Apendice de la Memoria historica de la villa de Santa Clara

Material Information

Apendice de la Memoria historica de la villa de Santa Clara con notas del periodico local "Federacion."
González, Manuel Dionisio, 1815-1883
González, Manuel Dionisio, 1815-1883
Place of Publication:
Santa Clara
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
21, 128 p. : illus. ; 22 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Santa Clara (Villa Clara, Cuba) ( lcsh )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
24917691 ( OCLC )

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Robby Cangelosi

AE 321

University of Florida


"In most idle and imaginative natures there is a certain
ghoulish instinct which leads them to frequent graveyards
and find therein certain mysterious foodoojiantucket to
such a person offers extraordinary advantages for there
are several venerable graveyards,"

This opinion of Jan Austin in her Nantucket Scraps was typical for her time,

The victorian era found delight, interest, and even gaiety in graveyards, spend-

ing hours roaming, walking and even picnicking in nraveyars, Hence, many accounts

of graveyards date from this period. Just as a revival interest in Victorian

architecture exists today, so is there a revival of the Victorian enthusiasm for

cemeteries and their art,

Extensive research has been done in this field; to name just a few projects

undertaken in recent years: the Friends of the Cabilado have recently published

a book on New Orleans Cemeteries; Newport, R.I. is engaged in extensive research

in cemetery documentation through computers; while Charleston, SC, has recently

conducted an investigation of her cemeteries. In addition, new numerous publica-

tions as well as magazine articles, have appeared on New England Cemeteries, Nan-

tucket, on the other hand, has done little research into her funerary heritage.

The purpose of this report is therefore an attempt to bring together, sort

out and uncover some new information on the Island's burial grounds. Admitting-

ly, this report is far from being comprehensive or complete, with gapping holes

throughout. Hours of research through Church, courthouse and death records still

need to be conducted. In depth analysis of styles, craftsmen and techniques

has yet to be accomplished, More importantly, documentation, including photo-

graphs, rubbings, transcriptions and plot plans are desperately needed especially

with regard to earlier stones as examples of both new and old stones, broken,

upset, and missing can be found in any cemetery,


By no stretch of the imagination did the original Sherburne settlement re-

semble any type of town, but existed as a series of farms, As no land was al-

located for a meeting house, a church, a market, a townhall or any other "essen-

tial" usually associated with a town, likewise no cemeteris existed on Nantucket

during its early settlement, Tradition claims that the first burials were per-

formed on the grounds of the deceased near the homestead. Excavations in the

Sherburne area have revealed many isolated burials supporting this theory. In

addition, an article in the local newspaper, The Inquirer and M'irror dated No-

vember 12, 1870 also brings to light several isolated burials;

"A Discovery Three gravestones were brought to linht day on
Monday last, by a workman who was digging on the side of the 'George
Myrick Store' on the North side of the Straight Harf which has re-
cently been torn down, One of the stores had the letters iMlS, chis-
eled upon it; the other two had no inscription whatever, They were
all of dark, reddish-brown stone."2

The first recorded death on Nantucket is of "Jean ye wife of Richard Swaine

who departed this life ye 31st Oct. by 3 True to tradition, Richard Swaine

supposedly buried her under the "doorstone" of their residence,"4

"Ancient" or Forefather's Burial Ground

Exactly when or how the first cemetery was established is not known. How-

ever, Edward Godfrey in his narrative account of the island states that "At the

early date the "Ancient" or Forefather's burial ground on the hill near Macy's

Pond was appropriated as a cemetery and continued as such a oreat many years."5

In any case, John Gardner, whose death occurred in 1706, is the first per-

son of absolute certainty buried in this cemetery, Although other burials were

most probably performed on this tract prior to 1706, no documentation has been

located substantiating this belief This burial ground continued in use until

1763 when Jonathan Coffin Esq, and his wife Hepzibath were interred there.7

The first legal records found setting aside Forefather's as a cemetery date

from 1838o At that time, the Proprietors permanently set aside "Forefather's"

as a cemetery in response to W.C. Folger's appeal to preserve the area in ques-

tiono The record reads:

"I mention that the ancient burial ground of our forefathers, the first
settlers of this Island, at the eastward of Macy's Pond (So called) which
is about three hundred feet square, be reserved as a sacred spot and that
the same shall not be laid out by the Proprietors of the common and undi-
vided land on the Island of Nantucket to any individual, company or indi-
viduals hearafter and that the same shall not be appropriated for any
other purpose and any set of men that have mind to enclose the same with
a fence be permitted so to do,8
Recorded the 4th 12m 1838 by
Peter F. Eiver

Although WCo Folger's appeal brought about the foregone legal action, little

was done to physically improve and preserve the cemetery as Folger intended due

to the lack of subscriptions,9 Yet Folger's petition is the first documented

effort for the preservation of a Nantucket Cemetery, Thus, his little heeded

appeal is not without interest or historical value as reinforced by the follow-

ing 1838 newspaper article:

"Mr, Turks in one of my recent peregrinations in the Environs of this
town, I came to the ancient burial place where the forefathers of our
townspeople were interred. It stands not far from the road leading to
Maticat (Madaket) on a little rising ground near Macy's Pond and about a
mile and a quarter from the town, Many of the first settlers near the
spot viz. Tristam Coffin at Coppamet, Thomas Coffin at Wattacomet, Na-
thaniel Starbuck, westward, and Peter Roger's field, which we believe is
very near, being the outer one of a range of lots above what is called
the 'Jethro Folger lave.' We will quote from the author of Miriam Coffin,
what he says about this secluded spot; 'Places more continuous to the
new town were selected to deposit the dead. The head stones of the first
fathers, rudely sculptured, but reversable for this antiquity, became
moss-grown and ruinous. The inscriptions, however, were obliterated as
much by desecration as by the crumbling touch of time. The fences and
little grave enclosures were carried off piecemeal, and served for fire-
wood or kindling stuff for the poor, in seasons of rigor or scarcity.
The gravestones, in time, one by one, disappeared from the wanton muti-
lation of unthinking boys, were upturned by cattle or by the effects of

the severe frost of the high northern latitude, which looser land finally
ejected them from the bosom of the earth. A few sad memorials only re-
mained at the commencement of the revolution, having fallen-in to decay,
and clustering around the sole monument of older times, which at this day
remains deep bedded in the ground standing alone, like the last warrior
at the Pass of Thermopylo, qfter all his fellows had been hacked down to
the earth,19

The stone spoken of was that of John Gardner, which still stands although part

of the inscription has been obliterated. It was 'Here lyes the body of John

Gardner who was born in the year 1624 and died May 1706 aged 82.' Only the name

Gardner with the date of his death and his age remains. It owes its preserva-

tion to the induration and unyielding nature of its material which is of a

dark silicious texture and to the depth of its setting in the ground.' There

are also foundations of two or three other headstones which have been broken off

near the ground with the initials "GoM," marked upon it. There are also vestiges

of quite a number of graves, the earth having sunk in from decay of the coffins;

and I thought I could see traces where a fence once stood.

The Capto John Gardner whose monument remains, came here in 1672 and had

half a share of land granted him by the proprietors on condition that he would

come with a suitable vessel and supply the occasions of the inhabitants in the

occupation of fishing. He came from Salem; and at a subsequent date he was a

justice of the peace, Several Nantucket deeds are recorded in his handwriting,

At the time of his death in 1706, he was judge of Probate, and had been for some

years, having probably been the first probate judge we had in this country, But

the records of the probate office here do not extend back farther than about

the time of his death. He had eight children, viz: two sons and six daughters

who all married, and all but one daughter left children, Their posterity are

numerous, and several wealthy merchants and shipowners,

When this ceased to be the only burial ground of the whites, we cannot say;

Mr. Macy in his history of Nantucket has not informed us, but we think about one

quarter of the eighteenth century must have elapsed by that period Probably the

early Starbucks, Macys, Coffins, Gardners, Folgers, Colemans, and Barnards, who

mostly lived at that part of the island, were there interred.

Yet there is not a fence to keep off the cattle or protect the last resting

place of the bones of those worthy people, who were quite as pure as the Puritans,

and much more charitable in their Christianity, Covered with a dry moss which

seems like the personification of sterility, it looks like the place of desola-

tion. Perhaps there may be found a place in New England, where the ancient burial

place is so neglected. We do not perceive any indications that the phrenologists

have violated this spot, as they have several of the aboriginal graveyards; per-

haps, its vicinity to dwellings, and the time that has elapsed since the last

burial have hindered them from disturbing this place. I would suggest that sev-

eral subscription papers be drawn up and placed in some of the most frequented

Reading Rooms to collect a sum sufficient for enclosing with a durable fence and

red cedar posts, this hallowed spot; and that some native tree be planted there -

as the oak, wild cherry and that the moss may be removed, and the line or ashes

thrown on the ground, so that it might bear down on other grass. Possibly a

committee to carry this into effect, might be raised in either of the reading

rooms, Such an act would show a better taste, than to let it remain in that

direction and many a pilgrimage would be made to the spot."10

Today, the Forefather's cemetery is quardened off by cement markers and is

quite difficult to find. Its sole surviving headstone is that of John Gardner

referred to in the previous quote. As cited above, the stone exhibited signs of

deterioration as early as 1838o As late as 1874, however, the marker was re-

portedly in a relatively stable degree of preservation In 1883, the stone

in question is referred to again as being accompanied by a few illegible stonesol2

Finally, in August of 1877 a local narrative describes the stone as being in an

advanced stage of decay: "Fragments have recently been split from it probably

by the frosts of the past winter." Apparently, the only legible portion exist- that time was as follows:

GED 82

An appeal was also made at that time to have a replica made to replace 'the orig-

inal while the general style could still be determined

Yet appeals remained unheeded until the 1880's when the headstone was re-

ported as being a "dark, moss-covered stone slate...nearly sunken from sight,

defaced by time, but still more by rude human hands."14 "Those vandles politely

termed 'relic hunters' to whom nothing is sacred -- not even the abode of the

dead, had chipped away the old stone until it was nearly half goneo, So in

1881 Tristram Coffin made appeal to the populace to preserve the headstone hav-

ing notice "with pain" that the headstone "of John Gardner had suffered at the

hands of the relic hunters," Coffin then estimated the cost.of replacement to
be $175,00 asking for subscriptions to defray this amount.1 Under Coffin's

direction, enough money was apparently raised to execute the project in 1883o

The original stone removed with the assistance of Arthur H. Gardner17 is now

in the possession of the Nantucket Historical Society and located in the "Oldest


Regarding other tombstones, little is known due to their.early destruction0

In 1851, however, W.Co Folger reports that the stone of Prince Coffin, a great-

grandson of Tristram, stood a little northeast of the Gardner grave. Another

stone existing at that time was that of Benjamin Franklin's grandfather, Peter

Folger18 These stones still existed as late as 1883 although in an illegible

condition,l9 In addition, evidence of other graves was apparently still avail-

able as late as 1906 when Henry S. Wyer reported that "Traces of the graves of

a number of them (graves) still exist, Wyer goes on to give his impression of

the area: "There is an atmosphere of exceeding peace in this neglected enclosure,

overgrown with wild roses, myrtle and berry vines,"20

Other appeals were made throughout the years concerning monuments to the

forefathers. In 1877, for example, FCo Sanford urged Nantucket citizens to

build a monument commemorating some of the early settlers buried there In his

appeal he states: "I propose a marble monument, enclosed by an iron rail, with

stone posts that will stand for all time" Sanford even goes on to suggest the

following inscription;

"The earliest cemetery of our people,
Here lies buried
'Tristram Coffin born in England, died at Nantucket in 1681
Thomas Macy, born in England, died at Nantucket in 1682
Edward Starbuck, born in England, died at Nantucket in 1690
Peter Folger, grandfather of Benjamin Franklin, born in England,
died in Nantucket in 1706."

Volunteering to see the job through, Sanford estimated the project cost at

$150,00o21 Apparently, the project took hold as such a monument exists today

Yet if we lend credit to WoCo Folger, the monument inscription contains certain

erroneous information, Folger claims that Christopher Hussey died in Hampton;

Tristram Coffin was born in 1605 and that the others are probably not buried in

In 1892, Jane Austin gives her opinion of this monument:

"Private enterprise has within the year erected a rather pretentious monu-
ment, surrounded by an iron fence, close beside this grave (Gardner's)
pointing out its antiquity and giving the names of several other worthies,
contemporaries of Captain John and many possibly buried in undiscernible
graves around him; but although highly respectable, the monument strikes
one as a little impertinent, and the effect of the two gray old stones
decently crumbling into dust on that lonely hillside, with the sea the
same sea by which these men walked and toiled, and lived and died whis-
pering their story and the midnight winds making moans over their graves,

and the creeping grasses folding them ever closer and closer, all these
seem more harmonious alone, than with the addition of a big red and white
and iron fenced monument,
But Nantucket is proud of the monument, and it does not become her
guests to be hypercritical "23

Not until 1923 was enough interest raised to perpetually care for the ceme-

tery. A number of articles appeared in the Inquirer and Mirror calling for such

a permenant recognition of the site. At this time the cemetery was finally

fenced offo24

Old North Cemetery

"About the beginning, or rather during the first decade of the last
century, some of the Gardner family set apart for burial purposes
the present Gardner's burial ground on New Lane, corner of Grove Lane,
and the first interment therein was the body of Abigail Gardner, wife
of Nathaniel, who died March 15, 1709o Richard Gardner, 1r., Esq, .25
who died in 1728, was buried there, and probably many thousand since,.

With the exception of the above 1882 statement, supplied by WC. Folger,

little, if any, information is available on Old North or Gardner cemetery Re-

search into the Gardner land holdings as well as the 1713 will of Nathaniel Gard-

ner has failed to reveal the exact location of the plot or any other pertinent

clues, Although the so called "Crooked Record," set off to Richard Gardner, is

not far from the present burial site, many of the land's original reference points

have vanished making it impossible to surmize if the "Crooked Record" included

the cemetery site,26 A Record of Births, Deaths and Marriages does, however,

contain the fact that in "1709 3 (month) 15 day Abigail Gardner wife of Nathaniel

(1 person buried in Gardner ground),."27

Exactly when the cemetery was made public is uncertain as no record of the

land transfer from any Gardner or from any Gardner descendent to the city seems

to exist. The oldest non-Gardner tombstone, belongs to Margret Hussey, wife of
Obed Hussey and bears the date Dec. 14, 174628 In all likelihood, the cemetery

was open to the public at sometime around this date. Although some writers have

claimed that The First Congregational Church took charge of the cemetery, this

has not been verified to date as the Church"s early records are locked in an in-

accessible storage vault However, the theory dates back as far as 1860 when a
Mrs, Hanaford referred to the area as the Congregational Burying Groundo2

Within the confines of Old North Cemetery lie the remains of many eighteenth

and nineteenth century Nantucketers, Among them are such notables as Robert

Ratliff, a sailor serving on the ship taking Napoleon to St. Helena, the North-

umberland; Reuben Chase, a sailor under the command of John Paul Jones and re-

puted inspiration for the character Long Tom Coffin in The Pilot; Robert Inot,

first commander of the steamship Savannah; Revo Bazabeel Shaw of the First Con-

gregational Church, and Brigadier General William Howeo

The majority of Old North graves are arranged running north-south in stag-

gering rows. The southern portion is the oldest and contains relatively few

stones. The fact that the Gardners were Quakers probably attributes to this lack

of markers The northern side, however, is very dense with the oldest stones

located in the southern portion while newer marble stones grace the northern


In the 1820's when Old North apparently reached holding capacity, New North

was opened. Its development appears to have occurred in reverse fashion with the

southern half opened first with later extension northward. Being composed pri-

marily of family plots, New North is laid out in a more ordered fashion than Old.

The majority of the headstones inscriptions face westward while the remainder

are oriented toward the prevailing pathways,

By 1882, Old North had fallen into serious neglect, Jane Austin describes

the area as being overgrown with vines and grasses, mostly roses and dewberries
and the middle ground as a mass of hollows, By 1897, however, sufficient in-

terest was aroused to incite the Nantucket Historical Society under the direction

of Mr, Dudley and Dr. Benjamin Sharp to undertake preparing inscriptions of

legible stones031 In 1902, cemetery trustees faired less well appealing for

money to rectify problems of neglect. When nothing materialized,32 Henry S,

Wyer was incited to write a letter to the editors of the Inquirer and Mirror:

"Of the multitudes who ride or walk through New Lane, between
the "New" and "Old North" cemeteries many have wondered, no
doubt, why the latter enclosure containing as it does the
graves of so many of Nantucket's earlier generations, should
be so utterly neglected, The ancient board fence around it
has been patched up from time to time, this work being prompt-
ly undone by the cattle that pass through daily and gain easy
access to the cemetery,"

Wyer goes on to solicit subscriptions "large or small from all who feel any in-

terest in the proper care of the 'God's Acreo8"33

The minutes of the Nantucket Historical Society stating that "there was no

official caretaker for the Old North Burying Ground," and since not enough sub-

scriptions were solicited, the organization thus appointed a committee to confer
with the Board of Selectmen in order to rectify the situation Taking the

matter in hand, the Selectmen voted "that the Town accept the provision of sec-

tion 18 of Chapter 114 of the General Laws (Statute of Abandoned or Neglected

Burying Grounds), and take charge of the Old North Cemetery and appoint the Nan-

tucket Historical Association its agent to keep the same in order," The Board

in turn appropriated $500 to aid the Association in the construction of a suit-

able fence, In addition, a 1930 bequest from the will of Frederick Gardner of
Poughkeepsie, NYo was utilized for upkeep and restoration35

Yet despite good intentions, a 1936 narrative found Old North still so over-

grown with bayberry and wild roses it precluded approaching any stone36 Later

in the same year, however, the Historical Association was successful in persuad-

ing the WoPoA, to grade, clear and improve the area. During the improvement,

workers located many slabs of slate and wood buried under two feet of ground

with names and dates eradicated.37 Fortunately, the Historical Association has

been to date successful in maintaining the grounds in a respectable state,

Friends Burying Ground

"On Nantucket ye 28 day of ye 4m0 1708 at ye house of Nath, Starbuck" was

born the Quaker Society known as the Nantucket monthlyy Meeting, At this first

meeting "it was proposed ye friends take care for a piece of ground for to set,

a meeting house on and for a burying ground," Through a verbal agreement, a one

acre site was acquired for a cemetery from the Starbuck family.38 The site is a

short distance southeast of the "Ancient" burial ground as located on "The His-

torical Mep of Nantucket" by ReVo Dro FC, Eivers (1860). The only other record

of this cemetery uncovered dates from the Dec, 24, 1728 meeting and reads:

"Jethro Starbuck and Richard Macy are desired to take care to have friends bury-

ing ground fenced with boards and this Meeting will pay them for it etc,"

In addition, Births, Marriages and Deaths for the town of Sherburne states:

"Mary Starbuck wife of Nathaniel on the 74 year of her life died and was Decently

buried in Friend's Ground burying 1717 9 mo, day 13," Such a decent burial for

a Quaker was a simple one, the Society feeling that "builded tombs and the

strong desire to be remembered after death is vain" and that "a transient name

on the stone, a transient love in the heart, we have one day and are gone the


Crevecoeur in his Letters From an American Farmer (1793) throws further

light on Quaker traditions writing,,,

"%ooafter death the Society bury them (the dead) with their
fathers without pomp, prayers, or ceremonies; not a stone or
monument is erected to tell where any person is buried; their
memory is preserved by tradition. The only essential memorial
that is left of them is their former industry, their kindness,
their charity, or else their precepts, how unadorned their re-
ligious system. At their death, they are interred by the fra-
ternity without pomp, without prayers, thinking it then, too

late to alter the course of God's eternal decree, and as you
well know without either monument of tombstone, This after
having lived under the mildest doctrine they die just as
peaceably as those who, beinn educated in more pompous relig-
ions, pass through a variety of sacraments, subscribe to com-
plicated creeds, and enjoy the benefits of a church establish-

Douglas-Lithgrou also stumbled across the Quaker cemetery in 1914 and wrote:

"The first burial ground of the Quakers was situated just west
(sic should read "north") of Elihu Coleman's House on Old
Madaket Road but left for many years without a stone, a fence
or any kind of protection, it has long since been unrecogniz-
able and no one could imagine that it had ever been a place
of interment,40

Today the area exists much as this writer perceived it without markers of desig-

nation and it is thus lost for generations to come.

When the town of Nantucket shifted from Sherburne to the present site, a

new burying ground was needed. Therefore, in 1730, a site was chosen at the

corner of Main and Saratoga, the plot's first internment being that of Charles

Clasby in 1731o Yet burials continued at the old cemetery until 1760.

Godfrey"s description of this newer burial ground in 1882 is not without


"At the Friends net a mound or stone marks the last resting place
of this peaceful sect, who have been for very many years close-
ly identified with the island's prosperity,"

As the stranger pauses at this unpretentious burial-place, and
gazes at its undulating surface covered with waving grass where
daisies and buttercups and clover blossoms nod in the summer
breezes, mute worshippers of the Great Unseen and Unknown,
the sweet scent of new-mown hay coming refreshingly to his
senses a feeling of peacefulness and rest, comes over him and
he wonders what, after all, the varieties of this world amount
to, and unconsciously repeats those immortal lines of Gray, -"41

A series of doctrinal quarrels, however, resulted in a schism in the Society

and by 1883 two distinct sects existed, the Gurneyites, or followers of Joseph

John Gurney, and the Wilburites, or disciples of John Wilbur, and the orthodox

doctrines of the original sect, Consequently, this philosophical split resulted

in a division of burial grounds. By a special arrangement, the Gurneyites and

the older Hicksites, another liberal faction, were allowed burial on the ceme-

tery's north side in graves designated by a small 15 inch stone On the south

side, the Wilburites continued to bury in the conventional, unmarked graves with
six exceptions42 Moses Jay supplies explanation for four such exceptions, the

other two being of recent origin, Moses claims these stones placed by his father

mark the graves of four of his ancestors so that his blind uncle could locate

them with his cane, He states:

"The Friends were much against it and two of the High Seat
Quakers came to father and said, 'Friend Moses, we have had
a meeting of the Society and thee will have to remove the
stones,' Father didn't say anything, A week later the same
two returned, 'Friend Moses, we have had another meeting of
the Friends and those stones must be removed, If thee doesn't
remove them, they will be thrown into the street' Mr. Moses,
rather hige man 6'2" and 225 pound, quietly and indignantly
replied, 'If thee touches a stone, thee will be sorry Go
back and tell thee Friends that the first one that throws out
a stone will be thrown after it., And there they are today in
the Joy lot of the cemetery and they remain there as a marker
of the courage and persistence of my Father who was able to
hold out against the whole Society,"43

The last interment in Friends occurred in 1902 and by 1913 the burying ground

was sadly kept, On February 22, 1913, A, Starbuck wrote to the Inquirer and Mir-

ror saying,

"the grounds need caring for,,.While we can we should raise
a fund the interest of which will keep the fence in repair,
the grass trimmed, the few stones allowed there properly
cared for and feel assured that nothing that is needed shall
be neglected,"44

Money was raised for such a fund and in 1915, a $1,533 trust fund was placed in

the town treasury for a perpetual care fund,44

South or Newtown Cemetery

"I have no account when the South Burial Ground was first used, or by who

established, It is southerly from the town, and has many graves," Thus, WoC.

Folger sums up quite well the amount of knowledge presently known about Southo45

The cemetery dates from at least 1775 for the stone of Eo Barnuain (stone illeg-

ible) bears that date,

Two articles appearing in the Inquirer give an insight into the development

of the site, the first article dated March 15, 1859 and containing the following

cited portion:

"Several valuable improvements have recently been made in this
ground; new lots laid out, many of them enclosed with ornamen-
tal iron fences, others with neat wooden ones. The hallow at
the northeast section is being filled up, and when completed
will add much to the beauty of the ground, Under the care of
Mr. Sheffield, the sexton, everything appertaining to the yard
presents a neat and orderly appearance, We are glad to notice
the interest taken on the part of several of our citizens in
beautifying the resting place of departed friends; the numerous
lots neatly enclosed with their tastely arranged gardens impart
an aspect of cheerfulness to this spot that in an infinite
measure dispels the gloomy associations connected with the
habitations of the dead,"

The other article appears the following year:

"It is pleasant to notice the alterations and improvements
which are constantly being made in this graveyard. The
grounds have recently been materially enlarged and new lots
are constantly being taken up, handsomely enclosed and many
steps taken to beautify the 'City of the Dead.'"46

Today this cemetery comprises five acres of well cared for land. The

graves are essentially aligned in rows traversing from northwest to southeast,

The tombstone inscriptions predominately face southwest with graves laying im-

mediately behind the stones, The head of the deceased is placed against the

headstone while a footstone to the east terminates the grave. The reason for

such orientation is so that on the day of the resurrection, the Deceased will

face the east from whence the Bible says the Lord shall come

The center of this graveyard, containing many older graves, is very sparse.

Here many of the early eraticas headstones can be found. Slightly westward of

this central area is the next oldest section exhibiting slate stones of the urn

and tree style, The extreme eastern section is the newest portion internments

apparently still being performed here,

Contained within South are two of the most interesting graves on the island,

one being the grave of Huldan Snow. Apparently, Huldan's husband wanted her

buried in South Cemetery but her family insisted on her internment in North. Her

family won but Benjamin Snow had his say placing a headstone in South which reads:

"Huldah, wife of Bejn, Snow
However dear she was not laid here,
Some private grief was her disease0
Laid to the North her friends to please,"

The other interesting grave is that of the heart of Dr. Winslow, a noted physi-

cian, atomic expert, lawyer and astronomer, A native of Nantucket, Dro Winslow

requested that his heart be removed upon his death, sent to Nantucket and buried

over the remains of his mother in South, In addition, he asked that his body

be cremated and placed upon the coffin of his deceased wife.47

"Colored" Cemetery

Little, if any, information is readily available on the "colored" cemetery.

Godfrey simply states that "the people of color have had for many years a grave-

yard south of the town and many graves are seen there,"48 Neither is any essen-

tial information conveyed in an 1860 account by a Mrs. JoH, Hanaford:

"The fourth graveyard which I visited was that used by the colored
people. Upon one, grave stone there was the following inscription:
'Rev, Bristol Wright who was a local minister of the Methodist
Episcopal (Zion's) Church. After a short illness he died in full
hope of heaven. His dying testimony was 'Now, Father, my work is
done; I am 4eady to be offered Glory! Glory! And then he fell asleep
in Jesus .

This isolated cemetery, consisting of two acres of land, is no longer in use,

Located just west of the Nantucket Cottage Hospital and south of Mill Hill, its

approximately one hundred remaining gravestones range from the comparatively

elaborate with simple concise imagery to the very simple bearing only the de-

ceased's initials.

The burial ground in question was apparently set aside before 1800, Although

a 1965 local history reports the existence of a 1798 stone, a recent search mere-

ly resulted in the location of a headstone dated 1821. Further scrutiny of the

area also revealed the grave of Rev. JEo Crawford, a formerly renown and eloquent

minister of the Nantucket Colored Baptist Church. At this time, however, no par-

ticular order in the stones could be discerned although the majority appear to

face west with the remainder turned eastward or toward each other, In addition,

their density appears relatively sparse, many occurring in clusters,

Prospect Hill

In "A Record of Births, Deaths, and Marriages..." is recorded on December

2, 1811, John Baily dies of Bilious fever and was the "1 in Unitarian Burying

Ground,"51 The Proprietors of the Common and Undivided lands of Nantucket set

off a "certain tract of land," to the second Congregational Church immediately
following the congregation's formation52 Gradually, land was added from time

to time until the cemetery reached its present size. An improvement in 1876

under the direction of James Collis leveled and graded the south side of the

cemetery "where the deep and unsightly valley once existed." Thus Collis cre-

ated an extra two rows of lots or a large level tract. "The older portion of

the cemetery which has been used as a burial place since the early part of the

present century, has of course, remained untouched,"53

In 1892, Jane Austin described the cemetery in the following manner:

"The most pathetic spot in Nantucket, however, is in the least
interesting of her many burying grounds, that is, the newest
and most pretentious, abounding in heaps of barren gravel sug-
gestive of unhealed wounds in smart new monuments of white
marble with gilt letters, in rusty and broken wooden fences,
in attempted drive ways and gravelled paths."54

By 1908 the cemetery had fallen into disrepair. Reportedly, "it will take

effort and money now to repair the neglect of years," Due to an insufficient

trust fund, the improvements were not undertaken.55 Not until 1958 was a con-

certed effor undertaken to perpetuate Prospect Hill. A $14,000 trust fund was

begun, Appeals were in the Inquirer for contributions of both labor and money.56

On June 21, a volunteer work force of fifty men, women and children descended on

Prospect Hill to clear and cut the vegetation and make necessary repairs, Vol-

unteers from the Nevers Naval Facility also lent a hand in the effort.57 Money,

however, was not so abundant. As late as April 10, 1959, an appeal was made to

the property owners in Prospect Hill for money, An appeal also went out "to

solicit donations from our local people as well as friends of Nantucket being

away from the island,..because of inadequate income from invested funds,"58

Mto Vernon Cemetery

On February 28, 1884 it was reported that "land adjoining the Prospect Hill

Cemetery on the north and east has been donated by Capt. Henry Coleman to a num-

ber of persons who have organized a cemetery corporation under the title of Mount

Vernon Cemetery," Sixty, twenty foot burial lots were created. Each was sold

at $10 per lot, the proceeds of which were to be used for beautification and


St. Mary's Cemetery

The latest graveyard on the Island, St. Mary's Catholic Cemetery stands as

a well kept five acre site. According to Harry Tinner in his Nantucket "Argument

Settlers," the cemetery was consecrated on Sunday, July 23, 1871o60 Yet this

area must have been in use before this date for the stone of Michael Holland is

dated 1856, The Catholic Church claims to have no records of the creation, ori-

gin or growth of the cemetery; however, this seems improbable.

Quaise Cemetery

If not for the efforts of James H, Gibbs, better known as "Uncle James,"

the burial ground at the Quaise Asylum would be lost today. In signed state-

ment James states where the cemetery was located.

"As I recall the small burying ground in question was situ-
ated on a small knoll, near the last line of Quaise and next
to the road that was at that time used as a public highway
of Quaise. The spot was encloed by a fence and as I recall
it was about 50 feet square."6

Polpis Burying Ground

The Polpis Cemetery is believed to be as old as the mid-1660 settlement of

Polpis. Although it is presumed that the Swain family, the original settlers of

Polpis, founded the cemetery, no records have been located to corraborate its

date of origin.

Today only two stones remain in the cemetery one slate stone bearing no

legible carvings and another stone crudely inscribed with the date October 29,

1774. The latter stone is unusual in that it is merely six inches square at

the base and twelve inches in height. Apparently, the gravestone was originally

taller but has been sheared through the years. The stone is believed to be

that of Calvin Swain who was "lost at sea;" tradition asserts that buried with

Swain are many other mariners who suffered similar fates.62


As regards materials, the first pertinent question arising is whether all

the different materials utilized were readily found on Nantucket; whether they

were brought from the mainland; or whether they were imported from Europe. Un-

doubtedly, the eraticas stones in Newtown are of local origin Geologists in-

form us that this type of rock was deposited on Nantucket by the glaciers during

the Ice Age. Since these eraticas stones are found in abundance on the Island,

they became an inexpensive source of materials.

Slate, used throughout the 18th century and the first quarter of the 19th,

is not found on Nantucket and hence necessitated importation, The Isle of Slate

in Massachusetts Bay was an excellent source for such slate, As early as 1633,

Slate Island was "free for any man to make use of the slate."63 Many other lo-

cations were available on the mainland from which slate could be quarried. Since

Nantucket, however, maintained closer ties with England than with her fellow

colonists prior to the Revolution, that mariners returning from England brought

slate with them is also a possibility. Only an analysis of the slate used on

the island could definitely identify the source. After the revolution, it is

fairly safe to assume that slate was imported solely from the mainland, the

Luding map giving the various sources on the mainland where slate was quarried.

Since only a handful of slates dating prior to the Revolution exist, the option

of Britain as a possible source applies only to a relatively small number of

existing stones,

Similarly, marble-like slate had to be imported. Since this media was not

popular until the beginning of the third quarter of the 18th century, it was

probably imported from "America." The use of this new media was presumably due

to its discovery in western Massachusetts and Vermont at approximately the

same time,4 By 1840, however, marble was imported from Europe as well as the

mainland, The numerous advertisements of CoHo Robinson in The Inquirer and

Mirror reveal some of the marbles in use at that times "Italian marble of all

different grades, Satatuay, American, Rutland, Danby, Southern Falls, Echaillon,

"marbles of France which have stood the best of centuries," and "the celebrated

Knoxville marble,"

A few stones in Old North and Newtown are made of a reddish-brown sand-

stone commonly called brownstone quarried from Main to Connecticut as early as

165465 These Brownstone markers on Nantucket were used predominately from

1790-1810, Apparently, this material is difficult to work with since few of

them contain any designs.

Wooden headstones were used on Nantucket at one time and were seemingly

quite popular. The W,,P,A, unearthed many of them in Old North during the

19300s,66 Today only one wooden headstone located in New North remains bear-

ing the date 1874o The wood supplied for these headboards did not come from

the Island as sufficiently large trees did not grow in the prevailing climatic

conditions, Conceivably, however, this wood came from shipwrecks

A final material used in the latter decades of the 19th century was granite.


In any study of cemeteries the question will sooner or later arise as to

who the men were who carved the tombstones, Because the Island's early popula-

tion was relatively sparse, the business of stone cutting could hardly have pro-

vided anyone with a full time livelihood. Therefore, an artisan engaged in

such work would of necessity be compelled to engage in another additional trade

for income. Some of the craftsmen engaged in stone carving were the mason, the

cordwainer, the slatter, the surveyor, the brazier and the woodcarver. Each of

these trades had some basic technique which served as a basis that could be ap-

plied to stone carving,67 Likewise the art of scrimshaw undoubtedly proved to

be a good foundation for stone carving since many of the techniques are exactly

the same, In fact almost every walk of life was likely to find itself carving

stones; a few stones can be found in Newtown and Old North containing exceeding-

ly poor lettering, obviously not the work of a skilled craftsman, but rather of

an untrained friend or relative,

Whether or not any highly skilled eighteenth century stone carvers resided

on Nantucket is merely a matter of conjecture, Evidence from which any sound

conclusions can be drawn has not been found Not a single eighteenth century

headstone examined contained an artist signature. Some early nineteenth century

stones, however, were definitely imported from the mainland, Two slate stones

in Old North are signed by artists from the mainland; Jones of New Bedford and

Bagley of Providence. Both of these men employed a unique interpretation of

classical motifs, rejecting the standard "Willow and Urn" pattern,

Hith a growth in population, the business of providing gravestones became

a trade in which a man could become exclusively engaged, By 1834, William

Sturges was advertising as a stone carver in the local newspaper and consequently

heads the list of known stone craftsmen on Nantucket, The following is a list

of men who advertised in the Inquirer from 1834 to 1891:


W. Sturges
CAH. Robinson
ToE, Hughes
N.A. Sprangier
W.F, Codd
AGo Hussey
G. Drew
F.A, Mitchell

First Advertised

Deco 6, 1834
Nov. 28, 1849
Aug. 6, 1852
July 8, 1853
April 26, 1879
July 30, 1881
May 1890
July 1890

Victorian Ramblings

During the Victorian era visiting cemeteries became a favorite past-time;

as a result numerous descriptions in diaries and other narratives can be found

The following quotes are typical of such narrations:

"Much taste and care is shown in the adornment of the North
and South burial places, Iron fences, sculptured monuments,
and sweet flowers bespeak a proper care for the resting spots
of the unforgotten dead, The heathenish neglect of former
years is fast passing away, without yielding to that super-
stitious reverence which bids the Chinese worship the graves
of their ancestors or that ostentation which rears costly
monuments to the memory of the dead, and neglects the wel-
fare of the living,"68

"In the afternoon the party visited some of the burying
grounds of the town, six of which were now in use. The
sight of so many unnamed graves in the Friends cemetery, at
the head of Main Street, saddened Miss Ray; and she was glad
so see the neat little slabs which of late years marked the
graves of their departed ones, They strolled around the
Prospect Hill, or Unitarian Cemetery, nearby, and wished to go
into the Catholic one on the same street; but as Mrso Gordon
was anxious to see some of the old headstones and epitaphs
in the North burying ground on North Liberty Street, and their
time was limited, they went there instead When Tom saw her
delight as she read on the old stones the dates of 1778, 1772
and some even earlier, he said that she must go out to the
ancient burial ground on the hill near the waterworks and see
the graves of John Gardner, Esqo, who was buried there in
1706o As he said this one of the public carriages happened
to be within sight, and she proposed that they take it and
go immediately to the sacred spot. When they arrived there
her historic imagination knew no bounds; her soliloquy par-
took of the sentiment in kind only not in degree whic9
inspired Mark Twain when he wept over the grave of Adam,

"*,ol visited but four of the graveyards of Nantucket, know
of but one beside, The one known as the South or Unitarian
is probably the largest in the area; that of the Congrega-
tioialist known as the North is in two parts, a road passing
between; and appears to contain the most tombstones, but that
known as the 'Quaker burying ground' has probably the most
graves, I have no means of judging which has been the long-
est in use, With regret, I stood among the green mounds, which
alone marked the resting places of deceased0 Friends, sympa-
thizing with Mary Howith, as I looked upon them, and could

not recognize even the spot beneath which rested the mortal
part of my own mother, whose youthful form was placed there
one and thirty years ago. At that time, and until recent-
ly, no memorial stone was allowed to mark any grave. With
a feeling of relief I found a few grave stones there, us-
ually low square blocks of marble, with the name on top.70


Nantucket epitaphs prove to be very interesting and sometimes amusing, Some

of the epitaphs in Old North Cemetery have even appeared in Stories on Stone:

A Book of American Epitaphs by Charles Wallis, The following is a sample of the

more interesting ones:

Here lyes buried Capt. Thomas Delap
Son of Mr. James Delap and Mrso Mary, his wife.
He was cast ashore on Nantucket
Dec. ye 6, 1771
And perished in ye Snowstorm Here
Aged 26 years and 7 months,

Stop my friends, as you pass by,
As you am now so once was I;
As I am now so you must be,
Prepare for death and follow me.
Follow me and be you wise,
And up to heaven you will arise.


As I passed by with grief I see
That my dear wife is taken from me
Taken by one, that had a right -
Thank God to Heaven she took her flight.

Under the sod
Under these trees
Lies the body of Jonathan Pease
He is not here But only his pod
He has shelled out his peas
And gone to his God.

Mother, oh Mother I am not sleeping
Father look up to the soft blue sky
Where beautiful stars bright watch are keeping
Singing and shining there am Io

Father gone home

Learn then, ye living
by these mouths be taught
Of all these sepulchres; instruction true,
That, soon or late death also is your lot;
And the next opening grave may yawn for you

As you pass by, pray cast an eye,
For as you am, so once was I
As I am now, so you must be
Prepare for death and follow me

A pleasant youth
A blooming flower
Cut down and withered
in an hour

Stop kind reader and shed a tear
or'e the dust that lumbs here
And when you read the fate of me
Think on the glass that runs for thee


1. E.K. Godfrey, Island of Nantucket, (Boston: 1882), p,62o

2. Inquirer and Mirror, Nov. 12, 1870.

3. A Record of Births, Deaths, and Marriages, Nantucket County Records.

4. "Our Burial Ground," Inquirer and Mirror, Nov. 10, 1877.

5. Godfrey, p. 62.

6, Headstone in "Oldest House,"

7. Godfrey, p. 62.

8. Record of the Proprietors April 12, 1838. Housed in Registry of Dee
Nantucket, Mass.

9. Letter to the Editor, Inquirer and Mirror, July 30, 1881.

10. "Fore Fathers Burying Ground," Inquirer and Mirror, Sept, 12, 1888,

11. Handbook of Nantucket, 1874, p. 76.

12. Jane Austin, Nantucket Scraps (1882), pp. 43-44.

13. "The Ancient Burial Ground," Inquirer and Mirror, Aug. 11, 1877.

14. Harriet B. Warren, Tristram and His Grandchildren, (Yarmouth: 1881)

15. Godfrey, p. 62,

16. Inquirer and Mirror, Aug. 24, Oct.-l, Nov. 2, 1881.

17. "Forefathers," Inquirer and Mirror, 1923, Grace Gardner Scrapbook.

18. "Benjamin Franklin Folger," Nantucket Weekly Mirror, Dec. 6, 1851.

19. Austin, p. 46.

20. Wyer, p. 103-104.

21. Inquirer and Mirror, Oct. 22, 1877.

22, Inquirer and Mirror, July 30, 1881.

23, Austin, p. 43-44,

24, Inquirer and Mirror, April 2, 1923, April 7, 1923.

25. Godfrey, p. 63.


26. Alex Starbuck, The History of Nantucket (Mass.: 1924).

27. A Record of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Nantucket County Records.

28. Catalogue of Transcripts of Stones in North in possession of Nantucket
Historical Association.

29. "The Graveyards of Nantucket," Inquirer and Mirror, August 14, 1860.

30. Austin, pp. 35-39.

31. "Proceedings of the Nantucket Historical Society: 1887," p. 28.

32. "Notice," Inquirer and Mirror, August 9, 1902.

33. "Letter to the Editor," Inquirer and Mirror, Grace Gardner Scrapbook,

34. "Proceedings of the Nantucket Historical Association: 1924," p. 15.

35. Ibid, 1930, p. 15.

36, Emile Guber, Nantucket Odessey, (Walthan: 1965).

37, Inquirer and Mirror, undated article, Grace Gardner Scrapbook.

38. First Book of Records of the Nantucket Monthly Meething,

39. Crevcoeur, Letters From an American Farmer, (London: 1793).

40. Douglas-Lithgou, Nantucket: A History, (New York: 1914).

41, Godfrey, p. 61.

42. Douglas-Lithgou, p. 124-125.

43, "Moses Jay Tells How Nantucket Friend Defied Whole Sect," Grace Gardner

44. Vertical File: Nantucket Historical Association,

45, Godfrey, p. 63.
46. "South Cemetery," Inquirer and Mirror, Jan. 19, 1860.

47. Inquirer and Mirror, undated article, Grace Gardner Scrapbook.

48. Godfrey, p. 63.

49. "The Graveyards of Nantucket," Inquirer and Mirror, Aug. 14, 1860,

50, Guber, p, 103.

51. A Record of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Nantucket County Records.

52. Report on Growth of Prospect Hill, July 18, 1908.

53. "Prospect Hill Cemetery," Inquirer and Mirror, Feb. 16, 1876.

54. Ibid.

55, Report on Growth of Prospect Hill.

56. "Prospect Hill Cemetery, Inquirer and Mirror, July 18, 1908.

57. "Prospect Hill Cemetery, Inquirer and Mirror, May 18, 1958, June 1,

58, "Cemetery Clean Up..." Inqujrer and Mirror, June 21, 1958.

59. "Mt. Vernon Cemetery." Inquirer and Mirror, Feb. 28, 1884.

60. Harry B. Trinner, Nantucket, "Argument Settlers," (Mass.: 1926).

61. Vertical Files.

62. "Poplis Cemetery," Inquirer and Mirror, Nov. 22, 1967.

63. Harriet Forbes, Gravestones of Early New England.

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M. iSTI f<1:S, I.. .', Hlivrlidre c*niiy, Inkre
t lth s i n hillod t'l inllf. Inr thell i. hl ,ita, it., ,,f NAn.n
tucked li 1111 ifi viiillity, thllat I,. ,s opened i. s lop in
this place, dir,.ctly ,,v 'r llit stI ,, oIl'tJo ,.ih I l"ilher,
41 (Orn. e sirrt, for ill-. in ,fr.t(firlie ,,i MARIl,.E
TOMI.-TONFS IfI, hs nI,,. .n hiind 40 pairs, of
all sizri., rei'n y for letl.riig linvini. Pnrlredl into to.
airitnrshil with 1i p-ersomI who owit a' Qi *llllv/lond Ia
Stne Su." nill, by l vhom Iv ir., t1, be regilii ly su|p'l.
ed, he jilhr les hiImself tI .,i ,fl. il ih n (t lrlluch l les
price shablin lh v hIvo. li -iin iof tl niiedl in llix plac -. All
re' invi:c1dl in 'I lll.n l x ,nine hiiH n:.ts tli nt, and lh10
-rx(cuutiin of Ilis \w,,rk, whllrthr lthvy wisI, toi pmirliale
), c 3r. '. It

sul cessor to Jo lanh lStarris,
W ill. ke p conllsnelly onl hand, Milnumni,,it
nee C ld Orve1 Mionae. which le will fini-.h 1,
orslri ill horlt nonlticr, nfidn on l*i rrulllSi blr. tlr1,.
il em loe purclh ir<,d rlowi hern. 'Iho.le w,.nll;
I g 1rpFllfltUIt Iht lartinry of d.piriel friendd,
w ll do weill to eoll il .No. 84, Plhlmb Lane.

TIHE subcriber will keep constantly on hand
a good assortment or first quality Ital-
ian nad Americann Marble GrOve Stones and
Monument, 'finished in first rte style, and
cheaper than can be got elsewhere.
Also allkinds of Iron and Wood Fencing for
buri I grounds, put up in a neat wormnilike
Grateful for past favors, the subscriber would
still solict a share of the public p:itronge.
T IIOSE' persons who are nlout to pilrclifne
lMoniiieiintal Mariible Work, woutl do wvellt
to exalnilie sl|ecilnens recently I rn'rleted ill tlr
(en Ile Works, liostoll. llralwiings, dh.i s, co-t,
jrc., will be fulili-lAhcd by thle sublcrilber, li
will receive OIlr r Il' n illtIt'le to all I'l-li'uini
connected with the Kibove trt:,lil'iStli1ilt iii Ihli
place. N. A. spR.\ i U E.
1.11.1 0 it

T ]E Uanersigned las 'on ha6 and is con-
stantly receiving a large assortment of
he will manufacture at shot notice. Ameri-
can and Italian Tombstonest Monument Obe-
lisks, Mausoleums, Urna~, Launbs, Doves and
Figures of ever description, pattern and de-
sign, farntshed to order atnd put up in good
style *ad at tht lowest ptices
The public are respectfully invited to call and
examine specimens which are st all times ex-
hibited at his rooms, corner of Fair and Darling
Iron and W6od Fencing for burial grounds
put up in a neat, workmanlike manner.
m26-6m C. I. ROBINSON.


EPLItr "-treet,
H AS now on hand a large stock of Italian marble,
ot tlh best quality, in Grave Stones, Tablet-,
Mlonunnnts. &c., of the most desirable deli bons, both
plai and elaborately carved work, all of which will
he sold at prices to suit any one wishing to purchase.
All work will be set up by him, in a permanent man-
ner, free of extra charge.
Iron Railings, Grante Curbing and Posts, furnish-
ed at reasonable prices. Designs of marble work and
iron railing on hand for inspection. apl).


HAVING made. -ew arrm meats for the
LFremtem L t y M %tRLE BUSINE&l
I fol edmdeat et ginTtg n airetlematiua to
Uall we ~yr am wi thelr pskoage.
With all tLs mdern eoaneales es and the boa
Stck, (Iam klebmted Amerlei and Foreign
jifs) I am preted to manuacture every-
Iang pertalmtg to thI Marhle liualemeu a
naner that will vie with any nl the country.
Soda Feumtals, DBamistersVanesITa-
blt Tops, Pier Flabs and Statu-
ary of Every Descrlption.
At EtSM or
T eery ruety *I Pterti lstalm at pHce
TIb e a hat i Aem the. leta-ted
sad beg tr'e-r pepeeif Qastriei lwur
(IB t Ubuw is ai will b1 masufe

...e. OIms, --e.k, Cosetaphs,
Tinmbdele sad Celemmmc.
sr ed- inr and fR* khmf Cared
eass amo s anName ani New sue
samrud ases.

Aui bfars ta.iiec,. faf I 9e-mttiC. Gard ies
teitim.3 Ac., *Ac, fu-
xri a. r rder.

I A.- MuiP l..i r I .

111111E 1011!

The subsorlber is prepared to furnish
onumenuts, Tablets,
Tombstones, Scrolls,
Masntles, Figures,
Slanb, &c., &c.
Ofr the following Marbles:
Italian of dillffirent' grades. Statuary, American,
Rntltlold, Iinhy, hutherrlnndl Falll, and Echaillon
Marhles or France, which have stood tihe test of cen-
turM lt lie hi on l halnda go1d assortncent of
Tasle)l Ifn 1o also prpanrrod to f1trnirn. all kinIs (f (Granito
V,,rk. or ('m.nintn. It.okport. xI'h.rllre, and different
grader #,f (utliory (irnlt i,; aille, Scotch Granite 3Mou-
ulrnt. nl, nlrvlltndI IWrun Itud Funurs, Comtbiuation
Irn AndI W'm.I Iol.
All work furnlhed alnnd put upl In a ,gool substan-
(Isl manner, u olten, Ia im i cUn he ilonit Ian whlerc.
all 0. H. ROBINSON, Fair St.

Foreign and Domestic


Manuftctured in a Superior Manner from the
Best Foreign. Domestic and Celebrated Knox-
ville Marbles.
Manufactured in a Superior Manner from the
Best Foreign, Domestic and Celebrated Hnox-
ville Marbles.
Manufactured in a Superior Manner from the
Best Foreln, Domeatio and Celebrated Knox-
rille Marblos.

Gra ite C'big an Posts a Specialty

Constantly "!' hand andti out in a workmau-liko
Drawingl trI SCOTCIIH RANITE Monuimutiu can
hao n11 at Imy' works, nid all ordnlers will he proml ptly
Clirutllhi*4 IT[. lColbisio<>n,


IfVDvtO wltU uad to U
*mArViN it aa. M@% RBAL BmIe.SA S
i foal o*adt d eotf i.equee ptt&clion 10to
aII h l l J fcwr with t" LSr attm a.
With ci th mrs "iewIeas thet bt
kc, L a O an eMted Amedm a mad Ferela
M aI111PA -prMed to eaBsuacture etry.
M rl swlCg t she Marble Dusalm in a
iAmeet bt iB vie with sa l[a the country.
geo" Pemtelma, Baulsters, Vases, Ta-
be Tos, Piter labs sad Stata-
a1 ot BVOrv Dwesrlcptl.a
IuI. 52U MW0
of *vt vaerety *I sC faMalshed a prices
wo ryl b*IX UO be-
TI aeri ha d is tram he eolerbnrtd
Quar e of Ilard,. Dol-y sa4 Dorte (in Ver.
mae), m. d le ahr pplueur.Qumrlles swar
lpCL (ta Lt),Lhi L ie d will be meauac-
t.ed 4Int
tMaeerims, Obelisks, Cesetahs,
Tembtem ws Coleas'.
1Okm. Lelk FTwres. s adll &k*;nd of Carrcl
ir.;, a& em Mu- le On a Aw an
IJawc4J J*gde.
QGra e od FRe &Seme wrk Si- d ad4 pu
p a1 6r ratab .
ALL D11marfeI27S or
Oam mntal gIr WOre. and Frigred
atilmll. ftor Crmeterier. :ardems,
Buildings, k., Ac, fam-
misbed Io eoder
rc ph .re mitia-d t call BT iaprt dirw-
'iot r -tb at mye 1 .
Ij a f tC an r*h -^c iw a*t y.I "oar aci 's
j r..n ,2 -l d I t b -2 3 r. tl. B f;t- *

frTI OSE persons who arl about to purchase
I Monunenbitl Mrlrhlo Work, would do well
to examine specimhensc recently erected in the
Cemeteries of this place, from the Eveleth Mar-
ble Works, Boston. Drawings, designs, cost,
4c., will he furnished by the subscriber, who
will receive orders and attend to all business
connected with the above establishment in this
place. N. A. SPRAGUE.
July 9 tf

T. E. HUGHES & Co,
Executedoin the best style of the art. Aconsider-
^ .,: al)le number of
Classical Deigns, for Mausoleums and Cenoltaphs.
Have been prepared for the inspection of the public
For particulars inquire of N. A. Sprague.


4- *flm Qul'oi; 1.

'5Li4* t

I II.%% ; 1 1.- I I l. ) :ljj"
Fromii Fair street to northeast corner of Main and
Union streets. Entrlanoo at ldoe door un Union
121 I

tI'01 SALE.
IRHE subscriber offers for sale at a low agure his
marble works business. An excellent opportuni-
ty is hereby offered to the right person.

Marble Works.
ALTHOUGH I have advertised to sell my Marble
Works, I am still in the business, and shall carry
it on until I sell out, and am prepared to take orders
for Cemetery Marble and Fence Work. I have good
stock to select from, and can guarantee good work.


Bralile arld lIa[Ile Wois,

And all kinds of Cemetery Work in Granite and Marble. All ord-
ers promptly attended to and workmanship first quality.
For designs, Photographs and prices, apply to
G< l N'% I'IRl 14 i i .I;T, 11 U. 1


Marble and Granite Work,
('einetery work in all the leading grades io marble and gKraulte. For
ldesigls aiad pri ces apply to
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^B ....-ri <*._ IA. WM-6-1-t!- f. --




Posts and Rails,
Or anything in that line furnished by tile subscriber'
and warranted to give satisfaction. Any
of the various kinds of
Supplied at reasonable rats.
jy:K- -tf

Or raythiX lan that in ftralshed by the subscriber
lui warranted I Idto trtIsMotion. Any
of thI ai ks linds of
gpled iUl eanm ble rates.

-mmem o manu
I ,iIm u I have aken the agency of Naouciei
S county and am prepared to show cutS of tO0
dealgon, aleo samples of Monuments and male-
ril of the While Bronze work. Will also et
; uD U work in a workman ke and eadtfactory
D mUa -ue* manner. AD pardti eontempiaLing-bhe pur-
chase oeemotery work, I will be pleased to
3htg .fap show samples and enuta all times, and will call
ll where reqairld. ,Wil keep samples at Geo.
SdDnrew's Unde kieCoormp on Gay blreet, and
s'at -y holomouS Fair sir t.
Am also papared to pur dowD Briek, Con.
create and Cement Walks and Driveways. Also
Grading, Sodding and General Work.

Frank A. Mitchell.

azmmIFR11 a m. -


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