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An application of the personality theories developed by Gordon W. Allport to the process of character analysis

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Title:
An application of the personality theories developed by Gordon W. Allport to the process of character analysis
Creator:
Tomlinson, Rebecca Joy, 1961-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
vii, 211 leaves : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Acting ( jstor )
Beauty ( jstor )
Developmental psychology ( jstor )
Ions ( jstor )
Motivation ( jstor )
Personality psychology ( jstor )
Personality traits ( jstor )
Psychological research ( jstor )
Psychology ( jstor )
Theater ( jstor )
Acting ( lcsh )
Communication Processes and Disorders thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Communication Processes and Disorders -- UF

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1990.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 204-209).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Rebecca Joy Tomlinson.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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22476845 ( OCLC )
AHG1485 ( NOTIS )

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AN APPLICATION
DEVELOPED
TO THE PROCE


REBECCA


A DI
OF THE


THE PERSONALITY THEORIES
GORDON W. ALLPORT
OF CHARACTER ANALYSIS


TOMLINSON


SERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
nr TIu DirriTTDIfUCTTC IWiD TmurT nmrnr or






















This


work


dedicated


to my


parents,


Charles


Tomlinson,
this as al


in appreciation o
of my endeavors.


your
When


unwavering


grow


support
I want


just


like


you!

















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


would


like


thank


. David


. Shelton,


idney


. Homan


. Judith


. Williams,


. Kenneth


Gerhardt


. Hernan


Vera


, and


Dr. A.F.C


. Wehlburg


input


advi


which


has guided


project.


would


like


thank


. Carole


Brandt


whose


arti


stic


talent


s served


inspiration


s degree.


would


like


thank


friends


family


their


support


, encouragement


love


A special


thank


you


goes


to Eric


Haak,


whose


encouragement


gentle


persuasion


made


document


much


easier


to complete






















TABLE OF CONTENTS





ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... .. ....... ... .... ....... i i i


ABSTRACT.......................... ... ....... ..


CHAPTERS


I INTRODUCTION................... ........ .....


Statement of
Personality
An Example..
Gordon W. Al
Limitations.
Hypothesis..


Problem. .....
and Characterization..


Sport *
port. ................
. .. ........
. ..... ....


* ..






****


..,...00.



. .aa.....
0********
*********
*********
********


II REVIEW OF LITERATURE..........................


Dissertations. ..................... .
Collections of Essays and Periodicals.
Acting Texts .........................
Summary. .............. ... ........ .. .


*********

* c....a.,
..*......
...*****
*********


III GORDON ALLPORT AND HIS WORK....................


Personality. ..................... .
Traits. .. ...... .. .. ...
Motivation. ......................... .
Behavior.................. .......... *
Analysis. ....................... *. .
Summary..... ..................... *...... *













IV A COMPARISON OF ALLPORT'S THEORIES
TO CURRENTLY TAUGHT ACTING THEORIES............ 108


Theatre Terminology Defined..............


Personality Defined.....
Traits. .................
Motivation..............
Behavior................
Analysis................


.................
* a a a a a. a
* a a a a a a a a a a
............ aa*..a.

* .a...... a a a.
* a a a a a. a S a
................

.................


......


a.. a.*a
4.....


.* "0..
00 00
0.0000


Character Analysis Checklist.............


Summary. ..... ............


V AN APPLICATION OF THE THEORIES OF
GORDON W. ALLPORT TO THE PROCESS OF
CHARACTER ANALYSIS............................. 155


A Character Analysis of Blanche Dubois......... 155
Summary of Blanche Dubois...................... 197
Summary....... ........ .......... ............. 200


BIBLIOGRAPHY... ......... .............................. 204


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH... ..................... ............ 210

















Abstract


Dissertation


he University
Requirements


Florida


Presented


in Partial


Degree


the Graduate
Fulfillment


Doctor


School


of Philosophy


APPLICATION


OF PERSONALITY THEORIES


DEVELOPED BY


GORDON W


. ALLPORT


TO THE


PROCESS


OF CHARACTER ANALYSIS


Rebecca


May


Joy Tomlinson


1990


Chairman:


. David


Shelton


Major


Department:


Communi cation


Proce


sses


and Disorders


purpose


actor


this


s understanding


dissertation


character


to demonstrate


can


that


enhanced


from a


study


theories


formulated


by psychology


sts,


with


specific


regards


personality


. The


focus


this


dissertation


will


a discussion


application


personal it

character


theories


analysis.


Gordon W.


Allport


Allport


used


example


process


what


might


learned


actor


through


study


psychology.


Allport


s approach


study


personality


important


actor


many


reasons.


He provides


terminology which


enhances


communication


under


standing.










behavior


individual,


studies


personal ity


analysis


based


biographies,


autobiographies,


correspondences


can


actor


character


script


analysis.


This


dissertation


includes


chapter


which


serves


overview


the major


psychological


theories


of Gordon W.


Allport,


as well


chapter


which


compares


these


personality


theories


to currently


taught


acting


theories.


final


chapter


this


dissertation


applies


psychological


theories


of Gordon W.


Allport


character


analysis


Blanche


Dubois


Tennessee William


Streetcar


Named Desire.

















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


statement


Problem


Within


pas


one


hundred


year


extensive


research


been


submitted


scrutiny


psychological


society


igmund


Freud,


Karen


Homey,


Carl


Jung,


Abraham


Maslow


kinner


are


only


names


whose


contributions


study


personality


psyche


have


changed


our


study


personality


helped


under


stand


our


selv


our


loved


ones,


our


enemi


our


fear


our


future


s a


field


in which


inter


to be


exhausted


contrary


field


continues


grow


new


contributions


Schultz,


What


s contribution


theatre?


Theatre


psychology


signifi


cantly


influence


one


another


Gordon


Allport


credit


s the


humanity


having


given


mos


influence


toward


development


field


psychology


After


literature,


s said


done


natural,


s philo


sophy


biologi


social


sciences


throughout


recent


from


center


year


philos


that


ages


s that


ophy


that


have


tered


s only


psychology
nd from art
. (Allport,


psychology
comparatively


has detached


to become


1960,


self


storm


. 5)













(Allport,


1950,


201).


Allport


comments


this


competition


between


the humanities


psychology


specifically


applies


study


personality:


T
seen
thou
it m
bril
back
intr
lite
of P
of c
gian
psyc
less
anch
thei
I
psyc
expl
some
peda
that
ment
port
biog
matt
with
sayi
sayi


ardily,


* v
and
ght
iant
roun
der.
ati.
oust
arac
s in
olog
r me
rage
pet
is
oloer


psycho


e migh
ears t
eem ha
y. Wi


, th
And
Ste
Ami
eriz
obse
the
, me
of a
v D1


t


e


al iire I
raits tha
rapher ca
er crispl
human pe
ng what 1
ng it muc


logis
almost
late
been
his
ychol
he is
Zwei
Flaub
n. sa


s have


girrea nove
One rece
sychology,
ity," he rel
ure has alw
artfully."


arrived on
ey are begi
psychologist
him, and d
irty years
oks like a
oPinion of


in which
r heresie
f literat
represent
ectual an
arisen.
lect ions
ding an i
unforget
ist, drank
t critic
whenever i
arks, "is
ys said,
(Allport,


nning two
s' work
one most
of
conceited
many
peaking
t masters
hese are
eas in
ked by


to place
It
re make
and to


a
acts
idual
e
t, or
out the


200-201)


In researching


relationship


between psychology


theatre,


"personality"


interesting


finds


to discover


roots


that


theatre.


very word


Personality


comes


from


Latin


word


"persona,


" which


refers


U an v n f9a.


~Rnn)nn


rr,,


nn~nnn


n


fh T


mnnniinrr













other


words,


the masques


helped


reflect


personal iti


characters.


There


are


still


other


examples


influence


psychology


theatre


have


upon


each


other.


Psychologist


have


developed


theatrical


techniques


therapy


have


tools


used


(psychodrama


dramatic


role


characters


playing,


to demonstrate


instance),


theories


research


(Reppen


Charney,


Even


some


basic


terminology


used


psychologists


originated


theatrical


role


terms:


playing.


acting-out,


seems


roles,


psychologists


actor

have


, playing,

accepted t


challenge of


director


Peter


Brook


"The


stage


reflection


life


Anyone


interest


in process


natural


world


would


very


rewarded


study


theatre


conditions"


(Brook,


99).


Theatre


arti


however,


have


taken


full


advantage


data


available


through


a study


psychological


conditions.


actors


their


There


from using


work.


seem

the p


first


several


psychological


reason


factors


data


accessibility


which


hinder


a resource


Until


recent


onslaught


publications


"armchair


psycholo-


most


psychological


theories


were


written


A nn


a- w.


C' 4 i tn~ a-I t.


n jn~ A


nnmmll* Cr


lr T r


-p h













Impostor


Phenomenon


Why


Marriage


A Reality


Therapy


Approach


to Marriaee


Games


People


Play


Basic


Handbook


Transactional


Analvs


s are


three


example


psychology


-help


book


s which


present


psychological


finding


s in


vernacular


terms


, thereby


increasing


access


ability


of psychological


studies


second,


psychological


scientific


writings


sea


irrefutable


truths


can


scientifically


validated,


often


ass


ignore


concept


individual-


ity.


s concept


s precious


arti


out


standing


event


s in


psychology


pres


century


sonality


s the


substantial


sonality


concrete


e aiscovery
whatever el


unit


mental


may
life


that


exl


S In


forms


that


are


definitely


single


individual
phenomenon
depicted a


Throughout


per


sonal


explored


tne ages, or
individuality


court


has been


humanities


more


aes


arti


thetic


philo


s have


sopher


always


s and


made


more


their


philo


special


sophical
province


interest


. (Allport


1950


. 200)


same


tend


to negate


way


individuality


importance


s ignored


validity


scienti


emotions.


Arti


however


tend


emphasis


emotional


over


analytical


Tyrone


Guthrie


ees:


, as oppos


concern


with
art i


thems


elve


ences


s with


things feel
o important


express
w things


aspect


, mainly
on of quality,
feel is. to a


what


they


are


that


ma n


- -


.r. marl i rn


o a an rh


o f /\


1I marr


C' f B***ft-


C'


I


I


Il |













presented


seem


be of


little


use


practical


application


actor


science


layman
seems


chief


to be


fault


with


s willingne


psychological


ss to


pile


abstraction


concrete


upon


abstraction


personal


life.


with


little


(Allport


regard


1947


. 143)


fourth


block


study


psychology


artist


links


previous


blocks.


earlier


noted


by Gordon


Allport,


there


seems


to be


an enmity


between


science


arts.


John


Strasberg


curtly


states:


"Read


Shakespeare


you


learn


more


about


human nature


than most


psychiatric


s know"


(Mekler,


101)


While


Eugene


O'Neill


angrily


adds


own


opinion:


from my


agree
author


on exactly
much Freud


the
into


with your
's angle,


same
stuf


Freudian


find


-that
could


point-
f that


objections


fault


they
have


with
read
been


Taken


critics
too damn
written


exactly as is
of. Author


before


were


psychoanalysis
psychologists


s was
, you


heard
know,


profound


ones


before


psychology


was


invented


(Wei


ssman,


206)


Perhaps most


theatre


importantly,


community:


though,


fear


fear


approaching


part


role


intellectually


Constant in


tani


slavski,


who developed


one


the most


followed methods


acting,


warned:


Our subconscious
consciousness.


inaccessible


cannot


enter


our


into


that


realm


reason


we do


penetrate


into


then


subconscious


become


s conscious


dies.


a nrU i !nnam nn


mal ii t


|


o iinrnn ? Q


t! *o WQ n


*


* **J-1













A prevailing


classes


thought


analysis


the majority


leads


current


destruction


acting


instinc-


tive


spontaneous


emotion.


Ernie Martin,


prof


es-


sional


teacher


director,


exemplifies


s concern


warns


students


against


getting


"Freudian"


"analy-


zing"


their


responses


(Mekler,


161),


and Michel


Saint-


Denis


taught


students


to give


"fir


place


to objective


ture


rather


than


study


subjective


psychology"


Saint-Deni


189)


Even Michael


Chekhov


, whose


emphasis


s harmony


between


psychological


physical


realms,


warns:


reasoning mind,


imaginative


able


weaken


enough


fulfill


generally


, is
arti


long


cold


stic


time


peaking, is n
and abstract


work.
retard


might


your


eas


ability


act.


"knows"


You may


have


about


noticed
character


that


the more


less


you


your


are


mind
able


perform


(Chekhov


, p.


This


s a psychological


-73)


Charles


Marowitz


reminds


that


these


fears


need


hinder


actor


from


exploring


resources.


In hi


discussion


conscious/unconscious


controversy


(which


feels


s revived


every


fifteen


twenty


years),


Marowitz


explains


balance


which


sts:


nineteenth


over
role


whether
(operate


century


actor


entirely


there


should


was


lose


instinct)


a great
himself


concern


in hi


organize


n f t 1nnlr n 1 *l


"4-4


A i--m A


nhf~rv *nr


I ln rl- f^ 9


nn^ rf ^ R t


T QI D


* &


C?


W


f^T













untrammeled
performance


instinct


would


s as


to destroy


result


such


coherence


and,


more


likely


than


, his


sanity


. (Marowitz,


Despite


these


block


psychology


can


useful


actor.


Psychology


theatre do


exis


in different


worlds;


they


simply


approach


same


world


different


means


separate


terminology.


Michael


Howard--a


professional


actor,


director,


teacher--acknowledges


important


contribution


psychology


acting


told


therapy,


especially Gestalt,


experimentation


acting


classes.


taken


a great


Certainly


deal


from


s the


other


way


around"


(Mekler,


. 12)


Tyrone Guthrie,


discussion


ideal


training


program


actors,


encourages


inclusion


of psychological


study


part


training


program:


To give
of studi


intelligent


answer


s would


frivolous


demand


a course


, involving,


obviously would,


some


acquaintance


with


aes


thetic


philosophy,


anthropology


psychology


. (James


, p.


Stani


slavski


acknowledged


importance


psychological


studies


rebuking


students


read


ers


their


lack


understanding


psychological


world


physio-


logical


laws:


certain part


s of


tem,


like


phys


biological


psychological,


such


laws


a


rWn a a t* 1 -


- -,-11


no means


l~n nA


nnnnn


1 *


~1115:L


|













Despite


usefulness


psychological


studies


actor


, present


acting


theories


techniques


do not


demonstrate


that


previous


advice


been


heeded.


This


contention


can


be demonstrated


study


techniques


theories


being


currently


taught


actor


training


programs


psychology


the United


interviewed


States.


Eva Mekler,


twenty-two


actor


professional


acting


teachers


are


currently


training


actors


through


private


studios


and/or


university


setting.


results,


published


in her


book New Generation


of Acting Teachers,


reveals much


"release,


talk


teaching


"create"


actor


character.


"become,


Animal


observations,


people observations,


sense memory


recall,


relaxation


exercises, em

improvisations


lot ional


are


stimulus


cited


exercises,


influences


metaphors,


on and


contributors


character


development.


these


exercises,


however,


rely


ability


actor


intuit


from


script


character


structure


character


analysis


is mentioned.


What


actor


cannot


intuit


a character,


scene,


even


a moment


Shapiro,


director


teacher,


faults


1960


s as


having


"dismantled"


acting


process


(M ai or


" nn n a n a h


R7t;


P a 1 0


+fhic


arvr~rnQ ^


- l -


WU


*













acting


was


culture.


nonverbal


taught


twenty


that


years


time


ago


were


approach--the metaphor


was


into


was


related
a very
e thing,


persona
because


was


thing.


believed


that


didn


words


want


were


use


words


a means


lying.


am now
haven't


faced


with


read Plato


teaching
or Shake


acting
speare.


students


They


haven


even


exercise


simply


read


work


Neil


can


dealing with


imon
ever
text


productive as
American Method


approach
with the


acting


done


everything


deal


text.


Available


psychology
repertoire
theories o
whose need


actor


personality


based


past
to


through t
theories


psychology


one
under


study of
an extens


res


hundred years


stand


many


kinds


earch


actor,
people


on many


level


can


use


different


findings


world


psychology


to gain


insight


cover


new


character


choices
script


, particularly


analysis


regards


(Mekler,


377)


Robert


Benedetti


another


acting


teacher


expressed his


concern


lack


textual


character


analysis


being


taught


in most


actor


training programs.


"For


years


our


schools


academies


have


been


producing


actors


'play


ear


' who


literally


can


read


their music"


(Benedetti,


xii)


nonverbal


approach


, actor-freeing


skill


character


intuition


are


extremely


important


development


actor.


understanding


nature


character


through


textual


analysis


s cannot,


however


ignored


iMalr I Q r


fan. .


+'1'~ Q ^ Q


-, rr + ,r


ohn n


ni| A


rI J-













they


should


business"


(Mekler,


103).


observation


people


leads


actor


artistic


conclusions


which


are


physical


well


psychological


nature.


little


mentioned


these


same


teachers


studying


science


whose


very


basis


people


observation.


teachers


science


should


emphasize


whose


be a logical


observation


foundation


extension


people,


observation


student


study


people


theatre.


ability


clues


analyze


ability


character


understand


through


textual


personality


that


found


through


analysis


are


essential


acting


skills.


These


skills


can


further


developed


systematic


study


psychological


research.


Acting


text


must


be more


than


"play


ear"


intuitive


process,


study


personality


through psychological


research


can


teach


actor


"read


the music"


text.


Personalityv


Characterizations


"What


like?"


Almost


everyone


can


describe


friend,


acquaintance,


enemy


in a few words,


doing


feel


though


they


have


summarized


individual


entire


personality.


asked


what


thought


someone


s personality,


average


person


would


probably


aI -


- -- F* *~*L~ .


--------------------------I 2 .


.1 ri -


L -- A A












Smiley,


in his


text


beginning


playwright,


defines


personality


"self


then


expands


s the


form


overall


unity,


individual'
characters


s trait


that


include


distinguish


s the


one


complex
person


from


other


admit


s the


behavioral


potential


s of


individual


which


tran


scend


attitude


s and


actions.


. Per


sonality


is the


totality


a human


being


s phys


iologi


psychological


trait


therefore


epi tome


whatever


differentiates


one


human


from


every


other


human.


(Smiley,


82-83)


Psychologis


themselv


cannot


arrive


a unifying


definition


personality


in part


subjective


nature


basic


(Schultz,


theory


Each


from which


definition depends


psychologist


upon


approaches


study


personality.


According


to David McClelland,


whose


area


study was


motivation,


personality


the most


adequate


conceptualization


a person


s behavior


details


(Lazerson,


404).


Guthrie,


studied


learning


theories,


claims


a pers


onality


consis


s of


those


habits


and habit


sys


teams


social


importance


that


are


stable

Harry

the si


and

Helso


tuat i


resistant t

n contends

on (Lazerso


change


(Lazerson,


personality


404).


actual

leading


. 404),

ly the

g text


while


person


theories


personality


notes


the differences


psychology


' definitions.


an effort


find













theatre,


understanding


personality


critical


part


character


analysis


development.


character


created


based


on conclusions


drawn


from


textual


clues.


"Conclusions


come


from


clues,


choice


from


conclusions.


Clues


are


details--fragments--minutiae


script"


(Brandt,


46).


These


textual


clues


lead


actor


the personality


character,


personality


character


structures


actor


choices.


understanding


human


personality


essential


actor


regards


instructs


young


creation


playwright


a character.


order


Smiley


comprehend


principles


characterization,


a playwright


needs


first


consider


some


qualities


a human


personality"


(Smiley


, p.


80).


same


instruction


holds


true


actor.


purpose


this


dissertation


to demonstrate


that


an understanding


nature


human


personality


can


be derived


from a


study


psychology


personality,


this


understanding


can


actor


regards


character


textual


analysis.


an arti


must


constantly


draw


creative materials


knowledge


from


life


science.


tani


slavski,


1961,


An Example


Ti ,, I


aa+n I nt '. nn l ta ni V-


o Woi4


1^ T*n n lr4ay- tD


VUn4


nn n n t~%4


ST


T


rt













olical


sleaze"


the director


serves


s limited


real


play


-life


s antagonist.


observational


experience


with


such


an extreme


example


a dark


character,


the director


tried


rely


information


provided


solely


script.


soon


became


apparent


that


this


method


would


only


be partially


successful


because


twenty-some


years


difference


between


writing


play


this


particular


production.


Since


1966,


when


play


first


opened


in New


York,


public


been


exposed


a series


"slash


em up"


horror


flicks,


which


includes


several


sequels


nightmarish Halloween,


Nightmare


on Elm


Street,


controversial


Fatal


Attraction


(which


was


released


just


prior


this


particular


production


of Wait


Until


Dark)


audience


s increasing


exposure


gore


death


over


past


twenty


years,


was


the director


s opinion


that


1966


characterization


Roat,


particularly


regard


blocking


physicalization


dictated


script,


could not


compete


with


"Freddy


Kruegers"


created


present


horror


industry.


order


to obtain


same


audience


response


to Roat


1986


was


obtained


1966,


director


needed more


informant ion


concerning


this


type


nnr enq an a 1 4 4,,













sadistic


personality


closely


resembled


the description


Roat


s behavior


(and


consequently


personality)


general


study


sadi


stic


behavior


the director


more


specialized


research.


studies


authoritarianism


Erich


Fromm provided


this


director


with


insight


into


personality


behavior


Roat.


Fromm


s studies


hypothesized


that


individualized


feeling


security


been


sacrificed


our


societies


have


systematically


gained more


freedom:


people


have gained more


freedom,


they


have


come


feel


more


lonely


, insignificant


alienated


from one


people


another.


have


had,


Conver


sely


the greater


, the
have


ess


been


freedom


their


feelings
p. 148)


belongingn


ess


security


chultz,


According


Fromm,


this


need


regain


security


can


manifest


itself


authoritarian


stic


behavior


the masoc-


sadist.


Fromm


s study


sadis


behavior


gave


insight


which


the director


been


looking


sadi


stic


individual


strives


power


over


others


through


three


different


means:


one


way,


dependent
absolute


pers


on makes


on himself


power


over


other


self


them.


second


s totally
as to have


sadistic


expression goes


others.


beyond


involve


ruling


s exploiting


dictating


other


s by


taking


using


anything


desirable


e that


they


poss


ess


whether material


thing


s or


intellectual


amtfl 4 n nPl


+h4 ~A


Pnn /V Bh


n^I crlt 1i4-


nntf- j -


.


t


f^ "* r


!*













ector


express


ion


was


to both


able


explain


use t

Roat


he three


s action


forms

and


sadi


to phys


calize


Roat


s intentions


example


Roat


exploit


s Susi


to have


absolute


power


over"


trying


to make


phys


ically


dependent


on him.


third


play,


was


decided


that


Roat


should


take


from


Susie


blind


In doing


e was


attempting


both


symbol


cal ly


literally


insure


Susie


s dependance


on him.


later


used


blind


stick


a symbol


Susie


s freedom


side


world,


weapon


against


in her


own


home


thus


symbol


zing


captivity


Roat


destroyed


Susie


emotional


security


s way.


Roat


used


other


items


found


in S


s apartment-


-pot


, pans,


photographic


equipment


inflict


emotional


ical


trauma


upon


Susie


s apartment


previous


repres


ented


a haven


safety


sec


urity


against


a violent


world


Roat


s ability


use


s environment


against


s an


example


second


sadi


stic


express


exploiting


other


s by


taking


away


using


anything


irable


they


possess


against


them.


final


form


sadi


stic


behavior--to


cause


suffering


through


pain,


humiliation


embarrassment--


Yvnl1 a c


RInat


c nc cro


n tiniun


qnC i


n aun f4


Qt~; r


CkRr *


Q C?


Q ? O


|













line


s found


script


he mak


Susie


stand


center


room.


furniture


s completely


vulnerable


allowed


e room


blind


to Roat.


help


to her


use


see


surroundings


s figuratively


naked


body


" where


complete


to hi


scrutiny


director


actor


s found


sexual


undertones


were


used


sadi


stically


inflict


embarrassment


well


fear


Finally


Roat


ces


issue


humiliation


insi


reveal


s that


hiding


Susi


e ask him


place


doll


"please


(Knott


" allow


. 74)


compli


with


both


request


Fromm


goes


that


goal


authoritarian


person


not


to de


troy


object


on whi


ch he


inflicting


his sadi


stic


behavior


What


ired


s a


continuing


interaction


with


object


which


prolongs


feeling


s of


power


chultz


. 150)


. Thi


s particular


concept


explains


Roat


s relationship


with


Lisa,


seeming


disappointment


death


(Knott,


intention


s to


play


with


his victims


they


invariably


because


Roat


goes


in his play


control


power


death


his victim


leaves


Roat


with


a feeling


failure


He has d


destroyed


object


which


gave


him


tt 14 n V\ ln e a sn


Sa a 1 irnr


<-^ ^ ;rf- r <


rn nn rfzi- f fh/


nn rr~ nn


n


r













Through


psychological


studies


sadis-


behavior,


director


this


production


of Wait


Until


was


able


find


insight


into


analysis


unfamiliar


type


character.


This


insight


extended


from


basic


analysis


physicalization


character


based


analysis


blocking


the dramatic


action


play.


Gordon W.


Alloort


Gordon Allport


one


psychologist


whose


theories


can


be used


to give


actor


insight


into


personality


character


thereby


character


analysis.


considered


by many


compelling


psychologists


personality


to be


theory


one


sts,


the most


because


believed


"individuality


uniqueness,


personal


exper-


ience


single


human


organism as


the most


meaningful


subject


matter


exploration


personality"


(Southwell


and Merbaum


, p.


253)


Allport


s definition


per


sonality


demonstrates


importance


concept


individuality


uniqueness


to Allport


s studies


Personality


dynamic


organization


within


indivi-


dual


those


psychophysical


systems


that


determine


character


stic


behavior


thought


(Allport,


1961,


28).


Dark













133,


141).


argued,


To minimi


was


jeopardize


importance


integrity


individuality,


accuracy


study


personality


Southwell


and Merbaum


, p.


253)


This


opposition


traditional


scientific


forming


general


laws


which


can


applied


everyone


still


controversial


(Watson,


609-610;


Schultz,


194-195)


Allport


also


argued


against


validity


study


abnormal


personality


a means


drawing


conclusions


normal


personality


believed


only


study


adults


personality was


Schultz,


194)


through

a resul


healthy

t. his


, normal,

studies r


mature


elied


"average"


individual.


From his


studies,


Allport


developed


a seemingly


simple


common-sense


approach


discussion


personality


based


trait


classification.


recent


changes


field


psychology,


these


theories


are


considered


some


to be more


influential


today


than


when


they


were


originally


developed


(Hilgard,


137).


Gordon Allport


received nearly


every


honor


field


psychology


to offer


contributions


Schultz,


195)


Psychologists


ranked Allport


15th


place


ratings


relative


influence


psychologists,


.. .u a^ r^ n n onn l4 4


C' 4 .mlw.,^-


V\ Q nd


4-1-h ^ "h


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a finn tif^/w


* n sT













Julian Rotter


(Gilgen,


203-211)


also


credited


some


for making


largest


contribution


toward


accep-


tance


studies


personality


academically


respectable


What,


part


psychology


however,


Allport


Schultz,


194).


s contribution


actor?


Allport'


s approach


study


personality


important


approach


actor


to psychology


many


(mind


reasons.


body)


holi


lends


stic


itself


holi


stic


approach


actor


takes


approaching


role.


His ideas


free


will


cons


cious


choice


can


lend


strength


deci


sions made


actor


because


Allport


s emphasis


conscious


decision making


process.


Allport


s conjectur


e that


motivation


always


contemporary


helps


actor


keep


choices


active,


because


motivation


s based


present


and moving


toward


future,


rather


than


buried


past


Schult


, p.


194)


Allport


s research


individual


into


can


expressive


actor


coping


in making


behavior


physical


choices


a particular


character


well


understanding


physical


choices mandated


script.


Allport


s studies


personality


analysis


actor


based


anal


s of


on personal


script.


documents


Finally,


can guide


Allport


o rrmi nfnl na


E 1f n n U- i .k n at a 1


^ 1 Q r


Ii, ,A .. .


A


0n


* 1-













Theories


Karen Horney


Stanislavski


System of


Acting,


suggests


that


"psychology


either


science


both)


may


discover


that


Allport'


s type


psychology


what


needed


artist"


(Jaeger,


331).


Allport


often


expressed


respect


arts.


wrote


an article


which


explored


pos


itive


influence


arts


study


personality,


entitled


"Persona-


lity:


A Problem


science


a Problem


Art?"


challenged


scientific


society


learn


from


arts


regards


to personality


emphasized


necessity


distinct


approaches


both


arts


psychology


"complete


[the]


study


infinite


richness


[the


personality"


(Allport,


1950,


209).


Gordon Allport


s theories


personality


demonstrate


usefulness


study


psychology


sts'


theories


actor


personality,


standing


His theories


thereby


give


leading


a character.


insight


actor


way


into


human


a fuller


a psychology


under-


would


use


Allport


s theories


uncover


the mysteries


a patient,


actor


can


use


theories


uncover


the mysteries


character


found


playwright


s text


Limitations













clarify


goals


this


dissertation


understanding


ideas


presented.


This


dissertation


acknowledges


styles


theatre


individual


plays


in which


characters


are


developed


their


similarities


generalities.


these


theatrical


styles


another


approach


analysis might


be more


appropriate


than


approach


discussed


through


this


research.


might


found


example


a generalized


development


character


a chorus


approach


in a Greek


drama.


intention


an approach


which


chorus


emphasizes


might


ensemble


better


acting


served


unity


vocal


and phys


ical


movement,


rather


than


individual


characterization


analysis.


Robert


Benedetti


describes


another


example


inappropriateness


psychological


motivational


research:


In play
itself


s where


s the


allegorie


external


dominant


, farces,


example)


action


element


some


psychological


ssical
aspect


the plot
play (as
tragedies


character


when


zation


actor


motivating


every


insi


small


on psy


action,


even


importance.
chologically


when


fact,


such motivation


irrelevant


quality
greatly.
interior


the nature


play


action


example)


characters
(Benedetti


s structure may


other
(like
here


hand,
those


vehicle


some


play, t
suffer


play


Chekhov


psychology o
for the plot


s feature
and O'Neill


self


. 152)













theories


are


formed


from


study


actual


people,


while


created


characters,


even


those


based


on actual


people,


are


still


products


imagination.


personality


character


in a play


resembles


human


beings,


distinctions


between

exist.


a human


personality


Smiley


recognizes


a character


these


in a play


distinctions:


A personality


in and


itself;


a dramatic


char
when
huma
ever
situ
deli


dim
per
cha
is
bod
sev
lea
a 1
new
do
nex
cha
Alt
cou
yea
of
cha
lim
Thu
inf
cha
pos
alt
cha
ser
Tp


acter
blen
n per
yday
action
mited
nutiv
onal i
acter
ossib
cell
n yea
t som
nger
expert
e fri
week
acter
ough
se of
to y
am let
acter
ts of


0 fl _


h

r
s

r
f
.


11 e
wit
alit
Id o
d ac
lieu


.


, how
Hamle
the
ear.
, or
hims
the
uman
and a
is f
an o
and a
poss
spec
nt-ta*


range
ever,
t goe
play,
Alth
any o
elf i


C. U r


ual ly
e per
ves i
tensi
ty; a
a pla
ty an
divid
t of
ly fo
ated
rsona
day a
ime,
devel


tomor
r. Th


one
s th
the
ough
their
s al


U fl fl


O
S


reach fu
sonality
n an unli
ve possib
character
y, an ima
d necessi
ual perfo
action.
r a human


in
lit
nd
bec
opi
row
e c
est
ugh
cri


human


any reader
character,
ways the sa
nd doings o
ty can be i
nring, while


ever
lity
stin
sed
xed


yb 1 U flb f


lity
tor.
lieu,
r
in t
rid o


only
A
the

he
if


ng actions;
inite change


Ing


ut ev
on al
atly
idly
s. T
ance
f a
ever
anges
anges
terpr
chang
thin
play
field
ramat


s. A human
series of
ualities.
re with a
tive quali


Each


change.
in the
from
station
e, a
the


ties.













characters


are


human


beings.


They


can


usually


should


deliver


illusory


appearance


personal it i


they


are


truly


agents


more


ess


causally


related


to a structured


action


(Smiley


. 83)


Despite


differences


which


exist


between


created


charac-


ters


living


people,


similarities


between


are


strong:


process


sati


which


his needs


his situation


pers


under


onality


standing


station


is much
s formed


a character


desire


like


real


character
difficulty,


attempt
is fru


process
life. B


s way or
we will


res


s to


strated


by which


ponding


cover


active


express


sens


e of


s per


sonality


(Benedetti


, p.


152)


Theatre


uses


life


foundation


from which


to build


world.


Consequently


study


life


important


understanding


theatre:


suggest,


therefore,


that


actions


within


are


somehow


"unreal"


sense


that


they


wholly


entirely,
which is
everyday
of "more


hour


separate
the most


that


from


striking


insofar


reality,


real"
hour,


rather


more


reality


s to miss


aspect of th
is different


different


than


rather


"less
than


real;"


, quite


theatre,
from
direction


usually


inten


revealing
whimsical
composed
celluloid


intense


eagerly
separate
diminish


, enlightening


. The


theatrical


stage


, evocative,


context


scenery


camera,


ely pursued,


sought,
acting
both.


even


whether


, street


arena


battle
lives


from


s vibrantly
brilliantly


reality


goals
engaged,
lived.


, therefore,


loves


s to


(Cohen,


* a 1


II a


A 4 r. c. a n + ra 4 4 nwn An fa In n. nn nn


"play"


are


t


q^ 4


k


nrnn T n /* ^r- Vf^ *- f f- ^ IrfB


'*-V /^V 9


tkn nn f f













(Klurman,


between


ix-x).


outstanding


A story


actors,


told


conversation


Dustin Hoffman


Laurence


Olivier.


In preparation


a particular


scene


"Marathon


Man,


" Hoffman


in order


Upon


reportedly


achieve


observing Mr.


stayed


right


Hoffman


two days


emotional


s physical


level


emotional


nights


scene.


prepara-


tion


role


. Olivier


approached


him


with


idea


that


perhaps


should


just


"try


acting.


s so much


easier"


(The Washington Post,


July


1989).


story


illustrates


that


successful


actors


can have


entirely


different


techniques,


approaches


acting.


neither


better


or worse


They


are


simply


different


Michael


Howard


agrees


there


no one


way


everyone


approach


a play


a role,


very


opposed


teachers


limit


their


students


"training


actors


to do


one


particular


way"


(Mekler,


12).


Neither


purpose


this


dissertation


imply


theory


psychologist,


Gordon W.


Allport,


only


valid


theory which might


used


actors


to develop


process


character


anal


opposite


true:


Many


psychological


concepts


can


applied


theatre.


actor


need not


choose


one


theorist


over


another


should


ot 1udr mw n nn


thonri


4h 4


intn


human


norCnnali fv


. I .I


Y


*


. w .. .
-













one


psychologist


a representation


resources


avail-


able


actor


terms


life


knowledge


through


study


psychology.


Allport


s theories


are


presented


example


through


increased


a study


insight


psychological


available


personality


actor


theories.


Allport


s theories


were


chosen


this


dissertation


because


studies


emphas i


individuality


human


nature.


This


emphasis


individuality


can


help


actor


make


choices


which


are


unique


the character


to be


portrayed.


Allport


s theories


also


help


broad


foundation


future


psychological


application


character


analysis.


Allport


felt


something


could


learned


from


almost


theory


psychological


study


personality.


allows


actor


s broad


based


a foundation


which more


can


specific


added,


choices


play,


from more


character,


specific


director,


psychologists


or moment


dictates.


Hypothesis


focus


application


this

the


dissertation

personality


will


theories


a discussion

of Gordon


Allport


process


character


anal


This


discus-


sion


will


include


a presentation


the major


theories


nrdnin Allnn r


ur a 11


thaia


narPnnalty


Snmnnri clan


I h


L -


I I













analysis


Blanche


Dubois,


from


Tennessee William'


treetcar


Named Desire.


study


personality


theories


developed


psychologists


can


actor,


especially


regard


character


analysis


character


development.


Insight


into


human


personality


can


found


through


study


both


arts


sciences.


Allport


Stanis


lavski


both


understood


need


the merging


ideas


science


arts:


are


novels


student


dramas


psychology,


character,


read many,
read


many


biography
read thes
(Allport,


too,
1950,


are not
read p
209)


student


sychology


psychology,
well.


not


that
lead


quite


clear


requi red


a life


full


now


true


when
arti


interest


you


real


that


, beauty,


he mus


varie


excitement,


enlightenment?


He mus


aware


what
also


is going


in all


villages
centers


study
nation
(actor


on not


outlying


factories
culture.


life


that


need


only
part


, plant


large


s of


s and


actor


psychology


foreign


s a


limitless


citi


country, i
the great
observe a


both his


nations.


world


own


. What


horizon.


(Stanislav


ski,


1936,


. 76)


















CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF LITERATURE


Sigmund


Freud


developed


first


formal


theory


personality


, psychoanalys


around


turn


19th


century.


s determine


stic


pessimi


stic


view


human


nature


was


immediate


reaching,


world


science


that


began


scholars


searching


outside


different


fields


in which


psychoanalytical


research


could


influential


Schultz


, P.


Weissman,


214)


Theatre


was


one


such


field


which


impact


psychoanalysis,


demonstrated


following


review


literature.


This


review


literature


explores


contribution


psychological


theories


field


theatre


relationship


between


fields


begins


with


a brief


survey


moves


the dissertations


a discussion


published


essays


this


area


, periodicals,


acting


texts


which


address


this


subject.


This


review


literature


will


demonstrate


that


a great


interest


exis


regards


the general


relationship


between


psychology


arts.


will


also


demonstrate,


however,


that


research


limited


Vr4 a m V f fl 4% S n .i no4 5


nnn* F; *


I y +n n mkn


P *-^ arr i-rnm y n1ntlk1/ fr


t nn











28

Dissertations


early


1919,


theatre


dissertations


United


States


explored


personality


theories


their


influence


theatre.


"August


Strindberg.


A Psychoanalytic


Study"


was


written


1919,


"August


Strindberg.


A Psychoanalytic


Study


with


Spec


Reference


the Oedipus


Complex"


was


written


following


year,


according


early


indexes


Dissertation Abstracts.


Later,


topic


dissertations


expanded


from


strictly


Freudian


perspective


field


psychology


grew


encompass


other


psyc


hologi


sts


their


studies,


often


in direct


contradiction


with


Freud


s psychoanalysis


psychological


theories


Piaget,


Lacan,


Erikson


others


were


analy


used


explore


ses


actor


values,


s drive,


morals


, motivations,


visual zat ion,


creative


ability


limited number


dissertations


apply


theories


found


psychological


field


theories


developed


acting


field


only


one


dissertation


could


considered


relevant


this


particular


dissertation.


William Jaeger


s "The


Application


Psycho-Analytic


Theorie


s of Karen


Horney


Stani


slavski


System of


.I. C, tAi Jb 'U *1 a n n -- w-.


.k4 ^ k


An r 1


a


dn fl


i,. .,. .. 2- l,,. -.i


~vn


* _*k- /


111


-iF a .













relationship


existed


between


theories


Homey


Stani


lavski


in general.


This


dissertation


uses


analysis


character


Willy


Loman


in Authur


Miller


Death


a Salesman


explore


relationship


between


similar


theories


theatre


psychology.


a result


Jaeger


s di


sser


station,


gaps


were


found


exist


Stani


slavski


system


regards


physical


actions,


imagination,


"Magic-If,


sense


emotional


memory


exerci


ses,


formation


main


action,


superobjective.


A positive


relationship


was


shown


exist


between


two


theory


author


recognized:


temr


including


is equivalent


Homey


life


that


reality,


definition


unconsc
brought


ious


is no


longer


unconscious


consciousness


still


when


clear


that


sys


actual


arti


tem which
emotional


offer


s the


behavior


scienti


ses


will


bett


serve


than


parallel
both t
no sys


tem at


. (Jeager,


exploration


bond


between psychology


theatre


through


sse


s field;


stations

however,


reveals

this re


academic


search


research does

limited.


Collections


Essays


Periodicals


Within


last


fifteen years,


a new


field


study


focused


the merging


psychology


arts:


study


psychological


theories


through


literature.













growing


field.


Upon


closer


observation


these


numerous


books,


however,


essays


which


discuss


theatre


were


found


limited


both


in number


scope.


These


essays


approach


theatre


from a


literary


standpoint


They


discuss


characters


plays


terms


literary


nature


script,


performance.


rather


This


than


terms


potential


potential


rformance


essential


very


concept


theatre.


following


discussion


essays


illustrate


this


point.


Shoshana


Felman


s Literature


and Psychoanalysi


stion


of Reading--Otherwise,


book


essays,


was


published


1977,


in part,


familiarize


American


public


with


French


psychoanalyst


Jacques


Lacan


interpretation


Freud.


When


was


republished,


just


four


years


later


1981,


remarkable growth


field


was


significant


enough


author


to make


following


addition


introduction:


that


ever


theor


-growing


ethical


intellectual


renewal


s attracting


attention


the


timeliness o
and pragmatic


volume


cal ly


tests


that


thes


concretely


new method


illu


states


s of


interpretation
(Felman, p. 2)


. is


the more


apparent.


This


particular


theatre.


Both


book


discus


includes


s aspect


essays


s of


which


Shakespeare


pertain


s Hamlet:












(Felman,


50)--while


latter


essay


continues


this


line


reasoning while


emphasizing


language


deci


sions


made


(Felman,


53-93).


Discourse


in Psychoanalysis


Literature,


edited


Sclomith Rimmon-Kenan,


applauds


progress


unifying


these


fields


ten


years


since


publication


Felman


s book.


Interestingly


Rimmon-Kenan


feels


need


justify


what


calls,


"yet


another


collection


article


s in


s already


popular


(some


would


over


popular)


interdisciplinary


junction"


(Rimmon-Kenan,


xi).


Discourse


includes


only


one


essay


which


explores


aspect


theatre.


In Elizabeth Wright


s "Transmission


psychoanalysis


literature:


whose


text


anyway?


Bertol


Brecht


s texts


theories


are


analyzed.


This


analysis


does


lead


into


a discussion


action


characters


Brecht,


only


thought


Brecht


(Rimmon-Kenan,


90-103)


article


Psvchoanalvt ic


in Joseph


tudv


Reppen


Literature


and Maurice


includes


Charney


theatre,


s The


"The


Purloined Handkerchief


in Othello.


" Once


again


this


literary


analysis


equates


handkerchief


Desdemone


with


lost


unlost)


virginity,


cas


tration,


feminine


mysteries


(Reppen


Charney,


Lx -- -


-189).


___ __













use


psychoanalysis


application


art,


that


theories


are


longer


limited


studies


Freud


large


number


essays


related


theatre


can


found


this


book.


Part


book


dedicated


essays


on Shakespeare:


"What


Comedy


Can Do


Reparation


Idealization


in Shakespeare


s Comedies


"Separation


Fusion


Twelfth


Night,


" "Expounding


Dream:


Shaping


Fantasies


in A Midsummer


Nieht


s Dream,


"Brutu


Cassius


Caesar


Interdestructive


Triangle,


" and


"Analogy


Infinite


Regress


In Hamlet


ese


essays


explore


psychological


lives


characters


psychological


implications


specific


actions


characters


(Charney


and Reppen


, p.


83-170)


"Sexuality


Incest


Plays


Bertolt


Brecht"


also


included


this


book,


cusses


Brecht


s coming


terms


with male


sexuality,


female


heterosexual


sublimation,


and mother-son


incest


bonding


(Charney


and Reppen,


193-


211).


articles


on Freud


s Oedipal


Complex,


assoc


iated


with


the Greek


character


"Oedipus,


are


also


included


(Charney


and Reppen,


-248).


previously mentioned


article


written


by Gordon W.


Allport,


"Personality:


Problem


Science


a Problem


for Art?."


discusses


three main


Points


to be


learned


.- -V


w --













certain number


traits


peculiar


that


specific


individual


which


can


identified


defined:


e the point
erature of
. ., or f
s on the ps
er has cert
an be defin
episodes f
lity is nev
ogy, as a s


ons.


(Allport,


acceptance


self


more


ter-
.3


broadly


-whe


their s
t *


Almost


n, arama or DIO
logical assumpti
raits peculiar
rough the narra
ife. In litera
garded, as is s
ce of unrelated
, p. 202)


-consistency


all

-
each
elf


product


one


chara
Hedda
Great
great
they
some
out o
adhes
self-
anoth
self-
confr
appli
then,
techn
ality


ever


cters
Gabb
char
ness


asked
of Ham
er, or
cteriz
rove t


are
sub
f a
ive
con
er,
con
ont
ed
ne
iqu


can


their
let, D
Babbi
nations
hemsel


eces
bot
, we
beh
ion;
t th
if
s th
work
hniq
eby


sar
h a
11-
avi
on


be determined


authors


on Qui
tt wer
by vi
ves .
. Eve
reflect
nit ch
r meet
bit o
ole ca
icate
ly met
artist
of sel
togeth
. (All


prove


ote,
tru
tue
hey
y ac
ion
ract
the
beh
be
nity
od o


Anna
and
f th
re p
see
nd a


* .
-confr
rness
ort, 1


that


Kareni
authen
eir
lausibl
ms to b
round
This
known
support
ehended
If-
idation
chology
action,
a perso
, p. 20


na,
tic.


e;
eng
ng


n-
3)


sustaining


interest


individual


person


longer


period


time:


Following
assume th
Science.


t i fl 3


A 'US S


the
ey i
ual
S.
a v


ndivi
ist,
a nu
is tr
t. sh


a


older
must
s onl


science


U rV a i


II


they


hed
ene
wan
ted
in


aside.
ral laws.
ted are
in the












similar


literary


treatment


theatre


plays


can


found


in other


collections


essays


on psychology


affect


art.


These


have


been


presented


this


review


literature,


rather


examples


types


typical


essays


have


been


presented


to demonstrate


what


been


written


this


particular


area.


collections


essays


discussed


demonstrate


this


field


rich


literary


contribution


strictly


theatre.


literary.


lacking


approach,


however,


discussion


theatre


a performance


vehicle:


Characters


are


analyzed


to be discussed,


not


to be performed.


Institute


Psychological


tudy


Arts


was


founded


1984


Norman N


. Holland,


a University


Florida


professor.


This


organization


publishes


international


listing


published


soon-to-be-published


works


whose


topics


contribute


area


psychology


arts.


This


bibliography


published


in May


each


year.


Even


with


timeliness


s publications


extensiveness


listings


no publication


which


discusses


psychology


a performance


tool


can


found


either


last


years'


listings.


been


previous


demonstrated


this


discussion,


many


articles


are


listed


IPSA


publication


which













year


alone


psychology


works


Shakespeare


general, in

publications


addition


on Hamlet,


this,

four


there

on Kine


exist

Lear


eleven

and numerous


others


ranging


from Othello


to Tamine


Shrew.


books


have


been


published


this


year


which


analyze


e the


works


Samuel


literature)


Beckett,


in general


books


(IPSA,


discuss


1989).


drama


Even


(theatre


interview with


. Holland


psychology


reveal


performance


knowledge


plays


work


, although


s on


found


topic


fascinating


subject.


straight


psychology


articles


published


between


1983


and March


1989,


most


articles


have


been


written


explore


encourage


influence


cont inue


theatre

d use.


therapy


There


are


also


several


articles


which


analyze


characters


particular


plays


order


to draw


conclusions


personality


author


to demonstrate


a particular


theory


personality


type.


These


arti


cles


give


interesting


insight


into


areas


psychology


theatre


however,


their


intention


provide


direct


insight


actor.


Act ine


Texts


What


books


which


approach


theatre


performance


vehi


cle?


they use


nsvcholon i cnl


elements


*.B.


n-r













just


a step-


-step


approach


craft


acting


one


author


they


belong


fiction


rather


than


non-fiction


shelv


continues:


because


e they


are


full


because


e they


are


full


Acting
highly


talk
what


poetry,


s the


impress


about


kind
ioni


what


tici


subject
style of
. writer


. (Marowit


anecdote


that


drama.


encourages


writing.
s tend to


Rather


than


describe


. 4)


Some


these


acting


text


s demonstrate


a direct


correlation


between


psychology


acting


while


other


do not

reflect


directly


acknowledge


impact


influence,


psychology


craft


indirectly


acting


Perhaps


most


important


s study


are


text


s used


s review


literature


in which


there


s no


thought


given


to psychology


acting


text


which


reflect


current


training


typical


in both


academic


prof


ess


ional


acting


programs,


approach


actor


emphasis ze


training.


analyze


a phys


Little


ical


emphas


character


non-verbal


s placed


learn


(except


teaching


through


observation)


general


psychological


freeing


nature


emotion


people


intuition


actor


are


emphas


zed.


review


these book


s will


demonstrate


that


under


standing


psychological


nature


a person


s an













personality


people


implemented


basic


part


actor


training.


One

theories


the most


acting


influential,

presented i


and most


n Constant


misunder

in Stani


stood


lavski


series


acting


texts:


An Actor


Prepares,


Building


Character


Creatiner


a Role.


tani


changed


course


theatre,


filtered,


principles--although


transformed--are


foundation


altered,


of most


contemporary


acting


theories.


This


series


books


addresses


importance


both


psychological


physical


use


development


conscious


actor.


technique


tanislavski


creating


explains,


physical


body


a role


achieve


creation


subconscious


life


spirit


e" (Stani


slavski,


1936,


138).


In An Actor


Prepares,


Stanislavski


explores


creativity


, imagination,


subconscious


actor,


well


actor


s obligation


truth.


introduces


concept


" by


which


actor


can


arouse


inner


real


activity


tani


slavski


, 1936,


tani


slavski


speaks


through


fictitious


character


Tortsov:


"In moment


s of


doubt,


when


your


thoughts,


feelings,


imagination


are


silent


remember


iuthnr


aln


hapan


wnrk


that


said


n


L


. I Z


nv E


. .lr. n


L













also


explains


importance


identification


character


motive


character


objective


, both


which


will


be di


scusse


further


chapter


four


. The


text


follow


s the


training


a young


aspiring


actor


fictitious


acting


company


, emphas


zes


psychological


nature


In Buildinwe


both


a Character


character


tani


slav


actor


emphasis z


phys


ical


needs


both


character


actor


He di


SCUSS


movement


terms


control


flexibility


actor,


terms


communication


pers


onality


character.


also


addr


esses


voice


diction,


tempo


rhythm


acting


ethi


tani


slav


realized:


When


s said


done


thes


e various


element


s of


an actor


s make


-up


which


have


been


studying


cons


being
life.


titute


s and


nothing


they


are


familiar


natural


you


state
from


human


actual


amazing


which


thing


s produced


is that
normal


s familiar


means


under


state


natural


conditions


vanishes without


trace


instant


actor


sets foot


stage


tani


slav


1949


. 275)


a Role


tani


slav


s application


theor i


follow


s the


process


uses


create


role


from


Inspector


General,


Woe


from


Wit,


Othello.


not


surpri


sing,


however,


to di


cover


part


s of


s third


book


were


actually


written


before


other


text


Creatine













s with


many


innovative


e leader


what


tani


slavski


said


what


was


attributed


tani


slav


were


always


s the


same.

acting


His work

schools


stirr


emphas


a gr


controversy


different


element


as different

s of his


theory


, forgetting


that


tani


slav


hims


emphasis


balance


between


phys


ical


(external


technique)


psychological


spiritual


inner


preparation)


tani


slavs


, 1949,


viii)


. S


tani


slav


was


awar


e that


his t


techniques


wer


e always


s changing


growing,


cautioned


student


s against


copying


methods


instead


adapting


method


the needs


thei


r environment


innovative


tani


slav


s methods


were


turn


century


in Russia


real i


methods


reflected


knowledge


his time,


his country


, his people


encourage


d his American


student


s not


to be


cont


follow


his tradition,


move


forward


tani


slav


ski,


1949


xiv)


hological


studi


were


just


beginning


their


impact


on S


tani


slav


s demonstrate


throughout


his book


tani


slav


under


stood


their


importance


their


potential


impact


theater


There


s little


doubt


that


tani


Psyc


slav


holorical


would


studio


continue


- 1


encourage


another


actor


source


use


creativity


V


_ _


I












stri


ves


teach


actor


exercises


which


will


develop


harmony


between


physical


psychological


elements.


s a


known


fact


that


human


body


psychology
interplay.


overdeveloped


the mind,


Because


influence


Either


body may


dull


each


character


field


stic


each


other


undeveloped


eas


feelings
and profe


occupational


dim


are


constant


or muscularly
the activity


weaken


ssion
habit


will


prey


seases


hazards


which


inevitably


affect


worker


s and


practitioners


balance


harmony


actor


instrument


stage,
harmony


mus


is seldom
between
who must


or expressing
strive for th


between


two,


that


the body
consider


creative


find


a complete
psychology
body as an


ideas


attainment


body


comply


psychology


(Chekhov


, p.


gives


three


requi rements


to help


actor


develop


this


harmony.


First


a sensitivity


body


psychological


richn


creative


ess


impulses;


psychology


second


itself,


an understanding


third


complete


obedience


both


body


psychology


needs


actor


(Chekhov,


-5).


In his


discussion


first


requirement,


Chekhov


warns


actor


against


"dangerous


practice


eliminating


psychological


elements


from his


over


estimating


significance


physical"


(Chekhov,


encourages


actor


remember


"real


task


creative


artist"


interpret


life--not


just


copy


(Chekhov


, p.


This


ability


interpret


life,


-- v


S













Chekhov


felt


these


impulse


s come


from an


understanding


richness


psychology


itself,


second


requirement.


encourages


actor


constantly


enlarge


circle


interests


assuming


psychology


persons


other


eras,


nations,


dispositions


(Chekhov.


4-5)


Chekhov


discusses


third


requirement--


obedience


both


body


psychology--throughout


remainder


discussed


book.


further


These


detail


ideas


chapter


exercises


four


will


this


dissertation.


Chekhov


summarizes


book


in his


discussion


different


may


ways


analyzed


actor


through


approach


use


a role.


imagination,


character

atmospheres,


sensations


feelings,


psychological


gestures


, tempos,


physicalizations


characterizations,


Stani


slavski


units


objectives.


Even


though


the goal


each


these


approaches


character


strengthen


actor,


Chekhov


psychological


does


core


condone


use


text


analysis


psychological


studies


options


developing


character.


Although Chekhov


emphasizes


study


psychology


others


through


extensive


reading


observation,


fails


include


psychological


studies


available


through


I


k


_ _


I .













contradictory


approaches


psyc


hology:


Theatre


profe


sses


need


understand


psychological


nature


people


avoids


science


psychology


resour


Robert


Cohen


s Acting


Power


uses


psychology


life


experiences


(such


baseball,


snow


skiing,


dining


out)


a means


to explore,


explain,


the discussion


development


actor


theatre.


example,


Cohen


scusses


Philip


imbardo


s prison


experiment


which


male

and


college st

"prisoners.


udent


s were


Within


divided


days


into

the e


groups


"guards"


experiment


abandoned


psychological


physical


strain


found


the mock


prison


environment.


Cohen


uses


Zimbardo


experiment


to explain


intense


relationship


between


"actor"


"play.


Zimbardo


study


a prison


experiment
effects of


situation


was


originally


prison


the mos


life


valuable


undertaken


"acting
result


out"


the experiment,
yielded on the
here Zimbardo h


however
"acting


was


out"


created


information


process


own


self


improvisational


theatre
actors,
context


with


situation,
audience.


acting


scenery,
Zimbardo


context


cos


tume


s theatre


was


was


court


arbitrary--a


improves


action


scientific


that


went


experiment
on within


--but


intera


reality
with al


effective


action


, was


psychological


genuinely


"play" w
context


inten


phys


se.


place


. (Cohen


biological
thus it i


within


, p.


Cohen


s book


-


broken


into


five


chapters:


Playing


the


ce.


__ __













enhanced


following


chapters


which


relate


acting


life


life


experiences.


This


fascinating


book


often


reads


self


-help


psychology-acting manual.


Cohen


also


includes


a suggested


reading


list


actor


which


psychology


theatrical


books


craft,


that


with


"deal


human


with


behavior


acting


everyday


life"


(Cohen,


258).


Charles


McGaw


s Acting


Believiner


elementary


text


which


"assumes


that


actor


s job


create


believable


character


to present


within


character


circumstances


with


theatrical


play


effectiveness"


(McGaw


, p.


based


first


theories


tani


sections


slavski,


book


offer


are


both


exerc


ises


scuss


ions


development


these


theories.


first


section,


"The


Actor


and Himself


emphasizes


development


actor


McGaw


believe


that


actor


large


degree


can


only


"play


himself


first


section


seeks


strengthen


this


ability


(McGaw,


second


section


, "The


Actor


Play


" emphasis


zes


importance


discovering


intentions


playwright


character


putting


them on


what


stage.


a character


Under


willing


standing


to do


what


to eet


character


McGaw


wants


ives


W -


. .


R













(always
purpose


taking


into


in saying
character'


consideration


it),
s line


what


actions


what


speaker


are


comment


suggested


s and


descriptions
directions.


playwright


(McGaw


offers


stage


, p.


final


section,


"The


Actor


Production,


" give


actor


practical


advice


stage


terms


rehearsal


conduct,


staging.


importance


dissertation


McGaw


second


section.


analysis


character


based


both psychological


physical


terms:


what


character


says


what


character


does.


However,


reference


made


study


nature


personality


people


through psychology.


Ramon Delgado


s Acting with


Both


Sides


Your


Brain:


sPectives


Creative


Process


explores


application


theories


psychological


creative


right


process


brain/left


acting.


brain


book


provides a

intuitive,


acting


exercise


nonverbal,


s designed


right


-hemisphere


to develop


brain


the

functions


well


analytical,


logical,


left-hemisphere


brain


functions


(Delgado,


Delgado,


acting


whose


students,


text


provide


was


designed


s exerci


ses


teach


which


first


develop


year


"the


levels


craft


level


actions;


creative


level


processes


-ords;


acting"


level


w -


.. J


v


I.~ V


VI .


.













student


through


a logical


development


a balance


functions


brain


which


will


lead


to dependency


neither


elusive


inspiration nor


stifling


logic


(Delgado,


emphas


this


text


exerci


ses


rather


than


an explanation


theory which might


behind


exercise


es.


Only


a short


discussion


left


brain/right


brain


theory


provided.


Charles


Marowit


z's The Act


Beine:


Towards


a Theory


Act inus


a fascinating


eclectic


overview


acting.


Marowitz


discusses


recent


history


acting,


including


practical


different


insights


schools


into


strengths


acting.


weaknesses


explores


theories


acting


he deems


important


either


their


mystical


practical


contributions.


even


offers


developmental


exerci


ses


actor


, from working


with


an audience


rehearsal


techniques.


Marowitz


believes


strongly


influence


psychology


on acting.


In his


introduction


states:


fact
not


our


written


mos


influential


by Coque


works


on acting


Stanislavsky


Sigmund
acting


Freud,
"theory"


Carl


Jung


, very


Alfred


largely


Adler


, extrapolation


from our


theories


psychology


. (Marowit


, p.


Marowit


z also


attribut


revolutionary


acting


theories


inan r at i nn


nvhn ln i al 1


hrp*aUthron ih .


.


*' ..


* II .


.













Freud and
the whole


early


a handful


notion


1920'


French


inner-te


eashed


upon


psychology


that


chnique is, in th
the unsuspecting


acting profess


ion.


(Marowi t


Sp.


Marowit


z seems


chastise


contemporary


American


theatre


s methods


ch he


views


stifling


work


actor.


feels


that


many


American


acting


theories


encourage


inward-


looking


, border-narrowing,


rather


than


horizon-widening,


out look:


Without


view


meaning
life, a


to do


one


fois


that


can


s a


simple


stic


be mechanically


interpreted


soon


according
s you have


a given


scove


formulae.


red Hamlet


s as


s super


objective


sequence


actions


that


titute


nothing more
or the work.


which
makes


s progress


to be


cannot


no provis


surrealism,
conventions,


actors


said


denies
reduced


ions


fantasy,


play,
about


tence


--either


exis


to Method


unverifiable


magic


genius


committed


relied


doesn't


to get


always


s a


safe


you


s insure


that


safe


travel


from Point


that


you


will


there


character
dimensions


terminology


phenomena
flouter of


technology
although i
A to Point
experience


like


can


landscape


between


those


contemporary


natural
points.


American


prac


phenomena


that


abound


finally, it is,
a renunciation


what


Stanislavsky


rigid


sys


tern of


intended
applied


to be--which


esthetic


was


s technology


more


Why
you


like


a helpful


you


to your
decide


means


rather


going


destination?


turn


so--


down


cas


this


guide
road,


other


any point


there


says


may


hand,


along


territory


should


ne way
down


there


that


even


have


never


seen


and you may


find


things f
anything


yours
might


every


suggest


intere


. (Marowit


z p


sting


. 18)


Master


Teachers


Theatre:


Observations


Teaching


cons


I


w --


_ __ _~ ~


_


I


I~


__ _I__












into


teach


various


areas


influence


theatre

theatre


student


dramatic


interpretation


stage movement,


directing


literature,


(classical


text


, designing,


theatre


actor


high


history,

training


school


theatre,


children


s theatre.


No direct


discussion


importance


study


psychology


included


these


essays,


indirect


references


can


found.


In his


Mission


introduction


Theatre


book,


Teacher


Hobgood


He discusses


address


four


"The


phases


development


significantly


talented


acting


student.


Hobgood


s ability


to develop


these


four


cases


attributes


"remarkable


studies


findings


researcher


s in


human


self-development.


work


Jean


Piaget


Erik


Erikson,


among


others,


illuminates


phases


through


which


children


and young


people


pass"


(Hobgood,


11).


like


Allport,


acknowledges


that


young


actors


are


process


"becoming,


" another


concept


attributed


research


in human


self-development


(Hobgood


, P.


Finally,


Professor


Hobgood


s footnotes


acknowledge


certain


sections


this


book


were


presented


a paper


favorably


Princeton


a delegate


Conference


behavioral


were


scienti


received


(Hobgood,


20).


--












theories


basis


specific


ideas.


In his discussion


three


categories


acting


skills


(analytical,


psychophysical,


transformational


skill


attributes


them as


result


function


different


brain


hemispheres:


right


brain/left


brain


(Hobgood,


88-89).


reinforcing


Stani


slavski


s idea


that


habit


establi


shes


creativeness,


sight


s a


recent


finding


brain


research:


a newly


learned


technique must


forgotten


before


can


truly useful


(Hobgood,


Benedett i


also


likens


acting


dichotomy


outside-in


acting


inside-out


technique


acting


similar


technique


psychological


counsel ing


dichotomy


(Hobgood


, p.


95).


Perhaps


most


important


Benedetti


justification


s explanation


just


for

how


psychological


acting


research


actually


learned:


best


rather


training
is the


byproduct


s not


uncons


expert ene


cious


compelli ng


training


automatic


esthetics


inquiry


very


work


behavior
(Hobgood,


effort


to dis


character


itself


works


cover


s mind
we end


w a play or
works, how
up learning


scene


human


104)


Although


psychological


ideas


found


in Master


Teachers


were merely mentioned


references


not


focus


discussion,


they


do demonstrate


psychological


foundation


important.


However,


a direct


1












Robert


Benedetti


s book,


Actor


at Work,


discusses


further


human


ideas


behavior.


psychology


teaching


acting


discussions


insights


into


through


directly

exercises


study


rely

which


field


help


foundation


beginning


actor.


Interestingly


feels


need


following


disclaimer


because


use


psychological


tools:


Despite


drawn


fact


from a


that


type


ese


exercises


therapeutic


are largely


psychology


[largely Ge


makes
philos


stalt]


must


no pretensions


ophical


hardheaded


(and


efficacy


been


alone.


nature.
scipline,


extens


stre


that


this


therapeutic


Acting
and my


ively


class


(Benedetti,


book


even


a rigorous


approach


-tes
xiv)


ted)


s designed
for


His book


teaches


importance


what


terms


expressive


technique


well


textual


analysis


character


development


These


ideas


will


further


discussed


chapter


four.


Previous


ly mentioned


was


Eva Mekler


s The


Generation


Act ine


Teachers.


This


book


summarizes


basi


c acting


philosophies


currently


taught


twenty-two


leading


acting


coaches


east


coast,


west


coat,


universities


this


country.


Animal


observations,


people


observations


, sense memory


recall,


relaxation


exercises,


emotional


stimulus


exercise


metaphors,


improvisations












their


tea


ching


tool


s to


science


psyc


hology


book


indicate


that


use


psychology


resource


actor


s not


included


major


training


institutions


acting


similarly,


acting


text


s such


Edward


Dwight


Easty


On Method


ctinu,


Morri


s' Beinw


Doinff


ella


Adler


s The


Techniqu


Acting,


Sonia


Moore


s Training


an Actor


emphas i


ze the


development


improvisational


exerci

memory


ses

and


observation


affective


memory


techniques


skill


to stimulate sens

concentration and


relaxation


skill


well


animal


exerci


ses


many


similar


exerci


ses


styl


teaching


can


works


tani


slav


sberg,


other


influential


acting


teacher


No doubt


their


method


s are


seeped


psychology,


extens


ions


their


work


presently


taught


emphas


ze the


development


actor,


rather


than


identification


development


character


found


text


Ther


before


psychological


acknowledgement


s limited


book


s previous


pres


ented


refl


some


major


acting


theori


currently


taught


United


states.


Although


many


se t


s demonstrate


under


standing


psychological


nature


a person


s important


_


v


__










51

Summary


previous


discussion


dissertations,


essays,


periodical


acting


texts


demonstrates


importance


psychological


contribution


arts


in general,


theatre


specifically.


demonstrates


important


effect


both


fields


can


have


upon


each


other.


This


discussion


also


demonstrates


that


although


there


a substantial


amount


psychological


standpoint,


research


there


theatre


lack


from


research


literary


study


psychological


contribution


theatre


from


standpoint


actor.


Perhaps


the most


important


conclusion


demonstrated


this


review


literature


realization


that


implementation


use


psychological


studies


the major


actor


training


programs


and many


acting


theories


lacking.


research


which


reflects


interest


psychology


areas


drama


literature


outweigh


research


which


reflects


interest


psychology


theatre


a performance


vehicle.


A movement


beyond


analyzing drama


simply


literature


which


includes


applying


psychological


theories


development


performance


Performance


literature


step


drama


beyond


should


analysis


encouraged.


- -


completes


~


I












psychologist


theories


personality.


These


theories


will


be demonstrated


particularly


being


regard


useful


character


actor,


text


analysis.

















CHAPTER


GORDON


ALLPORT


AND HIS


WORK


Gordon Allport


psychology


(1897


by moving


-1967)


study


revolutionized


personality


world


into


mainstream of


psychology.


theories


are


still


debated,


considered


one


the most


controversial


psychology


our


time


(Hall


Lindzey


. 260)


Unlike


Freud


other


major


psychologists


, Allport


insisted


studying


healthy,


mature,


adults.


felt


study


animals


neurotic


people


could


not


lead


conclusions


pertinent


to normally


functioning


adults


(Allport,


1955,


writings


tended


teach,


intrigue,


and motivate


research


argument,


rather


than


justify


prove


theories


(Hall


Lindzey


, p.


-260)


was


a teacher


and most


of his


books


read


textbook


s rather


than


scientific manuals.


thrust


studies


theories


personality


dealt


with


whole


person


unique


dynamic


individual


Allport


felt


that


science


was


overlooking


rich


when


ignored


complexities


and individuality


human


behavior


s search


V -


__ _


. .


L k













This


individualism


defined


individual


traits


that


characterize


differentiate


people.


Al port


s theories


optimistically


view


people


state


"becoming


" meaning


each


person


can


consciously


choose


a lifestyle


strive


achieve


recognized


importance


studying physical


clues


regards


understanding


human


personality


Finally,


Allport


believed


much


could


learned


about


personality


individual


letters


major


from


studying


diaries.


contributions


personal


These


are


however,


documents,


only


these


such


Allport


ideas


overview


Allport


s theory


behavior,


personality,


analyst i


are


traits,


focus


motivation,


discussion


this


chapter.


Personality


"Every


hypothetical


person


deviates


average man"


thousands


(Allport,


ways


1961,


from


. The


idea


uniquenes


Allport


s of


s studies


the

and


individual


theories.


s the


Allpor


foundation o

t criticized


scienti


their


avoidance


individual


seemingly


prevalent


theory


that


individuality


cannot


studied


science.


only


history..


art.


bioeraDhv.


- ,T


w ,


. a


WUf












If we accept
limitations


person


this


dogma


science


concerning


shall


a person.


have


scope an
abandon


are


discouraged.


patterned
universals


pers


onali ty
s found


That


uniqueness


not


itself


only


individual


That


particulars
is a univer
individual


also


a system
science


likes


fact


phenomenon


forms.


though


Since


a universe
it cannot


phenomenon


study


science


correctly


mu


unle


st st
ss it


udy it
looks


into


individuality


dilemma

Allport


definition


. (Allport,


begins


f patterning!
1961, p. 9)


Such


discussion


personality with


s the


particular


a disclaimer


in which


states


there


no such


thing


a correct


incorrect


definition


of personality


rather


definitions


are


"full


pitfall


(Allport,


1961,


These


statement


reinforce


AlIport


s general


philosophy


that


much


can


learned


from


almost


anywhere;


consequently,


idea


should


so narrow


exclude


other


possibilities


(Allport,


1955,


17).


Allport


defined


personality


"dynamic


organization


within


individual


those


psyc


hophysical


systems


that


determine


characteristic


behavior


thought"


(Allport,


1961,


. 28).


Because


s definition


reflect


s some


unique


phrasing


word


choices,


Allport


own


explanations


terminology


phrasing


are


presented.


Dynamic Organization













boundary i


an organic


zation


(Allport


1937


. 48)


change


occur


s in


a self-regulating


motivating


fashion


s definition


organi


chang


e impli


stanc


reciprocal


process


disorgani


nation,


especially


those


per


sonalitie


marked


progr


ess


disintegration,


(Allport,


1961


. 28)


svchoPhys


ical


s term


serves


reminder


that


personalty


neither


exclusively


phys


ical


nor


mental


Instead


organi


mental


zation


"some


personality


inextricable


ses


unity"


phys


(Allport


ical


1961


Allport,


1937,


. 48)


teams


s a


complex


element


s in


mutual


interaction.


A habit


person


sentiment


nality


, trait,


s compos


concept,


many


style


sys


teams


behaving


are


teams


are


latent


sonality


even


when


they


are


not


active


teams


are


our


"potential


activity"


(Allport


1961


. 28-29)


Determine


Personality


something


, and


does


something


sonality


s active


Allport


contended


that


latent


psyc


hophy


ical


teams


when


called


into


action,


either


. 28


_


w i


w


_ -


i


w













activity make


S on


others


what


lies


behind


specific


acts


within


individual


(Allport,


1937,


48).


teams


that


comprise


a single


personality


are


"determining


tendencies.


" They


exert


a direct


influence


adjustive


expressive


acts


which make


personality


(Allport,


1961,


29).


Character


behavior


thought


are


character


stic


person


are


unique


that


person.


Allport


acknowledged


use


this


term,


need


to define


appeared


redundant


in a definition


whose


very meaning


stressed


individuality


uniqueness.


used


though,


"drive


point


home"


(Allport,


1961,


29).


Behavior


Thought


Allport


used


these


terms


cover


anything


what


soever


individual


might


person


s main


activity,


according


to Allport,


adjust


environment,


felt


unwise


to define


personality


only


terms


adjus


tment


he had


earlier


done


1937


book,


Personality).


acknowledged


individual


also


reflects


sometimes


the environment,


succeeds


this


striv


mastery


to master


environment.


Thought


as well


.ehavior.


then.


make


both


survival


UU a


..


2












"really
perceive


regard


qualities


ess


other


the methods


people


by which


study


them


in error,
studying
is still


perceptions


just


astronomer


constitution


there,


challenging


our


may


methods


fall


a star.
object


may


short


star


study


definition


does


course,


deny


that


a person


variable


over


time


that


his behavior


may


change
that t


from


situation


person


s an


situat ion.


internal


structure


says
e and


simply
range


characters


ascertainable)


, and


(variable,
it is thi


to De sure,
s structure


that


hope


study


. (Allport


, 1961,


. 35)


Traits


Allport


traits.


was


a pioneer


believed


traits,


study


which


personality


he defined


"predi


position


s to


respond


same


similar


manner


to different


determinant


kinds


cause


stimuli,


" to


behavior,


real.


they


They


are


are


overlapping


regard


their


influence


identification


(Schultz


, p.


199).


also


believed


existence


traits


could


demonstrated


empirically


Allport


study


was


traits


(Allport,


aware


generalities


1961,


limitations


names;


356).


involved


variabilities


emotions;


ability


observe


only


act,


which


the result


(Allport,


trait


1961,


rather


333-334)


than


Even


trait


with


itself


limitations


involved


trait


research


, Allpor


lived


them


nn


-- -


Y


.












trait


theory


can


sound


unless


allows


for,


accounts


variability


a person


conduct


assures


environment


from


companions


surrounding
e is with,


counter
augment


current


stort


person
inhibit


himself


may


completely


delay,
he conduct


we would


that


person
person


variable


s thi


with


He di


normally


s traits.
s stream o'


portion,


s constant


e concept


stinguished


expect


. All
f activity
likewise


portion


trait


between


issue


this


there


cons


from a


s true; yet
is. beside


tant


seek


. (Allport,


types


in a
s a


portion; a
designate


1961,


trait


. 333)


traits


which


could


be generalized


in a group


(common


trait


traits


which make


individual


unique


(personal


dispositions)


common


trait


identifies


trait


which


some


extent


s reflected


in many


personalities.


Common


traits


are developed,


according


to Allport,


because


human


nature


develops


similar


modes


adjusting


similar


environment,


though


varying


degrees


individualism


still

trait


exist

might


(Allport,


1961,


friendliness


349).


associate


example

d with


a common


southerners


brusque


individual


nature


trait,


attributed


however,


to New


personal


Yorkers.


disposition


Allport


came


call


them),


peculiar


individual.


They


have


capacity


initiate


and guide


consi


stent


forms


adaptive


stylistic


behavior


(Allport,


1961,


373).













changing

particular


according

r society.


the growth,

Allport felt


development,


fads


very nature of


common


trait


made


less


influential


individual.


Traits


are


described


through


trait


names


Allport


identified


approximately


18,000


words


Engli


language


which


named


stinctive


forms


personal


behavior


(Allport,


1961


. 353)


. He


not


believe


this


list


to be


complete,


infinite


and hyphenations


words


scope


are


especially


considered


when


(Allport,


combinations


1961


, p.


355)


Allport


thought


trait


names


demonstrated


actual


stence


traits.


Trait


names


developed,


Allport


believed,


because


people


have


a desire


label


what


truly


present


in human nature


(Allport,


1961,


354)


traits


there


would


no gain


in developing


so many


trait.


have


words


Allport


evaluative


attempt t


categorized


flavor;


correctly


these


are


identify


trait


comparative;


specific


names:


refer


temporary


states


of mind,


mood,


emotion,


activity


are


metaphorical


(Allport,


1961


, P.


354-355)


Allport


was


dissati


sfied


with


limitations


verbal


however.


recognized


weaknesses


found


subjective


limited nature


labeling:


trait


ner


sonality m


or ma


coinc


.


-


S


1


e ,


& A.


.: .. *












we may
thus b
exists
would


bound


away


in a given
be well for


conventional


from


precise


individual


find


meanings


integration


Where


our


poss


ible


traits


then
teri


seek


ze our


devaluated


erms


scoveries


with


. (Allport


which


chara


, 1960,


135)


Allport


believed


traits,


once


identified,


could


labeled


arbitrarily


example,


long


they


a personality


deliberately mi


can


identified


slead.


"friendly"


Judge-A and


"outgoing"


Judge-B.


argument


semanti

semanti


should


themselv


avoided


es.


Allport


hoped


limitations of the

achieve a certain


amount


flexibility


identification


traits


this


method,


thereby


overcome


one


weakne


sses


trait


identification


Allport


felt


trait


names


to be


most


accurate,


though


limited,


source


trait


identification available


(Allport,


1961,


356).


Allport


also


felt


there


was


a distinction


between


using


trait


names


to describe


common


traits


individual


traits


(personal


dispositions)


felt


trait


names


were


less


accurate


because


Whereas


their


description


tendency


this


personal


trait


generalization


name


effect ive


dispositions,


to generalize.


describing


common


trait


(a generalization


own


right),


often


falls


short


reflecting


individual


structure













contention


that,


correctly


diagno


sed,


.'s [personal


dispositions]


reflect


personality


structure
categories
(Allport,


accurately,


into


1961


which


, p.


whereas


common


individual


traits


are


s forced.


359)


Allport


understood


that


single


act


product


only


one


trait,


trait


only


one


factor


determining


an act


(Allport,


1961


, p.


360)


This


recognition


complexity


human nature


Allport


conclusion


that


ridiculous


reduce


human


nature


a single


element


simply


sake


explanation:


view


pers


intelligibly
composed of


onali ty--
viewed--


teams


the only way
a network of


within


sys


teams,


can


organization


some


systems


small


magnitude


somewhat


peripheral


central


wider
easy


propriate


scope


into


structure,


core


act ion,


other


other
total


more


sys


teams


edifice;
dormant:


some
some


culturally


conforming


that


they


can


readily


viewed


"common" ;


others


definitely


idiosyncratic.


anal


ysis


network--


complying


billions


billions


nerve


cells


fashioned


environmental


a one-time


experiences


never


heredity and
duplicated--


ultimately


Because


unique


complexity


. (Allport


, each


1961


personal


. 360)


disposition


affects


other


personal


spos


itions


given


individual


that


a personal


boundaries


s concept

dispositio;


are


only


led Allport


not


relatively


identified


independent


conclusion


sharp


each












expression


which


will


betray


individual'


s unique


efforts


survival


and mastery


(Allport,


1961,


362).


Although


there


certain


degree


consistency


found


within


personality,


personality


completely


predictable.


inconsistency


dispositions


could


be due


to a specific


situation,


opposite dispositions


actual


within


individual


exis


tence


(Allport


, 1960,


p.135)


Allport


felt


that


contradictory


behavior


often


contradictory


contrasting


styli


stic


demonstration


same


personal


disposition.


What


must


identified


s the


deepest


disposition


that


operating


within


individual:


Take


case


, always


neat


about


person an
outlines,
not only
and key.


departmental
he leaves th


desk,


punctilious


s pers


in order


also


library.
library


about


onal


carefully
in charge


In
door


this


lecture


possess


kept


duty


unlocked,


note


ions


under


are


lock


s careless


books


does


s this


bother


contradiction


that


behavior


dust


mean


accumulate


that


s pers


oppos


orderliness
situations


mne case
explained


onal


spos


ed styli


one


arouse


further,


(motivational)


contras


about


ting


s per


egotist
interest


style


diff


itions
dispo


disord


erent


the duality


fact
spos


that


ition


D ha


He has


itions


one


erline


dispositions


s at


s one


from which


s proc


sonality


never


eas


Different


Pursuing
partly


cardinal


these


standing


that


acts


always


self-centeredness


other


s for


(for


S own.


7, *A. -L


there


a self


fact


-centered


people


This


cardinal


s abundant


lack


are


.


LA













given


individual.


Some


trait


s have


a stronger


influence


people


than


other


traits,


while


other


traits


have


more


subtle


influence,


even


a weaker


influence


sake

types


understanding

personal dis


discussion,


positions:


cardinal,


identified

central,


three

and


secondary


These


three


dispositions


repres


ent--in


reality--


a means


identifying


intensity


influence


particular


traits


have


individual,


rather


than


exact


category


into


which


traits


actually


fall


Cardinal


Trait


A cardinal


trait


s so


pervasive


outstanding


given


individual


that


almost


every


can


traced


influence


almost


every


aspect


a person


s life


touched


person


so dominated


cardinal


trait


that


can


rarely


be hidden


from others


(Allport,


1961


. 365)


person


does


necessarily


have


only


one


cardinal


trait,


this


trait


may


change


a person


mature


s and


changes


(Allport


, 1961,


365)


Central


Dispositions and


Secondary


DisPositions


Less


predominate


dispositions


are


central


dispositions.


These


central


dispositions


are


also


identifiable;


they


are


handful


traits


one might


use


in describing


individual


writing


a letter


recomnmendatijoS


(AllDort.


w


.


__


J


J












1961,


365)


They might


reflect


something


only


best


friend


would


know


chultz,


201)


Allport


was


hesitant


speculate


exact


number


of personal


How many
audacious


preliminary
the question


dispositions


ispositions
question, a


spec


a person might


a person


can


ulative


audacious:


ans


possess


a mos


were


way. vo
Behavior


in only


many


reasons


continuous
themselves


flow;


singly;


dispositions


never


people manife


express
contradictory


dispositions
furthermore,
developed to


contradictory


diagnostic
enable us


methods


situation


are


to discover


answer.


(Allport


1961


, P.


366)


Still


he projected


from


the data


available


own


observations


cardinal


that


traits


any

any


given

given


individual

point, be


posse


!tween


sses

five


central


traits,


while


number


secondary


traits


could


infinite.


Often


confused


with


traits


because


their


similarities


are


habits


attitudes.


Allport


offered


some


clarifications


definitions.


Habit


Habits


specific


are


stimuli


inflexible


traits


specific


response


are more generalized


variable


in expression


(Allport,


1961,


346)


child


earning


brush


teeth


developing


a habit,


although


this


process













image


which


eads


fusion


habit


into


trait


(Allport


1961


, p.


346):


A young
specific
brush hi


habit


child may


habit


teeth


may


when


night
stand


regarded
e learns


forming


(with


and morning


alone,


aroused


difficulty)


some


year


only


appropriate


commands


appropriate


environmental


years,


however


automatic c


situation.
, brushing


s the


With
teeth


way


tne pass
becomes


habi ts)


ot only
likewise


firmly woven


into


a much


wider


sys


tern of


habit


viz


trait


personal


cleanliness.


. The


adult
teeth
single


uncomfortable


from hi


habit


s daily


omits


schedule,


frustrated,


not


brushing


only


because


because


sslon


(Allport


violates


1937


a general
. 292)


demand


cleanliness.


Attitudes


The difference


between


attitudes


traits


are


even


harder


to distingui


than


between


habits


traits.


sexism an


attitude


a trait?


Patriotism?


Introversion?


Allport


clarified


these


concepts


asserting


that


often


doesn


matter


which


label


a particular


term


given--attitude


trait.


important


issue


identification


trait


word


terms


behavior


a particular


personality.


two distinctions:


first


However,

an attitude


Allport

e always


does

has


identify

an object


reference


whereas,


trait


does


direct


itself


specifically


toward


something.


Second,


an attitude


usually


favorable


unfavorable.


against


(AllDort.


V


J .. V.












attitude


trait,


would


have


considered


what


the object


this


patriot i sm.


patriotic


toward


country,


patriotism becomes


an attitude.


If Tina


sexism


judged


a negative


behavior


toward men,


an attitude.


Lisa


introverted


around


people;


however,


introversion


probably


trait.


Motivation


Allport


lived


that


theory


personality


pivoted


upon


analysis


motivation


nature


internal


of motivation.


condition


He defined


person


that


induces


action


thought


(Allport,


1961,


196).


also


recognized


importance


mot ivation


regards


arts:


Literature


sciences


the single
frequently


criti


Cs.


psychology,


psychology


case.


We have


chiatrist


Conver


biographers


logi
the


when


realm of


sely


social


meet


mos


already


s have


we may


nd literary
they probe,
motivation.


naturally
pointed ou


turned


point


criti


as they
(Allport


into


in
that


literary


that


become


increase
, 1947,


psycho-
ingly d


Allport


believed


theory


motivation


should meet


four


requirements


contemporaneity,


plurali


stic,


cognitive


process,


concrete


uniqueness


Schultz,


201).


ContemPoraneity












are


always


operative


time


activity


takes


place.


Allport


added,


"That


which


drives,


drives


now"


(Allport,


1947,


Allport


was


aware,


however,


that


complex


adult


motives


pas


some


degree,


alive


present.


He considered


however,


task


psychologist


discover


"how much


fire


how much


ashes"


(Allport,


1961


, p.


219)


think


that


the motives


of mankind


are


essentially


unchanged


from


birth


until


death


seemed


to Allport


inadequate


best


(Allport,


203)


That


which


once motivated,


does


necessarily motivate


always.


important


important


force,


exists


"dynamically


realize


a present


active


past


current


present"


only


mot ivating


(Allport,


1961,


. 220)


More


preci


structure
structure


tending


sely
that


stated,


s the


dynamic


static;


toward


a given


unfinished


power


Sa growing
direction o


finished


structure,
closure,


capacity


conformity with


to subsidiate


movement


guide


. (Allport


conduct


, 1955


Plurali


stic


theory


of motivation must


be a plurali


stic


theory


allowing


motive


s of


many


types


(Allport,


1961


. 221).


Plurali


stic motivation


recognizes


that


human motivation


a












unconscious,


others


others


propriate;


tension-maintaining


type


that


find


conscious;


some


some


tension-reduc


. Motives
t difficult


are


opportunistic,
ing, others


so diver


to discover


common
person
(consc


denominator.


's motiv
iously o


deliberately)


About


include


unconscious


(Allport


s that


that


, reflexly
, 1961, p.


trying
or


221)


Simplification


does


explain motivation.


Neither


does


reducing


"its


machine,


strands


animal,


simplified model


child,


pathological"


(Allport,


1961,


222).


theory


of motivation


should


allow


that


there may


some


truth


each


theory


(Allport,


1961,


Cognitive


221).

Process


theory


of motivation must


acknowledge


importance


cognitive


processes--e.g


. planning


intention

cognitive


(Allport,


process


1961,

ves e


. 222).


mphas is


Allport


requirement


individual


conscious


plans


intentions.


These


conscious


intent ions


represent,


addressing


above


future


else,


individual'


(Allport


, 1955,


s primary mode


Thus,


cognitive


processes


stress


s the


importance


future


the motivating process


personality.


Allport


thought


extremely


irrational


that


human


motivation


been


equated


with


"blind


will


Schopenhauer),













eliberat


deci


Sons


made


individual


People


e can


think,


that


process


thought


deci


sions


are


made


Therefore,


vidual


s intent


s central


under


standing


Allport


individual


defin


s pers


intention


onality


"what


individual


trying


to do,


" and


included


sev


eral


feature


motivation


derived


from


cone


intention


cognitive


pers
2.


onal ity


become


The intention,
present, but h


emotive


fused
like


int
all


s strong


0


process


ses


integral


motivation,


future


urge


s in


orientation


motivation


future


concept
as lives


not,


help


are


as mos


S US


trace


actually


theorie


lived


s do,


court


--into


backward


into


S US


s trying


bring


what


sort


about,


future
s the


a per


son


mos


important
3. The t


thus


range


ques


erm


tion


s a


reflect


can


about


flavor


s the true


mortal


maintained


condition


long


motive


When


have
pers


identify


a device


pective


major


holding


. (Allport


intentions
subsidiary


, 1961,


life


trends


. 223)


Allport


terms


believe


future


pres

not


should


past


explained


more


more


important


identify


what


a per


son


intends


to do


they


are


presently


acting


s intention,


than


look


toward


past


individual


s childhood


development


Unfortunately


prominent


that


the co
current


connotes


incept


intention


psychology


Puroos


effi cacy


s not


reason


.


L E *.


-


_. .


LJ












allow


organic


zation


section


cognitive


control


attitude


. (Allport


,by
1961


forces


eight


, by


cortical


. 224)


Concrete Uni ueness


theory


of motivation must


allow


concrete


uniqueness


identification


of motives.


Concrete


of motives


what


uniqueness


Allport


limits


considered


abstract


terms.


theoretical


sys


An abstract

tem which cla


term


connected


.ssifies motives


only


some

in general


common


terms


Concrete:


gave


Mary


following


strong


desire


examples:


to become


profess


ional


Abstract


sexual


nurse.


he is cathecting
(Freudian).


aim-inhibi ted


Concrete:
Abstract:
developed
his early


Is pass
interest


from hi
primary


mus


ionately


sec


ical


drive


fond


mus


ondary


mother, wh
-R theory)


drive
sati


sfied


Concrete


Patricia


loves


entertain guests


home


Abstract


s true


desire


that


competence


Patricia


root.


sens


manife


sting


"competence"


in her


entertaining


there


life


motive


are


surely


which do


highly


a million
interest
concrete.


kinds


competence


Patricia


Entertaining,


abstract


competence,


bread


life


to her,


abstract


completely,


scheme


therefore


sses


sheds


that


point


little


light


on her


personality


a caricature


a person


actually
to view


function


interests


merely as
(Allport,


chang
1961,


rung
. 226)


on a common pattern.












could


lead


a uniform


schedule


of motives


common


(Allport,


1961,


226).


Functional


Autonomy


following


own


previously


discussed guidelines,


Allport


developed


the motivational


theory


"functional


autonomy


own


admission,


s theory


does


explain


human motivation,


Allport


felt


was more


effective


than


past


motivational


theories


. He


felt


was


attempt


abstract,


escape


backward


"the


limitations


looking


theories


uniform,


" and


rigid,


recognize


instead


"the


spontaneous,


changing,


forward-looking


concrete


character


that


much


adult


motivation


surely


has"


(Allport,


1961,


227).


Functional


varied,


teams,


autonomy
as self-


growing


functionally,


indep


regards


adult


sustaining,


antecedent


endent


motive


s as


contemporary


systems,
Just as


them.


child gradually


outgrows


dependence


on his


parent


becomes


parents, so it
transition may


dras


matures


, the


self-determining,
with many motive


be gradual b
e individual


bond


with


outli


noneth


ves


ess


the motive)
is broken.


is historical,
227)


functional


. (Allport


1961


Motivation


s always


contemporary


(Allport,


1961,


p.227)


Motive,


normal,


mature


adult


functionally


related


the


past


experiences


in which













changed


maturity


may


have


have


developed


originated


into


childhood


an entirely


time


different


motivation.


Allport


demonstrate


ex-sailor


longs


absence,
pile. N


love
earn


o return


a miser


e s
sea


living


reinforcement


ex-sailor


motive


" for


is perhaps


is destroyed,


s and


even


a craving for th
to his instrument


continue


ailor


may


s to


build


e fir


incident


sea was


sec


his hunger


a wealthy


yet
ses


increa


sea,


a mus


ician


an enforced
his useless


acquired


in his struggle
ondary


drive


. But


banker;
e hunger


now


original


sea


intense


mus


cian


inferior


but
that


habi


now
he
in
t of


may rirst
performance


s safely


love
the


s hi
world


thrift


miserliness


years


even


(Allport


pers
after


1961


have
e int


s ins


in dire


s and


been
o mas


beyond
trument


miser
necess


become


neces


stung by
tering hi
hese taun


more


than


perhaps


a slur


s in
ts.


on hi


trument


finds


anything
learned h


s stronger


has been


with


relieved


. 227)


Allport


described


original


activity


instrumental


some


earlier


adult


motive,


mot iv


now


now


that


serves


activity


self


-image


serves


self


self


-ideal


per


son.


"Childhood


longer


saddle;


maturity


1961


. 229)


Functional


autonomy


s not


always


s achieved


however


in adulthood


become


continues


a person


functionally


tied


does


mature


autonomous.


original


motivation


Instead


activity


motivation


found


childhood


-mmntn 4


s Dnern


Allnnrt


nn c


la rd owl


s" (Allport,


. .I


T


SI


a













over


those


first


hurtful


words.


actions


could


considered

considered


functional

a normally


autonomous,


functioning


neither

mature a


would


dult.


Maturity


Allport


sought


identify


some


attributes


that


would


be demonstrated


ideal


mature


individual.


He pursued


these


ideas


limit


uniqueness


individuals,


to better


understand


theory


development


personality


(Allport,


1961,


276).


Neither


Allport


believe


spoke


(Allport,


that


an ultimately


terms


1961


ideal


277).


true


human


rather


also


being


than


distingui


sted.


actual


shed


person


between


maturity


adult,


recognize


that


maturity


personality


does


not


have


any necessary


relation


chronological


(Allport


1961


. 277)


With


these


thoughts


in mind,


Allport


believed


normally


functioning


mature


personality


demonstrates


following:


extension


sense


self


persons


activities


beyond


self


(Allport,


1961,


. 283).


enough


a person


simply


with


activity

involve


life.


a personal


Instead


part


mature


themselves


individuals


(while


must


still


maintaining


their


individuality)


least


one


LIt L .I .


t


I .


1












individual


able


to decenter


personal


attention


extend


that


attention


beyond


self.


Warm


relations


self


toward


others


(Allport


1961


, P.


285).


Allport


believed


this


concept


warm


relations


was


went


valid


beyond


terms


intimacy


individual


include


and general


compassion,


relationships.


Intimacy


reflected


individual


s capacity


to develop


deep


lasting


balanced


relationships,


compassion.


Allport


this


related


intimacy must


compassion


person


s ability


respect


appreciate


another


person


individual.


relationship must


other

never


words,

impede


the

the


intimacy

freedom of


found in

another


individual


find


their


own


identity


(Allport


1961


, p.


285)


Emotional


Security


(self-acceptance)


(Allport,


1961


avoid


, p.


287)


overreaction


situations.


Self-acceptance


to matters


individuals


Mature


includes


pertaining


may


ability


temporary


be happy


positive


times,


they


have


learned


accept


their


emotional


state


does


interfere


with


well-being


others


themselves.


They


are


able


express


their


convictions


feelings


with


consideration


convictions


feel ines


others


they possess


sense


.


. 1


,


U












particular


score.


Maturity


rather


ability


real


stic


observations


life,


able


to solve


objective


problems,


to be


able


"problem-centered


What


this


means


is mature


individuals


will


in close


touch


with


"the


real


world,


" they


will


see


objects,


people,


situations


what


they


are,


they will


have


important


work


to do


(Allport,


1961,


290)


Self-objectification:


insight


humor


(Allport,


1961,


288)


Allport


believe


that


insight


into


one


self


sense


humor


work


together


create


self


objectification:


ability


look


oneself


objectively.


sense


Mature


proportion


individuals who

concerning their


have

own


the most

qualities


complete

and


cheri


shed


values


are


able


perceive


their


incongruities


absurdities


certain


settings


(Allport,


1961,


. 293).


A unifying philosophy


life


(Allport


, 1961,


295).


Allport


believed maturity


required


a clear


comprehensive


theory


regarding


life.


This


theory


theories)


can


considered practical


, spiritual,


philosophical


toward


which


in nature.


nature


unifies


Despite


actual


directs


individual


philosophy


aspects


preference


, a philosophy


a person


life


should


develop


the mature


individual


chultz. D.


, K


Y u













major


studies


area


personal


values.


From


studies,


Allport


developed


inventory


containing


questions


(The


Study


Values)


which


felt


gave


insight


into


value-direction


theories


pranger


individual.


regard


built


value-directions


found


social,


individual


political


theoretical,


religious.


economic,


SIX


aesthetic


values


presented,


Allport


inventory


values


showed


that


only


one


values


were


dominant


in any


given


individual


s life,


although


values


were


present


some degree


(Allport,


1961,


297).


A discussion


values


follow:


Theoretical.


This


value


concerned


with


pursuit


truth,


usually


through


empirical,


critical,


rational


methods


(Allport,


1961,


297)


Economic:


This


value


s concerned


with


what


practical,


might


useful


be manifested


relevant.


some


strength


aspect


this


business


value


world


(Allport,


1961,


297)


Aesthetic:


s value


concerned


with


beauty


arti


stic


experiences.


This


value


limited


artistic


talent,


includes


also


enjoyment


pursuit


a cth tin


/Allnnr t


1QR1


n


9Q0'













Political


This


value


concerned


with


power


influence,


limited


narrow world


politics


(Allport


, 1961,


299)


pursuit


power


control


can


found


anywhere


from general


occupation


goals


to personal


relationships.


Religious:


s value


concerned


with


unity,


harmony


understanding


world


universe)


whole.


strives


relate


individual


life


workings


cosmos


(Allport,


1961,


99).


pursuit


a spiritual


understanding


end-in-itself


In his


discussion


value-directions,


Allport


admits


that


previous


values


do not


exhaust


possibilities,


nor


they


necessarily


reflect


values


those


individuals


sensual,


vital,


in pursuit


temporary


"hedoni


needs


stic,


adjustment"


(Allport,


1961


, p.


300)


However


, keeping


in mind Allport


emphasis


s on


average,


mature


adult,


these


values


make


important


contribution


study


integration


the mature


personality.


Behavior


Because


of Allport


s holi


stic


approach


study


individual,


he did


extensive


research


into


area


-.. '


_ _


_ __


T_













Even


though


present


definition


empathy


includes


almost


type


successful


understanding


another


individual,


term


empathy


was


originally


used


refer


process


which


motor


someway


mimicry;


imitative


that


muscular


something


else


activity


(Allport


1961


, p.


-536):


Contemplation


a work


example,


involve
trunk,


many


slight


limbs


which


movements


are


brow


in some


, eyes


imitative


stimulus


spire
that


soars


-object
that t


a waterfall


When
arch


eaps,


one


says


that


nave


that


a storm


a Gothi


s exalted,
cloud


weighs


responses
p. 534)


heavily


that


are


being


reality
reported


one


s own mus


. (Allport


cular


, 1961


this


joining


physical


emotional


aspects


humanity


through


empathy


which


led Allport


pursue


importance


behavior


observation


regards


understanding


interpretation


personality.


ability


imitate


physical


movements


another


often


leads


an understanding


emotions


that


particular


empathy


individual


allows


(Allport,


individual


1937,

"swing


530).


with"


Physical


with mental


life


another


(Allport,


1961,


534):


Some


writers


have maintained


that


our


under


standing


other


imitate,
behavior


people
usually


is derived


from


imperceptible


person


are


our


capacity


ways


trying


t


e 1 a S a A


e r \


J 't1


i n* )


*n~l+~ulA













active


imitation


phys


icality


others


(Allport,


1961,


Allport,


1937,


530)


Expressive


CoDin.


Behavior


Allport


identified


types


behavior


expressive


coping.


He believed


behavior


was


both


expressive


coping


in nature,


although


one


usually more


influential


than


other:


Every


that


we perform


copes


with


our


environment
exceptions.
behavior).
relaxation,


Even


There


We must
summon


res


task


repair a
a doctor,


sleep an
in hand


lock,


answer


play
(the


are


what


seek


a ques


tion,


blink


the
upon
into


a speck


task we
our sk


this


dust


employ


ills,


our


stream of


our


from our


eyes.


reflex


judgment
activity


To cope
habits or


knowledge.


there


enter


with
call
But


deeper


trends


in our


nature.


There


are


styles


repairing
answering


action
aspect


locks,
a ques


betrays


calling
tion, or


both


. (Allport,


a doctor,
blinking


a coping


1961


relaxing,


eye.


express


Every


sive


. 426)


Expressive


behavior


spontaneous


that


shows


one


s true


personality.


specific


goal


purpose,


usually


unconsciously


displayed.


Coping


behavior,


other


toward


hand,


s consciously


a specific


purpose


planned


(directing


formally


change


carried


one


environment).


Allport


summarized


difference


between


coping


expressive


behavior:













d. Coping
(inhibited
behavior i


can


mor


, modified,
s harder to


uncontrollable
handwriting, e
time.)


Coping


express


incidentally


e readily


control


conventionalized)


alter


(Changing


can


usually
behavior


have


aims


expr


essive


often


our


kept


style


only


change


aims


effect


nothing,


s (a


s when


a short


environment


though


our


may


manner


answering


impress


ques


ion


Typically


may


employ


tions
lands
coping


automatic


ervi


us


create


s a


good


job)


is cons
skills:


Clouds, even
expressive


though i
behavior


generally
awareness


s below


. (Allport


thres


, 1961,


hold


our


. 463)


He al


offer


s a succinct


explanation


"What


individual


s voluntarily


doing


saying


constitute


adaptive


aspect


his behavior;


doing


saying


expr


ess


aspect"


(Allport


1947


. 111)


Coping


behavior


can


a restrainer,


sometimes


even


a destroyer


basic


rhythms


individual


expr


ess


ion.


In order


to perceive


e the


individuality


expr


ess


ive


behavior,


focu


s of


a behavior


must


move


beyond


specific


intent


an act


, beyond


conscious


control,


beyond


conventions


skill


s employed


coping


(Allport


observation


, 1961


. 465)


that


people


Allport


become


makes


adult


inter


their


testing


express


behavior


becomes


more


controlled


consequently


, express


behavior


becomes


phys


ically


limit


He giv


example


child


irritable


s child


Ynor


SS es


r,


. -


.L. .


L


. *


*- J.













shifting


eyes


(Allport,


1961,


469).


Allport


felt


this


was


an example


expression


are


a broader

unequal s


phenomenon:


significance


various


features


in different


people.


ces


some


others,
clothing
person;
person


another,
style of
promising


are


open


people ges


highly


in other


reve


in hi


s pos


clothing o
hypothesis


book
tures


some


are


are merely


individual.
handwriting


cases,


himself


ture


"poker


faces


conventional;


Sometimes


seems


"just


entirely nonexpr


primarily


and gait;


a third,


he style
like"


essive


s speec
in his


ornamentation.


s we


suggest


that


every person


one


reveal


somewhat


cues
that


, e.g.


true


futile


voice,


s revealing


revealing


leading
nature


study


eyes


one


another


expressive


features


tnis is so,
1 people by
handwriting.


person


. (Allport


is not


, 1961,


which


same


cue


necessa
. 469)


only


are


various


features


expression


important


to different


people,


se means


expression


tend


consistently


demonstrated


(Allport,


1961,


473)


Expressive


behavior


can


the most


stubborn


part


our


natures:


individual


may


able


change


"what"


"how"


action


is much more difficult.


Emotion


and mood


do make


a difference


terms


consistency


expressive


behavior,


the difference


seems


to change


chiefly


energy


that


goes


into


expression.


Behavior


research


shows


pattern


itself


remains


about


same


(Allport


, 1961,


473).


Other


determinants


which


affect


hehavi or


some


ome


rily















native mus


cular


conditions


structure


health


and bodily
disease


build


accidental


deformations


body


special
drill)


training


(e.g


, dramatics,


military


conditions


sical


environment


(e.g.,


the groui
walking)


climatic


. (Allport


, 1961,


'actors i
p. 467)


region


body


which


can move


is--either


rest


that


movement--expressive;


consequently,


region


nature


body


whether


can


analyzed


separately


express


combination


(Allport,


1961,


479)


To di


scuss


them


all,


discuss


He did


one


however


completely,


discuss


Allport


some


considered


examples


impossible.


in order


demonstrate


significance


such


research.


face


Because


number


of muscles


nerves


found


within


facial


region,


because


this


similar


society i


body


expressive


unclothed


, Allport


region


considered


body


the most


face


(Allport,


sible


to be


1961,


region


the most


479).


Allport


research


made


interesting


done


area


point


regards


interpreting


expressive


facial


movement


Most


research


been


done


not













judgments,


relatively


eyes.


inexpressive.


Eyes


Allport


comparison


asked


are


perhaps


people


believe


they


learn


the most


from


eyes


others,


because


s through


their


own


eyes


that


impressions


are


received


(Allport,


1961,


481)


Voice


speech


voice,


untrained


a highly


expressive


instrument


while


speech


tends


be more


coping.


Interestingly


, the majority


research


been


done


speech.


This


fact


been


contributed


the e

makes

been


;lusive


nature


research

revealed


the dynamics


difficult.


though


through


following


research:


voice,


tendency

untrained


which


have


voices


are more


often


correctly matched


terms


actual


personality


true


express


sion


than


trained


voices;


age


can


usually


be di


stingui


shed


within a


ten year


accuracy


other


physical


feature


(height,


complexion,


appearance)


cannot


be distingui


shed


with


accuracy;


deeper


traits


such


dominance,


extra-version,


etc.)


can


judged


with


a fair


success;


complete


sket


ches


personality


can


This


be matched


means


with


even higher


voice-as-a-pattern


degree


highly


success.


congruent


with


oersonalityv-as-a-whole


(Alloort.


1 Ql


* u A. r .


483)













cultural


conventions,


personality


(Allport,


1961,


485)


Allport


quotes


anthropology cal


investigation


finding


one


that


thousand


human


different


body


steady


capable


postures


assuming


that


about


static


positions


that


can


be maintained


comfortably


period


time


(Allport,


1961,


. 486).


Posture


during


sleep


highly


consi


stent


regards


a personal


character


stic.


Allport


recognized gestures


highly


individualized


revealing;


however,


felt


little


research


existed


that


was


artificial


in nature


(Allport,

quotes a


1961,


study whi


. 486).


suggests


regards

a perso


to gait,


s gait


Allport


can


measured


regularity


, speed,


pressure,


length


stride,


elasticity,


definiteness


direction,


variability


rhythm.


In general


, Allport


felt


much more


research


should


be done


potential


area


insight


express i

into the


behavior


human


because


personality.


recognized


that


coping


behavior


research


easier


document


scientific


terms,


felt


expressive


behavior


to be


the more


important


in personality


expression


anal


ysis.


Allport


believed


coping


behavior


observed


often


foreground.


J hj


J. I L &


j


f .*L













the most


personality


important


(Allport


factor


, 1961,


understanding


494).


Analysis


Methods


personality


assessment


were


also


major


focus


in Allport


s work.


credited


with


writing more


about


specific methods


appropriate


personality


assessment


than


almost


other


theorist


Schultz


, p.


209).


typical


work


Allport,


recognized


that


there


was


no one


method


personality


assessment


complexities


human


personality.


Allport


believed


that


knowledge


others


available


only


fragments,


best


people


only


catch


"glimpses"


each


other


(Allport,


1961,


p 407)


person


can


under


tand


other


person


completely,


s imposs


ible


one


human


being to
feelings


share


between mind


ponder


directly


another.
and mind


egocentric


the motives


This


unbridgeable


, thoughts,


chasm


s to


human


has led philosopher
predicament of the


and poet
soul. It


race,
each


through


"shadows"
imperfect
psychology


s to
is,


circuitous


that


glimp


can


"metaphysical
outset that t


lament
they a
routes


are


ses


able


one


do nothing
solitude," i
e problem of


sure


ultimate
us, only
through t


achieve


another.


change


must


under


solitude


study


our


Since


this


recognize


standing


people


alwav


a


a problem of


martial


under


tandinw


We mav


.













lends


itself


to many


sources


error


regards


perception


analysis


others.


Allport


discussed


several


these


sources


errors;


three


are mentioned here.


Emotions


Emotional


bias


alters


both


the message


being


sent


way


that


message


perceived.


Even


in striving


objective


perspective


s often


perspective,


into


a poor


personal


a subjective


judge


feelings


perspective.


lover


turn


objective


A person


s personality


love


(Allport,


1961,


498).


family member


s personality perception


distorted


shared


emotional


background


family.


Research


shows,


example,


that


when


threatening


humiliating


situation,


other


people


are


rated


"less


attractive"


than


in situations


which


flatters


individual


s self-esteem


(Allport,


1961,


498)


Openness


Most


people


to keep


certain


aspects


their


natures


personalities


secret.


Therefore,


people


vary


widely


amount


information


they


are


willing


disclose,


in whom


they


are


willing


confide


(Allport


1961


, P.


499).


This


willingness


to disclose


oneself


essential


factor


in accurate


perceptions,


s not


necessarily


imolv


a conscious


disclosure.


Some


eono e.













actions


in order


reveal


their


motives


(Allport,


1961


, p.


500)


First


Impressions


immediate


judgement


made


concerning


another


individual


based


first


contact


often


leads


conclusions


which


are


changed


contact


with


individual


increased


Because


Allport


believed


knowledge


others


comes

of the


indirectly

judgement


fragments,


which


tries


was


instantly


highly

organic


skeptical

ze a complex


pattern


interrelated


cues


(Allport,


1961,


501)


first


impressions


inaccurat


nature,


are

and


often

they


long

are


standing,


very


despite


difficult


their

change.


In his


book,


Pattern


Growth


in Personality,


Allport


sted


eleven


different


techniques


assessing


human


personality


constitutional


physiological


diagnosis


sociocultural


setting,


membership,


role;


personal


documents


case


studies;


self-appraisal


conduct


sampling;


techniques;


depth


ratings;


analysis;


test


scales;


expressive


projective


behavior;


synoptic


procedures.


these


techniques


use


basic


scientific


(and


common


sense)


method


observation


followed


interpretation


significance


what


been


observed


(Alloort.


1961


. P.


396)


AllDort


acknowledged


L ..


*


k













recognized


contributions


literature


philosophy


being


important.


(Allport


1961


, P.


396)


Const itutional


and Phvs iological


Dia.rno


SIS


biological


aspects


human


body


correlate


personality


are


important


(Allport,


1961,


398)


studies


from


past


thirty


years


have


certainly


surpassed


Allport


s knowledge


physical


research


However,


premise


still


holds


true,


physical


biological


aspects


human


body


can


affect


personality.


tudi


Sociocultural


Membership.


tatus.


Role


Sociocultural


studies


analyze


framework


within


which


personality


develops:


social


conventions,


customs


, codes,


religious


occupational


groups,


etc.


Through


these


studies


a certain


amount


"probable


knowledge"


can


ascertained


regards


trait


behavior.


been


member
future


an army


actor
about


ship


argued
s the


conduct.
engineer


even


that


best


To know


such


knowledge


predictor


that


, a Salvation Army


a mother,


probable


s to


present


know


future


a person s
she is an Arab,


assie,
a good


deal


court


life


ques


tion


. (Allport,


400)


Still,


Allport


does


believe


that


individuals


mirror


exactly


society


which


they


were


raised


the groups


to which


they


beloner.


Personality


more


than


"the


. >_1













example,


a rich man


S son


becomes


a socialist


presents


different


psychological


program


from


son


revolutionary


leader


becomes


a social


(Allport


, 1961,


400).


Allport


membership


from


acknowledges


important,


sociocultural


studies


whether


setting


individual


relatively


sociocultural


deviates


typical


(Allport


, 1961,


400).


Self-Appraisal


Another


method


assessment


discussed


Allport


self-apprai


: all


methods


that


invite


individuals


report


explicitly


deliberately


concerning


selected


aspects


their


own


personality


(Allport,


1961,


410)


This method


keeping with


A correct


valid


results


incorrect


whether


from other


response


individual


forms


gives


s reaction


assessment


insight


s in


not.


into


personality


individual.


one


persistent


source


error


found


when


using


self-appraisal


flattery:


technique


people


overestimate


Unite

those


States


quality


self-


they


consider


desirable


underestimate


those


they


consider


undesirable


Specific


(Allport,


methods


1961,


411)


involved


self-appraisal


technique


incl ude


fnl lnwin*


KP1-Zftin no


nnmn ar i cnn


.* *


. .













approximat


ranging


from


"most


descriptive


self


" to


"leas


descriptive


self")


Self


-Anchoring


Scal


(the


individual


ident ifi


"the


ideal


life"


rated


"the


wor


poss


ible


way


life"


s rated


individual


placement


identify


year


present


five


years


placement


s sea


Variations


ese


exerci


ses


Conduct


Sampiinu


Conduct


sampling


s the


temat ic


observation


behavior


everyday


situation


Time-


sampling


time-


budgeting


spot


check


s behavior


chosen


interval


s either


through


observation


(time-


sampling)


a written


record


which


s later


analy


(time-


budgeting)


(Allport,


1961


, P.


-415)


"Miniature


ituat ions


" provide


element


s of


given


environment


in order


to ob


serve


reaction


environment:


With


ingenuity


we can


compares


s the


sprawly
scope.
be tried


situations


would


a real


his fitness


everyday
pilot of


life


into


an airplane


flight; he
laboratory


can


small


need


screen


with


test


s of


equilibrium


, visual


acuity


coordination


Psychotechni c


s has


developed


countless


voc


national


miniatures


that


assess fitness


presenting


s for


many


subj


types


with


occupation


a cameo


edition


full


vocational


pattern


employment


officer


a cus


placing


a magaz


floor


waitiner


room


notinmr


whether


DrosDec


tive


J& *


L .. K












verbally


primary


technique


involved


psychological


counseling


(Allport,


1961,


416)


Ratings


s formal


technique


estimates


strength


one


more


qualities


with


a personality


personality


compared


based


with


on direct


other


acquaintance


people


respect


Expressive


a particular


Behavior


trait


and Other


(Allport,

Assessment


418)


Techniques


Express


sive


behavior


s an


important


asses


sment


technique


which


been


discussed


previous


section


expressive


coping


behavior.


other


types


assess


techniques


discussed


Allport


are


based


scientific


analytical


aids.


They


are


tests


scales,


depth


Personal


analysis,


Documents


synoptic


and Case


procedures.


studies


Allport


conducted


extensive


research


area


personal


documents


case


studi


es.


justified


strong


interest


personal


documents


follows:


under


without


standing


some


general


degree


laws


acquaintance


poss
with


ible


particulars. I
and the general


we may


are


assume


equal


that


concrete


importance


production


psychological


under


standing,


follows
document


time


that


case material


should


attention.


s (including


claim half


(Allport,


1947


per


sonal


psychologist
p. 151)












He defined


a personal


document


"any


freely


written


spoken


yields


record


information


that


intentionally


regarding


unintentionally


structure,


dynamics,


functioning


author


s mental


life"


(Allport,


1947


, p.


xii)


These


include


both


person


third


person


documents:


autobiographies,


whether


comprehensive


topical


diaries,


whether


intimate


daily


log-inventories;


letters


tests);


open-ended


verbatim


questionnaires


recording


(but


, including


standardized


interviews,


confessions


, narrative;


certain


literary


compositions;


case


studies;


life-histories;


biographies


(Allport


, 1961,


401).


Allport


further


explains:


a self


conduct


-revealing


pers


onal


record


document


experience
is usually


, though


always


subject


use


subj
vary


, produced


himself,
ts themes
writer, i


ectiv


spontaneously
intended only


naturally


manner


e phenomenologicall)


greatly


candor,


scope,


revolve


recorded


confident ial


around


approach
Such


life


is naturally
documents


authenticity,


value.


psychological
and trivial;
distillations
experiences o
interesting t


deceptive


were


written


deceptive


and,


. (Allport,


Sometimes


sometime
the most


human


life


s they


they


are deceptive


represent


profound


And


psychologist


trivial


further


1947


, why


, p.


significant


always


who must


documents


they
xiii)


are


they


are


even


hy they
dull or


important


determining


consideration


original


in personal


motivation


documents


document




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81,9(56,7< 2) )/25,'$


AN APPLICATION OF THE PERSONALITY THEORIES
DEVELOPED BY GORDON W. ALLPORT
TO THE PROCESS OF CHARACTER ANALYSIS
By
REBECCA JOY TOMLINSON
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
MAY 1990
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES

This work is dedicated to my parents, Joy and Charles
Tomlinson, in appreciation of your unwavering support in
this as all of my endeavors. When I grow up, I want to be
just like you!

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank Dr. David L. Shelton, Dr. Sidney
R. Homan, Dr. Judith W. B. Williams, Dr. Kenneth J.
Gerhardt, Dr. Hernán Vera, and Dr. A.F.C. Wehlburg for the
input and advise which has guided this project.
I would like to thank Dr. Carole Brandt, whose artistic
talents served as the inspiration for this degree.
I would like to thank my friends and family for their
support, encouragement, and love.
A special thank you goes to Eric Haak, whose
encouragement and gentle persuasion made this document much
easier to complete.
ill

TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i i i
ABSTRACT vi
CHAPTERS
IINTRODUCTION 1
Statement of Problem 1
Personality and Characterization... 10
An Example 12
Gordon W. Allport 17
Limi tat ions 20
Hypothesis 25
IIREVIEW OF LITERATURE 27
Dissertations 28
Collections of Essays and Periodicals 29
Acting Texts 35
Summary 51
IIIGORDON ALLPORT AND HIS WORK 53
Personal i ty 55
Traits 58
Motivation 67
Behavior 78
Analysis 86
Summary 106

IV A COMPARISON OF ALLPORT'S THEORIES
TO CURRENTLY TAUGHT ACTING THEORIES 108
Theatre Terminology Defined 107
Personality Defined 109
Trai ts 118
Mot ivation 126
Behavior 135
Analysis 144
Character Analysis Checklist 148
Summary 154
V AN APPLICATION OF THE THEORIES OF
GORDON W. ALLPORT TO THE PROCESS OF
CHARACTER ANALYSIS 155
A Character Analysis of Blanche Dubois 155
Summary of Blanche Dubois 197
Summary 200
BIBLIOGRAPHY 204
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 210
v

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
AN APPLICATION OF PERSONALITY THEORIES
DEVELOPED BY GORDON W. ALLPORT
TO THE PROCESS OF CHARACTER ANALYSIS
By
Rebecca Joy Tomlinson
May 1990
Chairman: Dr. David Shelton
Major Department: Communication Processes and Disorders
The purpose of this dissertation is to demonstrate that
the actor's understanding of a character can be enhanced
from a study of theories formulated by psychologists, with
specific regards to the personality. The focus of this
dissertation will be a discussion of the application of the
personality theories of Gordon W. Allport to the process of
character analysis. Allport is used as an example of what
might be learned by the actor through the study of
psycho 1ogy.
Allport's approach to the study of the personality is
important to the actor for many reasons. He provides
terminology which enhances communication and understanding.
His holistic approach to psychology (mind and body), his
ideas of free will and conscious choice, his theories on
motivation, his research into expressive and coping

behavior of the individual, and his studies of personality
analysis based on biographies, autobiographies, and
correspondences can all aid the actor in a character and
script analysis.
This dissertation includes a chapter which serves as an
overview of the major psychological theories of Gordon W.
Allport, as well as a chapter which compares these
personality theories to currently taught acting theories.
The final chapter of this dissertation applies the
psychological theories of Gordon W. Allport to the character
analysis of Blanche Dubois in Tennessee William's A
Streetcar Named Desire.
v i 1

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Statement of Problem
Within the past one hundred years, extensive research
has been submitted for scrutiny by the psychological
society. Sigmund Freud, Karen Horney, Carl Jung, Abraham
Maslow, and B. F. Skinner are only a few of the names whose
contributions to the study of personality and the psyche
have changed our lives. The study of personality has helped
us to understand ourselves, our loved ones, our enemies, our
fears, and our futures. It is a field in which interest has
yet to be exhausted; to the contrary, the field continues to
grow and make new contributions (Schultz, p. 3-4).
What is its contribution to theatre? Theatre and
psychology significantly influence one another. Gordon W.
Allport credits the humanities as having given the most
influence toward the development of the field of psychology:
After all is said and done, it is philosophy and
literature, and not the natural, biological, or
social sciences, that have fostered psychology
throughout the ages. It is only in comparatively
recent years that psychology has detached itself
from philosophy and from art to become the storm
center that it is. (Allport, 1960, p. 5)
The feelings between the arts and psychology are not
always friendly, however. They are sometimes considered
competitors in their techniques and research styles
1

2
(Allport, 1950, p. 201). Allport comments on this
competition between the humanities and psychology as it
specifically applies to the study of the personality:
Tardily, psychologists have arrived on the
scene. One might almost say they are beginning two
thousand years too late. The psychologists' work
it might seem has been done for him, and done most
brilliantly. With his scant thirty years of
background, the psychologist looks like a conceited
intruder. And so he is in the opinion of many
literati. Stephan Zweig, for example in speaking
of Proust, Amiel, Flaubert, and other great masters
of characterization, says, "Writers like these are
giants in observation and literature, whereas in
psychology the field of personality is worked by
lesser men, mere flies, who have the safe
anchorage of a frame of science in which to place
their petty platitudes and minor heresies."
It is true that the giants of literature make
psychologists, who undertake to represent and to
explain personality, seem ineffectual and
sometimes a bit foolish in comparison. Only a
pedant could prefer the dry collections of facts
that psychology can offer regarding an individual
mental life to the glorious and unforgettable
portraits that the gifted novelist, dramatist, or
biographer can give. One recent critic has put the
matter crisply. "Psychology, whenever it deals
with human personality," he remarks, "is only
saying what literature has always said, and is
saying it much less artfully." (Allport, 1950, p.
200-201)
In researching the relationship between psychology and
theatre, it is interesting to discover that the very word
"personality" finds its roots in the theatre. Personality
comes from the Latin word "persona," which refers to the
masques used by actors in the theatre of the Greeks
(Schultz, p. 8 ; Allport, 1961, p. 25). These masques were
worn by the actors to demonstrate physically to the
audience what kinds of characters were being portrayed. In

3
other words, the masques helped to reflect the
personalities of the characters.
There are still other examples of the influence
psychology and theatre have had upon each other.
Psychologists have developed theatrical techniques as
therapy tools (psychodrama and role playing, for instance),
and have used dramatic characters to demonstrate theories
and research (Reppen and Charney, p. v). Even some of the
basic terminology used by psychologists originated as
theatrical terms: acting-out, roles, actor, playing, and
role playing. It seems psychologists have accepted the
challenge of director Peter Brook: "The stage is a
reflection of life. Anyone interested in process in the
natural world would be very rewarded by a study of theatre
conditions" (Brook, p. 99).
Theatre artists, however, have not taken full advantage
of the data available through a study of psychological
conditions. There seem to be several factors which hinder
actors from using the psychological data as a resource for
their work. The first reason is accessibility. Until the
recent onslaught of publications for the "armchair psycholo¬
gist," most of the psychological theories were written for
the scientific community or students of the scientific
community. The terminology and statistics of these writings
can be both intimidating and confusing for a student of the
arts. If I'm So Successful. Why Do I Feel Like a Fake?:

4
The Impostor Phenomenon: Why Marriage: A Reality Therapy
Approach to Marriage: and Games People Play: The Basic
Handbook of Transactional Analysis are three examples of
psychological self-help books which present psychological
findings in vernacular terms, thereby increasing the
accessibility of psychological studies.
Second, psychological and scientific writings, in the
search for irrefutable truths which can be scientifically
validated, often bypass or ignore the concept of individual¬
ity. This concept is precious to the artist.
One of the outstanding events in psychology of the
present century has been the discovery of
personality. Personality, whatever else it may be,
is the substantial concrete unit of mental life
that exists in forms that are definitely single and
individual. Throughout the ages, of course, this
phenomenon of personal individuality has been
depicted and explored by the humanities. The more
aesthetic philosophers and the more philosophical
artists have always made it their special province
of interest. (Allport, 1950, p. 200)
In the same way individuality is ignored, scientists
tend to negate the importance and validity of the emotions.
Artists, however, tend to emphasize the emotional over the
analytical. Tyrone Guthrie agrees:
The arts, as opposed to the sciences, mainly
concern themselves with the expression of quality,
with how things feel; for how things feel is, to an
artist, so important an aspect of what they are
that his main search is for some image or medium to
express that clue to reality. (James, p. 3)
Third, scientists are sometimes so involved in the
testing and validating of theories, that the theories

5
presented seem to be of little use for practical application
by the actor.
To the layman, the chief fault with psychological
science seems to be its willingness to pile
abstraction upon abstraction with little regard for
the concrete personal life. (Allport, 1947, p. 143)
The fourth block to the study of psychology for the
artist links all of the previous blocks. As earlier noted
by Gordon Allport, there seems to be an enmity between
science and the arts. John Strasberg curtly states: "Read
Shakespeare and you'll learn a lot more about human nature
than most psychiatrists know" (Mekler, p 101). While Eugene
O'Neill angrily adds his own opinion:
I don't agree with your Freudian objections. Taken
from my author's angle, I find fault with critics
on exactly the same point--that they read too damn
much Freud into stuff that could have been written
exactly as is before psychoanalysis was heard
of. . . Authors were psychologists, you know, and
profound ones before psychology was invented.
(Weissman, p. 206)
Perhaps most importantly, though, is fear on the part
of the theatre community: the fear of approaching a role
intellectually. Constantin Stanislavski, who developed one
of the most widely followed methods of acting, warned:
Our subconscious is inaccessible to our
consciousness. We cannot enter into that realm.
If for any reason we do penetrate into it, then the
subconscious becomes conscious and dies.
The result is a predicament; we are supposed to
create under inspiration; only our subconscious
gives us inspiration; yet we apparently can use
this subconscious only through our consciousness,
which kills it. (Stanislavski, 1936, p. 13)

6
A prevailing thought in the majority of current acting
classes is analysis leads to the destruction of the instinc¬
tive and the spontaneous emotion. Ernie Martin, profes¬
sional teacher and director, exemplifies this concern as he
warns his students against getting "Freudian" and "analy¬
zing" their responses (Mekler, p. 161), and Michel Saint-
Denis taught his students to give "first place to objective
gesture rather than to the study of subjective psychology"
(Saint-Denis, p. 189). Even Michael Chekhov, whose emphasis
is harmony between the psychological and the physical
realms, warns:
The reasoning mind, generally speaking, is not
imaginative enough, is too cold and abstract to be
able to fulfill an artistic work. It might easily
weaken and for a long time retard your ability to
act. You may have noticed that the more your mind
"knows" about the character, the less you are able
to perform it. This is a psychological law.
(Chekhov, p. 71-73)
Charles Marowitz reminds us that these fears need not
hinder the actor from exploring all resources. In his
discussion of the conscious/unconscious controversy (which
he feels is revived every fifteen or twenty years), Marowitz
explains the balance which exists:
In the nineteenth century there was a great concern
over whether the actor should lose himself in his
role (operate entirely by instinct) or organize his
actions under strict conscious control. These were
erroneously called different "schools" of acting,
and throughout the controversy no one made the
elementary point that any acting worth its salt
must be composed of both elements, and that even if
he wanted to, an actor could not eliminate
conscious control, and even if he chose to do so,
an actor could not perform entirely on a wave of

7
untrammelled instincts as the result of such
performance would be to destroy his coherence and,
more likely than not, his sanity. (Marowitz, p. 5)
Despite these blocks, psychology can be useful to the
actor. Psychology and theatre do not exist in different
worlds; they simply approach the same world by different
means and separate terminology. Michael Howard--a
professional actor, director, and teacher—acknowledges the
important contribution of psychology to acting: "I am told
therapy, especially Gestalt, has taken a great deal from
experimentation in acting classes. Certainly it's the other
way around" (Mekler, p. 12). Tyrone Guthrie, in a
discussion of an ideal training program for actors,
encourages the inclusion of psychological study as part of
the training program:
To give intelligent answers would demand a course
of studies by no means frivolous, involving, as it
obviously would, some acquaintance with aesthetic
philosophy, anthropology and psychology. (James, p.
3)
Stanislavski acknowledged the importance of psychological
studies by rebuking his students and readers for their lack
of understanding of the psychological world and physio-
1ogica1 1aws:
In certain parts of the system, like the
physiological and psychological, such laws exist
for all, forever, and in all creative processes.
They are indubitable, completely conscious, tried
by science and found true, and binding on all.
Each actor must know them. He does not dare to
excuse himself because of his ignorance of these
laws, which are created by nature herself.
(Stanislavski, 1956, p. 483)

8
Despite the usefulness of psychological studies to the
actor, present acting theories and techniques do not
demonstrate that the previous advice has been heeded. This
contention can be demonstrated by a study of the techniques
and theories being currently taught in actor training
programs in the United States. Eva Mekler, actor and
psychologist, interviewed twenty-two professional acting
teachers who are currently training actors through private
studios and/or the university setting. The results,
published in her book New Generation of Acting Teachers,
reveals much talk of teaching the actor to "become,"
"release," or "create" the character. Animal observations,
people observations, sense memory recall, relaxation
exercises, emotional stimulus exercises, metaphors, and
improvisations are cited as influences on and contributors
to character development. All of these exercises, however,
rely on the ability of the actor to intuit from the script
who the character is. No structure for character analysis
is mentioned.
What of the actor who cannot intuit a character, a
scene, or even a moment? Mel Shapiro, director and teacher,
faults the 1960s as having "dismantled" the acting process
(Mekler, p. 375). He feels this "nonverbal" approach to
acting hinders the contemporary student when it is not
balanced by a study of psychology and script analysis:
I have become aware that the teaching of acting
is a cultural problem. In other words, the way

9
acting was taught twenty years ago was related to
the culture. At that time we were into a very
nonverbal approach--the metaphor was the thing, the
persona was the thing. We didn't want to use words
because we believed that the words were a means of
lying.
I am now faced with teaching acting to students
who haven't read Plato or Shakespeare. They
haven't even read Neil Simon . . .
No exercise work can ever be as productive as
simply dealing with the text. The American Method
approach to acting has done everything but deal
with the text.
Available to the actor through the study of
psychology and personality theories is an extensive
repertoire based on the psychologists' research and
theories of the past one hundred years. The actor,
whose need it is to understand many kinds of people
on many levels, can use the different findings in
the world of psychology to gain insight and
discover new choices, particularly in regards to
character and script analysis. (Mekler, p. 374-
377)
Robert Benedetti is another acting teacher who has
expressed his concern at the lack of textual character
analysis being taught in most actor training programs. "For
years our schools and academies have been producing actors
who 'play by ear,' who literally can't read their music"
(Benedetti, p xii). The nonverbal approach, actor-freeing
skills, and character intuition are extremely important to
the development of the actor. An understanding of the
nature of the character through a textual analysis cannot,
however, be ignored.
All of the acting teachers quoted in Mekler's book
emphasized the observation of people as an important factor
to character identification and development. As one teacher
put it, "If you have to tell students to observe people,

10
they shouldn't be in the business" (Mekler, p. 103). The
observation of people leads the actor to artistic
conclusions which are physical as well as psychological in
nature. Yet little is mentioned by these same teachers of
studying the science whose very basis is people observation.
If teachers emphasize the observation of people, the study
of the science whose foundation is the observation of people
should be a logical extension for the student of theatre.
The ability to analyze a character through textual
clues and the ability to understand the personality that is
found through the analysis are essential acting skills.
These skills can be further developed by a systematic study
of psychological research. Acting the text must be more
than a "play by ear" or intuitive process, and the study of
the personality through psychological research can teach the
actor to "read the music" of the text.
Personality and Characterizations
"What is he like?" Almost everyone can describe a
friend, acquaintance, or enemy in a few words, and in doing
so feel as though they have summarized the individual's
entire personality. If asked what she or he thought of
someone's personality, the average person would probably
reply, "She has a good personality" or "I don't like his
personality." Everyone has an idea of what a personality is
and even ideas of what a personality should be. Personality
analysis, like art, is subjective in nature.

11
Sam Smiley, in his text for the beginning playwright,
defines personality as "self." He then expands:
It is the form, or overall unity, of an
individual's traits. It includes the complex of
characteristics that distinguishes one person from
all others, and it admits the behavioral
potentials of the individual which transcend all
his attitudes and actions. . . . Personality is the
totality of a human being's physiological and
psychological traits, and therefore it is the
epitome of whatever differentiates one human from
every other human. (Smiley, p. 82-83)
Psychologists themselves cannot arrive at a unifying
definition of personality, due in part to its subjective
nature (Schultz, p. 2). Each definition depends upon the
basic theory from which the psychologist approaches the
study of the personality. According to David McClelland,
whose area of study was motivation, personality is the most
adequate conceptualization of a person's behavior in all its
details (Lazerson, p. 404). E. R. Guthrie, who studied
learning theories, claims a personality consists of those
habits and habit systems of social importance that are
stable and resistant to change (Lazerson, p. 404), while
Harry Helson contends personality is actually the person in
the situation (Lazerson, p. 404). A leading text on the
theories of personality notes the differences in
psychologists' definitions. Yet in an effort to find a
common ground, the author goes on to give a general
definition of personality as "an enduring and unique cluster
of characteristics that may change in different situations"
(Schu11 z , p. 28 ) .

12
In the theatre, the understanding of personality is a
critical part of character analysis and development. A
character is created based on conclusions drawn from textual
clues. "Conclusions come from clues, choice from
conclusions. Clues are the deta i 1s--fragments--minutiae of
the script" (Brandt, 46). These textual clues lead the
actor to the personality of the character, and the
personality of the character structures actor choices. An
understanding of the human personality is essential to the
actor in regards to the creation of a character. Smiley
instructs the young playwright, "in order to comprehend the
principles of characterization, a playwright needs first to
consider some qualities of a human personality" (Smiley, p.
80). The same instruction holds true for the actor.
The purpose of this dissertation is to demonstrate that
an understanding of the nature of the human personality can
be derived from a study of the psychology of the
personality, and this understanding can aid the actor in
regards to character and textual analysis. "I as an artist
must constantly draw creative materials and knowledge from
life and science. (Stanislavski, 1961, p. 66)
An Example
During a recent production of Frederick Knott's Wait
Until Dark. a young director experienced difficulty in the
understanding and interpretation of the character of Harry
Roat, Jr. This character can best be summarized as a "diab-

13
olical sleaze" who serves as the play’s antagonist. Due to
the director's limited real-life and observational
experience with such an extreme example of a dark character,
the director tried to rely on the information provided
solely in the script. It soon became apparent that this
method would only be partially successful because of the
twenty-some years difference between the writing of the play
and this particular production.
Since 1966, when the play first opened in New York,
the public has been exposed to a series of "slash 'em up"
horror flicks, which includes several sequels of the
nightmarish Halloween. Nightmare on Elm Street, and the
controversial Fatal Attraction (which was released just
prior to this particular production of Wait Unti 1 Dark).
Due to the audience's increasing exposure to gore and death
over the past twenty years, it was the director's opinion
that the 1966 characterization of Roat, particularly in
regard to the blocking and physica1 ization dictated by the
script, could not compete with the "Freddy Kruegers" created
by the present horror industry. In order to obtain the same
audience response to Roat in 1986 as was obtained in 1966,
the director needed more information concerning this type of
personality.
Realizing she could not pull anything from her past
experience, she began studying different aspects of the
human personality. The description of the phenomenon of the

14
sadistic personality closely resembled the description of
Roat's behavior (and consequently his personality). The
general study of sadistic behavior led the
more specialized research. The studies of
by Erich Fromm provided this director with
personality and behavior of Roat.
Fromm's studies hypothesized that the
feeling of security has been sacrificed as
have systematically gained more freedom:
director to a
authoritarianism
insight into the
individualized
our societies
As people have gained more freedom, they have come
to feel more lonely, insignificant, and alienated
from one another. Conversely, the less freedom
people have had, the greater have been their
feelings of belongingness and security. (Schultz,
p. 148)
According to Fromm, this need to regain security can
manifest itself in author itarianistic behavior of the masoc¬
hist or the sadist. Fromm's study of sadistic behavior gave
the insight for which the director had been looking. The
sadistic individual strives for power over others through
three different means:
In one way, the person makes others totally
dependent on himself or herself so as to have
absolute power over them. A second sadistic
expression goes beyond ruling or dictating to
others. It involves exploiting others by taking
or using anything desirable that they possess—
whether material things or intellectual or
emotional qualities. The third form of sadistic
expression involves the desire to see others suffer
and to be the cause of that suffering. While the
suffering may involve actual physical pain, it most
often involves emotional suffering, such as humi¬
liation or embarrassment. (Schultz, p. 150)

15
The director was able to use the three forms of sadis¬
tic expression to both explain Roat's action and to physi¬
calize Roat's intentions. For example, Roat exploits Susie
"so as to have absolute power over" her by trying to make
her physically dependent on him. In the third act of the
play, it was decided that Roat should take from Susie her
blind stick. In doing so, he was attempting both symboli¬
cally and literally to insure Susie's dependance on him. He
later used the blind stick, a symbol of Susie's freedom in
the outside world, as a weapon against her in her own home,
thus symbolizing her captivity. Roat destroyed Susie's
emotional security in this way.
Roat also used other items found in Susie's apartment-
-pots, pans, photographic equipment--to inflict emotional
and physical trauma upon her. Susie's apartment previously
represented a haven of safety and security against a violent
outside world. Roat’s ability to use Susie's environment
against her is an example of the second sadistic expression
of exploiting others by taking away or using anything
desirable they possess against them.
The final form of sadistic behavior--to be the cause of
suffering through pain, humiliation, or embarrassment—
explains Roat's need to taunt Susie even after Susie agrees
to disclose the location of the doll, the object of his
interest. He has already won the battle, but the winning
does not satisfy him. He needs more. According to the

16
lines found in the script, he makes Susie stand in the
center of the room. She is not allowed to use her body or
the furniture in the room to help her to "see" where she is.
She is completely blind to her surroundings and completely
vulnerable to Roat. She is figuratively naked to his
scrutiny. The director and actors found sexual undertones
which were used to sadistically inflict embarrassment as
well as fear. Finally, Roat forces the issue of humiliation
as he insists that Susie ask him to "please" allow her to
reveal the hiding place of the doll (Knott, p. 74). She
complies with both requests.
Fromm goes on to say that the goal of an authoritarian
person is not to destroy the object on which he is
inflicting his sadistic behavior. What is desired is a
continuing interaction with the object which prolongs the
feelings of power (Schultz, p. 150). This particular
concept explains Roat's relationship with Lisa, and his
seeming disappointment at her death (Knott, p. 69-70). His
intention is to play with his victims, but they invariably
die because Roat goes too far in his play for control and
power. The death of his victim leaves Roat with a feeling
of failure: He has destroyed the object which gave him his
feeling of power and security. Without his need of power
being met, he is driven to once again prove himself, and the
cycle of destruction continues.

17
Through the aid of the psychological studies of sadis¬
tic behavior, the director of this production of Wait Unti 1
Dark was able to find insight into the analysis of an
unfamiliar type of character. This insight extended from
basic analysis to the physica1 ization of character based on
the analysis and the blocking of the dramatic action of the
play.
Gordon W. Alloort
Gordon Allport is one psychologist whose theories can
be used to give the actor insight into the personality of a
character and thereby aid in the character analysis. He is
considered by many psychologists to be one of the most
compelling of the personality theorists, because he believed
in the "individuality, uniqueness, and the personal exper¬
ience of the single human organism as the most meaningful
subject matter for the exploration of personality"
(Southwell and Merbaum, p. 253). Allport's definition of
the personality demonstrates the importance of the concept
of individuality and uniqueness to Allport's studies:
Personality is the dynamic organization within the indivi¬
dual of those psychophysical systems that determine his
characteristic behavior and thought (Allport, 1961, p. 28).
This definition will be further discussed in Chapter III.
He was the first psychologist to emphasize the study of
the individualized personality as opposed to the study of
the generalized personalities of groups (Hilgard, p. 132-

18
133, 141). To minimize the importance of individuality, he
argued, was to jeopardize the integrity and accuracy of the
study of personality (Southwell and Merbaum, p. 253). This
opposition to the traditional scientific forming of general
laws which can be applied to everyone is still controversial
(Watson, p. 609-610; Schultz, p. 194-195).
Allport also argued against the validity of the study
of the abnormal personality as a means for drawing
conclusions of the normal personality. He believed the only
way to study personality was through healthy, normal, mature
adults (Schultz, p. 194). As a result, his studies relied
on the "average" individual.
From his studies, Allport developed a seemingly simple
and common-sense approach to the discussion of personality
based on trait classification. Due to recent changes in the
field of psychology, these theories are considered by some
to be more influential today than when they were originally
developed (Hilgard, p. 137).
Gordon Allport received nearly every honor the field of
psychology had to offer for his contributions (Schultz, p.
195). Psychologists ranked Allport in 15th place in the
ratings of the relative influence of 286 psychologists, and
in 7th place among the personality theorists Sigmund Freud,
Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, Henry
Murray, Raymond Cattell, Erik Erikson, Carl Rogers, Abraham
Maslow, George Kelly, B.F. Skinner, Albert Bandura, and

19
Julian Rotter (Gilgen, p. 203-211). He is also credited by
some for making the largest contribution toward the accep¬
tance of the studies of personality as an academically
respectable part of psychology (Schultz, p. 194).
What, however, is Allport's contribution to the actor?
Allport's approach to the study of the personality is
important to the actor for many reasons. His holistic
approach to psychology (mind and body) lends itself to the
holistic approach an actor takes in approaching a role.
His ideas of free will and conscious choice can lend
strength to the decisions made by an actor because of
Allport's emphasis on the conscious decision making
process. Allport's conjecture that motivation is always
contemporary helps the actor keep choices active, because
motivation is based in the present and moving toward the
future, rather than buried in the past (Schultz, p. 194).
Allport's research into expressive and coping behavior of
the individual can aid the actor in making physical choices
for a particular character as well as understanding physical
choices mandated by the script. Allport's studies of
personality analysis based on personal documents can guide
the actor in the analysis of a script. Finally, Allport's
terminology is clear and concise and can aid the actor in
understanding and communicating psychological elements of a
character's personality. W.M. Jaeger, in his theatre
dissertation entitled The Application of the Psvcho-Ana1vtic

20
Theories of Karen Horne.v to the Stanislavski System of
Acting, suggests that "psychology, either as art or science
(or both) may discover that Allport's type of psychology is
what is needed for the artist" (Jaeger, p. 331).
Allport often expressed his respect for the arts. He
wrote an article which explored the positive influence of
the arts on the study of the personality, entitled "Persona¬
lity: A Problem for Science or a Problem for Art?" He
challenged the scientific society to learn from the arts in
regards to personality, and emphasized the necessity for the
distinct approaches of both the arts and psychology to
"complete [the] study of the infinite richness of [the]
personality" (Allport, 1950, p. 209).
Gordon Allport's theories of personality demonstrate
the usefulness of the study of the psychologists' theories
by actors. His theories give insight into the human
personality, thereby leading the actor to a fuller under¬
standing of a character. The way a psychologist would use
Allport's theories to uncover the mysteries of a patient, an
actor can use his theories to uncover the mysteries of a
character as found in the playwright's text.
Limitations
The following limitations serve to guide the progress
of this dissertation. These limitations are offered to

21
clarify the goals of this dissertation and to aid in the
understanding of the ideas presented.
This dissertation acknowledges styles of theatre and
individual plays exist in which characters are developed
for their similarities and generalities. In these
theatrical styles another approach to analysis might be more
appropriate than the approach discussed through this
research. An example of a generalized character approach
might be found in the development of a chorus in a Greek
drama. The intention of the chorus might be better served
by an approach which emphasizes ensemble acting and unity of
vocal and physical movement, rather than an individual
characterization analysis. Robert Benedetti describes
another example of the inappropriateness of psychological
motivational research:
In plays where the external action of the plot
itself is the dominant element of the play (as in
allegories, farces, and some Classical tragedies,
for example), the psychological aspect of
characterization is of small importance. In fact,
when the actor insists on psychologically
motivating every action, even when such motivation
is irrelevant to the nature of the play, the
quality of the play's structure may suffer
greatly. On the other hand, some plays feature
interior action (like those of Chekhov and O'Neill
for example) and here the psychology of the
characters is the vehicle for the plot itself.
(Benedetti, p. 152)
This dissertation also recognizes that a created
character found in a script is not necessarily an exact
duplicate of a living human being. A distinction can be
made between human beings and characters. Psychological

22
theories are formed from the study of actual people, while
created characters, even those based on actual people, are
still products of the imagination. The personality of a
character in a play resembles human beings, yet distinctions
between a human personality and a character in a play do
exist. Sam Smiley recognizes these distinctions:
A personality exists in and of itself; a dramatic
character will eventually reach full actuality only
when blended with the personality of an actor. A
human personality lives in an unlimited milieu, the
everyday world of extensive possibility for
situation and activity; a character exists in the
delimited milieu of a play, an imagined world of
diminutive probability and necessity. A
personality is an individual performing actions; a
character is an agent of action. Infinite change
is possible and likely for a human being. Each
body cell is regenerated in a human about every
seven years. The personality of a person alters at
least somewhat each day and changes greatly during
a longer period of time, because of rapidly stored
new experiences and developing attitudes. Today's
close friend may be tomorrow's acquaintance and
next week's stranger. The components of a
character, however, once established, never change.
Although Hamlet goes through several changes in the
course of the play, the script never changes from
year to year. Although any reader's interpretation
of Hamlet, or any other character, may change, a
character himself is always the same within the
limits of the sayings and doings of the play.
Thus, a human personality can be identified as
infinite and always changing, while a dramatic
character is finite and never changes. A human
possesses an open personality with a series of
altering and alterable distinctive qualities. A
character possesses a closed structure with a
series of specific and fixed distinctive qualities.
If a persona is a friend of a number of people,
each one will know the person by different traits.
But everyone who comes in contact with a character
can, potentially, know that character in exactly
the same way, because the same traits are apparent
to all. A human personality can assume nearly any
set of traits it wishes, but a character can only
possess those which a writer gives it. Hence,

23
characters are not human beings. They can and
usually should deliver the illusory appearance of
personalities, but they are truly agents more or
less causally related to a structured action.
(Smiley, p. 83)
Despite the differences which exist between created charac¬
ters and living people, the similarities between the two are
s trong:
The process by which a character attempts to
satisfy his needs and desires and is frustrated by
his situation is much like the process by which
personality is formed in real life. By
understanding a character's way of responding to
frustration or difficulty, we will discover an
active and expressive sense of his personality.
(Benedetti, p. 152)
Theatre uses life as the foundation from which to build its
world. Consequently, the study of life is important to the
understanding of theatre:
To suggest, therefore, that the actions within a
"play" are somehow "unreal" in the sense that they
are wholly separate from reality is to miss, quite
entirely, the most striking aspect of the theatre,
which is that insofar as it is different from
everyday reality, it is different in the direction
of "more real" rather than "less real;" usually,
hour for hour, more rather than less intense,
revealing, enlightening, evocative, and even
whimsical. The theatrical context, whether it is
composed of stage and scenery, street and trestles,
celluloid and camera, is an arena for goals
intensely pursued, battles vibrantly engaged, loves
eagerly sought, and lives brilliantly lived. to
separate acting from reality, therefore, is to
diminish both. (Cohen, p. G)
This dissertation does not intend to propose that one
definitive process, even the one to be discussed, exists for
all actors. One method of character analysis can never work
for every performer or character or play or even performance

24
(Klurman, p. ix-x). A story is told of a conversation
between two outstanding actors, Dustin Hoffman and Laurence
Olivier. In preparation for a particular scene in "Marathon
Man," Hoffman reportedly stayed up for two days and nights
in order to achieve the right emotional level for the scene.
Upon observing Mr. Hoffman's physical and emotional prepara¬
tion for the role, Mr. Olivier approached him with the idea
that perhaps he should just "try acting. It's so much
easier" (The Washington Post. July 1989). The story
illustrates that two successful actors can have two entirely
different techniques, or approaches to acting. One is
neither better or worse. They are simply different.
Michael Howard agrees there is no one way for everyone to
approach a play or a role, and he is very opposed to
teachers who limit their students by "training actors to do
it one particular way" (Mekler, p. 12).
Neither is it the purpose of this dissertation to imply
the theory of the psychologist, Gordon W. Allport, is the
only valid theory which might be used by actors to develop a
process for character analysis. The opposite is true: Many
psychological concepts can be applied to the theatre. An
actor need not choose one theorist over another but should
study many theorists for insight into the human personality.
"The playwright [and in this case, actor] need not join any
of the separate schools of psychology, because he can learn
from all of them" (Smiley, p. 81). This dissertation uses

25
one psychologist as a representation of the resources avail¬
able to the actor in terms of life knowledge through the
study of psychology. Allport's theories are presented as an
example of the increased insight available to the actor
through a study of psychological personality theories.
Allport's theories were chosen for this dissertation
because his studies emphasize the individuality of human
nature. This emphasis on individuality can help the actor
make choices which are as unique as the character to be
portrayed. Allport's theories also help lay a broad
foundation for future psychological application to character
analysis. Allport felt something could be learned from
almost any theory of personality. This broad based
psychological study allows the actor to lay a foundation on
which more specific choices from more specific psychologists
can be added, as the play, character, director, or moment
dictates.
Hvpothesis
The focus of this dissertation will be a discussion of
the application of the personality theories of Gordon
Allport to the process of character analysis. This discus¬
sion will include a presentation of the major theories of
Gordon Allport, as well as a comparison of these personality
theories to currently taught acting theories. Finally the
theories of Gordon W. Allport will be applied to a character

26
analysis of Blanche Dubois, from Tennessee William's A
Streetcar Named Desire.
The study of the personality theories developed by
psychologists can aid the actor, especially in regard to
character analysis and character development. Insight into
the human personality can be found through the study of both
the arts and the sciences. Allport and Stanislavski both
understood the need for the merging of the ideas of science
and the arts:
If you are a student of psychology, read many, many
novels and dramas of character, and read
biography. If you are not a student of psychology,
read these too, but read psychology as well.
(Allport, 1950, p. 209)
Is it not quite clear now, when you realize all
that is required of a true artist, that he must
lead a life full of interest, beauty, variety,
excitement, and enlightenment? He must be aware of
what is going on not only in the large cities, but
also in all outlying parts of the country, in
villages, factories, plants and in the great world
centers of culture. Let the actor observe and
study the life and psychology of both his own
nation and that of foreign nations. . . What we
(actors) need is a limitless horizon.
(Stanislavski, 1936, p. 76)

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Sigmund Freud developed the first formal theory of
personality, psychoanalysis, around the turn of the 19th
century. This deterministic and pessimistic view of human
nature was so far reaching, that scholars outside the
immediate world of science began searching for different
fields in which psychoanalytical research could be
influential (Schultz, p. 33, Weissman, p. 214). Theatre was
one such field which felt the impact of psychoanalysis, as
demonstrated by the following review of literature.
This review of literature explores the contribution of
psychological theories to the field of theatre and the
relationship between the two fields. It begins with a brief
survey of the dissertations published in this area and
moves to a discussion of the essays, periodicals, and acting
texts which address this subject. This review of literature
will demonstrate that a great interest exists in regards to
the general relationship between psychology and the arts.
It will also demonstrate, however, that research is limited
in terms of the specific application of psychological
studies to character analysis for the actor.
27

28
Dissertations
As early as 1919, theatre dissertations in the United
States explored personality theories and their influence on
theatre. "August Strindberg. A Psychoanalytic Study" was
written in 1919, and "August Strindberg. A Psychoanalytic
Study with Special Reference to the Oedipus Complex" was
written the following year, according to the early indexes
of Dissertation Abstracts. Later, the topic for
dissertations expanded from the strictly Freudian
perspective as the field of psychology grew to encompass
other psychologists and their studies, often in direct
contradiction with Freud's psychoanalysis. The
psychological theories of Piaget, Lacan, Erikson, and others
were used to explore the values, morals, motivations, and
analyses of the actor's drive, visualization, or creative
abi1 ities.
A limited number of dissertations apply the theories
found in the psychological field to the theories developed
in the acting field, and only one dissertation could be
considered relevant to this particular dissertation.
William Jaeger's "The Application of the Psycho-Analytic
Theories of Karen Horney to the Stanislavski System of
Acting" is a 19G4 dissertation which sought to prove that
Karen Horney's psychological theories could provide
techniques to "fill in the gaps" in the acting principles of
Constantin Stanislavski, as well as prove a positive

29
relationship existed between the theories of Horney and
Stanislavski, in general. This dissertation uses an
analysis of the character Willy Loman in Authur Miller’s
Death of a Salesman to explore the relationship between the
similar theories of theatre and psychology. As a result of
Jaeger's dissertation, gaps were found to exist in the
Stanislavski system in regards to physical actions,
imagination, "Magic-If," sense and emotional memory
exercises, formation of main action, and the superobjective.
A positive relationship was shown to exist between the two
theorists. The author recognized:
No system is equivalent to a life reality,
including Horney's, and that by definition the
unconscious is no longer unconscious when it is
brought to consciousness, it is still clear that
the system which offers the closest parallel to the
actual emotional behavior will serve both the
artist and the scientist better than no system at
all. (Jeager, p. ii)
The exploration of the bond between psychology and
theatre through dissertations reveals academic research does
exist in this field; however, this research is limited.
Collections of Essays and Periodicals
Within the last fifteen years, a new field of study has
focused on the merging of psychology and the arts: the
study of psychological theories through literature. The
term "literature," as used in this context, is expanded to
include activities such as film, theatre, philosophy, and
art (Reppen and Charney, p. v). Hundreds of books (mostly
collections of literary essays) have been written in this

30
growing field. Upon closer observation of these numerous
books, however, essays which discuss theatre were found to
be limited both in number and in scope. These essays
approach theatre from a literary standpoint: They discuss
the characters and plays in terms of the literary nature of
the script, rather than in terms of the potential
performance. This potential performance is essential to the
very concept of theatre. The following discussion of essays
illustrates this point.
Shoshana Felman's Literature and Psychoanalysis: The
Question of Reading--Otherwise. a book of essays, was
published in 1977, in part, to familiarize the American
public with the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan's
interpretation of Freud. When it was republished, just four
years later in 1981, the remarkable growth in the field was
significant enough for the author to make the following
addition in the introduction:
Now that the theoretical renewal is attracting
ever-growing intellectual attention . . . the
timeliness of a volume that concretely illustrates
and pragmatically tests these new methods of
interpretation ... is all the more apparent.
(Felman, p. 2)
This particular book includes two essays which pertain to
theatre. Both discuss aspects of Shakespeare's Hamlet:
"Desire and Interpretation of Desire in Hamlet" by Jacques
Lacan and "Hamlet. A Writing-Effect" by Daniel Sibony. The
former essay tracks the decisions of Hamlet and attaches
them to the influence of the phallus--both real and symbolic

31
(Felman, p. 50)--while the latter essay continues this line
of reasoning while emphasizing the language of the decisions
made (Felman, p. 53-93).
Discourse in Psychoanalysis and Literature, edited by
Sclomith Rimmon-Kenan, applauds the progress of unifying
these two fields in the ten years since the publication of
Felman's book. Interestingly, Rimmon-Kenan feels the need
to justify what he calls, "yet another collection of
articles in this already popular (some would say over
popular) interdisciplinary junction" (Rimmon-Kenan, p. xi).
Discourse includes only one essay which explores any aspect
of theatre. In Elizabeth Wright's "Transmission in
psychoanalysis and literature: whose text is it anyway?,"
Bertol Brecht's texts and theories are analyzed. This
analysis does not lead into a discussion of the action of
the characters of Brecht, only the thought of Brecht
(Rimmon-Kenan, p. 90-103).
One article in Joseph Reppen and Maurice Charney's The
Psychoanalytic Study of Literature includes theatre, "The
Purloined Handkerchief in Othello." Once again this is a
literary analysis; it equates the handkerchief of Desdemone
with lost (or unlost) virginity, castration, and feminine
mysteries (Reppen and Charney, p. 169-189).
Maurice Charney and Joseph Reppen note in the
introduction to their second book, Psychoanalytic Approaches
to Literature and Film, that there is a welcomed broadening

32
in the use of psychoanalysis and the application of it to
art, in that theories are no longer limited to the studies
of Freud. A large number of essays related to theatre can
be found in this book. Part II of the book is dedicated to
essays on Shakespeare: "What Comedy Can Do for Us:
Reparation and Idealization in Shakespeare's Comedies,"
"Separation and Fusion in Twe1fth Night." "Expounding the
Dream: Shaping Fantasies in A Midsummer Night's Dream."
"Brutus, Cassius, and Caesar: An Interdestructive
Triangle," and "Analogy and Infinite Regress In Hamlet."
These essays explore the psychological lives of the
characters or psychological implications of specific actions
of the characters (Charney and Reppen, p. 83-170).
"Sexuality and Incest in the Plays of Bertolt Brecht" is
also included in this book, and discusses Brecht's coming to
terms with male sexuality, female heterosexual sublimation,
and mother-son incest bonding (Charney and Reppen, p. 193-
211). Two articles on Freud's Oedipal Complex, associated
with the Greek character "Oedipus," are also included
(Charney and Reppen, p. 215-248).
The previously mentioned article written by Gordon W.
Allport, "Personality: A Problem for Science or a Problem
for Art?," discusses three main points to be learned by
psychologists about their own field when they begin to study
the arts: 1) The acceptance that each character possesses a

33
certain number of traits peculiar to that specific
individual which can be identified and defined:
To state the point yet more broadly: Almost all
the literature of character--whether sketch
writing. . ., or fiction, drama or biography--
proceeds on the psychological assumption that each
character has certain traits peculiar to himself
which can be defined through the narrating of
typical episodes from life. In literature a
personality is never regarded, as is sometimes in
psychology, as a sequence of unrelated specific
actions. (Allport, 1950, p. 202)
2) The acceptance of self-consistency in the product:
No one ever asked their authors to prove that the
characters of Hamlet, Don Quixote, Anna Karenina,
Hedda Gabbler, or Babbitt were true and authentic.
Great characterizations by virtue of their
greatness prove themselves. They are plausible;
they are even necessary. Every act seems to be in
some subtle way both a reflection and a rounding
out of a single, well-knit character. This
adhesiveness of behavior meets the test known as
self-confrontation; one bit of behavior supports
another, so that the whole can be comprehended as a
self-consistent if intricate unity. Self¬
confrontation is the only method of validation
applied to the work of artists. . . Psychology,
then, needs techniques of self-confrontation,
techniques whereby the togetherness of a person¬
ality can be determined. (Allport, 1950, p. 203)
3) The sustaining of interest in the individual person for
a longer period of time:
Following the lead of the older sciences they
assume that the individual must be brushed aside.
Science, they insist, deals only with general laws.
The individual is a nuisance. What is wanted are
uniformities. This tradition has resulted in the
creation of a vast, shadowy abstraction in
psychology called the generalized-adult-human-mind.
The human mind, of course, exists in no such form;
it exists only in concrete, intensely personal
forms. (Allport, 1950, p. 20G)

34
Similar literary treatment of theatre and plays can be
found in other collections of essays on psychology and its
affect on art. These have not been presented in this
review of literature, rather examples of types of typical
essays have been presented to demonstrate what has been
written in this particular area. The collections of essays
discussed demonstrate this field to be rich in its literary
contribution to the theatre. The approach, however, is
strictly literary. It is lacking in its discussion of
theatre as a performance vehicle: Characters are analyzed
to be discussed, not to be performed.
The Institute for the Psychological Study of the Arts
was founded in 1984 by Norman N. Holland, a University of
Florida professor. This organization publishes an
international listing of published and soon-to-be-published
works whose topics contribute to the area of psychology and
the arts. This bibliography is published in May of each
year. Even with the timeliness of its publications and the
extensiveness of its listings, no publication which
discusses psychology as a performance tool can be found in
either of the last two years' listings.
As has been previously demonstrated in this discussion,
many articles are listed in the IPSA publication which
discuss psychology and theatre in regards to the analysis of
a playwright or analysis from a literary point of view. For
example, over 40 articles or books have been written this

35
year alone on the psychology of the works of Shakespeare in
general, in addition to this, there exist eleven
publications on Hamlet, four on King Lear. and numerous
others ranging from Othello to Taming of the Shrew. Two
books have been published this year which analyze the works
of Samuel Beckett, and two books discuss drama (theatre as
literature) in general (IPSA, 1989). Even an interview with
Dr. Holland did not reveal any knowledge of works on
psychology and the performance of plays, although he found
the topic a fascinating subject.
Of the straight psychology articles published between
1983 and March of 1989, most articles have been written to
explore the influence theatre has had on therapy and to
encourage its continued use. There are also several
articles which analyze characters of particular plays in
order to draw conclusions of the personality of the author
or to demonstrate a particular theory or personality type.
These articles give an interesting insight into the areas of
psychology and theatre; however, their intention is not to
provide direct insight to the actor.
Acting Texts
What of the books which approach theatre as a
performance vehicle? Do they use psychological elements as
a part of their acting theories? An overview of texts from
several of the major schools of acting is presented in order
to answer these questions. Acting texts reveal more than

36
just a step-by-step approach to the craft of acting. As one
author put it, they belong on the fiction rather than the
non-fiction shelves. He continues:
Not because they are full of lies, but because they
are full of poetry, mysticism, anecdote and drama.
Acting is the kind of subject that encourages a
highly impressionist style of writing. Rather than
talk about what it is, writers tend to describe
what it does. (Marowitz, p. 4)
Some of these acting texts demonstrate a direct
correlation between psychology and acting while other texts
do not directly acknowledge the influence, but indirectly
reflect the impact of psychology on the craft of acting.
Perhaps most important to this study are the texts used in
this review of literature in which there is no thought given
to psychology at all. These acting texts, which reflect the
current training typical in both academic and professional
acting programs, emphasize a physical and non-verbal
approach to training. Little emphasis is placed on teaching
the actor to analyze a character or learn (except through
observation) of the psychological nature of people in
general. The freeing of the emotion and intuition of the
actor are emphasized.
The review of these books will demonstrate that
understanding the psychological nature of a person is an
essential part of the process of acting. It will also
demonstrate, however, that as important as this
psychological understanding is to acting, it is rarely
pursued through research into the very field which studies

37
the personality of people or implemented as a basic part of
actor training.
One of the most influential, and most misunderstood,
theories of acting is presented in Constantin Stanislavski's
series of acting texts: An Actor Prepares. Building a
Character. and Creating a Role. Stanislavski changed the
course of theatre, and his principles--although altered,
filtered, or transformed--are the foundation of most
contemporary acting theories. This series of books
addresses the importance of both the psychological and the
physical development of the actor. Stanislavski explains,
"We use the conscious technique of creating the physical
body of a role and by its aid achieve the creation of the
subconscious life of the spirit of a role" (Stanislavski,
1936, p. 138).
In An Actor Prepares. Stanislavski explores the
creativity, imagination, and subconscious of the actor, as
well as the actor's obligation to truth. He introduces the
concept of the "If," by which an actor can arouse an inner
and real activity (Stanislavski, 1936, p. 44). Stanislavski
speaks through the fictitious character of Tortsov:
"In moments of doubt, when your thoughts,
feelings, and imagination are silent, remember if.
The author also began his work that way. He said
to himself:
"'What would happen if a simple farmer, off on a
fishing expedition, were to take a nut from a
rail?' Now give yourselves the same problem and
add: 'What would I do if the case came up to me to
judge?.'” (Stanislavski, 1936, p. 45)

38
He also explains the importance of identification of
character motive and character objectives, both of which
will be discussed further in chapter four. The text, which
follows the training of a young aspiring actor in a
fictitious Russian acting company, emphasizes the
psychological nature of both the character and the actor.
In Building a Character. Stanislavski emphasizes the
physical needs of both character and actor. He discusses
movement in terms of control and flexibility for the actor,
and in terms of communication of personality for the
character. He also addresses voice and diction, tempo and
rhythm, and acting ethics. Stanislavski realized:
When all is said and done these various elements of
an actor's make-up which we have been studying
constitute nothing but the natural state of human
beings and they are familiar to you from actual
life. . . .
The amazing thing is that this familiar state
which is produced by normal means under natural
conditions, vanishes without a trace the instant an
actor sets foot on the stage. (Stanislavski, 1949,
p. 275)
Creating a Role is Stanislavski's application of his
theories. He follows the process he uses to create roles
from Inspector General. Woe from Wit, and Othello. It is
not surprising, however, to discover parts of this third
book were actually written before the other texts. In
Creating a Ro1e lie the seeds of the theories he refined in
later years: "The creation of the physical life is half the
work on a role because, like us, a role has two natures,
physical and spiritual" (Stanislavski, 1961, p. 149).

39
As with many innovative leaders, what Stanislavski said
and what was attributed to Stanislavski, were not always the
same. His work stirred a great controversy as different
acting schools emphasized different elements of his
theories, forgetting that Stanislavski himself emphasized a
balance between the physical (external technique) and
psychological (spiritual or inner preparation)
(Stanislavski, 1949, viii). Stanislavski was aware that
his techniques were always changing and growing, and he
cautioned students against copying his methods instead of
adapting his methods to the needs of their environment. As
innovative as Stanislavski's methods were at the turn of the
century in Russia, he realized his methods reflected the
knowledge of his time, his country, his people. He
encouraged his American students not to be content to follow
his tradition, but to move forward (Stanislavski, 1949, p
x i v ) .
Psychological studies were just beginning, and their
impact on Stanislavski is demonstrated throughout his books.
Stanislavski understood their importance and their potential
impact in the theatre. There is little doubt that
Stanislavski would continue to encourage the actor to use
psychological studies as yet another source for creativity.
Michael Chekhov's To the Actor: On the Technique of
Acting explores the dimension of the psycho-physical world
of the actor. He emphasizes the importance of both worlds

40
and strives to teach the actor exercises which will develop
harmony between the physical and the psychological elements.
It is a known fact that the human body and
psychology influence each other and are in constant
interplay. Either an undeveloped or muscularly
overdeveloped body may easily dim the activity of
the mind, dull the feelings or weaken the will.
Because each field and profession is prey to
characteristic occupational habits, diseases and
hazards which inevitably affect its workers and
practitioners, it is seldom that we find a complete
balance or harmony between the body and psychology.
But the actor, who must consider his body as an
instrument for expressing creative ideas on the
stage, must strive for the attainment of complete
harmony between the two, body and psychology.
(Chekhov, p. 1)
He gives three requirements to help the actor develop this
harmony. First is a sensitivity of the body to the
psychological creative impulses; second is an understanding
of the richness of psychology itself, and third is the
complete obedience of both body and psychology to the needs
of the actor (Chekhov, p. 2-5).
In his discussion of the first requirement, Chekhov
warns the actor against the "dangerous practice of
eliminating the psychological elements from his art and
overestimating the significance of the physical" (Chekhov,
p. 2). He encourages the actor to remember the "real task
of the creative artist" is to interpret life--not just copy
it (Chekhov, p. 3). This ability to interpret life,
Chekhov states, comes from the actor's ability to
physically process impulses "which constitute the creative
artist's inner life" (Chekhov, p. 4).

41
Chekhov felt these impulses come from an understanding
of the richness of psychology itself, the second
requirement. He encourages the actor to constantly enlarge
the circle of interests by assuming the psychology of
persons of other eras, nations, and dispositions (Chekhov,
p. 4-5). Chekhov discusses the third requirement--
obedience of both body and psycho 1ogy--throughout the
remainder of the book. These ideas and exercises will be
discussed in further detail in chapter four of this
dissertation.
Chekhov summarizes his book in his discussion of
different ways an actor can approach a role. A character
may be analyzed through the use of imagination, atmospheres,
sensations of feelings, psychological gestures, tempos,
physi cal izations of characterizations, or Stanislavski's
units and objectives. Even though the goal for each of
these approaches is to strengthen the psychological core of
the character for the actor, Chekhov does not condone the
use of text analysis or psychological studies as options for
developing a character.
Although Chekhov emphasizes the study of the psychology
of others through extensive reading and observation, he
fails to include the psychological studies available through
research into the science of human psychology and
development. This obvious exclusion of the science of
psychology once again demonstrates the theatre's

42
contradictory approaches to psychology: Theatre professes a
need to understand the psychological nature of people but
avoids the science of psychology as a resource.
Robert Cohen's Acting Power uses psychology and life
experiences (such as baseball, snow skiing, and dining out)
as a means to explore, explain, and aid in the discussion of
the development of the actor in theatre. For example, Cohen
discusses Philip Zimbardo's prison experiment in which
male college students were divided into groups of "guards"
and "prisoners." Within two days the experiment had to be
abandoned due to the psychological and physical strain found
in the mock prison environment. Cohen uses the Zimbardo
experiment to explain the intense relationship between the
"actor" and the "play."
The Zimbardo experiment was originally undertaken
to study the effects of prison life by "acting out"
a prison situation: the most valuable result of
the experiment, however, was the information it
yielded on the "acting out" process itself. For
here Zimbardo had created his own improvisat iona1
theatre: with situation, scenery, costumes,
actors, and an audience. Zimbardo's theatre was a
context for acting. The context was, of course,
arbitrary--a scientific experiment--but the
improvisation that went on within it, an
interaction of psychological and physiological
reality, was genuinely intense. And thus it is
with all "play" which takes place within an
effective context. (Cohen, p. 5)
Cohen's book is broken into five chapters: Playing the
Situation: Out of the Self; Playing the Situation: Into
the Other; Playing Character; Playing Style; and Playing the
Performance. Each chapter builds acting skills which are

43
enhanced by the following chapters all of which relate
acting to life and life experiences. This fascinating book
often reads as a self-help psychology-acting manual. Cohen
also includes a suggested reading list for the actor which
lists ten psychology books that "deal not with acting as a
theatrical art or craft, but with human behavior in everyday
life" (Cohen, p. 258).
Charles McGaw's Acting is Believing is an elementary
text which "assumes that the actor's job is to create a
believable character within the circumstances of the play
and to present the character with theatrical effectiveness"
(McGaw, p. ix). The first two sections of his book are
based in the theories of Stanislavski, and offer both
exercises and discussions for the development of these
theories. The first section, "The Actor and Himself,"
emphasizes the development of the actor. McGaw believes
that the actor to a large degree can only "play himself,"
and the first section seeks to strengthen this ability
(McGaw, p. 88). The second section, "The Actor and the
Play," emphasizes the importance of discovering the
intentions of the playwright for the character and putting
them on the stage. Understanding what a character wants and
what a character is willing to do to get it, McGaw gives as
the key to character analysis. These questions can be
answered through an analysis of the following:
What the character does, what the character says,
what the other characters in the play say about him

44
(always taking into consideration the speaker's
purpose in saying it), what actions are suggested
in the character's lines, what comments and
descriptions the playwright offers in the stage
directions. (McGaw, p. 91)
The final section, "The Actor and the Production," give the
actor practical advice on stage terms, rehearsal conduct,
and staging. Of importance to this dissertation is McGaw's
second section. The analysis of the character is based in
both psychological and physical terms: what the character
says and what the character does. However, no reference is
made to the study of the nature or personality of people
through psychology.
Ramon Delgado’s Acting with Both Sides of Your Brain:
Perspectives on the Creative Process explores the
application of the psychological right brain/left brain
theories to the creative process of acting. The book
provides acting exercises designed to develop the
intuitive, nonverbal, right-hemisphere brain functions as
well as the analytical, logical, left-hemisphere brain
functions (Delgado, p. 7).
Delgado, whose text was designed to teach first year
acting students, provides exercises which develop "the six
levels of the craft in the creative processes of acting":
the level of actions; the level of words; the level of
unconscious role playing; the level of conscious role
playing; the level of emotions; the level of aesthetic
distance (Delgado, p. 94). He feels these exercises lead

45
the student through a logical development of a balance of
the functions of the brain which will lead to dependency on
neither elusive inspiration nor stifling logic (Delgado, p.
94). The emphasis of this text is on the exercises rather
than an explanation of any theory which might lie behind the
exercises. Only a short discussion of the left brain/right
brain theory is provided.
Charles Marowitz's The Act of Being: Towards a Theory
of Acting is a fascinating eclectic overview of acting.
Marowitz discusses the recent history of acting, including
practical insights into strengths and weaknesses of
different schools of acting. He explores theories of
acting he deems important for either their mystical or
practical contributions. He even offers developmental
exercises for the actor, from working with an audience to
rehearsal techniques.
Marowitz believes strongly in the influence of
psychology on acting. In his introduction he states:
The fact is our most influential works on acting
are not written by Coquelin or Stanislavsky but by
Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung and Alfred Adler. Our
acting "theory" is, very largely, extrapolations
from our theories of psychology. (Marowitz, p. 5)
Marowitz also attributes revolutionary acting theories to
the inspiration of psychological breakthroughs. For
example, he credits Affective Memory as being borrowed from
Ribot, a French psychologist, and continues:
It is from Boleslavsky and the American Lab Theatre
(via Stanislavsky with various diversions through

46
Freud and a handful of French psychologists) that
the whole notion of inner-technique is, in the
early 1920's, unleashed upon the unsuspecting
acting profession. (Marowitz, p. 10)
Marowitz seems to chastise the contemporary American
theatre's methods which he views as stifling to the work of
the actor. He feels that many American acting theories
encourage an inward-1ooking, border-narrowing, rather than
horizon-widening, outlook:
Without meaning to do so, it foists a simplistic
view of life, and one that can be mechanically
interpreted according to a given formulae. It's as
if as soon as you have discovered Hamlet's super¬
objective and the sequence of actions that
constitute his progress in the play, there is
nothing more to be said--either about the character
or the work. It denies the existence of dimensions
which cannot be reduced to Method terminology and
makes no provisions for unverifiable phenomena like
surrealism, fantasy, magic and that flouter of all
conventions, genius. It is a safe technology for
actors committed to safe travel and although it can
be relied on to get you from Point A to Point B, it
doesn't always insure that you will experience all
the landscape and naturel phenomena that abound
between those two points. And finally, it is, in
contemporary American practice, a renunciation of
what Stanislavsky intended it to be--which was not
a rigid system of applied esthetics technology but
more like a helpful, rather casual guide who says:
Why don't you try going down this road, it may get
you to your destination? On the other hand, should
you decide to turn off at any point along the way,
by all means do so--for there is territory down
there that even I have never seen and you may find
things for yourself every bit as interesting as
anything I might suggest. (Marowitz p. 18)
Master Teachers of Theatre: Observations Teaching-
Theatre bv Nine American Masters, edited by Burnet M.
Hobgood, is a compilation of essays by outstanding theatre
educators. The book addresses the importance of and insight

47
into how to teach the various areas of influence to the
theatre student: dramatic literature, theatre history,
theatre interpretation (classical texts), actor training,
stage movement, directing, designing, high school theatre,
and children's theatre. No direct discussion of the
importance of the study of psychology is included in these
essays, but indirect references can be found.
In his introduction to the book, Hobgood addresses "The
Mission of the Theatre Teacher." He discusses four phases
in the development of the significantly talented acting
student. Hobgood's ability to develop these four phases he
attributes to the "remarkable studies and findings of
researchers in human self-development. The work of Jean
Piaget and Erik Erikson, among others, illuminates the
phases through which all children and young people pass"
(Hobgood, p. 11). He, like Allport, acknowledges that young
actors are in the process of "becoming," another concept
attributed to the research in human se 1f-deve 1opment
(Hobgood, p. 10). Finally, Professor Hobgood's footnotes
acknowledge certain sections of this book were presented in
a paper for the Princeton Conference and were received
favorably by a delegate of behavioral scientists (Hobgood,
p. 20 ) .
Master Teachers includes Robert Benedetti’s discussion
of the acting process called "Zen in the Art of Actor
Training," in which he references several psychological

48
theories as the basis for specific ideas. In his discussion
of three categories of acting skills (analytical,
psychophysical, and transformational skills) he attributes
them as the result of the function of the different brain
hemispheres: right brain/left brain (Hobgood, p. 88-89).
In reinforcing Stanislavski's idea that habit establishes
creativeness, he sights a recent finding in brain research:
a newly learned technique must be forgotten before it can be
truly useful (Hobgood, p. 90). Benedetti also likens the
acting dichotomy of the inside-out acting technique or the
outside-in acting technique to the similar psychological
counseling dichotomy (Hobgood, p. 95). Perhaps most
important to the justification for psychological research is
Benedetti's explanation of just how acting is actually
1 earned:
The best training is not experienced as training;
rather it is the unconscious and automatic
byproduct of a compelling esthetics inquiry. In
the very effort to discover how a play or scene
works, how a character's mind works, how human
behavior itself works, we end up learning to act!
(Hobgood, p. 104)
Although the psychological ideas found in Master
Teachers were merely mentioned as references and not the
focus of the discussion, they do demonstrate a
psychological foundation is important. However, a direct
discussion of psychology and acting does not appear in the
book as a whole.

49
Robert Benedetti's book, The Actor at Work, discusses
further his ideas of teaching acting through the study of
human behavior. His discussions directly rely on the field
of psycho 1ogy for insights into exercises which help to lay
a foundation for the beginning actor. Interestingly, he
feels the need to add the following disclaimer because of
his use of these psychological tools:
Despite the fact that these exercises are largely
drawn from a type of therapeutic psychology
[largely Gestalt], I must stress that this book
makes no pretensions of a therapeutic or even
philosophical nature. Acting is a rigorous and
hardheaded discipline, and my approach is designed
(and has been extensively class-tested) for
efficacy alone. (Benedetti, p. xiv)
His book teaches the importance of what he terms the
expressive technique as well as textual analysis and
character development. These ideas will be further
discussed in chapter four.
Previously mentioned was Eva Mekler's The New
Generation of Acting Teachers. This book summarizes the
basic acting philosophies currently taught by twenty-two of
the leading acting coaches on the east coast, west coat, and
universities in this country. Animal observations, people
observations, sense memory recall, relaxation exercises,
emotional stimulus exercises, metaphors, and improvisations
are mentioned as key parts to actor training by almost all
of the teachers interviewed. Only three of the twenty-two
teachers interviewed included a theory for textual analysis
of the character, and none of the teachers directly linked

50
their teaching tools to the science of psychology. This
book indicates that the use of psychology as a resource for
actors is not being included in the major training
institutions for acting.
Similarly, acting texts such as Edward Dwight Easty's
On Method Acting. Eric Morris' Being and Doing. Stella
Adler's The Technique of Acting, and Sonia Moore's Training
an Actor emphasize the development of improvisational
exercises and observation techniques to stimulate sense
memory and affective memory skills, concentration and
relaxation skills, as well as animal exercises and many
similar exercises. These styles of teaching can be traced
to the works of Stanislavski, Strasberg, and other
influential acting teachers. No doubt their methods are
seeped in psychology, but the extensions of their work as
presently taught emphasize the development of the actor,
rather than the identification and development of the
character found in the text. Therefore psychological
acknowledgement is limited.
The books previously presented reflect some of the
major acting theories currently taught in the United States.
Although many of these texts demonstrate the understanding
of the psychological nature of a person is important to the
actor, only a few of these texts reflect a direct method by
which the psychological nature can be studied and
implemented as part of the acting process.

51
Summary
The previous discussion of dissertations, essays,
periodicals, and acting texts demonstrates the importance of
psychological contribution to the arts in general, and
theatre specifically. It demonstrates the important effect
both fields can have upon each other. This discussion also
demonstrates that although there is a substantial amount of
psychological research in theatre from a literary
standpoint, there is a lack of research and study of the
psychological contribution to theatre from the standpoint of
the actor. Perhaps the most important conclusion
demonstrated by this review of literature is the
realization that implementation of the use of psychological
studies by the major actor training programs and many acting
theorists is lacking.
The research which reflects the interest of psychology
in the areas of drama and literature far outweigh any
research which reflects the interest of psychology and
theatre as a performance vehicle. A movement beyond
analyzing drama simply as literature which includes applying
psychological theories to the development of the
performance of literature and drama should be encouraged.
Performance is the step beyond the analysis and completes
the artistic process of theatre (Wilson, p. 17). It is in
this area of theatre, potential performance, that this
dissertation will demonstrate the usefulness of the study of

52
the psychologists' theories of personality. These theories
will be demonstrated as being useful to the actor,
particularly in regard to character and text analysis.

CHAPTER I I I
GORDON ALLPORT AND HIS WORK
Gordon Allport (1897-1967) revolutionized the world of
psychology by moving the study of the personality into the
mainstream of psychology. His theories are still debated,
and he is considered one of the most controversial
psychologists of our time (Hall and Lindzey, p. 260).
Unlike Freud and other major psychologists, Allport insisted
on studying healthy, mature, adults. He felt the study of
animals and neurotic people could not lead to conclusions
pertinent to normally functioning adults (Allport, 1955, p.
18). His writings tended to teach, intrigue, and motivate
research and argument, rather than justify and prove his
theories (Hall and Lindzey, p. 259-260). He was a teacher,
and most of his books read as textbooks rather than
scientific manuals.
The thrust of his studies and theories of the
personality dealt with the whole person as a unique and
dynamic individual. Allport felt that science was
overlooking a rich field when it ignored the complexities
and individuality of human behavior in its search for a
single theory of personality development (Allport, 1961, p.
53

54
8). This individualism is defined by individual traits that
characterize and differentiate people.
Allport's theories optimistically view people in a
state of "becoming," meaning each person can consciously
choose a lifestyle and strive to achieve it. He recognized
the importance of studying physical clues in regards to
understanding human personality. Finally, Allport believed
much could be learned about the personality of the
individual from studying personal documents, such as
letters and diaries. These are only a few of Allport's
major contributions; however, these ideas (an overview of
Allport's theory of personality, traits, motivation,
behavior, and analysis) are the focus of the discussion of
this chapter.
Personal i t.v
"Every person deviates in thousands of ways from the
hypothetical average man" (Allport, 1961, p. 7). The idea
of uniqueness of the individual is the foundation of
Allport's studies and theories. Allport criticized
scientists for their avoidance of the individual and the
seemingly prevalent theory that individuality cannot be
studied by science, but only by history, art, or biography.
The humanities do not rely on methods which are nomothetic
(general and universal), but idiographic (individual)
(Allport, 1961, p. 8-9).

55
If we accept this dogma concerning the scope and
limitations of science we shall have to abandon the
person as a person. But we are not yet
discouraged. That the individual is a system of
patterned uniqueness is a fact. That science likes
universals and not particulars is also a fact. Yet
personality itself is a universal phenomenon though
it is found only in individual forms. Since it is
a universal phenomenon science must study it; but
it cannot study it correctly unless it looks into
the individuality of patterning! Such is the
dilemma. (Allport, 1961, p. 9)
Allport begins his discussion of his particular
definition of personality with a disclaimer in which he
states there is no such thing as a correct or incorrect
definition of personality, rather all definitions are "full
of pitfalls" (Allport, 1961, p. 28). These statements
reinforce Allport's general philosophy that much can be
learned from almost anywhere; consequently, no idea should
be so narrow as to exclude other possibilities (Allport,
1955, p. 17).
Allport defined personality as the "dynamic
organization within the individual of those psychophysical
systems that determine his characteristic behavior and
thought" (Allport, 1961, p. 28). Because this definition
reflects some unique phrasing and word choices, Allport's
own explanations of terminology and phrasing are presented.
Dynamic Organization
The personality is constantly changing, and any
definition of personality must acknowledge this change.
However, this change does not occur in the normal adult in
an haphazard fashion; rather, it occurs within the

5G
boundaries of an organization (Allport, 1937, p. 48). This
change occurs in a se1f-regu1 ating and motivating fashion.
This definition of organized change implies the existance of
a reciprocal process of disorganization, especially in those
personalities marked by progressive disintegration,
(Allport, 1961, p. 28).
Psychophysical
This term serves as a reminder that personalty is
neither exclusively physical nor mental. Instead, the
organization of the personality fuses the physical and
mental in "some inextricable unity" (Allport, 1961, p. 28
and Allport, 1937, p. 48).
Svs t ems
A system is a complex of elements in mutual
interaction. The personality is composed of many systems.
A habit, sentiment, trait, concept, or style of behaving are
all systems and are latent in the personality even when
they are not active. Systems are our "potential for
activity" (Allport, 1961, p. 28-29).
Determine
Personality j_s something, and it does something.
Personality is active. Allport contended that the latent
psychophysical systems, when called into action, either
motivate or direct a specific activity or thought (Allport,
1961, p. 29). Personality is not synonymous with behavior
or activity; personality is merely the impression that this

57
activity makes on others. It is what lies behind specific
acts and within the individual (Allport, 1937, p. 48). All
systems that comprise a single personality are the
"determining tendencies." They exert a direct influence on
the adjustive and expressive acts which make up the
personality (Allport, 1961, p. 29).
Character is tic
All behavior and thought are characteristic of the
person and are unique to that person. Allport acknowledged
the use of this term, and the need to define it, appeared
redundant in a definition whose very meaning stressed
individuality and uniqueness. He used it, though, to "drive
the point home" (Allport, 1961, p. 29).
Behavior and Thought
Allport used these two terms to cover anything
whatsoever an individual might do. A person’s main
activity, according to Allport, is to adjust to the
environment, but he felt it unwise to define personality
only in terms of adjustment (as he had earlier done in his
1937 book, Personalitvl. He acknowledged the individual
also reflects on the environment, strives to master it, and
sometimes succeeds in this mastery of the environment.
Thought as well as behavior, then, make for both survival
and growth (Allport, 1961, p. 29).
Allport summarized his own definition of personality:
My own definition of personality is
"essenti a 1ist." Personality is what a person

58
"really is," regardless of the way other people
perceive his qualities or the methods by which we
study them. Our perceptions and our methods may be
in error, just as an astronomer may fall short in
studying the constitution of a star. But the star
is still there, a challenging object for study. My
definition does not, of course, deny that a person
is variable over time or that his behavior may
change from situation to situation. It says simply
that the person has an internal structure and range
of characteristics (variable, to be sure, but
ascertainable), and it is this structure that we
hope to study. (Allport, 1961, p. 35)
Traits
Allport was a pioneer in the study of personality
traits. He believed traits, which he defined as
"predispositions to respond, in the same or similar manner,
to different kinds of stimuli," to be real. They are a
determinant or cause of behavior, and they are overlapping
in regard to their influence and identification (Schultz, p.
199). He also believed the existence of traits could be
demonstrated empirically (Allport, 1961, p. 356).
Yet Allport was aware of the limitations involved in
the study of traits: generalities of names; variabilities
of emotions; the ability to observe only the act, which is
the result of the trait rather than the trait itself
(Allport, 1961, p. 333-334). Even with the limitations
involved in trait research, Allport believed them to be one
of the strongest means for personality study. He did not
blindly study personality traits, but tried to take into
account all of the variables, for example:

59
No trait theory can be sound unless it allows for,
and accounts for, the variability of a person's
conduct. Pressures from the surrounding
environment, the companions he is with, and the
countercurrent in the person himself may delay,
augment, distort, or inhibit completely the conduct
that we would normally expect to issue from a
person's traits. . . . All this is true; yet in a
person's stream of activity there is, besides a
variable portion, likewise a constant portion; and
it is this constant portion we seek to designate
with the concept of trait. (Allport, 1961, p. 333)
He distinguished between two types of traits: traits
which could be generalized in a group (common traits), and
traits which make the individual unique (personal
dispositions). A common trait identifies a trait which to
some extent is reflected in many personalities. Common
traits are developed, according to Allport, because the
human nature develops similar modes of adjusting to a
similar environment, though varying degrees of individualism
still exist (Allport, 1961, p. 349). An example of a common
trait might be the friendliness associated with southerners
or the brusque nature attributed to New Yorkers. An
individual trait, however, or personal disposition (as
Allport came to call them), is peculiar to the individual.
They have the capacity to initiate and guide consistent
forms of adaptive and stylistic behavior (Allport, 1961, p.
373) .
Allport felt common traits were less important to the
individual personality because they actually reflect the
social mores developed through socialization, rather than
personal choices. Therefore, common traits are constantly

60
changing according to the growth, development, and fads of a
particular society. Allport felt the very nature of the
common trait made it less influential to the individual.
Traits are described through trait names. Allport
identified approximately 18,000 words in the English
language which named distinctive forms of personal behavior
(Allport, 1961, p. 353). He did not believe this list to be
complete, but infinite in scope especially when combinations
and hyphenations of words are considered (Allport, 1961, p.
355). Allport thought trait names demonstrated the actual
existence of traits. Trait names developed, Allport
believed, because people have a desire to label what is
truly present in human nature (Allport, 1961, p. 354). If
traits did not exist, there would be no gain in developing
so many words to attempt to correctly identify a specific
trait. Allport categorized these 18,000 trait names: 30%
have an evaluative flavor; 25% are comparative; 25% refer to
temporary states of mind, mood, emotion, or activity, and
25% are metaphorical (Allport, 1961, p. 354-355).
Allport was dissatisfied with the limitations of verbal
tags, however. He recognized the weaknesses found in the
subjective and limited nature of labeling:
A trait of personality may or may not coincide
with some well-defined, conventional social
concept. . . It would be ideal if we could . . .
find our traits first and then name them. But
honesty, loyalty, neatness and tact, though
encrusted with social significance, may likewise
represent true traits of personality. The danger
is that, in devising scales for their measurement,

61
we may be bound by the conventional meanings and
thus be led away from the precise integration as it
exists in a given individual. Where possible, it
would be well for us to find our traits first and
then seek devaluated terms with which to charac¬
terize our discoveries. (Allport, 1960, p. 135)
Allport believed traits, once identified, could be labeled
arbitrarily as long as they did not deliberately mislead.
For example, a personality can be identified as "friendly"
by Judge-A and "outgoing" by Judge-B. An argument of
semantics should be avoided due to the limitations of the
semantics themselves. Allport hoped to achieve a certain
amount of flexibility in the identification of traits by
this method, and thereby overcome one of the weaknesses of
trait identification. Allport felt trait names to be the
most accurate, though limited, source of trait
identification available (Allport, 1961, p. 356).
Allport also felt there was a distinction between using
trait names to describe common traits and individual traits
(personal dispositions). He felt trait names were less
accurate in their description of personal dispositions,
because of the tendency of the trait name to generalize.
Whereas this generalization is effective in describing a
common trait (a generalization in its own right), it often
falls short of reflecting the individual structure of a
given personality (Allport, 1961, p. 359). This is not to
say that Allport felt common traits should not be studied;
rather, that the scientist must go beyond the common and
study the unique (the personal disposition):

62
Our contention is that, if correctly diagnosed,
p.d.'s [personal dispositions] reflect personality
structure accurately, whereas common traits are
categories into which the individual is forced.
(Allport, 1961, p. 359)
Allport understood that no single act is the product of
only one trait, and a trait is only one factor in
determining an act (Allport, 1961, p. 334 and 360). This
recognition of the complexity of the human nature led
Allport to the conclusion that it is ridiculous to try to
reduce human nature to a single element simply for the sake
of explanation:
We view personality--in the only way it can be
intelligibly viewed--as a network of organization,
composed of systems within systems, some systems of
small magnitude and somewhat peripheral to the
central or propriate structure, other systems of
wider scope at the core of the total edifice; some
easy to set into action, others more dormant; some
so culturally conforming that they can readily be
viewed as "common"; others definitely
idiosyncratic. But in the last analysis this
network--complying billions and billions of nerve
cells, fashioned by a one-time heredity and by
environmental experiences never duplicated--is
ultimately unique. (Allport, 1961, p. 360)
Because of this complexity, each personal disposition
affects the other personal dispositions of any given
individual. This concept led Allport to the conclusion
that a personal disposition is not identified by sharp
boundaries, but are only relatively independent of each
other (Allport, 1960, p. 133). These traits will work
together to produce a "nuclear quality" that will have an
important goal or meaning, or sometimes a style of

63
expression which will betray the individual's unique efforts
at survival and mastery (Allport, 1961, p. 362).
Although there is a certain degree of consistency found
within the personality, the personality is not completely
predictable. The inconsistency of dispositions could be due
to a specific situation, or to the actual existence of
opposite dispositions within an individual (Allport, 1960,
p.135). Allport felt that contradictory behavior is often
not contradictory at all, but a contrasting stylistic
demonstration of the same personal disposition. What must
be identified is the deepest disposition that is operating
within an individual:
Take the case of Dr. D., always neat about his
person and desk, punctilious about lecture notes,
outlines, and files; his personal possessions are
not only in order but carefully kept under lock
and key. Dr. D is also in charge of the
departmental library. In this duty he is careless;
he leaves the library door unlocked, and books are
lost; it does not bother him that dust accumulates.
Does this contradiction in behavior mean that D
lacks personal dispositions? Not at all. He has
two opposed stylistic dispositions, one of
orderliness and one of disorder1iness. Different
situations arouse different dispositions. Pursuing
the case further, the duality is at least partly
explained by the fact that D has one cardinal
(motivational) disposition from which these
contrasting styles proceed. The outstanding fact
about his personality is that he is a self-centered
egotist who never acts for other people's
interests, but always for his own. This cardinal
self-centeredness (for which there is abundant
evidence) demands orderliness for himself, but not
for others. (Allport, 1961, p. 363)
Allport believed that traits, or personal
dispositions, were not of equal influence or importance to a

64
given individual. Some traits have a stronger influence on
people than other traits, while other traits may have a
more subtle influence, or even a weaker influence. For the
sake of understanding and discussion, he identified three
types of personal dispositions: cardinal, central, and
secondary. These three dispositions represent--in reality--
a means of identifying the intensity and influence
particular traits have on an individual, rather than an
exact category into which traits actually fall.
Cardinal Trait
A cardinal trait is so pervasive and outstanding in any
given individual that almost every act can be traced to its
influence and almost every aspect of a person's life is
touched by it. A person is so dominated by the cardinal
trait that it can rarely be hidden from others (Allport,
1961, p. 365). A person does not necessarily have only one
cardinal trait, and this trait may change as a person
matures and changes (Allport, 1961, p. 365).
Central Dispositions and Secondary Dispositions
Less predominate dispositions are central dispositions.
These central dispositions are also identifiable; they are
the handful of traits one might use in describing an
individual or writing a letter of recommendation (Allport,
1961, p. 365). On a less conspicuous level of influence are
secondary dispositions. These traits are less generalized
and less consistent than central dispositions (Allport,

65
1961, p. 365). They might reflect something only a best
friend would know (Schultz, p. 201).
Allport was hesitant to speculate on the exact number
of personal dispositions a person might possess:
How many dispositions has a person is a most
audacious question, and can be answered in only a
preliminary and speculative way. For many reasons
the question is audacious: Behavior is in
continuous flow; dispositions never express
themselves singly; people manifest contradictory
dispositions in contradictory situations;
furthermore, diagnostic methods are too ill
developed to enable us to discover the answer.
(Allport, 1961, p. 366)
Still he projected from the data available and his own
observations that any given individual possesses one or two
cardinal traits at any given point, between five and ten
central traits, while the number of secondary traits could
be infinite.
Often confused with traits, because of their
similarities are habits and attitudes. Allport offered some
clarifications of definitions.
Habits
Habits are inflexible and specific in response to a
specific stimuli; traits are more generalized and variable
in expression (Allport, 1961, p. 346). A child learning to
brush his teeth is developing a habit, although this process
might develop a trait of a desire for cleanliness. A number
of habits may be blended together to develop a trait;
however, habits do not integrate automatically into traits.
They do so when the person has some general concept or self-

66
image which leads to the fusion of the habit into a trait
(Allport, 1961, p. 346):
A young child may be regarded as forming a
specific habit when he learns (with difficulty) to
brush his teeth night and morning. For some years
this habit may stand alone, aroused only by
appropriate commands or by the appropriate
environmental situation. With the passing of
years, however, brushing teeth becomes not only
automatic (as is the way of habits) but likewise
firmly woven into a much wider system of habits,
viz., a trait of personal cleanliness. . . . The
adult is uncomfortable if he omits brushing the
teeth from his daily schedule, not only because a
single habit is frustrated, but because the
omission violates a general demand for cleanliness.
(Allport, 1937, p. 292)
Attitudes
The difference between attitudes and traits are even
harder to distinguish than between habits and traits. Is
sexism an attitude or is it a trait? Patriotism?
Introversion? Allport clarified these concepts by asserting
that often it doesn't matter which label a particular term
is given--attitude or trait. The important issue is the
identification of the trait word in terms of the behavior of
a particular personality. However, Allport does identify
two distinctions: first, an attitude always has an object
of reference; whereas, a trait does not direct itself
specifically toward something. Second, an attitude is
usually favorable or unfavorable, for or against (Allport,
1961, p. 347). It involves a judgement or evaluation (pro
or con), which a trait does not (Schultz, p. 200).
Therefore, in distinguishing whether Jon's patriotism is an

67
attitude or trait, it would have to be considered what is
the object of this patriotism. If Jon is patriotic toward
his country, his patriotism becomes an attitude. If Tina's
sexism is judged as a negative behavior toward men, it too
is an attitude. If Lisa is introverted around all people;
however, introversion is probably a trait.
Motivation
Allport believed that any theory of personality pivoted
upon its analysis of the nature of motivation. He defined
motivation as any internal condition in the person that
induces action or thought (Allport, 1961, p. 196). He also
recognized the importance of motivation in regards to the
arts:
Literature and psychology, just as the social
sciences and psychology, meet most naturally in
the single case. We have already pointed out that
frequently psychiatrists have turned into literary
critics. Conversely we may point out that
biographers and literary critics become psycho¬
logists when they probe, as they increasingly do,
the realm of motivation. (Allport, 1947, p. 47)
Allport also believed a theory of motivation should meet
four requirements: contemporaneity, pluralistic, cognitive
process, and concrete uniqueness (Schultz, p. 201).
Contemporaneitv
A theory of motivation must acknowledge the
contemporaneity of motives (Allport, 1961, p. 220). In
other words, the importance of the present should be
stressed: "Motives leading to activity, it may be argued,

68
are always operative at the time the activity takes place."
Allport added, "That which drives, drives now" (Allport,
1947, p. 80).
Allport was aware, however, that in complex adult
motives the past is, to some degree, alive in the present.
He considered it, however, the task of the psychologist to
discover "how much of the past is fire and how much of it is
ashes" (Allport, 1961, p. 219). To think that the motives
of mankind are essentially unchanged from birth until death
seemed to Allport inadequate at best (Allport, p. 203).
That which once motivated, does not necessarily motivate
always. It is important to realize the past is only
important if it exists as a present or current motivating
force, or is "dynamically active in the present" (Allport,
1961, p. 220).
More precisely stated, it is the unfinished
structure that has this dynamic power. A finished
structure is static; but a growing structure,
tending toward a given direction of closure, has
the capacity to subsidiate the guide conduct in
conformity with its movement. (Allport, 1955, p.
91)
Pluralistic
A theory of motivation must be a pluralistic theory--
allowing for motives of many types (Allport, 1961, p. 221).
Pluralistic motivation recognizes that human motivation is
vastly complex. Motivation cannot be reduced to one general
phase or drive due to this complexity:
Some motives are transient, some recurring; some
are momentary, others persistent; some

69
unconscious, others conscious; some opportunistic,
others propriate; some tension-reducing, others
tension-maintaining. Motives are so diverse in
type that we find it difficult to discover the
common denominator. About all we can say is that a
person's motives include all that he is trying
(consciously or unconsciously, reflexly or
deliberately) to do. (Allport, 1961, p. 221)
Simplification does not explain motivation. Neither does
reducing "its strands to the simplified model of the
machine, the animal, the child, or the pathological"
(Allport, 1961, p. 222). A theory of motivation should
allow that there may be some truth in each theory (Allport,
1961, p. 221).
Cognitive Process
A theory of motivation must acknowledge the
importance of the cognitive processes—e.g. planning and
intention (Allport, 1961, p. 222). Allport's requirement of
cognitive process gives emphasis to the individual's
conscious plans and intentions. These conscious intentions
represent, above all else, the individual's primary mode of
addressing the future (Allport, 1955, p. 89). Thus,
cognitive processes stresses the importance of the future in
the motivating process of the personality.
Allport thought it extremely irrational that human
motivation has been equated with "blind will (Schopenhauer),
with the struggle for survival (Darwin), with instincts
(McDougall and others), with the steam boiler of the id
(Freud)" (Allport, 1961, p. 222). He felt the irrational
and unconscious should not outweigh the rational and

70
deliberate decisions made by an individual. People can
think, and in that process of thought decisions are made.
Therefore, an individual's intent is central to the
understanding of an individual's personality.
Allport defined intention as "what an individual is
trying to do," and he included several features of
motivation derived from the concept of intention:
1. The cognitive and emotive processes in
personality become fused into an integral urge.
2. The intention, like all motivation, exists in
the present, but has strong future orientation.
Use of the concept helps us to trace the course of
motivation as lives are actually lived--into the
future and not, as most theories do, backward into
the past. It tells us what sort of future a person
is trying to bring about, and this is the most
important question we can ask about any mortal.
3. The term has a flavor of "tension maintained"
and thus reflects the true condition of all long-
range motives.
4. When we identify major intentions in a life we
have a device for holding subsidiary trends in
perspective. (Allport, 1961, p. 223)
Allport believed the present should be explained more in
terms of the future, not the past. It is more important to
identify what a person intends to do and how they are
presently acting out this intention, than to look toward the
past of an individual's childhood or development.
Unfortunately the concept of intention is not
prominent in current psychology. The reason is
that it connotes purpose, the efficacy of
conscious planning, and a "pull" that man's image
of the future exerts on his present conduct. . . .
the more favored "physica1 istic" conception would
say that he is pushed by his motives (not pulled by
his intentions). Many psychologists would say that
"drives" take entire care of what we here call
intention. Yet drives as such are blind. They do

71
not allow for organization and direction by
cognitive attitudes, by foresight, by cortical
control. (Allport, 1961, p. 224)
Concrete Uniqueness
A theory of motivation must allow for the concrete
uniqueness of motives. Concrete uniqueness limits the
identification of motives in, what Allport considered to be,
abstract terms. An abstract term is connected to some
theoretical system which classifies motives only in general
and common terms. He gave the following examples:
Concrete: Mary has a strong desire to become a
professional nurse.
Abstract: She is cathecting an aim-inhibited
sexual wish (Freudian).
Concrete:
Abstract:
deve 1 oped
his early
Jim is passionately fond of music.
His interest is a secondary drive
from his musical mother, who satisfied
primary drives (S-R theory).
Concrete: Patricia loves to entertain guests in
her home.
Abstract: The desire for competence is the root.
It is true that Patricia is in a sense
manifesting "competence" in her entertaining. But
there are surely a million kinds of competence in
life which do not interest Patricia at all. Her
motive is highly concrete. Entertaining, not
abstract competence, is the bread of life to her,
and any abstract scheme misses that point
completely, and therefore sheds little or no light
on her personality as it actually functions. It is
a caricature of a person to view his interests
merely as changes rung on a common pattern.
(Allport, 1961, p. 226)
Instead of analyzing the individual in a generalizing
fashion, motivation must analyze with concrete ideas and be
specific to that individual. Allport felt it was a grave
error to believe that a general principle of motivation

72
could lead to a uniform schedule of motives common to all
(Allport, 1961, p. 226).
Functional Autonomy
In following his own previously discussed guidelines,
Allport developed the motivational theory of "functional
autonomy." By his own admission, this theory does not
explain all human motivation, but Allport felt it was more
effective than past motivational theories. He felt it was an
attempt to escape "the limitations of uniform, rigid,
abstract, backward looking theories," and to recognize
instead "the spontaneous, changing, forward-looking,
concrete character that much adult motivation surely has"
(Allport, 1961, p. 227).
Functional autonomy regards adult motives as
varied, and as self-sustaining, contemporary
systems, growing out of antecedent systems, but
functionally, independent of them. Just as a
child gradually outgrows dependence on his
parents, becomes self-determining, and outlives his
parents, so it is with many motives. The
transition may be gradual but it is nonetheless
drastic. As the individual (or the motive)
matures, the bond with the past is broken. The tie
is historical, not functional. (Allport, 1961, p.
227)
Motivation is always contemporary (Allport, 1961,
p.227). Motive, in the normal, mature adult, is not
functionally related to the past experiences in which the
original motivation may have first appeared. The motive has
become independent of the original circumstances.
Therefore, the adult motive cannot be understood by
exploring the childhood of the adult because the motive

73
has changed. It may have originated in childhood, but time
and maturity have developed it into an entirely different
motivation. Allport demonstrates:
An ex-sailor has a craving for the sea, a musician
longs to return to his instrument after an enforced
absence, a miser continues to build up his useless
pile. Now the sailor may have first acquired his
love for the sea as an incident in his struggle to
earn a living. The sea was "secondary
reinforcement" for his hunger drive. But now the
ex-sailor is perhaps a wealthy banker; the original
motive is destroyed, and yet the hunger for the sea
persists and even increases in intensity. The
musician may first have been stung by a slur on his
inferior performance into mastering his instrument;
but now he is safely beyond these taunts, and finds
that he loves his instrument more than anything
else in the world. The miser perhaps learned his
habit of thrift in dire necessity, but the
miserliness persists and becomes stronger with the
years even after the necessity has been relieved.
(Allport, 1961, p. 227)
Allport described the original activity as instrumental to
some earlier motive, yet now that activity serves itself.
The adult motive now serves the self-image or self-ideal of
the person. "Childhood is no longer in the saddle; maturity
is" (Allport, 1961, p. 229).
Functional autonomy is not always achieved, however.
If in adulthood a person does not mature, motivation does
not become functionally autonomous. Instead the motivation
continues to be tied to the original activity found in
childhood. This person Allport considered immature, and
thus emotionally ill (Schultz, p. 208). For example, what
if the young musician had not developed a love for the
instrument, but continued to play out of anger and spite

74
over those first hurtful words. His actions could not be
considered functionally autonomous, neither would he be
considered a normally functioning, mature adult.
Mat urit v
Allport sought to identify some attributes that would
be demonstrated by the ideal mature individual. He pursued
these ideas not to limit the uniqueness of individuals, but
to better understand in theory the development of
personality (Allport, 1961, p. 276). Neither did Allport
believe that an ultimately true human being existed. He
spoke in terms of the ideal rather than the actual person
(Allport, 1961, p 277). He also distinguished between
maturity and adult, recognizing that maturity of
personality does not have any necessary relation to
chronological age (Allport, 1961, p. 277). With these
thoughts in mind, Allport believed the normally functioning
mature personality demonstrates the following:
1. The extension of the sense of self to persons and
activities beyond the self (Allport, 1961, p. 283). It is
not enough for a person to simply be busy with the
activities of life. Instead, mature individuals must
involve a personal part of themselves (while still
maintaining their individuality) in at least one of the
spheres of human concern: economic, educational,
recreational, political, domestic, and religious (Allport,
1961, p. 284-5). Self is important, but the mature

75
individual is able to decenter personal attention and extend
that attention beyond the self.
2. Warm relations of self toward others (Allport,
1961, p. 285). Allport believed this concept of warm
relations went beyond intimacy to include compassion, and
was valid in terms of individual and general relationships.
Intimacy is reflected by an individual's capacity to develop
deep and lasting relationships, yet this intimacy must be
balanced by compassion. Allport related compassion to a
person's ability to respect and appreciate another person as
an individual. In other words, the intimacy found in a
relationship must never impede the freedom of another
individual to find their own identity (Allport, 1961, p.
285) .
3. Emotional Security (self-acceptance) (Allport,
1961, p. 287 ). Se 1f-accept anee includes the ability to
avoid overreaction to matters pertaining to temporary
situations. Mature individuals may not be happy and
positive at all times, but they have learned to accept their
emotional state so it does not interfere with the well-being
of others or themselves. They are able to express their
convictions and feelings with consideration for the
convictions and feelings of others, and they possess a sense
of proportion and reality (Allport, 1961, p. 288).
4. Realistic perceptions, skills, and assignments
(Allport, 1961, p. 288). Maturity is not a reflection of a

76
particular IQ score. Maturity, rather, is the ability to be
realistic in the observations of life, to be able to solve
objective problems, and to be able to be "problem-centered."
What this means is mature individuals will be in close
touch with "the real world," they will see objects, people,
and situations for what they are, and they will have
important work to do (Allport, 1961, p. 290).
5. Se 1f-objectification: insight and humor (Allport,
1961, p. 288). Allport believed that insight into one's
self and a sense of humor work together to create self¬
objectification: the ability to look at oneself
objectively. Mature individuals who have the most complete
sense of proportion concerning their own qualities and
cherished values are able to perceive their incongruities
and absurdities in certain settings (Allport, 1961, p. 293).
6. A unifying philosophy of life (Allport, 1961, p.
295). Allport believed maturity required a clear and
comprehensive theory regarding life. This theory (or
theories) can be considered practical, spiritual, or
philosophical in nature. Despite the individual preference
toward the nature of the actual philosophy, a philosophy of
life which unifies and directs all aspects of a person's
life should develop in the mature individual (Schultz, p.
208) .
A unifying philosophy may be evaluated in terms of
value-orientation, or value-direction. Allport performed

77
major studies in the area of personal values. From his
studies, Allport developed an inventory containing 45
questions (The Study of Values), which he felt gave insight
into the value-direction of an individual. He built on the
theories of E. Spranger in regard to six value-directions
found in the individual: theoretical, economic, aesthetic
social, political and religious. Of the six values
presented, Allport felt his inventory on values showed that
only one or two values were dominant in any given
individual's life, although all of the values were present
to some degree (Allport, 1961, p. 297). A discussion of the
values follow:
1. Theoretical. This value is concerned with the
pursuit of truth, usually through the empirical, critical,
and rational methods (Allport, 1961, p. 297).
2. Economic: This value is concerned with what is
practical, useful, and relevant. The strength of this value
might be manifested in some aspect of the business world
(Allport, 1961, p. 297).
3. Aesthetic: This value is concerned with beauty and
artistic experiences. This value is not limited to artistic
talent, but includes also the enjoyment or pursuit of the
aesthetic (Allport, 1961, p. 298).
4. Social: This value is concerned with human
relations and the love of others, whether conjugal, filial,
friendly, or philanthropic (Allport, 1961, p. 298).

78
5. Political: This value is concerned with power and
influence, but is not limited to the narrow world of
politics (Allport, 1961, p. 299). The pursuit of power and
control can be found anywhere from general occupation goals
to personal relationships.
6. Religious: This value is concerned with unity,
harmony, and understanding of the world (or universe) as a
whole. It strives to relate the individual life to the
workings of the cosmos (Allport, 1961, p. 299). It is the
pursuit for a spiritual understanding as an end-in-itse 1f.
In his discussion of value-directions, Allport admits
that the previous six values do not exhaust the
possibilities, nor do they necessarily reflect the values of
those individuals in pursuit of the "hedonistic, the
sensual, the vital, and temporary needs for adjustment"
(Allport, 1961, p. 300). However, keeping in mind Allport's
emphasis on the average, mature adult, these six values make
an important contribution to the study of the integration of
the mature personality.
Behavior
Because of Allport's holistic approach to the study of
the individual, he did extensive research into the area of
behavior. He saw the physical as a means to a better
understanding of the individual personality. One important
area of study was the concept of empathy.

79
Even though the present definition of empathy includes
almost any type of successful understanding of another
individual, the term empathy was originally used to refer to
the process of motor mimicry; that is, muscular activity
which is in someway imitative of something else (Allport,
1961, p. 535-536):
Contemplation of a work of art, for example,
involves many slight movements of the brows, eyes,
trunk, and limbs which are in some way imitative of
the stimulus-object. When one says that a Gothic
spire soars, that the arch of the nave is exalted,
that a waterfall leaps, or that a storm cloud
weighs heavily, it is in reality one's own muscular
responses that are being reported. (Allport, 1961,
p. 534)
It is this joining of the physical and the emotional
aspects of humanity through empathy which led Allport to
pursue the importance of behavior observation in regards to
the understanding and interpretation of the personality.
The ability to imitate the physical movements of another
often leads to an understanding of the emotions of that
particular individual (Allport, 1937, p. 530). Physical
empathy allows an individual to "swing with" with mental
life of another (Allport, 1961, p. 534):
Some writers have maintained that our understanding
of other people is derived from our capacity to
imitate, usually in imperceptible ways, the
behavior of the person we are trying to
understand. (Allport, 1937, p. 531)
Allport also felt that actors and mimics are often
exceptionally good judges of personality because of their

80
active imitation of the physicality of others (Allport,
1961, p. 534 and Allport, 1937, p. 530).
Expressive and Coning Behavior
Allport identified two types of behavior: expressive
and coping. He believed all behavior was both expressive
and coping in nature, although one is usually more
influential than the other:
Every act that we perform copes with our
environment. Even rest and sleep and play are no
exceptions. There is a task in hand (the what of
behavior). We must repair a lock, seek
relaxation, summon a doctor, answer a question, or
blink a speck of dust from our eyes. To cope with
the task we employ our reflexes and habits or call
upon our skills, our judgment and knowledge. But
into this stream of activity there enter deeper
trends in our nature. There are styles of
repairing locks, calling a doctor, relaxing,
answering a question, or blinking the eye. Every
action betrays both a coping and an expressive
aspect. (Allport, 1961, p. 426)
Expressive behavior is so spontaneous that it shows
one's true personality. It has no specific goal or purpose,
and is usually unconsciously displayed. Coping behavior, on
the other hand, is consciously planned and formally carried
out toward a specific purpose (directing a change in one's
environment).
Allport summarized the difference between coping and
expressive behavior:
a. Coping is purposive and specifically motivated;
expressive behavior is not.
b. Coping is determined by the needs of the
moment and by the situation; expressive movement
reflects deeper personal structure.
c. Coping is formally elicited; expressive
behavior spontaneously "emitted."

81
d. Coping can be more readily controlled
(inhibited, modified, conventionalized); expressive
behavior is harder to alter and often
uncontrollable. (Changing our style of
handwriting, e.g., can be kept up for only a short
time.)
e. Coping usually aims to change the environment;
expressive behavior aims at nothing, though it may
incidentally have effects (as when our manner of
answering questions in an interview creates a good
impression and lands us the job).
f. Typically coping is conscious, even though it
may employ automatic skills; expressive behavior
generally lies below the threshold of our
awareness. (Allport, 1961, p. 463)
He also offers a succinct explanation: "What an individual
is voluntarily doing or saying constitutes the adaptive
aspect of his behavior; how he is doing or saying it, the
expressive aspect" (Allport, 1947, p. 111).
Coping behavior can act as a restrainer, sometimes even
a destroyer, of the basic rhythms of individual expression.
In order to perceive the individuality of expressive
behavior, the focus of a behavior must move beyond the
specific intent of an act, beyond the conscious control, and
beyond the conventions and skills employed in coping
(Allport, 1961, p. 465). Allport makes the interesting
observation that as people become adults, their expressive
behavior becomes more controlled; consequently, expressive
behavior becomes physically limited. He gives the example
of a child who is irritable. This child expresses the
irritability in almost all aspects of behavior: crying,
whining, fighting, etc. An adult on the other hand might
express the same irritability only through restless fingers

82
or shifting eyes (Allport, 1961, p. 469). Allport felt this
was an example of a broader phenomenon: various features of
expression are of unequal significance in different people.
Some faces are open books; some are "poker faces."
For some people gestures are merely conventional;
for others, highly individual. Sometimes the style
of clothing or the handwriting seems "just like"
the person; in other cases, entirely nonexpress ive.
One person reveals himself primarily in his speech;
another, in his posture and gait; a third, in his
style of clothing or ornamentation. As a
promising hypothesis we suggest that every person
has one or two leading expressive features which
reveal his true nature. If this is so, it is
somewhat futile to study all people by the same
cues, e.g. voice, eyes, or handwriting. The cue
that is revealing for one person is not necessarily
revealing for another. (Allport, 1961, p. 469)
Not only are various features of expression important
to different people, but these means of expression tend to
be consistently demonstrated (Allport, 1961, p. 473).
Expressive behavior can be the most stubborn part of our
natures: an individual may be able to change the "what" of
an action, but the "how" is much more difficult. Emotion
and mood do make a difference in terms of the consistency
of expressive behavior, but the difference seems to change
chiefly the energy that goes into the expression. Behavior
research shows the pattern itself remains about the same
(Allport, 1961, p. 473).
Other determinants which affect behavior to some
degree are listed below:
a. cultural tradition
b. regional convention
c. passing emotional moods
d. conditions of strain and fatigue

83
e. age
f. sex
g. native muscular structure and bodily build
h. conditions of health and disease
i. accidental deformations of the body
j. special training (e.g., dramatics, military
drill)
k. conditions of physical environment (e.g.,
the ground and climatic factors in
walking). (Allport, 1961, p. 467)
Any region of the body which can move is--either in
rest or in that movement--express ive; consequently, any
region of the body can be analyzed for its expressive
nature, whether separately or in combination (Allport,
1961, p. 479). To discuss them all, or to try to
discuss one completely, Allport considered impossible.
He did however discuss some examples in order to
demonstrate the significance of such research.
The face
Because of the number of muscles and nerves found
within the facial region, and because it is, in this and
similar societies, unclothed and the most visible region
of the body, Allport considered the face to be the most
expressive region of the body (Allport, 1961, p. 479).
Allport made an interesting point in regards to the
research done in the area of interpreting expressive
facial movements. Most research has been done not in
the area of what facial expression actually reveals, but
what people interpret the expression to reveal (Allport,
1961, p. 480). Another important find reveals the mouth
to be the most decisive facial feature in the shaping of

84
judgments, not the eyes. Eyes by comparison are
relatively inexpressive. Allport asked if perhaps
people believe they learn the most from the eyes of
others, because it is through their own eyes that
impressions are received (Allport, 1961, p. 481).
Voice and speech
The voice, if it is untrained, is a highly
expressive instrument, while speech tends to be more
coping. Interestingly, the majority of research has
been done on speech. This fact has been contributed to
the elusive nature of the dynamics of the voice, which
makes research difficult. The following tendencies have
been revealed though through research: untrained voices
are more often correctly matched in terms of actual
personality and true expression than trained voices; age
can usually be distinguished within a ten year accuracy;
other physical features (height, complexion, appearance)
cannot be distinguished with any accuracy; deeper traits
(such as dominance, extra-version, etc.) can be judged
with a fair success; complete sketches of personality
can be matched with an even higher degree of success.
This means voice-as-a-pattern is highly congruent with
personality-as-a-whole (Allport, 1961, p. 483).
Posture, gesture, and gait
Posture, gesture, and gait are affected by the
influence of coping motivations, expressive motivations,

85
cultural conventions, and personality (Allport, 1961, p.
485). Allport quotes an anthropological investigation's
finding that the human body is capable of assuming about
one thousand different steady postures; that is, static
positions that can be maintained comfortably for a
period of time (Allport, 1961, p. 486). Posture during
sleep is also highly consistent in regards to a personal
characteristic. Allport recognized gestures as highly
individualized and revealing; however, he felt little
research existed that was not artificial in nature
(Allport, 1961, p. 486). In regards to gait, Allport
quotes a study which suggests a person's gait can be
measured by regularity, speed, pressure, length of
stride, elasticity, definiteness of direction,
variability and rhythm.
In general, Allport felt much more research should
be done in the area of expressive behavior, because of
its potential insight into the human personality. He
recognized that coping behavior research is easier to
document in scientific terms, but he felt expressive
behavior to be the more important in personality
expression and analysis. Allport believed coping
behavior is observed often as the foreground, and
expressive behavior the background. Yet for its elusive
nature, in terms of both the layman and the
professional, Allport thought expressive behavior might

86
be the most important factor in the understanding of the
personality (Allport, 1961, p. 494).
Analvsis
Methods for personality assessment were also a
major focus in Allport's work. He is credited with
writing more about the specific methods appropriate to
personality assessment than almost any other theorist
(Schultz, p. 209). As is typical of the work of
Allport, he recognized that there was no one best method
of personality assessment due to the complexities of the
human personality.
Allport believed that knowledge of others is
available only in fragments, so at best people only
catch "glimpses" of each other (Allport, 1961, p 407).
No person can understand any other person
completely, for it is impossible for one human
being to share directly the motives, thoughts, and
feelings of another. This unbridgeable chasm
between mind and mind has led philosophers to
ponder the egocentric predicament of the human
race, and poets to lament the ultimate solitude of
each soul. It is, they assure us, only
through circuitous routes and through the study of
"shadows" that we are able to achieve our
imperfect glimpses of one another. Since
psychology can do nothing to change this
"metaphysical solitude," it must recognize at the
outset that the problem of understanding people is
always a problem of partial understanding. We may
understand one another relatively well but never
completely. (Allport, 1937, p. 499)
He acknowledged the perceptions of others to be subjective
decisions based on an objective reality. This subjectivity

87
lends itself to many sources of error in regards to
perception or analysis of others. Allport discussed several
of these sources of errors; three are mentioned here.
Emotions
Emotional bias alters both the message being sent and
the way that message is perceived. Even in striving for an
objective perspective, personal feelings turn the objective
perspective into a subjective perspective. A person in love
is often a poor judge of the lover's personality (Allport,
1961, p. 498). A family member's personality perception is
distorted by the shared emotional background of the family.
Research shows, for example, that when in a threatening or
humiliating situation, other people are rated as far "less
attractive" than in situations which flatters the
individual's self-esteem (Allport, 1961, p. 498).
Openness
Most people try to keep certain aspects of their
natures and personalities secret. Therefore, people vary
widely in the amount of information they are willing to
disclose, and in whom they are willing to confide (Allport,
1961, p. 499). This willingness to disclose oneself is an
essential factor in accurate perceptions, yet it does not
necessarily imply a conscious disclosure. Some people, in
their spontaneous daily activities, allow their natures to
be revealed, while other people analyze closely their

88
actions in order not to reveal their motives (Allport,
1961, p. 500).
First Impressions
The immediate judgement made concerning another
individual based on first contact often leads to conclusions
which are changed as contact with the individual is
increased. Because Allport believed knowledge of others
comes indirectly and in fragments, he was highly skeptical
of the judgement which tries to instantly organize a complex
pattern of interrelated cues (Allport, 1961, p. 501). Yet
first impressions are often long standing, despite their
inaccurate nature, and they are very difficult to change.
In his book, Pattern and Growth in Personality.
Allport listed eleven different techniques for assessing
the human personality: constitutional and physiological
diagnosis; sociocultural setting, membership, role;
personal documents and case studies; self-appraisal;
conduct sampling; ratings; test and scales; projective
techniques; depth analysis; expressive behavior; synoptic
procedures. All of these techniques use the basic
scientific (and common sense) method of observation followed
by an interpretation of the significance of what has been
observed (Allport, 1961, p. 396). Allport acknowledged the
list of assessment techniques did not include literary or
philosophical contributions to assessment, although he did

89
recognized the contributions of literature and philosophy as
being important. (Allport, 1961, p. 396)
Constitutional and Physiological Diagnosis
How the biological aspects of the human body correlate
to the personality are important (Allport, 1961, p. 398).
Studies from the past thirty years have certainly surpassed
Allport's knowledge of physical research. However, the
premise still holds true, physical and biological aspects of
the human body can affect the personality.
Studies of Sociocultural Membership. Status. Role
Sociocultural studies analyze the framework within
which the personality develops: social conventions,
customs, codes, religious and occupational groups, etc.
Through these studies a certain amount of "probable
knowledge" can be ascertained in regards to trait and
behavior.
It has been argued that such knowledge of
membership is the best predictor of a person's
future conduct. To know that he or she is an Arab,
an army engineer, a Salvation Army lassie, an
actor, or even a mother, is to know a good deal
about the probable present and future course of the
life in question. (Allport, p. 400)
Still, Allport does not believe that individuals mirror
exactly the society in which they were raised or the groups
to which they belong. Personality is more than "the
subjective side of culture" (Allport, 1961, p. 400). The
lack of mirroring of a society does not weaken this type of
personality assessment, however. It often enriches it. For

90
example, a rich man's son who becomes a socialist presents a
different psychological program from the son of a
revolutionary leader who becomes a socialist (Allport, 1961,
p. 400). Allport acknowledges the studies of sociocultural
membership to be important, whether an individual deviates
from the sociocultural setting or is relatively typical of
it (Allport, 1961, p. 400).
Self-Appraisal
Another method of assessment discussed by Allport is
self-appraisal: all methods that invite individuals to
report explicitly and deliberately concerning selected
aspects of their own personality (Allport, 1961, p. 410).
This method is valid whether the individual's reaction is in
keeping with results from other forms of assessment or not.
A correct or incorrect response gives insight into the
personality of the individual.
The one persistent source of error found when using the
self-appraisal technique in the United States is self-
flattery: people overestimate those qualities they
consider desirable and underestimate those they consider
undesirable (Allport, 1961, p. 411).
Specific methods involved in the se1f-appraisal
technique include the following: Self-rating (a comparison
of the individual to others in regards to the same trait);
W-A-Y Technique (a look at the answer to the question "Who
are you?"); Q-sort (a categorizing of a hundred traits in

91
approximately ten piles ranging from "most descriptive of
self" to "least descriptive of self"); Self-Anchoring Scale
(the individual identifies "the ideal way of life" which is
rated 10, "the worst possible way of life" is rated as 0.
The individual identifies present placement on this scale,
placement in two years, five years, etc.) Variations of all
these exercises exist.
Conduct Sampling
Conduct sampling is the systematic observation of
behavior in an everyday situation. Time-sampling or time¬
budgeting spot checks behavior at chosen intervals either
through observation (time-sampling) or a written record
which is later analyzed (time-budgeting) (Allport, 1961, p.
414-415). "Miniature Situations" provide the elements of a
given environment in order to observe the reaction to the
environment:
With a bit of ingenuity we can compress the
sprawly situations of everyday life into a smaller
scope. The would-be pilot of an airplane need not
be tried out in a real flight; he can be screened
for his fitness in the laboratory with the aid of
tests of equilibrium, visual acuity, and
coordination. Psychotechnics has developed
countless vocational miniatures that help to
assess fitness for many types of occupation by
presenting the subject with a cameo edition of the
full vocational pattern. An employment officer had
a custom of placing a magazine on the floor of the
waiting room and noting whether the prospective
applicant would replace it on the table. (Allport,
1961, p. 415)
Laboratory experiments and interviews are also forms of
miniature situations, the later establishes information

92
verbally and is the primary technique involved in
psychological counseling (Allport, 1961, p. 416).
Ratings
This formal technique estimates the strength of one or
more qualities in a personality based on direct acquaintance
with the personality and compared with other people in
respect to a particular trait (Allport, p. 418).
Expressive Behavior and Other Assessment Techniques
Expressive behavior is an important assessment
technique which has been discussed in the previous section
on expressive and coping behavior. The other types of
assessing techniques discussed by Allport are based on
scientific and analytical aids. They are tests and scales,
depth analysis, and synoptic procedures.
Personal Documents and Case Studies
Allport conducted extensive research in the area of
personal documents and case studies. He justified his
strong interest in the personal documents as follows:
No understanding of general laws is possible
without some degree of acquaintance with
particulars. If we may assume that the concrete
and the general are of equal importance in the
production of psychological understanding, it
follows that case materials (including personal
documents) should claim half of the psychologist's
time and attention. (Allport, 1947, p. 151)
Allport also saw the importance of personal documents in
interdisciplinary terms: He realized they were of interest
not only to the psychologist but to the historian,
biographer, and novelist (Allport, 1961, p. 401).

93
He defined a personal document as "any freely written
or spoken record that intentionally or unintentionally
yields information regarding the structure, dynamics, and
functioning of the author's mental life" (Allport, 1947, p.
xii). These include both first person and third person
documents: autobiographies, whether comprehensive or
topical; diaries, whether intimate or daily 1og-inventor ies
letters; open-ended questionnaires (but not standardized
tests); verbatim recordings, including interviews,
confessions, narrative; certain literary compositions; case
studies; life-histories; biographies (Allport, 1961, p.
401). Allport further explains:
As a self-revealing record of experience and
conduct the personal document is usually, though
not always, produced spontaneously, recorded by the
subject himself, and intended only for confidential
use. Its themes naturally revolve around the life
of the writer, its manner of approach is naturally
subjective (phenomenological). Such documents
vary greatly in candor, scope, authenticity, and
psychological value. Sometimes they are deceptive
and trivial; but sometimes they represent
distillations of the most profound and significant
experiences of human life. And always they are
interesting to the psychologist who must ask even
of the deceptive and trivial documents why they
were written and, further, why they are dull or
deceptive. (Allport, 1947, p. xiii)
An important consideration in personal documents is
determining the original motivation for the document's
existence. Allport listed thirteen such motivations in
order to illustrate a methodological problem: "Unless we
know how and why the document came into being we cannot
decide how much trust to place in it, nor can we evaluate

94
its completeness of coverage" (Allport, 1961, p. 403). He
felt it was highly unlikely though that only one specific
reason would motivate the writing of a personal document
(Allport, 1947, p. 69).
He identified and explained each motive:
1. Special pleading. A writer may outdo himself
to prove that he is more sinned against than
sinning. Perhaps no autobiography is entirely free
from se 1f-justification, but the intensity of the
motive varies greatly from document to document.
2. Exhibí tionism. Closely related is the document
in which egotism runs riot. The author seeks to
display himself--both sins and virtues--in as vivid
a light as possible. Rousseau opens his
Confessions with the following bit of se 1f-disp1 ay:
"I have entered upon a performance which is without
example, whose accomplishment will have no
imitator. I mean to present my fellow-mortals with
a man in all the integrity of nature; and this man
shall be myself. . ."
3. Desire for order. Just as there are people
who continually tidy their rooms and order their
possessions, so there are diary keepers who cannot
sleep at night until certain experiences of the day
are entered in writing. This motive seems
compulsive but the product may be valuable simply
because it is circumstantial, as in the case of
Pepys' famous diary.
4. Literary appeal. Many personal documents are
written in an artistic form to give the author and
reader a sense of symmetry and perfection. The
result may be as idyllic as Selma Lagerlof's
Marbacka or as vigorous as Richard Wright's Black
Boy.
5. Securing personal perspective. Many sincere
documents are attempts to take stock at a
crossroads in life, often in the middle age. H.G.
Wells gives this as his prime motivation for
writing Experiment in Autobiography.
6. Catharsis. Many documents are written to
secure relief from tension. Documents of this
type are both action-substitutes and action-
silencers. The writer who cannot gain relief in
action may express himself in a rush of writing.
7. Monetary gain. Sometimes students, the
unemployed, refugees, are attracted by the
psychologist's offer of payment in return for

95
autobiographical documents. Judging from
productions under this incentive the quality is
not necessarily compromised. But whenever cash
fetches forth good documents it is probable that
the authors were attracted to the task for other
reasons as well.
8. Assignment. In college courses students can be
invited to write autobiographies. (It is bad taste
to require such an assignment, though experience
shows that given their choice of writing a case
study of another person or an autobiography, about
80 percent of students chose to write about
themselves.)
9. Assisting in therapy. A patient who produces
an autobiography or other personal document for his
therapist does so in order to assist in his own
cure. Although documents of this type are likely
to be trustworthy, they are tipped toward the side
of disorder than to normal functioning.
10. Redemption and social reincorooration. The
confessions of the ex-criminal, the spy, the
alcoholic, the dope addict contain implicit pleas
for forgiveness and social reacceptance. They are
generally motivated also by a true conversion and
desire to help others.
11. Public service. Similar are documents
motivated to achieve a social or political reform.
Clifford Beers in A Mind That Found Itself wished
to improve the lot of the insane. Autobiographies
of some Negroes, settlement house workers,
political crusaders fall into this category.
12. Desire for immortality. Personal documents
often reflect a man's "battle against oblivion."
To be forgotten is to die a second and more
complete death. This motive, though not rare, is
seldom openly expressed.
13. Scientific interest. Cultivated individuals,
including students, sometimes offer their diaries
or other documents to psychologists for scientific
study. While the documents were not prepared for
this reason, they are released with this laudable
intention. (Allport, 1961, p. 402-403)
To some psychologists, analysis of personal documents
seems subscientific due to the subjective nature of the
document (Allport, 1961, p. 410). Skeptics of personal
documents question the accuracy of the information
communicated whether inaccurate because of conscious lies or

96
unconscious self-deception. Allport countered this
objection:
A point made by nearly all writers is that, in
order to be useful, personal documents need not be
taken at their face value. Even the production of
a paranoiac, not one word of which may be believed,
can reveal much concerning the writer. Prejudices,
self-deceptions, wholesome and unwholesome
outlooks, ego ideals, mannerisms, complexes,
aspirations, errors of insight, and the reasons
for persistent failure--all these and many other
characteristics can glimmer or glare through a
document whose accuracy in reporting and self¬
appraisal is not to be trusted. It is often more
important to study the beliefs that men betray than
those that they parade. (Allport, 1947, p. 30-31)
Skeptics of personal documents also claim the unconscious of
the writer is not shared; only what the writer knows
consciously is communicated in the correspondence. Allport
used an example of the analysis of the writings of an author
based on imagination alone to dispute this claim:
When a writer invents a story and with intention
sets it down as a creation of his imagination, he
is not fully aware of the fact that he is
constrained by his own nature to tell in a
characteristic style which, even if he tries, he
can vary only within narrow limits. He expresses
his thoughts crisply, metaphorically, impetuously,
laboriously, whimsically, patiently, simply,
elaborately, according to his nature. What is
more, his personal experiences, complexes,
prejudices, affect the content of his writings in
ways more or less unknown to him. He not only
expresses his traits (adverbially) but likewise
projects them (substantively) into his productions.
The total involuntary (expressive and projective)
portion of his production constitutes an
unintentional personal document. (Allport, 1947, p.
112)
Self-Deception and accuracy are not the only problems
which exist for the interpreter of the personal document.

97
Accuracy of the reminiscences and memory can alter the
document, as well as the possibility of emotional distortion
due to painful memories. It is also possible that bitter or
shameful events will be completely ignored. A certain loss
of perspective regarding recent events can also occur
(Allport, 1961, p. 403-404). In addition, Allport points
out that personal documents usually dwell on the conflicts
which occur in an individual's life. He notes that happy
and peaceful times are usually passed over lightly or in
silence:
Writers seem driven to elaborate on the conditions
that have wrecked their hopes and deprived them of
satisfactions. Of lasting happiness, conditions of
good health, high morale, and pleasant routine,
they have little to say. Personality, looked at
longitudinally does seem to be a succession of
organization--disorganization--reorganization. But
in interpreting this cycle, the psychologist
should not overlook the silent process of
stabilization, nor the immunities and the
balancing factors about which the writer may have
little or nothing to report. Imbalance may seem to
prevail in an autobiography whereas balance may be
the true mark of the life as a whole. (Allport,
1947, p. 78)
Letters and diaries. Two of the most important types
of first-person personal documentation are the diary and
letters. Diaries and letters often provide reactions to
recent or immediate events, and reveal the changing emotions
as well as the thought processes of the author of the
document. In general, the type of document which reveals
the experiences of frustration, bewilderment, desire,
suffering, and hope are often the most insightful because

98
they do not allow the author to impose a simplification of
life (Allport, 1947, p. 77 and 9G).
Allport discusses the advantages and disadvantages of
using the diary for analysis of the personality:
Long term diaries provide an excellent source for
the study of continuities and shifts in personal
development. Diaries usually escape the fallacy of
attributing to earlier years thoughts, feelings,
and interpretations appropriate only to the moment
of writing. There are fewer errors of memory.
There is less deliberate structuring of the record.
. . . It is important, however, to note that
diaries deal chiefly with conflicts. That which
does not pose a problem receives little mention.
In health a person does not write about his body;
if happy with his family he takes the felicity for
granted and seldom refers to it. For this reason a
diary needs supplementary materials to place the
entries in true perspective. (Allport, 1961, p.
405)
Other problems inherent in diary research include missing
entries (sometimes for long periods of time) and an
assumption of understanding: If the author of the diary
intends to keep the diary confidential, full descriptions of
people, situations, and places might be lacking (Allport,
1961, p. 405).
Letters, like diaries, are intimate communications and
provide many of the same advantages as diaries in regards to
personal document analysis. There are problems exclusive to
the study of letters, the major hindrance of which is
finding a series of letters. The original recipient of the
letters is likely to dispose of them as they are received
and read, or protect them from outsiders (Allport, 1965, p.
vii). Even when a series of letters can be procured,

99
finding letters in which se 1f-reve 1 ation is spontaneous and
continued and not varied for the benefit of different
recipients, is difficult (Allport, 1961, p. 406).
Validity and accuracy. Allport realized that although
many psychologists used personal documents, to some degree
or another, the question of validity still existed. Not
only are the personal documents themselves subjective in
nature, but the psychologists' very conclusions are based,
in part, on a personal and subjective point of view:
If two investigators each write a case study of a
single person they are likely to agree on what has
happened in the life far better than on why it
happened. To interpret the causal relationships is
difficult, and constitutes the problem of
conceptualization. A writer wishes to make
"theoretical sense" of the life he is describing.
He implicitly conceptualizes whenever he selects
material for inclusion, and he does so by
classifying or grouping his statements. He then
explicitly conceptualizes by stating relationships
among acts ("So and so has such interests, habits,
attitudes, traits"). He does so also when he
infers causal relations among environmental forces,
among the person's motives, defenses, early
experiences, and the like. Or he may
conceptualize deliberately in terms of his
favorite psychological theory (psychoanalysis,
need theory, learning theory). (Allport, 1961, p.
408)
Perhaps the greatest problem with validity lies in the
unconscious methods employed by psychologists. Allport
found few psychologists who gave any thought to the methods
they employed in their analysis (Allport, 1947, p. xv).
Usually the personal whims of the investigator seem
to determine judgments of authenticity. If he is a
Freudian he is likely to distrust statements of
manifest motives; if a behaviorist, he discounts
not only statements of motives, but likewise of

100
feeling, thought, and volition. Subjective
statements that remind the investigator of his own
experience are likely to be credited; if they seem
odd and unfamiliar, to be suspected. (Allport,
1947, p. 31)
Allport began studying the various techniques
available to the psychologist for understanding the
personality of the individual based on personal documents.
He found subjective reasoning can be validated. For
example, Allport quoted a study by Frenke1-Brunswik which
suggested that the presence of superlative and absolute
statements, as well as excessive repetition, may reveal a
certain amount of self-deception on the part of the writer.
While tentative statements are more often associated with
actual behavior (Allport, 1947, p. 31). A psychologist can
also correlate how frequently any two classes of ideas are
mentioned in the same context, indicating the degree to
which the ideas are related in the writer's mind. Along the
same lines, a psychologist can determine the frequency with
which certain ideas and themes occur and formulate a basis
for determining the central traits of the document's author
(Allport, 1961, p. 407). The style of expression, the forms
of speech, the demonstrated level of education, fantasies,
dreams, and subtelties of experience can also be used by the
investigator as a means of analysis (Allport, 1945, p. 64).
Although there is no perfect way of telling whether an
interpretation or conceptualization is completely accurate,

101
Allport does discuss the principal tests available to assess
the validity of an interpretation:
1. Feelings of subjective certainty. The
illuminative power of an interpretation for the
investigator who propounds (or accepts) it is by no
means an adequate proof of its validity. Yet
subjective certainty of this sort is perhaps the
test we most commonly employ, and it is not
altogether worthless.
2. Conformity with known facts. Obviously the
interpretation we offer must be relevant to the
facts of the case, and no important facts should
remain unaccounted for in our theorizing about the
life.
3. Mental experimentation. We try to imagine the
life without the presence of some crucial factor,
or without the formative process that we think is
important. If the "experiment" succeeds, then the
factor or our hypothesis is wrong. A conceptuali¬
zation can be right only if we cannot even imagine
the life being what it is without this crucial
interpretation.
4. Predicative Power. If an interpretation
enables us to make successful predictions about
the life, then it is presumably valid; but we must
beware lest we assume that our theory was
essential for the correct prediction. (The
ancient Greeks predicted that the sun would rise
tomorrow because Apollo never failed to drive his
chariot.)
5. Social Agreement. If many people, especially
experts, accept an explanation, there is
presumption of its validity. Yet, here are
pitfalls, since there are fashions in concepts, and
prestige-suggestion may play a part. The criterion
is better if investigators have come independently
to the same conclusion.
An extension of this test is to submit the
conceptualization to the subject himself. If he
(who knows the "inside half") accepts it, the
chance of its being a correct explanation is
enhanced.
6. Internal consistency. Parts of an
interpretation can be made to confront one
another. Logical contradictions raise the
suspicion of invalidity. Granted that lives are
not wholly consistent, yet interpretations should
certainly not be more complex than the life itself.
The closer one comes to the "radix" of a life the

102
more valid the interpretation will be. (Allport,
1961, p. 409-410)
An Example
Letters from Jenny is a fascinating study of a series
of letters written by Jenny Grove Masterson over a period of
eleven and a half years. The letters are written with a
clear and forceful expression of Jenny's perceptions and
feelings; consequently, through their analysis and study,
Allport demonstrates that personality traits can be
identified and analyzed through the study of letters.
What is the structural composition of her
personality?
To answer this question with scientific
precision is difficult--at the present time
impossible. And yet no approach to personality
analysis is more direct, more common-sensical than
this. Almost always we think about, and talk
about, people in terms of their traits, which are
nothing other than clusters of related habits.
(Ordinarily we use the term habit to designate a
limited and specific formation, such as Jenny's
habit of taking long walks, or quoting poetry, or
making trips to the sea. A trait is a family of
habits or a widely generalized habit-system,
illustrated by Jenny's solitariness, aestheticism,
love of nature.) (Allport, 1965, p. 193)
Thirty-six people characterized Jenny in terms of her
traits which resulted in a total of 198 trait names
(Allport, 1965, p. 193). Allport categorized the trait
names in regards to frequency of occurrence, and called
these her central traits. Under each central trait, he
organized the equivalent or related terms employed by the
thirty-six judges. The following chart is an example of the
categorization of the results:

103
1. Quar re1some-Susoicious
distrustful
paranoid
rebel 1ious
pre judiced
belli cose
opinionat ed
tact 1 ess
misogynous
etc.
2 . Self-Centered
selfish
jealous
possess ive
egocentric
proud
snobbish
martyr complex
self-pitying
over sacrificial
etc.
3. Independent-Autonomous
self-reliant
scrupulous
hardworking
f rugal
courageous
reclusive
calculating
solitary
etc.
4. Dramatic-Intense
emotional
rigid
serious
t emper ament a 1
vigorous
violent
voluble
self-dramatizing
etc.
5. Aesthetic-Artistic
intuitive
fastidious
literary
cultured
appreciative
expressive
poetic
lover of nature
etc.
6. Aggressive
ascendant
indomitable
domineering
self-assertive
autocratic
forceful
recalcit rant
etc.
7. Cvnical-Morbid
pessimistic
sarcastic
disill usioned
humor less
despondent
f rus t rat ed
insecure
hypochondri acal
fixation on death
etc.
8. Sentimental
retrospective
1 oya 1
af f ec tionat e
dweller in the past
mat ernal
etc.
Unclassified (13
terms out of
198)
intel1igent
witty
predict ab1e
whims ica1
incestuous
etc.
etc .
(A11 por t,
1965,
193-194)

104
The results of this particular study showed
similar perceptions on the parts of the individual
judges in terms of Jenny's major personality traits.
Although there was a disagreement on the exact trait
name chosen to represent the trait, the similarities in
meanings were apparent. The judges felt the traits
described were not necessarily independent of one
another but seemed to be linked together (in keeping
with Allport's theory). A single cardinal trait was
not identified, although five major reoccurring themes
were named by the judges. Although direct
contradictions (such as witty-humorless) were found in
the trait names, Allport accepted this contradiction as
indications that every human being harbors opposites
(Allport, 1965, p. 195).
The results of the study of Jenny's letters can be
compared to Allport's principal tests for validating
personal document interpretation. The trait names were
based on the subjective and intuitive decisions of the
judges, and can be validated through "feelings of
subjective certainty" (Allport, 1965, p. 197). The
similar perception of the judges validates the findings
through "social agreement." In keeping with the
"predictive power" of validation, Allport cites Jenny's
behavior as predictable to the reader of her letters:
After reading the first few letters we find
ourselves forecasting what will happen next. We

105
predict that her friendship with Mrs. Graham will
turn to sawdust, and so it does; "The more I know
of Mrs. Graham the less I like her. . ." At first
Jenny likes Vivian Void, but we know she will soon
become just another "chip." The Home first appears
bright to her; soon it becomes the "Prison" Her
journeys to other cities start with hope but end in
despair. The predictability of Jenny, as with any
mortal, is the strongest argument for insisting
that personality is a dependable hierarchy of
sentiments and dispositions, possessed of enduring
structure. (Allport, 1965, p. 196).
Two later studies of Jenny's letters were performed in
order to analyze the actual content of the letters, as
opposed to the intuitive interpretation of them. Both
studies, one conducted manually while the other was
computerized, analyzed the actual semantics, organization,
and feelings found in the letter. These studies, validated
through "conformity with known facts" and "internal
consistency," produced prominent traits of Jenny's
personality. These traits were similar to the name traits
given through the intuitive reaction by the thirty-six
judges in the original study (Allport, 1965, p. 201). An
intuitive impression of a change of personality toward the
end of Jenny's life was also confirmed by the study
(Allport, 1965, p. 204).
Allport also used Jenny's letters to analyze her in
terms of maturity (or normality). He used the previously
discussed criteria for maturity (extension of the sense of
self; warm relating of self to others; emotional security;
realistic perception, skills, and assignments; self¬
objectification: insight and humor; a unifying philosophy of

106
life) and examples from her own letters to substantiate his
analysis.
Summary
Gordon W. Allport devoted his life to the development
of a personality theory which would recognize the uniqueness
and individuality of the mature adult. His theories
emphasize the complexity of the human nature and its ability
to change and grow with experience. He also recognized the
contributions of other psychological theories, and believed
each theory made its own contribution to understanding the
human personality:
Fortunately, creative controversy is possible in
our free society. . . . They [psychological
theorists] cannot all be correct in all
particulars, but it is essential that they have
freedom to work in their own ways.
Our censure should be reserved for those who
would close all doors but one. The surest way to
lose truth is to pretend that one already wholly
possesses it. For narrow systems, dogmatically
held, tend to trivialize the mentality of the
investigator and his students. (Allport, 1955, p.
17)

CHAPTER IV
A COMPARISON OF ALLPORT’S THEORIES TO
CURRENTLY TAUGHT ACTING THEORIES
In this chapter, Allport's theories are compared to
acting theories currently taught in the United States. This
comparison establishes the similarities between Allport's
psychological theories and generally accepted acting
theories, thereby, validating the use of Allport's theories
in regards to character analysis. It will also be
demonstrated that Allport's theories offer further insight
and clarification into often intangible artistic ideas, as
well as clear terminology for many of the basic and accepted
ideas of acting. These general similarities of theories
help to demonstrate the the fields of theatre and psychology
are complementary to each other.
Theatre Terminology Defined
Actor
"An Actor is someone who remembers," according to
Charles Marowitz. This somewhat simplified version of an
actor is perhaps the quintessential definition for the
person who pursues the craft of performing. He continues:
On the simplest level, someone who remembers his
lines, his cues, his moves, his notes, to do up his
fly-buttons, to tie his shoelaces, to carry his
props, to enter, to exit. Simple things, complex
things. An actor is someone who remembers.
107

108
On another level, an actor is someone who
remembers what it felt like to be spurned, to be
proud, to be angry, to be tender--all the
manifestations of emotion he experienced as a
child, as an adolescent, in early manhood and
maturity. An actor remembers the "feel" of all the
feelings he ever felt or ever sensed in others. He
remembers what happened to other people through
all periods of recorded time--through what he has
read and been taught. In tracing the lineaments of
his own sensibility, he has the key to under¬
standing everyone else.
On a deeper level, an actor is someone who
remembers the primitive primordial impulses that
inhabited his body before he was "civilized" and
"educated".[sic] He remembers what it feels like
to experience intense hunger and profound thirst,
irrational loathing and sublime contentment. He
recalls the earliest sensations of light and heat,
the invasion of infernal forces and the coming of
celestial light. He remembers the anguish of
disapproval and the comforting security of
guardians.
He remembers vividly (not necessarily [sic]
articulately) what it feels like to be isolated, to
be partnered, to be set adrift, to be reclaimed.
He remembers that miasmic stretch of time before
becoming aware of the details of his own identity.
He remembers the world before it became his world
and himself before he became himself.
To be without memory and to be an actor is
inconceivable. An actor is someone who remembers.
(Marowitz, p. 26-27)
Character
A character, a fictitious creation of the author,
exists within the world of the play. Even when based on an
individual who is living or lived at one time, the
character is still fictitious.
A character does not exist[,] except in a
superficial, external way, through what he says he
is or through what others say about him, although
these clues help us to see him more clearly; he
exists in what his actions, particularly those
under pressing circumstances, tell us he is.
Consequently character is wrapped up in action, and
it is for this reason that we can say a character,

109
when we analyze his connection with a play, is a
summary statement. (Hodge, p. 41)
Choice
A choice is an artistic decision made in regards to
some aspect of the play. Artists strive not to think of
choices in terms of right or wrong; rather in terms of a
strong choice, or weak choice, or better choice. Choices
determine an artist's destiny:
Choices. . . arrive on the actor's doorstep daily;
he can choose to work or to laze, to repeat or to
create, to fight or to yield, to accept or to
reject, and though most of those choices are
conditioned by a combination of economic and ego
considerations, the way they are acted upon
determines the measure of the man and his potential
growth as an artist. (Marowitz, p. 52)
Dramatic Action
The dramatic action is the emotional conflict which
drives the play forward; it is the "clash of forces in a
play--the continuous conflict between characters" (Hodge, p.
32). The plot of a play provides the circumstances in which
the dramatic action grows and develops. Often the plot is
more readily accessible to the reader than is the dramatic
action, but it is the dramatic action which is of importance
to the actor, director, and designer:
DRAMATIC ACTION is THAT WHICH ACTORS ACT. It is
the WHAT and WHY. It is the SUBTEXT. It is WHAT
HAPPENS in the play. It is the SLAPPING of the
face, the CLOSING of a shutter, the SPILLING of
milk. DRAMATIC ACTION IS CONFLICT, DECISION AND
CHANGE. (Brandt, p. 1)

110
Personality Defined
Personality has been defined by Allport as "the dynamic
organization within the individual of those psychophysical
systems that determine his characteristic behavior and
thought" (Allport, 1961, p. 28). This definition provides
the actor with several exciting concepts which reinforce the
actor's creative process. The first concept is drawn from
Allport's definition as a whole: the individual is unique.
"Every person deviates in thousands of ways from the
hypothetical average man" (Allport, 1961, p. 7). Just as
the idea of uniqueness is the foundation of the theories of
Gordon Allport, the concept of uniqueness is of utmost
importance in the theatre. Carole Brandt, chair of Penn
State's Department of Theatre Arts, and president of the
American College Theatre Festival, explains:
In theatre each production of a given
playscript is an interpretation of that text by
that director working with those actors under
given conditions in that theatre for that
audience at that particular time. Not only is
each production of a playscript an
interpretation of that play, but each
performance of that interpretation is
potentially different from all other
performances. ... It is not unusual to
discuss a play in terms of the night Carol
Channing fell off the runway into the orchestra
pit, or, in another production of the same
play, the night Pearl Bailey’s zipper broke
during the title number. Such occurrences make
individual performances distinctive BUT pauses
held the "right" number of seconds or comic
nuances uniquely punctuating a line revealing
the mutability of dramatic performance are the
life force of the theatre. (Brandt, p. 2)

Ill
In addition, each actor approaches a role knowing the
contribution to be made will be different from the
contribution made to the role by another actor. Actors
look for the characters which are distinct and complex in
hopes that when their own individual interpretation is added
to the role, an interpretation that is fresh, true, and
unique will result. In doing so, each actor believes that
art will have been created.
The great actors--MarIon Brando, Laurence
01ivier--all strive to create a unique life
with each character they play--unique
physically, vocally, and behaviora 11y.
(Mekler, p. 58)
Allport's theories of personality acknowledge the existence
of the unique individual, thereby, validating the artists'
search for the unique.
Allport's definition of personality offers a second
important concept to the theatre: change. According to
Allport, a personality is neither fixed nor stagnant; it is
dynamic. The idea of growth and change is essential in the
creation of a theatre which is alive and exciting--both in a
general and a specific sense. Peter Brook calls a theatre
in which change does not occur "deadly," and Michael Chekhov
warns the actor to "reject the dogmatic and misleading
notion" that the human personality never changes, due to its
devastating effect upon the character (Chekhov, p 4). The
lack of change can be purposefully used by a playwright, but
this is usually a tool used to comment on the importance of

112
change, Waiting for Godot, for example. The change which is
so essential to theatre must be found even in the dramatic
action of a play. Brandt discusses the importance of change
in this capacity:
Dramatic action is CHANGE. CHANGE, the verb,
means to give and receive reciprocally. It
also means to PROGRESS--to move from A to B;
CHANGE, the noun, denotes an ACTION--a making
or becoming distinctly different and implies
either a radical transmutation of character or
replacement with something else. The former
defines STRUCTURE; the latter outlines
CONTENT. CHANGE is INEXTRICABLE and
INSEPARABLE from, IMPLICIT in, INTRINSIC to,
TIME; it both goes and is the bump in the
night. (Brandt, p. 15)
From the dramatic action of the play, the psychological
nature of the character is revealed, and from the
psychological nature of the character, the dramatic action
of the play is revealed. Therefore, the element of change
is no less significant to the development of the individual
characters of the play than it is to the dramatic action of
the play as a whole. Robert Benedetti ties together the
affect the dramatic action and the development of characters
have on each other:
Just as your personality in real life is
continually changing, many dramatic characters
are shown undergoing a similar process. . .
When a significant change in the nature of a
dramatic character is demanded, however, it is
often a direct expression of a theme of the
play, and the dramatic purpose of many
characters is to undergo just such a change.
In these cases, the main action should be
defined in terms of the change, and all minor
activities defined in terms of their
contribution to the change. (Benedetti, p. 155)

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Change for the sake of change is neither the goal of
the theatre artist nor a part of Allport's definition of
personality. According to Allport's definition of "dynamic
organization," the human personality is constantly changing
in an organized, rather than a haphazard manner (Allport,
1937, p. 48). Organized change can also be found in almost
all of the different aspects of theatre.
There is an organization to the change which occurs in
both the dramatic action of the play and the characters
found within the play. This organization is the play
structure itself. It is from the dramatic action of the
play that the psychological nature of the character is
revealed, and from the psychological nature of the
character that the dramatic action of the play is revealed.
There is an organization and a structure in the form of the
play itself which guides the changes which occur in the
characters and the dramatic action. This entire premise
does not take into consideration the Theatre of the Absurd
whose goal was to challenge the organization and structure
of change, however. Francis Hodge discusses the
importance of organized change in regards to the revealing
of the character and character traits throughout the events
of the play. An audience does not know all of the aspects
of any individual character, but waits for the character's
traits to be revealed:
Thus, the actual progression for the audience,
what interests each spectator in the play, is

114
the progressive unfolding of character traits
that finally accumulate with clarity and force
at the major climax, when all the previous
character revelations come together in the
major action and the discovery of the
character. What will he be like when he stands
fully revealed, when we can see what really
makes him work? is the audience's
anticipation. (Hodge, p. 42)
It is the progressive unfolding, often called
"discoveries" which holds the audience's attention. The
audience learns about the character as aspects of the
personality are revealed. As Hodge continues his
discussion of progressive unfolding, he seems at first to
contradict Allport's theory of "dynamic organization" and
change:
Characters do not change; they unfold. The
stuff a character is made of has always been
lying dormant there, and only under the impact
of conflict--of the forcing of both himself and
of others--will the buried qualities come to
the surface and stand revealed. (Hodge, p. 42)
In actuality, however, Allport and Hodge are expressing
similar concepts. It is a debate of semantics. Allport
said the personality can change in an organized fashion.
This change does not occur out of a vacuum, instead it
progresses from events, habits, and traits which already
exist in an individual's life. Hodge echoes this idea of
organized change with his contention that the
characteristics of the character already exist within the
character but as of yet have not been revealed. Hodge
calls the dynamic organization of a character "the unfolding
of the character," while Allport calls it "change."

115
Most plays reveal a major change in at least one
character when comparing the personality of the character
at the beginning of the play to the character's personality
at the play's end. The climax of the play serves as the
catalyst for this change in personality. Larry moves from
hope to hopelessness in The Iceman Cometh: Biff moves from
confusion to clarity in Death of a Salesman: Max moves from
taker to giver in Bent. Brandt uses Allport's own
terminology in her discussion of the identification of this
organized change which occurs inside a character: "The
play's dramatic action is centered on WHOSE PLAY it is--
which character CHANGES most significantly" (Brandt, p. 21).
The importance of the actor's ability to recognize the
organized and logical change of a character can be
demonstrated by Stanislavski's teachings. He encouraged his
students to remain in "close contact with logic and
coherence" in order to hold "unsubstantial and slippery
dreams close to steady, solid facts." He discouraged his
students from making choices which would not be a logical
extension of the given circumstances:
"My imagination has dried up," said I.
"There is nothing surprising in that," said he.
"Your plot was not logical. It would be most
difficult to arrive at a logical conclusion to
commit suicide because you were considering a
change in your acting. It was only reasonable
that your imagination should balk at being
asked to work from a doubtful premise to a
stupid conclusion." (Stanislavski, 1936, p.
59)

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The third important concept from Allport's definition
acknowledges that the human nature is supported by both the
physical and the psychological: psychophysical. Allport
recognized the human personality to be neither exclusively
physical or mental. This merging of the physical and
psychological was an important concept in the teachings of
Stanislavski: "The fundamental aim of our art is the
creation of this inner life of a human spirit, and its
expression in an artistic form" (Stanislavski, 1936, p. 14).
For an actor, the artistic form of expression lies in the
physical realm. Actors cannot be content to think about
characters, to analyze situations, to argue concepts.
Actors must physically perform their art.
The concept of psychophysical is also at the heart of
the teachings of Michael Chekhov, who developed the
"psychological gesture." Chekhov developed the concept of
psychological gesture based on the "fact that the human body
and psychology influence each other and are in constant
interplay" (Chekhov, p. 1). The concept of psychological
gesture, which seems to be the culmination of Allport's term
psychophysical, will be discussed in the section on coping
and expressive behavior.
Robert Benedetti discusses the importance of
psychophysical wholeness for the actor in his essay on the
basic acting skills which should be taught as a part of any
ideal program. Benedetti believes there are three aspects

117
to acting: analytical, psychophysical and transformational
skills. Each of the three skills are supported by different
modes of thought, and consequently require different
teaching methods. Psychophysical skills involve right
hemisphere thinking skills; such as spatial, intuitive,
emotional, and musical functions. Consequently, Benedetti
feels that psychophysical development is best taught by:
regular, spaced, student-specific work: it
often involves uni earning (what Grotowski
called "the eradication of blocks") and the
rediscovery of organismic wholeness and
responsiveness (what Alexander called "the
wisdom of the body"). (Hobgood, p. 88-89)
A final Allport concept which is important to the
theatre relies on the remainder of Allport's definition of
personality: "determine his characteristic behavior and
thought" (Allport, 1955, p. 17). Allport's explanation of
"behavior and thought" indicates that a person's main
activity is to adjust to the environment. This includes
striving to master the environment as well as reflecting
upon the environment. The personality IS; it DOES. The
personality is not passively waiting to be acted upon; it is
actively interacting within the environment in which it
finds itself.
This is the classical Stanislavsky dictum about
the urge to action; the need to discover the
mainspring of action in a character's behavior
as made apparent by the text. ... It is the
quintessential impulse behind all acting: the
will to do, the drive to want, the urge to act.
(Marowitz, p. 13)

118
The urge to act upon the environment pulls the actor and
character alike from a passive role and places both into an
active role. The personality of a character is revealed
through the actions demonstrated in regards to the effort,
or lack thereof, involved with trying to alter the
environment. This urge to act gives a "sense of immediacy"
to a play, a scene, a moment (Mekler, p. 252). This sense
of immediacy keeps the world of the play alive, because it
will be filled with discoveries and surprises for both the
actor and the audience. Allport reminds the actor, "That
which drives, drives now" (Allport, 1947, p. 80).
Traits
In Allport's summary of his own definition of person¬
ality he states, "the person has an internal structure and
range of characteristics (variable, to be sure, but
ascertainable)" (Allport, 1961, p. 351). He developed a
means to study the internal structure and the variable range
of characteristics of the individual personality: traits.
Surmising the traits of a character is a fundamental
approach to character analysis: What does the author say
about the character? What does the character say about
himself? What do the other characters say about the
character? (Kahan, p. 123 and McGaw, p. 93). The answers to
these questions result in a compilation of limited character
traits which the actor uses as a foundation to find insight
into the character. Allport's study of traits substantiate

119
the trait approach to character analysis, and simultaneously
guides the process of analysis far beyond these three basic
ques tions.
Idioerraohic and Nomothetic
Allport recognized the human personality could be
studied for its similarities with other personalities or for
its differences. He also understood these distinctly
separate results would alter the means by which the study
would be approached. Characters, too, can be analyzed and
performed in such a way as to emphasize their similarities
or to emphasize their individuality. The approach to the
character analysis is altered by the desired results.
Some characters are created to be unique with a
specific set of individualized traits and characteristics.
The characters in Eugene O'Neill’s autobiographical
description of his family in Long Day's Journe.v into Night.
Tennessee Williams' Laura in Glass Menagerie, or Bernard
Shaw's Joan from Saint Joan would be typical of these types
of characters. These characters with unique and
individualized personality traits would be identified as
idiographic (Allport's word for individualized traits). The
analysis of these characters should result in individualized
choices made to represent the uniqueness of the character.
Other types of characters, such as the workers in
Bertol Brecht's Joan of the Stockyards, the presidents,
prospectors, and press agents in Jean Giraudoux's The

120
Madwoman of Chai 1 lot. or the chorus of an early Greek
tragedy for example, are representative of a group as a
whole. Hodge recognizes the collective characters who have
only collective traits: "We know nothing about the
individuals who compose the group because we see only a
group mind and a group feeling" (Hodge, p. 43). These
characters are usually approached to emphasize their unity
and similarities. (This statement does not take into
account the unique interpretations that can emerge from a
particular artistic concept). These types of characters
would demonstrate what Allport called nomothetic or common
traits.
One of the first decisions an actor must make is into
which category does the character to be analyzed fall?
Should the uniqueness of the character be emphasized as with
idiographic traits, or should the similarities between
characters be emphasized as with nomothetic traits. The
answers to these questions alters the approach an actor
would make to the analysis, development, and execution of a
character.
Trait Characteristics
The elusive quality of the theatre is both frustrating
and intriguing for those who work within its world. The
theatre artist's interpretation of a work is dependent on
elements which are both fleeting and intangible:
creativity, intuition, emotion, magic. Allport's approach

121
to traits emphasizes the tangibility of human
characteristics. Traits are real and can be identified by
the actor and later translated into behavior for the
character. Allport's theories help the actor identify in
concrete terms the keys to the personality of a character.
Allport's definition of personality indicates the human
behavior is the physica1 ization of the individual
personality. This behavior can be discussed and analyzed in
terms of traits. Allport's very definition of traits, a
predisposition to respond in the same or similar manner, to
different kinds of stimuli, demonstrates his belief that
traits cause behavior. This definition leads the actor to
the script and the dramatic action of the play in order to
identify the traits of the character. It is no longer
sufficient to rely on what the author says about the
character, or others say, or even what the character says in
order to establish character traits. Instead, the
identification of traits must be based on the behavior and
responses of the character as revealed through the dramatic
action:
A play is made up of discoveries and surprises.
Some are minor; a few are major; and one is
exceptional. They are the climaxes. As a
character meets each of these moments in a
play, something in him comes forward to meet
the circumstance—a character trait. (Hodge, p
42)
It is actually the behavior of the character as found in the

122
script which leads the actor to the identification of
traits. Traits cause behavior, and behavior reveals traits.
He [a playwright] best achieves the textual
virtue of providing insight into character by
letting the traits of the character occur in
the action, thus permitting character and plot
to fuse properly. (Smiley, p. 90)
Once the traits of a character have been identified,
through the action or given circumstances of the script, a
certain ordering of the traits should occur to clarify which
traits are stronger for that particular character. All
aspects of the character cannot be revealed, or played, at
one time. Smiley and Hodge both remind their students that
characters may be complex in nature, but they must be
presented with clarity in order to avoid confusion on the
part of the audience, actor, or director (Hodge, p. 42 and
Smiley, p. 89). Consequently, traits must be ordered:
with such clarity and emphasis (which also
includes de-emphasis) that an audience can
readily assimilate the main points, with the
secondary points relegated to their proper
places. (Hodge, p. 42)
Allport's theories on traits can help prevent the confusion
of which Smiley and Hodge spoke by aiding in the ordering of
traits in terms of importance and influence. According to
Allport's theories, each character should have one or two
cardinal traits (driving forces), five to ten central traits
(descriptive characteristics that are consistent), and an
infinite number of secondary traits (which are less apparent
and less consistent). The actor must remember, however,

123
that these traits are derived from the script and the inner
and outer actions of the character. Traits which do not
affect the action of the play are irrelevant (Smiley, p.
90) .
This identification and ordering of character traits is
similar to the character analysis taught by Alice Spivak, a
professional acting coach in New York City. The study of
character traits is the basis of her character analysis
instruction. Spivak has her students write ten to twenty-
five traits which would sum up the character (Mekler, p.
183). From these twenty five traits, her students identify
two or three life drives or character objectives. These
character objectives make up the spine of the character
(Mekler, p. 183)
Smiley orders character traits by identifying six
different kinds of traits: biological, physical,
dispositional motivational deliberative, and decisive
(Smiley, p. 84). Biological traits distinguish between
animal and human, male and female; whereas, physical traits
identify age, size, weight, coloring, physical state, etc.
(Smiley, p. 84). Dispositional traits identify the single
prevailing mood of the character derived from the
character's attitudes, while motivational traits identify a
myriad of traits based on the character's desires and
actions (Smiley, p. 85). Deliberative traits reflect the
character's quality and quantity of thought, and decisive

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traits reflect the character's ability to make a decision
which will in turn create action (Smiley, p. 86-88).
Although this system of ordering is different in structure
from Allport's system, it does reflect many of the same
components of Allport's general theories although they are
organized differently.
Similar to Allport's Cardinal Trait is Stanislavski's
concept of the driving force which exists within a
character: a "ruling idea” or "super-objective."
Stanislavski considered the concept of super-objective to be
one of the most important aspects of his acting theories:
We use the word super-objective to characterize
the essential idea, the core, which provided
the impetus for the writing of a play. ... In
a play the whole stream of individual minor
objectives, all the imaginative thoughts,
feelings and actions of an actor should
converge to carry out this super-objective
. . . . Also this impetus toward the super¬
objective must be continuous throughout the
whole play.
You cannot reach the super-objective by
means of your . . . mind. The super-objective
requires complete surrender, passionate desire,
unequivocal action. (Stanislavski, 1963, p.
138)
Both Stanislavski and Allport agree that there is a
drive in character and individual alike which colors wants,
desires, and decisions. So strong is this drive (cardinal
trait or super-objective) that it is identifiable to others.
An actor can determine, based on the action and behavior of
the character, the driving force of the character just as

125
the driving force of an individual can be identified in life
by the actions of the individual.
Stanislavski felt the use of the super-objective or
ruling idea led to the "through-action" of the character.
He noted that this through line "flows from the past,
through the present, into the future" similar to Allport's
idea that motivation may begin in the past but takes the
individual through the present and helps to determine the
approach to the future (Stanislavski, 1936, p. 241). The
concept of through-action and contemporary motivation are
important, once again, in terms of active choices made by
the actor. It is almost impossible for an actor to
physicalize a choice whose basis is strictly the past.
When the choice can be attached to a through-1ine, however,
which connects the past, present, and future, a myriad of
active choices become available.
Trait Names.
Any director who has searched for the right word to
describe an action, strategy, objective, or character trait
to an actor understands flexibility in semantics is
essential to effective communication. The word "motherly"
might conjure feelings of warmth, safety, and love for one
actor, while cold, strict, and angry feelings are conjured
for another by the same word. Allport's approach to
identification of trait names takes into account this
phenomenon. Terms are subjective in nature, and Allport

126
realized that one trait name would not necessarily mean the
same to different people (or different interpreters).
Therefore he promoted flexibility assigning traits names .
Allport's discussion of habits and attitudes reveals
the same flexibility even in regards to the actual
distinction of categorizing traits, habits, and attitudes.
Allport's theories do not seek to inhibit or frustrate the
investigator (actor) with rigid boundaries. Instead,
Allport seeks to simplify in order to increase discussion
and understanding. Trait, habit, and attitude are given
distinct definitions to aid in their identification, but
Allport does acknowledge that it is often difficult
distinguish between them. Right or wrong seems less
important than understanding does.
Identification between the three can be effective in
the character analysis, however. By identifying habits and
attitudes demonstrated by the character, the actor can
distinguish between a trait which dominates a personality
and a habit whose influence would be considered relatively
weaker. Physical and emotional choices can then be made in
regards to the characters personality.
Motivation
"What is my motivation for that cross?" "What
motivates my character to ask that question?" "What is my
motivation to cry?" "I don't think my character would do
that." The understanding of the motivation of the actions

127
of a character are important for actor, director, designer
and playwright. Understanding what motivates a character
(or an individual) is one of the keys to understanding the
character (or individual) as a whole.
Requirements of Motivation
A major obstacle with character research is the
difficulty of translating the discoveries made through the
research to the stage. Not only is it frustrating for
actors to know more about the character than they are able
to portray, but the extra knowledge often stifles the
actor's ability to naturally portray the character in
general. This stifling results in comments that the actor
was "too analytical with the character." In reality, the
problem was not with the analysis or research, rather with
the choices that resulted from the research. Inactive
choices, choices which do not lead the character forward
into action, only hinder and frustrate the development of
the dramatic action of the play:
The text of the play takes care of the present
tense of the character's life and, to the
extent that it alludes to prior behavior and
anticipated wishes of the character, presents
indications of his past and future. It is the
task of the actor to fill in the present tense
with a vital, living past and a possible,
imagined future. (Jaeger, p. 365)
Allport's requirements for a theory of motivation
(contemporaneity, p1urasticism, cognitive process, and
concrete uniqueness) can help actors make active choices for
their characters.

128
Cont emporanei tv. Contemporaneity emphasizes the
importance of the present. An actor has only the time on
stage to demonstrate to the audience who the character is.
Decisions concerning the character's past can be very
important to the actor, but very difficult to put on stage.
Geoffrey, from The Lion in Winter, was in actuality a
bastard son. The script does not give the actor an
opportunity to work directly with this information;
consequently, it cannot be communicated directly to the
audience. The information can be translated into a
motivator for Geoffrey's present behavior, however. Feeling
like a bastard encourages Geoffrey's insecurity and treason.
Whereas an actor cannot play the character's past, the
past can be translated into a powerful stimulation for the
present behavior of the character. Contemporaneity
emphasizes the choices made in the present, thus lending
itself to the action of the present:
Motivation is always contemporary. The life of
modern Athens is continuous with the life of
the ancient city, but in no sense depends upon
it for its present "go." The life of a tree is
continuous with that of its seed, but the seed
no longer sustains and nourishes the full-grown
tree. Earlier purposes lead into later
purposes, but are abandoned in the latter's
favor. (Allport, 1961, p. 255)
Plurasticism. A plurastic theory acknowledges the
complexity of the individual. This guideline permits the
actor to acknowledge the complexities of a character and
even contradictions which work together and in opposition to

129
create a more "interesting" character. Theatre is based on
conflict, and often it is as much an interior conflict which
stimulates the action of the play as an exterior conflict.
Smiley uses multiplicity and complexity of motivational
traits as one of the indicators of character depth (Smiley,
p. 8G), and August Strindberg explains in his forward to
Miss Juliet
I congratulate myself on this multiplicity of
motives as being up-to-date, and if others have
done the same thing before me, then I
congratulate myself on not being alone in my
"paradoxes" ... I do not believe, there, in
simple stage characters; and the summary
judgement of authors-this man is stupid, that
one brutal, this jealous, that stingy, and so
forth-should be challenged by the Naturalists
who know the richness of the soul-complex and
realize that vice has a reverse side very much
like virtue. (Strindberg, p. 64-65)
Cognitive Process. The motivational requirement of
cognitive process is perhaps one of the strongest ideas
which complement the system of acting. Conscious choices
must be made by the actor in regards to the character, and
conscious choices are made by the characters in regards to
the world which surrounds them. Often actors try to ignore
the conscious choices made by their characters, when in
fact, the ability to think is the strength of the human
personality and the backbone of the play. Smiley argues
that a character's ability to think actually produces the
dramatic action of the play:
When a character recognizes, considers,
evaluates, or weighs alternatives, he thinks.
Thinking is an active process and produces

130
dramatic action in itself. While reflecting,
what a character does is to plan, to ponder, to
remember, to determine, to devise, to imagine,
to suspect, to meditate, to reason, and so on.
Deliberation at the highest level means careful
reasoning before forming an opinion or reaching
a decision. (Smiley, p. 87)
In fact, Smiley includes the importance of cognitive
process, which he terms volition, as one of the six
elements essential to the proper structure of a character.
The strength of a character's volition, will power to make
events happen, determines the character's ability to
consciously determine action (Smiley, p. 92).
The ability to think and determine action moves the
character forward. Cognitive process moves beyond the
present and takes into consideration the future. What is
the character trying to do? What does the character want
to accomplish for the future? Allport felt an individual
personality could best be judged by what the individual was
trying to accomplish for the future, and the means by which
the goal was attempted. Benedetti makes an interesting
correlation between motivation and future intent:
The word often translated as "motivation" in
Stanislavski's writing is more literally
translated as "aspiration." The difference is
precise: motivation is internal and in the
past, while aspiration is external and in the
future. One could say that motivation propels
aspiration. (Hobgood, p. 97)
Concrete Uniqueness. The final guideline for a theory
of motivation is concrete uniqueness. An acting weakness is
making choices which are not specific enough for the

131
character or for the moment which surrounds the character.
The more specific the choice, often the more powerful the
choice. The theory of concrete uniqueness demands that all
choices be specific in nature as well as unique to the
individualism of the character. Ernie Martin teaches his
students that specific choices concerning a character
objective, relationship, or circumstance leads to the
desired goal of spontaneity in acting (Mekler, p. 160).
Functional Autonomy
Allport's theory of Functional Autonomy strives to
meet all of the requirements of a motivational theory.
Functional Autonomy recognizes that motivation may begin
from a childhood (or previous) drive, but as the individual
matures, so does the motive. The result is a matured motive
which is grounded in the present, rather than the past. The
present motive should ideally function independently from
the past motive.
Functional Autonomy helps an actor determine the
maturity level of the character. Are the motivations of the
character still linked to the past? Henry's three sons
Geoffrey, Richard, and John originally engaged in warlike
action in order to gain the attention of their parents. As
they have grown into manhood, their motivation has remained
the same as it was in boyhood: to gain the attention of
their parents. Warlike action has grown into war, but the

132
motivating factor is still the same. The sons have not
matured.
Even when a motivation remains linked to the past, the
actor can still employ the requirements of a motivation
theory--contemporaneity, piurasticism, cognitive process,
and concrete uniqueness—to keep the actions and choices of
the character alive within the moment of the play. The
actor can use Allport's theories concerning motivation to
create and distinguish goals which will move the character
forward.
Maturitv
Allport discussed six aspects of a normal adult's
personality in regards to evaluating the maturity (or
normality) level of the individual. These six areas can
provide an organized means for evaluating the maturity (or
normality) level functioning within the personality of the
character. The actor should identify the character's
ability to involve self with others and outside activities;
to be intimate yet not possessive; to be accepting of self;
to perceive life realistically and make a work commitment;
to perceive self realistically and with a sense of humor; to
develop a life philosophy.
Checklists or guidelines against which to compare a
character is an important aspect in character and play
analysis. Smiley, Hodge, Brandt, and many other theatre
teachers use guidelines as a way to structure analysis.

133
Although no guideline which matches Allport's checklist for
an analysis of maturity could be found in the theatre texts
consulted, guidelines were found which reinforce the general
theories of Allport as important to the process of character
analysis. For example, Francis Hodge uses the following
guidelines in his section on character analysis:
Desire is a statement of what a character
wants most. It can possibly be a material
possession, but it is usually an intangible
one.
Will is a character's relative strength for
attaining his desires.
Moral Stance--the stance that will strongly
affect the attainment of his des ires--consists
of his values.
Decorum describes a character's physical
appearance--what he looks like, his manners,
and his poise.
Summary adjectives [s]ummarize all of the
categories above by the use of adjectives only.
Do not set down a character's dramatic actions
but only the traits of character they reveal.
Character-mood-intensity is the physical or
body state of the character--his ñervosity--at
the beginning of the play and at the beginning
of each group of associated units. . . his
heartbeat; his breathing; his state of
perspiration; his muscular tension or lack of
it; his stomach--queasy, jumpy, calm, etc.
(Hodge, p. 44)
Hodge's definitions of Desire and Will are similar to
the definitions given by Allport for cognitive process and
cardinal trait. The driving force, or what a character is
striving to achieve (Desire) correlates with the character's
cardinal trait (a trait so influential it touches every
aspect of the individual's life). The relative strength for
attaining one's future goals (Will) links directly to the
ability to think and make conscious decisions which will

134
result in goals for the future (cognitive process). Hodge's
Moral Stance is similar to Allport's discussion of values,
and Decorum and Character-Mood-Intensity rely on the
interpretation of coping and expressive behavior for a full
understanding. Finally, Hodge's Summary of Adjectives seeks
to determine and identify the traits of the character--the
very foundation of Allport's study of personality.
Values
Values are an important aspect of determining what
motivates a particular individual or character. By the
same token, the actor should identify the character's value
systems, and which values reinforce the character's dominant
drive or cardinal trait. The six values given by Allport--
theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and
religious--are very similar to the sweeping question Brandt
uses for character analysis: "How is the character
influenced/controlled/affected by the church/politics/
history/sexuality/society/fads/education/environment?"
(Brandt, p. 26).
Allport's list of values is also similar to Hodge's
analysis of the given circumstances of a play. He
discusses the given circumstances of the play in terms of
six areas: geographical location (actual physical location
of the play); date (year, season, time of day); economic
environment (class system, financial aspects); political
environment (specific relationships of the character to the

135
form a government under which they live); social environment
(mores and social institutions under which the characters
live); and religious environment (formal and informal
psychological controls) (Hodge, p. 22-23).
Hodge, Brandt, and Allport all recognize in their own
classifications that not all areas will be of equal
importance to all characters. Religious values might be
more important than political values, and vice versa.
Through Allport's studies, he projected that only one or
two of the values were dominant in any given individual's
life, although all of the values were present to some
degree. This structuring of importance is another aid for
the actor in creating and performing a character with
clarity.
Behavior
Allport's emphasis on the importance of behavior,
particularly his study of coping and expressive behavior,
parallels the importance of movement and behavior in terms
of character analysis and development:
Your participation in the basic physical traits
of the character is a powerful "trigger," which
can generate a deeper sense of involvement in
the thought and emotion of the character. Many
actors use a walk, a posture, or a style of
gesture as the starting point for their
creation. No amount of intellectual or
psychological analysis will replace the actual
experiencing of the character which can occur
when you begin to adopt his physical traits,
assuming that these traits are accurate
expressions of the other levels of
characterizations. (Benedetti, p. 148)

136
Most actor training programs have, within the past
twenty years, emphasized the training of non-verbal
communication. Training in mime, movement, and non-verbal
improvisational projects strive to develop the physical and
emotional communication process as well as free the actor's
creative intuition:
It is an accepted idea that speech is the
beginning, that it is, in fact, the everything
of acting, the only way to convey meaning,
emotion and character. This is to ignore
completely the richness of the body's physical
expression and the fact that this physical
expression can often convey much more than
speech. Movement—gesture—is an elementary,
direct means of expression, our immediate
reactions are almost always physical. (Saint-
Deni s, p. 146)
Allport's studies of empathy (the process of motor
mimicry) emphasize the strong bond between emotions and
action. He found that the ability to imitate the physical
movements of another individual often leads to an
understanding of the emotions of that individual. The
physical as a means to the emotional is an important tool
for the actor, which Allport no doubt recognized in his
projection that mime artists and actors are usually good
judges of characters because of their active imitation of
the physicality of others.
Stanislavski recognized the importance of the physical
as a means to tapping into the emotional realm. His acting
philosophy was based on the premise that the character and
actor alike possess two natures: physical and spiritual.

137
As a result, Stanislavski taught his students that the two
natures were so intertwined that one could be stimulated by
the other. For example, the spirit (emotion) of the
character can be evoked into a genuine response through the
actor's manipulation of the physical realm. This coaxing of
the emotions can be successful provided, of course, that
the physical choice has a genuine, productive purpose
(Stanislavski, 1963, p. 9).
Michael Chekhov expands the theory of the intertwined
spirit and emotion. He teaches several technical means by
which an actor can encourage the awakening of creative and
emotional nuances "if they refuse to appear by themselves"
(Chekhov, p. 58). One of these exercises is emotion through
gesture. Chekhov describes what he considers to be the
simplest technical means for kindling obstinate feelings:
Lift your arm. Lower it. What have you
done? You have fulfilled a simple physical
action. You have made a gesture. And you have
made it without any difficulty. Why? Because,
like every action, it is completely within your
will. Now make the same gesture, but this time
color it with a certain quality. Let this
quality be caution. You will make your
gesture, your movement cautiously. Have you
not done it with the same ease? Do it again
and again and then see what happens. Your
movement, made cautiously, is no longer a mere
physical action; now it has acquired a certain
psychological nuance. What is this nuance? It
is a Sensation of caution which now fills and
permeates your arm. It is a psychophysical
sensation. Similarly, if you moved your entire
body with the quality of caution, then your
entire body would naturally be filled with
this sensation. Sensation is the vessel into
which your genuine artistic feelings pour
easily and by themselves; it is a kind of

138
magnet which draws to it feelings and emotions
akin to whatever quality you have chosen for
your movement. . .(Chekhov, p. 59)
Chekhov teaches his students to use the developing sensation
from the previous exercise as a beginning to the exploration
of feelings. After the movement and the accompanying
sensation are practiced, the sensation will begin to grow
and a "whole gamut of feelings akin" to the desired
sensation will manifest (Chekhov, p. 60). The emotions will
vary in depth and color. It will then become clear that the
power and intensity behind the movement can also increase or
decrease the intensity of the sensation.
So we may say that the strength of the movement
stirs our will power in general; the kind of
movement awakens in us a definite corresponding
desire, and the quality of the same movement
conjures up our feelings. (Chekhov, p. 65)
Behavior as a means to personality analysis is another
key link between Allport and the theatre. Allport
considered the analysis of behavior as one of the most
important tools for understanding the personality as a
whole. Michael Chekhov develops the idea of understanding
the total personality of a character with another acting
tool called Psychological Gestures (PG's). He uses the
connection between the physical and the emotional to
physically create a psychological symbol of the character.
Chekhov feels this symbol or gesture is helpful to teach the
actor to intuitively analyze and develop the total
personality of the character:

139
Your creative imagination and your artistic
vision always give you at least some idea of
what the character is, even upon the very first
acquaintance with it. It might be just a
guess, but you can rely upon it and use it as a
springboard for your first attempt to build the
PG. Ask yourself what the main desire of the
character might be, and when you get an answer,
even if it is only a hint, start to build your
PG step by step, using at first your hand and
arm only. You might thrust them forward
aggressively, clenching your fist, if the
desire reminds you of grasping or catching
(greed, avarice, cupidity, miserliness); or you
might stretch them out slowly and carefully,
with reserve and caution, if the character
wishes to grope or search in a thoughtful and
diffident manner; or you might direct both your
hands and arms upward, lightly and easily,
with palms open, in case your intuition prompts
that the character wants to receive, to
implore, to beseech with awe; or maybe you will
want to direct them downward, roughly with
palms turned earthward, with clawing and
crooked fingers, if the character lusts to
overpower, to possess. Having once started
this way, you will no longer find it difficult
(in fact, it will happen by itself) to extend
and adjust your particular gesture to your
shoulders, your neck, the position of your head
and torso, legs and feet, until your entire
body is thus occupied. Working this way, you
will soon discover whether your first guess as
to the main desire of the character was
correct. The PG itself will lead you to this
discovery, without too much interference on
the part of the reasoning mind. (Chekhov, p.
73-74)
Allport's theory of coping and expressive behavior are
among his most important and exciting contributions to the
theatre. Coping behavior usually expresses a concrete
thought or need, while expressive behavior is the style with
which a person performs the activity of coping behavior.
Expressive behavior is revealing of the true person, while
coping behavior is a manifestation of the person's desire to

140
cope with the environment. A man is hungry, and so he eats.
A woman is hot, and so she fans herself. This behavior is
planned to some degree in order to achieve a particular goal
within the environment. However, the action is not just
performed, it is performed in such a way that something is
revealed about the personality. The man eats slowly and
meticulously, despite his hunger. The woman fans herself
while impatiently tapping her foot. How the action is
performed reveals something of who these people are. It is
the same concept of revelation through physical movement
that lies at the heart of theatre and the training of the
actor:
There are no physical actions divorced from
some desire, some effort in some direction,
some objective without one's feeling inwardly a
justification for them; there is no imagined
situation which does not contain some degree of
action of thought. . . All this bears witness
to the close bond between physical action and
all so-call "elements" of the inner creative
state. (Stanislavski, 19G3, p. 8)
The merging of the psychological or emotional intent
into some type of tangible action or movement is a major
focus for the actor. Characters express themselves through
not only the main actions of the script, but through the
individualized performance of the action. The expressive
and coping behavior of the actors are keys to the
understanding of a moment, a motive, a life of the
character:
An example: With what is Lady Macbeth occupied at
the culminating point of her tragedy? The simple

141
physical act of washing a spot of blood off her
hand. ... In real life also many of the great
moments of emotion are signalized by some ordinary,
small, natural movement. ... A small physical act
acquires an enormous inner meaning: the great
inner struggle seeks an outlet in such an external
act. (Stanislavski, 1963, p. 8)
It is interesting to note that in life, the expressive
behavior which accompanies the coping behavior occurs, for
the most part, quite naturally. Even in the conscious
hiding of an emotion, something is still unconsciously
expressed. There is a spontaneity in life. The actor,
however, must constantly strive to achieve this spontaneity
which is a natural part of life. Stanislavski explains:
I do not know what science says on this
subject. I can only share with you what I have
felt and observed in myself. After prolonged
investigation I can now assert that in ordinary
life I do not find any conscious adjustment
without some element, however slight, of the
subconscious in it. On the stage, on the other
hand, where one would suppose that subconscious
intuitive adjustments preponderate, I am
constantly finding completely conscious
adaptations. (Stanislavski, 1936, p. 223)
It is a paradox: The goal of the actor is to plan the
expressive behavior of the character, which makes it coping
behavior because it is not spontaneous. But the actor must
present this behavior to the audience as though it is
expressive behavior. In other words, the actor's coping
(planned) behavior must be presented as though it is the
character's expressive (spontaneous) behavior.
There are many actions, coping behaviors, which can be
translated by the actor to reveal the personality of the

142
character. If a director blocks an actor to cross to the
fireplace and pick up an object, it is not enough for the
actor to simply cross to the fireplace and pick up an
object. The actor must decide how the character might
perform that particular action, in order to reveal to the
audience some aspect of the personality, mood, or emotion of
the character.
In other words, we want to give the student a
sense of oneness with his props and help him
realize that even the inanimate object he uses
is intimately related to the character and its
actions.
Action with simple, everyday props and
accessories can be carried to great lengths, as
for instance, with smoking. Consider the way a
cigarette, a cigar or pipe is lit by:
a conscientious smoker
an easily distracted smoker
a nervous character
an exhibitionist
a timid person
one who can't stop laughing as he lights
his cigarette. (Saint-Denis, p. 183)
Chekhov discusses in detail the psychological
information which can be communicated through the actor's
choice of expressive behavior--mannerisms and
characterizations. He defines characterizations
(mannerisms) as some peculiar feature indigenous to the
character:
A typical movement, a characteristic manner of
speech, a recurrent habit, a certain way of
laughing, walking or wearing a suit, an odd way
of holding the hands, or a singular inclination
of the head, and so forth. (Chekhov, p. 91)
These "finishing touches" accentuate the individuality of
the character as well as the uniqueness of the very

143
interpretation of the character. Chekhov is quick to point
out, though, that characterizations and mannerisms must be
born from the psychological make-up of the character as a
whole and not from the need of the actor to draw attention.
He gives examples of possible mannerisms: An idle man,
unable to do work, might press his arms closely to his
sides, elbows at right angles, while his hands hang limply.
An obstinate or argumentative man might listen with the
unconscious habit of slightly shaking his head as though
preparing a negative reply. Characterizations or mannerisms
such as these help a character seem more alive and human, as
long as they are developed based on the character as a
whole (Chekhov, p. 91-92).
Robert Benedetti demonstrates another important use
for the concept of coping behavior and expressive behavior
in regards to the stage: What happens when the conscious
intent of the character's coping and/or expressive behavior
is upstaged by the unconscious expressive behavior of the
actor. Benedetti observes that people posses a highly
developed skill (although mostly unconscious) for judging
sincerity based on the actions of others. When the
perceived message is contrary to the intended message, the
message is judged as insincere:
If I appear to be listening to you with the
utmost interest and concentration, leaning
forward in my chair and straining to catch
every word, and yet you catch me glancing over
your shoulder or shuffling my foot under my
chair, you intuitively compare the information

144
I am trying to give you (that I am interested)
with the contrary impressions I am
unconsciously giving off (that I am bored). In
this case, you judge me to be insincere.
(Benedet ti, p. 164)
Benedetti then translates the conclusions drawn from the
social setting to the stage. If an actor cannot control
every aspect of the stage behavior, the audience will
perceive the inconsistency and judge the actor as insincere
--whatever the cause for the inconsistency:
Incomplete characterization, lack of concentration,
and failure to make strong contact with our fellow
actors will all result in behavior that is contrary
to our desired impression, and the audience will
judge our performance to be unconvincing.
(Benedetti, p. 164-165)
The analysis of the personality of a character through
behavior, movement, and gesture are essential tools for
discovery both to the psychologist and to the actor. The
choices an actor makes for the character, and the choices
the character dictates to the actor, should reveal pertinent
information regarding the personality of the character as a
whole and the feelings of a character within a moment.
Allport's studies in expressive and coping behavior
reinforce for the actor the psychological importance of
character behavior, action, and movement.
Ana 1 vsis
A method of personality assessment was important to
Allport, just as a method for character analysis should be
important to the actor. Allport's description of the
conscience which cannot allow the psychologist to passively

145
watch life, but drives the psychologist to interpret life
demonstrates another similarity between the artist and the
scientist.
It is easier for a single reader to sit back
and enjoy the narrative, perhaps identifying
with the writer, sympathizing with his
predicaments, and free-associating from one
incident to similar incidents in his own life,
than it is to keep strenuously at the task of
discovering causal connections, salient
structure, and the pattern of determinants that
confer "theoretical sense" upon the life. No
psychologist, analyzing a document in a
professional capacity, can be content with such
passive enjoyment. His scientific conscience
compels him to interpret what he reads.
(Allport, 1947, p. 164)
It is difficult for the artist to read a play or look at
a character simply for the aesthetic enjoyment which
others might. The artist is driven to connect, to
understand, to analyze--whether structurally or
intuitively. The artist, like the scientist, is
compelled to interpret what has been read.
In keeping with his general approach to the study of
personality, Allport did not necessarily feel there was one
correct analysis of any given personality. "It is easier to
get two readers of a personal document to agree upon what
happened than it is to get accord on why it happened"
(Allport, 1947, p. 164). In discussing his analysis of the
letters from Jenny Masterson, Allport notes that a single
cardinal trait was not agreed on by all the judges involved
(Allport, 1965, p. 195-196). The cardinal traits identified
by the judges varied. Yet the identified cardinal traits

146
were all linked to some important factor or driving force of
Jenny's personality.
One cannot help but relate the various interpretations
given by Allport's different judges to the possible
interpretations presented by individual actors, directors,
and designers. It is the choice between rape and seduction
in regards to Stanley and Blanche, between blind love and
conscious treason in regards to Gertrude's relationship with
Claudius, and between hope and despair as the curtain falls
on three Russian sisters. All the clues which are necessary
are found in the script, but they do not necessarily lead to
only one conclusion:
Directoral excavation of clues occurs myriad
ways ranging from formal systems espoused by
theatre literati to notes scribbled on a
cocktail napkin, from a vision in the shower to
passionate argument with colleagues and former
lovers. Every possible avenue is the right
one. (Brandt, p. 46)
Allport's theories and analysis techniques do not seek to
force a singular conclusion or a right decision. His
technique of analysis encompasses the possibilities, and
these possibilities are the seed for creativity for the
theatre detective.
There is a direct bond between the internal and
external circumstances of a play. Indeed the
inner life of the characters is concealed in
the outer circumstances of their life,
therefore in the facts of the play. It is
difficult to assess them separately. If you
penetrate through the external facts of a play
and its plot to their inner essence, going from
the periphery to the center, from form to

147
substance, you inevitably enter the inner life
of the play. (Stanislavski, 1961, p. 35)
An analysis of the circumstances of the play leads to
conclusions of who a particular character is. But these
conclusions must be drawn from the text:
It is only through an active submission to the
text, intelligently understood, that the
student can gradually regain that 1 ost-paradise
feeling of the improvisation phase of his work
when everything depended on him. In order to
do this in his interpretative work he must
master the text. Because there will always be
the risk that an actor may impose his own
invention instead of submitting to that of the
author, we must be sure that the actor's
sensitivity is open to the text and not to his
own subjective inner feelings or his own
subjective emotional reactions. (Saint-Denis,
p. 186-187).
An example of an analysis based on Allport's theories
comprises the last chapter of this dissertation. This
analysis is based on the following outline which employes
Allport's terminology in order to structure a tangible
approach to character analysis. The outline, created
through the reseach found in this dissertation, serves as a
foundation for a discussion of the personality of the
character Blanche Dubois from Tennessee William's A
Streetcar Named Desire as found in the following chapter and
demonstrates one of the many ways psychology can be applied
to the theatre.
147

148
Character Analysis Checklist
I . Traits
A. Nomothetic or Idiographic: Should the character
be considered as a distinct individual or should
the character be considered as part of a group?
B. Cardinal Trait: What is the character's driving
f orce?
C. Central Traits: Identify 5-10 descriptive and
consistent traits of the character. If the
character is nomothetic the central traits should
characterize the similarities with other
characters: common traits. If the character is
idiographic the central traits should characterize
the distinguishing qualities of the character:
personal dispositions or individualized traits.
D. Secondary Traits: Identify any traits which are
temporary in nature, less predominate in their
influence, and/or a secret that only a close
friend might be able to identify.
E. Habits and Attitudes: Identify any habits or
attitudes which might influence the character.
Habits are inflexible and specific responses to
specific stimuli, and attitudes involve a
judgement. Habits and attitudes are less
influential than traits, and they usually occur in
specific situations to specific stimuli.

149
II. Motivation
A. Maturity: Does the character live as a
functionally autonomous adult? Identify past and
present motives to determine if past motives have
matured or if earlier motivations still drive the
adult. Determine if motives are contemporary.
comp lex, thought out. unique and concrete.
1. The Extension of Self: Rate the character's
ability to become personally involved in at
least one of the following areas: economics,
education, recreation, politics, domestic
concerns, religion. Even though the
character is personally involved in an
outside activity, the ability to
simultaneously maintain individuality should
also be evaluated. Self is important, but
the mature individual is able to decenter
personal attention and extend that attention
beyond the self (Allport, 1961, p. 284-5).
2. Intimac.v and Warmth: Rate the character’s
ability to become involved in deep and
lasting relationships (in both individual and
general terms). Include the character's
ability to respect and appreciate others as
free individuals. The intimacy found in a
relationship must never impede the freedom of

150
another individual to find their own identity
(Allport, 1961, p. 285).
3. Emotional Security: Evaluate the character's
ability to identify and function within a
stressful, yet temporary situation. Mature
individuals may not be happy and positive at
all times, but they have learned to accept
their emotional state so it does not
interfere with the well-being of others or
themselves (Allport, 1961, p. 288).
4. Realistic Perceptions and Work Commitment:
Evaluate the character's ability to realisti¬
cally perceive the world, problem solve
within that world, and make a sincere
commitment to some type of work that is
important to the character. Mature
individuals will be in close touch with "the
real world," they will see objects, people,
and situations for what they are, and they
will have important work to do (Allport,
1961, p. 290).
5. Understanding of Self (Sense of Humor):
Evaluate the character's ability to look
objectively at personal strengths and
weaknesses, as well as the character's sense
of humor toward self. Mature individuals who

151
have the most complete sense of proportion
concerning their own qualities and cherished
values are able to perceive their
incongruities and absurdities in certain
settings (Allport, 1961, p. 293).
6. Philosophy of Life: Evaluate the character's
ability to develop a theory (or theories)
which are a practical, spiritual or
philosophical approach to life. Despite the
individual preference toward the nature of
the actual philosophy, a philosophy of life
which unifies and directs all aspects of a
person's life should develop in the mature
individual (Allport, 1961, p. 208).
B. Values: Although all of the following values
could be present in an individual, only one or two
dominate the individual's life. Evaluate the
degree to which each area affects the character's
life.
1. Theoretical: This value is concerned with
the pursuit of truth, usually through the
empirical, critical, and rational methods
(Allport, 1961, p. 297).
2. Economic.: This value is concerned with what
is practical, useful, and relevant (Allport,
1961, p. 297).

152
3. Aesthetic: This value is concerned with
beauty and artistic experiences. This value
is not limited to artistic talent, but
includes also the enjoyment or pursuit of the
aesthetic (Allport, 1961, p. 298).
4. Social: This value is concerned with human
relations and the love of others, whether
conjugal, filial, friendly, or philanthropic
(Allport, 1961, p. 298).
5. Political: This value is concerned with
power and influence but is not limited to the
narrow world of politics (Allport, 1961, p.
299) .
6. Religious: This value is concerned with
unity, harmony, and understanding of the
world (or universe) as a whole. It strives
to relate the individual life to the
workings of the cosmos (Allport, 1961, p.
299) .
III. Behavior
A. Coping Behavior: In general terms, identify the
consciously planned behavior of the character as
taken from either the author's stage directions or
the character's own words. How is the character
trying to consciously alter the environment?

153
Consider the following determinants which might
affect the character's behavior:
1. Cultural tradition
2. Regional convention
3. Passing emotional moods
4. Conditions of strain and fatigue
5. Age
6. Sex
7. Native muscular structure and bodily build
8. Conditions of health and disease
9. Accidental deformations of the body
10. Special training
11. Conditions of physical environment
B. Expressive Behavior: In general terms, identify
the expressive behavior which reveals aspects of
the character's personality from either the
author's stage directions or the character's own
words. The expressive behavior of a character
should also reinforce the choices previously made
concerning the character's personality.
Consequently the actor may wish to include both
specific and general behavior which might be added
to the script in order to communicate to the
elements of the character's personality.

154
Summary
Allport's theories have been compared to currently
followed acting theories. This comparison has demonstrated
many similarities between psychology and theatre. It is
necessary to establish the similarities between Allport's
psychological theories and acting theories in order to
validate the usefulness of Allport's theories as a means for
character analysis. This chapter has demonstrated Allport's
theories provide the actor with terminology, tangible
explanations of intangible occurrences, and insight into the
very source of theatre--the human personality. Allport's
theories provide a structure in which acting philosophies
can be explored and expanded. His theories also synthesize
the human personality in terms which are accessible to a
creative artist.

CHAPTER V
AN APPLICATION OF THE THEORIES OF GORDON W. ALLPORT
TO THE PROCESS OF CHARACTER ANALYSIS
A Character Analysis of Blanche Dubois
Traits
The character of Blanche Dubois should be approached
from an idiographic perspective. She is a unique character
with highly individualized personality traits.
Cardinal Trait. Blanche's cardinal trait is to find
refuge, to rest. She has been struggling for years:
struggling to make her marriage to a young homosexual work,
struggling with the guilt of his suicide, struggling with
the responsibility of caring for her ill family members,
struggling with the finances of Belle Reve, struggling with
her loneliness, struggling with the compromises which life
seems to bring. She seeks refuge from the struggle. She
seeks to rest. Blanche: "I want to rest! I want to breathe
quietly again!" (Williams, p. 81).
Originally Blanche seeks refuge in her relationship
with her sister, Stella. She leaves Laurel and travels to
New Orleans in hopes that Stella can open her home and
provide a safe environment. Stanley's presence destroys
this safe place. Blanche then seeks refuge in her
155

156
relationship with Mitch. He is a kind and gentle man whose
devotion to his mother demonstrates to Blanche his capacity
for caring. Once again, however, Stanley destroys the hope.
Blanche turns her attention to the refuge available within
the fantasy world she has created, but Stanley destroys even
this refuge with his violent reality. It is only when the
doctor escorts Blanche from Stanley (and the harsh reality
he represents) that Blanche finally feels safe. She has
found her refuge in the "kindness of strangers."
Central traits. Blanche's central traits revolve
around the contradictions which have created her life.
Blanche is in the simplest terms both child and woman. She
is a vulnerable child seeking for someone to protect her,
and she is a seductive woman.
Blanche is both strong and weak. She is physically and
emotionally fragile; she is a woman on the edge of a
breakdown. Yet her ability to withstand trauma--the slow
and painful loss of each of her family members, the suicide
of her husband, the loss of her own dignity within the
social community--indi cates that Blanche possesses strength
to adapt.
Blanche is both survivor and victim. Survival is
possible not only through direct confrontation, but through
the more subtle ability to block the truth. Blanche ignores
what the gossip in Laurel says about her. Blanche ignores
what her students say about her. Blanche ignores that Mitch

157
has stood her up. Blanche tries to ignore Stanley's
attacks. Blanche ignores those things which are too painful
to confront. By ignoring--choosing not to know, avoiding--
Blanche becomes victim to the same. She chooses not to
directly confront as her means of survival, and so she loses
the opportunity to destroy what haunts her. She is its
victim.
Blanche is both a social lady and social outcast. She
strives to be genteel and proper in her demeanor and
approach to life. She is a southern lady obsessed with
maintaining the facade of southern refinement and
femininity. Yet she has been sexually promiscuous, a
"secret" alcoholic, a seductress of young boys, and has been
kicked out of Laurel for her unacceptable social behavior.
Through it all, Blanche still struggles to present a
socially acceptable facade.
Blanche loves the beautiful and abhors the ugly. She
seeks to create a world around her that is beautiful, yet
the world around her refuses to be created in the image
Blanche desires. Blanche redecorates Stella's apartment;
the added touches do not make the apartment safe. Blanche
creates beauty with special lighting; Mitch exposes the
naked bulb. Blanche speaks of life in terms of how it
should be; Stanley forces the reality of how life is.
Blanche hates what is not beautiful, and secretly she knows
she is one of the things that is no longer beautiful--

158
physically or spiritually. She hates who she is. She is
afraid of who she is.
Who Blanche would like to be and who she is are not the
same. What she would like others to perceive and what they
do perceive are not the same. The joke Blanche tells at her
own birthday party is significant for two reasons. First,
it is inappropriate for the type of woman Blanche is
striving to portray. Second, it is representative of
Blanche (the old maid) and her past (the parrot):
Blanche: Let me see, now. ... I must run through
my repertoire! Oh, yes--I love parrot
stories! Do you all like parrot stories?
Well, this one's about the old maid and the
parrot. This old maid, she had a parrot that
cursed a blue streak and knew more vulgar
expressions than Mr. Kowalski! . . . And the
only way to hush the parrot up was to put the
cover back on its cage so it would think it
was night and go back to sleep. Well, one
morning the old maid had just uncovered the
parrot for the day--when who should she see
coming up the from walk but the preacher!
Well, she rushed back to the parrot and
slipped the cover back on the cage and then
she let in the preacher. And the parrot was
perfectly still, just as quiet as a mouse, but
just as she was asking the preacher how much
sugar he wanted in his coffee--the parrot
broke the silence with a loud--[she whistles]-
-and said--"God damn, but that was a short
day!" (Williams, p. 107).
The fascinating aspect of Blanche's personality then
is the contradictions which comprise her personality.
Blanche lives in a black and white world. It is either
wrong, or it is right; it is up, or it is down.
Contradictions indicate grey, and Blanche cannot be at
peace in the grey of the world which surrounds her or the

159
grey of the world which is inside her. Blanche struggles
against the world; Blanche struggles against herself. She
struggles to replace chaos with order. She struggles to
replace the ugly with beauty. She struggles to replace grey
with black and white. Blanche strives to resolve a conflict
which cannot be resolved within or without. Blanche's
central traits--her personal contradictions--work together
to create her cardinal trait: the need to seek refuge from
the struggle.
Secondary traits. The less predominate and consistent
traits in Blanche's life are microcosms of the larger
inconsistencies of her life, her central traits.
Blanche demonstrates very motherly feelings toward
Stella in Scene One. The roles in this instance are
reversed. As the script reveals, it is Stella who usually
assumes the role of caretaker. It is Stella who waits on
Blanche and calms her nerves. It is Stella to whom Blanche
has turned for protection. For the moment, though, Blanche
extends herself to Stella:
Blanche: You hear me? I said stand up! [Stella
complies reluctantly] You messy child,
you, you've spilt something on the pretty
white lace collar! About your hair--you
ought to have it cut in a feather bob
with your dainty features. Stella you
do have a maid, don't you? (Williams, p.
22) .
Blanche can be protective of Stella. She includes
Stella in her plan for escape with Shep Huntleigh in Scene
Four. It is irrelevant that Blanche is actually incapable

160
of providing a safe haven for Stella. Blanche does attempt
to protect her from Stanley, the perceived danger.
Blanche: "Sister and I in desperate situation.
Will explain details later. Would you be
interested in--?" [She bites the pencil
again]"Would you be--interested--in
. . ."[She smashes the pencil on the
table and springs up] You never get
anywhere with direct appeals! (Williams,
p . 68).
Blanche is intuitive. She senses from the beginning
that Stanley, and her ability to meet his challenge, will
determine the outcome of her life. She can feel the
impending struggle between her world and Stanley's world.
She is frightened; she senses the final outcome:
Blanche: He hates me. Or why would he insult me?
The first time I laid eyes on him I
thought to myself, that man is my
executioner! That man will destroy me,
un 1 ess--(Wi 11iams, p. 93).
Blanche is disapproving of people and lifestyles that
do not meet her expectations. Blanche reacts strongly
against the environment in which Stella lives and the people
with which Stella associates. Blanche considers both to be
beneath the upbringing of the Dubois sisters. However,
Blanche does try to function, although it is probably more
in spite of her environment than within her environment.
Blanche: I can't stand a naked light bulb, any
more than I can a rude remark or a vulgar
ac tion.
Mitch: I guess we strike you as being a pretty
rough bunch.
Blanche: I'm very adaptable—to circumstances
(Williams, p. 55).

161
Habí t s. Blanche has developed specific responses to
specific stimuli. These are her habits. They are self-
imposed physical habits which help her to avoid direct
confrontation and even direct knowledge. The specific
stimuli which activates the physical response is stress.
Anything that falls outside of the area in which Blanche
feels safe and confident creates stress. Blanche's habits
help her to avoid stress as a means of survival, but her
habits also keep her victim to the stress.
Blanche uses alcohol as a means to soften the corners
and rough edges of life. When she arrives on Stella's
doorstep, concerned over Stella's reception, Blanche
immediately finds a bottle. When Stella arrives, another
drink is needed. When Blanche discovers there are only two
rooms in Stella's home, Blanche takes "just one little tiny
nip more." Drinking for Blanche makes the realities of the
world easier to block and the fantasy world easier to enter.
Mitch: I told you already I don't want none of his
liquor and I mean it. You ought to lay off
his liquor. He says you been lapping it up
all summer like a wild-cat! (Williams, p.
115).
Blanche also uses long, hot baths as a retreat from the
stress of the outside world. She is alone in a room in
which all facades are stripped away. She has no one for
whom to perform. She can be the person she chooses to be in
the world she chooses. The outside world and its pain or

162
ugliness no longer exist. The world Blanche chooses to
create is hers alone for that time.
Blanche: Oh, I feel so good after my long, hot
bath, I feel so good and cool and--
rested!
Stella [sadly and doubtfully from the kitchen]: Do
you, Blanche?
Blanche [brushing her hair vigorously]: Yes, I do,
so refreshed! [She tinkles her highball
glass.] A hot bath and a long, cold
drink always give me a brand new outlook
on life! (Williams, p. 105).
Blanche avoids direct light. She uses late night
outings and oriental lamp covers in response to growing
old. She loves the beautiful, and young is beautiful. She
is no longer young, so she can no longer be beautiful. She
uses the cloak of shadows in which to hide and to create
her own illusions:
Blanche: I don't want realism. I want magic!
Yes, yes, magic! I try to give that to
people. I misrepresent things to them.
I don't tell truth, I tell what ought to
be truth. And if that is sinful, then
let me be damned for it!--Don't turn the
light on! (Williams, p. 117)
Blanche performs. Blanche feels as though she must
hide her true self from the world through her performances.
She does not present herself. She presents what she feels
is appropriate—what others want to see. When she is
introduced to Stanley's friends, Blanche plays the young
debutante. When the curtain is backlit, she plays the
desired seductress. When Mitch picks her up for a date, she
plays the grand prima donna. Blanche writes her own script.

1G3
She portrays life as it ought to be. These performances do
not represent who Blanche really is, but the many aspects of
whom she would like to be.
Blanche preens. Like an actress she carries with her a
trunk filled with props which she must check before each
performance. Like a dancer she must check her performance
in a mirror. Like a performer she is dependent on the
response of others to serve as her validation.
Blanche smokes. Smoking calms her nerves and reduces
her stress. Almost as important, her cigarettes act as
props for her performance.
Blanche has developed habits which help her to reduce
the stress created by the realities of her life. These are
the tricks she employs to create a beautiful world around
her. They are her survival techniques, her means for
dealing with stressful situations. They are her habits.
Attitudes. The judgments by which Blanche strives to
live are black and white. This black and white philosophy
serves to create the contradictions which comprise Blanche's
central traits. The results of this philosophy also create
some interesting attitudes.
Blanche regards refined manners as good and
appropriate, while she judges as vulgar and unacceptable
manners which are base and unrefined. Stanley, most of his
friends, and his lifestyle are in Blanche's eyes vulgar and
unrefined. Their manners and social skills are

1G4
unacceptable. The exception is Mitch, who Blanche considers
to be capable of both demonstrating and learning social
skills which are acceptable.
Blanche: That one seems superior to the others.
Stella: Yes, he is.
Blanche: I thought he had a sort of sensitive look
(Williams, p. 49).
Blanche's attitude about sex is confused. She is torn
between sex as good or bad. She is a victim of the sexual
double standard of society which sees sexual behavior as
acceptable in men while promiscuous in women. She believes
sex is the key to getting a man, and this premise is itself
a contradiction: Men want sex, but if they get what they
want they may no longer want the person from which they got
it. Blanche does not speak of sex in terms of pleasure or
passion. She speaks of it as the opposite of death, as a
way to escape the dying world around her.
Blanche: Death--I used to sit here and she used to
sit over there and death was as close as
you are. . . . We didn't dare even admit
we had ever heard of it! The opposite is
desire. So do you wonder? How could you
possibly wonder! Not far from Belle
Reve, before we had lost Belle Reve, was
a camp where they trained young soldiers.
On Saturday nights they would go in town
to get drunk--and on the way back they
would stagger onto my lawn and--
"Blanche! B1 anche!"--The deaf old lady
remaining suspected nothing. But
sometimes I slipped outside to answer
their calls. . . . Later the paddy-wagon
would gather them up like daisies . . .
the long way home . . .

165
She does not speak of liking or disliking sex. She speaks
of sex in terms of the results of sexual behavior. Sex
should bring something. . . or leave something. . .
Blanche: Yes, I had many intimacies with
strangers. After the death of Allan--
intimacies with strangers was all I
seemed able to fill my empty heart with.
. . . I think it was panic, just panic
that drove me from one to another,
hunting for some protection—here and
there, in the most--unlikely places
(Williams, p. 118).
or take something. . .
Blanche: There are thousands of papers, stretching
back over hundreds of years, affecting
Belle Reve as, piece by piece, our
improvident grandfathers and father and
uncles and brothers exchanged the land
for their epic fornications—to put it
plainly! The four-letter word deprived
us of our plantation (Williams, p. 43).
Blanche does not understand the act of sex; consequently,
she struggles within the contradictions of her own sexual
behavior and the sexual behavior of others.
Blanche's attitude toward men leaves no grey either.
She believes men fall into one or two categories: those who
can hurt her and those who can help her. She believes her
world to revolve around men and her relationship to them.
To survive she must successfully manipulate men. Men are
white knights in shinning armor or evil villains with long
black capes. Blanche thinks Mitch can help her. Blanche
believes Stanley can harm her. Blanche knows the paper boy
cannot hurt her. Blanche feels the doctor will rescue her.
Blanche does not see herself having a mutual relationship.

166
Motivation and Functional Autonomy
Blanche is looking for someone to rescue her. She does
not look within herself. She does not see herself as
independent or capable of rescuing herself. Blanche: "I
never was hard of self-sufficient enough" (Williams, p.
79). She is waiting for her prince, or poet, or soldier, or
fighter. She still believes the fairy tale and looks toward
the sunset, waiting to be swept into it by a knight in white
armor. She also believes she must set the stage
appropriately: Only beautiful princesses get rescued.
Blanche strives to be both beautiful and helpless in order
to attract her prince. An inability to leave the fairy
tales and the fantasy of childhood behind and look to
herself in adulthood for her own salvation indicates that
Blanche is not functioning autonomously.
Blanche fell in love and married a young homosexual,
Allen, who was emotionally fragile. She had affairs with
numerous young soldiers. She even had an affair with one of
her young students. She sexually teases the young paper
boy. The kind of relationship Blanche sought in her youth
and the kind of relationship she continues to pursue has not
changed over the years. Blanche chooses men who she thinks
cannot hurt her; Blanche chooses men who are weak. Her
husband, the young soldiers, her student, the paper boy, are
all men who, in some aspect, were weaker than she. They are
men who she perceives to know less about the pain and

1G7
ugliness of life than she. Men who might, consequently, not
see what it is Blanche is trying to hide--herself. Since
her youth, Blanche's motivation for choosing a man has not
changed or matured: she seeks a man who cannot hurt her.
She has not become functionally autonomous.
Unfortunately for Blanche, in seeking men who cannot
hurt her, she finds men who cannot protect her. The
relationship which seems different from the rest is her
choice of Mitch. Mitch is an adult. Mitch has a job.
Mitch is interested in marrying Blanche, not just sleeping
with her. Like the other men, however, Mitch is also weak.
Stanley bosses him at cards. Stanley harasses him about
his mother. Stanley bullies him. Mitch is no match for
Stanley. He cannot stand to the power of reality. Mitch
cannot protect Blanche from Stanley. Mitch becomes another
in a long list of weak men, further evidence that Blanche is
not functioning autonomously in this area of her life.
Blanche: So I came here. There was nowhere else I
could go. I was played out. You know
what played out is? My youth was
suddenly gone up the water-spout, and--I
met you. You said you needed somebody.
Well, I needed somebody, too. I thanked
God for you, because you seemed to be
gentle--a cleft in the rock of the world
that I could hide in! But I guess I was
asking, hoping--too much! (Williams, p.
118) .
Many aspects of Blanche's life are motivated by self¬
destructive tendencies. She has lost her job; she has lost
her standing in the community; she has lost her self-respect

168
due to promiscuity, alcoholism, and an inability to function
within the world as it exists. Originally her self¬
destructive behavior was probably a response to her
husband's suicide. She felt responsible for the deep hurt
which seemed to motivate his suicide. She felt she failed
him by not saving him from homosexuality in general. She
continues to punish herself. The memory of those final
words still haunts her. The music of the final dance still
plays in her mind. The gunshot of Allan's death still rings
in the air. She has neither forgiven or forgotten.
Blanche's self-destructive life-style continues to be
motivated from the guilt found in the past.
Analyzing the major motivating factors in Blanche's
life leads to the conclusion that Blanche is still being
motivated as she had been in the past. These motivations
have not matured or changed. Neither are these motivations
creating a healthy lifestyle for Blanche which can lead her
into successes. Blanche is not motivated by functional
autonomy.
Motivation and Maturity
Allport developed six categories by which Blanche's
behavior can be compared in order to determine Blanche's
ability to function as a mature adult.
The extension of self. Mature individuals involve a
personal part of themselves, while maintaining their
individuality, in at least one of the spheres of human

169
concern: economic, educational, recreational, political,
domestic, and religious. Blanche does not demonstrate an
interest in domestic, political, or religious concerns. She
does however participate in economic, educational, and
recreational activities. Blanche did provide economically
for her family while they were still living. Blanche did
pursue an education and teach high school English. Blanche
does participate in social outings. Closer analysis of
these activities, however, reveals the lack of a true
interest in any of them. She does not become independently
involved in outside activities for the sake of developing an
involvement. Her focus continues to remain on herself and
her small world throughout the participation in these
activities. Activities in which she does participate
provide Blanche with an opportunity to escape her life, not
enhance her life. Tending to the finances of Belle Reve and
the health of her family were part of the realities from
which Blanche was trying to escape. She did not extend
herself into these activities; she tried to avoid them. She
did not teach English because she found satisfaction in
educating the minds of the young, or saw the job as a way to
become independent. She taught literature as an escape from
life. She participates in outings to either escape life
(partying with the soldiers, drinking with Stella) or to
manipulate others (going to the amusement park with Mitch).

170
According to Allport, a mature person is able to
decenter personal attention and extend that attention beyond
self. Blanche is capable of decentering herself only for
short periods: her attempt to rescue Stella, her motherly
feelings toward Stella. Except for occasional moments in
her life, Blanche's attention revolves around her own needs,
interests, and future.
Intimacy and warmth. A mature individual can develop
deep and lasting relationships in both general and romantic
terms. Blanche’s life does not demonstrate a pattern of
lasting relationships. Circumstances have attributed to
Blanche's inability to develop lasting relationships with
her family. All of her family members, except for Stella,
have died from a horrid and painful disease. "Sick people
have such deep sincere attachments," Blanche says (Williams,
p. 54), but she also speaks of her need to escape from that
disease ridden environment. The emotions shared with her
ailing family members were certainly deep, but it is hard to
believe any type of mutual relationship was possible in that
environment. Neither is it likely that Blanche's lifestyle
would meet with approval from her family, another factor
which would limit the intimacy experienced with her family.
Blanche also speaks of the sexual appetite of her male
family members as costing the family their home, Belle Reve.
Blanche demonstrates little respect for these particular
members of her family because of the results of their

171
lifestyles. With these circumstances to overcome, it would
seem unlikely that Blanche could develop an intimate and
lasting relationship with her family members.
Her first intimate relationship was with Allan, her
young husband. She was sixteen when she fell in love with
him. "All at once and much, much too completely. It was
like you suddenly turned a blinding light on something that
had always been half in shadow," Blanche describes the
experience (Williams, p. 95). Stella says Blanche
"worshipped the ground he walked on! Adored him and thought
him almost too fine to be human!" (Williams, p. 102).
Blanche and Allen ran away to be married, but it seems Allen
was hoping the marriage would cure him of his homosexual
feelings. Not surprisingly, the marriage did not give Allen
the cure, and soon after he committed suicide. For all of
the intensity of feeling, there is little indication of any
mature intimacy between the two. It was first love: the
awakening of emotions and desire. Blanche's description of
the relationship and his suicide reflects also a lack of
communication:
Blanche: There was something different about the
boy, a nervousness, a softness and tenderness which
wasn't like a man's, although he wasn't the least
bit effeminate looking--sti 1l--that thing was
there. ... He came to me for help. I didn't know
that. I didn't find out anything till after our
marriage when we'd run away and come back and all I
knew was I'd failed him in some mysterious way and
wasn't able to give the help he needed but couldn't
speak of! He was in the quicksands and clutching
at me—but I wasn't holding him out, I was slipping
in with him! I didn't know that. I didn't know

172
anything except I loved him unendurably but without
being able to help him or help myself. Then I
found out. In the worst of all possible ways. By
coming suddenly into a room that I thought was
empty--which wasn’t empty, but had two people in
it. . . the boy I had married and an older man who
had been his friend for years. . . . Afterwards we
pretended that nothing had been discovered. Yes,
the three of us drove out to Moon Lake Casino, very
drunk and laughing all the way (Williams, p. 95-
96) .
Allen had not openly or honestly communicated with Blanche
what he expected or needed from her and the marriage. She
only knew intuitively (looking back) that something was
different about him. When she understood the problem,
through a shocking discovery, the couple still did not
discuss the situation or communicate in any way. They
"pretended that nothing had been discovered." Even with the
intensity of the shared emotions, the lack of honest
communication between the couple keeps this relationship
from being considered truly intimate.
In the following years her sexual experiences had been
mostly one night stands or young boys. Under these
circumstances, meaningful relationships are nearly
impossible. Her partners were sexual encounters, rather
than intimate encounters. There is not an exchange of
emotion or any personal communication. In choosing
strangers as partners, Blanche need not reveal any part of
herself that might be vulnerable to attack. Blanche and
these men do not share their personal selves; therefore,
these relationships could not be termed as intimate.

173
Blanche strives to make her relationship with Mitch
different. She shares with Mitch the story of Allen; she
tells him of her fear of Stanley. She listens as he talks
of his mother; she listens as he tells her of the strange
young girl who gave him the cigarette case. This is the
first intimate relationship Blanche has had in many years,
yet something is still missing. Blanche is not able to
release the social facade she feels is essential to winning
Mitch. She cannot share with Mitch the story of her past
few years in Laurel; she continues to hide in the shadows of
the evening; she does not reveal to Mitch the intimate part
of Blanche. She strives to create life as it should be
instead of living life as it is, so even her relationship to
Mitch is short lived.
The most intimate relationship Blanche has developed is
with Stella. They have maintained contact through letters
over the years; however, neither has been truly honest or
intimate in these letters. Blanche did not share with
Stella the problems in Laurel, and Stella did not tell
Blanch of her lifestyle with Stanley. They both
communicated in terms of what they thought the other should
know. Blanche attempts to be honest with Stella to a
degree. She speaks to Stella about not being emotionally
well, leaving her job on the verge of a breakdown, her fear
of growing old, her plan to sexually delude Mitch into
marrying her. She even tells Stella there was gossip in

174
Laurel about her. But Stella, in trying to help Blanche,
views such talk as morbid. Stella cannot hear what Blanche
is trying to say. Even after Stanley's assault, Stella
cannot (without destroying her entire world) believe what
Blanche has to say. Blanche tries to establish
communication, but Stella cannot handle it.
Allport stresses that mature relationships will
demonstrate an ability accept another person's individual
identity within the relationship. Mature relationships
allow the other person to grow and develop. Blanche strives
to change the people with whom she is involved. She is not
able to accept the individuality of another when it does
not match her expectations. She seeks to change Stella's
feelings for Stanley. She seeks to sophisticate Mitch.
She is most accepting of Stanley and most fearful of
Stanley: She feels his ominous power and knows he cannot be
changed. Things that cannot be changed should be feared.
Blanche does not demonstrate an ability to accept people for
who they are.
Even though there is a lack of intimacy in Blanche's
life, she strives for it. To be intimate with another human
being is important to Blanche. She looks in the wrong
places or to the wrong people. She confuses intimacy with
sexuality.
Blanche's greatest block to intimacy is herself. To be
open to another person, you must first be open with

175
yourself. To give to another person, you must first give
to yourself. To love another person, you must first love
yourself. To be intimate with another, you must first be
intimate with yourself. Blanche cannot accept who she is,
as a result she will never be able to establish real warmth
and intimacy with another person.
Emotional security. Allport discussed emotional
security in terms of accepting the differing emotional
states which occur in life without causing harm to others or
self. Although Blanche does not seek to cause harm to
anyone, her behavior inflicts harm on herself. She has not
developed habits or skills for dealing with problems and
stress in ways that are positive. Alcohol, promiscuity,
lying, and avoidance are strategies which are inflicting
harm on Blanche rather than strengthening her.
A mature person can also express convictions and
feelings with consideration to others' convictions and
feelings. Blanche strives to be fair to others. She does
not seek to hurt anyone else. When she discovers the type
of environment in which Stella lives, she expresses her
opinion but stops just short of pushing her opinion on
Stella. When Stanley grills Blanche over the financial
standing of Belle Reve, Blanche is able to hold her own.
She only slips when Stanley touches Allen's love poems, but
she quickly gains self-control. When she discovers Stella
has gone back to Stanley, she argues with Stella but lets

176
the conversation drop after she has spoken her mind.
Blanche does strive to be fair to others, but she also does
not possess the inner strength to continue to force her
views on others.
A mature person can identify situations as temporary;
thereby demonstrating a sense of proportion and reality.
Blanche's life seems to have been one continuous obstacle,
each temporary setback has led to another. She cannot
identify Stella's small home or Stanley's angry slap as
temporary. This hinders Blanche's ability to demonstrate a
sense of proportion. Instead there is a sense of melodrama
in Blanche's approach to life. Every situation is
approached with life or death intensity and "trembling."
Blanche's ability to demonstrate a sense of reality changes
throughout the play. At the play's beginning, Blanche does
possess a fairly clear sense of reality. This sense of
reality is complete with melodramatic performances and a
self-imposed fantasy which denies the undesirable reality,
but Blanche does understand the reality as it exists. By
the play's end, however, Blanche has lost the ability (or
perhaps just the desire) to distinguish between reality and
her fantasy.
Blanche does not demonstrate an emotional security.
She cannot distinguish between temporary setbacks and
permanent problems. Blanche is se 1f-destructive and
melodramatic. She is not strong enough to continually

177
impose her convictions on others, although she is outspoken
enough to express them. Her sense of reality is colored
with imagination and a dramatic flair, and by the play's
end, her sense of reality is lost. In view of these facts,
Blanche does not seem to possess an emotional security or
self-acceptance as defined by Allport.
Realistic perceptions and work commitment. A mature
individual can problem solve based on realistic and
objective observations. Blanche has had a very difficult
life. It has been filled with pain, death, disappointment,
tragedy, and all the dark and ugly elements life can
possess. To say that Blanche lives in a fantasy world is
perhaps too easy. It is ignoring the world in which she
truly lives: a world of harsh reality and pain. Instead of
saying Blanche does not realistically perceive the world
around her, it would be more accurate to say she seeks
refuge from the world because she sees it real istically--and
she is afraid of what she sees. The world keeps erupting in
Blanche's face, and because she understands the turmoil such
eruptions cause, she runs from the world as it exists.
It is this running that leads Blanche to a fantasy
world, sustained by alcohol, imagination, and passion, in
order to avoid the reality of her life and who she is.
This behavior demonstrates that although Blanche can
realistically perceive the world, she can not successfully

178
problem solve within it. She resorts to ineffective and
self-destructive avenues of coping.
Blanche is successful, to a point, in her objective
analysis of Stanley and her choice of problem solving
skills. She accurately identifies Stanley as villain in her
drama. She knows Stanley will be her "executioner." She is
able, for a while, to hold him off: She flirts, teases,
ignores, abdicates, and meets his challenges. She sees a
danger no one else is able to identify, unfortunately, she
is only partially successful in her ability to guard against
Stanley.
Allport felt a mature individual had some type of
important work that was necessary to accomplish. Blanche
became a teacher to escape to the world of poets and
writers. Because of Blanche's need to escape, Blanche is
not able to function successfully within the work world.
Blanche looses her job because of a sexual relationship with
one of her students. Her need to seek intimacy and warmth
was more important that her need to fulfill herself through
a work ethic. Her desire to find a man to provide refuge is
Blanche's important work. This work goal, however, cannot
be considered a healthy or productive choice.
Even though Blanche demonstrates the ability to
perceive the world objectively, in accordance with Allport's
guidelines, she chooses not to do so. She has developed
only a minimal amount of problem solving skills, and she is

179
unable to devote any but the smallest attention to her work
as a teacher. Consequently, Blanche functions with only a
minimal level of maturity in this area of her life.
Understanding of self (sense of humor). Allport
believed a mature individual possessed an understanding- of
self, and could even find humor in personal situations.
Blanche can be very realistic in her evaluation of herself.
She demonstrates this ability to do so throughout the
script. Blanche is aware that she is not emotionally
stable. As she sits in Stella's apartment waiting for her
sister to arrive, the first hint is given that she
understands the severity of her situation. Her ability to
will herself into control indicates that Blanche is still
capable of controlling herself within a stressful situation:
Blanche [faintly to herself]: I've got to keep hold of
myself! [Stella comes quickly around the
corner of the building and runs to the door
of the downstairs flat.]
She evaluates herself frankly as she describes her
fear of the passing time and her need to add color to her
fadi