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The relationship between Herzberg's motivator/hygiene theory and work behavior types of academic librarians in Florida

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Title:
The relationship between Herzberg's motivator/hygiene theory and work behavior types of academic librarians in Florida
Creator:
Kem, Carol Ritzen
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Language:
English
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xii, 126 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Academic librarians ( jstor )
Academic libraries ( jstor )
Colleges ( jstor )
Job satisfaction ( jstor )
Labor ( jstor )
Librarians ( jstor )
Libraries ( jstor )
Motivation research ( jstor )
Personality traits ( jstor )
Questionnaires ( jstor )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1994.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 114-125).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Carol Ritzen Kem.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HERZBERG'S
MOTIVATOR/HYGIENE THEORY AND WORK BEHAVIOR TYPES
OF ACADEMIC LIBRARIANS IN FLORIDA








BY

CAROL RITZEN KEM


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY











































Copyright 1994

Carol Ritzen Kem
















Dedicated to

my mother,


Thelma


Summers


Ritzen


and

to the memory of my father,


Franklin


Wheeler


Ritzen













ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The


development


work


from


an assortment


ideas


to a


completed project represents the collaborative efforts of several


deep and most sincere thanks are extended to Dr.


people.


John Nickens, chairman of


supervisory


committee.


will


never


forget


willingness


to take


chance on a stranger.


He was instrumental in helping me focus my ideas and


shape


project,


prodding me


to keep


providing


encouragement


working when


progress


when


was


slow.


needed


a lift


been


advocate for me and


the project,


a source of unrelenting


support,


empathetic mentor.

doctoral advisor.


Dr. Nickens exemplifies to me the best qualities of a true


James


Hensel,


David


Honeyman,


and


Tom


Fillmer


supervisory committee members, have provided advice and expertise critical


to the successful completion of this work.


I both acknowledge their assistance


and thank them for it.


I am also grateful to Dr.


Gordon Lawrence


who first


sparked my interest in


"people types."


John


Dixon,


CIRCA,


provided


invaluable


recommendations


concerning methods of data analysis appropriate for the study.


Brent Coule,


who was initially contacted to provide computer analysis assistance, did that


and more.


He became a friend, developed a personal interest in the project,


and patiently discussed s


statistics with me over a period of several months.







manner


and


professional


expertise,


both


vital


to the


completion


manuscript.


Paula Chain Gebhardt used her exemplary talents to assist me in


the presentation of a professionally edited manuscript.

I am grateful to all the friends and colleagues who encouraged me as I


worked


toward


the completion of the study.


particular


thank Pamela


Pasak Sawallis and


Dolores


Jenkins for


their


steadfast


support


caring


friendship.


Finally


express my


deepest gratitude to my


husband


sons, Reade and Eric.


They


knew I


could and would successfully


complete


this project and


were unwavering in their


love and support throughout the


past several years.















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS..............................................................................................1v

LIST OF TABLES.........................................................................................................viii

LIST OF FIGURES............................................................................................................x


ABSTRA


CHAPTER


Background and Rational


e..........


Statement of the Research Problem........
Delimitations and Limitations ...............
Justification for the Study .......................
Definition of Terms....................................


General Term s .............................
Marcus Paul Placement Profile


Terms


Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Terms......
Organization of the Study.................................................


O organization of the Chapter................................... ...............
Job Satisfaction......................... ..............................................
Definition ........................................................................
H historical O overview ........................................................


Herzberg'


Two-Factor


Theory of Job Satisfaction..


Measuring Job Satisfaction


Work Behavior


Type.................


CT.....................................................................................................................xi


r'lu


IN TRO DUCTION .... .......................... ....... .......... .......................................... 1


REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE .................................................13


Definition ............................










Job Satisfaction of Academic Librarians..................................
Studies Related to Maslow and Herzberg................................
Studies Using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire.
C on clu sion ............................................................................................


Summary....


Organization of the Chapter.......................
Statement of the Research Problem...........


Population...
Procedures...


Data Collection .........
Instrumentation...........


Marcus Paul Placement Profile......


Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire......................................
Statistical Procedures...................................................................
Summary of Design and Methodology............................................


RESULTS AND


Description of the Sample Population..
Research Questions .................................
Summary of Results and Analysis..........


SUMMARY


, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS .......................93


Research Problem and Procedures
Research Questions .... ......................
Research Question One..........
Research Question Two...........


Research Question


Three


Research Question Four..


Implications..


Work


Behavior


Type........


Job Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction.


Recommendations for


Further Research


A 1 _.* e a #"__-* n oif


........50


.. .. .56
...... .63
...... .67
.......68


DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY.. .................................. ......... ................... ........53


. .


ANALYSIS OF DATA ................................ ......... ..........69


A PPEN DIC ES................................................................................................................108
















LIST OF TABLES


Table

1

2

3

4


Page

Response to Survey.... .......... .... .... .................... .......... ...... ....................... .. 71

Characteristics of the Participating Academic Librarians.................. 73

Work Behavior Type by Gender.............................................................74

Mean Score and Standard Deviation by Item,


MSQ Short Form.................


Mean Score and Standard Deviation for Intrinsic, Extrinsic,


and Total Scores, MSQ Short Form ..


............ 78


Factor Loading on Job Satisfaction Items,


MSQ Short Form...


... ... .... ................ .. .......... .............. 80


Simple Correlations Between MSQ Items and


Work Behavior Types................


f .** .*.. .....*. **. .*.*******t 83


Correlation Between the Three Factors on the MSQ and


Work


Behavior


Type...


...... .......... ..................83


Within-set Correlations among the Original Variables............ ........84

Canonical Correlations of Factors and


Work Behavior


Types...


First Canonical Correlational Analysis:


Canonical Coefficients.


First Canonical Correlational Analysis:


a ~ i eL--s t a


Or


..... .... .......... .... .. ........ ...... .... ...77


..................................................................85


.......................................................884











Second Canonical Correlational Analysis:


Canonical Coefficients ...............


Second Canonical Correlational Analysis:
Canonical Structure ..... .. .. ...... ..... ...... .. .... ... .... ......... ... .... .......... ..".....-..9 1


.............................................................89















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure


Maslow'


Bockman'


Herzberg's


Traditional Model of Job Satisfaction .............................. 19

Two-Factor Attitude Model.............................................20

Two-Axis Model..................................................................... 32


Marston's


Marston's Behavioral Description of the Four


Primary Emotions.......


Geier'


....... .. ........t.. ....o........... 36


Revised List of Traits Which Correspond


to the Four Primary Emotions.


Marcus Paul Placement Profile List of Traits........... .................. .........38


Illustration of a Marcus Paul Placement Profile "Box"


Sample MPPP Profile ....... ... ....... .......... ................................................59

Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Scales......................................65


. ......................... ... .. .......37


Page


Hierarchy of Needs ..................................... ..... ............................... 18


..................... 58














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy


THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HERZBERG'S
MOTIVATOR/HYGIENE THEORY AND WORK BEHAVIOR TYPES


ACADEMIC LIBRARIANS IN FLORIDA


By

Carol Ritzen Kem


December


1994


Chairman:


John M.


Nickens


Major Department: Educational Leadership


The problem this study investigated was to relate the Herzberg theory


that job satisfaction and


job dissatisfaction are


affected


by motivators and


hygienes to the theory derived from Nickens and Bauch that motivators and
hygienes are perceived differently by different work behavior types.


specific


questions


were


as follows:


What


are the


academic


librarians work behavior types as measured by the Marcus Paul Placement


Profile


(MPPP)?


What


are the


motivators


hygienes


perceived


academic librarians as reported on the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire









MPPP, relate differently to the motivator and hygiene scores derived from the


MSQ


A group of 350 potential subjects was identified through


in one or more appropriate professional organizations.


membership


The MPPP and the


MSQ were administered


to determine work


behavior type and


to measure


intrinsic, extrinsic, and total job satisfaction.


The potential subjects


were mailed MSQ,


MPPP


, and supplementary


demographic forms along with an explanatory


cover letter.


The letter sent


with the instruments promised the participants the results of their individual


MPPP type analyses,


if they indicated that they wished


to receive them.


summary


of study results


was also offered


to participants.


total of 202


subjects provided usable response sets.


types,


Participants

a finding


were


consi


unevenly


stent


with


divided


most


among


previous


four


studies.


work


behavior


Concentrators


predominated,


followed


producers,


with


inducers


and


energizers


accounting for fewer than 10 percent each of the total sample.


general,


participants


were


satisfied


with


their


jobs


although


differences


between


groups were apparent.


strong relationship between


intrinsic,


or job


content,


scores


was


found


concentrators.


weak


moderate relationship


between some individual MSQ items


producers


was found.

Implications for academic librarians include the use of work behavior

type and factors in job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction for recruitment to the


profession,


placement,


J


development


training,


academic


library














CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


For the majority of adults in the United States today,


factor and defining characteristic of life.


work is a central


More than at any other period in our


history,


paid employment fills a large portion of time for


both


women and


men.


Accordingly, it is even more important to realize that:


In order that people may
things are needed: They m


much of it.


be happy in t
iust be fit for it.


heir work,


these three


They must not do too


And they must have a sense of success in it.
(Ruskin,


1851)


Two of the three things Ruskin set forth as necessary for happiness in one's


work


are major


elements


study-namely,


work


behavior


type,


"fit,"-and job satisfaction, or "sense of success."


Background and Rationale


Research into work behavior and job satisfaction has been conducted

since the early years of the twentieth century when industrial psychologists


such as


Frederick


Taylor (1911) began to show an interest in job satisfaction


studies.


Although


Taylor'


major research interest was


using


time


motion studies


to increase productivity


he did mention


the importance of


human factors in completing tasks (Wellstood,


1984/1985).


About 20 years


1 a --- Tr1 a __ l 1 -. I t 1 1 .






2
/
theory based upon an ascending hierarchy of human needs, beginning with

the lowest order, basic physiological need, and extending through the highest


level,


self-actualization.


Although


lower-order


needs


had


to be


satisfied


before higher-order needs began to assume any importance, when a need was


met, it no longer served


as a motivating force (Maslow


1943).


Maslow'


work


was


a foundation


Herzberg


(1966


Herzberg,


Mausner,


Snyderman,


1959)


who


developed


a two-factor


theory


of job


satisfaction


(Glenn, 1982/1983


Wellstood,


1984/1985).


Two types of work


variables, the motivators and hygiene factors,


were theorized to influence job


satisfaction and job dissatisfaction.


Motivators


, which included achievement,


recognition,


advancement, responsibility, and interest in the work itself were


classed as satisfiers as they exerted a positive effect on workers'


output.


motivators corresponded


to the higher-order needs


in Maslow'


ascending


hierarchy of needs.


Analogous


to Maslow'


lower-order needs


, hygiene factors included


pay, security


supervision and physical working conditions.


The absence of


these factors was limited to job dissatisfaction.


It is critical to recognize that


Herzberg et al.


(1959) emphasized


that the presence of a particular hygiene


factor


necessarily


lead


to job


satisfaction


that


lack


motivator


automatically


create


dissatisfaction.


That


"the


opposite of job satisfaction is not job dissatisfaction, it is an absence of job


satisfaction.


Conversely


opposite


dissatisfaction


is not


satisfaction, it is an absence of job dissatisfaction"


Since the first publication of Herzberg'


(Olson, 1988/1990, p.

theory, hundreds of


32).


studies









aspects


Herzberg'


theory


among


various


groups


including


academic


administrators.


Additional studies (Glenn,


1982/1983; Wellstood,


1984/1985;


Olson, 1988/1990; Poston, 1988/1989; Barber, 1989/1990) added the application


Marcus


Paul


Placement


Profile


(MPPP)


their


studies


medical


technologists,

officers, faculty


vocational


and deans in


educational


admini


strators,


colleges of nursing and


college


placement


cooperative-extension


service mid-level managers.


Three studies (Plate & Stone,


1974


Dahlstrom,


1982; Hamshari,


1985/1986) investigated aspects of the theory in relation to


professional librarians.


Plate and


Stone used the Herzberg "critical incidence


technique"


(Herzberg,


1966)


in an analysis


incidents.


The


study


population

motivational


included

workshops


American


held


Canadian


conjunction


with


librarians

professional


attending

meetings.


They concluded that the theory applied with as much force to librarianship as


to other


occupations


studied.


Hamshari


compared


job satisfaction of


professional librarians in the technical and public service departments in 20


academic


libraries


Jordan.


Dahlstrom


investigated


motivation


participating in continuing education.


He administered a questionnaire to a


random sample of 550 librarians throughout the southwestern


United States


and identified 20 factors that were classed as motivators for participating in


continuing


education.


The


seven


items


that


were


shown


to be


most


significant were identified as Herzberg motivators.

The theory of work behavior types suggests that basic differences in


personality traits may have an impact upon


work behaviors.


Investigators


from


Wundt in the 1890s to Nickens in the


1980s have added to the body of









Marston'


work and


the research of Nickens (1984) and Bauch


(1981)


led to the development of the Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP).


designed


A tool


to determine work behavior type in order to facilitate correct job


placement,

environment


(Holland,


the MPPP is intended for use in

ts. Different personality types e


1959).


both educational and business


!xcel at different types of work


If this construct is accepted, then a successful matching of


jobs and personnel can be expected to increase satisfaction in the worker, lead


to greater


productivity


more


adequately


needs


both


organization and the individual (Nickens, 1984).


Previous


studies have investigated the personal characteristics and the


personality


type


professional


librarians


(Bryan,


1952;


Douglass,


1958;


Morrison,


1961


Clift, 1976; Agada, 1984/1985; David,


1990/1991).


Numerous


studies


have


investigated


aspects


of job


satisfaction among


librarians


example, D'Elia, 1975


Chwe, 1976; Miniter, 1975/1976; Rockman, 1985/1986).


However


no research


studies


were


found


that


specifically


related


satisfaction and work behavior types among librarians, particularly librarians


employed

behavior


institutions of higher


types


academic


education.


librarians


Thus,


a study


potential


work


to add


a new


dimension to knowledge in the area of work behavior and job satisfaction as

well as in the area of characteristics of academic librarians.


Statement of the Research Problem


The problem this


tudy investigated was to relate the Herzberg theory


that iob satisfaction and


dissatisfactinn arp


a ffprtpd


hv mntivatnrc and


. .






5

What are the work behavior types of academic librarians in Florida
as measured by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP)?


What


are the


librarians


motivators


Florida


hygienes


as reported


on the


perceived 1
Minnesota


y academic
Satisfaction


Questionnaire (MSQ)?


factors


derived


from


factor


analysis


MSQ


show


characteristics of motivators and hygienes?

Do the different work behavior type scores of academic librarians in


Florida,


measured


MPPP,


relate


differently


motivator and hygiene scores derived from the MSQ?


Delimitations and


Limitations


In answering the preceding questions,


the following delimitations were


observed:


The


tudy


was


limited


librarians


currently


employed


professional positions in post-secondary institutions in Florida.

The study was limited to librarians holding the Master of Science in
Library Science (MLS) or an appropriate equivalent academic degree.


tudy was


limited


to librarians


with membership


in one or


more of the following professional organizations:


the Association


College


and


Research


Libraries,


American


Library


Association, or the Florida Library


Association.


Information


about


work


behavior


type


was


limited


that


measured by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile.


Information


regarding


satisfaction


satisfaction


was


limited


to those


facets


measured


short-form


Minnesota


Satisfaction Questionnaire.
In addition, the following limitations were inherent in this study:






6



Since this study was limited to academic librarians, it is not possible


generalize


these


findings


other


librarian


other


occupational types.


Justification for the Study


According


to Moran


(1989),


in a paper


tracing


development of


academic libraries from 1939-1989,


academic
sufficient


libraries


have


institutions


evolved


large,


from


relatively


multifaceted


small,


organizations


electronically


interconnected


envisioned fifty years


ago.


and


linked


The librarians who


'I


ways not
work in t


:hese


institutions


. are called upon to have knowledge of processes


and to provide services unforeseen in 1939.


However,


demands


as the


upon librarians,


profession


particularly


librarianship


matured


those in academic institutions,


have


become more complicated, requiring higher levels of education and training,


15 professional schools of library science have closed since 1978 (Paris,


and the number of new entrants to the profession is declining.


1990)


With only 52


institutions


now


offering


graduate


training


library


science


and/or


information science and a number of states and large metropolitan areas with


no library


schools


it is


logistically more


difficult in


United


States


become a librarian than a lawyer (there are 180 law schools) or a physician, as


students can select from


142 medical


schools


(Manley,


1991).


Some in


profession believe these negative factors can be balanced in part by the more

diverse backgrounds of those individuals who do enter the profession and by


advanced


level


educational


niatta m en t


xe hibited


at least


-- -- -






7

which the modal entrant is a white female in her mid-thirties who majored

in English, education or history" (p. 102).

The basic studies on the personality of the librarian date back to the


period from


1952 to


1961.


Only one substantive study has been completed


within


years


(David,


1990/1991).


Although


studies


satisfaction among librarians abound, some are of negligible value because of


simplistic


statistical


analyses,


poorly


designed


research


methods


questionable population samples.


Research into the work behavior type of


librarians is generally only addressed as a minor factor in studies designed for

other purposes.

Of particular interest to the proposed study is the finding reported by


Lynch and


Verdin


(1983)


that


"new entrants


. into


the profession report


some


lowest


levels


satisfaction"


445).


They


find


troublesome


suggest


several


possible


explanations


finding,


including problems of accommodation


to working within an organizational


context,


difficulty with


work-flow


demands,


the nature of


"entry-


level work for professionals in large research libraries [which] may be more


routine and non-professional than librarians expect" (p.


446).


Studies of


announcements


academic library


positions


reveal


increasingly


stringent


educational


requirements


including


advanced


academic degrees, subject specialization and language capability (Creth, 1989).


According to Moore (1981),


a glut in subject Ph.D.


's and master'


degrees led


many academic libraries to add either a requirement or a preference for these


degrees


to job


descriptions


reasoning


that


, given


market


, they


^ / V J~


could


[job]









profession


may


expect


that


their


advanced


academic


credentials


subject specialization


will


translate into


more


professional


responsibilities


lack of


a match


between


expectation and


reality may


lead


to job


dissatisfaction or, in extreme cases, to highly trained individuals prematurely


leaving the profession.


Reporting on a study of librarians


10 years after their


graduation,


White (1990) wrote:


"The graduates


report that


... they


thought they knew what their preference for both type of library and type of


work was before they enrolled in library


school.


By the time they graduated, a


significant percentage had changed their minds"


(p. 61).


More importantly,


White continues


"almost


half


. end


doing something


different from


what they

specialized


originally


preparation,


thought


recent


they would


graduates


ibidd).


appeared


Further,


to be selected


terms of


for first


professional positions almost casually,


with employers later complaining that


new hires did not possess sufficient specialized skills (White and Mott, 1990).

Given the ever increasing costs of recruitment and training, it would seem to


be in


best interest of


academic


libraries


to attempt to determine what


aspects of work will provide satisfaction for librarians or, at a minimum, at

least to avoid those aspects that cause dissatisfaction.


According to Geier (1979),


people in


working situations


exhibit


specific qualities and patterns of behaviors.


If individuals are provided with


information about their particular work behavior styles and are placed into


jobs


that


require


encourage


those


styles,


opportunity


satisfaction and success in employment will be increased.


In addition, the


possibility that an employee may become frustrated and leave a specific job or









academic libraries it


appeared


that a study


combining the theory


of work


behavior type and the theory of job satisfaction would be of great potential


value


to the


profession.


Such


a study


been


conducted


among


librarians in general or among academic librarians in particular.


Research in


area


could


use


recruitment


profession


assignment of responsibilities


to positions in


the profession.


Further


tudy may add


to current knowledge of work behavior type by studying a


population that has not previously been studied in this manner.


Definition of Terms


General


Terms


Academic


librarian


refers


a professional


librarian


currently


employed in an academic library in Florida.


Academic


library refers to the library of a post-secondary institution


(community or junior college, college or university) in Florida.


American


Library


Association is the major professional organization


for librarians in the United States.


Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) is a division of


American


Library


Association


with


approximately


11,000


members


nationwide.

Factors refers to any of the six motivators or eight hygienes descriptive


those


facets


which


dissatisfaction (Herzberg et al.,


may
1959).


contribute


satisfaction


or job


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include, for example, company policies,


working conditions, supervision and


administration and co-worker relationships.


content


refers


to factors


such


as achievement,


advancement,


recognition, responsibility and the work itself.


When present in a job,


they


are related to job satisfaction.


context refers


to factors


such as


pay, security, supervision, and


physical working conditions which, when absent from a job, are linked to job

dissatisfaction.


Tob dissatisfaction refers to feelings associated with


"the built-in drive


to avoid


pain


from


environment,


plus


learned


drives


which


become conditioned to the basic biological needs"


(Herzberg, 1966, p. 28).


Tob satisfaction is the positive effect derived from those factors which
most often contribute to higher needs (Herzberg et al., 1959).

Motivators refers to factors which contribute to employee satisfaction


and are related to the job content portion of work.
achievement, responsibility and recognition.


They include, for example,


Professional


librarian


refers


an individual


holding


master


degree in library science from a program accredited by the American Library


Association.


That


"the


master


degree


is the


minimum


educational


requirement for employment in a professional program"


(Robbins,


1990, p.


Marcus Paul Placement Profile


Terms


Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP) is an instrument developed by






1

Energizer type (result oriented),


1


a work behavior type which describes


an individual


who


typically


assertive,


direct,


impatient


with


detail,


interested in getting results and quite creative in the work situation.


Inducer type


(veople-oriented),


a work behavior type which indicates


an individual who is sensitive and optimistic and who places more emphasis

on interpersonal relations and getting things accomplished within the group

rather than on the organization itself.


Concentrator


tvvpe (technically


oriented),


a work behavior type which


indicates an individual who is a loyal,

patient, systematic, and effective.

Producer type (quality oriented),


steady worker and who tends to be


a work behavior type which indicates


an individual


who


strives


quality,


follows


guidelines


carefully


supports his/her work and decisions with documentation.


Work


behavior


refers


a description


categorizing


individual'


general qualities and predisposing behavior traits as they relate


to the work situation and are defined by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile.


Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire


Terms


lob satisfaction


score refers to a participant'


score on the Minnesota


Satisfaction Questionnaire.


The short-form MSQ yields the following three


scores, extrinsic, intrinsic and general.


Extrinsic


Scale


context


score


short-form


MSQ


determined


by summing


the individual scores of 6 of the 20 items on


measure.


type









General


Satisfaction


Scale


is a score


determined


summing


individual scores on all 20 of the items on the short-form MSQ.


Minnesota Satisfaction


Questionnaire (MSO),


or the short-form MSQ,


a 20-item


measure


consisting


statements


about


various


aspects


person


's job


which


an individual


asked


to rate on


a 5-point scale with


responses


ranging from


"not satisfied"


through


"extremely satisfied."


scales utilize descriptors derived from the work of Herzberg.


Organization of the Studv


The remainder of the study is organized into four chapters.


A review


literature


presented


Chapter


Included


are major


areas of


research


and


related


literature


relevant


satisfaction


and


dissatisfaction, and


the development


of the


theory


of work


behavior type.


The chapter concludes with a review of the literature on these topics as they

relate to academic librarians.

The design and methodology of the study are presented in Chapter HIII.


Research design, population, data collection,


instrumentation and procedures


are addressed.


Chapter IV


contains the results and analysis of the data collected from


the Marcus Paul Placement Profile, the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire


and the demographic and career information questions.


The data specific to


each question presented in the study are addressed and discussed.


Chapter


includes a


summary


the study,


conclusions


about the


findings. and recommendations for additional rpsparrh















CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Organization of the Chapter


This review covers three areas.

of research on job satisfaction. The s


The first section presents an overview

secondd section reviews the research and


theories leading to the development of work behavior types and the Marcus


Paul Placement Profile.


The final section provides a synthesis of the research


satisfaction,


personality


type


work


behavior


and


career


development as related to academic librarians.


Tob Satisfaction


Definition


According


to Chwe


(1976),


more


than


5,000


articles,


books,


and


dissertations were written on the subject of job satisfaction from the 1930s to


the mid-1970s.


the effective management of human resources is one of


the most important tasks for any organization, it is not surprising to find such


a large and varied volume of research focused on this subject.


If the activities


employees


are to contribute


to the


realization


organizational


goals,


successful


management,


including


direction


motivation,


important.


Thus,


research


on employees


variety


work


situations


been


A .1 .. ,.. : c 4 La...: nt an -


/-'/^Tt/"I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ An C1 Yt t(/^- fW ^ W ^.~-f ~^^-






14

job satisfaction is the pleasurable emotional state resulting from


the appraisal
achievement of


one


one


's job


as achieving


values, and


facilitating


job dissatisfaction is


unpleasurable emotional


state


resulting from


appraisal


one's job values or as entailing disvalues.


316)


Most


researchers


determine


their


own


operational


definition


(Gruneberg, 1979).


For example, Wanous and Lawler (1972) list nine different


operational

satisfaction


definitions


including


each


need


related


fulfillment,


a different


equity


theoretical


and


work


basis of


values


while


Bockman (1971) described the traditional theory of job satisfaction as being the


total body of feeling an individual has about his or her job.


Porter and Steers


(1973)


defined


satisfaction


as the


"sum


total


an individual'


expectations


on the


job"


167)


while


Smith


Kendall


, and


Hulin


(1969)


defined


concept


as "feeling


or affective


responses


to facets


situation


According to O'Reilly and Roberts (1975),


individual traits


referred


to as


"personality"


are obvious antecedents


to job satisfaction.


particularly relevant definition for this study


that of Davis (1977) because he


related


the degree of job


satisfaction


to the fit between an employee and a


particular job.


Davis


tated that


satisfaction


favorableness


which employees view their work.


or unfavorableness


with


It results when there is a fit


between


characteristics


wants


employees.


expresses the amount of congruence between one'


of the job and the rewards that the job provides.


expectation


(p. 74)


It is


important


to distinguish


term


satisfaction


from


morale.


satisfaction is an individual state of mind and refers


to the response of an


individual


to the job


whereas morale is


the feeling of


commitment to and









satisfaction


and


those


that


determine


motivation


different;


thus,


"satisfaction reflects an employee'


attitude toward the job while motivation


refers to a drive to perform" (Glenn, 1982/1983, p.


Historical Overview


Interest in job satisfaction and


phenomenon.


the quality of work life is not a recent


Davis (1971) asserted concern with job satisfaction was evident


in industry over 1


years ago.


Initially, psychologists studied job satisfaction


as a factor in increasing the productivity of workers.


Frederick


Taylor (1911)


introduced


principles


scientific


management


to work


settings


applying


results


compartmentalized


time


work


tasks


motion


an effort


studies.


increase


simplified
efficiency


and,


correspondingly, the productivity of workers.


Taylor also called attention to


the importance of the human element as a factor in job success.


According to


Nauratil (1989),


"Taylorism,"


or scientific management,


was widely accepted


libraries


early


years


20th


century.


The


philosophy


was


advocated by


Melvil Dewey who even urged librarians to


"keep a watch or


clock hanging before you" (p.


1927


Elton


Mayo


(1933)


began


a series


experiments


which


stimulated


development


Human


Relations


School


organizational


psychology and occupational sociology.


The studies, named


Hawthorne


involved


plant


manipulation


Western


various


Electric


physical


Company


conditions,


such


Chicago,

as light,


temperature control, rest,


work hours and payment systems in an attempt to









and attention from supervisors (Glasgow, 1982).


The studies, which ended in


1932, were later speculated to be invalid (Gruneberg, 1979).


However, they are


significant


historical


interest


because of


importance


Human


Relations


School


in psychological


research.


According


to this


body


thought,


"satisfied


workers are more productive


than


dissatisfied


workers,


and job satisfaction is influenced by


human relationships


within work


organizations" (Glasgow


1982, p. 5).


Two important early


studies of job satisfaction


took place during the


1930s.


Kornhauser and Sharp (1932)


tudied a group of female factory workers


isolated


supervision"


as the


major


factor related


to job


dissatisfaction.


Further, they found


that negative feelings caused by poor


supervision influenced


other areas.


Another early study


of job satisfaction


involved 500 teachers who were questioned about different aspects of their


jobs.


Hoppock (1935) analyzed the 100 most satisfied and the 100 least satisfied


responses and concluded


that job satisfaction consisted of many factors, the


presence of which in a work situation led to satisfaction whereas their absence


to job


dissatisfaction.


Based


on his


research,


he formulated


a theory


suggesting that satisfaction and dissatisfaction form a continuum.
Following World War II, interest in job satisfaction research developed


into an interdisciplinary approach with


ome emphasis on


problem-solving


relationship


between


employee


satisfaction


and


performance


(Brayfield & Crockett, 1955).


1957


, Frederick Herzberg and his associates published an important


review of the literature of job satisfaction research.


Herzberg et al., challenged


"character









methodology was improved.


With a variety of additional related issues such


as the psychological characteristics of workers under investigation, the decade


1970s


saw


satisfaction


research


well


established


interdisciplinary


field.


Many


major


theories


satisfaction


were


developed

hierarchy

fulfillment


between


theory


theory,


1950s


two-factor


equity


theory,


early


theory


group


1980s.


"They


need-fulfillment


theory,


and


include


theory


perception


need-


value-


theory"


(Glasgow, 1982,


These theories have been classified as either content or


process
theorists


theories

were


(Campbell,

interested i


Dunnette


Lawler


determining


those


Weik, 1970).

factors related


Content


motivation

explain job


an individual


satisfaction in


to work while process theorists attempted


terms of the interaction between the individual's


needs and what the job actually offers" (Wellstood, 1984/1985,


p. 15).


Abraham


Maslow's


(1943)


general


theory


motivation


need-


hierarchy theory, is a major content theory and has been used as a frame of


reference for many job satisfaction


studies.


Maslow stated that man has five


basic categories of needs arranged in an ascending hierarchy of five levels.
Lower-order needs were (a) physiological needs, (b) safety and security needs,


(c) social


(affection) needs.


Higher-order needs were (d)


the need for


esteem


, including


need


mastery


achievement


along


with


recognition and approval and (e) the need for self-actualization, that is,


desire to be all one is capable of being.


Although lower-order needs had to be


met before higher-order needs assumed importance, the satisfaction of a need
removed it as a motivator. (Figure 1)






18






SELF-
ACTUAL-
IZATION:
to become
everything that
one is capable of
becoming
(measure up to one's
own criteria for success)


ESTEEM NEEDS:
self-respect, positive
self-evaluation, prestige
(dependent on others)


BELONGINGNESS AND LOVE NEEDS:
love, affection, friends, companionship
(dependent on self and others)


SAFETY NEEDS:
protection from the elements
(dependent on self and others)


PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS:


hunger, thirst, sex, et
(dependent on self)


Figure 1.


Maslow'


Hierarchy of Needs


Note.
iob s<


Adapted from An application of the refomulated (Herzberg) theory of


satisfaction


to selected


administrative


affairs


taff in


Florida


State


University System, by A. P


. Kozal, 1979.


Maslow's


theory concerned


the relationship of each need level


to the


I









or the ability to become all one is capable of becoming (Maslow, 1943).


Thus,


the need-hierarchy


theory is


based


on the


idea


that


lower-order needs are


never totally satisfied.


Deprivation of satisfaction over time causes the needs


to evolve into strong motivators.


contrast,


higher-order needs


must


continuously


sought


are seldom


completely


satisfied.


an article


entitled


"The


Herzberg


Controversy,"


Bockman


(1971)


discussed


traditional theory or the total body of feeling an individual has about a job,


which includes both job-related and environment-related factors.


The feeling


moves


along


a single


continuum


between


satisfaction


dissatisfaction.


Neutrality


a condition


which


an individual


neither


satisfied


dissatisfied, is mid-way on the continuum.


(Figure 2)


Job Factors


Negative or Absent


Positive or Present


Dissatisfaction Neutrality Satisfaction


Figure 2.


Bockman's


Traditional Model of Job Satisfaction


Deprivation


pay,


recognition,


some


other


factor


will


move


individual toward


the negative end.


salary, will cause positive movement.


The improvement of a factor, such as

Finally, if the presence of a variable in


the work situation leads to job satisfaction, one could logically expect that its

absence would lead to job dissatisfaction.









associated


with


feelings


dissatisfaction.


Herzberg


and


associates,


employing the critical incident method developed by Flanagan (1954), tested


concept


male


engineers


and


accountants


Pittsburgh,


Pennsylvania.


From these data, Herzberg et al. (1959) developed the theory of


job attitudes called the


Two-Factor


Theory or the Motivator-Hygiene


Theory.


Since


1959


, the


Two-Factor


Theory


been


used


extensively


satisfaction


research.


emphasis


on the


contribution


psychological


growth


to job


satisfaction


and


recognition


that


opportunities


psychological


growth


can


found


within


work


itself


particular


importance in the development of general job satisfaction theory.


Two-


Factor


Theory


states


that


motivation


does


exist


on a continuum,


postulated


Hoppock,


consists


continue,


satisfiers


motivators


, and job dissatisfiers,


or hygienes.


(Figure 3)


(Satisfiers/
Motivators)


Satisfaction


No Satisfaction


(Dissatisfiers/


No Dissatisfaction


Hygienes)


Dissatisfaction


Figure 3.


Herzberg'


Two-Factor Attitude Model


Cummings and El Salmi


(1968) divided


the Herzberg theory into the


r* a a


Lrr


n ~H nnw ~n ~









The opposite of job satisfaction is not job dissatisfaction; it is no job


satisfaction
satisfaction


Conversely, the opposite of job dissatisfaction is not job


,it is no job dissatisfaction.


satisfaction


determined


feeling


employee


towards
factors


content


ire classified


of his job or job environment.


Content job


achievement, recognition, advancement,


responsibility and work itself.


These factors were mentioned most


often by those interviewed as factors that gave the most satisfaction.

Job dissatisfaction is determined by the feelings the individual has


toward
policy


the context of his job.


and


administration,


Context factors include:


technical


aspects


company


supervision,


interpersonm
conditions.


al


relations


with


supervision,


salary


and


working


These factors were mentioned most often as causing the


employee the most dissatisfaction.
133)


(Cummings & El Salmi,


1968, p.


Motivators


responsibility


such


and interest in


achievement


, recognition,


work itself were


advancement


intrinsic factors


which,


when present in a job,


productivity.

recognition.


acted as satisfiers with a positive effect on employee


Of the motivators, achievement was the strongest, followed by


The motivators corresponded to Maslow'


higher-order needs.


The six motivators or satisfiers as defined by Herzberg et al. (1959) and

Herzberg (1966) follow:

1. Advancement refers to actual changes in the status or position of an


individual in an organization.


It also includes the probability of or


hope of advancement.

Achievement refers to all events that lead toward realization of the
worker's personal objectives (successful completion of a job, finding


a solution to a problem, or seeing the results of one'


own work).


The definition also includes the opposite-failure to achieve.


Recognition


comprises


acts


praise


and/or


notice


(positive


. .


- ~ I- -~ t 1.. 1 ~ ~ ~ -- 2 t2 -' -. .3 tt. 1 -


,.










Responsibility relates to authority and includes those sequences of


events


in which


the worker mentioned satisfaction


derived from


being given responsibility for his own work or the work of others,


or being
incidents


given


new


in which


responsibility.


there


was


Also


a loss of


included


were


satisfaction from


those


lack


responsibility.

Possibility of Growth refers to growth in specific skill areas as well as


growth


in status


which


would


enable


individual


move


onward and upward in a company.


This factor also encompasses


the lack of opportunity for growth. (Herzberg, 1966,


pp. 193-198)


Hygiene


factors


included


security,


supervision


physical


working conditions and corresponded to Maslow'


lower-order needs.


They


were extrinsic to the job and, when absent, linked to dissatisfaction.


Herzberg


and his associates made it very clear, however "that the presence of a hygiene


factor


doesn't automatically produce


satisfaction and


the absence of


motivator doesn't necessarily lead to dissatisfaction" (Wellstood, 1984/1985, p.

16).

The eight hygienes or dissatisfiers as defined by Herzberg (1966) are as

follows:


Salary


includes


compensation


sequences


events


which


SOI


(wage or salary increase) plays a role.


ne type of
Unfulfilled


expectations of a salary increase are also included in this category.


Working


condition


refers to the physical conditions of work and


facilities


available


performing


work


(adequate


tools


space, lighting and ventilation).


Supervision-technical


includes


those


events


which


competence or incompetence of the supervisor is the critical factor.


Statements concerning a supervisor'


willingness or unwillingness


to delegate


responsibility


or his


willingness


or unwillingness


v






23



Company policy and administration includes factors in which some


overall


aspect


company


involved.


Herzberg


(1959)


identified two types:


of a company'


the first concerns the adequacy or inadequacy


organization and management; the second involves


the positive or negative effects of the company'


personnel policies.


Status


refers


to the sequence of


events


in which


the respondent


specifically mentioned


that a


change in status affected his or


feelings about the job (attaining a larger office, use of a company car
or having a personal secretary).


. Personal


life involves situations


which some aspect of the job


affects


individual'


personal


in such


a manner


that


respondent'


feelings about his job are affected


(a family-opposed


job transfer).

Tob security refers to signs of job security (continued employment,


tenure


financial


safeguards).


Feelings


alone of


security


insecurity were not accepted.


Herzberg stated


(Herzberg, 1966, pp.


that there could be situations in


193-198)

which a motivator


could act as a hygiene and vice-versa (Herzberg et al.,


1959).


After


12 studies


involving


percent


1,685


employees,


all factors


related


however,

Sto job s


Herzberg

satisfaction


(1966:

were


) concluded

motivators


that


while 69


percent of all factors related to job dissatisfaction were hygienes.

Salary was difficult to classify in the original study as it appeared in


reports


labeled


satisfaction


as well


as in reports of high


satisfaction.


Researchers concluded that the former reports were related to employees who

felt they deserved higher pay or that increases were not based on performance


while


latter


were


from


employees


who


increases


were


based


performance and that their own salaries were fair (Herzberg et al.,


1959).


Herzberg's


theory


been


very


popular.


Since


first


published


S* I I --


-^ ,






24


Burr (1980/1981) listed 13 studies conducted over a 10-year period in the


field of education alone.


Between 1982 and 1991, at least 56 dissertations have


dealt to some extent with Herzberg'


theory.


Of these, approximately 15 were


related


to higher


education


faculty


or staff.


Only


three


were


related


librarians (Dahlstrom, 1982


Hamshari, 1985/1986;


Timmons, 1991).


Initially


criticism of Herzberg's theory focused on the narrow range of


jobs


investigated,


the absence of reliability and


validity


data,


the lack of a


measure


overall


satisfaction


use


only


one


attitude


measure for overall job satisfaction (Burr,


1980/1981).


Although replication


studies rendered most of these criticisms moot (Herzberg et al,


1959), other


critics claimed


that the


"theory is bound by its methodology


that only one


method, the critical incident method, could provide empirical support for [it]"


(Burr, 1980/1981,


p. 38).


Herzberg refuted this criticism by stating that "the fact


that another method of testing motivation-hygiene theory has not supported


it is meaningless unless it can be demonstrated that such a method i


valid


appropriate.


One cannot logically


employ


a typing


skill


measure


and


use


results


to evaluate


theory


intellectual


development" (Herzberg, 1976, p.


246).


Work and Motivation,


Vroom


(1964) wrote that the results of the


critical-incident


method


were


due


defensive


processes


within


individuals interviewed.


Further


he criticized the methods used as neither


correlational nor experimental.


Although


there


been


trong


reaction


Herzberg'


Two-Factor


Theory,


it has led to the analysis of specific work characteristics in studies of









Measuring Tob Satisfaction


Typically


satisfaction


been


measured


an objective,


descriptive


or a projective


survey.


Objective


surveys


generally


contain


questions with pre-determined responses while descriptive surveys are more

subjective, allowing for unstructured replies through open-ended questions.


Projective surveys


are devised


psychologists


or psychiatrists


assess


mental health and are not normally used in a work setting (Glenn, 1982/1983;


Wellstood, 1984/1985).


The critical incident technique used by Herzberg was a


form of descriptive survey.


Thomas (1977),


Kozal (1979), and Burr (1980/1981)


used modified

college, college,


versions


university


technique


administrators


their

and


studies


community


staff members.


Glenn


(1982/1983)


standardized


and


Wellstood


(1984/1985)


both


measures of job satisfaction and


reported

selected


lack


many


Descriptive


Index (JDI) to measure job satisfaction and dissatisfaction for their studies of
vocational education administrators and medical technologists, respectively.


Olson


(1988/1990) used


the Minnesota Satisfaction


Questionnaire (MSQ) in


his study of college placement officers.
In a comparison of the JDI and the MSQ, Robert Gulon wrote in The
Eighth Mental Measurements Yearbook that both were the result of research


in the


1960s


, had an underlying rationale,


provided reliable scores, showed


evidence


construct


validity


were


extensively


normed


. 1680).


Campbell et al.,


(1970), in reviewing the


JDI, stated


that "nowhere do


authors] mention
vs. extrinsic factors.


Herzberg'


two-factor theory and the notion of intrinsic


It would have been interesting to


see how they relate









The MSQ is one of several measures


developed in


conjunction


with


Minnesota


Studies


Vocational


Rehabilitation


as they


are better


known


, the Work Adjustment Project.


The studies


began in


1957 with two


objectives,


development


diagnostic


tools


assessing


work


adju


stment


rehabilitation,


'potential'


and


of applicant
evaluation of


work


vocational
adjustment


outcomes. These primary goals are embodied in ... the Theory
of Work Adjustment [which] uses the correspondence or lack of


it between the work personality and


the work environment as


principal


reason


explanation


observed


work


adjustment outcomes


satisfactorinesss, satisfaction, and tenure).


Work adjustment is predicted by matching an individual'


work


personality


with


England & Lofquist, 1967,


work
p.v)


environments.


(Weiss,


Davis


The MSQ is a paper and pencil inventory.

employee's satisfaction with his or her job. The


information on the aspects of job


It is designed to measure an

; MSQ provides more specific


satisfaction than do more general measures.


It is available in both long and short form and is suitable for distribution
through the mail, as it is self-administering with directions on the first page.

A detailed description of the MSQ is provided in Chapter II.


D'Elia (1975


1979) was the first investigator to use the MSQ to measure


the job satisfaction of librarians.


Chrisman


(1975),


Chwe (1976;


1978), and


Rockman (1984;


1985/1986) also used it,


with D'Elia and Rockman selecting


the short form while Chwe used the long form.


Chwe felt strongly that the


short form should be used for subjects with high educational levels, such as


librarians


(Chwe


1976


The


MSQ


is appropriate


use


with


individuals who can read


at the fifth grade level or higher.


The


100-item









Work Behavior


Type


Definition


Neff (1969) describes adult work behavior as "the complex product of a


long


series


of learned


habitual


styles


perceiving


coping


with


demands


environment


That


an individual


coping


behaviors consolidate to form a particular work style.


Industrial Psychology

The field of industrial psychology developed specifically to explore the


behaviors


people


work


environment.


Researchers


claimed


that


work be

separate


?havior


theories


a distinctive


to explain


area


human


behavior


behavior


people


which


at work


(Ne


requires
ff, 1969;


Wellstood


,1984/1985).


Historically


industrial


psychologists


have


viewed


entry into a field from the organization'


perspective rather than from that of


individual.


Although


"from


an organizational


standpoint,


questions


concerning the matching of a


job candidate'


abilities


to organizational


requirements


[are]


more


important


than


individual'


perspective


matching


individuals


jobs


that


right


them


important"


(Wellstood, 1984/1985, p. 43).
Recruitment and training costs are a practical reason to be aware of the


match between organization and individual.


"When an employee leaves the


organization, a drain is placed on the recruiting/training budget, and there is


much loss of time and


productivity"


(Nickens,


1984


Further, a


"job-


employee mismatch"


causes both emnlovee and administrator to Pxnerience






28


personnel do not meet organizational standards and, of those who survive


the first year, almost 44 percent leave during the second year.


This is both an


enormous


financial


drain


organization


and


an emotional


financial problem for the individual.


Although the majority of employers state that their


human resources


are their most important asset, organizations typically do not substantiate this


claim (Jelinik, 1979).


She writes that "employees may be used ineffectively in


sense


that


their


existing


skills,


knowledge,


aptitudes


are poorly


matched with the requirements of their jobs


. .


the abilities


. of employees


also are often underutilized in terms of what they are expected to do in their


jobs"


287).


Jelinik


further


states


that


"even


most


sophisticated


organizations


are relative


novices


when


comes


proper


development and utilization of human beings" ibidd).


Evolution of Work Behavior Types


The study of work


behavior traits and


types as


they


are understood


today began with the work of William Moulton Marston, a psychologist and


scientist who published Emotions of Normal People in 1928.


Marston built


early


theories


on the


work


German


psychologist


Wundt,


who


established the first official psychology laboratory in 1879. He is considered

the founder of experimental psychology because of his research with nerve,


muscle and emotional responses (Olson,


1988/1990).


Wundt departed from


the view, then current, that pleasantness and unpleasantness are the only two


emotions


proposed


addition


four


other


emotions:


excitement









Marston


also


reviewed


work


Jung


who,


book,


Psychological


Types,


wrote


about


clusters


characteristics


"collective unconscious"


that helps to mold


the personality and behavior of


an individual.


Jung


emphasized


that people


choose


a dominant attitude


toward life:


introversion,


which is an orientation toward inner processes, or


extroversion, which is an orientation toward the external world of people and


events.


conscious


also


values


viewed


human


unconscious


personality


values


terms


sublimation


and


polarities:

repression,


rational and irrational functions and the previously mentioned introversion


and extroversion.


Finally, Jung wrote that each person has only four ways in


which


to orient


toward


world:


"rational"


functions


thinking


(recognizing meaning) and feeling (experiencing pleasure or pain) and two


"irrational"


functions


sensation


or perceiving


by means


of unconscious


and subliminal processes (Jung, 1923).


Through


review


work


of Wundt and


Jung


and


based


research


into


motation


(emotions


as measured


motor


consciousness,


nerve, and muscle response),


Marston


(1927


1928) identified four primary


emotions


which


termed


dominance,


compliance,


inducement


and


submission.


He defined a primary emotion as "an emotion which contained


the maximal amount of alliance, antagonism, [and] superiority of


strength of


the motor self in respect to the motor stimulus" (Marston, 1928, p. 106).


Marston


(1927)


then


defined


dominance


"central


release


additional motor energy directed


toward dominating obstacles to a reaction


already in progress" (p.


349).


He continued


it is


"an increase of the self to


r






30

triumphs, the creation of art or music and the primary emotion of infants in


their first


three


years


are all


examples of


dominant


behavior


or emotion.


(Wellstood,


1984/1985


Nickens


1984).


However


emotion


uncontrolled


, it may be viewed negatively.


In a person with a position of


authority


such


behavior


may


cause


dissatisfaction


or unhappiness


subordinates.


Compliance, according to Marston


(1927), ranks as a basic emotional


response.


"Compliance means


control


(but not inhibition)


of tonic motor


discharge reinforcement by a phasic reflex" (p. 350).


Marston (1928) further


defined compliance as a

decrease of the motor self to let an opponent move the organism


as if by will; either passively,


dominant


activity, or


actively


by making the self give up some
, by compelling the organism to


move


In some


anti-dominant


way


. l [It


feeling


acceptance of


an object or


force


as inevitably just what it is,


followed by self-yielding sufficient to bring about harmonious
readjustment of self to object. (p. 183)


Compliance

surrender.


may


occur


because


sudden


change,


fear


or voluntary


An individual may believe or come to recognize that forces of


stimuli


outside


oneself


stronger


than


internal


forces.


Intense


conditioning,


or repeated


environmental


stimuli,


may


lead


to compliance


just as moderate repetitious


punishment may produce compliance while a


harsh occasional punishment may not (Nickens,


1984).


Marston


(1927)


tated


that submission


was


a "voluntary yielding to


whatever


stimuli


may


imposed.


does


seem


to overwhelm,


dominate the subject organism by force, but rather brings about a spontaneous









takes


form


consideration


service


other


selflessness,


accommodation and generosity" (Wellstood,


1984/1985, p. 34).


Inducement can be seen by observing the behavior of individuals who


gain voluntary submission from others.


Marston's 1928 definition states that


inducement consists of an increase of the self, and making of the


self more


completely


allied


with


the stimulus


person,


purpose of establ
The definite cha
utterly necessary


fishing control


racteristic


win


over that person's behavior.


induceme
voluntary


is a feeling


submission


that


of another


person to do what the subject says.


This feeling [is] increasingly


pleasant in proportion as the other person submits.


273)


Inducement


may


involve


"persuasion,


personal


charm,


friendlines


frequently seduction or subtle manipulation


. Every positive relationship


contains


some


inducement


behavior,


there


must


inducement


submission for alliance to occur"


(Nickens,


1984,


In modern


culture,


advertising is an example of inducement.


Marston


's Two-Axis Model


Marston


illustrated


four


emotions


as forming


a two-axis


model


with dominance and compliance constituting one axis and inducement and


submission constituting the second axis.


Individuals attempt to maintain a


balance between


the extremes of


each axis and


the point of balance varies


which, according to Marston, explains differences in behavioral tendencies.


In Marston


's model, as seen in Figure 4,


dominance and


compliance


form one axis.


Inducement and submission form the second axis.


The two


emotions of each


pair are located at opposite ends of a continuum and are


e an arl krr i-i, a"t A*< a wnn a^ t nf an ^t, a^ Va 4% 4 -^^ yr av -f- n4 ta a -^ n'* 4 ^ tw a- r. A 1 i-i












Dominance


Inducement


Active


Process


Orientation






Passive
Orientation


Orientation



m m m m m S m *


Product
Orientation


Submission


Compliance


Figure 4.


Marston'


Two-Axis Model


Note.


From The Marcus Paul


Placement Profile


Work


Behavior


Analysis by J.


M. Nickens, 1984.


axes


are divided


horizontally.


The


active component and


outward


orientation


are seen


in the


upper


dimensions


dominance


inducement while the lower dimension includes the inward orientation and

the passive component made up of submission and compliance.

Geier (1979) both updated and clarified some of Marston's terminology.

He defined the four emotions as follows:









Submission
environment.


passive


aggressiveness


favorable


Inducement
environment.


active


positive


movement


favorable


(p. 2)


He also added the idea that persons whose traits cluster predominantly in the


upper dimension of the model have a process orientation.


These individuals


"want to shape the environment according to


their particular view.


are individuals who continually test and push the limits"


ibidd, p.


These

Those


people whose traits cluster in the lower dimension are more product-oriented

and "focus on the how and why" ibidd).


The


dimensions


Marston


Two-Axis


Model


indicate


behavioral


tendencies.


The behavior traits of an individual tend


to cluster around one


dimension more than the others but each individual exhibits some or all of

the types of behavior to at least some degree.


The inability of Marston's


model to explain the simultaneous presence


of feelings of dominance and compliance and of inducement and submission


has been cited as the major limitation of the model.


Interpretations that fac-


tor in environmental considerations as influences are


, however,


worth con-


sideration. According to Nickens (1984),


"people will display work behavior


that


is not


normal.


normal


Thus,


them


when


this is not the normal


induces


behavior


pressures


. and


beyond

beyond


theory.


However


, behaving


differently


under


different


circumstances


normal" (p.


Clustered Traits


. is









researchers (Allport & Odbert, 1936; Cattell, 1946; Geier, 1967


1979


, 1980) sub-


stantiated trait clusters


, with Geier (1980) reporting that "many of Marston'


suggested adjectives for each of his four emotions had correlated together at


least R


= .60"


Marston's


model has a non-pathological orientation


with four categories supported by cluster traits.


This is in contrast to other


theories


which


are pathologically


oriented


and


contain


multiple


clusters


(Wellstood,


1984/1985; Nickens,


1984).


Marston'


non-pathological orienta-


tion makes the model particularly appropriate for work behavior analysis as

work is a normal activity for adults.

Geier (1980) stated that "one must consider semantic change, or change


of meaning.


Then


, too, some words acquire negative connotations over time,


or with much repetition have lost their original vividness and become worn


and faded"


(p. 12).


Accordingly,


he built on the work of Marston (1927


1928)


and Alpert and Odbert (1936) in developing an updated list of traits.


whole, most traits were listed as adjectives


On the


which made them easier to review


Figure 6.


Marcus Paul Placement Profile


and use in additional research.


Geier'


list of clustered traits is presented in


Building theoretically on Marston'


model and Geier'


research, Bauch


(1981)


Nickens


(1984)


developed


Marcus


Paul


Placement


Profile


(MPPP).


The instrument was designed to measure work behavior type for the


purpose of matching individuals and jobs.


Counseling, career development,


recruitment


placement,


training,


team


building,


enhancement






35

individuals possess a variety of qualities and patterns of behavior in any work


situation (Glenn, 1982/1983,


Bauch (1981) did not view work behavior traits and types as judgments


of work


behaviors


but rather


as terms


that


could


used


to increase


understanding of work behavior, to the benefit of both the organization and


the individual.


He advocated positive or neutral


terminology with specific


terms


reflective


work


behaviors.


particular,


replaced


some


Marston


's and Geier'


terms which had negative connotations with positive


or neutral


terms


applicable


a work


environment.


example,


Geier


changed


Marston


original


categories


dominance,


inducement,


submission


compliance


dominance,


influence,


teadiness


and


compliance


while


Bauch


Nickens


designated


four


work


behavior


types as energizer, inducer, concentrator and producer.


The


behaviors


that


cluster


on the


dominance dimension are


placed


under the energizer work behavior type.


The term energizer is more positive


also


more


descriptive of


type


as found


in a work


environment.


Marston'


inducement and Geier'


influence became inducer, a positive and


descriptive

Placement


term


Profile


representation


than


second


(MPPP)

Marston


work


type,


behavior


type.


The


concentrator


submission


Marcus


more


dimension


and


Paul


positive

broader


description of the type than Geier'


term,


teadiness, which is only one aspect


of the trait.


Finally, the more descriptive and more positive term producer


replaced


compliance.


In all four instances,


the MPPP labels were changed


from adjectives to nouns to indicate a type as opposed to a trait (Bauch,


1981).























bO


tU0


'5
(U
0) '.-


4-'
U)

oJ bo


Sn.
n


a.
-4
U

*1*1


U,
<0




a :


rt r










Dominance


Influencing
(Inducement)*


Steadiness


Compliance


(Submission)*


adventurous
aggressive
argumentative
arrogant
assertive
bold
brave
competitive
daring
decisive
defiant
determined
direct


eager
fearless


firm


force of character
forceful
inquisitive
inventive
irritable
nervy
original
outspoken
persistent
pioneering
positive
rebellious
restless
rigorous
self-reliant
stubborn
unconquerable
vigorous
will power


admirable
affectionate
animated
attractive
boastful
charming
companionable
confident
convincing
cordial
energetic
expressive
fervent


flexible
fluent


good mixer
high-spirited
inspiring
jovial
joyful
life of the party
light-hearted
open-minded
optimistic
persuasive
playful
polished
popular
prideful
proud
responsive
self-assured
spirited
talkative
trusting


accommodating
attentive
cheerful
companionable
confidential
considerate
contented
controlled
deliberate
earnest
easy mark
even-tempered
friendly
generous
gentle
good-natured
gracious
hospitable
kind
lenient
loyal
mild
moderate
modest
neighborly
nonchalant
obedient
patient
peaceful
possessive
reliable
sentimental
sympathetic
trustful
willing


accurate
adaptable
adherent
agreeable
calculating
calm
cautious
conformist
consistent
contemplative
cultured
devout
diplomatic
easily-led
exacting
fearful
fussy
God-fearing
harmonious
humble
logical
objective
obliging
peaceful
precise
receptive
resigned
respectful
soft-spoken
strict
systematic
tactful
timid
tolerant
well-disciplined










Energizer
(Dominance)*
(Dominance)0

aggressive
bold
certain
competitive
decisive
demanding
determined
direct
dominant
eager
forceful
independent
leader
new ideas
original
outspoken
sure
takes charge
venturesome
vigorous


Inducer


(Inducement)*
(Influencing)0

attracts people
change agent
convincing
enthusiastic
expressive
friendly
happy
hopeful
inspiring
playful
personable
persuader
popular
respected
seeks new ideas
sociable
talkative
team leader


Concentrator
(Submission)*
(Steadiness)0

accepting
attentive
caring
committed
contented
considerate
diplomatic
disciplined
easy going
exacting
loyal
orderly
patient
peaceful
reasonable
respectful
satisfied
sharing
steady
tolerant
trusting
understanding


Producer


(Compliance)*
(Compliance)0

accurate
agreeable
careful
cautious
compliant
conforming
contented
devoted
exacting
follows orders
follows procedures
governed
logical
precise
resigned
respectful
responsible
systematic thinker


Figure 7


Marcus Paul Placement Profile List of Traits (Bauch, 1981)


Note: Marston'


(1928) original terms; 0 Geier'


(1980) revised list of traits.


The theoretical basis of the MPPP is similar to Herzberg'


motivator-


hygiene model for job satisfaction.


That is


, Herzberg recognized


that


factors which enhance job satisfaction (the motivators) do not automatically
produce dissatisfaction when absent and the factors that induce dissatisfaction


1_









pairs" in statistical models.


The recognition of trait independence provided a


more powerful tool for explaining complex behaviors on an individual basis

(Nickens, 1984, p. 13).

A major contribution in work behavior analysis was the automation of


the response analysis and reporting.


Nickens developed a system in which


responses


marked


MPPP


response


sheet


can


entered


into


microcomputer,


analyzed,


and


results


printed


immediately


a form


easily used for discussion.


The report can be retained by an individual for


future reference and further discussion.


There


are 24 sets of forced


choice


items


the MPPP


. In


each set,


respondents indicate the term most descriptive of their work behavior and


the term least descriptive of their work behavior.


Work behavior types are


then


profile


reported


includes


as energizers,


a narrative


inducers


description


, concentrators,


and


an individual'


producers.

s strengths


The


tendencies


work


setting.


more


complete


description


administration, analysis and reporting of the MPPP is provided in Chapter iI.


Academic Librarians


Personality Studies


considerable


literature


exists


on the


personality


librarian.


Bryan


(1952),


Douglas


and


Rainwater


(1965)


studied


various


populations of librarians between 1948 and 1965.


All three studies showed the


average


librarian


to be


more


submissive


or deferential


than


general


nonulation


and to


Dossess


a set of


qualities


summarized


term


.. ....









However,


Bryan (1952),


who studied public librarians in one of the earliest


comprehensive studies of librarian


personality,


used


the Guildford-Martin


Inventory


of Factors


(GAMIN)


which


fallen


into


disuse.


It has


been


criticized for several reasons but especially because of its subjectivity (Agada,


1987).


Douglass (1957) sought to determine the extent to which the profession


selects members


having a


characteristic personality pattern.


Between


1947


1948


administered


a series


measures


, using


Minnesota


Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) as his major instrument.


This test


was designed for use in psychopathological testing and could be inappropriate


for understanding normal behavior (Agada,


1987


Fisher,


1988).


Rainwater


(1965) administered the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) to 94


student


librarians.


findings


suggested


greater


tendencies


toward


nurturance and succorance


, as well as low heterosexuality


conform


the broad groupings of behavior described by Bryan (1952) and Douglas (1957).


However


Rainwater'


interpretations


are now


considered


questionable


(Agada,


1987).


In the decade of the 1960s


, Baillie (1961/1962) studied a small sample of


librarians


and


found


that


although


they


conformed


"normal"


personality patterns, they were aloof, suspicious and wary.


McMahon (1967)


reported


on librarians'


lack


of leadership


potential


and noted


that


"people


with certain personality traits are drawn towards librarianship as a career" (p.


Morrison (1961),


Clayton (1968), and Magrill (1969) produced three doctoral


studies


related


librarian


personality


The


Ghiselli


Self-Description


Inventory was used to study academic librarians (Morrison, 1961).


He stated









orientation


academic


librarianship


and


found


subjects


disinterested in decision-making and lacking in initiative and assertiveness.


During the


1970s studies reporting the docile nature and passivity of


library students were published.


The works of Segal (1970),


Goodwin (1972),


and Plate and Stone (1974) are representative of this research


particular,

generally

librarians


with Segal,


reporting male librarians to be practical, somewhat unfeeling and


suspicious.


they


studied


Presthaus


to be


(1970)


bureaucratic


Hamilton


resistant


(1976)


found


to change,


both


sociological and


(1976)


technological.


investigated


In a study


personality


of 160 full-time librarians,


character


Clift


group,


accuracy


of library patron'


stereotype of librarians.


Results revealed high


needs for achievement, endurance, and order and low needs for exhibition,


aggression and change.


Males but not females had high needs for nurturance


deference


and a low need for


autonomy.


Both


sexes


scored high


measures


self-control


personal


adjustment.


and


Hall


(1973)


employed


the Sixteen Personality Questionnaire


(16PF)


to determine mean


differences in selected


personality


characteristics


between a female college


norm group and a group of female prospective librarians.


In contrast to the


occupational stereotype of librarians as


rigid,


conventional,


tense


and less


stable


library


science


students


were


found


to exhibit


these


characteristics to any greater degree than the norm group.


In addition


three scales with significant differences (more intelligent, experimenting and
self-sufficient) were favorable to the prospective librarians.


Personality studies of librarians and


prospective librarians continued









"university


librarianship


constitutes


occupational


sub-culture


characterized by very distinctive and potentially very dysfunctional


values,


attitudes


and


work


preferences"


163).


found


that


academic


librarians studied lacked self-confidence, avoided aggression, were resistant to


job challenges,


were primarily motivated by


extrinsic rewards and showed


little


inclination


toward


leadership,


assertiveness,


social


interaction


change.

related


Moore (1981) reported no differences in personality characteristics as


to managerial


talent for those who selected librarianship as a first


career, those who worked in another field which required graduate training
prior to entering librarianship and those who chose it as an alternative career.

"Regardless of the route by which a person comes to academic librarianship, it


appears that the same type does ultimately come"


146).


Moore did find


librarians


closer


to the


norm


on general


personality


characteristics


than


earlier studies


backgrounds


had reported.


men


Lemkau


employed


(1984) studied


the personalities and


female-dominated


professions,


including


nurse,


elementary


school


teacher


and


librarian.


They


were


compared with 63 men (S's) employed in sex-typical fields.


A's showed lower


adherence


traditional


sex-role


expectations


such


household


responsibilities and exhibited greater "tender-minded"


emotional sensitivity.


"There


was


also


evidence


that


upward-mobility


strivings


may


have


contributed


to atypical


career


choices


with


more


frequently


being


members of social minorities and/or of lower socio-economic background"


110).


The data suggest that disadvantaged youth seeking upward mobility


may


choose


female-dominated


professions


as easier


to permeate


- .


and









students with counterparts in law and liberal arts.


Both third-year library and


liberal


arts students


were less assertive


than first-year students


while law


students


maintained


a comparable


degree of


assertiveness


at both


levels.


Agada suggested that library education does not enhance student assertion.


He recommended that the profession focus on the socialization of


students to


an appropriate


professional


demeanor.


Webreck'


findings


(1985/1986)


suggested


that librarians exhibit introverted and


judging personality types.


This was consistent with Agada'


(1984/1985;


1987) assertion studies.


Finally,


a study of 500 first-year library school students from eight European countries


(Bruyns,


1989) revealed that library schools attracted students who were less


technical, less creative, less sports-loving and,


possibly, less ambitious when


compared with other Higher Vocational Education students.


was found between male and female students.


Little difference


The research indicated "future


librarians


are still


humanities" (p.


persons
Further,


who


in general


"the profession


are interested


culture


attracts students who are, in


general, conservative, who do not show a tendency towards taking initiatives,


who


have


an attitude


inclining


towards


rendering


services


who,


general, cannot be characterized as having dynamic personalities" ibidd).


one


most


recent


studies


available,


David


(1990/1991)


concentrated


on librarians


working


technological


environments.


reported


that


librarians,


independent


their


sub-specialties,


were


dominant on Holland'


Artist


Type" (p.


164).


the groups tested were dominant on Holland
they conservative, as both earlier studies and


She also found that none of


's Conventional Type nor were

stereotypical representations of









"ideological and not a little farcical" (p.


For example, replying "true" to


question


think


would


work


a librarian"


indicates


feminine orientation.


In other words


, the very job of librarian is considered a


feminine activity.


Fisher argued strongly that there is doubt in the utility of


entire


psychological


approach


to librarianship.


reviewed


several


studies and concluded that each attempted to generalize from samples which


were frequently very small and


used


personality tests shown


to be largely


inappropriate.


"No real attempts have been made to link the individual and


the social, personality traits are mostly viewed as absolute, existing across all


situations" ibidd, p.


Agada (1984) also criticized earlier studies of librarian


personality


using


questionable


control


groups,


limited


and/or


non-


random sampling,


use of other career professionals as


"norms"


and lack of


replication.

Most important, most of the studies used dated multitrait global


personality


inventories


which


meet


current


high


standards of reliability and validity, failing especially to show a


high degree of convergent and discriminant validity.


Most of


these


instruments


have


a psychopathological


basis


which


usually inappropriate and inadequate for the understanding of


normal behavior.


38-39)


Fisher (1988) advocated a more sociological approach to this area of study, one


which acknowledges the interaction


between the individual and


the social,


which


uses


techniques or instruments


suitable for varied


and normal


individuals.


"The conflicting


results


would lead


one


to believe


that


libraries like other organizations are populated by staff with varied interests


and attributes" (p.


Agada (1984) wrote


"there is a need for personality






45

personal influencing factors, and on the process of people's decisions to enter


librarianship" (p.


173).


One additional factor which should be considered is


the "strikingly homogeneous demographic characteristics" (Heim and Moen,
1992, p. 95) displayed by library and information science students over the last


years.


1988


study


students


(then)


American


Library


Association


accredited


library


information


science


programs


United States revealed survey respondents to be overwhelmingly white (93.7

percent) and female (80.9 percent).


Tob Satisfaction of Academic Librarians


previously


stated


interest in


satisfaction


can


be seen


number of studies related to it.


Locke (1969) estimated that more than 4,000


articles on the subject had been published while Chwe (1976) increased that


number to


5,000.


Of those


5,000,


Chwe was able to identify only about


studies of job satisfaction in the field of librarianship in the United States (p.


23-27).


Additional studies were completed after


1976 including at least eight


relevant dissertations.
Frankie (1980/1981) studied university catalog and reference librarians


using worker analysis techniques.


Lindstrom


(1980) compared


community


college


and


college / university


librarians


and


found


different


levels


satisfaction for each area.


Swe (1981/1982) compared bibliographers and non-


bibliographers


in academic research libraries while Hook


(1981) concluded


that


library


administrators


in academic


libraries


were


significantly


more


satisfied


with


higher-level


intrinsic


aspects


their


work


than


non-









University


North


Carolina


system


investigated


relationship


between communication satisfaction and job satisfaction.


Hegg (1982/1984)


and Rockman


(1985/1986)


used


MSQ


in studies


designed


to reconcile


inconsistent findings regarding job satisfaction and to produce a demographic
profile of academic librarians.


As early as


1937 the twin issues of job satisfaction and work behavior


type of librarians were addressed in contributions to a symposium entitled


"Square Pegs in Square Holes-Bringing


Together


Talent and Opportunity in


Library


Profession."


particular,


deficiencies


staff


management


techniques,

creativity,

promotions,


monotonous


lack


and


routine


professional


inadequate


salaries


work


with


development


(Nourse,


1937)


little


opportunity


opportunities,


and


lack


limited


clear


specifications and classifications (Timmerman, 1937) were described as factors


related to dissatisfaction.


The issues of salary and advancement opportunities


were


studied


again


Hoage


(1950)


who


investigated


reasons


resignations in two large university libraries.


Salary and advancement were


cited


most


frequently


respondents,


after


marriage


or following


husband.


Herrick (1950) found these same issues of importance in her study


morale


working


college


environment


librarians


although


relationship


with


proper


other


equipment,

employees


physical


were


ranked as "essential"


or "important" slightly more frequently.


A number of


studies related


to the job satisfaction of librarians have


appeared in


the past


years.


Vaughn


(1972/1973)


found


the concept of


multidimensional job satisfaction to be an important research concept useful









multidimensional


nature


satisfaction,


in addition


the causal


influence


managerial


performance


upon


employee


productivity


satisfaction.


Miniter (1975/1976) found women to be generally more satisfied


their


work


than


men,


Scammel


Stead


(1980)


reported


relatively


constant levels of job satisfaction across different age and


and Limpiyasrisakul


tenure categories


(1980/1981) identified involving librarians in decision-


making processes as a factor in improving job satisfaction.


Lindstrom (1980)


determined that the work itself and pay were the most critical areas related to


satisfaction


with


independence,


challenging


work


service


opportunities related


to higher satisfaction


while Smith and Reinow (1984)


reported that a perception of low professional status and lack of professional
development and advancement opportunities were related to dissatisfaction.


Additional


research


(Hook,


1981


Glasgow,


1982;


Lynch


Verdin


, 1983;


Chopra,


1985;


1984;


Allison


Bernstein &


Sartori


Leach


, 1988;


, 1985;


Bengston


Washington,


1988


& Shields,


Mirfakharai


1985; Sherrer,


1991


Horenstein,


1993) revealed library


administrators


to be more satisfied with


intrinsic aspects of their work than non-administrators, management style to
be the best predictor of librarian satisfaction in an academic setting and faculty


status


or rank


to be


a predictor


overall


satisfaction.


Intellectually


challenging work,


advancement opportunities,


independence and autonomy,


support for professional travel and research and salary continued to appear as
factors in job satisfaction/job dissatisfaction.


theory


role


dynamic


focusing


stress


resulting


from


expectations derived from the work environment defined two main types of






48

context of librarianship suggested both were significantly related to overall job


satisfaction (Stead & Scamell


, 1980).


The bureaucratic nature of librarianship


and the limited discretionary power given to professionally trained workers is


stated


to be


professional


unusual


when


education, such


compared


as engineers,


to other


professions


with


teachers, scientists and


specific
hospital


personnel


ibidd).


addition,


relationship


appears


to be


affected


individual and environmental variables and to be moderated by self-esteem,


particularly for lower-level librarians (Hosel,


1984).


Studies Related to Maslow and Herzbera


Maslow'


need hierarchy theory and Herzberg's dual-factor theory were


specifically considered in a series of studies.


One of the earliest (Wahba, 1973)


provided an empirical


test of the applicability of the theories


to librarians.


Promotional


opportunities,


levels and


security were sources of strong


dissatisfaction with women reporting greater dissatisfaction with the factors


addition


to that


supervision.


Women


also


expressed


greater


need


deficiencies


than men in esteem, autonomy


administrators expressed


higher


satisfaction


and self-actualization.


these


areas


with


Library

technical


services librarians expressing the lowest levels.


Wahba


(1985) explored the


differences


job satisfaction for men and


women in a later study which


concentrated


their


perceived


degree


need


fulfillment


need


deficiencies.


Similar levels of fulfillment were reported in lower-order needs,


such as social


or security needs,


with


women reporting significantly


lower


levels of fulfillment than men in esteem and autonomy needs.


In the area of









& Stone,


1974).


These authors reported findings corresponding to those of


Herzberg, most notably that


factors


involved


producing


satisfaction


(and


motivation) are distinct and different from the factors that lead


to job dissatisfaction and


(and


motivation)


are con(


the factors producing job satisfaction
earnedd primarily with the actual job


content (or work-process factors):


the reasons for dissatisfaction


(or hygiene factors)


context in


which


deal
, job


primarily with factors relating to the


done--the job environment.


Both


sets of factors are closely interrelated.


(p. 97)


Partial support for


Herzberg'


theory was reported in a study of academic


librarians in


Jordan


(Hamshari,


1985/1986).


Both motivators and hygienes


contributed to overall job satisfaction and technical services librarians scored


significantly


higher


than


public


service


librarians


on most


dimensions.


Additional


support


theory


was


provided


Nzotta


(1987)


who


determined


compensation,


physical


environment


and


advancement


to be


major


sources


dissatisfaction


with


security,


actual


work


itself


autonomy producing satisfaction in his study of Nigerian librarians.


Additional


studies


librarians


which


drew


upon


Maslow'


Herzberg's

satisfaction


theories investigated


(Isacco,


1985),


the role of work space in productivity and


decision-making and staff morale (Nitecki,


1984),


expectations c

administrators


administrators


(Alley,


1987),


(Price,


1987


work-related


Fink,


stress


1987)


(Bunge,


expectations


1987)


and


satisfaction of ethnic minority librarians (Squire,


1991).


Baker and Sandore


(1991)


considered


Maslow'


hierarchy


relation


to the


rapid


pace


institutional and technological change in libraries.


Building on their earlier


1A In n rIlr-llrl r w r rwi ir TC Pllilr lmA


I-W~rn rt l r ~rf-^ n -l/Ir~-


r& AIal






50

with starting all over, possibly to satisfy beginning or basic job security needs"


(p. 43).
change


They concluded,


rather


than


however, that it is the uncertainty and turbulence of


specific individual


events,


such


as the


introduction


new


technologies


into


libraries,


which


have


caused


ambivalence


and


insecurity and lowered the reported job satisfaction of librarians.


Studies Using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire


The


Minnesota


Satisfaction


Questionnaire


been


used


in several


studies related to librarians.


One of the first studies to use the instrument was


a short


longitudinal


investigation


which


data


pertaining


to vocational


needs and


job expectations were collected


prior to subject entry into work


environments with data on


vocational need, environmental reinforcers and


job satisfaction collected after subjects had been working at least six months


(D'Elia, 1975).


Job satisfaction was determined to be a function of both need


gratification and expectation fulfillment.


A later study (D'Elia,


1979) found


two


factors


related


supervision


(human


relations


and


ability


utilization) to be most related to satisfaction.


The level of general


job satisfaction showed no significant difference


for university catalogers or reference librarians in a study that used the long-


form MSQ, although some specific areas, such as


"variety," "compensation,"


or "working conditions" did show substantial differences (Chwe, 1976; 1978).
Additional studies using the MSQ concluded bibliographers were more


satisfied


than non-bibliographers on intrinsic satisfaction


(Swe,


1981/1982),


was


associated


with


satisfaction


while


participation


continuing









difference was determined


(Nzotta,


1985).


Autonomy


decision-making


opportunities were more important in predicting job satisfaction than gender


(Rockman,


1984


1985/1986)


factors


related


to superior-subordinate


relations


(supervision) were significantly related


to general


job satisfaction


(Swasdison,


1989/1990).


Conclusion


Controversy surrounds the study of librarian personality as well as that


the job satisfaction


academic librarians.


No study was found


which


combined an exploration of personal characteristics,


such as work behavior


type,


with


satisfaction


results.


Such


a study


would


appear


to be of


potential interest to graduate schools of library and information science as

they select students for admission and to academic institutions as they recruit


and


hire


librarians.


The


entire


process


recruitment,


selection,


compensation and retention of manpower in an occupation is of interest in

any study of the socialization of professions (Schmidt and Hunter, 1979) and


tudy may be of benefit in this area.


Finally, the study has the potential to expand current understanding of


work


behavior


type


studying


a population not previously


included


MPPP studies.


Summary


This review


of the


literature includes


information on


theories of job


, nl W n^ r. V/1%^ aN^ &- at I^lk n ,. C-. n4 n. -i A st. a n4 an ...


r" t- ""r /*<<- EI- ^ %









librarians.


The following chapter outlines how work behavior type and job


satisfaction were explored in this study.















CHAPTER mI
DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY


Organization of the Chapter


The design and methodology of the study are described in this chapter.


It contains an explanation of the research problem,


the research population


and procedures,


which include data collection, instrumentation and


statistical


treatment.


Statement of the Research Problem


The problem this study investigated was to relate two well-established


theories


about


atisfaction/dissatisfaction


library


work


environment.


The


first


theory


(Herzberg,


1966;


Herzberg,


Mausner,


Snyderman,


1959)


suggests


that


satisfaction


relates


a set of


work


environment conditions called "motivators"


and job dissatisfaction relates to


a different


set of


work


environment


conditions


called


"hygienes."


The


second


theory


(Nickens,


1984


Bauch


, 1981)


suggests


that workers


related


differently to the same work environment and that their different reactions


are predictable by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile scores.


In this context,


the following questions guided the study:


What a


ire the


work


behavior


types


academic


librarians


-- -


w


...


__









factors


derived


from


a factor


analysis


MSQ


show


characteristics of motivators and hygienes?

Do the different work behavior type scores of academic librarians


in Florida, as measured


by the MPPP


relate differently to the


motivator and hygiene scores derived from the MSQ?

Population


The majority


of potential subjects in


the sample population


were the


1993


Florida members of a national organization, the Association of College


Research


Libraries


a division


American


Library


Association.


Additional members of the subject pool were the members of the Academic


Caucus


Florida


Library


Association


1993.


Membership


professional


organization relevant to academic librarianship


was


the initial


criterion for inclusion in the subject pool.


This yielded 350 potential subjects.


The


subjects


retained in


sample


group


consisted


of individuals


currently employed as professional librarians in academic libraries in Florida.


Academic libraries were defined


as those in


post-baccalaureate institutions


(community or junior college, college, university or special library connected


with


a post-baccalaureate


institution).


Only


those


individuals


holding


Master'


degree in Library Science (MLS) or an appropriate equivalent degree


were


included


analysis


data.


Although


academic


librarians


increasingly hold additional subject-related graduate degrees,


an accredited


MLS is the usual required degree for entry into the profession (Robbins,


1990).


Procedures






55

reporting forms, described as appropriate for distribution through the mail.


Instrument


packets


were


numerically


coded


eliminate


personal


identification but to permit correlation of responses.


Study participants who


wished to receive a printed profile reporting their work behavior type were


instructed to put their names on the MPPP form.


Following the distribution


of the MPPP reports and before the analysis of data, responses were recorded

with a second numbering scheme to ensure confidentiality.

The national office of the Association of College and Research Libraries


(ACRL)


provided


researcher


with


mailing


labels


ACRL


members


living


in Florida.


Mailing labels


for members


Academic


Caucus of the Florida Library


Association were provided by the state office of


organization.


cover


letter


(Appendix


explaining


study


requesting participation and assuring confidentiality for participants was sent

to the 350 individuals who constituted the subject pool, along with an MPPP


form,


an MSQ


form


a demographic


form


which


supplemented


demographic


section


MSQ.


A stamped


envelope


addressed


to the


researcher was included for ease of return.


Those contacted


were asked to


reply within one week.


Approximately two weeks after the first mailing, a


second letter requesting participation was sent to non-respondents (Appendix


Along with


personal reminders


for individuals


who


could


be readily


contacted


telephone or


electronic mail,


a second


reminder


letter,


sent


approximately two months after the initial mailing,


was distributed


to non-


respondents.


This


final


mailing


included


a second


complete


instrument


packet.


These three mail contacts completed the data collection sequence.









describing the theoretical basis of the MPPP profile,


thanking them for their


participation


including


their


personal


profile


(Appendix


Finally,


participants who wished to learn more about the results of the study or who


had


individual


questions


were


encouraged


to contact


researcher


separate


letter


or message.


Some


questions


were


answered


immediately;


those requesting information


concerning results were retained in a file for


later response.


Instrumentation


The


study


based


on two


constructs.


The first


construct is


work


behavior


type.


Marcus


Paul


Placement


Profile


(MPPP)


was


used


measure work behavior type. The

job satisfaction/job dissatisfaction.


second construct addressed in the study is

The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire


(MSQ) was used to measure the second construct.


Marcus Paul Placement Profile


MPPP


was


designed


to describe


individual


work


behavior


patterns of people for the purpose of matching individuals and jobs.


It can be


used in an educational setting to facilitate the job placement of students and

in a business setting as an aid in the recruitment, placement and assignment


of personnel.


It may also be used as an element in the development of work


teams by assisting team members to understand and appreciate different work


behaviors


as a training


(Bauch,


1981).


long


as the


work


environment


stable,


work


behavior


patterns


are s


table


over


time.


individuals exhibit all


thP wnrk


hphavior nattPrnms


to .cnmlP cp1rpp hbult nnp









corresponded


to primary emotions which could be assigned


to one of four


categories:


dominance,


inducement


submission


and


compliance.


addition, Marston determined behavioral traits for each of the four categories.

Statistical confirmation of these traits was provided by Cattell (1948) and Geier


(1967).


Bauch


(1981) and Nickens (1984) drew on this research base in the


development of the MPPP as a tool which could increase understanding of


work behavior.


A more complete discussion of the theoretical basis of the


MPPP is included in Chapter II.


Theories


form


related


an additional


to management,


basis for


the MPPP


placement a

In addition


career


the work of


counseling


Argyris


(1964),


Blake and Mouton (1964) and McGregor (1960), who were instrumental


in integrating humanistic principles into the work place,


were incorporated


into the design of the MPPP with the intent of developing an instrument that


would


increase


understanding


work


behavior


employer


employee alike.


The terminology used in the MPPP is


positive or neutral.


This reflects the philosophy of Bauch (1981) who believed that work behavior

traits and types are terms that can be used to increase understanding of work


behaviors rather than as judgments of work behaviors.


Finally,


the terms


used in the profile do not reflect social behavior but reflect work behavior


(Nickens, 1984).


The MPPP can be completed in less than 10 minutes.


Test-


retest reliability is about .98, as reported by Wellstood (1984/1985).
The MPPP consists of 24 sets or "boxes," each containing four forced-


choice


terms


from


which


individual


selects


one


that


most


descriptive of his or her self-perceived


work behavior.


The individual then









category.


An example of an MPPP "box" is illustrated in Figure 8.


Only one


"most" and one "least" choice is made in each of the 24 boxes.


Sample Box


Most


Least


careful

fast

alert


nice


Figure 8.


Illustration of a Marcus Paul


Placement Profile


"Box"


entering


these numbers into a


computer program


that associates


them with a MPPP behavior type score, a profile is developed.
Four independent scores are reported on the profile derived from the


MPPP


The scores relate


to four work


behavior


types: energizer, inducer,


concentrator and producer.

that extends from -15 to +1


The 4 independent scores are plotted on a scale

At the center of the scale is the norm score, zero.


This allows for easy observation of the relationship of each individual score


to the norm as well as to each other score.


The scores are scaled, a graph with


the scores


plotted


on it is produced


, following the graph,


a narrative


description of the behavior associated with the score of best fit is provided. In
addition, an interpretation of the behavior associated with the relative scaled






























* XN


* L


*.c


* i


*


^ 0
O u







'S
AD




.0
8 .8
tl: N-i


ow5
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60

The four terms listed in the profile represent the four primary work


behavior types.


The highest score of these four is the individual's


type of best fit" (Nickens,


1984, p.


"primary


The description of the four primary


types, as they would be included in a report of a profile, are included below.


Energizer


type


worker:


These


workers


are actively


engaged


getting results.


They are assertive, choosing a direct approach as they pursue


goals.


High


type


workers


are impatient with


detail


, desiring


a direct


answer and action from associates.


improving the work processes.
Concentrator (C) type worker:
in orderly ways, resisting distractions

to the organization, showing great p


They are creative and have many ideas for


Normally, the 'C' types apply their skills
. They are steady workers and are loyal

,atience. They are systematic, effective


and help to maintain moderation in tense situations.


Inducer (I) type worker:


These people involve others as they pursue


their objectives.


They


are sensitive


to needs of their associates, and share


optimistic outlooks as they influence others.


They are good at using group


processes to accomplish goals, being able to clarify ideas for themselves and


others.


They place


more emphasis on


people and


interpersonal


relations


than on their organization.


Producer (P) type worker:


follow procedures,


Producers


guidelines, or standards.


trive for quality as they carefully

They can support their decisions


and actions with irrefutable documentation. Producers expect clear directions
but they can be relied on to meet their deadlines, follow orders and carry out

their assignments with precision.









the work of John Nickens, a program


was devised


which allows the words


selected as "most"


or "least" in the 24


"boxes" on the MPPP response sheet to


be entered into a microcomputer with results analyzed and a profile printed


almost immediately.


In addition to classroom use, the MPPP lends itself to


use in career development workshops or training sessions.


Reliability


and


validity


instrumentation


important


considerations


in any


decision


use a


particular measure.


"Validity


reliability refer to different aspects of a measure'


believability.


Judgments of


validity answer the question:


Is the instrument an appropriate one for what


needs


to be


measured


And


reliability


indicators


answer:


Does


instrument yield consistent results


(Henerson, Morris & Fitz-Gibbon,


1987


133).


Further,


impossible for a measuring instrument to be reliable


without being valid. However

(Ary, Jacobs & Razavieh, 1985,


r, it cannot be valid


226).


unless it is first reliable"


"So if one demonstrates a satisfactory


level of validity


at least internal reliability must be assumed"


(Nickens,


1984,


P. 14).


With


reliance on


a sound


theoretical


basis


MPPP


reflects


validity called face validity.


The statistical procedures that were employed to


obtain the 96 MPPP "most/least" adjectives and to associate them with work
behavior type, although not discussed in detail here, also provide evidence of

reliability and validity.
In addition, a study of 96 Santa Fe Community College career education

students demonstrated that 88.4 percent of the students, after analyzing their


own responses to the MPPP


, rated the accuracy of the analysis components as









in a criterion measure are rarely reported in the literature.


"This high degree


of congruence between


students'


perceptions of their work behavior and the


descriptions provided by the MPPP suggests that the MPPP is sufficiently valid


helping college students understand


their work behavior"


(Nickens,


The MPPP also has been shown to have predictive validity when used


career


planning.


Glenn


(1982/1983),


Wells tood


(1984/1985)


Olson


(1988/1990) and Barber (1989/1990) studied work behavior types as they relate


to job satisfaction, attrition, specific vocations,


perception of individuals in


leadership

(1982/1983),


positions


occupational


stressors.


According


to Glenn


. significant relationships were found between (MPPP) work


behavior types and areas of job satisfactions.


Additionally, specific areas of job


effectiveness were found


to be significantly related


to work behavior type.


These findings were consistent with expectations ..


" (p. ix).


Glenn concluded,


in order


maintain


maximum


effectiveness


and


worker


satisfaction, employees


need


to be placed


jobs which


meet


their


needs


degree


structure,


autonomy,


supervision,


feedback, and contact with co-workers.


One way to understand


these various needs


to have knowledge of individual


work


behavior types and personality functions.


(p. 135)


Wellstood


(1984/1985) further reported


"results indicate that work behavior


type relates to overall and to specific aspects of job satisfaction


MPPP]" (p.


Supervisors


and


managers


could


make


valuable


use


knowledge about work behavior


types as


well as


the types of


. [on the


w






63

The results of these and other studies have shown that information on work

behavior types can be useful in a variety of work-related areas, including job

satisfaction and career planning.


The face validity of the MPPP


the concurrent validity demonstrated


through research at Santa Fe Community College and additional research at


University


of Florida


have demonstrated


that the MPPP "is


valid as a


career advisement tool for helping people understand


their work strengths,


and for suggestions for writing effective letters of reference for individuals


seeking job placements"


(Nickens,


1984,


Although all


theoretically


valid


uses of the instrument have not yet been researched,


the MPPP "was


designed to be utilized as a tool in the business setting for recruiting, job


placement,


work


assignment,


team


building,


training"


and,


accordingly, it was chosen for this study


. Use of the MPPP in this study also


provided insight into another theoretically valid use for the instrument.


Minnesota Satisfaction Ouestionnaire


The


Minnesota


Studies


Vocational


Rehabilitation


or the


Work


Adjustment Project, are a series of research studies which began in 1957


which have led


to the development of a


indicators of work adjustment.


variety of instruments


Minnesota


Satisfaction


to measure


Questionnaire


(MSQ) is a measure for one of the primary indicators of work adjustment.


allows


attainment


a more


individualized


assessment of worker


satisfaction, that is,


two individuals may express similar amounts of general


satisfaction with their work but the reasons for this satisfaction may be very









D'Elia used the short form MSQ and Chwe used the long form MSQ.


Chwe


argued strongly that, because of the repetitive format of the long form, the


short form was more appropriate for subjects, like academic librarians,


high levels of education (Chwe, 1978, p. 50).


with


Finally, the short form MSQ was


considered more appropriate for


distribution


though


the mail


as it can


completed


about


10 minutes,


thus


making it more likely


that potential


subjects would participate in the study.

directions on the first page. Although i


The MSQ is self-administering with

no time limit is imposed, respondents


are encouraged to complete responses quickly.


The


short


form


MSQ,


consisting


questions


that


measure


dimensions


satisfaction


(ability


utilization


, achievement,


activity,


advancement, authority


compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence,


moral


social


values,


service


policies


social


practices,


status,


recognition,


supervision-human


responsibility,


relations,


security


supervision-


technical,


variety and working conditions) was selected for this study.


Each


item


refers


a possible


motivator


or hygiene.


The


first


items


measured


a Likert-type scale


which


asks


respondents


to indicate


their


degree


agreement


with


a statement


related


to that


dimension


satisfaction.


Five response


possibilities


(strongly


agree,


agree,


undecided,


disagree or strongly disagree) are provided for each item.


The responses are


weighted

assigned


from


one


a maximum


five


descending


points


order


while strongly


so that


strongly


disagree is


agree


assigned


minimum


one


point.


The


21st


dimension,


general


satisfaction


interpreted


an aggregate


scores


dimensions


measured


1


w


w

















Figure 10.


Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Scales


The most meaningful way to interpret the MSQ is to use the most appropriate
norm group for the individual and then to use percentile scores for each scale


obtained for the norm group.


The most appropriate norm group would be


one that corresponds exactly to the individual'


As norm groups are not


available


occupational


areas


a similar


norm


group


which


shares


characteristics such as tasks performed

conditions and so on, may be used.


, type of supervision, physical working
If no appropriate norm group has yet


been developed,


the MSQ raw scores can be converted


to percentile scores


using Employed Disabled or Employed Non-disabled norms.
raw scores for all scales can be interpreted by ranking them. TI


Finally, MSQ

hs will indicate


areas of relatively greater or lesser job satisfaction (Weiss et al.,


4-5).


When


used with an individual subject,


percentile scores of 75 or greater generally


represent a high level of job satisfaction, scores in the 26 to 74 percentile range


indicate average satisfaction, and a percentile score of


or lower indicates a


low level of satisfaction.
The current MSQ manual reports norms for seven occupational groups


for the short-form MSQ.


Based on educational requirements for employment






66

Validity for the short-form MSQ is inferred, in part, from validity for


the long-form as the short-form is based on a subset of the long-form.


That is,


the short-form MSQ was developed by choosing 20 items, each representative


of one of the 20 scales on the long-form MSQ.
frequently with a respective scale were selected.


Those items correlating most

A group of 1,460 employed


individuals completed


the measure.


A factor-analysis of the resulting data


yielded


two factors, intrinsic satisfaction and


extrinsic satisfaction.


The


items that loaded high on one factor constitute the Intrinsic Scale.


factors


constitute


Extrinsic


Scale


and


items


constitute


General


Satisfaction Scale.


This allows for scores on all three scales.


The construct validity of the MSQ is primarily


derived from the fact


that it


generally performs according to


theoretical


expectations.


Construct


validation


studies


other


questionnaires,


based


on the


Theory


of Work


Adjustment and developed


through


Work Adjustment Project, support


this conclusion.
Additional evidence supporting the validity of the short-form MSQ is
provided by studies of group differences by occupation and studies on the


relationship between job satisfaction and satisfactoriness.


Occupational group


differences in mean satisfaction scores for the seven available norm groups
were statistically significant for each of the three scales.


The Hoyt reliability


coefficients for each norm group and each short-


form scale were reported to be, in general,


ranged from


Extrinsic Scale


high.


.84 (assemblers and electrical assemblers) to


range


was


(electrical


For the Intrinsic Scale, they


(engineers).

! (engineers


assemblers)









The stability of scores obtained from


the short-form MSQ is currently


being studied but no data have,


as yet, been reported.


However, data on the


General Satisfaction Score for the long-form MSQ show correlations of .89 for


a one-week


test-retest


period


a one-year


test-retest


interval.


Stability for the General Satisfaction


Score of the


hort-form MSQ may be


inferred from these data.


Research on both forms of the MSQ continues,


focusing on improving


psychometric


characteristics


the scales


expanding


the range of


dimensions which may be measured by the MSQ.


A 30-scale form has been


developed and is being tested.


Finally


researchers using the MSQ agree to


report results to be used in the development of new norm tables.


Results of


this study will be reported to the Work Adjustment Project at the University


of Minnesota for possible use as another


occupational


norm


group for the


short-form MSQ.


Statistical Procedures


The data gathered for the


tudy were analyzed


within the context of


each of the research questions set forth in Chapter I.


The


Marcus


Paul


Placement


Profile


was


analyzed


using


MPPP


software.


The procedures for the analysis are well-validated.


Scaled scores


were calculated and scores were plotted on a graph.


scores


subjects


were


then


analyzed


computer


determine the number of subjects in each

divided into male and female sub-groups.


type,


with


these numbers further


The percentile of type by total and









done which resulted in loadings on three, four and five factors.


The three


factor

results


loading was selected.

. The purpose of thi


e facto:


Promax rotation

r analysis was t


was used


to report the


o allow responses


to be


characterized as motivators or hygienes.

The mean score and standard deviation for each of the 20 items on the


MSQ,


mean


score


standard


deviation


Intrinsic


Scale,


Extrinsic


Scale


General


Satisfaction


Scale


and


mean


score


standard deviation for each item and the three scales by type were calculated.

The CANCORR Procedure was used to produce canonical correlations.


This is a technique used for analyzing the relationship between


two sets of


variables


each


which


can


contain


several


individual


variables.


The


canonical


correlation


procedure was


used


to determine


the relationship


work


behavior


type


scores


revealed


MSQ


to the


motivators


hygienes identified through the factor analysis of the MSQ.


Summary of Design and Methodology


This chapter outlined the procedures of the study.


Data were collected


from academic librarians employed in Florida for the purpose of determining


relationship

satisfaction.


among


The


work


Marcus


behavior


Paul


type,


Placement


work


Profile


environment


and


and


Minnesota


Satisfaction Questionnaire were selected as the instruments used to measure


each


these


areas.


Data


treatment


methods


utilized


were


frequency


distribution, factor analysis and canonical correlation.
presents the results and analysis of these data.


The following chapter















CHAPTER IV


RESULTS AND


ANALYSIS OF DATA


The


problem


study was


to determine


relationship of


theory that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are affected by motivators


hygienes


to the


theory


that


motivators


hygienes


are perceived


differently by different work behavior types.


In addition


to describing the


sample population, the chapter contains the results of the study and provides

answers to the research questions posed in Chapter I.


Description of the Samele Povulation


The sample population in this study was comprised of 350 individuals


selected from


the membership of


Association of College and Research


Libraries, a division of the American Library


Association, and the Academic


Caucus of the Florida Library


Association.


A limited number were members


other


divisions


American


Library


Association.


participants were members of one or more of these Associations.


prospective

The criteria


for the use of data received from respondents included current employment

in an academic library in Florida and holding a Master in Library Science


(MLS)


degree


an appropriate


other


degree


example,


Master


Librarianship,


Master


Media


or Master


Information


Science.)


S. .. .. a I -"- I 1 I


-1


I









An academic library was defined as a library in a


institution


post-baccalaureate


, including community or junior college, college or university, as


well as special libraries connected with post-baccalaureate institutions.


Thus,


respondents worked in all levels of higher education and in both large and


small schools.

ranged from


Correspondingly, the libraries in


which they were employed


those with a staff of five or fewer to those employing


100 or


more.


However, the commonality of employment as an academic librarian


was viewed as more basic to the selection of the study sample than individual


differences in institution or specific professional responsibilities.


All subjects


for whom data


were used


were currently


employed academic librarians in


Florida


who


showed


an orientation


commitment


to the


profession


through


active


participation


one


more


major


professional


organizations.


subjects


contacted


258 or


percent responded.


One


response option requested subjects to return blank forms if they did not wish


to be included in the study.


A group of 15 people, or 4.3 percent of the subject


pool,


selected this option.


Another


16 individuals, or 4.6 percent, responded


that they were retired.


An additional


18 people,


percent, responded that


they were not eligible and reported a variety of reasons including having left

the profession, having left Florida for employment in another state, returned

to graduate school or not presently being employed in an academic library.


Finally


seven respondents,


or 2.


0 percent, returned incomplete or invalid sets


of measures


were eliminated from


the data


analysis.


addition,


individuals, or 26.3 percent, did not respond in any way.


The data analysis


.









Table 1

Response to Survey


The data on


the academic librarians obtained from the demographic


section


MSQ


the supplementary


data


form


are summarized


Female subjects accounted for 71.78 percent of the usable responses,


or 145 of 202 subjects, while the

of the usable responses. The 1l


had been in their current position for


57 male respondents constituted 28.22 percent
largest percentage, 39.6 percent or 80 subjects,


2 to 5 years while 22.28 percent, or 45


subjects had been in their current position for 6 to 10 years.


Over 85 percent of


the subjects had been in the profession for 6 years or more, a sufficient time to
evaluate their employment, attain promotions, or change specific jobs one or


more


times.


This


corresponds


with


that


over


percent


subjects were aged 40 and over.


included in


Thus, the individuals whose responses were


the data analysis were, for the most part, mature, experienced


Type of Response N Percent


Usable Responses 202 57.7
No Response 92 26.3
Other 18 5.1
Retired 16 4.6
Blank Forms Returned 15 4.3
Invalid Responses 7 3.0

Total 350 100.0


Table









employed in a community college,


while 20, or 9.0 percent, were employed at


a 4-year college.


All subjects


held


an appropriate


masters degree for


their


particular


position


with


or 27


percent, holding one or more additional masters


degrees and


or 1


38 percent, holding a Ph.D. or


Ed.D. degree with the


Ph.D. predominant in this latter group.


Research Ouestions


Question


What are


the work


behavior types


(WBT) of


academic


librarians


Florida


as measured


Marcus


Paul


Placement


Profile


(MPPP)?


The


frequency


distribution


work


behavior


types


found


among


academic librarians in Florida is shown in


Table 3.


Overall


, 45.54 percent, or


92 individuals were concentrators.


Of these, 65 were female (44.83 percent of


145 female subjects) while


or 47.37


percent, of the


male subjects


showed concentrator as their dominant work behavior type.


The second largest group were producers with


individual


or 38.12


percent of the total sample.


Sixty females, or 41.38 percent of their total,


males


those


, or 29.82 percent of their total, constituted


individuals


with


either


concentrator


or producer


this group.


as their


Together,

dominant


work behavior type totaled 167 or 83.66 percent of the total sample of 202.

By comparison, previous studies of members of a variety of professions


showed quite different results.


Glen (1982/1983) sampled vocational educa-


tinnal amrninictratnrc


ShP fnlind


47 nprro rnn rpnc pnfrfnrc


nnprrpn t nrn-


/ |






73


Table 2

Characteristics of the Participating Academic Librarians


Percent


Characteristic


Gender


Male


Female


28.22
71.78


Age


30-39
40-49
50-59


2.48
13.86
46.53


5.45


No response
Education Level


100.00


Master in Library Science
or appropriate equivalent
Additional Masters degree
Doctoral Degree
Ph.D.
Ed.D.
Other advanced degree or certification
Years in Current Position


27.23


9.40
3.00
3.96


15.84
39.60
22.28
14.36


6-10
11-20
21-30


5.94


No response
Total Years in Profession


6-10


11-20
21-30


12.87
14.36
36.63
27.23


5.94


No response
y- S--_. T----------- -_ .


/r T.. ... s









Table 3


Work Behavior


Twpe by Gender


Row variable: work behavior type as percentage of same sex respondents


Column vari;

Cell format:


able:


work behavior type as percentage of same type respondents


frequency/ percent: total/percent: row/ percent: column


Gender Concentrator Energizer Inducer Producer Total

Female 65 9 11 60 145
32.18 4.46 5.45 29.70 71.78
44.83 6.21 7.59 41.38
70.65 64.29 57.89 77.92


Male 27 5 8 17 57
13.37 2.48 3.96 8.42 28.22
47.37 8.77 14.04 29.82
29.35 35.71 42.11 22.08


Total 92 14 19 77 202
______45.54 6.93 9.41 38.12 100.00


Poston (1988/1989) sampled nursing faculty and found that 39.13 percent were
concentrators, 36.96 percent producers, 17.39 percent inducers and 6.52 percent


energizers.


Olson


(1988/1990)


studied


college


placement officers.


group


found


percent


to be


concentrators


percent


producers,


percent inducers and


percent energizers.


Barber (1989/1990) examined the


work


behavior


types of


Cooperative


Extension


Service


mid-managers


found


them


to be


more


evenly


divided


among


four


categories.


I-f 7


with






75

According to the MPPP user manual, approximately 60 percent of the general

population are either concentrators or producers, with producers dominating.


this study it was found


concentrators


producers,


that academic librarians are


concentrators


almost 84


are predominant.


percent
Female


academic librarians are even more predominantly producers or concentrators


percent),


contrast,


again
male


with


concentrators,


academic


librarian


about 45


are 77


percent,


percent


dominating.


concentrators


producers, although concentrator is still the largest group, accounting for 47

percent of the male subjects.


Those who are categorized


as concentrators and


producers are most


likely to work to maintain their organization in its present form.


They tend


to follow the rules and regulations of the organization and can be relied upon


to do the job assigned


to them.


In contrast, energizers and inducers,


who


represent about 20 percent each of the general population,


tend to seek to alter


system


and


to effect


change


their


organization


(Bauch,


1981).


Energizers are represented in this study by 6.93 percent of the subjects (6.21


percent of the females and 8


percent of the males) while inducers account


for 9.41 percent of the subjects or 7.59 percent of the females and 14.04 percent


males.


Thus,


concentrators


and


producers


are represented


substantially higher numbers among academic librarians than in the general


population and


the results on


MPPP


support the


theory


that different


work behavior types are attracted to different professions.


Question


What


are the


motivators


and


hygienes


perceived


academic


librarians


Florida


as reported


on the


Minnesota


Satisfaction






76

study generates three scores; that is, an Intrinsic score, an Extrinsic score and a


General Satisfaction, or


Total score.


Higher scores by area or a higher total


score imply a greater degree of job satisfaction either with job content or job


context


or in general.


Further,


scores


individual


items are presented


allowing for more specific analysis.
Table 4 presents the mean score and standard deviation for each item.

The scores are presented for each work behavior type along with the score for

the total sample population.

As shown on Table 4, inducers had the lowest mean score on 11 of the


items,


producers


lowest mean


score


on 7 of


items


while


energizers had the lowest mean score on one item.


had identical mean scores on one item.


Inducers and producers


On 19 of 20 items, concentrator mean


scores were above the total mean; producer mean scores were below the total


mean on all 20 items.


The lowest individual mean score per type was item 13


for concentrators (pay and amount of work),


for advancement) and item 12


item 14 for energizers (chances


(how company policies are put into place) for


inducers and producers.


Although


the mean score differences are not particularly


large, they


reveal a pattern.


Concentrators, the largest number of subjects, are consis-


tently more satisfied


with all aspects of their position,


followed


closely by


energizers,


the smallest numbers of subjects.


Inducers and producers consis-


tently show the lowest mean scores per item
(relationship of co-workers with each other),


with


the exception of item


the only item on which one of


these two types did not show the lowest mean score.












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i F .Ti o
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"S6 S-^csi E mQ cso Nt-^yq o oc t^ 2 'fs
f/ r ^c^^c^K i ^coinMO o 2 ^oou- *0tH.a'
wjr ^c U C U i i< w
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78

Table 5 presents means and standard deviations for the Intrinsic score,

the Extrinsic score and the Total score by type and for the entire sample. The

means for concentrators and energizers are both above the total mean while


the means


for inducers and


producers


are below


total


mean.


This


consistent for both Intrinsic and Extrinsic scores.


Table 5


Mean Score and Standard Deviation for Intrinsic,


Extrinsic and Total Scores


on the Minnesota Satisfaction Ouestionnaire (Short Form)


Note:


Intrinsic score range 12-60 for 12 items; Extrinsic score range 6-20 for 6


items; Total score range 20-100 for 20 items.


The


lowest


mean


score


intrinsic


items


, or those


related


to job


content, is that of the producers while the lowest mean score for extrinsic, or


context,


items


that of


inducers.


Overall,


concentrators


Work Intrinsic Items Extrinsic Items Total by Type
Behavior Type Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev.

Concentrator 49.68 6.54 19.16 5.1 76.23 11.94

Energizer 50.64 7.04 18.43 5.49 75.86 13.24

Inducer 48.47 6.21 15.89 4.05 71.05 9.03

Producer 46.65 7.24 17.39 4.97 70.78 12.55

Total: All Groups 48.48 6.94 18.13 5.07 73.64 12.25






79

In Herzberg's two-factor theory of job satisfaction/job dissatisfaction,


motivators correspond to Maslow'


higher-order needs.


They are intrinsic or


content


factors,


such


achievement,


recognition,


advancement,


responsibility and the inherent interest of the work itself.


are present in a job,


When these factors


they act as satisfiers because they have a positive effect on


employee job satisfaction and


they may


function


to provide the individual


with personal psychological growth.

Hygienes correspond to Maslow'


lower-order needs and are extrinsic,


or job context factors,


such as pay, security


supervision and physical working


conditions.


When


absent


from


these


items


linked


dissatisfaction.

The MSQ provides an Intrinsic, or job content, and an Extrinsic, or job


context, score.


As indicated on


Table 4


the intrinsic items on


the MSQ are


numbers


16 and


With


the exception of 2


(freedom to work alone) and 8 (opportunity for


teady employment), two of


Herzberg'


hygienes,


these items all correspond to Herzberg motivators.


extrinsic, or job context items, on the MSQ are numbers


13, 14 and 19.


The first 4 and


19 correspond


to Herzberg hygienes.


The exception is


(advancement on


current job).


Numbers


(working


conditions)


(relationships of co-workers) correspond to Herzberg hygienes.

they contribute to an overall general score.


Table 6 shows factor loadings on the MSQ.


In the MSQ,


Factor I includes items 5


1, 19,


13 and 8.


These all correspond


to Herzberg hygienes, or job


context


item


with


exception


item.


- -


number


8 steadyv


, 7, 8,


, 6, 1


I _


___lr~_ _I






80

Table 6

Factor Loading on lob Satisfaction Items from the Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire (Short Form)


MSQ
Item Number


N=202


Factor I


0.70157
0.69630
0.59752
0.57007
0.47441
0.45858
0.38671
0.30778
-0.00164
-0.04466
-0.02269


16444
10487
31146
11126
00205
15959
29114
12019
16303


Factor II


-0.13713
-0.22041
0.09730
0.21418
0.11522
0.16487
0.29018
0.10257
0.63928
0.55972
0.52428
0.47476
0.47332
0.44883
0.42545
-0.22953
0.16746
0.16151
0.26234
0.26466


Factor m


0.11158
0.11110
-0.03583
-0.13415
-0.08747
0.18808
-0.12743
0.06334
-0.10148
0.29152
-0.02346
0.20258
0.15867
-0.13036
0.37365
0.71932
0.53505
0.44019
0.41843
0.40113


Notes: Factor I (items 5, 6, 12, 19, 18, 17, 13, 8); Factor II (items 9, 11, 10, 20, 4,
14, 3); Factor HI (items 2, 1, 7, 15, 16); Variance explained by: Factor I, 2.639930;
Factor II, 2.306518; Factor I, 1.759460.









Factor II includes items 9


motivators, or job content items.


1, 20, 4, 10, 14 and 3 which are all Herzberg

They are all part of the MSQ Intrinsic score,


except number


14 (opportunity for advancement).


This item shows a loading


of 0.449 in Factor II and a loading of 0.311 in Factor I.


Factor III includes items


I .*,


and 16.


They all form part of the


MSQ Intrinsic score and, except for item


2 (opportunity to work alone) are all


Herzberg motivators.


Thus


, the factors derived from a factor analysis of the MSQ do show


characteristics of motivators and hygienes.


all related


to Herzberg hygienes.


Factor


Factor I includes eight MSQ items,

II includes seven items which all


relate to Herzberg motivators.


Finally


Factor III includes five items, four of


which are motivators while one is a hygiene.


Question


Do the different work behavior type scores of academic


librarians


Florida,


as measured


MPPP


relate


differently


to the


motivator and hygiene scores derived from the MSQ


In order to analyze the relationship


between scores on the MSQ and


work behavior types,


the technique of canonical correlation


was employed.


Given two sets of variables, a computer analysis finds a linear combination


from each set, the canonical variable,


which leads to the maximization of the


correlation


between


canonical


variables.


This


results


first


canonical


correlation.


"The


coefficients


linear


combinations


canonical coefficients or canonical weights.


It is customary to normalize the


canonical coefficients so that each canonical variable has a variance of one."


(SAS/STAT User'


Guide,


1989


, p. 368).


The procedure then finds a second set


" "









variable is not correlated with all the other canonical


variables of either set


except

(ibid.).


one


corresponding


canonical


variable


opposite


Finally, the first canonical correlation will be at least as large as the


multiple correlation between any variable and an opposite set of variables.


The


correlations


between


individual


items


Minnesota


Satisfaction Questionnaire and the four work behavior types as determined by


the Marcus Paul Placement Profile are shown in Table


The correlations between the four work behavior types and individual


items


on the


MSQ


are weak


with


largest


absolute


value


being


negative


correlation (-0.2772) between Producer and MSQ item four,


"chance


to be somebody in the community."


Following


factor


analysis


procedure


on the


MSQ,


correlations


between work behavior type and the three factors derived from the MSQ were


established.


These are illustrated in Table 8.


Again,


the correlations are weak.


The largest in absolute value is 0.1952 for Concentrator to Factor I (hygiene or


context


items;


elements


MSQ


extrinsic


score).


This


closely


followed


a negative


correlation


(-0.1944)


Producer


to Factor


(motivator or job content items,


elements in the MSQ Intrinsic Score).


The within-set correlations are larger as can be seen in Table 9 with the


absolute


value


being 0.6798


Factor


to Factor


Closely


following is a negative correlation,


-0.6769, for Concentrator to Energizer.


The


canonical


correlations


three


factors


four


work


behavior types are shown in Table 10.






83

Table 7

Simple Correlations Between MSO Items and Work Behavior Types


Table 8

Correlation Between the Three Factors on the MSO and Work Behavior Tvype


MSQ Item Concentrator Energizer Inducer Producer


1 -0.0463 0.0956 0.0728 -0.0715
2 -0.0877 0.0883 0.0464 -0.0809
3 0.0361 -0.2160 0.1254 -0.1169
4 0.0541 0.0746 0.2260 -0.2772
5 0.1145 -0.1086 0.0217 -0.0169
6 0.1042 -0.0989 -0.0402 -0.0536
7 0.1149 -0.0592 0.0799 -0.0625
8 0.0685 -0.0194 0.0828 -0.0769
9 0.1349 -0.0027 0.1739 -0.2259
10 0.0419 0.0256 -0.0338 0.0234
11 0.1853 -0.0225 0.0341 -0.1328
12 0.1703 -0.0821 -0.0553 -0.0094
13 0.1243 -0.0848 0.0349 -0.0438
14 0.1747 -0.1155 0.0577 -0.0050
15 0.1352 -0.0204 0.0129 -0.0867
16 0.1061 -0.0051 0.0596 -0.1197
17 0.1704 -0.0440 0.0124 -0.0994
18 0.1170 -0.1206 0.0662 0.0128
19 0.1767 -0.0808 0.0314 -0.0535
20 0.1478 0.0049 0.1221 -0.2368


Concentrator Energizer Inducer Producer


"Ir-. T A 1019 A 191) l nA flA n nAAn-






84


Table 9

Within-Set Correlations Amon2 the Orikinal Variables


Factors Derived from the MSQ


1.0000


0.6398


0.5987


0.6398


1.0000


0.6798*


0.5987


0.6798*


1.0000


Work Behavior


Types Determined by the MPPP


Energizer


Inducer


Concentrator


Producer


Energizer


Inducer


1.0000


0.0860


Concentrator

Producer


-0.6769*

-0.5249


0.0860

1.0000


-0.2839

-0.6160


-0.6769*

-0.2839


-0.5249

-0.6160


1.0000


0.1599


0.1599


1.0000


Note:


= Largest Within-Set Correlations


Table 10


Canonical Correlations of Factors and Work Behavior


Types


Canonical


Likelihood


Annrox.


Num.


Den









The first canonical


correlation is 0.3078.


The first squared


canonical


correlation is 0.0947


0.0092.


. The probability level for the first canonical correlation is


Thus, the first canonical correlation is significantly different from zero


at the


level.


The


second


third


canonical


correlations


were


considered as probability levels provided no evidence that they are different
from zero.


Table 11

First Canonical Correlational Analysis: Canonical Coefficients


Standardized Canonical Coefficients
MSQ Factors Canonical Variables
1 2 3
I 0.0074 -1.3271 0.2966
II 1.1689 0.4286 -0.8096
III -0.2881 0.6935 1.2111
Work Behavior Type Canonical Variables
1 2 3
Energizer 0.6984 1.0139 1.3896
Inducer 0.7709 0.4893 -0.1832
Concentrator 1.2547 0.0135 1.0727
Producer 0.0106 0.2308 0.6267

Table 12

First Canonical Correlational Analysis: Canonical Structure

Correlations Between MSQ Factor Variables and
________________MSQ Factor Canonical Variables
MSQ Factors 1 2 3
I 0.5287 -0.6377 0.5038
II 0.9778 0.0509 0.2035
III 0.5109 0.1902 0.8383
Correlations Between WBT Variables and









As shown on


Table 11


, the first canonical variable for the MSQ factor


variables


is a weighted difference


FACTOR II (1.1689) and


FACTOR


(-0.2881) with more emphasis on FACTOR II.


The coefficient for FACTOR I is


near zero.


In Table 12


the correlations between FACTORS I


II and III are all


positive.


FACTOR HI is a suppressor variable as its coefficient and correlation


have opposite signs.

the other variables.


A suppressor variable enhances the correlation between


Table


the first


canonical


variable


work


behavior


type


variables indicates


greatest emphasis on


Concentrator (1.2547),


followed by


Inducer (0.7709) and Energizer (0.6984).


zero.


The coefficient for Producer is near


Two of the correlations between work behavior type, as shown in Table


are positive,


Producer,


Inducer


(0.4683)


is negative (-0.6302)


Concentrator


Energizer,


although]


(0.5648)

h near


) while

zero,


one,


is also


negative.


Thus,


work


behavior


type,


Energizer


Producer


suppressor variables.


The


therefore


general


that


interpretation


FACTOR


first


Producer


canonical


as suppressor


correlation


variables


enhance


the correlation


between FACTOR II


and


Concentrator.


Factor


includes seven items which are all Herzberg motivators (job content).


the seven are part of the MSQ Intrinsic Score.


Six of


Concentrators, the largest work


behavior type group, have the highest total mean score, 76.23,


on the MSQ.


The canonical redundancy analysis shows that neither of the first pair


canonical


variables.


variables


The


is a good


cumulative


overall


proportion


predictor


variance


opposite


explained


set of


first


_


, "









The


squared


multiple


correlations


indicate


very


limited


predictive


power.


The first canonical


variable of the FACTORS has minor predictive


power for FACTOR II (0.0906),


less for FACTOR I (0.0322),


and even less for


FACTOR III


(0.0247).


The first canonical


variable of Work


Behavior


Type


shows


almost no


predictive


power


with


highest


correlation,


Producer


(0.0376),


followed by Concentrator (0.0302) and Inducer (0.0208).


Energizer is


almost zero;


was also


the smallest sample group


(n=14),


followed


Inducer (n==19).


In addition


to determining


correlations between


work behavior type


and the 3 factors derived from the MSQ, a second set of canonical correlations


was


established


between


individual


MSQ


items


and


4 work


behavior types.


The correlations


between individual MSQ items and Work


Behavior


Type are shown on Table 13.


with


correlations


displayed


Table


7 and


Table


correlations are weak.


The largest in absolute value is MSQ item


4 (social


status)


to Producer


.2772


followed


MSQ


item


(achievement)


Producer (-0.2368) and MSQ item 4 (social status) to Inducer (0.2260).


The


canonical


correlations


MSQ


items


4 work


behavior types are shown in Table 14.


The first canonical correlation is 0.4457


squared,

0.0824.


it is 0.1986.


Thus,


zero at the


The probability level for the first canonical correlation is


there is some evidence that the correlation is different from


.05 level.


The remaining correlations were not considered further


as probability levels provided no evidence that they are significantly different
from zero.









16 (0.1868),


17 (0.1464) and 20 (0.6094).


The coefficients for items 1, 2,


8, 18


and 19 are near zero.


Table 13

Correlations Between the MSO Items and Work Behavior Type


Table 14

Canonical Correlations of MSO Items and Work Behavior Tvype


Canonical
Correlation


Likelihood
Ratio


Approx.
F


Num.
DF


Den
DF


Pr>F


MSQ Item Energizer Inducer Concentrator Producer

1 0.0956 0.0728 -0.0463 -0.0715
2 0.0883 0.0464 -0.0877 -0.0809
3 -0.0216 0.1254 0.0361 -0.1169
4 0.0746 0.2260 0.0541 -0.2772
5 -0.1086 0.0217 0.1145 -0.0169
6 -0.0989 -0.0402 0.1042 -0.0536
7 -0.0592 0.0799 0.1149 -0.0625
8 -0.0194 0.0828 0.0685 -0.0769
9 -0.0027 0.1739 0.1349 -0.2259
10 0.0256 -0.0338 0.0419 0.0234
11 -0.0225 0.0341 0.1853 -0.1328
12 -0.0821 -0.0553 0.1703 -0.0094
13 -0.0848 0.0349 0.1243 -0.0438
14 -0.1155 0.0577 0.1747 -0.0050
15 -0.0204 0.0129 0.1352 -0.0867
16 -0.0051 0.0596 0.1061 -0.1197
17 -0.0440 0.0124 0.1704 -0.0994
18 -0.1206 0.0662 0.1170 0.0128
19 -0.0808 0.0314 0.1767 -0.0535
20 0.0049 0.1221 0.1478 -0.2368




Full Text
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INGEST IEID EKQRXJBCH_YGFUPR INGEST_TIME 2011-08-29T14:53:41Z PACKAGE AA00002066_00001
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PAGE 142

81,9(56,7< 2) )/25,'$


THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HERZBERG'S
MOTIVATOR/HYGIENE THEORY AND WORK BEHAVIOR TYPES
OF ACADEMIC LIBRARIANS IN FLORIDA
BY
CAROL RITZEN KEM
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1994

Copyright 1994
by
Carol Ritzen Kem

Dedicated to
my mother,
Thelma Summers Ritzen
and
to the memory of my father,
Franklin Wheeler Ritzen

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The development of this work from an assortment of ideas to a
completed project represents the collaborative efforts of several people. My
deep and most sincere thanks are extended to Dr. John Nickens, chairman of
my supervisory committee. I will never forget his willingness to take a
chance on a stranger. He was instrumental in helping me focus my ideas and
shape the project, providing encouragement when I needed a lift and
prodding me to keep working when progress was slow. He has been an
advocate for me and the project, a source of unrelenting support, and an
empathetic mentor. Dr. Nickens exemplifies to me the best qualities of a true
doctoral advisor.
Dr. James Hensel, Dr. David Honeyman, and Dr. Tom Fillmer,
supervisory committee members, have provided advice and expertise critical
to the successful completion of this work. I both acknowledge their assistance
and thank them for it. I am also grateful to Dr. Gordon Lawrence, who first
sparked my interest in "people types."
Dr. John Dixon, CIRCA, provided invaluable recommendations
concerning methods of data analysis appropriate for the study. Brent Coule,
who was initially contacted to provide computer analysis assistance, did that
and more. He became a friend, developed a personal interest in the project,
and patiently discussed statistics with me over a period of several months.
Barbara Blocker took my drafts, insertions, notes, and corrections and
turned them all into a polished and finished product. Her cheerful
willingness to reformat as needed was greatly appreciated, as were her calm
IV

manner and professional expertise, both vital to the completion of the
manuscript. Paula Chain Gebhardt used her exemplary talents to assist me in
the presentation of a professionally edited manuscript.
I am grateful to all the friends and colleagues who encouraged me as I
worked toward the completion of the study. In particular, I thank Pamela
Pasak Sawallis and Dolores Jenkins for their steadfast support and caring
friendship.
Finally, I express my deepest gratitude to my husband, Bill, and our
sons, Reade and Eric. They knew I could and would successfully complete
this project and were unwavering in their love and support throughout the
past several years.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS i v
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES x
ABSTRACT xi
CHAPTER
I INTRODUCTION 1
Background and Rationale 1
Statement of the Research Problem 4
Delimitations and Limitations 5
Justification for the Study 6
Definition of Terms 9
General Terms 9
Marcus Paul Placement Profile Terms 10
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Terms 11
Organization of the Study 12
H REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 13
Organization of the Chapter 13
Job Satisfaction 13
Definition 13
Historical Overview 15
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction 19
Measuring Job Satisfaction 25
Work Behavior Type 27
Definition 27
Industrial Psychology 27
Evolution of Work Behavior Types 28
Marston's Two-Axis Model 31
Clustered Traits 33
Marcus Paul Placement Profile 34
Academic Librarians 39
Personality Studies 39
vi

Job Satisfaction of Academic Librarians 45
Studies Related to Maslow and Herzberg 48
Studies Using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire 50
Conclusion 51
Summary 51
HI DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 53
Organization of the Chapter 53
Statement of the Research Problem 53
Population 54
Procedures 54
Data Collection 54
Instrumentation 56
Marcus Paul Placement Profile 56
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire 63
Statistical Procedures 67
Summary of Design and Methodology 68
IV RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 69
Description of the Sample Population 69
Research Questions 72
Summary of Results and Analysis 92
V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS 93
Research Problem and Procedures 93
Research Questions 96
Research Question One 96
Research Question Two 97
Research Question Three 99
Research Question Four 99
Implications 101
Work Behavior Type 101
Job Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction 104
Recommendations for Further Research 106
APPENDICES 108
A Letter to Subjects 108
B Follow-up Letter 110
C Letter Accompanying Profiles 112
REFERENCES 114
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 126
vii

LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
1 Response to Survey 71
2 Characteristics of the Participating Academic Librarians 73
3 Work Behavior Type by Gender 74
4 Mean Score and Standard Deviation by Item,
MSQ Short Form 77
5 Mean Score and Standard Deviation for Intrinsic, Extrinsic,
and Total Scores, MSQ Short Form 78
6 Factor Loading on Job Satisfaction Items,
MSQ Short Form 80
7 Simple Correlations Between MSQ Items and
Work Behavior Types 83
8 Correlation Between the Three Factors on the MSQ and
Work Behavior Type 83
9 Within-set Correlations among the Original Variables 84
10 Canonical Correlations of Factors and
Work Behavior Types 84
11 First Canonical Correlational Analysis:
Canonical Coefficients 85
12 First Canonical Correlational Analysis:
Canonical Structure 85
13 Correlations Between the MSQ Items and Work
Behavior Type 88
14 Canonical Correlations of MSQ Items and
Work Behavior Type 88
viii

15 Second Canonical Correlational Analysis:
Canonical Coefficients 89
16 Second Canonical Correlational Analysis:
Canonical Structure 91
IX

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
1 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 18
2 Bockman's Traditional Model of Job Satisfaction 19
3 Herzberg's Two-Factor Attitude Model 20
4 Mars ton's Two-Axis Model 32
5 Marston's Behavioral Description of the Four
Primary Emotions 36
6 Geier's Revised List of Traits Which Correspond
to the Four Primary Emotions 37
7 Marcus Paul Placement Profile List of Traits 38
8 Illustration of a Marcus Paul Placement Profile "Box" 58
9 Sample MPPP Profile 59
10 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Scales 65
x

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HERZBERG'S
MOTIVATOR/HYGIENE THEORY AND WORK BEHAVIOR TYPES
OF ACADEMIC LIBRARIANS IN FLORIDA
By
Carol Ritzen Kem
December, 1994
Chairman: John M. Nickens
Major Department: Educational Leadership
The problem this study investigated was to relate the Herzberg theory
that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are affected by motivators and
hygienes to the theory derived from Nickens and Bauch that motivators and
hygienes are perceived differently by different work behavior types.
The specific questions were as follows: (a) What are the academic
librarians work behavior types as measured by the Marcus Paul Placement
Profile (MPPP)? (b) What are the motivators and hygienes perceived by
academic librarians as reported on the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire
(MSQ)? (c) Do factors derived from a factor analysis of the MSQ show
characteristics of motivators and hygienes? and (d) Do the different work
behavior type scores of academic librarians in Florida, as measured by the
xi

MPPP, relate differently to the motivator and hygiene scores derived from the
MSQ?
A group of 350 potential subjects was identified through membership
in one or more appropriate professional organizations. The MPPP and the
MSQ were administered to determine work behavior type and to measure
intrinsic, extrinsic, and total job satisfaction.
The potential subjects were mailed MSQ, MPPP, and supplementary
demographic forms along with an explanatory cover letter. The letter sent
with the instruments promised the participants the results of their individual
MPPP type analyses, if they indicated that they wished to receive them. A
summary of study results was also offered to participants. A total of 202
subjects provided usable response sets.
Participants were unevenly divided among the four work behavior
types, a finding consistent with most previous studies. Concentrators
predominated, followed by producers, with inducers and energizers
accounting for fewer than 10 percent each of the total sample.
In general, participants were satisfied with their jobs although
differences between groups were apparent. A strong relationship between
intrinsic, or job content, scores was found for concentrators. A weak to
moderate relationship between some individual MSQ items and producers
was found.
Implications for academic librarians include the use of work behavior
type and factors in job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction for recruitment to the
profession, job placement, development and training, academic library
management style, and effective team building.
Xll

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
For the majority of adults in the United States today, work is a central
factor and defining characteristic of life. More than at any other period in our
history, paid employment fills a large portion of time for both women and
men. Accordingly, it is even more important to realize that:
In order that people may be happy in their work, these three
things are needed: They must be fit for it. They must not do too
much of it. And they must have a sense of success in it.
(Ruskin, 1851)
Two of the three things Ruskin set forth as necessary for happiness in one's
work are major elements in this study—namely, work behavior type, or
"fit,"—and job satisfaction, or "sense of success."
Background and Rationale
Research into work behavior and job satisfaction has been conducted
since the early years of the twentieth century when industrial psychologists
such as Frederick Taylor (1911) began to show an interest in job satisfaction
studies. Although Taylor's major research interest was in using time and
motion studies to increase productivity, he did mention the importance of
human factors in completing tasks (Wellstood, 1984/1985). About 20 years
later, Elton Mayo conducted studies into work productivity and observed that
positive human relationships, which were important to workers, could lead
to greater job satisfaction and, ultimately, to increased productivity (Mayo,
1933). A. H. Maslow investigated elements of job satisfaction and developed a
1

2
theory based upon an ascending hierarchy of human needs, beginning with
the lowest order, basic physiological need, and extending through the highest
level, self-actualization. Although lower-order needs had to be satisfied
before higher-order needs began to assume any importance, when a need was
met, it no longer served as a motivating force (Maslow, 1943).
Maslow's work was a foundation for Herzberg (1966; Herzberg,
Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959) who developed a two-factor theory of job
satisfaction (Glenn, 1982/1983; Wellstood, 1984/1985). Two types of work
variables, the motivators and hygiene factors, were theorized to influence job
satisfaction and job dissatisfaction. Motivators, which included achievement,
recognition, advancement, responsibility, and interest in the work itself were
classed as satisfiers as they exerted a positive effect on workers' output. The
motivators corresponded to the higher-order needs in Maslow's ascending
hierarchy of needs.
Analogous to Maslow's lower-order needs, hygiene factors included
pay, security, supervision and physical working conditions. The absence of
these factors was limited to job dissatisfaction. It is critical to recognize that
Herzberg et al. (1959) emphasized that the presence of a particular hygiene
factor did not necessarily lead to job satisfaction and that the lack of a
motivator did not automatically create job dissatisfaction. That is, "the
opposite of job satisfaction is not job dissatisfaction, it is an absence of job
satisfaction. Conversely, the opposite of job dissatisfaction is not job
satisfaction, it is an absence of job dissatisfaction" (Olson, 1988/1990, p. 32).
Since the first publication of Herzberg's theory, hundreds of studies
based upon it have been conducted with virtually every level of worker
represented. Since 1984, more than 60 dissertations have been written that
relied, at least in part, upon Herzberg for a theoretical base. Previous studies
(for example, Thomas, 1977; Kozal, 1979; Burr, 1980/1981) have investigated

3
aspects of Herzberg's theory among various groups including academic
administrators. Additional studies (Glenn, 1982/1983; Wellstood, 1984/1985;
Olson, 1988/1990; Poston, 1988/1989; Barber, 1989/1990) added the application
of the Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP) in their studies of medical
technologists, vocational educational administrators, college placement
officers, faculty and deans in colleges of nursing and cooperative-extension
service mid-level managers. Three studies (Plate & Stone, 1974; Dahlstrom,
1982; Hamshari, 1985/1986) investigated aspects of the theory in relation to
professional librarians. Plate and Stone used the Herzberg "critical incidence
technique" (Herzberg, 1966) in an analysis of job incidents. The study
population included American and Canadian librarians attending
motivational workshops held in conjunction with professional meetings.
They concluded that the theory applied with as much force to librarianship as
to other occupations studied. Hamshari compared the job satisfaction of
professional librarians in the technical and public service departments in 20
academic libraries in Jordan. Dahlstrom investigated the motivation for
participating in continuing education. He administered a questionnaire to a
random sample of 550 librarians throughout the southwestern United States
and identified 20 factors that were classed as motivators for participating in
continuing education. The seven items that were shown to be most
significant were identified as Herzberg motivators.
The theory of work behavior types suggests that basic differences in
personality traits may have an impact upon work behaviors. Investigators
from Wundt in the 1890s to Nickens in the 1980s have added to the body of
research in this area. One important contribution was that of W. Marston
(1927; 1928), who emphasized the emotions of normal people. In the world of
work, a theory based upon "normal" individuals would appear to be
particularly useful.

4
Marston's work and the research of Nickens (1984) and Bauch (1981)
led to the development of the Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP). A tool
designed to determine work behavior type in order to facilitate correct job
placement, the MPPP is intended for use in both educational and business
environments. Different personality types excel at different types of work
(Holland, 1959). If this construct is accepted, then a successful matching of
jobs and personnel can be expected to increase satisfaction in the worker, lead
to greater productivity and more adequately fill the needs of both the
organization and the individual (Nickens, 1984).
Previous studies have investigated the personal characteristics and the
personality type of professional librarians (Bryan, 1952; Douglass, 1958;
Morrison, 1961; Clift, 1976; Agada, 1984/1985; David, 1990/1991). Numerous
studies have investigated aspects of job satisfaction among librarians (for
example, D'Elia, 1975; Chwe, 1976; Miniter, 1975/1976; Rockman, 1985/1986).
However, no research studies were found that specifically related job
satisfaction and work behavior types among librarians, particularly librarians
employed in institutions of higher education. Thus, a study of the work
behavior types of academic librarians has the potential to add a new
dimension to knowledge in the area of work behavior and job satisfaction as
well as in the area of characteristics of academic librarians.
Statement of the Research Problem
The problem this study investigated was to relate the Herzberg theory
that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are affected by motivators and
hygienes to the theory derived from Nickens and Bauch that motivators and
hygienes are perceived differently by different work behavior types. The
following questions guided the study:

5
1. What are the work behavior types of academic librarians in Florida
as measured by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP)?
2. What are the motivators and hygienes perceived by academic
librarians in Florida as reported on the Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire (MSQ)?
3. Do factors derived from a factor analysis of the MSQ show
characteristics of motivators and hygienes?
4. Do the different work behavior type scores of academic librarians in
Florida, as measured by the MPPP, relate differently to the
motivator and hygiene scores derived from the MSQ?
Delimitations and Limitations
In answering the preceding questions, the following delimitations were
observed:
1. The study was limited to librarians currently employed in
professional positions in post-secondary institutions in Florida.
2. The study was limited to librarians holding the Master of Science in
Library Science (MLS) or an appropriate equivalent academic degree.
3. The study was limited to librarians with membership in one or
more of the following professional organizations: the Association
of College and Research Libraries, the American Library
Association, or the Florida Library Association.
4. Information about work behavior type was limited to that
measured by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile.
5. Information regarding job satisfaction and dissatisfaction was
limited to those facets measured by the short-form Minnesota
Satisfaction Questionnaire.
In addition, the following limitations were inherent in this study:
1. By returning study forms, academic librarians volunteered to
participate in this study. There is no assurance that these
volunteers are representative of the total population of academic
librarians in Florida or academic librarians in general. Therefore,
results may not be generalizable to other populations of academic
librarians.

6
2. Since this study was limited to academic librarians, it is not possible
to generalize these findings to other librarians or to other
occupational types.
Tustification for the Study
According to Moran (1989), in a paper tracing the development of
academic libraries from 1939-1989,
academic libraries have evolved from relatively small, self
sufficient institutions to large, multifaceted organizations
electronically interconnected and linked in ways not yet
envisioned fifty years ago. The librarians who work in these
institutions . . . are called upon to have knowledge of processes
and to provide services unforeseen in 1939. (p. 25)
However, as the profession of librarianship has matured and the
demands upon librarians, particularly those in academic institutions, have
become more complicated, requiring higher levels of education and training,
15 professional schools of library science have closed since 1978 (Paris, 1990)
and the number of new entrants to the profession is declining. With only 52
institutions now offering graduate training in library science and/or
information science and a number of states and large metropolitan areas with
no library schools, it is logistically more difficult in the United States to
become a librarian than a lawyer (there are 180 law schools) or a physician, as
students can select from 142 medical schools (Manley, 1991). Some in the
profession believe these negative factors can be balanced in part by the more
diverse backgrounds of those individuals who do enter the profession and by
the advanced levels of educational attainment exhibited by at least a
significant minority of those who receive a graduate degree in library science.
However, Heim and Moen (1992) state that "in spite of intense recruitment
initiatives the library and information profession continues to be one for

7
which the modal entrant is a white female in her mid-thirties who majored
in English, education or history" (p. 102).
The basic studies on the personality of the librarian date back to the
period from 1952 to 1961. Only one substantive study has been completed
within the last 10 years (David, 1990/1991). Although studies of job
satisfaction among librarians abound, some are of negligible value because of
simplistic statistical analyses, poorly designed research methods or
questionable population samples. Research into the work behavior type of
librarians is generally only addressed as a minor factor in studies designed for
other purposes.
Of particular interest to the proposed study is the finding reported by
Lynch and Verdin (1983) that "new entrants . . . into the profession report
some of the lowest levels of [job] satisfaction" (p. 445). They find this
troublesome and suggest several possible explanations for the finding,
including problems of accommodation to working within an organizational
context, difficulty with work-flow demands, and the nature of the "entry-
level work for professionals in large research libraries [which] may be more
routine and non-professional than librarians expect" (p. 446).
Studies of job announcements for academic library positions reveal
increasingly stringent educational requirements including advanced
academic degrees, subject specialization and language capability (Creth, 1989).
According to Moore (1981), a glut in subject Ph.D.'s and master's degrees led
many academic libraries to add either a requirement or a preference for these
degrees to job descriptions reasoning that, given the market, they could
probably get them. However, the actual duties for available positions as
outlined in advertisements are often similar to those listed some years ago.
In other words, academic librarians, in particular those new to the profession,
may still be assigned routine and sub-professional duties. Those recruited to

8
the profession may expect that their advanced academic credentials and
subject specialization will translate into more professional responsibilities
and the lack of a match between expectation and reality may lead to job
dissatisfaction or, in extreme cases, to highly trained individuals prematurely
leaving the profession. Reporting on a study of librarians 10 years after their
graduation, White (1990) wrote: "The graduates . . . report that . . . they
thought they knew what their preference for both type of library and type of
work was before they enrolled in library school. By the time they graduated, a
significant percentage had changed their minds" (p. 61). More importantly,
White continues "almost half . . . end up doing something different from
what they originally thought they would do" (ibid). Further, in terms of
specialized preparation, recent graduates appeared to be selected for first
professional positions almost casually, with employers later complaining that
new hires did not possess sufficient specialized skills (White and Mott, 1990).
Given the ever increasing costs of recruitment and training, it would seem to
be in the best interest of academic libraries to attempt to determine what
aspects of work will provide satisfaction for librarians or, at a minimum, at
least to avoid those aspects that cause dissatisfaction.
According to Geier (1979), people in working situations will exhibit
specific qualities and patterns of behaviors. If individuals are provided with
information about their particular work behavior styles and are placed into
jobs that require and encourage those styles, the opportunity for job
satisfaction and success in employment will be increased. In addition, the
possibility that an employee may become frustrated and leave a specific job or
even a profession may be less if the correct "fit" between employee and
employment is made.
With schools of library science closing, recruits to the profession
declining and the demand for educated, motivated employees increasing in

9
academic libraries it appeared that a study combining the theory of work
behavior type and the theory of job satisfaction would be of great potential
value to the profession. Such a study has not been conducted among
librarians in general or among academic librarians in particular. Research in
this area could be of use in recruitment for the profession and in the
assignment of responsibilities to positions in the profession. Further, this
study may add to current knowledge of work behavior type by studying a
population that has not previously been studied in this manner.
Definition of Terms
General Terms
Academic librarian refers to a professional librarian currently
employed in an academic library in Florida.
Academic library refers to the library of a post-secondary institution
(community or junior college, college or university) in Florida.
American Library Association is the major professional organization
for librarians in the United States.
Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) is a division of
the American Library Association with approximately 11,000 members
nationwide.
Factors refers to any of the six motivators or eight hygienes descriptive
of those job facets which may contribute to job satisfaction or job
dissatisfaction (Herzberg et al., 1959).
Florida Library Association is a professional organization in Florida
with members representing all types of libraries in the state and all levels of
employment in libraries.
Hygienes refers to factors which contribute to an employee's
dissatisfaction and are related to the job context portion of work. They

10
include, for example, company policies, working conditions, supervision and
administration and co-worker relationships.
Tob content refers to factors such as achievement, advancement,
recognition, responsibility and the work itself. When present in a job, they
are related to job satisfaction.
Tob context refers to factors such as pay, security, supervision, and
physical working conditions which, when absent from a job, are linked to job
dissatisfaction.
Tob dissatisfaction refers to feelings associated with "the built-in drive
to avoid pain from the environment, plus all the learned drives which
become conditioned to the basic biological needs" (Herzberg, 1966, p. 28).
Tob satisfaction is the positive effect derived from those factors which
most often contribute to higher needs (Herzberg et al., 1959).
Motivators refers to factors which contribute to employee satisfaction
and are related to the job content portion of work. They include, for example,
achievement, responsibility and recognition.
Professional librarian refers to an individual holding the master's
degree in library science from a program accredited by the American Library
Association. That is, "the master's degree is the minimum educational
requirement for employment in a professional program" (Robbins, 1990, p.
41).
Marcus Paul Placement Profile Terms
Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP) is an instrument developed by
Bauch (1981) and Nickens (1984) which is designed to measure work behavior
types. The four types are:

11
Energizer type (result oriented), a work behavior type which describes
an individual who is typically assertive, direct, impatient with detail,
interested in getting results and quite creative in the work situation.
Inducer type (people-oriented), a work behavior type which indicates
an individual who is sensitive and optimistic and who places more emphasis
on interpersonal relations and getting things accomplished within the group
rather than on the organization itself.
Concentrator type (technically oriented), a work behavior type which
indicates an individual who is a loyal, steady worker and who tends to be
patient, systematic, and effective.
Producer type (quality oriented), a work behavior type which indicates
an individual who strives for quality, follows guidelines carefully, and
supports his/her work and decisions with documentation.
Work behavior type refers to a description and categorizing of an
individual's general qualities and predisposing behavior traits as they relate
to the work situation and are defined by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile.
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Terms
Tob satisfaction score refers to a participant's score on the Minnesota
Satisfaction Questionnaire. The short-form MSQ yields the following three
scores, extrinsic, intrinsic and general.
Extrinsic Scale is the job context score on the short-form MSQ
determined by summing the individual scores of 6 of the 20 items on the
measure.
Intrinsic Scale is the job content score on the short-form MSQ
determined by summing the individual scores on 12 of the 20 items on the
measure.

12
General Satisfaction Scale is a score determined by summing the
individual scores on all 20 of the items on the short-form MSQ.
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSP), or the short-form MSQ,
is a 20-item measure consisting of statements about various aspects of a
person's job which an individual is asked to rate on a 5-point scale with
responses ranging from "not satisfied" through "extremely satisfied." The
scales utilize descriptors derived from the work of Herzberg.
Organization of the Study
The remainder of the study is organized into four chapters. A review
of the literature is presented in Chapter II. Included are major areas of
research and related literature relevant to job satisfaction and job
dissatisfaction, and the development of the theory of work behavior type.
The chapter concludes with a review of the literature on these topics as they
relate to academic librarians.
The design and methodology of the study are presented in Chapter IIL
Research design, population, data collection, instrumentation and procedures
are addressed.
Chapter IV contains the results and analysis of the data collected from
the Marcus Paul Placement Profile, the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire
and the demographic and career information questions. The data specific to
each question presented in the study are addressed and discussed.
Chapter V includes a summary of the study, conclusions about the
findings, and recommendations for additional research.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Organization of the Chapter
This review covers three areas. The first section presents an overview
of research on job satisfaction. The second section reviews the research and
theories leading to the development of work behavior types and the Marcus
Paul Placement Profile. The final section provides a synthesis of the research
on job satisfaction, personality type and work behavior and career
development as related to academic librarians.
Tob Satisfaction
Definition
According to Chwe (1976), more than 5,000 articles, books, and
dissertations were written on the subject of job satisfaction from the 1930s to
the mid-1970s. As the effective management of human resources is one of
the most important tasks for any organization, it is not surprising to find such
a large and varied volume of research focused on this subject. If the activities
of employees are to contribute to the realization of organizational goals,
successful management, including direction and motivation, is important.
Thus, research on employees in a variety of work situations has been
conducted for almost a century. A particularly significant topic of personnel
research involves the job satisfaction of employees.
There is no universally accepted definition of job satisfaction (Locke,
1976). However, Locke (1969) earlier proposed a possible definition, stating
13

14
job satisfaction is the pleasurable emotional state resulting from
the appraisal of one's job as achieving or facilitating the
achievement of one’s job values, and job dissatisfaction is the
unpleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of
one’s job values or as entailing disvalues. (p. 316)
Most researchers determine their own operational definition
(Gruneberg, 1979). For example, Wanous and Lawler (1972) list nine different
operational definitions, each related to a different theoretical basis of job
satisfaction including need fulfillment, equity and work values while
Bockman (1971) described the traditional theory of job satisfaction as being the
total body of feeling an individual has about his or her job. Porter and Steers
(1973) defined job satisfaction as the "sum total of an individual's met
expectations on the job" (p. 167) while Smith, Kendall, and Hulin (1969)
defined the concept as "feelings or affective responses to facets of the
situation" (p. 6). According to O'Reilly and Roberts (1975), individual traits
referred to as "personality" are obvious antecedents to job satisfaction. A
particularly relevant definition for this study is that of Davis (1977) because he
related the degree of job satisfaction to the fit between an employee and a
particular job. Davis stated that
job satisfaction is the favorableness or unfavorableness with
which employees view their work. It results when there is a fit
between job characteristics and the wants of employees. It
expresses the amount of congruence between one's expectation
of the job and the rewards that the job provides, (p. 74)
It is important to distinguish the term job satisfaction from morale. Job
satisfaction is an individual state of mind and refers to the response of an
individual to the job whereas morale is the feeling of commitment to and
oneness with a group and group well-being (Blum, 1956; Gruneberg, 1979). It
is also necessary to distinguish the term motivation from job satisfaction.
The terms are often used interchangeably and they are closely linked but they
are not synonymous (Byars & Rue, 1979). The factors which determine job

15
satisfaction and those that determine motivation are different; thus,
"satisfaction reflects an employee's attitude toward the job while motivation
refers to a drive to perform" (Glenn, 1982/1983, p. 62).
Historical Overview
Interest in job satisfaction and the quality of work life is not a recent
phenomenon. Davis (1971) asserted concern with job satisfaction was evident
in industry over 175 years ago. Initially, psychologists studied job satisfaction
as a factor in increasing the productivity of workers. Frederick Taylor (1911)
introduced the principles of scientific management to work settings by
applying the results of time and motion studies. He simplified and
compartmentalized work tasks in an effort to increase efficiency and,
correspondingly, the productivity of workers. Taylor also called attention to
the importance of the human element as a factor in job success. According to
Nauratil (1989), "Taylorism," or scientific management, was widely accepted
in libraries in the early years of the 20th century. The philosophy was
advocated by Melvil Dewey who even urged librarians to "keep a watch or
clock hanging before you" (p. 44).
In 1927, Elton Mayo (1933) began a series of experiments which
stimulated the development of the Human Relations School in
organizational psychology and occupational sociology. The studies, named
for the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company in Chicago,
involved the manipulation of various physical conditions, such as light,
temperature control, rest, work hours and payment systems in an attempt to
improve productivity. Mayo found that productivity increased in unexpected
ways. Even with adverse physical conditions, for example, productivity was
observed to increase. Mayo concluded that human relationships were more
important to workers, especially the feelings of workers toward each other

16
and attention from supervisors (Glasgow, 1982). The studies, which ended in
1932, were later speculated to be invalid (Gruneberg, 1979). However, they are
of significant historical interest because of the importance of the Human
Relations School in psychological research. According to this body of
thought, "satisfied workers are more productive than dissatisfied workers,
and job satisfaction is influenced by . . . human relationships . . . within work
organizations" (Glasgow, 1982, p. 5).
Two important early studies of job satisfaction took place during the
1930s. Kornhauser and Sharp (1932) studied a group of female factory workers
and isolated "character of supervision" as the major factor related to job
dissatisfaction. Further, they found that negative feelings caused by poor
supervision influenced other areas. Another early study of job satisfaction
involved 500 teachers who were questioned about different aspects of their
jobs. Hoppock (1935) analyzed the 100 most satisfied and the 100 least satisfied
responses and concluded that job satisfaction consisted of many factors, the
presence of which in a work situation led to satisfaction whereas their absence
led to job dissatisfaction. Based on his research, he formulated a theory
suggesting that satisfaction and dissatisfaction form a continuum.
Following World War II, interest in job satisfaction research developed
into an interdisciplinary approach with some emphasis on problem-solving
and the relationship between employee satisfaction and performance
(Brayfield & Crockett, 1955).
In 1957, Frederick Herzberg and his associates published an important
review of the literature of job satisfaction research. Herzberg et al., challenged
Hoppock's view which was still in vogue that job satisfaction is a continuous
variable. Rather, a two-factor theory with the causes of job satisfaction
distinct from the causes of job dissatisfaction was proposed. Job satisfaction
research became increasingly sophisticated during the 1960s as survey

17
methodology was improved. With a variety of additional related issues such
as the psychological characteristics of workers under investigation, the decade
of the 1970s saw job satisfaction research well established as an
interdisciplinary field. Many major theories of job satisfaction were
developed between the 1950s and the early 1980s. "They include need-
hierarchy theory, two-factor theory, need-fulfillment theory, value-
fulfillment theory, equity theory, group theory, and perception theory"
(Glasgow, 1982, p. 9). These theories have been classified as either content or
process theories (Campbell, Dunnette, Lawler, & Weik, 1970). Content
theorists were interested in determining those factors related to the
motivation of an individual to work while process theorists attempted "to
explain job satisfaction in terms of the interaction between the individual's
needs and what the job actually offers" (Wellstood, 1984/1985, p. 15).
Abraham Maslow's (1943) general theory of motivation, the need-
hierarchy theory, is a major content theory and has been used as a frame of
reference for many job satisfaction studies. Maslow stated that man has five
basic categories of needs arranged in an ascending hierarchy of five levels.
Lower-order needs were (a) physiological needs, (b) safety and security needs,
and (c) social (affection) needs. Higher-order needs were (d) the need for
esteem, including the need for mastery and achievement along with
recognition and approval and (e) the need for self-actualization, that is, the
desire to be all one is capable of being. Although lower-order needs had to be
met before higher-order needs assumed importance, the satisfaction of a need
removed it as a motivator. (Figure 1)

18
SELF-
ACTUAL¬
IZATION:
to become
everything that
one is capable of
becoming
(measure up to one's
own criteria for success)
ESTEEM NEEDS:
self-respect, positive
self-evaluation, prestige
(dependent on others)
BELONGINGNESS AND LOVE NEEDS:
love, affection, friends, companionship
(dependent on self and others)
SAFETY NEEDS:
protection from the elements
(dependent on self and others)
PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS:
hunger, thirst, sex, etc.
(dependent on self)
Figure 1. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Note. Adapted from An application of the refomulated (Herzberg) theory of
job satisfaction to selected administrative affairs staff in the Florida State
University System, by A. P. Kozal, 1979.
Maslow's theory concerned the relationship of each need level to the
state of satisfaction or dissatisfaction for other need levels. For example, if a
lower-level need is satisfied, an individual's interest will switch to the next
higher-level need; that is, when basic physiological needs are satisfied, safety
needs will become a greater concern. Man's ultimate goal is self-actualization

19
or the ability to become all one is capable of becoming (Maslow, 1943). Thus,
the need-hierarchy theory is based on the idea that lower-order needs are
never totally satisfied. Deprivation of satisfaction over time causes the needs
to evolve into strong motivators. In contrast, higher-order needs must be
continuously sought and are seldom completely satisfied. In an article
entitled "The Herzberg Controversy," Bockman (1971) discussed the
traditional theory or the total body of feeling an individual has about a job,
which includes both job-related and environment-related factors. The feeling
moves along a single continuum between satisfaction and dissatisfaction.
Neutrality, a condition in which an individual is neither satisfied or
dissatisfied, is mid-way on the continuum. (Figure 2)
Job Factors
Negative or Absent Positive or Present
Dissatisfaction Neutrality Satisfaction
Figure 2. Bockman's Traditional Model of Job Satisfaction
Deprivation of pay, recognition, or some other factor will move an
individual toward the negative end. The improvement of a factor, such as
salary, will cause positive movement. Finally, if the presence of a variable in
the work situation leads to job satisfaction, one could logically expect that its
absence would lead to job dissatisfaction.
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Tob Satisfaction
In their book entitled The Motivation to Work, Herzberg, Mausner, &
Snyderman (1959) developed the concept that certain factors are more
frequently associated with feelings of satisfaction while other factors are

20
associated with feelings of dissatisfaction. Herzberg and his associates,
employing the critical incident method developed by Flanagan (1954), tested
the concept on 203 male engineers and accountants in Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania. From these data, Herzberg et al. (1959) developed the theory of
job attitudes called the Two-Factor Theory or the Motivator-Hygiene Theory.
Since 1959, the Two-Factor Theory has been used extensively in job
satisfaction research. Its emphasis on the contribution of psychological
growth to job satisfaction and the recognition that opportunities for
psychological growth can be found within work itself are of particular
importance in the development of general job satisfaction theory. The Two-
Factor Theory states that motivation does not exist on a continuum, as
postulated by Hoppock, but consists of two continua, job satisfiers or
motivators, and job dissatisfiers, or hygienes. (Figure 3)
(Satisfiers/
Satisfaction Motivators) No Satisfaction
(Dissatisfiers/
No Dissatisfaction Hygienes)
Dissatisfaction
Figure 3. Herzberg's Two-Factor Attitude Model
Cummings and El Salmi (1968) divided the Herzberg theory into the
following concepts:
1. Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are unrelated and are not
opposite one another on a single bipolar continuum. Instead, they
are separate and distinct continua (See Figure 3 for Herzberg's Two-
Factor Attitude Model).

21
2. The opposite of job satisfaction is not job dissatisfaction; it is no job
satisfaction. Conversely, the opposite of job dissatisfaction is not job
satisfaction, it is no job dissatisfaction.
3. Job satisfaction is determined by the feeling the employee has
towards the content of his job or job environment. Content job
factors are classified as: achievement, recognition, advancement,
responsibility and work itself. These factors were mentioned most
often by those interviewed as factors that gave the most satisfaction.
4. Job dissatisfaction is determined by the feelings the individual has
toward the context of his job. Context factors include: company
policy and administration, technical aspects of supervision,
interpersonal relations with supervision, salary and working
conditions. These factors were mentioned most often as causing the
employee the most dissatisfaction. (Cummings & El Salmi, 1968, p.
133)
Motivators such as achievement, recognition, advancement,
responsibility and interest in the work itself were intrinsic factors which,
when present in a job, acted as satisfiers with a positive effect on employee
productivity. Of the motivators, achievement was the strongest, followed by
recognition. The motivators corresponded to Maslow's higher-order needs.
The six motivators or satisfiers as defined by Herzberg et al. (1959) and
Herzberg (1966) follow:
1. Advancement refers to actual changes in the status or position of an
individual in an organization. It also includes the probability of or
hope of advancement.
2. Achievement refers to all events that lead toward realization of the
worker's personal objectives (successful completion of a job, finding
a solution to a problem, or seeing the results of one's own work).
The definition also includes the opposite—failure to achieve.
3. Recognition comprises acts of praise and/or notice (positive
recognition), or blame (negative recognition), toward the employee
from the work environment (a peer, professional colleague,
supervisor, or the general public).
4. Work itself denotes the actual doing of the job or the tasks of the job
as a source of good or bad feelings. It also refers to the opportunity
to complete an assigned unit of work.

22
5. Responsibility relates to authority and includes those sequences of
events in which the worker mentioned satisfaction derived from
being given responsibility for his own work or the work of others,
or being given new responsibility. Also included were those
incidents in which there was a loss of satisfaction from lack of
responsibility.
6. Possibility of Growth refers to growth in specific skill areas as well as
growth in status which would enable the individual to move
onward and upward in a company. This factor also encompasses
the lack of opportunity for growth. (Herzberg, 1966, pp. 193-198)
Hygiene factors included pay, security, supervision and physical
working conditions and corresponded to Maslow's lower-order needs. They
were extrinsic to the job and, when absent, linked to dissatisfaction. Herzberg
and his associates made it very clear, however "that the presence of a hygiene
factor doesn't automatically produce job satisfaction and the absence of a
motivator doesn't necessarily lead to dissatisfaction" (Wellstood, 1984/1985, p.
16).
The eight hygienes or dissatisfiers as defined by Herzberg (1966) are as
follows:
1. Salary includes all sequences of events in which some type of
compensation (wage or salary increase) plays a role. Unfulfilled
expectations of a salary increase are also included in this category.
2. Working conditions refers to the physical conditions of work and
the facilities available for performing the work (adequate tools,
space, lighting and ventilation).
3. Supervision-technical includes those events in which the
competence or incompetence of the supervisor is the critical factor.
Statements concerning a supervisor’s willingness or unwillingness
to delegate responsibility or his willingness or unwillingness to
instruct are included.
4. Interpersonal relations involve actual verbalization about the
characteristics of the interaction between the worker and another
individual. Three categories of interpersonal relations are specified:
those involving subordinates, those involving peers and those
concerning supervisors.

23
5. Company policy and administration includes factors in which some
overall aspect of the company is involved. Herzberg (1959)
identified two types: the first concerns the adequacy or inadequacy
of a company's organization and management; the second involves
the positive or negative effects of the company's personnel policies.
6. Status refers to the sequence of events in which the respondent
specifically mentioned that a change in status affected his or her
feelings about the job (attaining a larger office, use of a company car
or having a personal secretary).
7. Personal life involves situations in which some aspect of the job
affects the individual's personal life in such a manner that the
respondent's feelings about his job are affected (a family-opposed
job transfer).
8. Tob security refers to signs of job security (continued employment,
tenure and financial safeguards). Feelings alone of security or
insecurity were not accepted. (Herzberg, 1966, pp. 193-198)
Herzberg stated that there could be situations in which a motivator
could act as a hygiene and vice-versa (Herzberg et al., 1959). After 12 studies
involving 1,685 employees, however, Herzberg (1966) concluded that 81
percent of all factors related to job satisfaction were motivators while 69
percent of all factors related to job dissatisfaction were hygienes.
Salary was difficult to classify in the original study as it appeared in
reports labeled low satisfaction as well as in reports of high satisfaction.
Researchers concluded that the former reports were related to employees who
felt they deserved higher pay or that increases were not based on performance
while the latter were from employees who felt increases were based on
performance and that their own salaries were fair (Herzberg et al., 1959).
Herzberg's theory has been very popular. Since first published,
numerous studies have been conducted with every level of worker,
supervisor and manager in this and other countries (Burr, 1980/1981). There
has been widespread support for the theory but it has also been sharply
criticized.

24
Burr (1980/1981) listed 13 studies conducted over a 10-year period in the
field of education alone. Between 1982 and 1991, at least 56 dissertations have
dealt to some extent with Herzberg's theory. Of these, approximately 15 were
related to higher education faculty or staff. Only three were related to
librarians (Dahlstrom, 1982; Hamshari, 1985/1986; Timmons, 1991).
Initially, criticism of Herzberg's theory focused on the narrow range of
jobs investigated, the absence of reliability and validity data, the lack of a
measure for overall job satisfaction and the use of only one job attitude
measure for overall job satisfaction (Burr, 1980/1981). Although replication
studies rendered most of these criticisms moot (Herzberg et al, 1959), other
critics claimed that the "theory is bound by its methodology; that only one
method, the critical incident method, could provide empirical support for [it]"
(Burr, 1980/1981, p. 38). Herzberg refuted this criticism by stating that "the fact
that another method of testing motivation-hygiene theory has not supported
it is meaningless unless it can be demonstrated that such a method is valid
and appropriate. One cannot logically employ ... a typing skill test to
measure IQ and use the results to evaluate a theory of intellectual
development" (Herzberg, 1976, p. 246).
In Work and Motivation. Vroom (1964) wrote that the results of the
critical-incident method were due to defensive processes within the
individuals interviewed. Further, he criticized the methods used as neither
correlational nor experimental.
Although there has been strong reaction to Herzberg's Two-Factor
Theory, it has led to the analysis of specific work characteristics in studies of
job satisfaction as well as increased awareness of the value of examining job
satisfaction (Gruneberg, 1979).

25
Measuring Tob Satisfaction
Typically, job satisfaction has been measured by an objective, a
descriptive or a projective survey. Objective surveys generally contain
questions with pre-determined responses while descriptive surveys are more
subjective, allowing for unstructured replies through open-ended questions.
Projective surveys are devised by psychologists or psychiatrists to assess
mental health and are not normally used in a work setting (Glenn, 1982/1983;
Wellstood, 1984/1985). The critical incident technique used by Herzberg was a
form of descriptive survey. Thomas (1977), Kozal (1979), and Burr (1980/1981)
used modified versions of the technique in their studies of community
college, college, and university administrators and staff members. Glenn
(1982/1983) and Wellstood (1984/1985) both reported the lack of many
standardized measures of job satisfaction and selected the Job Descriptive
Index (JDI) to measure job satisfaction and dissatisfaction for their studies of
vocational education administrators and medical technologists, respectively.
Olson (1988/1990) used the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) in
his study of college placement officers.
In a comparison of the JDI and the MSQ, Robert Guión wrote in The
Eighth Mental Measurements Yearbook that both were the result of research
in the 1960s, had an underlying rationale, provided reliable scores, showed
evidence of construct validity and were extensively normed (p. 1680).
Campbell et al., (1970), in reviewing the JDI, stated that "nowhere do [the
authors] mention . . . Herzberg's two-factor theory and the notion of intrinsic
vs. extrinsic factors. It would have been interesting to see how they relate
their taxonomy to Herzberg's" (p. 540). Guión (1978), in evaluating the MSQ,
wrote that it "gives reasonably reliable, valid, well-normed indications of
general satisfaction at work and of 20 aspects of that satisfaction, collapsible
into intrinsic and extrinsic components" (p. 1679).

26
The MSQ is one of several measures developed in conjunction with
the Minnesota Studies in Vocational Rehabilitation or, as they are better
known, the Work Adjustment Project. The studies began in 1957 with two
objectives,
the development of diagnostic tools for assessing the work
adjustment 'potential' of applicants for vocational
rehabilitation, and the evaluation of work adjustment
outcomes. These primary goals are embodied in . . . the Theory
of Work Adjustment [which] uses the correspondence or lack of
it between the work personality and the work environment as
the principal reason or explanation for observed work
adjustment outcomes (satisfactoriness, satisfaction, and tenure).
. . . Work adjustment is predicted by matching an individual's
work personality with work environments. (Weiss, Davis,
England & Lofquist, 1967, p. v)
The MSQ is a paper and pencil inventory. It is designed to measure an
employee's satisfaction with his or her job. The MSQ provides more specific
information on the aspects of job satisfaction than do more general measures.
It is available in both long and short form and is suitable for distribution
through the mail, as it is self-administering with directions on the first page.
A detailed description of the MSQ is provided in Chapter III.
D'Elia (1975; 1979) was the first investigator to use the MSQ to measure
the job satisfaction of librarians. Chrisman (1975), Chwe (1976; 1978), and
Rockman (1984; 1985/1986) also used it, with D'Elia and Rockman selecting
the short form while Chwe used the long form. Chwe felt strongly that the
short form should be used for subjects with high educational levels, such as
librarians (Chwe, 1976, p. 50). The MSQ is appropriate for use with
individuals who can read at the fifth grade level or higher. The 100-item
long-form MSQ is quite repetitious. The short-form MSQ uses the same
response categories as the 1977 long form and provides satisfactory data. The
MSQ short-form was selected for this study.

27
Work Behavior Type
Definition
Neff (1969) describes adult work behavior as "the complex product of a
long series of learned and habitual styles of perceiving and coping with
demands of the environment (p. 72). That is, an individual's coping
behaviors consolidate to form a particular work style.
Industrial Psychology
The field of industrial psychology developed specifically to explore the
behaviors of people in the work environment. Researchers claimed that
work behavior is a distinctive area of human behavior which requires
separate theories to explain the behavior of people at work (Neff, 1969;
Wellstood, 1984/1985). Historically, industrial psychologists have viewed
entry into a field from the organization's perspective rather than from that of
the individual. Although "from an organizational standpoint, questions
concerning the matching of a job candidate's abilities to organizational job
requirements [are] more important than the individual's perspective . . .
matching individuals to jobs that are right for them is important"
(Wellstood, 1984/1985, p. 43).
Recruitment and training costs are a practical reason to be aware of the
match between organization and individual. "When an employee leaves the
organization, a drain is placed on the recruiting/training budget, and there is
much loss of time and productivity" (Nickens, 1984, p. 1). Further, a "job-
employee mismatch" causes both employee and administrator to experience
failure. Merrill and Stimpson (1979) wrote of the "implied assumption" that
a job match will work for both the employee and the organization and the
"pain [that] lingers to shadow future recruiting experiences for both" when it
does not (p. 14). They further report that at least 60 percent of newly hired

28
personnel do not meet organizational standards and, of those who survive
the first year, almost 44 percent leave during the second year. This is both an
enormous financial drain for the organization and an emotional and
financial problem for the individual.
Although the majority of employers state that their human resources
are their most important asset, organizations typically do not substantiate this
claim (Jelinik, 1979). She writes that "employees may be used ineffectively in
the sense that their existing skills, knowledge, and aptitudes are poorly
matched with the requirements of their jobs . . . ; the abilities ... of employees
also are often underutilized in terms of what they are expected to do in their
jobs" (p. 287). Jelinik further states that "even the most sophisticated
organizations . . . are relative novices when it comes to the proper
development and utilization of human beings" (ibid).
Evolution of Work Behavior Types
The study of work behavior traits and types as they are understood
today began with the work of William Moulton Marston, a psychologist and
scientist who published Emotions of Normal People in 1928. Marston built
his early theories on the work of the German psychologist Wundt, who
established the first official psychology laboratory in 1879. He is considered
the founder of experimental psychology because of his research with nerve,
muscle and emotional responses (Olson, 1988/1990). Wundt departed from
the view, then current, that pleasantness and unpleasantness are the only two
emotions and proposed in addition four other emotions: excitement and
depression, and tension and relaxation (Marston, 1928). Marston spent many
years building on these original ideas and, through scientific research, began
to perfect his own theories.

29
Marston also reviewed the work of C. G. Jung who, in his book,
Psychological Types, wrote about the clusters of characteristics and the
"collective unconscious" that helps to mold the personality and behavior of
an individual. Jung emphasized that people choose a dominant attitude
toward life: introversion, which is an orientation toward inner processes, or
extroversion, which is an orientation toward the external world of people and
events. He also viewed the human personality in terms of polarities:
conscious values and unconscious values, sublimation and repression,
rational and irrational functions and the previously mentioned introversion
and extroversion. Finally, Jung wrote that each person has only four ways in
which to orient toward the world: two "rational" functions of thinking
(recognizing meaning) and feeling (experiencing pleasure or pain) and two
"irrational" functions of sensation or perceiving by means of unconscious
and subliminal processes (Jung, 1923).
Through his review of the work of Wundt and Jung and based on
research into motation (emotions as measured by motor consciousness,
nerve, and muscle response), Marston (1927; 1928) identified four primary
emotions which he termed dominance, compliance, inducement and
submission. He defined a primary emotion as "an emotion which contained
the maximal amount of alliance, antagonism, [and] superiority of strength of
the motor self in respect to the motor stimulus" (Marston, 1928, p. 106).
Marston (1927) then defined dominance as a "central release of
additional motor energy directed toward dominating obstacles to a reaction
already in progress" (p. 349). He continued, it is "an increase of the self to
overcome an opponent, ... a feeling of an outrush of energy to remove
opposition" (Marston, 1928, p. 140).
Aggressive behavior and a desire to win are not undesirable and can be
developed in ways that are acceptable. Survival as a species, athletic

30
triumphs, the creation of art or music and the primary emotion of infants in
their first three years are all examples of dominant behavior or emotion.
(Wellstood, 1984/1985; Nickens, 1984). However, if this emotion is
uncontrolled, it may be viewed negatively. In a person with a position of
authority, such behavior may cause dissatisfaction or unhappiness in
subordinates.
Compliance, according to Marston (1927), ranks as a basic emotional
response. "Compliance means control (but not inhibition) of tonic motor
discharge reinforcement by a phasic reflex" (p. 350). Marston (1928) further
defined compliance as a
decrease of the motor self to let an opponent move the organism
as if by will; either passively, by making the self give up some
dominant activity, or actively, by compelling the organism to
move in some anti-dominant way ... [It is a] feeling of
acceptance of an object or force as inevitably just what it is,
followed by self-yielding sufficient to bring about harmonious
readjustment of self to object, (p. 183)
Compliance may occur because of sudden change, fear or voluntary
surrender. An individual may believe or come to recognize that forces of
stimuli outside oneself are stronger than internal forces. Intense
conditioning, or repeated environmental stimuli, may lead to compliance
just as moderate repetitious punishment may produce compliance while a
harsh occasional punishment may not (Nickens, 1984).
Marston (1927) stated that submission was a "voluntary yielding to
whatever stimuli may be imposed. It does not seem to overwhelm, or
dominate the subject organism by force, but rather brings about a spontaneous
lessening of the subject's resistance to it until the subject has become less
strong than the stimulus" (pp. 356-357). It can also be understood as the
introspective meaning of mutual warmth between the person who submits
and the one submitted to (Marston, 1928). "In general behavior, submission

31
takes the form of consideration, service to others, selflessness,
accommodation and generosity" (Wellstood, 1984/1985, p. 34).
Inducement can be seen by observing the behavior of individuals who
gain voluntary submission from others. Marston's 1928 definition states that
inducement consists of an increase of the self, and making of the
self more completely allied with the stimulus person, for the
purpose of establishing control over that person's behavior. . . .
The definite characteristic of inducement is a feeling that is
utterly necessary to win the voluntary submission of another
person to do what the subject says. This feeling [is] increasingly
pleasant in proportion as the other person submits, (p. 273)
Inducement may involve "persuasion, personal charm, friendliness, and
frequently seduction or subtle manipulation .... Every positive relationship
contains some inducement behavior, for there must be inducement and
submission for alliance to occur" (Nickens, 1984, p. 7). In modern culture,
advertising is an example of inducement.
Marston's Two-Axis Model
Marston illustrated the four emotions as forming a two-axis model
with dominance and compliance constituting one axis and inducement and
submission constituting the second axis. Individuals attempt to maintain a
balance between the extremes of each axis and the point of balance varies
which, according to Marston, explains differences in behavioral tendencies.
In Marston's model, as seen in Figure 4, dominance and compliance
form one axis. Inducement and submission form the second axis. The two
emotions of each pair are located at opposite ends of a continuum and are
separated by the degree of response, which may be active or passive, as well as
an outward or inward orientation.

32
Dominance Inducement
Figure 4. Marston's Two-Axis Model
Note. From The Marcus Paul Placement Profile and Work Behavior
Analysis by J. M. Nickens, 1984.
The two axes are divided horizontally. The active component and
outward orientation are seen in the upper dimensions of dominance and
inducement while the lower dimension includes the inward orientation and
the passive component made up of submission and compliance.
Geier (1979) both updated and clarified some of Marston's terminology.
He defined the four emotions as follows:
Dominance is an active positive movement in an antagonistic
environment.
Compliance is a cautious tentative response designed to reduce
antagonistic factors in an unfavorable environment.

33
Submission is passive aggressiveness in a favorable
environment.
Inducement is active positive movement in a favorable
environment, (p. 2)
He also added the idea that persons whose traits cluster predominantly in the
upper dimension of the model have a process orientation. These individuals
"want to shape the environment according to their particular view. These
are individuals who continually test and push the limits" (ibid, p. 3). Those
people whose traits cluster in the lower dimension are more product-oriented
and "focus on the how and why" (ibid).
The dimensions in Marston's Two-Axis Model indicate behavioral
tendencies. The behavior traits of an individual tend to cluster around one
dimension more than the others but each individual exhibits some or all of
the types of behavior to at least some degree.
The inability of Marston's model to explain the simultaneous presence
of feelings of dominance and compliance and of inducement and submission
has been cited as the major limitation of the model. Interpretations that fac¬
tor in environmental considerations as influences are, however, worth con¬
sideration. According to Nickens (1984), "people will display work behavior
that is not normal for them when the job induces pressures beyond the
normal. Thus, this is not the normal behavior . . . and ... is beyond the
theory. However, behaving differently under different circumstances is
normal" (p. 9).
Clustered Traits
Marston also identified clusters of traits associated with each of the four
primary emotions. These clusters, shown in Figure 5, helped shape
Marston's data and theories into a model which could be used in understand¬
ing normal behavior (Wellstood, 1984/1985). Factor analysis by subsequent

34
researchers (Allport & Odbert, 1936; Cattell, 1946; Geier, 1967, 1979, 1980) sub¬
stantiated trait clusters, with Geier (1980) reporting that "many of Marston's
suggested adjectives for each of his four emotions had correlated together at
least R = .60" (p. 14). Marston's model has a non-pathological orientation
with four categories supported by cluster traits. This is in contrast to other
theories which are pathologically oriented and contain multiple clusters
(Wellstood, 1984/1985; Nickens, 1984). Marston's non-pathological orienta¬
tion makes the model particularly appropriate for work behavior analysis as
work is a normal activity for adults.
Geier (1980) stated that "one must consider semantic change, or change
of meaning. Then, too, some words acquire negative connotations over time,
or with much repetition have lost their original vividness and become worn
and faded" (p. 12). Accordingly, he built on the work of Marston (1927; 1928)
and Alpert and Odbert (1936) in developing an updated list of traits. On the
whole, most traits were listed as adjectives which made them easier to review
and use in additional research. Geier's list of clustered traits is presented in
Figure 6.
Marcus Paul Placement Profile
Building theoretically on Marston's model and Geier's research, Bauch
(1981) and Nickens (1984) developed the Marcus Paul Placement Profile
(MPPP). The instrument was designed to measure work behavior type for the
purpose of matching individuals and jobs. Counseling, career development,
job recruitment and placement, training, team building, job enhancement
and selection were all possible uses for the MPPP (Bauch, 1981). The MPPP
system incorporates theories of management, career counseling and place¬
ment. A particular strength of the instrument is its recognition that

35
individuals possess a variety of qualities and patterns of behavior in any work
situation (Glenn, 1982/1983, p. 94).
Bauch (1981) did not view work behavior traits and types as judgments
of work behaviors but rather as terms that could be used to increase the
understanding of work behavior, to the benefit of both the organization and
the individual. He advocated positive or neutral terminology with specific
terms reflective of work behaviors. In particular, he replaced some of
Marston's and Geier's terms which had negative connotations with positive
or neutral terms applicable to a work environment. For example, Geier
changed Marston's original categories of dominance, inducement,
submission and compliance to dominance, influence, steadiness and
compliance while Bauch and Nickens designated the four work behavior
types as energizer, inducer, concentrator and producer.
The behaviors that cluster on the dominance dimension are placed
under the energizer work behavior type. The term energizer is more positive
and also more descriptive of the type as found in a work environment.
Marston's inducement and Geier's influence became inducer, a positive and
descriptive term for the second work behavior type. The Marcus Paul
Placement Profile (MPPP) type, concentrator, is a more positive
representation than Marston's submission dimension and a broader
description of the type than Geier's term, steadiness, which is only one aspect
of the trait. Finally, the more descriptive and more positive term producer
replaced compliance. In all four instances, the MPPP labels were changed
from adjectives to nouns to indicate a type as opposed to a trait (Bauch, 1981).
The MPPP work behavior traits are listed under each type in Figure 7.
The semantic development from Marston's descriptions of primary emotions
through Geier's list of traits to the MPPP list can be reviewed through a
comparison of Figures 5, 6, and 7.

Dominance
Inducement
Submission
Compliance
aggressiveness
alluring
accommodating
adapting
boldness
appealing
admiration
awe
courage
attraction
"a good child"
caution
dare-deviltry
"attractive
altruism
candor
determination
personality"
benevolence
conforming
egocentricity
captivation
considerate
well disciplined
ego-emotion
charming
docility
empathy
fighting instinct
convincing
"being an easy mark"
fear
force of character
converting
generosity
"getting down to brass tacks"
fury
"inducing a person"
gentleness
harmony
high spirit
leading
good nature
humility
inferiority feeling
"making an impression"
"being manageable"
"oneness with nature"
initiative
"personal magnetism"
meekness
open mindedness
persistency
persuasion
obedience
peace
rage
seduction
obliging
being a realist
self-assertion
"selling an idea"
slavishness
resignation
self-seeking
"selling oneself"
sweetness
respect
stick-to-itiveness
"winning a person's confidence"
tender heartedness
"swimming with the stream"
stubbornness
"winning a person's friendship"
"being tractable"
timidity
superiority complex
unselfishness
tolerance
unconquerableness
willing service
weak will
will
willingness
yielding to
Figure 5. Marston's Behavioral Description of the Four Primary Emotions (1928)

37
Dominance
adventurous
aggressive
argumentative
arrogant
assertive
bold
brave
competitive
daring
decisive
defiant
determined
direct
eager
fearless
firm
force of character
forceful
inquisitive
inventive
irritable
nervy
original
outspoken
persistent
pioneering
positive
rebellious
restless
rigorous
self-reliant
stubborn
unconquerable
vigorous
will power
Influencing
(Inducement)*
admirable
affectionate
animated
attractive
boastful
charming
companionable
confident
convincing
cordial
energetic
expressive
fervent
flexible
fluent
good mixer
high-spirited
inspiring
jovial
joyful
life of the party
light-hearted
open-minded
optimistic
persuasive
playful
polished
popular
prideful
proud
responsive
self-assured
spirited
talkative
trusting
Steadiness
(Submission)*
accommodating
attentive
cheerful
companionable
confidential
considerate
contented
controlled
deliberate
earnest
easy mark
even-tempered
friendly
generous
gentle
good-natured
gracious
hospitable
kind
lenient
loyal
mild
moderate
modest
neighborly
nonchalant
obedient
patient
peaceful
possessive
reliable
sentimental
sympathetic
trustful
willing
Compliance
accurate
adaptable
adherent
agreeable
calculating
calm
cautious
conformist
consistent
contemplative
cultured
devout
diplomatic
easily-led
exacting
fearful
fussy
God-fearing
harmonious
humble
logical
objective
obliging
peaceful
precise
receptive
resigned
respectful
soft-spoken
strict
systematic
tactful
timid
tolerant
well-disciplined
Figure 6. Geier's Revised List of Traits Which Correspond to the Four
Primary Emotions (1980)
Note: * Marston's (1928) original terms.

38
Energizer
Inducer
(Dominance)*
(Inducement)*
(Dominance^
(Influencing)o
aggressive
attracts people
bold
change agent
certain
convincing
competitive
enthusiastic
decisive
expressive
demanding
friendly
determined
happy
direct
hopeful
dominant
inspiring
eager
playful
forceful
personable
independent
persuader
leader
popular
new ideas
respected
original
seeks new ideas
outspoken
sociable
sure
talkative
takes charge
team leader
venturesome
vigorous
Concentrator
Producer
(Submission)*
(Compliance)*
(Steadiness)0
(Compliance^
accepting
accurate
attentive
agreeable
caring
careful
committed
cautious
contented
compliant
considerate
conforming
diplomatic
contented
disciplined
devoted
easy going
exacting
exacting
follows orders
loyal
follows procedures
orderly
governed
patient
logical
peaceful
precise
reasonable
resigned
respectful
respectful
satisfied
responsible
sharing
systematic thinker
steady
tolerant
trusting
understanding
Figure 7. Marcus Paul Placement Profile List of Traits (Bauch, 1981)
Note: * Marston's (1928) original terms; 0 Geier's (1980) revised list of traits.
The theoretical basis of the MPPP is similar to Herzberg's motivator-
hygiene model for job satisfaction. That is, Herzberg recognized that the
factors which enhance job satisfaction (the motivators) do not automatically
produce dissatisfaction when absent and the factors that induce dissatisfaction
(hygienes) do not necessarily produce satisfaction when present. Nickens
(1984) viewed the primary behaviors of dominance, submission, compliance
and inducement as independent pairs. This does not mean that Nickens
denied the existence of strong inverse relationships between the "opposite

39
pairs" in statistical models. The recognition of trait independence provided a
more powerful tool for explaining complex behaviors on an individual basis
(Nickens, 1984, p. 13).
A major contribution in work behavior analysis was the automation of
the response analysis and reporting. Nickens developed a system in which
responses marked on the MPPP response sheet can be entered into a
microcomputer, analyzed, and the results printed immediately in a form
easily used for discussion. The report can be retained by an individual for
future reference and further discussion.
There are 24 sets of forced choice items in the MPPP. In each set,
respondents indicate the term most descriptive of their work behavior and
the term least descriptive of their work behavior. Work behavior types are
then reported as energizers, inducers, concentrators, and producers. The
profile includes a narrative description of an individual's strengths and
tendencies in a work setting. A more complete description of the
administration, analysis and reporting of the MPPP is provided in Chapter III.
Academic Librarians
Personality Studies
A considerable literature exists on the personality of the librarian.
Bryan (1952), Douglas (1957) and Rainwater (1965) studied various
populations of librarians between 1948 and 1965. All three studies showed the
average librarian to be more submissive or deferential than the general
population and to possess a set of qualities summarized by the term
"endurance." They also showed the librarian to be less affiliative, less
dominant, less heterosexual in interests and less aggressive than the
normative population. All the studies agreed that the same characteristics
applied to both males and females within the total population of librarians.

40
However, Bryan (1952), who studied public librarians in one of the earliest
comprehensive studies of librarian personality, used the Guildford-Martin
Inventory of Factors (GAMIN) which has fallen into disuse. It has been
criticized for several reasons but especially because of its subjectivity (Agada,
1987). Douglass (1957) sought to determine the extent to which the profession
selects members having a characteristic personality pattern. Between 1947
and 1948 he administered a series of measures, using the Minnesota
Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) as his major instrument. This test
was designed for use in psychopathological testing and could be inappropriate
for understanding normal behavior (Agada, 1987; Fisher, 1988). Rainwater
(1965) administered the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) to 94
student librarians. His findings suggested greater tendencies toward
nurturance and succorance, as well as low heterosexuality, and conform to
the broad groupings of behavior described by Bryan (1952) and Douglas (1957).
However, Rainwater's interpretations are now considered questionable
(Agada, 1987).
In the decade of the 1960s, Baillie (1961/1962) studied a small sample of
65 librarians and found that although they conformed to "normal"
personality patterns, they were aloof, suspicious and wary. McMahon (1967)
reported on librarians' lack of leadership potential and noted that "people
with certain personality traits are drawn towards librarianship as a career" (p.
2). Morrison (1961), Clayton (1968), and Magrill (1969) produced three doctoral
studies related to librarian personality. The Ghiselli Self-Description
Inventory was used to study academic librarians (Morrison, 1961). He stated
that librarians with dynamic personality traits were needed and that the
personality profile of academic librarians was not especially suited to the
needs of the modern library. Clayton (1968) administered the California
Personality Inventory to entrants to the profession who showed an

41
orientation to academic librarianship and found the subjects to be
disinterested in decision-making and lacking in initiative and assertiveness.
During the 1970s studies reporting the docile nature and passivity of
library students were published. The works of Segal (1970), Goodwin (1972),
and Plate and Stone (1974) are representative of this research with Segal, in
particular, reporting male librarians to be practical, somewhat unfeeling and
generally suspicious. Presthaus (1970) and Hamilton (1976) found the
librarians they studied to be bureaucratic and resistant to change, both
sociological and technological. In a study of 160 full-time librarians, Clift
(1976) investigated the personality characteristics of the group, and the
accuracy of library patron's stereotype of librarians. Results revealed high
needs for achievement, endurance, and order and low needs for exhibition,
aggression and change. Males but not females had high needs for nurturance
and deference and a low need for autonomy. Both sexes scored high on
measures of self-control and personal adjustment. Lee and Hall (1973)
employed the Sixteen Personality Questionnaire (16PF) to determine mean
differences in selected personality characteristics between a female college
norm group and a group of female prospective librarians. In contrast to the
occupational stereotype of librarians as rigid, conventional, tense and less
stable, the library science students were not found to exhibit these
characteristics to any greater degree than the norm group. In addition, the
three scales with significant differences (more intelligent, experimenting and
self-sufficient) were favorable to the prospective librarians.
Personality studies of librarians and prospective librarians continued
throughout the 1980s. Two of these examined specific questions related to
behavioral styles of university technical service librarians, compared with
public service librarians (Frankie, 1980/1981) and first, second or alternative
career academic librarians (Moore, 1981). Frankie (1980/1981) concluded that

42
"university librarianship constitutes an occupational sub-culture
characterized by very distinctive and potentially very dysfunctional values,
attitudes and work preferences" (p. 163). She found that the academic
librarians studied lacked self-confidence, avoided aggression, were resistant to
job challenges, were primarily motivated by extrinsic rewards and showed
little inclination toward leadership, assertiveness, social interaction and
change. Moore (1981) reported no differences in personality characteristics as
related to managerial talent for those who selected librarianship as a first
career, those who worked in another field which required graduate training
prior to entering librarianship and those who chose it as an alternative career.
"Regardless of the route by which a person comes to academic librarianship, it
appears that the same type does ultimately come" (p. 146). Moore did find
librarians closer to the norm on general personality characteristics than
earlier studies had reported. Lemkau (1984) studied the personalities and
backgrounds of 54 men (A's) employed in female-dominated professions,
including nurse, elementary school teacher and librarian. They were
compared with 63 men (S's) employed in sex-typical fields. A's showed lower
adherence to traditional sex-role expectations such as household
responsibilities and exhibited greater "tender-minded" emotional sensitivity.
"There was also evidence that upward-mobility strivings may have
contributed to atypical career choices, with A's more frequently being
members of social minorities and/or of lower socio-economic background"
(p. 110). The data suggest that disadvantaged youth seeking upward mobility
may choose female-dominated professions as easier to permeate and are
consistent with other research in the area (ibid).
Agada (1984; 1984/1985; 1987) has written extensively on librarian
personality, especially on the aspect of assertiveness. In his doctoral
dissertation (1984/1985) he compared beginning and graduating library school

43
students with counterparts in law and liberal arts. Both third-year library and
liberal arts students were less assertive than first-year students while law
students maintained a comparable degree of assertiveness at both levels.
Agada suggested that library education does not enhance student assertion.
He recommended that the profession focus on the socialization of students to
an appropriate professional demeanor. Webreck's findings (1985/1986)
suggested that librarians exhibit introverted and judging personality types.
This was consistent with Agada's (1984/1985; 1987) assertion studies. Finally,
a study of 500 first-year library school students from eight European countries
(Bruyns, 1989) revealed that library schools attracted students who were less
technical, less creative, less sports-loving and, possibly, less ambitious when
compared with other Higher Vocational Education students. Little difference
was found between male and female students. The research indicated "future
librarians are still persons who in general are interested in culture and
humanities" (p. 58). Further, "the profession . . . attracts students who are, in
general, conservative, who do not show a tendency towards taking initiatives,
who have an attitude inclining towards rendering services and who, in
general, cannot be characterized as having dynamic personalities" (ibid).
In one of the most recent studies available, David (1990/1991)
concentrated on librarians working in technological environments. She
reported that "all librarians, independent of their sub-specialties, were
dominant on Holland's Artistic Type" (p. 164). She also found that none of
the groups tested were dominant on Holland's Conventional Type nor were
they conservative, as both earlier studies and stereotypical representations of
the profession would imply (ibid).
Fisher (1988) analyzed measures used in early studies of librarian
personality, including the California Psychological Index (CPI) and, in the case
of the CPI, found questions designed to reveal feminine traits to be

44
"ideological and not a little farcical" (p. 41). For example, replying "true" to
the question "I think I would like the work of a librarian" indicates a
feminine orientation. In other words, the very job of librarian is considered a
feminine activity. Fisher argued strongly that there is doubt in the utility of
the entire psychological approach to librarianship. He reviewed several
studies and concluded that each attempted to generalize from samples which
were frequently very small and used personality tests shown to be largely
inappropriate. "No real attempts have been made to link the individual and
the social, personality traits are mostly viewed as absolute, existing across all
situations" (ibid, p. 45). Agada (1984) also criticized earlier studies of librarian
personality for using questionable control groups, limited and/or non-
random sampling, use of other career professionals as "norms" and lack of
replication.
Most important, most of the studies used dated multitrait global
personality inventories which do not meet current high
standards of reliability and validity, failing especially to show a
high degree of convergent and discriminant validity. Most of
these instruments have a psychopathological basis which is
usually inappropriate and inadequate for the understanding of
normal behavior, (pp. 38-39)
Fisher (1988) advocated a more sociological approach to this area of study, one
which acknowledges the interaction between the individual and the social,
and which uses techniques or instruments suitable for varied and normal
individuals. "The conflicting results . . . would lead one to believe that
libraries like other organizations are populated by staff with varied interests
and attributes" (p. 46). Agada (1984) wrote "there is a need for personality
studies in librarianship to focus on the behavior-reactions of the personality
types in the context of their particular job experiences" (p. 40). Van House
(1988), in her study of library science students' choice of career, stated that
"more research is needed in career choice generally, on environmental and

45
personal influencing factors, and on the process of people's decisions to enter
librarianship" (p. 173). One additional factor which should be considered is
the "strikingly homogeneous demographic characteristics" (Heim and Moen,
1992, p. 95) displayed by library and information science students over the last
30 years. A 1988 study of students in the (then) 54 American Library
Association accredited library and information science programs in the
United States revealed survey respondents to be overwhelmingly white (93.7
percent) and female (80.9 percent).
lob Satisfaction of Academic Librarians
As previously stated, interest in job satisfaction can be seen in the
number of studies related to it. Locke (1969) estimated that more than 4,000
articles on the subject had been published while Chwe (1976) increased that
number to 5,000. Of those 5,000, Chwe was able to identify only about 10
studies of job satisfaction in the field of librarianship in the United States (p.
23-27). Additional studies were completed after 1976 including at least eight
relevant dissertations.
Frankie (1980/1981) studied university catalog and reference librarians
using worker analysis techniques. Lindstrom (1980) compared community
college and college/university librarians and found different levels of
satisfaction for each area. Swe (1981/1982) compared bibliographers and non¬
bibliographers in academic research libraries while Hook (1981) concluded
that library administrators in academic libraries were significantly more
satisfied with higher-level intrinsic aspects of their work than non¬
administrators. Glasgow (1982) found academic librarians' perceptions of
their work, position in the library organization, salary and perceptions of
their promotion opportunities to be the variables most useful in predicting
job satisfaction. Green (1982) studied library personnel employed in the

46
University of North Carolina system and investigated the relationship
between communication satisfaction and job satisfaction. Hegg (1982/1984)
and Rockman (1985/1986) used the MSQ in studies designed to reconcile
inconsistent findings regarding job satisfaction and to produce a demographic
profile of academic librarians.
As early as 1937 the twin issues of job satisfaction and work behavior
type of librarians were addressed in contributions to a symposium entitled
"Square Pegs in Square Holes—Bringing Together Talent and Opportunity in
the Library Profession." In particular, deficiencies in staff management
techniques, monotonous and routine work with little opportunity for
creativity, lack of professional development opportunities, limited
promotions, inadequate salaries (Nourse, 1937) and lack of clear job
specifications and classifications (Timmerman, 1937) were described as factors
related to dissatisfaction. The issues of salary and advancement opportunities
were studied again by Hoage (1950) who investigated the reasons for
resignations in two large university libraries. Salary and advancement were
cited most frequently by the respondents, after marriage or following
husband. Herrick (1950) found these same issues of importance in her study
of the morale of college librarians although proper equipment, physical
working environment and relationship with other employees were all
ranked as "essential" or "important" slightly more frequently.
A number of studies related to the job satisfaction of librarians have
appeared in the past 25 years. Vaughn (1972/1973) found the concept of
multidimensional job satisfaction to be an important research concept useful
in exploring environmental and behavioral features of the work setting of
one university library with work, pay, promotion and supervision emerging
as key parameters in the analysis of data. A second study (Vaughn & Dunn,
1974) expanded the concept to six university libraries and emphasized again

47
the multidimensional nature of job satisfaction, in addition to the causal
influence of managerial performance upon employee productivity and
satisfaction. Miniter (1975/1976) found women to be generally more satisfied
in their work than men, Scammel and Stead (1980) reported relatively
constant levels of job satisfaction across different age and tenure categories
and Limpiyasrisakul (1980/1981) identified involving librarians in decision¬
making processes as a factor in improving job satisfaction. Lindstrom (1980)
determined that the work itself and pay were the most critical areas related to
low job satisfaction with independence, challenging work and service
opportunities related to higher satisfaction while Smith and Reinow (1984)
reported that a perception of low professional status and lack of professional
development and advancement opportunities were related to dissatisfaction.
Additional research (Hook, 1981; Glasgow, 1982; Lynch & Verdin, 1983;
Chopra, 1984; Bernstein & Leach, 1985; Bengston & Shields, 1985; Sherrer,
1985; Allison & Sartori, 1988; Washington, 1988; Mirfakharai, 1991; and
Horenstein, 1993) revealed library administrators to be more satisfied with
intrinsic aspects of their work than non-administrators, management style to
be the best predictor of librarian satisfaction in an academic setting and faculty
status or rank to be a predictor of overall job satisfaction. Intellectually
challenging work, advancement opportunities, independence and autonomy,
support for professional travel and research and salary continued to appear as
factors in job satisfaction/job dissatisfaction.
A theory of role dynamics focusing on stress resulting from
expectations derived from the work environment defined two main types of
stress. Role conflict (created by expectations in conflict) and role ambiguity
(created by vague or unclear expectations) led to conclusions of lower levels of
job satisfaction for workers in environments which created high conflict and
ambiguity (Kahn et al., 1964). An analysis of these variables within the

48
context of librarianship suggested both were significantly related to overall job
satisfaction (Stead & Scamell, 1980). The bureaucratic nature of librarianship
and the limited discretionary power given to professionally trained workers is
stated to be unusual when compared to other professions with specific
professional education, such as engineers, teachers, scientists and hospital
personnel (ibid). In addition, the relationship appears to be affected by
individual and environmental variables and to be moderated by self-esteem,
particularly for lower-level librarians (Hosel, 1984).
Studies Related to Maslow and Herzberg
Maslow's need hierarchy theory and Herzberg's dual-factor theory were
specifically considered in a series of studies. One of the earliest (Wahba, 1973)
provided an empirical test of the applicability of the theories to librarians.
Promotional opportunities, pay levels and security were sources of strong
dissatisfaction with women reporting greater dissatisfaction with the factors
in addition to that of supervision. Women also expressed greater need
deficiencies than men in esteem, autonomy and self-actualization. Library
administrators expressed higher satisfaction in these areas with technical
services librarians expressing the lowest levels. Wahba (1985) explored the
differences in job satisfaction for men and women in a later study which
concentrated on their perceived degree of need fulfillment and need
deficiencies. Similar levels of fulfillment were reported in lower-order needs,
such as social or security needs, with women reporting significantly lower
levels of fulfillment than men in esteem and autonomy needs. In the area of
need deficiency, women indicated larger degrees of need than men in all areas
except for the social need.
A particularly relevant study involving 237 American and Canadian
librarians investigated job satisfaction in relation to Herzberg's theory (Plate

49
& Stone, 1974). These authors reported findings corresponding to those of
Herzberg, most notably that
the factors involved in producing job satisfaction (and
motivation) are distinct and different from the factors that lead
to job dissatisfaction and the factors producing job satisfaction
(and motivation) are concerned primarily with the actual job
content (or work-process factors): the reasons for dissatisfaction
(or hygiene factors) deal primarily with factors relating to the
context in which the job is done—the job environment. Both
sets of factors are closely interrelated, (p. 97)
Partial support for Herzberg's theory was reported in a study of academic
librarians in Jordan (Hamshari, 1985/1986). Both motivators and hygienes
contributed to overall job satisfaction and technical services librarians scored
significantly higher than public service librarians on most dimensions.
Additional support for the theory was provided by Nzotta (1987) who
determined compensation, physical environment and advancement to be
major sources of dissatisfaction with security, actual work itself and
autonomy producing satisfaction in his study of Nigerian librarians.
Additional studies of librarians which drew upon Maslow's or
Herzberg's theories investigated the role of work space in productivity and
satisfaction (Isacco, 1985), decision-making and staff morale (Nitecki, 1984),
expectations of administrators (Price, 1987; Fink, 1987) expectations by
administrators (Alley, 1987), work-related stress (Bunge, 1987) and job
satisfaction of ethnic minority librarians (Squire, 1991). Baker and Sandore
(1991) considered Maslow's hierarchy in relation to the rapid pace of
institutional and technological change in libraries. Building on their earlier
work, they concluded that the introduction of automation, in particular, led
many librarians to feel threatened concerning job security, professional
knowledge and professional competency. "Professionals who are already at
ease with many of the levels on Maslow's needs hierarchy are suddenly faced

50
with starting all over, possibly to satisfy beginning or basic job security needs"
(p. 43). They concluded, however, that it is the uncertainty and turbulence of
change rather than specific individual events, such as the introduction of
new technologies into libraries, which have caused ambivalence and
insecurity and lowered the reported job satisfaction of librarians.
Studies Using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire
The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire has been used in several
studies related to librarians. One of the first studies to use the instrument was
a short longitudinal investigation in which data pertaining to vocational
needs and job expectations were collected prior to subject entry into work
environments with data on vocational need, environmental reinforcers and
job satisfaction collected after subjects had been working at least six months
(D'Elia, 1975). Job satisfaction was determined to be a function of both need
gratification and expectation fulfillment. A later study (D'Elia, 1979) found
two job factors related to supervision (human relations and ability
utilization) to be most related to satisfaction.
The level of general job satisfaction showed no significant difference
for university catalogers or reference librarians in a study that used the long-
form MSQ, although some specific areas, such as "variety," "compensation,"
or "working conditions" did show substantial differences (Chwe, 1976; 1978).
Additional studies using the MSQ concluded bibliographers were more
satisfied than non-bibliographers on intrinsic satisfaction (Swe, 1981/1982),
age was associated with job satisfaction while participation in continuing
education was not and job satisfaction as a single variable was not related to
faculty status (Hegg, 1982/1984, 1985, and 1986). Women librarians in Nigeria
derive greater satisfaction from their work than men, in contrast to studies of
librarians in the United States where men were either more satisfied or no

51
difference was determined (Nzotta, 1985). Autonomy and decision-making
opportunities were more important in predicting job satisfaction than gender
(Rockman, 1984; 1985/1986) and factors related to superior-subordinate
relations (supervision) were significantly related to general job satisfaction
(Swasdison, 1989/1990).
Conclusion
Controversy surrounds the study of librarian personality as well as that
of the job satisfaction of academic librarians. No study was found which
combined an exploration of personal characteristics, such as work behavior
type, with job satisfaction results. Such a study would appear to be of
potential interest to graduate schools of library and information science as
they select students for admission and to academic institutions as they recruit
and hire librarians. The entire process of recruitment, selection,
compensation and retention of manpower in an occupation is of interest in
any study of the socialization of professions (Schmidt and Hunter, 1979) and
this study may be of benefit in this area.
Finally, the study has the potential to expand current understanding of
work behavior type by studying a population not previously included in
MPPP studies.
Summary
This review of the literature includes information on theories of job
satisfaction, the measurement of job satisfaction and theories and research
related to the study of work behavior type, including the development of the
Marcus Paul Placement Profile. The chapter concludes with a review of
relevant studies related to the personality and job satisfaction of academic

52
librarians. The following chapter outlines how work behavior type and job
satisfaction were explored in this study.

CHAPTER III
DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
Organization of the Chapter
The design and methodology of the study are described in this chapter.
It contains an explanation of the research problem, the research population
and procedures, which include data collection, instrumentation and statistical
treatment.
Statement of the Research Problem
The problem this study investigated was to relate two well-established
theories about job satisfaction/dissatisfaction to the library work
environment. The first theory (Herzberg, 1966; Herzberg, Mausner, &
Snyderman, 1959) suggests that job satisfaction relates to a set of work
environment conditions called "motivators" and job dissatisfaction relates to
a different set of work environment conditions called "hygienes." The
second theory (Nickens, 1984; Bauch, 1981) suggests that workers related
differently to the same work environment and that their different reactions
are predictable by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile scores. In this context,
the following questions guided the study:
1. What are the work behavior types of academic librarians in
Florida as measured by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile
(MPPP)?
2. What are the motivators and hygienes perceived by academic
librarians in Florida as reported on the Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire (MSQ)?
53

54
3. Do factors derived from a factor analysis of the MSQ show
characteristics of motivators and hygienes?
4. Do the different work behavior type scores of academic librarians
in Florida, as measured by the MPPP, relate differently to the
motivator and hygiene scores derived from the MSQ?
Population
The majority of potential subjects in the sample population were the
1993 Florida members of a national organization, the Association of College
and Research Libraries, a division of the American Library Association.
Additional members of the subject pool were the members of the Academic
Caucus of the Florida Library Association for 1993. Membership in a
professional organization relevant to academic librarianship was the initial
criterion for inclusion in the subject pool. This yielded 350 potential subjects.
The subjects retained in the sample group consisted of individuals
currently employed as professional librarians in academic libraries in Florida.
Academic libraries were defined as those in post-baccalaureate institutions
(community or junior college, college, university or special library connected
with a post-baccalaureate institution). Only those individuals holding a
Master's degree in Library Science (MLS) or an appropriate equivalent degree
were included in the analysis of data. Although academic librarians
increasingly hold additional subject-related graduate degrees, an accredited
MLS is the usual required degree for entry into the profession (Robbins, 1990).
Procedures
Data Collection
Data for work behavior type (WBT) were collected using the MPPP. Job
satisfaction data were collected using the MSQ. Both measures are self-

55
reporting forms, described as appropriate for distribution through the mail.
Instrument packets were numerically coded to eliminate personal
identification but to permit correlation of responses. Study participants who
wished to receive a printed profile reporting their work behavior type were
instructed to put their names on the MPPP form. Following the distribution
of the MPPP reports and before the analysis of data, responses were recorded
with a second numbering scheme to ensure confidentiality.
The national office of the Association of College and Research Libraries
(ACRL) provided the researcher with sets of mailing labels for ACRL
members living in Florida. Mailing labels for members of the Academic
Caucus of the Florida Library Association were provided by the state office of
the organization. A cover letter (Appendix A) explaining the study,
requesting participation and assuring confidentiality for participants was sent
to the 350 individuals who constituted the subject pool, along with an MPPP
form, an MSQ form and a demographic form which supplemented the
demographic section of the MSQ. A stamped envelope addressed to the
researcher was included for ease of return. Those contacted were asked to
reply within one week. Approximately two weeks after the first mailing, a
second letter requesting participation was sent to non-respondents (Appendix
B). Along with personal reminders for individuals who could be readily
contacted by telephone or electronic mail, a second reminder letter, sent
approximately two months after the initial mailing, was distributed to non¬
respondents. This final mailing included a second complete instrument
packet. These three mail contacts completed the data collection sequence.
As an incentive for participation, the 350 members of the subject pool
were offered an opportunity to receive a copy of their individual MPPP
profile. Approximately 60 percent of the respondents requested the profile.
This group received one additional mailing which included a letter briefly

56
describing the theoretical basis of the MPPP profile, thanking them for their
participation and including their personal profile (Appendix C). Finally,
participants who wished to learn more about the results of the study or who
had individual questions were encouraged to contact the researcher in a
separate letter or message. Some questions were answered immediately;
those requesting information concerning results were retained in a file for
later response.
Instrumentation
The study is based on two constructs. The first construct is work
behavior type. The Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP) was used to
measure work behavior type. The second construct addressed in the study is
job satisfaction/job dissatisfaction. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire
(MSQ) was used to measure the second construct.
Marcus Paul Placement Profile
The MPPP was designed to describe the individual work behavior
patterns of people for the purpose of matching individuals and jobs. It can be
used in an educational setting to facilitate the job placement of students and
in a business setting as an aid in the recruitment, placement and assignment
of personnel. It may also be used as an element in the development of work
teams by assisting team members to understand and appreciate different work
behaviors and as a training tool (Bauch, 1981). As long as the work
environment is stable, work behavior patterns are stable over time. All
individuals exhibit all the work behavior patterns to some degree but one
behavior pattern will emerge as predominant (Glenn, 1982/1983; Wellstood,
1984/1985).
The theoretical design of the MPPP is based on the model developed by
William Marston (1928). Marston theorized that human behavior

57
corresponded to primary emotions which could be assigned to one of four
categories: dominance, inducement, submission and compliance. In
addition, Marston determined behavioral traits for each of the four categories.
Statistical confirmation of these traits was provided by Cattell (1948) and Geier
(1967). Bauch (1981) and Nickens (1984) drew on this research base in the
development of the MPPP as a tool which could increase understanding of
work behavior. A more complete discussion of the theoretical basis of the
MPPP is included in Chapter II.
Theories related to management, placement and career counseling
form an additional basis for the MPPP. In addition, the work of Argyris
(1964), Blake and Mouton (1964) and McGregor (1960), who were instrumental
in integrating humanistic principles into the work place, were incorporated
into the design of the MPPP with the intent of developing an instrument that
would increase the understanding of work behavior for employer and
employee alike. The terminology used in the MPPP is positive or neutral.
This reflects the philosophy of Bauch (1981) who believed that work behavior
traits and types are terms that can be used to increase understanding of work
behaviors rather than as judgments of work behaviors. Finally, the terms
used in the profile do not reflect social behavior but reflect work behavior
(Nickens, 1984). The MPPP can be completed in less than 10 minutes. Test-
retest reliability is about .98, as reported by Wellstood (1984/1985).
The MPPP consists of 24 sets or "boxes," each containing four forced-
choice terms from which an individual selects the one that is most
descriptive of his or her self-perceived work behavior. The individual then
selects the word in each box that is least descriptive of his or her work
behavior. Each word choice in a box is numbered one, two, three, or four in
both the "most" and "least" category. The number of one word is circled in
the "most" category and the number of another word is circled in the "least"

58
category. An example of an MPPP "box" is illustrated in Figure 8. Only one
"most" and one "least" choice is made in each of the 24 boxes.
Sample Box
Most
Least
1
careful
1
2
fast
2
3
alert
3
4
nice
4
Figure 8. Illustration of a Marcus Paul
Placement Profile "Box"
By entering these numbers into a computer program that associates
them with a MPPP behavior type score, a profile is developed.
Four independent scores are reported on the profile derived from the
MPPP. The scores relate to four work behavior types: energizer, inducer,
concentrator and producer. The 4 independent scores are plotted on a scale
that extends from -15 to +15. At the center of the scale is the norm score, zero.
This allows for easy observation of the relationship of each individual score
to the norm as well as to each other score. The scores are scaled, a graph with
the scores plotted on it is produced and, following the graph, a narrative
description of the behavior associated with the score of best fit is provided. In
addition, an interpretation of the behavior associated with the relative scaled
scores is included in the MPPP report. (Nickens, 1984). Figure 9 illustrates an
abbreviated sample MPPP profile.

PLACEMENT PROFILE
OF
JANE DOE
Energizer x .
Inducer x
Concentrator
Producer
x
x
- 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 +
Interpretation:
Jane Doe is a producer type. Producers strive for quality as they carefully follow procedures....
Jane Doe is of the worker group noted for high levels of...
<_n
vO
Figure 9.
Sample MPPP Profile

60
The four terms listed in the profile represent the four primary work
behavior types. The highest score of these four is the individual's "primary
type of best fit" (Nickens, 1984, p. 11). The description of the four primary
types, as they would be included in a report of a profile, are included below.
Energizer (E) type worker: These workers are actively engaged in
getting results. They are assertive, choosing a direct approach as they pursue
goals. High 'E' type workers are impatient with detail, desiring a direct
answer and action from associates. They are creative and have many ideas for
improving the work processes.
Concentrator (C) type worker: Normally, the 'C types apply their skills
in orderly ways, resisting distractions. They are steady workers and are loyal
to the organization, showing great patience. They are systematic, effective
and help to maintain moderation in tense situations.
Inducer (I) type worker: These people involve others as they pursue
their objectives. They are sensitive to needs of their associates, and share
optimistic outlooks as they influence others. They are good at using group
processes to accomplish goals, being able to clarify ideas for themselves and
others. They place more emphasis on people and interpersonal relations
than on their organization.
Producer (P) type worker: Producers strive for quality as they carefully
follow procedures, guidelines, or standards. They can support their decisions
and actions with irrefutable documentation. Producers expect clear directions
but they can be relied on to meet their deadlines, follow orders and carry out
their assignments with precision.
An important contribution to the field of work behavior analysis was
the automation of analysis and the corresponding ability to quickly produce a
computer-generated report. The report can be used as a basis for discussion,
career counseling, or as a component in career self-understanding. Through

61
the work of John Nickens, a program was devised which allows the words
selected as "most" or "least" in the 24 "boxes" on the MPPP response sheet to
be entered into a microcomputer with results analyzed and a profile printed
almost immediately. In addition to classroom use, the MPPP lends itself to
use in career development workshops or training sessions.
Reliability and validity of instrumentation are important
considerations in any decision to use a particular measure. "Validity and
reliability refer to different aspects of a measure's believability. Judgments of
validity answer the question: Is the instrument an appropriate one for what
needs to be measured? And reliability indicators answer: Does the
instrument yield consistent results?" (Henerson, Morris & Fitz-Gibbon, 1987,
p. 133). Further, "it is impossible for a measuring instrument to be reliable
without being valid. However, it cannot be valid unless it is first reliable"
(Ary, Jacobs & Razavieh, 1985, p. 226). "So if one demonstrates a satisfactory
level of validity, at least internal reliability must be assumed" (Nickens, 1984,
p. 14).
With its reliance on a sound theoretical basis, the MPPP reflects a
validity called face validity. The statistical procedures that were employed to
obtain the 96 MPPP "most/least" adjectives and to associate them with work
behavior type, although not discussed in detail here, also provide evidence of
reliability and validity.
In addition, a study of 96 Santa Fe Community College career education
students demonstrated that 88.4 percent of the students, after analyzing their
own responses to the MPPP, rated the accuracy of the analysis components as
"an accurate description of my work behavior." This result indicates a high
level of concurrent validity for the MPPP. Concurrent validity comes from
the practice of relating a measurement to a criterion to determine the amount
of congruence. Measures accounting for more than 64 percent of the variance

62
in a criterion measure are rarely reported in the literature. "This high degree
of congruence between students' perceptions of their work behavior and the
descriptions provided by the MPPP suggests that the MPPP is sufficiently valid
for helping college students understand their work behavior" (Nickens, p.
14).
The MPPP also has been shown to have predictive validity when used
for career planning. Glenn (1982/1983), Wellstood (1984/1985), Olson
(1988/1990) and Barber (1989/1990) studied work behavior types as they relate
to job satisfaction, attrition, specific vocations, perception of individuals in
leadership positions and occupational stressors. According to Glenn
(1982/1983), . . significant relationships were found between (MPPP) work
behavior types and areas of job satisfactions. Additionally, specific areas of job
effectiveness were found to be significantly related to work behavior type.
These findings were consistent with expectations . . ." (p. ix).
Glenn concluded,
in order to maintain maximum effectiveness and worker
satisfaction, employees need to be placed in jobs which meet
their needs for degree of structure, autonomy, supervision,
feedback, and contact with co-workers. One way to understand
these various needs is to have knowledge of individual work
behavior types and personality functions, (p. 135)
Wellstood (1984/1985) further reported "results indicate that work behavior
type relates to overall and to specific aspects of job satisfaction . . . [on the
MPPP]" (p. vi).
Supervisors and managers could make valuable use of
knowledge about work behavior types as well as the types of
their subordinates when assigning tasks or projects. . . . teaching
and training techniques should also differ for the various work
behavior types, (pp. 113-114)

63
The results of these and other studies have shown that information on work
behavior types can be useful in a variety of work-related areas, including job
satisfaction and career planning.
The face validity of the MPPP, the concurrent validity demonstrated
through research at Santa Fe Community College and additional research at
the University of Florida have demonstrated that the MPPP "is valid as a
career advisement tool for helping people understand their work strengths,
and for suggestions for writing effective letters of reference for individuals
seeking job placements" (Nickens, 1984, p. 15). Although all theoretically
valid uses of the instrument have not yet been researched, the MPPP "was
designed to be utilized as a tool ... in the business setting for recruiting, job
placement, work assignment, team building, and training" (p. 10) and,
accordingly, it was chosen for this study. Use of the MPPP in this study also
provided insight into another theoretically valid use for the instrument.
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire
The Minnesota Studies in Vocational Rehabilitation, or the Work
Adjustment Project, are a series of research studies which began in 1957 and
which have led to the development of a variety of instruments to measure
indicators of work adjustment. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire
(MSQ) is a measure for one of the primary indicators of work adjustment. It
allows for the attainment of a more individualized assessment of worker
satisfaction, that is, two individuals may express similar amounts of general
satisfaction with their work but the reasons for this satisfaction may be very
different.
The MSQ is available in long form and in short form. Some previous
studies of the job satisfaction of librarians used one of the two MSQ forms
(D'Elia, 1975; Chwe, 1976; Rockman, 1985/1986; Nzotta, 1987). In particular,

64
D'Elia used the short form MSQ and Chwe used the long form MSQ. Chwe
argued strongly that, because of the repetitive format of the long form, the
short form was more appropriate for subjects, like academic librarians, with
high levels of education (Chwe, 1978, p. 50). Finally, the short form MSQ was
considered more appropriate for distribution though the mail as it can be
completed in about 10 minutes, thus making it more likely that potential
subjects would participate in the study. The MSQ is self-administering with
directions on the first page. Although no time limit is imposed, respondents
are encouraged to complete responses quickly.
The short form MSQ, consisting of 20 questions that measure 21
dimensions of job satisfaction (ability utilization, achievement, activity,
advancement, authority, compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence,
moral values, policies and practices, recognition, responsibility, security,
social service, social status, supervision-human relations, supervision-
technical, variety and working conditions) was selected for this study. Each
item refers to a possible motivator or hygiene. The first 20 items are
measured by a Likert-type scale which asks respondents to indicate their
degree of agreement with a statement related to that dimension of job
satisfaction. Five response possibilities (strongly agree, agree, undecided,
disagree or strongly disagree) are provided for each item. The responses are
weighted from five to one in descending order so that strongly agree is
assigned a maximum of five points while strongly disagree is assigned a
minimum of one point. The 21st dimension, general job satisfaction, is
interpreted as an aggregate of scores in the 20 dimensions measured
separately. The three scales of the short-form MSQ consist of the items
illustrated in Figure 10 (Weiss et al., 1967, p. 4).

65
Scale
Items
Intrinsic
1 23 4789 1011 1516 20
Extrinsic
5 612131419
General Satisfactions
1-20
Figure 10. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Scales
The most meaningful way to interpret the MSQ is to use the most appropriate
norm group for the individual and then to use percentile scores for each scale
obtained for the norm group. The most appropriate norm group would be
one that corresponds exactly to the individual's job. As norm groups are not
available for all occupational areas, a similar norm group which shares
characteristics such as tasks performed, type of supervision, physical working
conditions and so on, may be used. If no appropriate norm group has yet
been developed, the MSQ raw scores can be converted to percentile scores
using Employed Disabled or Employed Non-disabled norms. Finally, MSQ
raw scores for all scales can be interpreted by ranking them. This will indicate
areas of relatively greater or lesser job satisfaction (Weiss et al., p. 4-5). When
used with an individual subject, percentile scores of 75 or greater generally
represent a high level of job satisfaction, scores in the 26 to 74 percentile range
indicate average satisfaction, and a percentile score of 25 or lower indicates a
low level of satisfaction.
The current MSQ manual reports norms for seven occupational groups
for the short-form MSQ. Based on educational requirements for employment
(college degree and/or additional education or training), years of employment
in the profession and years in current position, the norm group for engineers
is the most useful comparison for the norms which emerge from this
research study.

66
Validity for the short-form MSQ is inferred, in part, from validity for
the long-form as the short-form is based on a subset of the long-form. That is,
the short-form MSQ was developed by choosing 20 items, each representative
of one of the 20 scales on the long-form MSQ. Those items correlating most
frequently with a respective scale were selected. A group of 1,460 employed
individuals completed the measure. A factor-analysis of the resulting data
yielded two factors, intrinsic satisfaction and extrinsic satisfaction. The 12
items that loaded high on one factor constitute the Intrinsic Scale. Six factors
constitute the Extrinsic Scale and all 20 items constitute the General
Satisfaction Scale. This allows for scores on all three scales.
The construct validity of the MSQ is primarily derived from the fact
that it generally performs according to theoretical expectations. Construct
validation studies of other questionnaires, based on the Theory of Work
Adjustment and developed through the Work Adjustment Project, support
this conclusion.
Additional evidence supporting the validity of the short-form MSQ is
provided by studies of group differences by occupation and studies on the
relationship between job satisfaction and satisfactoriness. Occupational group
differences in mean satisfaction scores for the seven available norm groups
were statistically significant for each of the three scales.
The Hoyt reliability coefficients for each norm group and each short-
form scale were reported to be, in general, high. For the Intrinsic Scale, they
ranged from .84 (assemblers and electrical assemblers) to .91 (engineers). The
Extrinsic Scale range was .77 (electrical assemblers) to .82 (engineers and
machinists). The range for the General Satisfaction Scale was .87 (assemblers)
to .92 (engineers). The median reliability coefficients were .86 for the Intrinsic
Satisfaction Scale, .80 for the Extrinsic Satisfaction Scale, and .90 for the
General Satisfaction Scale.

67
The stability of scores obtained from the short-form MSQ is currently
being studied but no data have, as yet, been reported. However, data on the
General Satisfaction Score for the long-form MSQ show correlations of .89 for
a one-week test-retest period and .70 for a one-year test-retest interval.
Stability for the General Satisfaction Score of the short-form MSQ may be
inferred from these data.
Research on both forms of the MSQ continues, focusing on improving
the psychometric characteristics of the scales and expanding the range of
dimensions which may be measured by the MSQ. A 30-scale form has been
developed and is being tested. Finally, researchers using the MSQ agree to
report results to be used in the development of new norm tables. Results of
this study will be reported to the Work Adjustment Project at the University
of Minnesota for possible use as another occupational norm group for the
short-form MSQ.
Statistical Procedures
The data gathered for the study were analyzed within the context of
each of the research questions set forth in Chapter I.
The Marcus Paul Placement Profile was analyzed using the MPPP
software. The procedures for the analysis are well-validated. Scaled scores
were calculated and scores were plotted on a graph.
The scores for all 202 subjects were then analyzed by computer to
determine the number of subjects in each type, with these numbers further
divided into male and female sub-groups. The percentile of type by total and
by sex was calculated.
The responses to the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire were
analyzed using the FACTOR procedure which provides several types of
common factor and component analysis. Preliminary factor procedures were

68
done which resulted in loadings on three, four and five factors. The three
factor loading was selected. The Promax rotation was used to report the
results. The purpose of the factor analysis was to allow responses to be
characterized as motivators or hygienes.
The mean score and standard deviation for each of the 20 items on the
MSQ, the mean score and standard deviation for the Intrinsic Scale, the
Extrinsic Scale and General Satisfaction Scale and the mean score and
standard deviation for each item and the three scales by type were calculated.
The CANCORR Procedure was used to produce canonical correlations.
This is a technique used for analyzing the relationship between two sets of
variables, each of which can contain several individual variables. The
canonical correlation procedure was used to determine the relationship of
work behavior type scores revealed by the MSQ to the motivators and
hygienes identified through the factor analysis of the MSQ.
Summary of Design and Methodology
This chapter outlined the procedures of the study. Data were collected
from academic librarians employed in Florida for the purpose of determining
relationships among work behavior type, work environment and job
satisfaction. The Marcus Paul Placement Profile and the Minnesota
Satisfaction Questionnaire were selected as the instruments used to measure
each of these areas. Data treatment methods utilized were frequency
distribution, factor analysis and canonical correlation. The following chapter
presents the results and analysis of these data.

CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
The problem of this study was to determine the relationship of the
theory that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are affected by motivators
and hygienes to the theory that motivators and hygienes are perceived
differently by different work behavior types. In addition to describing the
sample population, the chapter contains the results of the study and provides
answers to the research questions posed in Chapter I.
Description of the Sample Population
The sample population in this study was comprised of 350 individuals
selected from the membership of the Association of College and Research
Libraries, a division of the American Library Association, and the Academic
Caucus of the Florida Library Association. A limited number were members
of other divisions of the American Library Association. All prospective
participants were members of one or more of these Associations. The criteria
for the use of data received from respondents included current employment
in an academic library in Florida and holding a Master in Library Science
(MLS) degree or an appropriate other degree (for example, Master in
Librarianship, Master in Media or Master in Information Science.) The
master's degree is the generally required professional degree for employment
as an academic librarian; the actual name of the degree may vary according to
the awarding institution or individual program emphasis.
69

70
An academic library was defined as a library in a post-baccalaureate
institution, including community or junior college, college or university, as
well as special libraries connected with post-baccalaureate institutions. Thus,
respondents worked in all levels of higher education and in both large and
small schools. Correspondingly, the libraries in which they were employed
ranged from those with a staff of five or fewer to those employing 100 or
more. However, the commonality of employment as an academic librarian
was viewed as more basic to the selection of the study sample than individual
differences in institution or specific professional responsibilities. All subjects
for whom data were used were currently employed academic librarians in
Florida who showed an orientation and commitment to the profession
through active participation in one or more major professional
organizations.
Of the 350 subjects contacted, 258 or 73.7 percent responded. One
response option requested subjects to return blank forms if they did not wish
to be included in the study. A group of 15 people, or 4.3 percent of the subject
pool, selected this option. Another 16 individuals, or 4.6 percent, responded
that they were retired. An additional 18 people, 5.1 percent, responded that
they were not eligible and reported a variety of reasons including having left
the profession, having left Florida for employment in another state, returned
to graduate school or not presently being employed in an academic library.
Finally, seven respondents, or 2.0 percent, returned incomplete or invalid sets
of measures and were eliminated from the data analysis. In addition, 92
individuals, or 26.3 percent, did not respond in any way. The data analysis
thus involved complete responses from 202 individuals, or 57.7 percent, of
the initial sample of 350 (Table 1).

71
Table 1
Response to Survey
Type of Response
N
Percent
Usable Responses
202
57.7
No Response
92
26.3
Other
18
5.1
Retired
16
4.6
Blank Forms Returned
15
4.3
Invalid Responses
7
3.0
Total
350
100.0
The data on the academic librarians obtained from the demographic
section of the MSQ and the supplementary data form are summarized in
Table 2. Female subjects accounted for 71.78 percent of the usable responses,
or 145 of 202 subjects, while the 57 male respondents constituted 28.22 percent
of the usable responses. The largest percentage, 39.6 percent or 80 subjects,
had been in their current position for 2 to 5 years while 22.28 percent, or 45
subjects had been in their current position for 6 to 10 years. Over 85 percent of
the subjects had been in the profession for 6 years or more, a sufficient time to
evaluate their employment, attain promotions, or change specific jobs one or
more times. This corresponds with the fact that over 84 percent of the
subjects were aged 40 and over. Thus, the individuals whose responses were
included in the data analysis were, for the most part, mature, experienced
academic librarians.
The largest number (142 or 70.3 percent) reported that they were
currently employed in a university library. Another 31, or 15.35 percent, were

72
employed in a community college, while 20, or 9.0 percent, were employed at
a 4-year college.
All subjects held an appropriate masters degree for their particular
position with 55, or 27.23 percent, holding one or more additional masters
degrees and 25, or 12.38 percent, holding a Ph.D. or Ed.D. degree with the
Ph.D. predominant in this latter group.
Research Questions
Question 1: What are the work behavior types (WBT) of academic
librarians in Florida as measured by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile
(MPPP)?
The frequency distribution of work behavior types found among
academic librarians in Florida is shown in Table 3. Overall, 45.54 percent, or
92 individuals were concentrators. Of these, 65 were female (44.83 percent of
the 145 female subjects) while 27, or 47.37 percent, of the 57 male subjects
showed concentrator as their dominant work behavior type.
The second largest group were producers with 77 individuals or 38.12
percent of the total sample. Sixty females, or 41.38 percent of their total, and
17 males, or 29.82 percent of their total, constituted this group. Together,
those individuals with either concentrator or producer as their dominant
work behavior type totaled 167 or 83.66 percent of the total sample of 202.
By comparison, previous studies of members of a variety of professions
showed quite different results. Glen (1982/1983) sampled vocational educa¬
tional administrators. She found 47 percent concentrators, 25 percent pro¬
ducers, 21 percent inducers and 7 percent energizers. Wellstood (1984/1985),
who studied medical technologists, reported 33.3 percent concentrators, 52.3
percent producers, 7.2 percent inducers and 7.2 percent energizers.

73
Table 2
Characteristics of the Participating Academic Librarians
Characteristic
N
Percent
A. Gender
Male
57
28.22
Female
145
71.78
B. Age
<30
5
2.48
30-39
28
13.86
40-49
94
46.53
50-59
46
22.77
>59
18
8.91
No response
11
5.45
C. Education Level
Master in Library Science
202
100.00
or appropriate equivalent
Additional Masters degree
55
27.23
Doctoral Degree
Ph.D.
19
9.40
Ed.D.
6
3.00
Other advanced degree or certification
8
3.96
D. Years in Current Position
<2
32
15.84
2-5
80
39.60
6-10
45
22.28
11-20
29
14.36
21-30
12
5.94
>30
2
.99
No response
2
.99
E. Total Years in Profession
<2
3
1.49
2-5
26
12.87
6-10
29
14.36
11-20
74
36.63
21-30
55
27.23
>30
12
5.94
No response
3
1.49
F. Current Employment by Type of Institution
Community/Junior College
31
15.35
College
20
9.90
University
142
70.30
Other
9
4.45

74
Table 3
Work Behavior Type by Gender
Row variable: work behavior type as percentage of same sex respondents
Column variable: work behavior type as percentage of same type respondents
Cell format: frequency/ percent: total/percent: row/ percent: column
Gender
Concentrator
Energizer
Inducer
Producer
Total
Female
65
9
11
60
145
32.18
4.46
5.45
29.70
71.78
44.83
6.21
7.59
41.38
70.65
64.29
57.89
77.92
Male
27
5
8
17
57
13.37
2.48
3.96
8.42
28.22
47.37
8.77
14.04
29.82
29.35
35.71
42.11
22.08
Total
92
14
19
77
202
45.54
6.93
9.41
38.12
100.00
Poston (1988/1989) sampled nursing faculty and found that 39.13 percent were
concentrators, 36.96 percent producers, 17.39 percent inducers and 6.52 percent
energizers. Olson (1988/1990) studied college placement officers. In this
group he found 15 percent to be concentrators, 11 percent producers, 67
percent inducers and 7 percent energizers. Barber (1989/1990) examined the
work behavior types of Cooperative Extension Service mid-managers and
found them to be more evenly divided among the four categories, with
concentrators making up 31.8 percent, producers 28.2 percent, inducers 24.5
percent and energizers 15.5 percent.
The distribution of work behavior types of academic librarians is
skewed toward concentrators and producers, as can be observed in Table 3.

75
According to the MPPP user manual, approximately 60 percent of the general
population are either concentrators or producers, with producers dominating.
In this study it was found that academic librarians are almost 84 percent
concentrators and producers, but concentrators are predominant. Female
academic librarians are even more predominantly producers or concentrators
(86 percent), again with concentrators, about 45 percent, dominating. By
contrast, the male academic librarians are 77 percent concentrators or
producers, although concentrator is still the largest group, accounting for 47
percent of the male subjects.
Those who are categorized as concentrators and producers are most
likely to work to maintain their organization in its present form. They tend
to follow the rules and regulations of the organization and can be relied upon
to do the job assigned to them. In contrast, energizers and inducers, who
represent about 20 percent each of the general population, tend to seek to alter
the system and to effect change in their organization (Bauch, 1981).
Energizers are represented in this study by 6.93 percent of the subjects (6.21
percent of the females and 8.77 percent of the males) while inducers account
for 9.41 percent of the subjects or 7.59 percent of the females and 14.04 percent
of the males. Thus, concentrators and producers are represented in
substantially higher numbers among academic librarians than in the general
population and the results on the MPPP support the theory that different
work behavior types are attracted to different professions.
Question 2: What are the motivators and hygienes perceived by
academic librarians in Florida as reported on the Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire (MSQ)?
The MSQ has 20 items which are divided into Intrinsic, or job content
items, and Extrinsic, or job context, items. These are closely analogous to
Herzberg's classic motivators and hygienes. The short-form MSQ used in this

76
study generates three scores; that is, an Intrinsic score, an Extrinsic score and a
General Satisfaction, or Total score. Higher scores by area or a higher total
score imply a greater degree of job satisfaction either with job content or job
context or in general. Further, scores for individual items are presented
allowing for more specific analysis.
Table 4 presents the mean score and standard deviation for each item.
The scores are presented for each work behavior type along with the score for
the total sample population.
As shown on Table 4, inducers had the lowest mean score on 11 of the
20 items, producers had the lowest mean score on 7 of the items while
energizers had the lowest mean score on one item. Inducers and producers
had identical mean scores on one item. On 19 of 20 items, concentrator mean
scores were above the total mean; producer mean scores were below the total
mean on all 20 items. The lowest individual mean score per type was item 13
for concentrators (pay and amount of work), item 14 for energizers (chances
for advancement) and item 12 (how company policies are put into place) for
inducers and producers.
Although the mean score differences are not particularly large, they
reveal a pattern. Concentrators, the largest number of subjects, are consis¬
tently more satisfied with all aspects of their position, followed closely by
energizers, the smallest numbers of subjects. Inducers and producers consis¬
tently show the lowest mean scores per item with the exception of item 18
(relationship of co-workers with each other), the only item on which one of
these two types did not show the lowest mean score.

Table 4
Mean Score and Standard Deviation by Item. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Short Form).
MSQ Item and Job Characteristic
Concentrator
Std.
Mean Dev.
Energizer
Std.
Mean Dev.
Inducer
Std.
Mean Dev.
Producer
Std.
Mean Dev
Total
Std.
Mean Dev.
*1. Ability to keep busy
4.34
0.84
4.50
0.52
4.37
1.01
4.25*
0.93
4.32
0.87
*2. Chance to work alone
4.12
0.84
4.36
0.74
4.11*
0.74
4.13
0.89
4.14
0.84
*3. Opportunity to do something different from time to time
4.35
0.79
4.57
0.51
4.47
051
4.22»
0.82
4.33
0.77
*4. Chance to be "somebody" in the community
3.77
0.93
3.93
0.92
4.00
0.82
3.13*
0.99
3.56
1.00
o5. How the boss handles his/her workers
3.45
1.19
3.21
1.25
2.95 •
1.27
3.07
1.24
3.24
1.23
06. Supervisor's decision-making ability
3.50
1.18
357
1.09
3.21»
1.44
3.40
1.08
3.44
1.16
*7. Being able to do things that don't go against my conscience
4.22
0.80
4.07
1.07
3.74*
0.99
3.94
1.00
4.05
0.93
*8. Job provides steady employment
4.40
0.84
4.36
0.84
4.21*
0.98
4.23
0.77
4.32
0.83
*9. Opportunity to do things for others
4.39
0.74
4.50
0.85
4.53
0.84
4.14»
0.76
4.32
0.77
*10. Opportunity to tell people what to do
3.51
0.78
3.50
1.09
3.26*
0.87
3.44
0.70
3.46
0.78
*11. Chance to do something that makes use of my abilities
4.24
0.93
4.29
0.91
3.95
0.91
3.83»
1.06
4.06
0.99
012. How company policies are put into practice
3.08
1.02
3.00
1.24
1.89»+ 0.81
2.56+
1.14
2.76
1.12
013. My pay and the amount of work I do
2.88+
1.20
2.64
1.34
2.47»
1.26
2.61
1.28
2.72
1.25
014. Chances for advancement
2.90
1.24
2.57+
1.16
2.42»
1.12
2.66
1.14
2.74
1.19
*15. Freedom to use my own judgement
4.13
0.89
4.07
1.20
3.84»
0.76
3.84»
1.02
3.99
0.96
*16. Opportunity to try my own methods
4.11
0.80
4.29
0.91
4.00
0.67
3.86»
1.06
4.01
0.91
17. Working conditions
3.80
0.99
3.86
1.17
3.16*
1.21
3.30
1.16
3.55
1.11
18. Relationships of co-workers with each other
3.58
1.05
2.93*
1.07
3.53
1.22
3.44
1.08
3.48
1.08
0I9. Praise I get for doing a good job
3.37
1.21
3.43
1.28
2.95 •
0.91
3.08
1.16
3.22
1.17
*20. Feeling of accomplishment I get
4.11 0.90
(n=92)
4.21 0.97
(n=14)
4.00 1.00
(n=19)
3.64» 1.14
(n=77)
3.93 1.03
(N=202)
Notes: * Intrinsic items; 12 with score range 12-60. 0 Extrinsic items; 6 with score range 6-30. + Lowest mean score for each
type. • Lowest mean score for each item. Total score: 20 items with score range 20-100

78
Table 5 presents means and standard deviations for the Intrinsic score,
the Extrinsic score and the Total score by type and for the entire sample. The
means for concentrators and energizers are both above the total mean while
the means for inducers and producers are below the total mean. This is
consistent for both Intrinsic and Extrinsic scores.
Table 5
Mean Score and Standard Deviation for Intrinsic, Extrinsic and Total Scores
on the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Short Form)
Work
Behavior Type
Intrinsic Items
Mean Std. Dev.
Extrinsic Items
Mean Std. Dev.
Total by Type
Mean Std. Dev.
Concentrator
49.68
6.54
19.16
5.1
76.23
11.94
Energizer
50.64
7.04
18.43
5.49
75.86
13.24
Inducer
48.47
6.21
15.89
4.05
71.05
9.03
Producer
46.65
7.24
17.39
4.97
70.78
12.55
Total: All Groups
48.48
6.94
18.13
5.07
73.64
12.25
Note: Intrinsic score range 12-60 for 12 items; Extrinsic score range 6-20 for 6
items; Total score range 20-100 for 20 items.
The lowest mean score for intrinsic items, or those related to job
content, is that of the producers while the lowest mean score for extrinsic, or
job context, items is that of the inducers. Overall, concentrators had the
highest total mean score, 2.59 above the all group total, while producers had
the lowest total mean score, 2.86 below the group total.
Question Three: Do factors derived from a factor analysis of the MSQ
show characteristics of motivators and hygienes?

79
In Herzberg's two-factor theory of job satisfaction/job dissatisfaction,
motivators correspond to Maslow's higher-order needs. They are intrinsic or
job content factors, such as achievement, recognition, advancement,
responsibility and the inherent interest of the work itself. When these factors
are present in a job, they act as satisfiers because they have a positive effect on
employee job satisfaction and they may function to provide the individual
with personal psychological growth.
Hygienes correspond to Maslow's lower-order needs and are extrinsic,
or job context factors, such as pay, security, supervision and physical working
conditions. When absent from a job, these items are linked to job
dissatisfaction.
The MSQ provides an Intrinsic, or job content, and an Extrinsic, or job
context, score. As indicated on Table 4, the intrinsic items on the MSQ are
numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16 and 20. With the exception of 2
(freedom to work alone) and 8 (opportunity for steady employment), two of
Herzberg's hygienes, these items all correspond to Herzberg motivators. The
extrinsic, or job context items, on the MSQ are numbers 5, 6, 12, 13, 14 and 19.
The first 4 and 19 correspond to Herzberg hygienes. The exception is 14
(advancement on current job). Numbers 17 (working conditions) and 18
(relationships of co-workers) correspond to Herzberg hygienes. In the MSQ,
they contribute to an overall general score.
Table 6 shows factor loadings on the MSQ. Factor I includes items 5, 6,
12, 19, 18, 17, 13 and 8. These all correspond to Herzberg hygienes, or job
context items, with the exception of the last item, number 8 (steady
employment), which has the lowest factor loading for Factor I, 0.308. In MSQ
scoring, number 8 is characterized as an Intrinsic item. The other items in
Factor I are part of the Extrinsic score.

80
Table 6
Factor Loading on Tob Satisfaction Items from the Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire (Short Form)
MSQ
Item Number
Factor I
Factor II
Factor III
5
0.70157
-0.13713
0.11158
6
0.69630
-0.22041
0.11110
12
0.59752
0.09730
-0.03583
19
0.57007
0.21418
-0.13415
18
0.47441
0.11522
-0.08747
17
0.45858
0.16487
0.18808
13
0.38671
0.29018
-0.12743
8
0.30778
0.10257
0.06334
9
-0.00164
0.63928
-0.10148
11
-0.04466
0.55972
0.29152
10
-0.02269
0.52428
-0.02346
20
0.16444
0.47476
0.20258
4
0.10487
0.47332
0.15867
14
0.31146
0.44883
-0.13036
3
-0.11126
0.42545
0.37365
2
0.00205
-0.22953
0.71932
1
-0.15959
0.16746
0.53505
7
0.29114
0.16151
0.44019
15
0.12019
0.26234
0.41843
16
0.16303
0.26466
0.40113
N=202
Notes: Factor I (items 5, 6,12,19,18,17,13,8); Factor II (items 9,11,10,20,4,
14, 3); Factor III (items 2,1, 7,15,16); Variance explained by: Factor I, 2.639930;
Factor II, 2.306518; Factor III, 1.759460.

81
Factor II includes items 9, 11, 20, 4, 10, 14 and 3 which are all Herzberg
motivators, or job content items. They are all part of the MSQ Intrinsic score,
except number 14 (opportunity for advancement). This item shows a loading
of 0.449 in Factor II and a loading of 0.311 in Factor I.
Factor III includes items 2, 1, 7, 15, and 16. They all form part of the
MSQ Intrinsic score and, except for item 2 (opportunity to work alone) are all
Herzberg motivators.
Thus, the factors derived from a factor analysis of the MSQ do show
characteristics of motivators and hygienes. Factor I includes eight MSQ items,
all related to Herzberg hygienes. Factor II includes seven items which all
relate to Herzberg motivators. Finally, Factor III includes five items, four of
which are motivators while one is a hygiene.
Question 4: Do the different work behavior type scores of academic
librarians in Florida, as measured by the MPPP, relate differently to the
motivator and hygiene scores derived from the MSQ?
In order to analyze the relationship between scores on the MSQ and
work behavior types, the technique of canonical correlation was employed.
Given two sets of variables, a computer analysis finds a linear combination
from each set, the canonical variable, which leads to the maximization of the
correlation between the two canonical variables. This results in the first
canonical correlation. "The coefficients of the linear combinations are
canonical coefficients or canonical weights. It is customary to normalize the
canonical coefficients so that each canonical variable has a variance of one."
(SAS/STAT User's Guide. 1989, p. 368). The procedure then finds a second set
of canonical variables, a third, and so on, until the number of pairs of
canonical variables equals the number of variables in the smallest group. The
variables which follow the first canonical variable are not correlated with the
first pair nor are any subsequent canonical variables. This is, "each canonical

82
variable is not correlated with all the other canonical variables of either set
except for the one corresponding canonical variable in the opposite set"
(ibid.). Finally, the first canonical correlation will be at least as large as the
multiple correlation between any variable and an opposite set of variables.
The correlations between individual items on the Minnesota
Satisfaction Questionnaire and the four work behavior types as determined by
the Marcus Paul Placement Profile are shown in Table 7.
The correlations between the four work behavior types and individual
items on the MSQ are weak with the largest in absolute value being a
negative correlation (-0.2772) between Producer and MSQ item four, "chance
to be somebody in the community."
Following the factor analysis procedure on the MSQ, correlations
between work behavior type and the three factors derived from the MSQ were
established. These are illustrated in Table 8. Again, the correlations are weak.
The largest in absolute value is 0.1952 for Concentrator to Factor I (hygiene or
job context items; elements in the MSQ extrinsic score). This is closely
followed by a negative correlation (-0.1944) for Producer to Factor II
(motivator or job content items, elements in the MSQ Intrinsic Score).
The within-set correlations are larger as can be seen in Table 9 with the
largest in absolute value being 0.6798 for Factor II to Factor III. Closely
following is a negative correlation, -0.6769, for Concentrator to Energizer.
The canonical correlations of the three factors and the four work
behavior types are shown in Table 10.

83
Table 7
Simple Correlations Between MSQ Items and Work Behavior Types
MSQ Item
Concentrator
Energizer
Inducer
Producer
1
-0.0463
0.0956
0.0728
-0.0715
2
-0.0877
0.0883
0.0464
-0.0809
3
0.0361
-0.2160
0.1254
-0.1169
4
0.0541
0.0746
0.2260
-0.2772
5
0.1145
-0.1086
0.0217
-0.0169
6
0.1042
-0.0989
-0.0402
-0.0536
7
0.1149
-0.0592
0.0799
-0.0625
8
0.0685
-0.0194
0.0828
-0.0769
9
0.1349
-0.0027
0.1739
-0.2259
10
0.0419
0.0256
-0.0338
0.0234
11
0.1853
-0.0225
0.0341
-0.1328
12
0.1703
-0.0821
-0.0553
-0.0094
13
0.1243
-0.0848
0.0349
-0.0438
14
0.1747
-0.1155
0.0577
-0.0050
15
0.1352
-0.0204
0.0129
-0.0867
16
0.1061
-0.0051
0.0596
-0.1197
17
0.1704
-0.0440
0.0124
-0.0994
18
0.1170
-0.1206
0.0662
0.0128
19
0.1767
-0.0808
0.0314
-0.0535
20
0.1478
0.0049
0.1221
-0.2368
Table 8
Correlation Between the Three Factors on the MSQ and Work Behavior Type
Concentrator
Energizer
Inducer
Producer
Factor I
0.1952
-0.1210
0.0251
-0.0406
Factor II
0.1640
-0.0170
0.1415
-0.1944
Factor III
0.0671
0.0241
0.0746
-0.1167

84
Table 9
Within-Set Correlations Among the Original Variables
Factors Derived from the MSQ
I
I
n
in
1.0000
0.6398
0.5987
n
0.6398
1.0000
0.6798*
m
0.5987
0.6798*
1.0000
Work Behavior Types Determined by the MPPP
Energizer
Inducer
Concentrator
Producer
Energizer
1.0000
0.0860
-0.6769*
-0.5249
Inducer
0.0860
1.0000
-0.2839
-0.6160
Concentrator
-0.6769*
-0.2839
1.0000
0.1599
Producer
-0.5249
-0.6160
0.1599
1.0000
Note: * = Largest Within-Set Correlations
Table 10
Canonical Correlations of Factors and Work Behavior Types
Canonical
Correlation
Likelihood
Ratio
Approx.
F
Num.
DF
Den
DF
Pr>F
1
0.307768
0.87429520
2.2406
12
516.213
0.0092
2
0.183698
0.96577476
1.1476
6
392.000
0.3340
3
0.022292
0.99950308
0.0490
2
197.000
0.9522
p = .05

85
The first canonical correlation is 0.3078. The first squared canonical
correlation is 0.0947. The probability level for the first canonical correlation is
0.0092. Thus, the first canonical correlation is significantly different from zero
at the .05 level. The second and third canonical correlations were not
considered as probability levels provided no evidence that they are different
from zero.
Table 11
First Canonical Correlational Analysis: Canonical Coefficients
Standardized Canonical Coefficients
MSQ Factors
Canonical Variables
1
2
3
I
0.0074
-1.3271
0.2966
n
1.1689
0.4286
-0.8096
m
-0.2881
0.6935
1.2111
Work Behavior Type
Canonical Variables
1
2
3
Energizer
0.6984
1.0139
1.3896
Inducer
0.7709
0.4893
-0.1832
Concentrator
1.2547
0.0135
1.0727
Producer
0.0106
0.2308
0.6267
Table 12
First Canonical Correlational Analysis: Canonical Structure
Correlations Between MSQ Factor Variables and
MSQ Factor Canonical Variables
MSQ Factors
1
2
3
I
0.5287
-0.6377
0.5038
n
0.9778
0.0509
0.2035
m
0.5109
0.1902
0.8383
Correlations Between WBT Variables and
WBT Canonical Variables
Work Behavior
Type
1
2
3
Energizer
-0.0901
0.9256
0.3188
Inducer
0.4683
0.4305
-0.7541
Concentrator
0.5648
-0.7747
0.2844
Producer
-0.6302
-0.6006
0.1816

86
As shown on Table 11, the first canonical variable for the MSQ factor
variables is a weighted difference of FACTOR II (1.1689) and FACTOR III
(-0.2881) with more emphasis on FACTOR II. The coefficient for FACTOR I is
near zero. In Table 12, the correlations between FACTORS I, II and III are all
positive. FACTOR III is a suppressor variable as its coefficient and correlation
have opposite signs. A suppressor variable enhances the correlation between
the other variables.
In Table 11, the first canonical variable for the work behavior type
variables indicates greatest emphasis on Concentrator (1.2547), followed by
Inducer (0.7709) and Energizer (0.6984). The coefficient for Producer is near
zero. Two of the correlations between work behavior type, as shown in Table
12, are positive, Inducer (0.4683) and Concentrator (0.5648) while one,
Producer, is negative (-0.6302) and Energizer, although near zero, is also
negative. Thus, for work behavior type, Energizer and Producer are
suppressor variables.
The general interpretation of the first canonical correlation is,
therefore, that FACTOR III and Producer act as suppressor variables to
enhance the correlation between FACTOR II and Concentrator. Factor II
includes seven items which are all Herzberg motivators (job content). Six of
the seven are part of the MSQ Intrinsic Score. Concentrators, the largest work
behavior type group, have the highest total mean score, 76.23, on the MSQ.
The canonical redundancy analysis shows that neither of the first pair
of canonical variables is a good overall predictor of the opposite set of
variables. The cumulative proportion of variance explained by the first
FACTOR canonical variable to the first Work Behavior Type canonical
variable is 0.0491 while the cumulative proportion of variance of the first
Work Behavior Type canonical variable explained by the first FACTOR
canonical variable is even lower at 0.0223.

87
The squared multiple correlations indicate very limited predictive
power. The first canonical variable of the FACTORS has minor predictive
power for FACTOR II (0.0906), less for FACTOR I (0.0322), and even less for
FACTOR III (0.0247). The first canonical variable of Work Behavior Type
shows almost no predictive power with the highest correlation, Producer
(0.0376), followed by Concentrator (0.0302) and Inducer (0.0208). Energizer is
almost zero; this was also the smallest sample group (n=14), followed by
Inducer (n=19).
In addition to determining correlations between work behavior type
and the 3 factors derived from the MSQ, a second set of canonical correlations
was established between the 20 individual MSQ items and the 4 work
behavior types. The correlations between individual MSQ items and Work
Behavior Type are shown on Table 13.
As with the correlations displayed in Table 7 and Table 8, the
correlations are weak. The largest in absolute value is MSQ item 4 (social
status) to Producer (-0.2772) followed by MSQ item 20 (achievement) to
Producer (-0.2368) and MSQ item 4 (social status) to Inducer (0.2260).
The canonical correlations of the 20 MSQ items and the 4 work
behavior types are shown in Table 14. The first canonical correlation is 0.4457;
squared, it is 0.1986. The probability level for the first canonical correlation is
0.0824. Thus, there is some evidence that the correlation is different from
zero at the .05 level. The remaining correlations were not considered further
as probability levels provided no evidence that they are significantly different
from zero.
As shown in Table 15, the first canonical variable for the MSQ item
variables is a weighted difference of items 3 (-0.1196), 6 (-0.4239), 10 (-0.2798), 11
(-0.2088), 12 (-0.3533) and 15 (-0.2053) and items 4 (0.6927), 5 (0.1859), 9 (0.3205),

88
16 (0.1868), 17 (0.1464) and 20 (0.6094). The coefficients for items 1, 2, 7, 8, 18
and 19 are near zero.
Table 13
Correlations Between the MSP Items and Work Behavior Type
MSQ Item
Energizer
Inducer
Concentrator
Producer
1
0.0956
0.0728
-0.0463
-0.0715
2
0.0883
0.0464
-0.0877
-0.0809
3
-0.0216
0.1254
0.0361
-0.1169
4
0.0746
0.2260
0.0541
-0.2772
5
-0.1086
0.0217
0.1145
-0.0169
6
-0.0989
-0.0402
0.1042
-0.0536
7
-0.0592
0.0799
0.1149
-0.0625
8
-0.0194
0.0828
0.0685
-0.0769
9
-0.0027
0.1739
0.1349
-0.2259
10
0.0256
-0.0338
0.0419
0.0234
11
-0.0225
0.0341
0.1853
-0.1328
12
-0.0821
-0.0553
0.1703
-0.0094
13
-0.0848
0.0349
0.1243
-0.0438
14
-0.1155
0.0577
0.1747
-0.0050
15
-0.0204
0.0129
0.1352
-0.0867
16
-0.0051
0.0596
0.1061
-0.1197
17
-0.0440
0.0124
0.1704
-0.0994
18
-0.1206
0.0662
0.1170
0.0128
19
-0.0808
0.0314
0.1767
-0.0535
20
0.0049
0.1221
0.1478
-0.2368
Table 14
Canonical Correlations of MSP Items and Work Behavior Type
Canonical
Likelihood
Approx.
Num.
Den
Correlation
Ratio
F
DF
DF
Pr>F
1
0.445665
0.59386556
1.2438
80
704.6091
0.0824
2
0.353930
0.54105121
0.9916
57
534.5465
0.4959
3
0.304046
0.84717359
0.8646
36
360.0000
0.6943
4
0.257940
0.93346691
0.7589
17
181.0000
0.7381
p = .05

89
Table 15
Second Canonical Correlational Analysis: Canonical Coefficients
Standardized Canonical Coefficients
MSQ Item
1
2
3
4
1
-0.0854
-0.1367
0.0356
0.4333
2
-0.0696
-0.4110
-0.0516
0.1491
3
-0.1196
-0.3429
-0.0560
-0.5226
4
0.6927
-0.3876
0.3857
0.3027
5
0.1859
-0.2389
-0.1382
-0.6564
6
-0.4239
0.1199
-0.0683
0.0682
7
0.0574
0.1571
0.3907
-0.3202
8
0.0817
0.0111
0.0469
-0.0307
9
0.3205
0.1239
0.0519
-0.0116
10
-0.2798
-0.0729
0.2207
0.3438
11
-0.2088
0.8486
-0.2404
0.2390
12
-0.3533
0.2533
-0.3645
0.2249
13
-0.0529
0.1024
-0.1504
-0.2740
14
-0.0734
0.2744
0.5954
-0.3223
15
-0.2053
0.2744
-0.2746
0.3373
16
0.1868
-0.2418
0.1245
-0.0053
17
0.1464
0.2057
-0.3360
0.2788
18
-0.0762
0.0882
0.4636
-0.3095
19
0.0493
0.2249
0.0976
0.3288
20
0.6094
-0.3335
-0.5026
-0.2628
Canonical Variables
Work Behavior
Type
1
2
3
4
Energizer
0.0850
0.7549
1.6485
1.7854
Inducer
0.3756
0.3739
1.9233
0.2201
Concentrator
0.3969
1.4591
1.1593
0.9162
Producer
-0.7171
0.6544
2.0194
0.7173

90
In Table 16, the correlations between MSQ items are all positive with
the exception of items 6 and 10. The canonical variables for Work Behavior
Type, shown in Table 15, indicate greatest emphasis on Producer (-0.7171)
followed by Concentrator (0.3969) and Inducer (0.3756). The coefficient for
Energizer is near zero. Three of the correlations between Work Behavior
Type, shown in Table 16, are positive, Energizer (0.2251), Inducer (0.7120) and
Concentrator (0.1181) while one, Producer is negative (-0.9296). As coefficient
and correlation signs are the same, there are no suppressor variables to
enhance the correlation between the other variables.
The canonical redundancy analysis shows that neither of the first pair
of these canonical variables is a good overall predictor of the opposite set of
variables. The cumulative proportion of variance explained by the first MSQ
item canonical variable to the first work behavior type canonical variable is
0.0215, while the cumulative proportion of the variance of the first work
behavior type canonical variable explained by the first MSQ factor variable is
0.0713.
The squared multiple correlations indicate very limited predictive
power. The first canonical variable of the MSQ items has minor predictive
power for item 4 (social status, 0.0970), less for item 9 (social service, 0.0787)
and still less for item 20 (achievement, 0.0755). The remaining items show
even lower predictive power. The first canonical variable of WBT shows
minor predictive power for the Producer correlation (0.1716), followed by
Inducer (0.1007). There is almost no predictive power for Energizer (0.0101).
Concentrator, the largest subject group, is almost zero (0.0028). Thus, both the
first MSQ item canonical variables and the first WBT canonical variable show
only slight predictive power.

91
Table 16
Second Canonical Correlational Analysis: Canonical Structure
Correlations Between MSQ Item Variables and
MSQ Item Canonical Variables
MSQ Item
1
2
3
4
1
0.1533
-0.0424
0.3274
0.3605
2
0.1080
-0.2738
-0.0992
0.1145
3
0.3218
0.0189
0.0372
-0.2394
4
0.6988
0.1082
0.1994
0.1306
5
0.1267
0.2318
-0.1277
-0.3739
6
-0.0462
0.2752
-0.0371
-0.1998
7
0.2591
0.3165
0.2077
-0.1069
8
0.2509
0.1863
0.1687
-0.0342
9
0.6296
0.3165
0.0996
-0.0191
10
-0.0240
0.2348
0.2400
0.3620
11
0.4031
0.5065
-0.0816
0.1626
12
0.1044
0.4514
-0.2077
-0.0362
13
0.1945
0.2876
-0.0555
-0.2373
14
0.1903
0.5257
0.3718
-0.1434
15
0.2669
0.3672
-0.0893
0.1091
16
0.3364
0.2682
-0.0411
0.0594
17
0.3138
0.4378
-0.1712
0.0345
18
0.1163
0.3188
0.2962
-0.3270
19
0.2545
0.4903
0.0789
-0.0535
20
0.6164
0.3108
-0.2102
0.0047
Correlations Between WBT Variables
and WBT Canonical Variables
Work Behavior
Type
1
2
3
4
Energizer
0.2251
-0.5441
-0.0306
0.8077
Inducer
0.7120
-0.3785
0.4921
-0.3282
Concentrator
0.1181
0.9467
-0.1796
-0.2400
Producer
-0.9296
0.2612
0.1547
-0.2090

92
Summary of Results and Analysis
The results and analysis of this study are presented in Chapter IV along
with answers to the research questions set forth in Chapter I. Following a
description of the sample population and the presentation of demographic
data for the 202 subjects, analysis, including frequency distribution, factor
analysis and canonical correlation is reported. Specifically, findings support
the theory that individuals with different work behavior types are attracted to
different professions. Work behavior type of academic librarians was also
related to specific areas of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. In addition,
factor analysis indicated consistency from this subject pool to Herzberg's two-
factor theory of motivators and hygienes. Work behavior type was
significantly related to Factor II, which was made up almost entirely of items
corresponding to Herzberg motivators, or job content items. It was found that
work behavior type is not significantly related to individual job satisfaction
items, although some differences among types were revealed. It was expected
that no particular work behavior type would rate all areas of a position as
satisfactory but, in general, that there would be differences among the four
types. The results support this and are consistent with findings reported in
the research literature.
Following this chapter, a summary of the study is presented. In
addition, implications of the study and recommendations for further research
are set forth.

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS
Perfect freedom is reserved for the man who lives by his own
work and in that work does what he wants to do.
(Collingwood, 1924)
Research Problem and Procedures
The problem of this study was to determine work behavior types, the
perceived motivators and hygienes related to work environment and the
relationship between these two constructs for academic librarians in Florida.
More specifically, answers were sought to the following questions:
1. What are the work behavior types of academic librarians in Florida
as measured by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP)?
2. What are the motivators and hygienes perceived by academic
librarians in Florida as reported on the Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire (MSQ)?
3. Do factors derived from a factor analysis of the MSQ show
characteristics of motivators and hygienes?
4. Do the different work behavior type scores of academic librarians in
Florida, as measured by the MPPP, relate differently to the
motivators and hygienes score derived from the MSQ?
The literature provided much information and data on job satisfaction
in general with a substantial amount related to satisfaction studies of
librarians. Less information and data were available on work behavior types
although an extensive and somewhat contradictory literature related to
studies on the personality of librarians was reviewed. No information or data
93

94
were available which were specifically related to the relationship of work
behavior types and job satisfaction/dissatisfaction of academic librarians in
Florida.
The MSQ was used to measure job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction.
The MPPP was used to determine work behavior types.
To obtain answers to the research questions, the MSQ and MPPP
instruments were administered to 350 individuals identified as academic
librarians living in Florida. Of these, usable data were provided by 202 (57.7
percent) academic librarians currently employed in post-secondary
institutions in Florida. Demographic information indicated that the majority
of the participants, 145, were female (71.78 percent).
Data from the two instruments were analyzed using frequency
distributions, chi-square, factor analysis, and canonical correlations.
Frequency distributions were used to determine work behavior types of
academic librarians in Florida. The chi-square test was used to determine if
academic librarians' work behavior types are different from the normal
distribution.
The motivators and hygienes perceived by academic librarians in
Florida were determined through factor analysis of the MSQ. The
relationship of work behavior type to motivators and hygienes was analyzed
by canonical correlation. Two procedures, one related to the factors
determined by the factor analysis and one to individual items on the MSQ,
were performed.
The literature of academic librarianship frequently includes discussion
concerning the changing nature of the profession. Lauer (1989) stressed that
librarianship is a social, rather than solitary, profession. Those who do not
have the ability to communicate effectively, who have little interest in
management and planning, who avoid controversy to the extent that their

95
occupational creativity is stifled and who lack leadership qualities may find
that academic librarianship is an inappropriate career choice. Black (1989)
reported evidence of a frustration level for mid-career librarians which may
indicate disharmony between personality traits or work behavior and career
demands. According to Slater (1979), we should "screen and warn entrants to
the profession. Tell them what it is really all about. Encourage the painfully
shy and the anti-social to seek other occupations (in which they will be
happier)" (p. 18). Agada (1984) advocated a focus in studies on behavior
reactions of personality types in the context of specific job experiences.
Further, after discussing the self-effacing and non-assertive stereotype of
librarians, as reported in the studies he reviewed, Agada suggested that an
evaluation of library education and training programs along with revised
position design and adjustments in work environments could remedy the
presence of inappropriate traits and attitudes among library professionals.
Although individuals leave jobs for a variety of reasons, including
many positive ones, a certain number of positions are vacated because of a
mismatch between employee and job. Recruiting and training personnel are
expensive as is the loss of time and productivity when an employee leaves a
position. Remaining employees experience stress when established working
relationships are disrupted and they may experience an increased workload,
another factor in stress (Allison & Sartori, 1988). When a job-employee
mismatch occurs, both administrator and employee feel a loss as each has
experienced failure (Nickens, 1984).
A good match between organization and individual contributes to the
health of both and is mutually beneficial. Matching an individual's work
behavior type with characteristics of the work environment could promote
job satisfaction, increase productivity and lead to a dynamic symbiosis.

96
Research Questions
Research Question One: What are the work behavior types of academic
librarians in Florida?
In comparison to the general population which includes 60 percent
concentrators and producers with producers predominant, 20 percent
energizers and 20 percent inducers, this study showed academic librarians to
be almost 84 percent concentrators and producers with concentrators
predominant, about 7 percent energizers and about 9.5 percent inducers. Chi-
square analysis showed strong evidence that these results are significantly
different from those of the general population. This supports the theory that
different work behavior types are attracted to different professions.
When analyzed by gender, some differences in distribution were seen.
Females were more strongly concentrators and producers (86 percent) than
males (77 percent). Although concentrator still predominated for either sex,
only 6.2 percent of the females were energizers while 7.6 percent were
inducers. Male energizers constituted 8.8 percent and male inducers 14
percent of the male subjects. Compared with 20 percent energizers and 20
percent inducers in the general population, all these results, with the
exception of that for male inducers, are significantly lower than would be
expected.
When compared to other studies on work behavior type, the
distribution of academic librarians by type was closest to that reported by
Wellstood (1984/1985). Her study of medical technologists reported 52.3
percent producers, 33.3 percent concentrators, 7.2 percent inducers, and 7.2
percent energizers. The only significant difference concerned the distribution
of concentrators and producers; the totals were almost identical but the
individual numbers of the two types were reversed. This indicates some

97
similarity in the type of person attracted to these two different professions.
Concentrators and producers work to maintain their organization in its
present form. They follow rules and regulations, like to work alone or at least
at their own pace and may be resistant to change. Although this may be
appropriate for laboratory technicians, who must be precise and follow careful
procedures and who may need to work uninterrupted, it does not necessarily
fit the dynamic and rapidly changing environment of an academic library.
Energizers, who embrace challenges, welcome change and exhibit bold
behavior, along with the charming and convincing inducers, would appear to
be both sorely underrepresented among academic librarians and needed by
the profession.
The analysis of demographic data showed that 69 percent of the
respondents were 40 to 59 years old and that 64 percent had been in the
profession for 11 years or more. They fit into Black's (1981) group of mid¬
career librarians who showed evidence of job frustration and a fissure
between their work behaviors and position demands.
Research Question Two: What are the motivators and hygienes perceived by
academic librarians in Florida as reported on the Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire (MSQ)?
The MSQ measures Intrinsic, or job content, and Extrinsic, or job
context, items. These are analogous to Herzberg's motivators and hygienes.
The three scores provided by the MSQ include an Intrinsic score, and Extrinsic
score, and a General Satisfaction, or total score. Higher scores by area or a
higher total score imply a greater degree of job satisfaction with job content,
job context, or in general. Inducers and producers had the lowest mean scores
on 19 of the 20 items with producers mean scores below the total mean on all
20 items. Producers were lowest on the total, or General Satisfaction score,

98
with an Intrinsic (motivator), or job content, score lower than the three other
types. Inducers were lowest on the Extrinsic (hygiene) or job content score
and below the mean on the total, or General Satisfaction, score.
Producers are comfortable following procedures and guidelines. They
prefer clear directions, will follow orders, meet deadlines and produce precise,
thoroughly documented results. Given the changing dynamics in procedures
and activities associated with the current academic library environment, the
somewhat lower degree of satisfaction of producers with job content factors
could be anticipated. On the other hand, energizers, who are assertive,
creative, impatient with detail and direct in their approach to the pursuit of
goals, score highest of the four types on Intrinsic or job content items. The
dynamic and changing responsibilities associated with the modern academic
library would be challenging to these individuals and would allow them to
exercise their skill in planning and their interest in the improvement of work
processes.
Inducers like to use group processes to accomplish goals, place more
emphasis on people and interpersonal relations than on organizations and
are sensitive to the needs of associates. They had the lowest mean score on
Extrinsic (hygiene) or job context items such as the amount of praise given for
work well done, advancement opportunities, company policies, supervisor
abilities and administrative decisions. Concentrators, who are orderly and
steady in their approach to work, loyal to their organization and systematic in
productivity had the highest mean score on the Extrinsic, or job context,
items. These results may indicate that inducers find their work satisfying but
the way in which changes occur are less satisfying to them.

99
Research Question Three: Do factors derived from a factor analysis of the
MSQ show characteristics of motivators and hygienes?
Factor analysis of responses to the MSQ do show characteristics of
motivators and hygienes. With the exception of "freedom to work alone"
and "opportunity for steady employment" the 12 items on the Intrinsic (job
content) scale of the MSQ all correspond to a Herzberg motivator. Five of the
six items on the Extrinsic (job context) scale of the MSQ correspond to
Herzberg hygienes along with two items the MSQ uses to determine the
General Satisfaction score ("working conditions" and "relationship with co¬
workers"). The exception is "advancement on current job," a Herzberg
motivator.
The factor loadings on the MSQ show that Factor I includes eight items.
These all correspond to Herzberg hygienes with the exception of the last item
in the sequence, "steady employment." In MSQ scoring, seven of these eight
items, again with the exception of the last item, are part of the Extrinsic score.
Factor II includes seven items which all correspond to Herzberg
motivators. Six of the seven are part of the MSQ Intrinsic score. The final
five MSQ items loaded on Factor III. These all form part of the MSQ Intrinsic
score and, with the exception of "opportunity to work alone," are Herzberg
motivators.
Research Question Four: Do the different work behavior type scores of
academic librarians in Florida, as measured by the MPPP, relate differently to
the motivator and hygiene scores derived from the MSQ?
In order to analyze the relationship between MSQ scores and work
behavior types, data were analyzed by canonical correlation. Given two or
more sets of variables, this analysis leads to the canonical variable of each set
and maximizes the correlation between the variables. The simple

100
correlations between the four work behavior types and individual MSQ items
were weak. In addition, correlations between work behavior type and the
three factors derived from the factor analysis of the MSQ were also weak.
However, the largest correlations in absolute value were 0.1952 for
concentrator to Factor I (MSQ extrinsic items; Herzberg hygienes or job
context items) and a negative correlation of -0.1944 for producer to Factor II
(MSQ Intrinsic items; Herzberg motivators; job content items). Factor III is
also made up of MSQ Intrinsic items (Herzberg motivators or job content
items) and producers had both the strongest correlation, in absolute value,
and the only negative correlation (-0.1167).
The general interpretation of the first canonical correlation is that the
strongest relationship is between Factor II (Herzberg motivators or job content
items) and concentrators. The first canonical correlation is significantly
different from zero at the .05 level and is even significant at the .01 level.
A second set of canonical correlations was established between the 4
work behavior types and the 20 individual MSQ items. As with the canonical
correlations for work behavior type to the three factors, the correlations are
weak. Eight of the 12 items whose weighted differences make up the first
canonical variable for the MSQ item variables are motivator, or intrinsic,
items. The canonical variables for work behavior type indicate greater
emphasis on producer (-0.7171). There is some evidence that the correlation
is different from zero at the .05 level. There is a weak to moderate
relationship between work behavior type and "social status,” "social service"
and "achievement." Finally, there is a weak to moderate relationship
between producer and intrinsic, or job content, items on the MSQ.

101
Implications
Work Behavior Type
Job dissatisfaction is costly to individuals and organizations. High
turnover rates, low employee morale and a feeling of failure on the part of
both administrator and worker can be the result of a mismatch between a job
and an employee. The work behavior type of an individual may be a factor in
his or her adaptation to a particular work environment or specific job. If an
employee were placed in a work situation consistent with his need for
structure, supervision, autonomy, recognition and contact with other people,
satisfaction might increase and attrition be reduced.
There are several implications of the findings of this study for
personnel management in academic librarianship. Specific areas to which
these findings could make a contribution include recruitment and education
for the profession, job placement, professional development and training,
administrator management style and team building.
Determining the work behavior type of students enrolled in graduate
library science programs could be useful in allowing inappropriate traits or
outmoded behaviors to be recognized and curriculum to be developed to help
students strengthen those qualities identified as important to employment as
academic librarians. The method of instruction should differ for the various
work behavior types. For example, producers prefer structure, step-by-step
instructions and organization, while inducers prefer group interaction as part
of an instruction method. Although quotas by type are not advocated, the
predominance of concentrators and producers in the sample studies would
indicate some recruitment of inducers and energizers could be useful to the
profession as a whole. According to Woodsworth and Lester (1991), the
profession needs to both recruit and nurture self-confident change agents and

102
potential leaders. "There must be recognition among current research
librarians and library educators of the need for more staff who are both
entrepreneurial and intrapreneurial, and fewer who just do as they are told"
(p. 208).
In the area of job matching, the component of work behavior type,
when added to the professional qualifications of the prospective employee
and the technical requirements of the job, could be a useful factor in
placement decisions. If employees are placed in positions which meet their
needs for degree of structure or autonomy, individual or group work and
supervision or recognition, worker effectiveness and satisfaction could be
maximized.
Professional development and training could be more effective if work
behavior type was considered. This is an area which can lead to increased
employee satisfaction and, from management's point of view, is an
investment made to increase employee skills, effectiveness and productivity.
Knowledge of work behavior type could be used to select specific participants
for particular training programs and in designing programs that use varied
learning and training methods. Based on research into work behavior type, it
can be assumed that different work behavior types would respond to different
training methods. For example, producers might prefer training that is
organized, with clearly defined course objectives, precise and pre-determined
methods of evaluation, written materials and logical step-by-step instruction.
A self-paced learning method would be a possible choice for this group, in
contrast to inducers, who would react favorably to a less-structured format
with opportunities for involvement with other people. They would react
well to an innovative training approach. Energizers could thrive in a
competitive atmosphere, responding well to role-playing, "games" and other
methods that would allow them to take charge and make use of their

103
forcefulness and independence. Concentrators would probably prefer an
orderly and comfortable training approach but their easy-going, accepting and
reasonable nature would make them willing to try a variety of methods
suggested by administrators. As they are generally attentive, disciplined and
exacting, they could benefit from a variety of instructional methods.
If administrators understand that the needs of individuals within a job
environment differ, both initial hiring decisions and future task assignment
will be more effective. Some individuals are process oriented and are
predisposed to active, external orientations (energizers and inducers) while
others are product oriented, are more passive and internal (producers and
concentrators). The different needs of individuals are not related to skill,
intelligence or competence but are simply modes in which they feel
comfortable. Thus, different management styles will be more effective with
different work behavior types. For example, energizers and inducers would
react favorably to participatory management while producers, who want
everything spelled out clearly, might find it frustrating.
Some of the work in academic libraries is done by teams or task forces.
Selecting team members with different work behavior types could allow
members to focus on those areas of the assignment which they find most
satisfying thus maximizing the productivity of the entire team. However, it
is not clear what particular mix of types would be most effective or whether
some tasks would be better performed by more homogeneous groups.
Consistent with a review of the literature on work behavior type, the
theory was supported by this study. Almost 84 percent of academic librarians
had two work behavior types as their primary orientation. These two types
were consistent in description with personality traits reported in earlier
research studies of librarians. In addition, possible relationships between
MPPP scores and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) scores of librarians

104
(Webb, 1990) appear to be consistent with relationships reported by Glenn
(1982/1983), in particular the significant relationship between MPPP energizer
scores and MBTI intuitive and perceptive scores, and MPPP producer scores
and MBTI introvert, sensing and judging scores. According to the Center for
the Application of Psychological Type (CAPT), the 267 people in CAPT's
250,000-person database who listed their occupation as "librarian" showed the
following preferences: Introverted (61 percent); Sensing (54 percent); Feeling
(67 percent) and Judging (64 percent). The ISFJ type accounts for
approximately six percent of the population of the United States. It should be
noted that the sample group's ISFJ preference is not particularly strong
(Webb, 1990). However, the characteristics associated with the ISFJ type (quiet,
friendly, responsible, conscientious, thorough, painstaking, accurate, loyal,
considerate and willing to work devotedly to meet their obligations) (ibid) are
consistent with Marcus Paul Placement Profile trait lists for concentrators (for
example, committed, considerate, disciplined, loyal, orderly, patient,
respectful, steady and trusting) and producers (for example, accurate, careful,
cautious, compliant, conforming, devoted, exacting, follows orders, follows
procedures, precise, respectful, responsible and systematic) (Nickens, 1984).
It is important to remember that human beings are complex and multi¬
faceted entities. The tendency toward one of four work behavior types is just
one aspect of an individual.
Tob Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction
Factor loadings from MSQ scores showed strong evidence of Herzberg
motivators and hygienes and were almost perfectly divided between intrinsic
and extrinsic items. Taken in conjunction with the mean score by type for
Extrinsic, Intrinsic, and total, or General Satisfaction, MSQ scores, some
implications can be seen.

105
Concentrators were most satisfied with both dimensions of their jobs.
Given the loyalty and adaptability of individuals with a preference for this
work behavior type, the changing dynamics of the academic library at the end
of the 20th century would be accepted and although they might not produce
the ideas and new practices needed to cope with change, they appear to be well
satisfied with their jobs and quite able to continue to contribute to the
profession.
Energizers were particularly satisfied with the intrinsic (motivator or
job content) aspects of their positions, a finding consistent with their
willingness to try new things, generate solutions and act decisively.
The implication for academic libraries is to meld the strengths of these
two types, while continuing to provide an environment conducive to their
job satisfaction. The lowest score on the MSQ was "my pay and the amount
of work I do" for concentrators and "chances for advancement" for energizers.
Pay is a constant area of concern in libraries in general. The results of this
study show that all subjects were concerned with low salaries. However, only
concentrators showed this as their least satisfied work item. Advancement
opportunities were also sources of dissatisfaction for all types, but particularly
for energizers who show leadership characteristics but may find few
opportunities to use them. Dissatisfaction with pay and advancement
opportunities has long been reported in the literature. This is the first study
to tie these items to work behavior type.
Producers and inducers were less satisfied on both Intrinsic and
Extrinsic MSQ scores as well as on the General Satisfaction or total score.
Inducers were reasonably satisfied with job content items. This is consistent
with their work behavior traits and the changing role of the academic library.
However, they had the lowest mean score of all types on five of six extrinsic
(job context or hygiene) items. Their lowest individual score related to

106
"company policies," the lowest score for any type on any item. Producers had
the lowest total score of all types and the lowest intrinsic, or job content, score.
Along with the inducers, "company policies" drew producer's lowest score.
However, they also showed the least satisfaction of any type on 8 of 12 job
content items. As producers are a significant group in academic libraries
(38.12 percent of the sample), the effect of institutional change and position
alteration on this type should be carefully assessed.
Recommendations for Further Research
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations for
additional research were offered.
1. The study was limited by geography and included only academic
librarians in Florida. Although Florida is a large state with a
diverse population mix, the librarians sampled may not be
representative of academic librarians in other areas of the country.
Replication with academic librarians in another large, diverse state
could be useful in confirming or questioning these results.
2. A replication of the study using a large national sample could be
very useful. Sufficient subjects would allow work behavior type
and job satisfaction to be broken out by position in an academic
library (technical services, public services, systems, collection
management, or subject specialization) as well as by
administrator/non-administrator designation. Further,
administrators could be divided into middle managers, such as
department chairpersons, and system-wide managers, such as deans
or directors.
3. The study examined work behavior type and job satisfaction for
academic librarians in a cross-section of post-secondary institutions,

107
including college, community college, university and special
libraries with an additional mix of public and private institutions
both large and small. This was a deliberate decision for this study.
However, studies focusing on a particular type of post-secondary
institution, such as community colleges or research universities,
could provide interesting and useful comparative data.
4. As stated earlier, the largest group of subjects was between 40 and 59
years of age and had been members of the profession for 11-20 years.
It is recommended that the work behavior types of students
enrolled in graduate library science programs and academic
librarians with less than 10 years in the profession be sampled to
determine their work behavior type. This would show whether any
change has or is occurring in the type mix of prospective or newer
members of the profession and would allow comparison with the
mature and experienced group represented in this study.
5. Finally, other professional populations, such as college or
university faculty, managers in business or industry, teachers,
persons associated with the legal system, engineers and others with
technical positions and health care professionals could be
appropriate for a study of work behavior type and job satisfaction.
Additional data related to job matching and productivity could
result from such studies.

APPENDIX A
LETTER TO SUBJECTS
March 1,1993
Dear Colleague:
I am writing to request your assistance in a research study designed to
explore the areas of work-behavior theory and job satisfaction among
academic librarians in Florida. As a library faculty member at the University
of Florida, I designed the study and I believe it has the potential to provide
useful information about the work environment of academic librarians.
Please complete the enclosed forms and return them to me in the
envelope provided. The forms have been pre-tested and should take
approximately 15 minutes of your time to complete. Instructions for the
Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP) and the Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire (MSQ) are printed on the respective forms. Please complete
both the MPPP form and the MSQ form.
Please return all forms to me in the enclosed, stamped envelope by
March 10, 1993. Even if you do not wish to participate, please return the blank
forms to me in the envelope provided.
Vocational Psychology Research at the University of Minnesota is
currently revising the MSQ manual and constructing new norm tables.
Response statistics from this study will be included in the revision.
Your participation in this study is very important. It represents a first
attempt to identify the work behavior types of academic librarians, through
the MPPP, and to relate these types to job satisfaction.
108

109
Please answer all questions as honestly as you can. Your responses will
be treated confidentially. All forms will be coded and the results of the study
will be reported statistically to avoid any identification with individuals or
institutions. Your name on the MPPP form will be used only to allow me to
provide you with a copy of the MPPP report. If you do not wish to receive the
MPPP report, it is not necessary to put your name on the MPPP form.
If you wish additional information about the completed study, please
contact me separately at the address listed below.
Thank you for your assistance with this project.
Sincerely yours,

APPENDIX B
FOLLOW-UP LETTER
March 18,1993
Dear Colleague:
I recently distributed packets containing two instruments and a
supplementary data sheet related to a study of the work behavior type and
overall job satisfaction level of academic librarians in Florida. Individual
subjects were selected based on their membership in ACRL, the academic
caucus of FLA, or their active participation in other professional
organizations. You were identified as a potential subject based on this criteria.
Since I have not yet received your response, I am asking you again to
assist me in this project by completing the Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire (MSQ), the Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP) and the
supplementary data sheet previously sent to you and returning them to me
by Wednesday, March 31. Completion of the instruments will take about 15
minutes. If you do not wish to participate in the study, please return the
blank forms to me by March 31. If you need another set of forms, please
contact me by mail or e-mail.
This study is the final section of my doctoral dissertation work and
your participation is important to me. In addition, the study has the potential
to provide information relevant to recruitment for academic librarianship
and to career development. Your participation will strengthen the study and
add to the body of knowledge concerning the profession.
110

Ill
After an initial review to determine that all three forms have been
returned and to identify those individuals who wish to receive the MPPP
report, all names and identifying numbers will be removed prior to statistical
analysis. Your responses will be treated confidentially at all stages of the
project. No individual subject or single institution will be identified in any
way.
If you have any questions concerning the study, please contact me by
telephone after April 1, 1993 or by e-mail. Thank you for your assistance in
this project.
Sincerely yours,

APPENDIX C
LETTER ACCOMPANYING PROFILES
July 19,1993
Dear Colleague:
Thank you for your participation in the research study I am conducting
on job satisfaction and work behavior type of academic librarians in Florida.
The raw response was over 70 percent of those contacted.
By signing the Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP) form you
indicated an interest in receiving a copy of your profile results. It is included
for you. In order to increase your understanding of the MPPP, a brief general
summary follows.
The MPPP was developed using W. M. Marston's behavioral model
and the research of J. Nickens and J. P. Bauch. The instrument was developed
to discern work behavior type for the purpose of matching individuals and
jobs. MPPP scores are scaled, plotted on a graph and an interpretation is
printed. The subject's highest score of the four MPPP scores represents the
primary type of best fit. The four possible types are:
Energizer (E): These individuals are actively engaged in getting
results. They are assertive and use a direct approach as they
pursue goals. High "E" type workers may be impatient with
detail and they desire direct answers and action from associates.
They are creative and have many ideas for improving work
processes.
112

113
Inducer (I): Inducers involve others as they pursue their objec¬
tives. They are sensitive to needs of their associates, and share
optimistic outlooks as they influence others. They are good at
using group processes to accomplish goals, being able to clarify
ideas for themselves and others. They place more emphasis on
people and interpersonal relations than on their organization.
Concentrator (C): Normally, the "C" types apply their skills in
orderly ways resisting distractions. They are steady workers, and
are loyal to the organization, showing great patience. They are
systematic, effective, and help maintain moderation in tense
situations.
Producer (P): Producers strive for quality as they carefully follow
procedures, guidelines, or standards. They can support their
decisions and actions with irrefutable documentation. Producers
expect clear directions but they can be relied on to meet their
deadlines, follow orders, and carry out their assignments with
precision.
Again, thank you for your participation in this study. I am completing
the statistical analysis of the data this fall and expect the entire study to be in
final form sometime during 1994.
Sincerely,

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Carol Ritzen Kem was born and grew up in Springfield, Missouri. She
attended public schools and college in Springfield and graduated from Drury
College with a Bachelor of Arts degree in history, magna cum laude
(Departmental Distinction in History and Education). She continued her
education at the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, and earned a
Master of Arts degree in history, followed by a Master of Science in Library
Science degree from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
She taught history for one year at Urbana High School, Urbana, Illinois,
was a graduate teaching assistant in the Department of History at the
University of Illinois, and worked at the Perkins Library of Duke University
before beginning graduate work in library science.
Since 1972 she has been a member of the faculty in the University of
Florida Libraries at the University of Florida. Currently, she is Sociology
Collection Bibliographer in the Department of Collection Management with
the rank of Associate University Librarian. Her responsibilities include
management of the collections in Afro-American Studies, Criminology,
Sociology, and Women's Studies.
She is a member of the American Library Association, the
Southeastern Library Association, and the Florida Library Association. She
was selected for membership in Phi Alpha Theta (history honorary society), Pi
Gamma Mu (social science honor society), Beta Phi Mu (library science honor
society), and Mortar Board (scholarship and leadership honor society). An
126

127
active volunteer, she has served as an officer or board member for a variety of
professional, community and charitable organizations.
She married William Reade Kem in 1968. He is Professor of
Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Florida.
They have two sons, Reade, a 1993 graduate of Swarthmore College, and Eric,
a member of the Swarthmore College Class of 1998.

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms
to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in
scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
in M. Nickens, Chairman
ohn
Professor of Educational Leadership
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms
to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in
scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
James W. Hensel
Professor of Educational Leadership
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms
to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in
scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Associate Professor of Educational
Leadership
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms
to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in
scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
biompson Fillmer
Professor of Instruction and Curriculum

This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College
of Education and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
December, 1994
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