Ybor City housing study

Material Information

Ybor City housing study
Everhard, David L.
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
College of Architecure, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
60p. : elevations, photocopies, plans, sections, tables.


27.960519 x -82.445576


General Note:
AFA HP document 239

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.

UFDC Membership

Historic Preservation @ UF

Full Text



A Terminal Project in Architectural Preservation
(in partial fulfillment of the requirements
leading to the degree, Master of Arts in Architecture)

David L. Everhard

Supervising Committee:
Philip Wisely, Chairman
F. Blair Reeves
Edward Crain

The University of Florida

June, 1978

This final project is dedicated to
tiy wife, Dana, whose hard work and
encouragement have made my years
in college possible.


I want to thank the following people
whose assistance has been valuable
to me in accomplishing the goals
of this project:

Phil Wisely
Blair Reeves
Ed Crain
Carl Feiss
Phil Werndli

(and good old Charley Willits).

Table of Contents

The Tampa Bay Region................1

Ybor City History.................. 11

The Seidenberg Factory.............22

Site Analysis.................... 30

Site Development................... 45

Design Goals............... ......53

Bibliography ....................... 58




Tampa Bay Region

Florida And The Tampa Bay Region

The Tampa Bay Region is on the Gulf Coast of Florida and is
tempered by the Gulf's water. The average temperature is from
60 to 810 and an average of 50" of rainfall occurs each year.
Limestone, marl, sand, mineral water and phosphate are the
principal resources and, principal industries.

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Tampa is a sprawling urban area The Central Business Tampa Sub-Areas
District now covers the original Tampa settlement. The
Ybor Estuary once served as a port for the tobacco products.

Background History of the Tampa Bay Region

The Tampa Bay Area of Florida is a Gulf Coast Region

centered on the cities of Tampa and St. Petersburg.

It is a region which is rich in Spanish and Latino tradition.

Tampa Bay is a reputed landing site of Hernando De Soto

during his fruitless and fatal expedition of the 1530's.

Later in the 1550's, Spanish missionaries attempted to

Christianize the local Indians but were killed by the hostile


Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles, the founding father of

the Spanish town of St. Augustine, arrived in the Tampa

Bay area in 1565 while on a mission to drive the French

from Florida. His success in the founding of St. Augustine

had earned him the titles of Governor, Adelantado, and Captain

General of Florida. He established a blockhouse which was

outfitted with a garrison, and a missionary priest but they

were driven out by hostile Indians. The Indians of the area

were almost wiped out, however, by epidemic diseases which

the early explorers brought and spread in the land.

For almost 200 years there was little new exploration

or settlement in the Tampa Bay Region, until in 1763 when

the English took possession of Florida in exchange for Havana.

Maps and surveys of the Tampa area were done at this time

and Tampa was "rediscovered" so to speak. After a period

of 20 years, Florida again reverted to Spanish control but

then soon after became American Territory in 1821. By this

time, 30 to 40 Spanish rancheros had been established in

the area. Their presence encouraged later Spanish settlers

to join the flow of persons from elsewhere in the country

to establish homesteads under the Homestead act of 1842.

The Seminole Wars which lasted from about 1818 to 1840

delayed the settlement of the area, but the settlers who

did come found a mild climate, with an abundance of game,

fish, and pastureland. Cattle-raising was the first major

industry of the region and shipping, which developed in

necessity to the cattle-raising, was second.

The community grew slowly as a port and agricultural

area until the time of the Civil War when Federal gunboats

patrolled and blockaded the port and attempted to cut off

the flow of longstaple cotton which was grown in the Tampa

area. For 10 years following the War the area's economy

stagnated as it:was with much of the South during this

Period. By 1873 however new pressures began to expand the

Tampa Bay Area's economy and transportation. New boatlines

and stagecoach lines were established. Henry B. Plant, a

prominent and wealthy railroad owner in Georgia and the

Carolinas, who has been credited with the development of

Tampa into a major city, acquired a Federal Land Grant

to extend a railroad line from Kissimmee to Tampa. On January

23, 1884 the railroad was completed. In 1885, Plant extended

this line to Port Tampa, 10 miles southwest on the Tampa Bay

and opened Tampa Bay (which was relatively shallow in most

areas) to berths for 25 ocean-going steamships. At this same

time, a new industry was springing up in Tampa that was to

make Tampa famous. This was the "clear Havana Cigar" industry.

A Latino settlement called Ybor City about a mile from the

existing village of Tampa was founded. The story of Ybor City

will follow however.

Phosphate rock which was discovered in Florida about

1889,,. lead to an industry that skyrocketed as investment

capitol poured in from all over the country. Tampa was

the closest port capable of shipping the rock and soon

became a world leader in the industry. H.B. Plant brought

not only the railway and shipping money to Tampa, he also is

credited with bringing a taste of culture and society

to the previously agricultural city. He built several

fabulous hotels that brought the tourist trade and many

prominent citizens to the growing port.

The killing freezes which swept the state in 1894

and 1895 eliminated the citrus industry in the Northern counties

of Florida and forced a wave of population to the more temp-

erate latitude of Tampa. Meanwhile the cigar industry in

Tampa was growing rapidly in Ybor City and the Latino population

there was swelling. When the Spanish American War broke

out in Cuba in 1897, Tampans were very concerned with the

state of affairs for several reasons. Many of the Latins

in Tampa were of Cuban origin and had a vested interest in

their homeland; also, the supply of Havana tobacco was

essential to the future of the cigar factories. Tampa, with

its port and rail facilities, soon became a staging area for

the actions of the war. H.B. Plant's Tampa Bay Hotel

was the Headquarters for the Army and many news men. The

money being spent in the town brought a new prosperity

but also brought Tampa a reputation for wild and illicit

operations. It has been said that the Rough Riders did

more fighting in Tampa than they did in Cuba.

Between 1890 and 1900 Tampa's population nearly tripled.

Numerous civic and harbor improvements occurred in the follow-

ing years that transformed Tampa from a town to a city.

Railroad stations, hotels, and industrial works, as well as

street lights and concrete sidewalks were being added to the

city's landscape. Expansion took place in all directions,

utilizing swamps, islands by dredging and filling to create

new land such as Davis Island which was an exclusive housing


M* -

Downtown Tampa in 1923

The Florida Land Boom of 1924-25 affected Tampa,

driving real estate prices skyward and creating a flooded

market of Northern investors and tourists, and new resi-

dents. In spite of the wild speculation, Tampa was fortun-

ate to be left with many ,public and private improvements.

The population had increased by 50,000 people. Thousands

of, homes, new hotels, office buildings, paved streets,

bridges and parks had been built during these years just

prior to the Depression, amenities which, despite owners'

bankruptcy, had become a permanent part of Tampa's


As in many areas, the economy of the Tampa Bay Region

was stagnated for many years after the depression and it

was really the economic drive of the Second World War which

pulled it out. In 1939, MacDill Field, a U.S. Army base for

heavy bombers was established. Also Drew Field was trans-

formed into a training base for bomber crewmen headed overseas.

Since the war, Tampa has continued to grow in size and

population, and a great deal of new construction goes on

day after day. It is a dynamic and progressive city that

must deal with the problems of rapid growth intelligently

and cautiously. As will be seen in Ybor City, urban renewel

has created a great wasteland so bleak that virtually no new

building has replaced it.

Ybor City is one of the most interesting of Tampa's

unique centers and, though much has been lost, it still

contains or represents a rich heritage important to the

Tampa Bay Region.

Vincente Martinez Ybor



Ybor City History

As was stated earlier, Ybor City was born out of the

idea that cigars could be made economically in Tampa. This

idea was really envisioned in 1883 by a Spanish Civil

Engineer named Guarino Gutierrez who originally intended

to establish the guava growing and processing industry

in Tampa. When the region fell short of his expectations

in that industry, he came up with the cigar-making idea,

realizing that the climate of Tampa was very close to the

environment of Havana, Cuba where the finest cigar tobaccoes

in the world were being grown. He laid out a survey for

a small town two miles east of Tampa which was, at the time,

a town of about 700 people with no rail connections but was

blessed with a harbor of encouraging potential.

Gutierrez went to New York City to convince his two

friends, Vicente Martinez Ybor and Ignacio Haya, of the

potential of his proposition. Ybor and Haya were already

successful cigar manufacturers who had previously operated in

Havana but had left because of severe regulations imposed

by the Spanish Crown which ruled at the time. Hundreds of

Cubans had already left that country to work for Ignacio

Haya in his Key West plant. When Gutierrez informed Ybor

and Haya of H.B. Plant's plans of opening Tampa up to

rail and steamship services, they were easy to convince and

went to Tampa and purchased 40 acres of land which Gutierrez

had surveyed.

On October 8, 1885, the cigarmakers started to clear

and fill their properties and build streets. Carpenters and

brick masons followed close behind building houses and

factories. Within five months of the first arrival of

the workers, the first Cuban cigarmakers arrived. The

cigar industry boomed right from the start and soon many

other cigar factories were under construction moving

their industries from Key West, Havana and New York City.

Later many Italians and Germans were employed rolling the hand-

made cigars.

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Tampa-Ybor City Railroad in 1890

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Seventh Avenue in 1920's

The largest of the manufacturers was Vincente Martinez

Ybor whose plant was built in 1886 and was at one time the ,

biggest cigar factory in the world. This factory, now known

as "Ybor Square" has recently been rescued from abandonment

and adapted to a new use as a shopping/restaurant complex by

Trend Publications, Incorporated. The original timber con-

struction is intact inside and the faint smell of Havana cigars

still lingers.

Sanborn Maps (located in the University of Florida Map

Library) depict the growth which was taking place in this

era. The maps of 1884 of Tampa do not include Ybor City at

all. In 1889 however separate maps of the Ybor area were

included and show a well-developed town with five operating

cigar factories, the Ybor factory, the Lozano Pendas factory,

the Sanchez and Haya factory, the Emilio Pons factory, and the

R. Monne and Brothers factory. By 1892, one additional cigar

factory was established and the population of Tampa hit

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-i~ LtJ_ \:-^.Af-.m3a's Cigar Factorie (1899

Their were at least 28 cigar factories in Tampa by June of 1899. Between
March of 1892 and June of 1895, there were more than 20 new factories built.
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March of-' 1892 and Jue f89, thr ...... m-or-e-.,, than. 20 ne factrie built

Don Ignacio Haya


Gonzalez and Mora Factory

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Vincente Ybor Factory


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R. Monne Factory

10,000 people. The Sanborn Maps of June 1895, indicate

that the cigar business in Tampa was established and sky-

rocketing. The maps show the population had doubled to

20,000 people and that in Ybor City at least nine new cigar

factories had opened (including the Seidenberg and Co.

factory with which this project deals). There were also at

least twelve cigar factories in W. Tampa. Many of the

factories were of wood construction but the more substan-

tial buildings were of brick bearing wall construction.

Interspersed within the manufacturing area were houses,

restaurants, shops, apartments and hotels making Ybor City

a uniquely self-contained community where the workmen lived

close to their work, stores and social clubs.

Ybor City is significant as a National Register Historic

District nomination based on two major qualities. One feature

is the distinctive cultural atmosphere indigenous to Ybor City.

Second, Ybor City was a planned frontier town, architecturally

unique in respect to the wrought iron balconies which adorned



Some examples of remaining
iron balconies in Ybor City


many of its buildings.

The Historic District is, as nominated, now primarily

a commercial district although it once was densely populated

with woodframed cottages and apartments. The balconies, which

give the district a distinctive Latin appearance, were once

numerous in the area and ran almost continuous along the facades

of the principal buildings. Few of these wrought iron decorations

still exist. Another feature, once common but now extremely

rare is the low brick wall which defined properties and created

personal space. Of the total number of significant structures

which remain in the Historic District, the majority date from

the early years of this century. The 19th century structures

are mainly the remaining industrial buildings.

As an Historic District, the building or demolition of

any buildings or the alteration of any facade or landscape is

regulated and subject to the approval of a nine member review

board known as the Barrio Latino Commission. This commission

has the authority to assure that alterations to existing

buildings is in harmony with the area's architectural integrity.

The Barrio Latino boundaries are Columbus Drive on the north;

Fourth Avenue on the south; Twenty-second Street on the east;

and Nebraska Avenue on the west.


The Seidenberg Factory

The plant with which this project deals was built in

1894 and was originally owned by a "Seidenberg and Company."

It is beyond the scope of this project to deal with the

entire history of ownership but a Germanic owner (if the name

rings true) seems to be implied. Sanborn maps of 1922 indicate

that the building is called the "M. Valle and Company Cigar

Factory" with the American Co. as owners. By 1922 the

building had been equipped with automatic sprinklers and had

electricity and a steam heat system. Just to the south, the

Cosmopolitan Hotel (a brick structure which later became

the Florida Macaroni Co.) was operating and, across the street

a row of brick stores, two restaurants and saloon were in

business. On the other sides, small houses, the dwellings of

the local workmen surrounded the area.

In the 1931 .Sanborn Maps, the building is listed simply

as the American Cigar Company. The Hav-a-Tampa Cigar Com-

pany is the current owner and the building is closed and

fenced and used for warehouse purposes.

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Views of the Seidenberg Factory



The Ybor City area in the following years became a

typical, urban depressed neighborhood. The thousands of

workers who once sat in the great factories rolling cigars at

the rate of 125 per day were replaced by the machines which

could produce 4000 cigars per day for each operator. The

three story buildings did not meet the needs of assembly line

production which works best on one floor. Once 20,000

artisans were employed rolling cigars in the Ybor City area

but today only about 1000 are employed in the local cigar

companies. The major companies are the Corral-Wodiska and Co.,

Perfecta Garcia and Bros., Inc., the Standard Cigar,

Hav-a-Tampa Cigar co., and Arturo Fuente Cigar Factory.

The days of clear Havana Tobacco are of course now

over, since Castro nationalized his country's tobacco

industry. New sources of tobacco from the U.S. and other

Carribbean Islands have replaced the Cuban tobacco and are

reputed to be equal to Havana's finest.

Urban renewal projects which were aimed at revitalizing

I .

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Views of the Seidenberg Factory


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depressed downtown areas hit hard in Ybor City. The Map

shows the difference in density between the neighborhood

as it was and in the way it now stands. At least 40

city blocks were cleared of their existing stores and

dwellings to make room for the redevelopment which never

occurred. Interstate Highway 4 also had a destructive

effect on the existing buildings. The strip of stores on the

north and south sides of Seventh Avenue now constitutes the

main area of historic interest in Ybor City.

Hand-rolling cigars
-in the Ybor

Views of the Seidenberg Factory
showing desolation left by urban renewel


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R. Monne JFactoIty 'V9

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As this Sanborn Map shows, the Seidenberg Factory once CURRENT SANBORN MAP
was surrounded by stores and dwellings. The gray buildings are the only remaining ones.


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S Gradiaz&Annis Co.-,
Ai I l Seidenberg Cigar Fbctory
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-- 2 Chuarch

SCirculo ubano HCC F tory & Baker

, Fitor & BakeryCentro Espanol
_____ ose Marti Shrine_____

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O= Nodes of Interest

II Spacial Linkages

Neighborhood Abstract

This neighborhood abstract is intended to represent the area's primary assets and
their relationships. The circles represent centers of interest. The area of shading
on Seventh Avenue represents the areas of primary visual and spacial interest.
Seventh Avenue is virtually the only path of visual interest. There are no vistas of
interest on any path but Seventh Avenue or Ybor Square area.
Some isolated centers of interest exist in a virtual no-man's-land of space.


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RI///////////ANG TRAFFIC ARTERY Parking &Traffic
Existing traffic patterns in the area are already well organized. The widened 10th Ave.
intended to relieve pressure and congestion on 7th Ave does not carry as much traffic as
does 7th however. 1-4 provides fast and easy access to all points in Tampa.
Available parking virtually exceeds all demands.

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Significant Buildings

Florida Brewing Com. 1896
Ybor Cigar Factory 1886
El Passaje 1886
Circulo Cubano de Tampa "
Gonzalez Clinic 1915
Steak and Brew 1892
Llano Building

H. Centro Espanol 1912
I. F. Mayo Building 1912
J. Gutierrez Building 1904
K. B.F.Marcos Building 1912
L. La Floridiana Factory 1887
M. Italian Club 1918
N. Broadway Bakery 1923
0. Scozzari Building 1905

Columbia Restaurant 1905
Seidenberg Factory 1895
Gradiaz and Annis Co.
R. Monne Factory 1889
Jose Marti Shrine
Corral- Wodiaska Factory
Charles the Great Factory 33
F.Lozano and Co. Factory

N. The Broadway Bakery

A. The Florida Brewing Co.


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One building of the
Hillsborough Community College


T. The Jose Marti Shrine

H. The Centrol Espanol

D. Circulo Cubano de Tampa


TBRPC Regional Plan

This regional plan was developed by the Tampa Bay Regional
Planning Council and was entitled Forms and Appearances Study,
(1968). It was a regional design study intended to analyze area
pressures and provide alternatives and directions for the growth
and development of these regions. Ybor City is located (as shown
above) just between the Northeast Hillsborough Bay area (C) and
the Terra Ceia to Bradenton Sarasota Airport area (G). Both of
the area descriptions imply a potentially dynamic future for
the adjacent Ybor City area. A close-up analysis of each area
follows on the next pages.


Region G

This large area may become the most active area for
development during the immediate future. Develop-
ments such as Port Manatee (at top of sketch), the pro-
posed 1-75 extension, and the duplication of the Sun-
shine Skyway will give this area a high degree of access-
ibility. It will be the center of the Tampa Bay Region.
To avoid the current tendency of urban sprawl, the fol-
lowing recommendations are proposed:
A Terra Ceia and McGill Islands, unique in their
character and location, should be retained as public
open space and park land.
B The 1-75 extensions should be relocated to the west,
assuming the same right-of-way as the U. S. 41 by-
pass. An alignment further west would only pull
development toward it, perpetuating the tendency
toward urban sprawl.
C Activity centers are recommended at points of high

D Downtown Palmetto and particularly Bradenton
should orient themselves to the new 1-75 alignment.
The new expressway and its ramps should be used
to clear much of the area east of downtown Braden-
ton which is currently marginal in use and appear-
E Existing farms, citrus groves and other open space
should be encouraged to remain within the urban
areas by special measures such as tax incentives,
conservation easements and land-use controls.
F Industrial parks and other areas can be clustered
with ready access to 1-75 or U. S. 41.
G Existing strip commercial areas should be reorgan-
ized into common service areas which share parking
and landscaping costs. Access roads and signs
should be consolidated.

Terra Ceia to
Bradenton-Sarasota Airport

Northeast Hillsborough Bay
Northeast Hitlsborough Bay

Within this very small area of the region lies one of the
mo-: diverse and dynamic areas within the State of
Florida. Correspondingly. the potential opportunities and
problems are numerous here as well. Because of the
current activity at the Port of Tampa and the pivotal
position of Seddon Island relative to the port, downtown
Tampa and Davis Island, the sketch at the right has been
prepared to show the following recommendations:
A The overall extent of industrial development both
adjacent to the Port of Tampa and south to beyond
Gibsonton should be considered in terms of possible
bay pollution and usurpation of shoreline for resi-
dential development or natural areas.
B The new and existing port areas should devote num-
erous small points to vest-pocket parks which offer
public views of the port activities.
C The 22nd Street Causeway should be improved to
accommodate both industrial traffic and a scenic
approach to downtown Tampa from the southeast.
The two are not incompatible but rather unique as
demonstrated by successful parkway development in
other port cities.

D New port development plans should include extens-
ive proposals for landscaping throughout the harbor
and industrial area. A conscious effort should be
made to contrast with the massive scale of industrial
development rather than screen it from view.
E The strategic location and qualities of Seddon Island
warrant its redevelopment as a park and outdoor
entertainment area for the entire region. Numerous
alternatives, including a new State Fair ground, or
Tivoli Gardens type of development, should be crn-
sidered in conjunction with limited high-density re..i-
dential development.
F The warehouse area along Garrison Channei facing
Seddon Island should be considered as a redeveloped
area for commercial and entertainment land uses as
industrial tenants are relocated elsewhere.
G Access to Seddon Island should be limited, possibly
to ferry boat service and a connection to Davis
H Hydrofoi' service to the Tampa Convention Center
and to other points in the region might originate in
this area. Ultimately, a vehicular connection to Peter
O'Knight Airoort. the Interbay Peninsula and points
..- FI Ir r .s,.-'n 4 4 h ,*

^1%"* ~ F ^T ^^- E

I have drawn the following conclusions from the Tampa Bay

Regional Planning Council's information:

Ybor City is near the center of Tampa's future urban growth.

The areas surrounding Ybor City are going to be or are areas

of high potential growth and future developemnt. The effect

of this growth, if it takes place, is obvious; Ybor City will

feel new pressure to develop and respond in kind. Residential

development will be essential and desirable for support of

commercial and industrial growth. Tampa urban sprawl, although

it is pleasantly broken up by the rivers and bays, is unavoidably

complicated in its traffic and transportation problems by these

same water areas. Residential development in urban areas that

provides quick access to a persons place of employment becomes

a matter of necessity. The accessibility of the Ybor City area

and its location near the urban core makes it a very desirable site

for new residential units.

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.S Residential Commercial Proposed Zoning
A plan for the rezoning of the Ybor City Historic District is in the development
stages at the Hillsborough County Planning Commission. As seen above, residential
zoning runs directly adjacent to the Seidenberg Factory site. If the factory was
to be developed in residential use, it should be fairly easy to have this allowed
in the interest of the overall district.

Site Analysis: Conclusions

As has been shown in this analysis, Ybor City is unique in

its definition as an historic district. It exists as a conceptual

whole mainly in the minds of planners and as a strip of semi-

historic buildings along Seventh Avenue. Urban renewel clearance

has created a desolated area which, though it has strongly defined

boundaries, has failed to be revived by new development pressures.

For an historic district to function, it must be able to

draw on its cultural and historic past to create a nostalgic but

pleasing environment. It must draw a large volume of business

from outside its own boundaries to subsidize the expense of

upgrading and maintaining the historic structures it includes.

Historic district integrity is not a function of a poverty level

neighborhood. Middle and upper class cultural values (and dollars)

make an area viable in the strictest sense.

Ybor City at this time cannot exist as a viable historic

district. It does not have the class or density of population

it needs to function. The restaurants are the major asset in its

ability to draw business, but the stores do not have the quality

of uniqueness to draw anyone other than neighborhood clientele.

Hillsborough Community College is an attractive asset to

the area but its overwhelming expansion must be limited. Its

new buildings fail to compliment the quality of the existing


Ybor Square is the most encouraging development for the area.

It has uniqueness, drawing power and represents the cultural

and architectural heritage of the area extremely well.

I feel that Ybor City needs more development of its snops and

stores along the lines of the Ybor Square reuse. It also needs to

have an increase in middle class population density to lend to the

viability of these commercial interests and to create a more

dynamic econcomic process for the area in total.

Although there are many potential sites for residential

redevelopment on existing open land and in other abandoned or

unused factories (such as the Tampa Casket Factory and the

other remaining cigar factories), I feel that location of

the Seidenberg Cigar Factory is one of the most viable and I-

have chosen it for this project. The reasons I have chosen it

are these. One: its location is such that it exists in a well

boundaried, secure area. Although the surrounding area is desolate,

it provides a no-man's-land boundary around it. The northern

side is strongly defined by the highway. It provides a hard

edge to separate it from the neighborhood to the north, as well

as access to the nearby downtown district or to all surrounding

points without passing through any "bad" neighborhoods. The

new Sheriff's Operational Center and Fire Station #4 provide

visual and psychological security. Two: the open land around

it provides room for new residential development of a compatible

design which is the predetermined direction of this project.

Three: the proportionsand construction of the Seidenberg

Factory are such that it should lend itself well to residential

development. It also immediately begins to suggest the formal

schemata that the compatible design should take.

In summary, its potential for reuse and its viability as

a real project are major considerations in my choice of it for the

project site. I also believe that if it was to be developed,

it would be easily leasable (if similar successful projects around

the country are any indication) and would have a beneficial effect

on the future growth of the Ybor City Historic District as a

viable whole.



Site Development

The site which I ahve chosen to develop occupies the

block on which the Seidenberg Factory sits as well as the

three blocks directly west, southwest and south of the factory.

It would be most advantageous for a residential devel-

on this site to be able to close off the existing streets which

cross the center of the existing site. Precisely the same

approach was taken in the Hacienda housing development just

west of the Seidenberg site. The City apparently should not

be adverse to the same use here. Traffic patterns would not

be disrupted at all since the roads both deadend, 20th Street

at the Highway and llth Avenue at 21st Street.

The total site equals about 7 acres of land, and if the

factory site is allowed one acre for its residential development,

then approximately six acres would remain to be developed for

a new residential use.

As seen on the Sanborn Map, the once existing dwellings

on the site approximate the density of what we call row houses


350' )-


10th Ave.
Existing Site Plan



(or town houses) today. In fact, row houses are considered one

of the most viable of housing types for urban areas in DeChiara's

Manual of Housing. Row houses utilize land efficiently and econ-

omically and also create a community unity and security when

properly arranged. They can also create more usable green

space and openness than other residential types without sacrificing

unit dominance or individuality. It is for these reasons that I

have opted to plan around a row house or town house residential

development type. The following Table of Comparative advantages

from DeChiara's Manual of Housing shows the desirability for this

type of planning over conventional subdivisions.

The net residential area needed per family in row houses is

derived from the following -data from chart (B-16-1. Allocation

of Net Residential Land to Major Dwelling Uses) and corroborated

by the subsequent chart (B-16-2. Net Dwelling Densities and

Building Coverage.

Table of Comparative Advantages

,cheme- numbered 2. and UNIT UNIT PER DWELLING
4 i o\er co-nenlional UNIT
,uhdision 'heme. 1

13 Fagureso based os:
typical -zoung lot of 2800 sq. ft.
F.A.R. (Floor Area Ralito) o .5
O.S.R (Open Space Ratio) of 150
20 ACRES 6.3 ACRES 31.4% 13.7 ACRES NONE semi-det: 198 1400 sq. ft. 700 sq. ft. 7.5 lot ar. per room of 375 sq l.

2 ~ Fgures based on:
-- 2 detached: 59 net sue area divided b) number
i of duelling eits, 3anda ppiecalion
semi-det: 23 of full bonuses resuluunv i-
S20 ACRES 5.6 ACRES 28% 14.4 ACRES 2.3 ACHES townhouses: 62 1840 sq. ft. 940 sq. ft. 9.5 F A.R (Floor Area Raio) of 575,
O S R (Open Space Raiu) of 120
garden apts: 56 kti area per room of 337 q 1 fi
__ ____ _total: 200

20 ACRES 4.1 ACRES 20.5% 15.9 ACRES 8.6 ACRES townhouses: 213 1900 sq. ft. 980 sq. ft. 9.8

4 M----

S20 ACRES 5 ACRES 25% 15.0 ACRES 4.0 ACRES townhouses: 210 1820 sq. ft. 975 sq. ft. 9.35

__'=__-, I L_

Recommended Allowance per Family, by Dwelling
Type and by Component Usesa

Land Area: Square Feet Per Familyb
Covered Service,
Dwelling Type Total by Outdoor Walks and Off-Street
Buildings Livingc Setback Parking

One- and Two-Family
(Individual Access and Services)
1-family detached........................... 6,000 varies within- lot area
1-family semidetached
or .................. 4,000 varies within lot area
2-family detached
1-family attached (row)
or .................. 2,400 varies within lot area
2-family semidetached

(Common Access and Services)
2-story........................................ ..... 1,465 435 415 455 160
3-story........................... ............. 985 290 315 220 160
6-story......................... .................. 570 145 215 50 160
9-story........................ ............... 515 105 ... 215 35 160
13-story........................... ............... 450 75 215 35 125

For 1-One family attached (row) houses, a net residential

area of 2400 s.f. is desirable. The utilization of land area

for the building, outdoor living, service walks and setbacks and

off street parking varies with the design development as shown in

the chart on the next page.

Recommended Standard Values, by Dwelling Type'

Net Dwelling Density Net Building Coverage

(Percent of Net
Dwelling Type (Units per Acre of Net Residential Land
Residential Land) Built Over)

Standard: Standard: Standard:
Desirable Maximum Maximum
One- and Two-Family
1-family detached ................ 5 7 0
1-family semidetached
or I 10 12 0
2-family detached
1-family attached (row)
or 16 19 30
2-family semidetached

2-story ............................ 25 30 30
3-story ............................... 40 45 30
6-story ................................. 65 75 25
9-story............................... 75 85 20
13-story ................................. 85 95 17

This chart shows the recommended standard values or

densities/acre of dwelling types. For 1 Family Attached

(row house) units, 16 to 19 units per acre is the maximum


In summary then, the site should contain the following:

16 to 19 units/acre X 6 acres = 96 to 114 Maximum new units
+20 to 30 Factory apartments

116 to 144 Total Residential Units.

The development of suitable site amenities such as parking

open space, community space and service areas are to be considered

an integral part of the design. In addition, special consideration

was to be given to the design to respond to nature of the

Latino community in which the project was being developed.



Design Goals

I had many goals in mind in the design stages of this

project. It was a two-fold design process which involved the

adaptive use of the Seidenberg Factory to luxury apartments in one

part and dealt with the compatible design of a row house cluster

development in the second part. One main goal involved the estab-

lishment of design criteria for the compatible design phase which

would reflect the quality of the factory, the Ybor City archi-

tecture in general and the cultural heritage of the area. I

used the Seidenberg Factory as the main form-giver for the row

houses, utilizing the proportioning system that the original

architect used, the bay spacing and rhythm it generates, and

the materials indigenous to the factory and Ybor City in general,

namely, brick and sheet metal roofing. I also used a low-wall

scheme once common to the area to define public, semi-public,

and private spaces, a hierarchy of space necessary to residential

community viability.

I wanted the Seidenberg Factory to remain a focus of the site.

Consequently, I wanted the row house design to be contemporary

but conservative in its appearance so as to complement but not

compete with the architectural interest that the factory creates.

In fact, it dominates the site and focuses attention on the

center of the residential community in the Community Plaza.

The site amenities include a swimming pool, a wading pool,

(with adjacent bathhouse), an open Pavilion that acts as a focus

for activities in the Community Plaza, and a Community Recreation

center which is an enclosed building. There are also two tennis

courts on the northeast corner of the site. This concentration

of community activity amenities is in part a response to the Latino

community :which seems to utilize such facilities to an unusual

degree (as in the social clubs and community plaza by the Centro

Espanol in Ybor City on Seventh Avenue). It is also a response

to the criteria which I feel determine and encourage viability

of a residential community. Another aspect of this viability

depends on the hierarchy of space created for public, semi-public,

semi-private and private uses. This hierarchy of space is

represented in this design ;by the semi-private spaces defined

by the low walls creating personal yards which nonetheless

still allow and encourage the establishment of personal relation-

ships with the next door neighbor. The pedestrian avenue and

the playlot/conversation development at the center of each cluster

represents a semi-public area which creates its own security by

the virtue of its limited accessibility to anyone except those

persons living on its axis. The Community Plaza represents the

public center of the development that will through its focus of

activity create a feeling of community interrelationships and


The Seidenberg Factory design itself attempts to maintain

the original design integrity of the building without retaining

a "warehouse" appearance. The adjacent stair/elevator tower and

the exterior balconies are intended to soften the harshness

of the facades and to create a variety of spacial experience

for its occupants. The building is developed around a skip-floor

corridor plan to maximize interior space and allow a pass-

through apartment lay-out on the second and fourth floor levels.

Twenty spacious apartments are planned inside. Eighty-four

row houses have been planned that represent a more middle-

income clientele.

Altogether, the design is intended to reflect the architectural

heritage of the community, and at the same time, to respond to

the design criteria of the cigar factory. It is also intended

to respond to already conceived planning goals and demands of

future growth both in the Historic District and in the Tampa

Bay Region.




Aaron, Henry J., Shelter and Subsidies, The Brookings Inst.,
Washington, D.C., 1972.

Associated Homebuilders of the Greater Eastbay Inc., Planned
Unit Development Handbook, Berkeley, Ca., 1972.

Burchell, Robert W., Planned Unit Development: New Communities
American Style, Rutgers University, 1972.

DeChiara, Joseph and Koppelmann, Lee, Manual of Housing, Prentice
Hall, Inc., N.J., 1975.

Dunn, Hampton, Yesterday's Tampa, E.A.Seemann Publishing, Inc.,
Miami, Florida, 1072.

Edwards, Gordon, Land, People, and Policy, Davis Publishing
Co., W. Trenton, N.J., 08628, 1969.

Farrah, Morton, Neighborhood Analyses, Chandler-Davis Publishing
Co., W. Trenton, N.J., 08628, 1969.

Harner, Charles E., Pictorial History of Ybor City, Trend Pub-
lications, Inc., Tampa Florida, 1975.

Kidney, Walter C., Working Places, the Adaptive Use of Industrial
Buildings., Ober Park Associates, Inc., Pittsburgh, Penn.,

Newman, Oscar, Defensible Space, MacMillan Company, N.Y., N.Y.,

Powell, E.K., Tampa that Was..., Star Publishing C., Boynton
Beach, Florida, 1973.

Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council, Futitre of the Region, 1976.

Forms and Appearances Study, 1968.

Regional Housing Plan Guide, 1977.

Untermann, Richard and Small Robert, Site Planning for Cluster
Housing, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, N.Y., N.Y., 1975.

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