be obvious that the moment of which he speaks
must also include the moment of the reading of the text
inasmuch as a text acquires an existence independent of its
author and, over time, the situation of the reader and his
horizon of expectations will change. Gide always claimed to
be writing for future generations, as does Edouard in Le s
Faux-Monnaveurs.

185
There are three choices for metaphors that serve as
transcendental mises en abyme in Les Faux-Monnaveurs : the
counterfeit gold coin, the talisman and the devil. One might
consider these as an agglomerate transcendental mise en
abyme. All three of them directly reflect the problem of
reality versus illusion, that is to say, the problem of
mimesis. The gold coin poses the question of authenticity,
the talisman points to the power of the imagination and the
devil, the problem of language and sincerity. Dállenbach is
correct to indicate mimesis as the crux of the problem. The
de f am i 1 i ar i z a t i o n that the mise en abyme creates in the
reader accustomed to the psychological realism of the
nineteenth century serves to attract his attention toward
formal elements that had become unconscious by their very
excessive familiarity. Just as the psychological realism,
through a dialectical movement, had gone beyond the
individual consciousness of self in Romanticism, Gide's
novel (like those of Wolff, Joyce and Svevo, among others)
in turn creates a new synthesis by incorporating the process
of narration as well as the product of it. *
We have seen a multiplicity of mises en abyme at all
levels of the narration in Les Faux-Monnaveurs. The
structuralists served well for the elucidation of the
elements of this narrative strategy, but they are limited to
descriptive analysis. As Gide once said, "La synthése doit
se précéder d'analyse; et 1'analyse , besoin de l'esprit,

186
nait du sentiment de la complexité." (OC II, p.417) It is
clear that Les Faux-Monnaveurs is a complex text. In the
final chapter that follows we shall attempt a provisory
synthesis of the disparate elements of this text by getting
back to some of Gide's key concerns, evoked in the
discussion above of the transcendental mise en abyme. The
reflection of the mise en abyme suggests the problem of the
alterity of being, the problem of becoming. These abstract
notions find their concrete counterparts in Gide's constant
thematic concerns--authenticity, sincerity and imagination.
Gide obsession to tell the truth about himself, about others
and about the world, reaches its apotheosis in Les Faux-
Monnaveurs . Is it possible to be authentic or sincere? In an
absolute sense, one might as well ask if it is possible to
stop the flow of time. The devil is always there,
undermining our existence. The devil, for Gide, is self
delusion and the perfect hypocrite is the person who lies in
all sincerity.
NOTES
1.Nouveau Roman: hier , auiourd'hui (Colloque de Cerisy,
1971), Paris, Union Générale des Editions, 1972, p.136.
2. Bruce Morrissette, "Un Héritage d'André Gide: la
duplication intérieur, " Comparative Literature Studies ,
vol. 8, number 2, 1971.
3.Claude Edmonde Magny, Histoire du roman francais depuis
1918. Paris, Editions du Seuil, 1950, p.272.

187
4. Pierre Lafille, André Gide romancier. Paris, Hachette,
1954, p.2 5.
5 . Ibid. , p . 206.
6.Lucien Dállenbach, Le Récit snéculaire: essai sur la mise
en abvme. Paris, Editions du Seuil, 1976.
7. Ibid., p.17.
8. Ibid., p.61.
9. David Keypour, Ecriture et réversibilité dans les Faux-
Monnaveurs. Montréal, Presses de l'Université de Montréal,
1980, p.170.
10. Jean Ricardou, Problémes du nouveau roman. Paris,
Editions du Seuil, 1967, p.189.
11. Dállenbach, p.77.
12. Emile Benveniste, Problémes de linguistiaue générale.
Paris, Gallimard, 1966, p.22.
13. Michel Foucault, "Le Langage a l'infini," Tel Quel,
no.15, 1963, p.44.
14. Morrissette, p.125.
15. Dállenbach, p.96.
16. Gerald Prince, "Lecteurs et lectures dans les Faux-
Monnaveurs." Neophiloloeus . number 62, 1973. "Personnages
romanciers dans les Faux-Monnaveurs." French Studies, number
25,1971.
17. Keypour, p.189.
18. Ibid., p.110.
19. Ibid., p.216.
20. Ibid.
21. Ibid.
22. Dállenbach, p.108.
23. Ibid.
24. Jacques Lacan, Ecrits. Paris, Editions du Seuil, 1966,
p . 289 .

188
25. Karl Marx, Introduction á la critique de l'économie
politique. Paris, Editions Sociales, 1968, p.624.
26. Dállenbach, p.123.
27. Ibid., p.140.
28. Ibid. , p . 132.
29. Angles, p.24.
30. Dállenbach, p.44.
31. Ibid., p.131.
32. Hutcheon, p.100.

CHAPTER 6
TIME AND HISTORY IN LES FAUX-MONNAYEURS
The advantages as well as the dangers of a
structuralist approach to the novel are apparent in
Dállenbach's exceptional work. The reduction of a novel so
complex as Les Faux-Monnaveurs to a series of conceptual
categories based on Roman Jakobson's linguistic research
reveals much about Gide's narrative technique and discursive
strategies while at the same time obscuring certain
essential elements of Gide's project.
David Keypour's narrato 1 ogica1 approach, borrowing
Gérard Genette's categories, is also enlightening, but it
would lead the reader to the rather fanciful notion that
Edouard is actually the author of Les Faux-Monnaveurs. This
perspective points to one of the inherent problems with a
structuralist approach that focuses attention exclusively on
questions of form which, in this case, leads to a
paradoxical solution and only confuses the issues. Genette
is certainly aware of the dangers and cautions the reader
against snap judgements
Une situation narrative, comme toute autre,
est un ensemble complexe dans lequel 1'analyse, ou
189

190
simplement la description, ne peut distinguer
qu'en déchirant un tissue de relations étroites
entre l'acte narratif, ses protagonistes , ses
déterminations spatio-tempore 1les, son rapport aux
autres situations narratives impliquées dans le
méme récit, etc. Les nécessités de l'exposition
nous contraignent á cette violence inévitable du
seul fait que le discours critique, non plus qu'un
autre, ne saurait tout dire á la fois.^
This chapter is an attempt to discuss some of the more
complex problems that Dállenbach and Keypour, true to their
methodological concerns, put aside--specifical ly , temporal
relationships and irony. The structuralist critique is
basically descriptive and is concerned with the
differentiation of functions and categories. In so doing it
not only separates the text from real time or what may be
called "historical" time, but it also tends to reduce time
relationships within the text. The structuralist spatializes
time by placing it in objective categories, but does not re¬
integrate time as a crucial determination that, in fact,
undermines the fixed nature of the very categories he has
established.
One by-product of this method is a complete obfuscation
of the relationship between the text and the world,
particularly as concerns any ethical content. Dállenbach and
Keypour, among others, have taken Gide's plea for an
esthetic appraisal of his work as a justification for their
method. As I have shown in an earlier chapter, although Gide
indeed gave primacy to esthetics, he by no means denied the
ethical content or intent of his works. He was arguing

191
against a didactic approach, but was certainly aware, as I
shall show in this chapter, of the broader ethical
implications of his esthetics. Gide's contemporary, George
Lukács, provides a good starting point
Dans le roman . . . 1'intention éthique est
sensible au coeur máme de la structuration de
chaqué détail, elle est, dans son contenu le plus
secret,un élément efficace de la construction de
l'oeuvre. Ainsi, alors que la caractéristique
essentielle des autres genres littéraires est de
reposer dans une forme achevée, le roman apparait
comme quelque chose qui devient, comme un
processus.^
In order to discuss irony in Les Faux-Monnaveurs it
will be necessary to re-integrate the notion of time. In his
famous Théorie du roman. Lukács says, ". . . toute action du
roman n'est qu'un combat contre les puissances du temps.I
would like to show the importance of temporal elements in
the novel for a deeper understanding of gidian irony. It is
time to put the pieces back together again and search for a
discursive logic to this disquieting novel of multiple
ironies and time is the missing element.
Problems of Chronology
There are several different ways of considering time in
the novel. Just as the novel creates a fictional space, it
also creates a time of its own, outside of real time. This

192
is the power of discourse which, in Foucault's words, ",
a le pouvoir de reteñir la fléche, déjá lancée, en un
retrait du temps qui est son espace propre.The narrator
organizes time and either stretches it or compresses it
according to an internal logic of exposition. He may recount
events in their normal chronological sequence, recount a
series of events one after the other, but that take place
simultaneously, or recount events in a reverse order through
flashbacks. The narrator may spend many pages telling about
events that occurred in a brief period of time or, to the
contrary, summarize in a few lines events that occurred over
an extended period of time. Gide uses all of the different
possibilities to varying degrees in Les Faux-Monnaveurs.
Part I of the novel covers slightly more than a day. It
begins on a hot afternoon in July and ends late in the
evening of the following day. The primary mode of
presentation is simultaneity, as the narrator moves
throughout Paris from one group of characters to another.
The first part also contains Edouard's journal, a second
narration, that takes the events back eight and a half
months to October 16 of the previous year. Edouard's journal
entries, as a second narration, cover approximately one
month until he leaves Paris for England on November 13.
Within Edouard's journal there are brief flashbacks to
events that took place as much as ten years earlier, when he

193
and Laura were both working at the Pension Vedel and
Strouvilhou was a student there.
Part II takes place over an indefinite period of time
between early July and mid-September. It begins with
Bernard's letter to Olivier in which Bernard summarizes the
departure from Paris and the trip to Saas-Fée. He says that
they have been there for six days. The second chapter is an
entry from Edouard's journal and seems to predate Bernard's
letter since Edouard says that he easily located Boris and
his guardian Sophroniska soon after his arrival and his
conversation with Sophroniska during a morning is the
subject of that journal entry. The third chapter is an
evening conversation among the protagonists told by the
narrator and is at an indeterminate time. The next two
chapters, told by the narrator and by Edouard, recount two
conversations, one between Bernard and Laura and the other
between Edouard and Sophroniska, could be taking place
simultaneously, but there is no indication nor do they offer
any further details concerning how long they have been in
Saas-Fée. The sixth chapter is a letter from Olivier to
Bernard from Corsica that recounts the events in Olivier's
life since receiving Bernard's letter. Finally, the seventh
and last chapter of Part II is completely outside the
temporal framework of the rest of novel. It is the narrator
speaking directly to the reader about the events and
characters of the novel.

194
Part III begins on September 22 and ends in November, a
month and a half later. It is told alternately by the
narrator and Edouard. Each chapter usually centers on a
particular conversation between characters. The primary
narrator follows the actions of the young characters and
Edouard reports on his conversations with the older
characters. Edouard's journal is a time reference as most of
his journal entries at the beginning of Part III are dated.
The events narrated happen sequentially with few exceptions.
Both the primary narrator and Edouard often situate their
respective narratives through the use of time shifters
either in their own voice or through one of the characters.
The odd thing about the time references in this novel
is that they are often contradictory. The discrepancies are
well hidden within the text, but there are so many glaring
mistakes of time reference that it is difficult to assume a
momentary lapse of attention on the part of the author.
For instance, the novel begins on a Wednesday, a hot
day, three weeks before the baccalaureate exam, so possibly
in late June or early July. However, the following day
Olivier says that the same baccalaureate exam is in ten
days. Wednesday is easy to surmise since Olivier tells
Bernard that he heard his brother Vincent speaking with
Laura ". . . avant-hier, lundi soir . . ." (Ill,p.955) Later
Bernard asks Olivier what he is doing the following day,
Thursday. Olivier is going to the train station the next day

195
to meet his uncle Edouard whom he has not seen for six
months. Bernard follows them, steals Edouard's suitcase,
finds Laura, meets Edouard and makes an appointment to meet
with Edouard and Laura the following day, Friday, to leave
for Saas-Fée. After meeting Bernard on Thursday, Edouard
visits La Pérouse who says, in a thinly veiled allusion,
that he will commit suicide in three months. (Ill,p.1062) In
a conversation with Passavant, Lady Griffith says that Laura
left her husband, Félix, after three month of marriage to
come to Pau where she met Vincent. (Ill,p.970)
Problems arise however when Edouard reads Laura's
letter calling him back to Paris. ( 111 , p.984 - 985) She tells
Edouard that it has been more than three months since she
last saw him at Victoria Station just before her departure
for the south of France. She dates that meeting on April 2.
She has written the letter on Monday, two days before the
narration begins, so it should be at least July 4. According
to Edouard's journal, Laura was married on November 5
(III,p.1007) of the previous year, meaning that it was five
months before she left Félix, not three. Also according to
Edouard's journal, he left Paris for England on November 13
(III,p.1031) , meaning that almost eight months have elapsed
since he last saw Olivier, not six. On November 1 Edouard
reports that Pauline Molinier has told him that Vincent ". .
. achéve de se guérir." (Ill,p.1004) Does this mean that

196
Vincent continues to finish getting well at the sanatorium
in Pau for five months?
In the second part the discrepancies are even more
confusing. Bernard writes Olivier on a Monday saying that
they have been in Saas-Fée for six days, meaning that they
arrived the previous Tuesday or Wednesday. Since they
presumably left on a Friday, does that mean that it took
them four or five days to reach Saas-Fée? That is possible,
but Edouard notices the name of Victor Strouvilhou on the
hotel register and is told by the manager that Strouvilhou
left the hotel two days before their arrival. (Ill,p.1088)
Near the end of the first part, as Olivier is leaving
Passavant's office on Thursday afternoon, a visitor is
announced and he notices the name on the card, Victor
Strouvilhou. (Ill,p.1044) That would mean that Edouard and
company arrived in Saas-Fée on Saturday, not in the middle
of the next week. Bernard presents Edouard with a
counterfeit gold coin that he bought from a shopkeeper who
said someone had paid him with it several days earlier.
(Ill,p.1086 ) The reader knows the counterfeiter to be
Strouvilhou, but it was at least eight days earlier that he
left Saas-Fée.
The third part begins with a reassuring journal entry
dated September 22. But in the third chapter, another of
Edouard's journal entries dated September 29, Edouard visits
La Pérouse and finds him in a foul mood. On September 22, a

197
Wednesday, La Pérouse received a visit from his grandson,
Boris. He says that day, September 22, was three months
exactly since he had told Edouard that he was going to
commit suicide. That would mean that their conversation took
place on June 23, not after July 4 as Laura's previously
mentioned letter would indicate. Edouard promises to take La
Pérouse over to the school for the opening day, in two days,
therefore on October 1. But the previous day in a discussion
with Azais, Edouard is told that classes resume in two days,
that is, September 30. The evening following opening day,
Bernard tells Edouard that he has his exam in two days,
either October 2 or 3. Olivier comes to see Bernard on the
day of his exam and the narrator says that he returned the
previous day. The narrator then refers back to Olivier's
meeting with Edouard at the train station two months
earlier, which would make the Thursday of their meeting
August 1 or 2. Furthermore, if September 22 is a Wednesday
then September 29 is also a Wednesday. That means that
opening day is Thursday or Friday. On the evening of opening
day Bernard tells Edouard that he has his exams in two days,
Saturday or Sunday. Saturday would make more sense certainly
and the
day of
the exam Olivier
invites Bernard
to
the
'Soirée
des Argonautes'.
After the
party he writes
to
his
brother
Georges
asking
him to re
trieve his things
from
Passavant's place
the next day, Sunday. There seems
to
be a
concordance here if one follows the Azais chronology placing

198
opening day on Thursday, September 30 and Bernard's exam
and the party on Saturday, October 2. However, on Saturday
Olivier goes looking for Edouard who isn't home, but the
narrator says he is visiting Pauline. The following chapter
is an undated entry in Edouard's journal, but from the
previous chapter one may conclude that it is Saturday.
Edouard says that he had lunch with Oscar Molinier two days
earlier, that is Thursday, September 30, but the journal
entry of that day was September 27.
The reader has a right to ask the meaning of all of
these time discrepancies. Are they simply careless errors by
an author known for his scrupulous attention to detail? But
if it is intentional, then what is the point? The errors do
not seem to belong to either of the two narrators
exclusively and they are not limited to any character or
group of characters. Edouard is the primary source of time
reference in the novel. His journal provides the reader with
dates as points of reference for the action. Unfortunately
he isn't always so circumspect in dating his entries and so
violates one of the basic rules of journal writing, ignoring
the calendar. Blanchot says of the journal writer, ". . . il
doit respecter le calendrier. C'est le pacte qu'il signe. Le
calendrier est son démon, 1'inspirateur, le compositeur, le
provocateur et le gardien."-’ Edouard, by ignoring this
dictum, by not respecting time, has undermined the narrative
and abandoned the reader.

199
Perhaps an explanation must be sought within the deep
structure of the novel as a problem of the function of time
in the narrative
Alain Goulet tries
to
j ustify
the time
discrepancies
through a theory
o f
the s u
b j
e c t i v e
relationship that
the characters have
to
events.
He
claims
that, . . chaqué fois que surgit une divergence dans la
chronologie, le point de vue qui peut étre considéré comme
erroné est révélateur d'une passion.
This theory works for the specific errors that he cites
such as Olivier advancing the date of the baccalaureate exam
or Edouard's precipitous presentation of Laura's marriage or
Lady Griffith's underestimation of the time Laura had spent
with her husband before leaving for Pau. The subjective
conflict of chronology is more difficult to justify in the
case of the beginning date of the novel. If Goulet accepts
early July as the most logical date based on Laura's letter
to Edouard, then how does he justify La Pérouse's
declaration on September 22 that he had spoken to Edouard
exactly three months earlier. Following Goulet's logic that
Olivier moved up the date of his exam so as to be able to
spend more time with his uncle, how does he justify
Olivier's underestimation of Edouard's absence when it would
seem more logical that he exaggerate it? Although Goulet
says that there is nothing in the second part that would
permit it to be dated, it is clear that Bernard's letter
mentioning a day and a quantity of time does permit one to

200
establish a chronology in relation to the first part, as
does S tr ouvilhou' s departure date, even if the two are in
contradiction. Goulet's psychological explanation for the
time discrepancies does not follow. His general statement
concerning the floating or contradictory chronology is
nevertheless valid. He writes that the narrator,
a voulu brouiller toute recherche d'ordre
référentiel, et surtout que flottements et
contradictions résultent du nouveau "réalisme"
qu'il recherche. le narrateur s'efface en
tant que meneur de jeu pour laisser la place á une
multitude de points de vue partiels et limités de
personnages assumant tour á tour la fonction de
narrateur, dont la parole et la mémoire sont
toujours sujet á caution, qui déforment ou
déplacent les faits, et qui, par leurs
indications, témoignent de la relativité de leurs
connaissanees . ^
Goulet is correct in his assertion as far as it goes, but he
nevertheless begs the question as to the object of this new
realism. Roman Jakobson speaks of realism as a code which he
calls an ideogram. He writes
The ideogram needs to be deformed. The artist
innovator must impose a new form upon our
perception if we are to detect in a given thing
those traits which went unnoticed the day before.
The term 'realism' implies a mimetic relationship
between the stylized narration and the experience of the
reader in the exterior world. Linda Hutcheon claims that

201
Le 'réalisme psychologique' du début du XXe
siécle, que la conscience auto-centrique des
romantiques avait rendu possible, a élargi, encore
une fois á travers une sorte de mouvement
dialectique, le sens de la mimésis romanesque au
point d'y indure aussi bien le processus que le
produit.9
Gide is able to accomplish this in a most striking
manner through the character Edouard who is paradoxically
writing a novel of the same title and including many of the
same events as the novel the reader is reading. He is
therefore placed in an ambiguous position and forced to
question the validity of the text he is reading. Michel
Zeraffa astutely remarks
Pour révéler toutefois la symbiose du concret
et de 1'interprété, du spontané et de l'artifice,
du direct et de l'indirect, il fallait recourir
d ' un mode de médiation qui participát tout
ensemble de l'écrivain et de ses personnages, du
vécu et du regard critique sur celui-ci. La
presence "filtrante" du romancier Edouard dans le
roman résoudra le faux dilemme: art ou réalisme,
et permettra á Gide de fonder son récit sur le
caractére essent i e11ement indéterminé de
l'existence, sur la précarité, la variabilité des
rapports humains et des consciences.^®
This is the power of language, to absorb the objective
reality of history and transform it into a subjective
reality. The object of this new realism is no longer to lull
the reader into a false sense of identification with the
characters and the situation, relating to the narrative as

202
he would to memoirs or to a history book. The new realist
wants to make the reader aware of the artifice through a
process of defamiliarization.
La dénudation des procédés littéraires dans
la métafiction dirige l'attention du lecteur sur
les éléments forméis dont, par excés de
familiarisation, il est devenu inconscient. Par la
prise de conscience du matériau qui sert désormais
de toile de fond, de nouveaux appels á préter
attention et á participer activement influencent
l'acte de lecture.^
Subjective versus Objective Time
The internal and external anachronism of Les Faux-
Monnaveur s points to the difference between objective time
and subjective time. Typically, in realist novels, the
narrator properly represents objective time through the
'récit', carefully arranging the sequence of events so that,
even with flashbacks, a linear development in time may be
re-established. The characters themselves are permitted to
be mistaken or even to deliberately falsify the sequence of
events. But the narrator in Les Faux-Monnaveurs is
unreliable to the point that he cannot be trusted to
properly place the events in time. This is but another means
by which the 'récit' dissolves into the 'discours', blurring
distinctions between the primary narrator and Edouard, and
by extension with the other characters in the novel. Gide in
effect unveils the illusion of reality that the novelist

203
would create and implicitly attacks the notion of objective
time in the dynamic movement of history. Ironically, clocks
appear constantly in the narration, but it is the idea alone
that inhabits objective time. Lukács stated
La plus grande discordance entre l'idée et la
réalité est le temps, le déroulement du temps
comme durée. . . . Et c'est pourquoi le roman, qui
est la seule forme correspondant á l'errance
transcendanta1e de l'idée, est aussi la seule
forme qui, parmi ses principes constituents, fasse
place au temps réel, á la durée bergsonienne. ^
Wolfgang Holdheim treats this problem directly in an
interesting analysis of Les Faux-Monnaveurs as a vitalistic
novel. It represents an evolving present that is both open
to the past, as the action depends on anterior relations
among the characters, and open to the future, as so many of
the separate destinies of the characters remain unresolved
at the end. This openness to the past, rather than loosening
up the narrative system, make things more complicated and
tend to disorient the reader. All of the narrative threads
left hanging at the end seem very contrived. But Holdheim
sees Gide's play here of structure and time as an ingenious
artifice that allows the author to represent the process of
becoming.'' Although Gide seems to be engaged in the
creative structura1ization of chaos, always incomplete,
Holdheim claims that he is actually doing just the reverse
because

204
His point of departure is form, not chaos--spatial
concentration and not temporal dispersion.
Instead of an active structurization of chaos we
have a mimetic "chaotization" of structure;
instead of an irremediably incomplete
formalization there is a finished system that
strives to create the impression of temporal
incompleteness. This would-be decentralization is
itself purely formal. The flux of time has been
reduced to its external structure.
What Gide's novel presents is the abstract
pattern, the architecture of duration.^
Holdheim sees a progression, in Gide's soties, toward a
gradual loosening of the structure. But it is with Les Faux-
Monnaveurs that the author is finally able to construct a
mobile structure.
Dynamism becomes inherent in the structure qua
structure, the system as such begins to move. The
weakening of form has become a specifically formal
enterprise, a systematic "ironization" which poses
as an image of time.^-*
The mode of presentation in the first part of Les Faux-
Monnaveurs is simultaneity. The events of the novel begin
after Bernard has reset the clock on his mother's bureau.
The narrator skips around Paris visiting the different
characters, often going back a few hours to report what was
happening somewhere else at the same time. Even the passages
from Edouard's journal that are situated eight months
earlier seem to press events together illogically and the
confusion about the lapse of time between the last entry and

205
Edouard's return to France seems to reinforce the
simultaneity. But most of all, as the journal passages are
inserted within the present narrative and read by Bernard
who uses them to his own advantage in the present to, as it
were, insert himself into Edouard's narrative, they are more
relevant to the present narration. If the mode here is
simultaneity, the perspective is nevertheless oriented
toward the past. Bernard is escaping from his family after
discovering the truth about his origins. Vincent is escaping
from his responsibility to Laura. Laura is escaping from her
marriage to Félix. Edouard is trying to find the passion he
had with Laura in Olivier. La Pérouse is trying to establish
a relationship with his dead son through his grandson.
In the second part, although the events seem to be
reported sequentially, there are no clear indications as to
the lapse of time between the chapters. The confusion about
the lapse of time between the departure from Paris and the
arrival in Saas-Fée serves to reenforce the feeling of
timelessness in the second part. The action in chapters two
through five is bracketed by the two retrospective letters
of Bernard and Olivier in chapters one and six. It is as if
time stood still and the characters were living in a
continuous present while the freudian Sophroniska takes
apart the mechanism of Boris' mind, cleans it and puts it
back together again like jeweler repairing a clock. This
last metaphor is coined by Edouard as he speaks with

206
Sophroniska in Chapter 5. The last chapter of Part II is
outside of time. The narrator speaks to the reader directly
as within parentheses and introduces the action of the third
par t.
The third part then is sequential in its presentation
bringing all of the characters of the first part back
together again and untying the relationships that developed
in the first part. Lady Griffith dies, murdered by Vincent.
Olivier tries to commit suicide. La Pérouse tries to commit
suicide and ends up haunted by the sound of a clock ticking
in the wall over his bed. Laura returns to her husband.
Bernard returns to his father. Bronja dies and Boris, as the
pre - appointed time arrives on the clock of the study hall,
commits suicide with the very pistol that his grandfather
had prepared for his own suicide. But these various sub¬
plots remain essentially unresolved. The reader can only
guess what happens to Vincent in Africa and what will happen
to the Vedel family, whether Laura will remain with Félix,
whether Georges will reform, whether Bernard will find his
authentic existence, whether Armand has a fatal disease,
whether Passavant will finally publish his avant-garde
journal with Strouvilhou as editor and "demonetize"
literature and, of course, whether Edouard will ever write
his pure novel. From this perspective, the novel opens
toward the future of infinite possibilities. These loose
ends present problems for those accustomed to the typically

207
closed form of the realist novel that draws all the loose
ends together at the end.
Esthetics and Ethics
There is a general sense of resignation in all of these
characters, even Edouard who, though seemingly unaffected by
the events, is no closer to writing the pure novel he has
been talking about and only looks forward to getting to know
Bernard's younger brother Caloub. Nothing, in effect has
been resolved. It
i s
a s
if
the
only
resolution to
the
narrator's dilemma
at
the
end
o f
Part
II is to stifle
the
existential freedom of these characters who have come to
life through his pen but over whose existence he has lost
control.
. . . devant l'imminence de la mort, il se
poursuit dans une háte extreme, mais aussi il
recommence, se raconte lui-méme, découvre le récit
du récit et cet emboitement qui pourrait bien ne
s'achever jamais. Le langage, sur la ligne de la
mort, se réfléchit: il y rencontre comme un miroir
Boris' suicide is the apotheosis toward which the
narration builds. The third part begins with La Pérouse's
aborted suicide attempt. The beginning of Chapter 9, in
other words in the middle of the third part, Olivier
attempts suicide and is saved by Edouard. In the final

208
chapter death finally comes as a provisional solution to the
narrator's dilemma.
. la part invisible, mais qui est essentielle-
ment la pression de la narration elle-méme, le
mouvement merveilleux et terrible que le fait
d'écrire exerce sur la vérité, tourment, torture,
violence qui conduisent finalement á la mort oü
tout parait se révéler, oü tout cependant retombe
dans le doute et le vide des ténébres.^
One might say that there is no solid footing in this
novel of shifting and unreliable narrative voice. If the
internal chronology of Les Faux-Monnaveurs is deceptive, it
is fair to say that the historical setting of the novel is
just as problematic. Goulet provides a valuable close
reading of the text to situate it in history. He concludes
that the majority of events must occur between 1906 and
1910, although there are historical references ranging from
1897 to 1919.18 The gold coin disappeared from circulation
in 1914 which makes that date a limit since a good part of
the intrigue centers around counterfeited gold coins.
However, as Goulet points out, there are ample references to
events after the war, particularly to the dadaist movement,
born in Zurich in 1916, and to freudian theory which,
according to Goulet, was largely unknown in France until
1920. The only year mentioned in the novel is 1904, the
vintage of a bottle of Montrachet that Edouard recalls being
refused by an acquaintance of his. This then would be a

209
limit on the other end. However, while at the Banquet des
Argonautes,Edouard mentions that Alfred Jarry's Ubu Roi has
just been booed by the public. The first representation of.
Ubu Roi was in December, 1 8 9 6, making this another
anachronism.
Les Faux-Monnaveurs is inaccurate both in its internal
chronology and in its exterior reference to historical
events. Foreseeing the inevitable attempts of critics to
situate his novel and reduce it to a roman a clef, Gide
seems to perversely invite anecdotal criticism á la Sainte-
Beuve by multiplying references to easily identifiable
people and historical events while at the same time
rendering it totally ineffectual as a means of analyzing his
novel. In affirming the purity of the novel form, Gide plays
with its narrative relationship to history, asserting its
independence and specificity.
But there is much more happening in this novel than
thumbing one's nose at the critics. History is present, not
only in the contingent events that happened at a certain
moment in time, but in the dynamic process of history. It is
like the crystal of the counterfeit coin, hidden beneath the
thin gold patina of the narrative events that wears off with
use to reveal the abstraction. Raymond Mahieu has written a
brillant article in which he has shown the subtle
integration of history as a concept within Les Faux -
Monnaveurs. He says, "Si 1'Histoire se fait parler ici,

210
c'est á coup sür moyennant des médiatisations , sur un mode
oblique et allusif."^ Mahieu organizes his argument around
what he calls two insistant motifs: a fable and an object.
The fable is the story that Vincent tells about the
territorial imperatives of certain fish and the peculiar
ability to adapt to their environment of certain others
during the evening with Passavant and Lillian at
Rambouillet. The first question that Mahieu poses is whether
this zoology lecture should indeed be qualified as a story.
The only answer is that within the novel it is explicitly
presented as such. More interesting though is the fact that
this seemingly banal story is retold in abbreviated form by
several different narrators during the course of the novel.
This circulation of the story among the characters presents
several traits characteristic of economic exchange,
particularly in the case of the use Passavant makes of it.
Passavant recounts his version of the story in modified
form, and as if it were the fruit of his own studies, to
Olivier not so much to instruct him about natural history as
to impress him and win his admiration with an 'original'
idea. Mahieu sees here a transformation of the story from
use value, as instructional material, to an exchange value,
through which Passavant obtains Olivier's admiration. This
circulation of texts within Les Faux-Monnaveurs. either
written texts, such as letters, which are passed around
among characters, or stories told by various characters and

211
retold by others to different ends, is a reflection of the
changing status of language, especially artistic language,
within an evolving economic context.
Ce n'est que dans une société de marché dans
laquelle, á cóté des livres et des oeuvres d'art
transformés en marchandises , l'écriture elle-méme
est commercialisée, que les clichés apparaissent:
Des combinaisons de mots, des phrases et des
figures rhétoriques produites pour le marché, pour
1'échange.^0
Mahieu argues convincingly that this particular story
is of crucial importance in the novel and all the more so
because of the way in which it circulates among characters.
We have already shown in a previous chapter how other texts
within Les Faux-Monnaveurs circulate among the characters
and reappear unexpectedly; but there is another very telling
part of Gide's project that opens the novel to the outside
world. That, of course, is the Journal des Faux-Monnaveurs
that he published soon afterwards. This is what one might
call a mise en abyme extra-diégétique, to follow Genette's
terminology. Gide's Journal des Faux-Monnaveurs is a mirror
image of Edouard's journal, as a sort of captain's log of
narrative navigation. There are numerous passages from
Gide's journal that are reproduced in Edouard's journal or
elsewhere in the novel. This tends to reenforce the
identification between Gide and his protagonist Edouard.
Gide also provides the reader with the "sources" of some of

212
the primary events in his novel by reproducing newspaper
clippings and autobiographical references. The effect of
this added dimension to Les Faux-Monnaveurs is double. On
the one hand it places the novel all the more firmly in
history, but on the other hand, as a final irony, in
pointing to this relationship Gide shows the essential
quality of art as a transformation of reality into form.
In the middle of the novel Edouard tells his friends in
Saas-Fée that his novel has no subject but is a novel about
the process and problems of writing a novel, "Ce que je
veux, c’est présenter d'une part la réalité, présenter
d'autre part cet effort pour la styliser . . ." (Ill,p.1081)
Later in the same conversation he tells how he is proceeding
. . . au lieu de me contenter de résoudre, á
mesure qu'elle se propose, chaqué difficulté (et
toute oeuvre d'art n'est que la somme ou le
produit des solutions d'une quantité de menúes
difficultés successives), chacune de ces
difficultés, je l'expose, je l'étudie. . . . si je
ne parviens pas á l'écrire, ce livre, c'est que
l'histoire du livre m'aura plus intéressé que le
livre lui-méme; qu'elle aura pris sa place .
(III,p.1083)
Sophroniska astutely accuses Edouard of writing a novel in
which ideas will have greater importance than human beings,
to which Edouard responds, "Les idées ..., les idées, je
vous l'avoue, m'intéresse plus que les hommes; m'intéresse
par-dessus tout." (Ill,p.1084) But the only thing certain
about Edouard's novel is the title, Les Faux-Monnaveurs. the

213
same title as the novel in which he is a character. The
reader is naturally drawn into the discussion of this mirror
image of the novel he is reading and his interest is
certainly piqued by Bernard's question as to who the
counterfeiters are because, up to this point in the novel,
no mention has been made of any counterfeiters. Edouard's
response is that he has no idea. The reader will later be
introduced to the band of counterfeiters, a group of
adolescents directed by the shadowy figure, Strouvilhou, but
they occupy only a marginal place in the novel. Edouard in
fact does have an idea. At first he thought of his fellow
writers as counterfeiters, particularly Passavant, but his
idea had quickly become more generalized and extended beyond
his characters into abstraction, "Les idées de change, de
dé valo r i s a t i on , d'inflation, peu á peu envahissaient son
livre . . . oil elles usurpaient la place des personnages . "
(III,p.1085) The ideas around which his novel will be
constructed then are economic ideas, more specifically ideas
related to monetary theory. Mahieu writes
Comment croire que l'esthétique seul soit ici en
jeu, dans son idéale clóture? A la vérité, dans un
monde totalement monétarisé, emporté dans le
décodage délirant de 1'abstraction universelle,
tout, et y compris le projet artistique, se résout
en monnaie, et, n é cessa irement , en fausse
21
monnaie.

214
What more perfect metaphor for a work of fiction than
this counterfeit coin--the appearance and sound of reality
covering a crystalline structure.
Les Faux-Monnaveurs is rife with money metaphors. Some
of the most obvious examples, are the "singuliére incapacité
de jauger son crédit dans le coeur et l'esprit d'autrui"
(III,p.991) common to Edouard and Olivier, or "C'était
l'heure douteuse oü la nuit s ' achéve et oil le diable fait
ses comptes" (III,p.973) as Vincent triumphantly returns to
Lillian's apartment after winning back his money at Pédro's
casino. Bernard tells Laura that he wants to, "Valoir
exactement ce qu'on parait; ne pas chercher á paraitre plus
qu'on ne vaut . . (Ill, p. 1094) Bernard and Laura both
feel indebted to Edouard. Laura feels uneasy living "aux
dépens d'Edouard" because she "donne rien en échange."
(Ill,p.1076) Bernard wants to repay Edouard as well--",
monnayeur les richesses dont il soupesait en son coeur
1 ' abondance . " (III,p. 1078) Beyond these metaphorical
references to money are all of the direct references that
often govern the relationships among characters. Passavant
finances Vincent and later Olivier. He also finances the
avant-garde literary journal and those connected with it.
Edouard finances Bernard, Laura, La Pérouse, and the Vedel
family. Albéric Profitendieu feels uncomfortable around
Oscar Molinier because Profitendieu, though lower in rank,

215
is wealthier and he "doit se faire pardonner sa fortune."
(Ill,p.939)
But it is the counterfeit coin that occupies the
central place in Les Faux-Honnaveurs and is a perfect
example of what Ricardou has termed a structural metaphor,
as opposed to an expressive metaphor. Rather than simply
expressing an idea or a theme within the discourse, it is a
metaphor around which the text organizes itself, a generator
of the text. This is also the sense of Dállenbach's
transcendental mise en abyme . Not only is the counterfeit
coin a representation of the text, but it is also at the
origin of the text as a fundamental key to its meaning.
Gide's mentor, Mallarmé also used the metaphor of a coin to
represent words in his "Variations sur un sujet"
Narrer, enseigner, máme décrire, cela va et
encore qu'á chacun suffirait peut-étre pour
échanger la pensée humaine, de prendre ou de
mettre dans la main d'autrui en silence une piece
de monnaie, l'emploi élémentaire du discours
dessert l'universel reportage dont, la littérature
exceptée, participe tout entre les genres d'écrits
contemporains.^2
Raymond Mahieu finds the counterfeit coin to be a
representation of all money, necessarily a false form of
value, arbitrarily evaluated, always subject to devaluation
and, as a result, the factor of universal disorder. The
value of the counterfeit coin is inherently unstable. When
it is first introduced, it has been bought by Bernard for

216
five francs from the merchant who had previously accepted at
its face value of ten francs. Its true value for the
producer was the cost of the materials, estimated by Bernard
to be worth a little more than two cents. Georges and his
friends buy the ten franc coins for one franc apiece. Mahieu
finds a clear lesson in this
. . . cet instrument de l'échange, qui n'a d'autre
raison d'étre que de fournir, comme mesure fixe,
un pivot á toutes transactions, ne répond pas á ce
qu'on attend de lui , puisqu'on le découvre sans
valeur stable. La piece se dé fini t comme
fluctuation pure . . .^3
Strouvilhou's conversation with Passavant is the key to this
broader understanding, as he quotes Gresham's Law: "la
mauvaise monnaie chasse la bonne." (Ill,p.1198) The
counterfeit coin undermines the value of authentic money by
placing all money in doubt, just as Georges' friend Philippe
wants to ask after Georges has bought cigarettes with one of
the false coins and returns with the change, "Tu es sur au
moins qu'ils sont bons, ceux-la?" (Ill,p.1146) Mahieu sees
here a larger problem of a socio-economic nature,
. . . Gide ouvre le procés , non seulement de la
monnaie, mais en máme temps du total déréglement
que son utilisation généralisée inflige aux
sociétés qui en ont fait leur loi. Installer ainsi
l'économie, ses contradictions et ses implica¬
tions, au centre du roman, ce serait sans nul
doute l'ouvrir tout grand á l'Histoire . . .*4

217
Holdheim takes a somewhat different tack to arrive at a
similar point of view. He sees within Les Faux-Monnaveurs a
thematic of social forgery and, once again, inscribes this
theme within the problematic of time
Falsification is this world's principle of
movement, the mainspring of a universal dynamism
based on appearance and make-believe.
Appropriately it is Strouvilhou who finds the
perfect definition of this theme in Gresham's law
. . There rises the image of inflation, which is
nothing else than false (devaluative) growth--a
perpetually active substitution of the false for
the genuine, a qualitatively degraded version of
"becoming. " ^ 5
The counterfeit coin is more than a metaphor for
literature as a false representation of reality. It is the
means by which Gide places his narrative within the general
problematic of the possibility of language to represent and
of the search for authentic values.
In one of the most brilliant re-evaluations of Gide's
novel in recent years, Jean-Joseph Goux forcefully argues
that Les Faux-Monnaveurs is an exemplary representation of a
fundamental crisis in values in the early Twentieth
Century. D Goux organizes his analysis around three key
concepts that constantly reappear as themes in Gide's text,
money, language and paternity; concepts that determine our
mode of symbolization and social exchange.
It is no mere coincidence that the action of Les Faux-
Monnaveurs is situated before the disappearance of the gold

218
coin from circulation and the writing of the novel
afterwards. Goux sees the shift away from money that
actually contains the value which is inscribed on its face
to a form of money that only represents that same value, but
in principle may be converted into a fixed quantity of gold,
to, finally, a conventional money that cannot be converted
and, indeed, is of indeterminate value and subject to the
forces of time in the forms of inflation and devaluation as
both Mahieu and Holdheim have already pointed out. To
reenforce his arguments, Goux refers to a text on monetary
theory written at the end of the Nineteenth Century written
by none other than Charles Gide, André's uncle and eminent
professor of economy at the College de France. But Goux goes
beyond the previous two critics in his analysis of the
relationship between money and language. He establishes an
homology between the three phases in the development of
monetary value and a similar series of developments in
literature.
Victor Hugo' writing is the avatar of a golden language
that pretends to the fullness of being, able to immediately
express both the subjectivity of the interior world and the
objectivity of the exterior world. Such a language is both
expressive and descriptive
II est pensé comme le véhicule adéquat du sens, ce
par quoi se signifient pleinement 1'áme et le
monde, et cette plénitude de la signification
langagiére permet l'économie de toute

219
interrogation sur la valeur du langage dans son
rapport á l'étre.^7
In Les Faux-Monnaveurs this point of view is represented by
Bernard particularly in chapter four of Part II during his
discussion with Laura concerning sincerity, "Valoir
exactement ce qu'on parait; ne pas chercher á paraitre plus
qu'on ne vaut ..." (Ill,p.1094) Bernard also argues with
Edouard that a novelist should be simple and direct in his
representation of the world.
It is Zola whom Goux designates as the avatar of
representative paper money. Here the question of the
convertibility of the sign for the thing becomes
problematic. For the naturalist writer, language is an
instrument
Le langage ne sera plus pensé comme exprimant
pleinement . . . la réalité, l'étre; il sera
nécessairement con?u comme un moyen, un
instrument, relativement autonome, á l'aide duquel
il est possible de se faire une certaine
représentation, plus ou moins exacte de la
réalité.^®
It is Passavant who offers the best illustration of this
mimetic fonction of language as a instrument of exchange
between individuals. Mahieu says of Passavant: "Dispensateur
de propos toujours maitrisés, ayant réponse (ou replique) á
tout, l'écrivain mondain apparait comme une figure
exemplaire de régulateur des échanges langagiers . . ."29

220
Passavant, the decadent aristocrat who is always short of
money, is the banker of language and Mahieu goes further in
his description of Passavant's language
Les propositions anodines de Passavant
désignent, sous-tendant le mouvement de la parole,
un univers, totalement ouvert, décloisonné,
fluide, de 1'échange marchand, oü tout est
susceptible de se dissoudre dans la conversion, oü
rien ne s'offre plus qui ne puisse s'évaluer sur
le fond d'une équivalence généralisée.
When language is no longer conceived either as an
imaginary gold money or as an imaginary convertible money
but simply as conventional money that cannot be converted,
. . c'est un moment véritablement critique de la
confiance dans la valeur du langage qui s'annonce.
Cette crise touche la philosophie comme la
littérature, et elle atteint aussi, et peut-étre
d'abord, la théorie méme du langage.^
Ferdinand de Saussure and Hjelmslev represent two modern
currents of linguistic theory that are founded on the idea
of the inconvertibility of signs. For both of them, as with
conventional money, there is nothing outside of language
that acts as its foundation; language is a relational and
differential system. In language like in money there is a
disincarnation of value.

221
Irony
To return to Les Faux-Monnaveurs. Gide finds himself
faced with the impossibility of language to reflect
objective reality or to express subjective reality and
presents two possible responses to this situation in the
radical stances of two of his characters. Strouvilhou
represents the tragic and destructive attitude which Goux
identifies with Nietzsche's nihilistic response to the death
of God.
II peut avouer et revendiquer la banqueroute
du langage, dénon?ant 1' illusion de la
convertibilité par une écriture qui se donne
explicitement comme non-convertible.
This is indeed Strouvi1hou's project for Passavant's
literary journal
Je vous en avertis si je dirige une revue, ce sera
pour y crever des outres, pour y démonétiser tous
les beaux sentiments, et ces billets á ordre: les
mots." (Ill,p.1198)
Edouard represents the constructivist attitude that Goux
relates to Plato and Kant, an inte 1leetualist attitude that
pretends to remain within the economic register of golden or
representative language but manages to escape by other
means. This other means employed by Edouard and by Gide is

222
only alluded to by Goux as a reflection on the linguistic
medium, that is, a self-conscious novel that poses the
problem of its relationship to the exterior world. It is
through the use of irony that the modern novelist is able to
establish this interior distance that allows him to express
the dilemma of modern man. To quote Lukács again,
. . . 1'ironie, en donnant forme á la réalité, en
tant que puissance victorieuse, ne se contente pas
de révéler l'inanité de cette réalité en face de
ce qu'elle a vaincu . . . mais elle montre aussi
que la supériorité du monde tient beaucoup moins á
sa force propre, bien trop brutalement privée de
toute orientation pour lui permettre de
l'emporter, qu'á une prob1ématique interne et
pourtant nécessaire de 1'áme lestée d'idéal.^^
This in effect is the situation of the characters in
Les Faux-Monnaveurs. all of them searching in their own way
for a fullness of being. The problem is that there is no
central bank of golden values where the characters can
finally arrive to close out their accounts. There are no
longer any criteria by which the
characters can distinguish authentic values from counterfeit
ones. Holdheim sees counterfeiting not as just any subject
for a novel, but as the subject par excellence of the modern
novel. Holdheim writes
It is traditional that a crisis of life should be
reflected by the ironic self-examination of art,
. . Gide's novel has pushed this tradition to its
conclusion: the absorption of the existential

223
critique by the literary auto-critique in the
person of the hero.^
Gide's crisis of life was, it would seem, perpetual. He
lived in the mode of re-evaluation, in a state of dynamic
tension, refusing to conclude and, in so doing, fix his
being. In his 1939 preface for L'Immoraliste. Gide said,
Je ne prétends pas, certes, que la neutralité
(j'allais dire: 1'indécis ion) soit signe sur d' un
grand esprit; mais je crois que maints grands
esprits ont beaucoup répugné á . conclure--et
que bien poser un probléme n'est pas le supposer
d'avance résolu. (Ill, p.367)
Nowhere is this penchant for neutrality more evident, one
might even say systematized, than in Les Faux - Monnaveur s .
This dynamic tension of ambiguity is established by the
distance that the author maintains between himself and the
reader. The author's presence permeates the text and yet,
paradoxically, he is absent from the text as guarantor of
its meaning. This paradoxical situation derives from the
distance established by the ironic narrator. Raymond Gay-
Crosier correctly states that,
L'ironie est un phénoméne qui s'infiltre dans
toute activité humaine sitót que 1'agent se fait
. . . acteur qui se regarde en spectateur, c'est-
á-dire fait un effort de détachement lucide.^

224
Gay-Crosier goes on to discuss irony in Les Faux-Monnaveurs
from three different perspectives: the existential, the
conceptual and the narrato 1ogical. Gay-Crosier says that
irony reflects a conflictual or binary structure of the
world as we perceive it. This fundamental dualism is
expressed by the principle of alterity that allows us to
perceive an object other than it is in reality.
This is in effect one of the primary functions of
literature; not simply that it presents a fictive world, but
more importantly, how it presents the fictive reality
through the use of language and form. Irony is both an
affirmation and a negation. It presents what it states as
true while at the same time undermining that affirmation
through critical distance and se 1 f-ref1ection . From a
conceptual point of view irony, in its alterity, figures a
play between identity and non-identity, much as a metaphor
both is and isn't what it seems to be. Paul Ricoeur defines
a metaphor as,
un événement sémantique qui se produit au point
d'intersection entre plusieurs champs sémantiques.
Cette construction est le moyen par lequel tous
les mots pris ensemble reqoivent sens. ... la
torsion métaphorique est á la fois un événement et
une signification, un événement signifiant, une
signification émergente créée par le langage.^
By the same token, Gide's mise en abyme functions as a
supe r - me taphor within the text as a play of identity and

225
non - i den t i ty , as shown in the previous chapter, not only
within several sémantique fields at the level of the
statement (énoncé), but also on the level of the enunciation
and the code. The mise en abyme adds another twist to the
metaphoric event. Gay-Crosier says,
L'incongru, la non-correspondance entre le monde
réel et le monde perqu, c'est-á-dire interprété,
est une donnée existentielle qui incite l'ironiste
á réduire tout événement á un pseudo-événement, á
transformer toute réalité statique et simple en
fiction dynamique et complexe.^
In terms of the narrative instance this goes far beyond a
metaphor as a critical event that literally feeds on itself
and forces the reader into a critical stance, not only in
relation to the text he is reading, but in relation to the
act of reading. Holdheim is certainly correct when he
writes ,
In the Faux-Monnaveurs at last, the self-conscious
novelist in his different incarnations or
d i s i n c a r n a t i o n s . . . coincides with the
problematical individual in quest of being, the
Author as such becomes the prototype of modern
Man.39
But it should be added that the reader is left with a deep
sense of longing, what Lukács called lucid resignation, by
this ultimate ironic text.

226
L'ironie supréme est que l'absence du fond
. . . est nécessaire á sa poursuite. . . . ni
1'auteur/lecteur ni le lecteur/auteur ne saurait
en occuper le centre máme si au moment de
1'écriture ou de la lecture il semble le faire.
. . . 1'écriture et la lecture sont par définition
des actes décentrants qui mettent á la fois en
question le ressort qui les anime, c'est-á-dire la
puissante nostalgie d'unité, et la notion d'auteur
original et originel.^®
NOTES
1.Gérard Genette, Figures III. Paris, Editions du Seuil,
1972, p.227.
2. George Lukács, La Théorie du roman. Paris, Gonthier,
1968, p.6 7.
3.Ibid., p.121.
4. Foucault, p.44.
5. Maurice Blanchot, Le Livre á venir. Paris, Gallimard,
1959, p.224.
6. Alain Goulet, Fiction et vie sociale dans l'oeuvre
d'André Gide. Paris, Publications de 1'Association des Amis
d'André Gide, 1984-1985, p.112.
7 . Ibid. , p . 109.
8. Roman Jakobson, "On Realism in Art," Readings in Russian
Poetics: Formalist and Structuralist Views, eds . Ladislav
Matyka and Krystyna Pomorska, Cambridge, M.I.T. Press, 1971,
p . 40 .
9. Hutcheon, p.97.
10. Zeraffa, p.100.
11. Hutcheon, p.96.
12. Lukács, p.119.
13. Wolfgang Holdheim, Theory and Practice of the Novel. A
Study on André Gide. Geneve, Droz, 1968, p.239.

227
14 . Ibid. , p.240
15. Ibid.
16. Foucault, p.45.
17. Blanchot, p.164.
18. Goulet, p.105-109.
19. Raymond Mahieu, "Présence d'une absente ou Les Faux-
Monnaveurs et 1'Histoire , " André G ide 7. Paris, Lettres
Modernes, 1982, p.49.
20. Pierre Zima, Pour une sociologie du texte littéraire.
Paris, Union Générale d'Editions, 1978, p.92.
21. Mahieu, p.6 3.
22. Stéphane Mallarmé, Oeuvres Completes. Paris, Gallimard,
1945, p.368.
23. Mahieu, p.60
24. Ibid., p.61.
25. Holdheim, p.257.
26. Jean Joseph Goux, Les Monnaveurs du langage. Paris,
Editions Galilée, 1984.
27 . Ibid. , p.27.
28 . Ibid. , p.30.
29. Raymond Mahieu, "Réticences et ruptures dans le récit
gidien," Bulletin des Amis d'André Gide. Paris, Lettres
Modernes, October, 1987, p.40.
30. Ibid., p.41.
31 . Goux, p.31.
32 . Ibid. , p.29.
3 3. Lukács, p.81.
34. Holdheim, p.260.
35. Raymond Gay-Crosier, "Régistres de l'ironie gidienne:
les cas des Faux - Monnaveurs . " Lecture presented at the

228
Colloque André Gide at the Sorbonne in Paris on January 14,
1984. p.l.
36 . Ibid. , p.6.
37. Paul Ricoeur, La Métanhore vive. Paris, Editions du
Seuil, 1975, p.127.
38. Gay-Crosier, p.6.
39. Holdheim, p.260.
40. Gay-Crosier, p.22.

CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSION
Les Faux-Monnayeurs defies reduction to a single
interpretation. It presents itself rather as a
constellation, inviting the reader to superimpose his own
cultural experience in a gesture of participation, as
ancient Greek sailors did to the constellations in the sky,
connecting the dots to form a mythological figure. The
author of Les Faux-Monnaveurs always seems to be slipping
around the corner before the reader can get a clear fix on
him; leading the reader, to be sure, through a series of
situations, presenting him with problems, but offering no
clear answers. This is a work of modernity, moving beyond
the realist novel much as Einstein moved beyond Newton,
defying common sense and relativizing our notions of
certainty.
I have attempted to show, on the one hand, the
evolution of Gide's esthetics in reaction to commonly held
esthetic principles of his age, and on the other hand, the
inevitable imbrication of ethics within his esthetic point
of view. Gide sought a higher plane of artistic expression
that better mirrored the complex nature of human activity
especially as concerns the representational activity of
229

230
language. It is undeniable that Gide was a product of his
age and that Les Faux-Monnaveurs represents his age--its
institutions, its social structure and its language. The
system of justice is represented through Oscar Molinier and
Albéric Profitendieu . The educational system is amply
described at the Pension Vedel. The Comte de Passavant and
Lady Griffith show the seamy side of the aristocracy. There
is also a considerable amount of time spent recounting the
financial transactions among the various characters. Dr.
Sophroniska introduces the reader to the world of psycho¬
therapy and Strouvilhou makes it clear that the age of
commercial art has truly arrived.
Gide describes in detail the complexity of family
relationships both between parents and children and among
siblings. He also gives considerable attention to different
types of love relationships between members of the opposite
sex and members of the same sex and between lovers of
different generations.
But his novel is a brilliant timeless work that speaks
to the reader today. It is constructed in such a way that it
poses crucial questions about art and morality without
offering any clear answers, only the possibility of
eternally reformulating the questions.
The Naturalist novels and the novels of psychological
realism spoke from a perspective of the world and their
stories oriented the reader toward a specific point of view

231
regarding the events and the actions of the characters.
Theirs was the age of scientific or psychological
certainties, or so it seemed. Positivism had imbued this
generation with a sense of optimism and a belief in progress
through reason. The narrators of late Nineteenth Century
literature were most often omniscient, speaking to the
reader from a privileged position not only in relation to
the story narrated but in relation to knowledge of the
world; they had a didactic function that was part and parcel
of the esthetic ends. This may be understood in the context
of a sudden rise in the literacy rate among the general
population with no concomitant rise in the number of high
school diplomas. There was a rapidly increasing market of
readers from the middle and lower middle classes. But as the
general population became more sophisticated and as cracks
began to show in the prevailing optimistic world view of
limitless progress, the novel began to experience a crisis
of identity. This was not merely a question of fashion - •
Nietzsche, Freud and Marx, to name only the most striking,
introduced a deep feeling of doubt concerning commonly held
ideas and these doubts slowly began to spread and find
confirmation in the events and discoveries of the Twentieth
Century.
The Symbolists, so crucial to Gide's intellectual
development, helped him understand the power of language and
the autonomy of art, but he found them lacking from an

232
ethical point of view. They remained separate from the world
trapped in their solipsistic idealism. Gide was too much of
a classicist to ignore the moral aspects of human activity.
The world may indeed be a text in the sense that our
perception and interpretation of events in the world is
conditioned not only by other texts that we read over the
years, but also by the rules of syntax and grammar through
which we organize our perceptions into language. Language
is, by its very nature, a social phenomenon, allowing man to
externalize perceptions and to abstract from them. Language
is not merely representational; it is intentional and
implies interaction. Gide understood quite well the
importance of tradition, the ability of texts to influence
future generations and future texts. He also understood the
importance of the reader for the author and clearly saw
literature as a communicative activity. The author then
bears a responsibility toward his readers for the message
that he conveys. It is at this point that many of the most
bitter arguments of the Twentieth Century begin--What is the
nature of this responsibility?
Gide struggled against the widespread turn of the
century critical stance that would reduce the literary text
to a simple moral statement meant to instruct the masses and
gratify the elite. As a critic he looked for internal
coherence in a work of art, refusing to judge works based on
a preconceived notion truth and beauty that corresponded to

233
the canon. Along with his colleagues at the Nouvelle Revue
francalse he helped introduce a variety of new writers,
French and foreign, to his reading public.
In his own fiction Gide attacked a series of related
problems from different angles. These problems of
authenticity, sincerity and the representation of reality
recurred in all of his works, presented from a different
perspective in each case. Moral aspects are certainly
present in his work, but he sought to meet the reader on
common ground, inviting active participation rather than a
passive acceptance of the author's manipulation. Gide
achieves this end through the lucid distance of irony.
In Les Faux-Monnaveurs. he finally attempted to bring
all of the elements of his previous works together in a
multivocal representation of a complex set of problems
viewed from several angles simultaneously. It is the mise en
abyme that permits the multiple presentation and creates the
necessity of participation. The form of the novel perfectly
mirrors the problems that constitute its theme. The reader
not only reads about the difficulties of authenticity,
sincerity and communication, but also experiences them as an
event in the novel through the shifting perspective of the
mise en abyme. Gide has managed to show that the fundamental
problems of esthetics are, from a conceptual point of view,
the same as those of our ethical existence.

234
Les Faux-Honnaveurs is a great novel because it
synthesizes, in a subtle mariage of form and content, the
preoccupations of its age. It is a brilliant provocation to
reflect about language and values.

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242
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
I was born in Sanford, Florida, in 1950, but ray family
moved to North Carolina the following year. I attended
school in North Carolina, first in Charlotte then in
Fayetteville for junior high and high school. I graduated
from Fayetteville Senior High School in 1968. I attended
Davidson College in North Carolina from 1968 until 1972.
While a student at Davidson, I spent my junior year (1970-
1971) in Montpellier, France. I was enrolled as an auditor
in the Faculté des Lettres Paul Valéry. After my graduation
from Davidson in 1972, I returned to Montpellier to work and
to improve my French. I came back to the United States in
19 73 to work. In the Summer of 1974 I went to Bogota,
Colombia, where I studied Spanish for two months at the
Universidad de los Andes. I enrolled in a master's program
in French at the State University of New York at Buffalo in
the Fall of 1974. I was a teaching assistant there for one
year when I decided to return to France. I lived in Toulouse
for the next three years. In the Spring of 1978 I applied
for admission to the graduate program in French at the
University of Florida. I received a teaching assistantship
and began work on my doctorate. After completing my
qualifying exams in the Spring of 1981, I took a leave of
242

243
absence for two years, in France, before returning to
complete my dissertation. I was hired by Washington and Lee
University in Lexington, Virginia, in 1985 as an assistant
professor of French.

I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree ofJioctor/^f Philosophy.
Raymond Gay-Crosier, Chairman
Professor of Romance Languages
and Literatures
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in sco-oe and quality, as
a dissertation for the degreof/jDoc tor ^pp: Phil^LSLophy .
iert Smith
Professor of Romance Languages
and Literatures
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree o-f DoctyéV of Philosophy.
Ro/ert D'Amico
Associate Professor of Philosophy
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of
the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures in the
College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate
School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
April, 1988
Dean, Graduate School

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08554 1927




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