St. Lucia


Material Information

St. Lucia country environmental profile
Alternate title:
Saint Lucia country environmental profile
Physical Description:
xx, 332 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Saint Lucia -- Ministry of Planning, Personnel, Establishment, and Training
United States -- Agency for International Development
Caribbean Conservation Association
Island Resources Foundation (Virgin Islands of the United States)
National Research and Development Foundation (Saint Lucia)
Caribbean Conservation Association
Place of Publication:
St. Michael, Barbados
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Environmental policy -- Saint Lucia   ( lcsh )
Economic development -- Environmental aspects -- Saint Lucia   ( lcsh )
Conservation of natural resources -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 305-332).
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared under the aegis of the Caribbean Conservation Association on behalf of the government of St. Lucia, Ministry of Planning, Personnel, Establishment, and Training with the technical support of the Island Resources Foundation, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands and the National Research and Development Foundation of St. Lucia.
General Note:
"Draft prepared 1987-1988, published 1991."
General Note:
"Funding provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 25813330
lcc - HC156.5.Z7 S268 1991
ddc - 333.709729843 Sa24
System ID:

This item is only available as the following downloads:

Full Text

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Prepared Under the Aegis Of:

St. Michael, Barbados

On Behalf Of:
Ministry of Planning, Personnel, Establishment and Training

With the Technical Support Of:
St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands
Castries, St. Lucia

Funding Provided By:
Regional Development Office/Caribbean
Bridgetown, Barbados


Draft Prepared 1987-1988
Published 1991





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The Pitons St Lucia on a cloudy day.

One of the most serious threats to sustainable economic growth in the ( ,ii., A.. is the increasing
degradation of the region's natural ecosystems and a concurrent deterioration in the quality of life for
Caribbean people. The task of reversing this unfortunate trend requires better knowledge and un-
derstanding of the region's unique environmental problems and the development of appropriate
technologies and n..1 i.: policies to lessen and even prevent negative .. i on our fragile resource

In an .a. ,-.. to provide such a framework, the Caribbean Conservation Association, with funding
provided by the United States Agency for International Development and with the technical assis-
tance of the Island Resources Foundation, has produced a series of Country Environmental Profiles
for six Eastern Caribbean countries Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis,
St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines.

Even though these documents do not claim to be encyclopedic in their treatment of individual sectors
and issues, each Profile represents the most current and comprehensive information base assembled
to date on environmental and conservation issues that affect, and are affected by, the development
process in the Profile countries.

Each document addresses key environmental problems, constraints, and policy directions as these
were :.k r.1t 1 and fleshed out by a team of researchers and writers, in collaboration with a local co-
ordinating committee. Each Profile also identifies and examines a variety of opportunities and plan-
ning tools which may prove useful in meeting environment/development goals in the future. All of
this information should play a significant role in informing and influencing ecologically-sound
development planning in the region, and should provide a basis for improved decision-making -- both
1i.y- .-. i.c as well as long-term. This may best be accomplished by using the data to define priorities
(in view of related benefits and costs), to pursue in-depth analysis of issues, and to undertake neces-
sary i,_.! ._-.*'.. activities in such a way that they are mutually reinforcing. In short, action emanating
from the recommendations contained in the Profile might best be undertaken within a comprehensive
environmental management framework, rather than from a piecemeal, p- j':-oriented perspective.

The Caribbean Conservation Association is very pleased to be able to make this contribution to de-
velopment planning in the region.

Calvin A. Howell
Executive Director
Caribbean Conservation Association

(April 1991)


Overall project management for the St. Lucia Country Environmental Profile Project was provided by
the Caribbean Conservation Association under the direction of Mr. Michael I. King, assisted by Pro-
jects Officer, David Simmons. Mr. Yves Renard, president of the Caribbean Conservation Association
and a resident of St. Lucia, was extremely helpful to staff in executing the project.

Technical guidance in preparation of the Profile was the responsibility of Island Resources Foundation,
with Edward L. Towle serving as team leader and Judith A. Towle as senior report editor. Mr. Paul
Hippolyte served as IRF's in-country staff person for the Profile.

St. Lucia Government liaison for the CEP effort was the Central Planning Unit under the leadership of
Mr. Ausbert D'Auvergne. Project coordination in St. Lucia was handled by the National Research and
Development Foundation, whose director, Mrs. Patricia Charles, and her ever diligent staff, including
Senior Project Officer, Mr. Felix Finisterre, provided assistance and support to in-country and visiting

Staff of the U.S. Agency for International Development have facilitated implementation of this project,
in particular James Talbot, former Caribbean Regional Environmental Specialist and his successor,
Andre de Georges; James Hester and Gregory Miller of AID's Environment, Energy and Science Staff
in Washington, D.C.; and Michael Huffman, former Environmental Officer at USAID's Regional De-
velopment Office in Barbados and his successor, Rebecca Niec.

Many other organizations and individuals gave valuable and much appreciated assistance during the
course of the project. Particular recognition is due to those whose names are cited on the following
two pages.

For further information, contact any one of the implementing institutions:

Caribbean Conservation Island Resources National Research and
Association Foundation Development Foundation
The Garrison Red Hook Box 33 Post Office Box 1097
St. Michael, St. Thomas, Castries;
Barbados Virgin Islands 00802 St. Lucia

(June 1988)


Gabriel Charles

Patricia Charles

Vaughn Charles

Robert Devaux

Adrian Dolcy

Edward Emmanuel

Raymonde Joseph

Marcia Jules

Elbert Louis

Eldon Mathurin

Rufina Jean Paul

Julius Polius

Yves Renard

Horace Walters

Mervin Williams

Chief Forest and Lands Officer
Department of Forest and Lands

Executive Director
National Research and Development Foundation

Fisheries Officer
Ministry of Agriculture

St. Lucia National Trust

Engineer/Planning Officer
Physical Planning Unit

Environmental Health Officer
Ministry of Health

Science Tutor
Sir Arthur Lewis Community College

Central Planning Unit

National Development Corporation

Former Director
St. Lucia Tourist Board

Agricultural Planning Officer
Ministry of Agriculture

Ministry of Agriculture

Project Leader

Fisheries Officer
Ministry of Agriculture

OECS Natural Resource Management Project

PROFILE R.i .S AND ,C UN i.;- BY ;S..: ..I T AREA
Judith A. and Edward L. Towle, Co-Editors

:- ..I -.11: THE ":*;, iU: OF THE PLACE
Edward L. Towle (IRF); Mervin C. ..'i"i -, Judith A. Towle i 'I.+ ,
Raymonde Joseph (Sir Arthur Lewis Community I -.d., i.-.: and Central
Planning Unit

.*.E.? '*.i2: Ch.. \.. 7i N -1 rrF; i






Yves Renard !F'. Fr '.')
Gabriel Charles and Paul L. ..- .-......
of Forest and Lands); CIDA I.-,. -'Team;
Giles n .-.; and Judith A. Towle ,"F),
Gabriel C_. I-., Paul Butler, and Mark
Eckstein '.-'.'.: of Forest and Lands);
and Judith A. Towle (IRF)
L *i" i* L. Towle and Ian C. Jones (IRF); and John
Calixte C.'''. A)
Melvin H. Goodwin (ERP); Vaughn Charles and
Peter Murray i .,;: Allan Smith (ECNAMP));
and Judith A. Towle and Bruce G. Potter
Judith A. Towle (IRF) and "lr-. Devaux
,.. on.,i Trust)
' .-:. G. Potter and r.;w.': L Towle (IRF)

Avrum J. .'..1*.: (IRF); Rufina Jean-Paul, Julius Polius, D. Bushell, and
E. ','-.w, v (Ministry of Agriculture); and Judith A. Towle and Edward L. Towle ,- p

;.. i. 4: THE URBAN/i' PJ -TRIAL ENVIRPi. oli
TOURISM Jerome L. *'- F' ., and Bruce G. '..*i' (IRF)
and Irving Reid
S.-..'.. ENVIRONMENT Judith Towle, Edward Towle, and .....: Potter (IRF);
i L. .', J m ... ,,, David .I .:-i. 1., and ,:- ." .. .
(Ministry of ;-.-,.i, John Calixte (WASA); and
David Shim and C '..i4i..' ...... (C1 .HP
f....,' Bruce G. Potter (IRF); Giles :.: i .-

0'. i :,i'. 5: INSTITUTIONAL :i-... '. i:..
.u,'.! A. Towle and Paul Hippolyte (IRF)

Edward L. Towle; St. Lucia CEP National inr .I-,

- .- .''ATIONS

.t:l ;'.-' ;/: lan Jones

Preparation of Country Environmental Profiles
(CEP) has proven to be an effective means to
help ensure that environmental issues are ad-
dressed in the development process. Since
1979, the U.S. Agency for International Devel-
opment (USAID) has .up.p.;i. ,1 Envi-
ronmental Profiles in USAID-assisted coun-
tries, principally in Latin America and the
Caribbean. CEPs completed to date have pro-

(1) a description of each coun-
try's natural resource base, including
a review of the extent and economic
importance of natural resources and
changes in the quality or productivity
of those resources;

(2) a review of the institutions,
legislation, policies and programmes
for environmental planning, eco-
nomic development and natural re-
source management;

(3) identification of the major is-
sues, conflicts or problems in natural
resource management and oppor-
tunities for effective responses.

Profiles have highlighted gaps in the existing
information base, 1nL9.,l ,L d the design and
funding of development programmes, pin-
pointed weaknesses in regulatory or planning
mechanisms, and illustrated the need for
changes in policies. Most importantly, the pro-
cess of carrying out a profile project has in
many cases served to strengthen local institu-
tions and improve their capacity for incor-
porating environmental information into de-
velopment planning.


Country Environmental Profiles have been
prepared for several countries in the Wider
Caribbean Region, including Panama, Belize,
the Dominican Republic, Haiti,

and Jamaica. The potential utility of CEPs in
the Eastern Caribbean sub-region (essentially
the OECS countries) has been a subject of dis-
cussion since the early 1980's. The need for
the profiling process to begin in those coun-
tries was reaffirmed during a seminar on
Industry, Environment and Development spon-
sored by the Caribbean Conservation Associa-
tion (CCA) and the University of the West In-
dies in August 1986.

Shortly thereafter, _-, iD entered into a Co-
operative Agreement with CCA for prepara-
tion of a series of CEPs for the Eastern Carib-
bean. It was decided to begin the profile pro-
cess in the country of St. Lucia as a pilot pro-
ject, to be immediately followed by profiles for
Grenada, Dominica, and St. Kitts-Nevis. The
phasing-in of profiles in other ;L.ak. .
Caribbean countries, as well as production of a
regional, synthesis profile for the sub-region, is
a possibility for a later date.

Early in 1987, CCA and the Island Resources
Foundation (IRF), of St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin
Islands, entered into an agreement whereby it
was determined that IRF would provided tech-
nical assistance and support to CCA in the ex-
ecution of the profile project in the Eastern
Caribbean. The Executive Director of the
Caribbean Conservation Association is the
CEP Project Director, while the President of
the Island Resources Foundation serves as
CEP Project Manager/Team Leader.


In May of 1987 a Memorandum of Under-
standing was signed by CCA and the Gov-
ernment of St. Lucia (GOSL) for the purpose
of executing a Country Environment Profile,
with the Ministry of Planning, Personnel,
Establishment and Training the designated
counterpart agency for the Government of St.
Lucia. Shortly thereafter, CCA signed a sec-
ond Memorandum of Understanding with the
National Research and Development Founda-
tion of St. Lucia (: -' DF), wherein NRDF was

designated as the local implementing and co-
ordinating organisation in St. Lucia for the
CEP project.

A CEP National Committee was formed as an
advisory and review body for the CEP project
in St. Lucia. The committee is comprised of
representatives from GOSL agencies and pri-
vate sector organizations with responsibilities
for or expertise about environmental issues in
the country. The first meeting of the commit-
tee was convened in June of 1987, and the
group has met consistently throughout the

The first task of the National Committee was
to assist the technical team from IRF in draft-
ing the CEP report outline and, once it was fi-
nalised and approved, to identify local experts
to assist in compiling information and data for
sector reports. After local consultants were
selected and their services had been contracted
for by NRDF, each was given an appropriate
assignment to produce draft issue papers,
which were subsequently reviewed by the full
Committee and the IRF technical team. From
within Government, local contributors repre-
sented the Ministries of Agriculture, Health,
and Education, the Central Planning Unit, the
National Trust and the Water and Sewerage
Authority. Additionally four persons from the
private sector and representatives from the St.
Lucia-based Caribbean Environmental Health
Institute were selected to participate in the
CEP project.

While the draft issue papers were being pre-
pared, IRF began an extensive literature re-
view of extant reports, documents, and other
information and data available on St. Lucia's
environment. The literature search was car-
ried out in St. Lucia, Barbados, U.S. Virgin Is-
lands and Washington, D.C. A key-word bibli-
ography of St. Lucia environmental references
was eventually prepared using a computerized
data management software programme,
P.E~r '.ENU (based on dBase III Plus). Total
entries exceed 400 and are coded not only by
key words but also to identify the locations)
where the document may be found. This infor-
mation has been entered on a computer main-
tained by NRDF and will serve as a reference
source for future investigators in St. Lucia.

The sector and sub-sector papers received
from local consultants formed a reference
point for further in-depth research and writing
by investigators from the IRF project team,
who completed the final draft of the St. Lucia
Country Environment Profile in June of 1988.
The draft was widely circulated in the country,
to both public and private sector reviewers.
Additional meetings of the National Com-
mittee were held to consider specific sections
of the Profile document, with particular atten-
tion given to the chapter on institutional devel-


As determined by the St. Lucia CEP National
Committee, this Profile has been organised in
six major sections, as follows:

Chapter 1 provides a very detailed de-
scription of the country, focusing on the natu-
ral and physical environments in sufficient
depth to allow the reader to approach the sec-
tor chapters with an increased understanding
of how the natural and physical parameters of
the place influence and determine the en-
vironmental issues. Section 1 also includes a
discussion of land capability and land use, de-
mographic information, and historical and
economic background.

Chapter 2 has been organised around
the theme of "common property resources" and
identifies those elements of the resource base
which exhibit common property characteristics,
specifically: forestry, wildlife, water, and ma-
rine and coastal resources. The section also
examines the role of conservation and preser-
vation programmes in St. Lucia (e.g., parks, re-
serves, sanctuaries, archives, and museums)
and concludes with a discussion of natural haz-
ards which affect all elements of the common
property resource base.

Chapter 3 concerns the rural en-
vironment and focuses on agriculture and its
key place in the St. Lucian social and economic
framework. The roles of both large estate
agriculture and the small farm system are ex-
amined, as are current trends in land use pat-

Chapter 4, as a counterpoint to
Chapter 3, concerns the urban environment
and focuses on the industrial activities of St.
Lucia and their impact on the environment.
The chapter opens with a discussion of the
country's leading growth industry, tourism, and
follows with a look at other sectors of the
economy: mining, wholesale and retail busi-
ness, utilities, transportation, infrastructure,
manufacturing, construction, and financial in-
stitutions. The chapter closes with a review of
energy resources and requirements.

Chapter 5 focuses on the institutional
framework for environmental management in
St. Lucia. Although each of the sector chapters
in Chapters 2-4 includes an institu-
tional/legislation component, Chapter 5 of the
Profile brings all this information together for
analysis. The chapter includes an overview of

the historical development of environmental
management in St. Lucia and reviews GOSL
agencies with environmental responsibilities
(i.e., agencies with resource planning and con-
trol, management, regulation, conservation, co-
ordination, and development responsibilities).
The non-government sector is also discussed,
as is the role of research and development as-
sistance agencies. The chapter concludes with
policy recommendations for Government and
for local institutional development.

Chapter 6 summarises the key en-
vironmental issues and problems facing St.
Lucia and makes policy and programme-spe-
cific recommendations to enhance the
achievement of a sustainable balance between
resource development on the one hand and re-
source conservation and resource management
on the other.




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Foreword i
Acknowledgements Ii
St. Lucia National Committee Members iii
Profile Writers and Contributors iv
List of Tables viii
List of -. xi
Acronyms and Abbreviations xiii
Conversion .. .- .7... .. between Imperial Measures and -*..; and the Metric System xv
Introduction xvii


1.1.1 The Place: A .,. i -Overview 1
1.1.2 Climate 3
1.1.3 :. 13
1.1.4 ....: ,.. and Soils 16
1.1.5 Vegetation 24
1.1.6 Water 31

1.2.1 Overview 38
1.2.2 ,. Patterns of Land Use 40
1.2.3 i.::-.,; Patterns of Development 43
1.2.4 Land Management 49
1.2.5 Current National Land Use Policies 50

1.3.1 Population Characteristics 52
1.3.2 Population Futures: 1980-2030 56
1.3.3 Population Distribution 58
1.3.4 The Labour Force 58

1.4 .: '- .,-' '..* 60

1.5.1 Overview 64
1.5.2 '. and Environmental ... .... 'Economic. 70



2.2 FOREST .-:. ,'.'RCES 75
2.2.1 Overview of the Resource Base 75
2.2.2 Institutional -,- ..:** r .'i- 91
2.2.3 Relevant Legislation 91
2.2.4 Problems and Issues 92
2.2.5 Directions for the Future and -:. Recommendations 99

2.3 WILDLIFE 104
2.3.1 Overview of the Resource Base 104
2.3.2 Institutional Responsibilities and Legislative Oversight 108
2.3.3 Problems and Issues 111
2.3.4 Directions for the Future and Policy Recommendations 113

2.4.1 Overview of the Resource Base 121
2.4.2 Institutional Responsibilities 127
2.4.3 Relevant Legislation 128
2.4.4 Problems and Issues 128
2.4.5 Directions for the Future and Policy Recommendations 129

2.5.1 Overview of the Resource Base 131
2.5.2 Institutional Responsibilities 148
2.5.3 Relevant Legislation 150
2.5.4 Problems and Issues 150
2.5.5 Directions for the Future and Policy Recommendations 156

2.6.1 Archaeological and Historical Sites 160
2.6.2 Conservation of St. Lucia's Historical and Natural Heritage 162
2.6.3 Institutional Responsibilities and Relevant Legislation 165
2.6.4 Problems and Issues 168
2.6.5 Directions for the Future and Policy Recommendations 169

2.7.1 Overview 172
2.7.2 Major Natural Hazards 172
2.7.3 Environmental Damage from Major Natural Hazards 173
2.7.4 Trends Affecting Future Natural Hazard Risk 174
2.7.5 Institutional Responsibilities 177
2.7.6 Directions for the Future and Policy Recommendations 178


3.1 Overview of the Agricultural Sector 179
3.2 Institutional Responsibilities and Relevant Legislation 195
3.3 Problems and Issues 199
3.4 Directions for the Future and Policy Recommendations 206


4.1 TOURISM 211
4.1.1 Overview of the Tourism Sector 211
4.1.2 The Economic Impact of Tourism 213
4.1.3 Tourism Style and Environmental Implications 221
4.1.4 Directions for the Future and Policy Recommendations 223

4.2.1 Overview 230
4.2.2 Environmental Issues and Problems Associated with Eight 230
Economic/Industrial Sectors
4.2.3 Directions for the Future and Policy Recommendations 250

4.3.1 Overview of Energy Resources and Utilisation 255
4.3.2 Institutional Responsibilities and Linkages 260
4.3.3 Problems and Issues 260
4.3.4 Directions for the Future and Policy Recommendations 261


5.1 Government Structure 263
5.2 Historical Development of Environmental Management 264
5.3 Environmental Management Machinery of GOSL 268
5.4 The Non-government Sector in Environmental Management 280
5.5 Donor-supported Environmental Research and Resource 282
Management Programmes and Projects
5.6 Overview Assessment of the Institutional Framework for 285
Environmental Management





1.1 (1) Annual average wind speed and direction, 5
1.1(2) Average monthly temperatures, 7
1.1(3) Average annual temperatures. 7
1.1(4) Island-wide average annual rainfall. 8
1.1(5) Average monthly agro-meteorological data. 11
1.1(6) Hurricanes and tropical storms affecting St. Lucia. 14
1.1(7) Eastern Caribbean volcanic phenomena, 16
1.1(8) Geology of St. Lucia: geologic column. 19
1.1(9) Principal soil-forming parent material. 21
1.1(10) Soil classification table. 22-23
1.1(11) Distribution of tree species, Lesser Antilles. 25
1.1(12) Relative abundance of plant species in coastal habitats. 29
1.1(13) St. Lucia life zones. 30
1.1(14) Water intakes serving non-metropolitan water supplies. 35
1.1(15) Irrigable lands and water demand by major watersheds. 35

1.2(1) Types of human settlement in St. Lucia. 39
1.2(2) Land distribution by slope in St. Lucia. 41
1.2(3) Comparison of three land use tabulations. 42
1.2(4) Area of land by land class as classified by Piitz. 42
1.2(5) OAS initial 1981 numbering code for river basins. 44
1.2(6) St. Lucia land use by river basin. 46
1.2(7) Land capability classes by river basin. 47

1.3(1) St. Lucian immigrants admitted to U.S., 1960-86. 54
1.3(2) Crude birth and death rates, 1977-86, 54
1.3(3) St. Lucia population trends. 55

1.5(1) Estimated distribution of gross domestic product by sector. 66
1.5(2) Estimation of the export income multiplier for 1981-84. 71


2.2(1) Forest land use classification. 76
2.2(2) Forest reserves and protected forests. 77
2.2(3) Major rain forest species. 82
2.2(4) Major species of lower montane rain forest. 82
2.2(5) Secondary forest species as enumerated by Beard. 86
2.2(6) Comparison of reported forest cover types by Beard and Piitz. 87
2.2(7) Comparison of stems/acre of major rain forest species as 88
enumerated by Beard and Piitz.
2.2(8) Preliminary estimation of timber resource plantations. 89
2.2(9) Priority watersheds and catchment areas identified 99
for the north of St. Lucia.

2.3(1a) Status of selected birds in St. Lucia, 107
2.3 (1 b) Status of selected .- ,. ..:..'. and reptiles in St. Lucia. 109
2.3(2) Bird species in selected mangrove habitats. 112
2.3(3) Extinct, endangered, and threatened wildlife. 114
2.3(4) '.:. .t ,..,. ';*. r, strategies for selected wildlife species. 115
2.3(5) The changing ... ..,i.... of the St. Lucia Parrot. 116
2.3(6) Offshore islets -, -ir. .: i'-; in the National Trust. 119

2.4(1) Water catchments by number, names and areas. 124

2.5(1) Major mangrove areas in St. Lucia. 139
2.5(2) Yacht services in St. Lucia. 143
2.5(3) Areas declared as marine reserves. 145
2.5(4) Monitoring and data collection needs in the marine sector. 157

2.6(1) Museum and interpretive centre programme development. 164
2.6(2) Protected areas in St. Lucia. 166
2.6(3) Important marine archaeological sites, 171


3.1 Description of land .p ..'.,. class system. 181
3.2 Land .,... ,c- .-i classes by total area, 182
cultivation potentials and limitations.
3.3 Land use classifications and acreage as identified by OAS. 183
3.4 Crop distribution in St. Lucia. 185
3.5 -.i. 1. -..,.. land tenure by size categories. 187
3.6 Number of agricultural land parcels by form of tenure. 188
3.7 Land uses on land with capability classes I IV. 188
3.8 Small farming and related land use by land, -:i!; classes, 194
3.9 Annual estimates of soil erosion loss for three ,,i. ..: 200
3.10 Number of bags of fertilizer used. 204
3.11 SLBGA spray oil use. 205
3.12 SLBGA ....- L ..: ..1- spray mixture ratios. 205


4.1(1) Tourist arrivals '. country of residence. 212
4.1(2) Type of tourist accommodations in St. Lucia. 213
4.1(3) Monthly tourist arrivals, by air and sea. 214
4.1(4) Sectoral distribution of tourism product, 1986. 215
4.1(5) Estimated contribution of tourism to GOSL taxes, 1986. 217
4.1(6) Estimation of tourist resident days for 1986. 218
4.1(7) Estimated tourism employment for 1986. 219
4.1(8) Estimated trade deficits to gross domestic product ratios, 1977-1986. 221

4.2(1) Copra production and processing in St. Lucia. 232
4.2(2) Estimates of sand mined from beaches, 1960-1970, 233
4.2(3) Water-related diseases in St. Lucia. 236
4.2(4) Distribution of households and type of waste disposal. 239
4.2(5) Waste generation by administrative districts. 241


5.1 GOSL agencies with planning and development control functions. 270
5.2 GOSL agencies with resource management functions. 271
5.3 GOSL agencies with regulatory functions. 273
5.4 GOSL agencies with resource conservation and protection functions. 275
5.5 GOSL agencies with resource co-ordination functions. 276
5.6 GOSL agencies with resource development functions. 278-279


BDD British Development Division
CARDI Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute
CARICOM Caribbean Community
CCA Caribbean Conservation Association
CDB Caribbean Development Bank
CEHI Caribbean Environmental Health Institute
CEP Country Environmental Profile
CERMES Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies
CFTC Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation
CIDA Canadian International Development Agency
CPU Central Planning Unit
CSC Commonwealth Science Council
CTRC Caribbean Tourism Research and Development Centre
(renamed Caribbean Tourism Organisation, CTO)
CZM Coastal Zone Management
DCA Development Control Authority
ECNAMP Eastern Caribbean Natural Area Management Programme
(renamed Caribbean Natural Resources Institute, CANARI)
EDF European Development Fund
EEC European Economic Community
EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone
EHO Environmental Health Officers
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
ERP Environmental Research Projects
FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations
FMU Fisheries Management Unit
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GIS Geographic Information System
GOSL Government of St. Lucia
GTZ German Agency for Technical Co-operation (Deutsches
Gessellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit)
HIAMP High Impact Agricultural Marketing and Production (USAID)
HOSLL Hess Oil St. Lucia Ltd.
HOVIC Hess Oil Virgin Islands Corporation
ICBP International Council on Bird Preservation
ICOD International Centre for Ocean Development (Canada)
IDRC International Development Research Centre
IICA Inter-American Institute for Co-operation on Agriculture
IRF Island Resources Foundation
IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature
and Natural Resources
LRTP Land Registration and Titling Project
LUCELEC St. Lucia Electricity Services







Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, Fisheries
and Co-operatives
Ministry of Health, Housing, Labour, Information, and
National Conservation Strategy
National Development Corporation
Non-Government Organisation
National Research and Development Foundation of St. Lucia
Organisation of American States
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States-Natural Resources
Management Project
Pan American Health Organisation
Physical Planning Unit (of the Central Planning Unit)
Population Reference Bureau
St. Lucia Banana Growers Association
St. Lucia National Trust
St. Lucia Association of Farmers Co-operatives
Total Fertility Rate
United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Department of Technical Co-operation
for Development
United Nations Environment Programme
U.S. Agency for International Development
University of the West Indies
Water and Sewerage Authority
World Health Organisation
Windward Islands Banana Growers Association
Water Resources and Irrigation Unit
World Wildlife Fund


biochemical oxygen demand
Eastern Caribbean Dollar
gallons per day


litre per second
million gallons per day
millions of litres
American Dollar
(US$1.00 = EC$2.70)

1. T1-_,- .` 1 'ir7 .- U T P

" in

of the place."

(Alexander ........,.... 733)

1.1.1 The A .. ..

:,i the . ., or
garland of Eastern islands that
sweeps in such a i' curve from .
: in the north to Trinidad near the old
" ... A Main, one finds, just south of the
arc's midpoint at 7 .' '. 14 degrees -. .T
the fortunate island of St. Lucia "-
1.1(1)), -. .' somewhat I '. on the
submerged (and T .., hidden) ancient
volcanic ridge .
to the .. with St. Vincent to the ....,
This underwater '-, or Lucian' .. (see
-.:,,.. serves two purposes. First, it
... -- a ... or base for ~ Lucia, in
S... .--,, .. the island above sea level. Sec-
..._ as part of the easterly edge ',..
Caribbean basin, the ridge sepa-
rates the wide and ,, Atlantic abyss from
its smaller i. the dark,
12,000 _.-. (4.1 km) .. trough
which lurks beneath the ocean surface imme-
'' St. Lucia.

., kind of island is St. Lucia? does
it fit in the scheme insular taxon-
To .-:. Lucia is volcanic and
.. one main island with
only a few miniscule nearshore .. ; islets.
As of the Lesser .-,-., L cluster, in 7
an :. island, St. Lucia ._" the
best of both insular worlds (oceanic and
on the one hand oceanic
features: 7 psychological in-
'an unambiguous national identity
and a .:.. \ pristine environment :
from more '. continental areas. it
is, on the other hand, situated near ..
viced sea and air transport routes, con-
veniently located in the trade wind .-i and is

surrounded at a near distance by non-
:* island "T ~ ..

i:- .... its vocational I '
St. Lucia enjoys the luxury voluptuously
green mountain '... ... rich and exotic
.. .: water, a salubrious mar-
itime and a ..' .. natural harbour.
As far as natural endowments .-. in the nor-
S,. .. ... constrained world of is-
lands, St. Lucia is -. more .. .. than

This fact caught the attention of the first Eu-
,. of the ', ... ..
S...- who missed '. L. on his first
three visits, somehow managed to avoid it
again on his '. and final voyage by turning
. : instead of when he made his ., .L '
at .-. in -i.-.- 1502. Some scholars
insist that Columbus .. in r, -. the is-
land now :1. Lucia in the distance to .'..
southwest as he .. .. r '..; but
the .. this ; -:' cir-
cumstance does not seem to matter to -_- '
Lucians. In . Columbus
.' missed his chance. The real
of Lucia was .,. : '..
some unknown and .. 7
. .his dugout canoe
out .. an "' ..;. adventure as the
area's first trend -. tourist.

. Columbus took *.... turn, how-
ever, his immediate successors i better, and
St. Lucia became the of a series of
Sand .' d. J.
and ...' exploratory settlements, of dis-
: title claims, and of, and imperial
military invasions over the sev-
and ., .. -' centuries. Some
were more successful -' and the is-
land I -_...: .1 hands (as .' as N :-'i and lan-
... on at least occasions, the last
' -. in '.--. Testimony to the tenacity and


PoiLt de Cap -

- 14" 05'

- 14'00'

Anse la Raye

A Mt


Mt.Tabac A

Soufrlei, :

-13' 50' A Petit Piton

A Gros Piton



1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Miles
S0 61'3 05
61' 05'

Rouche Is.


Figure 1.1(1). Location map, St. Lucia.

scope of French colonisation activities in St.
Lucia is found in the fact that virtually all geo-
graphic places and geophysical features retain
their original French names, while French pa-
tois remains the language of the vernacular.


Northward of St. Lucia, looking toward the
island of Martinique, lies the famous, broad
and blustery "St. Lucia Channel" which leads
from the Atlantic Ocean into the Caribbean
Sea. This often choppy, heavily used channel
is about eighteen miles wide and a little more
than 800 metres (450 fathoms) deep at the
"sill," except on the southernmost end where
the top of the submerged ridge rises to the
100 fathom (175 metre) mark nearly four and
a half miles offshore north of Point de Cap.

For the rest of the island, however, including
the 25 mile (40 km) wide St. Vincent passage
to the south, St. Lucia exhibits relatively bold
bluff shorelines, a fairly narrow submerged
coastal shelf and is generally clear of off-lying
dangers to navigation. In fact all coastal haz-
ards that might endanger approaching vessels
are contained "close in," within the 18 metre
(ten fathom) curve which generally lies a mile
or so from shore (except in the extreme north
and south). This navigational advantage, how-
ever, also means that the narrower, shallow
shelf presents a rather limited target area for
fishermen, yachtsmen, and divers and a more
restricted substrate for energy absorbing coral
reef and seagrass ecosystems (both of which
are highly efficient, productive marine habitats
requiring specific ranges of water depth and

On the windward (or upwind) side, St. Lucia
is like most Eastern Caribbean islands -- ex-
posed to the full impact of the Atlantic Ocean
and its easterly and northeasterly trade winds,
waves, swells and storm systems. There are
no secure, accessible anchorages on this At-
lantic shore, and its few natural harbours of
refuge lack marked channels and require local
knowledge for use.

By way of contrast, the leeward (downwind
side) anchorages and harbours on the south-
western and western coasts have good holding

ground, easy access, and generally secure
protection against heavy swells, abnormal tidal
currents and contrary winds. The main har-
bour, Port Castries, is an excellent, though
small, well-protected facility with con-
tainership, reefer and breakbulk cargo han-
dling capability plus a new cruise ship termi-
nal, tug service, fisheries complex and the be-
ginning of a waterfront renewal programme.

All things considered, the island of St. Lucia
is, at once, both compact and complex, full of
juxtaposed dissimilarities and contrasts with
closely interlocked ecosystems. And it is
small, with a land area of 616.4 sq km (238
square miles) and maximum dimensions of 42
km (27 miles) long and 22 km (14 miles) wide,
By way of comparison with its immediate
neighbours, Dominica and Martinique to the
north are half again larger and more moun-
tainous, while St. Vincent and Grenada to the
south and Barbados a hundred miles to the
southeast are all slightly smaller and less
rugged with the last, Barbados, having a com-
pletely different geologic history as an uplifted
limestone platform capping an ancient vol-
canic base.

1.1.2 Climate


The normal climate of the oceanic region at
Latitude 14 degrees North in the western
reaches of the Atlantic is characterized by a
pleasant average temperature of about 78 de-
grees F (27 degrees C) and a relative humidity
of about 75 percent with little seasonal or di-
urnal variation and a fairly constant, strong
wind out of the east. Rain tends to be show-
ery and is distributed roughly into a drier sea-
son from January to May and a wetter season
from June to December, with a risk of hurri-
canes from late June to early October and the
threat of severe tropical storms with high
winds and very heavy rains often through

Figure 1.1(2). Caribbean basin bathymetry and entrance sill 4 1i,.- Note the -;.% ..1.
800m St. Lucia Sill east of the Grenada Tr.i ; .' (source: .'im 1981).


The Windward Island group of which St.
Lucia is a part is located within .... belt of
"trade ;1. famous among seamen for their
, .'.i ,.,' 7.:-.;. -, ; and ..., ', pre-
dictable schedule. These winds move westerly
along the i,,..,:nr edge of the Atlantic-
Azores sub-tropical high pressure zone and
.- ..*. .. St. Lucia from ..):.-.-.... between
east-north-east to east-south-east. Changes in
this wind regime are mostly caused by the an-
nual seasonal (vernal and ,i.. I I'-,1', shift in
the declination of the sun from the equator,
with stronger, more northerly winds being
common from I'- -,., to May. Dis-
turbances to this system can be induced by the
passage ; -'-. "easterly waves" in the
upper '.,2 ':' ., and other low ,-.- :,-
systems during the "wet season."

Statistical data on wind speed and direction at
sea in the environs of St. Lucia are :. n:.. '
in Table 1.1(1). It is obvious that for 95 c..

cent of the time the trade winds are true to
form and blow out of the northeast, east and
:, However, for the leeward coast
ports which face west, the four percent fre-
quency of occurrence of wind from south,
west and north should not be ignored
( .: -. given wave refraction behaviour on
an island like St. Lucia which has ..:- -,- -I ap-
proaches and no barrier reefs to speak of).

*-0 ;-....: THE LAND 1i i 1. 0_. .r i"'

These odd periods of westerly, northerly and
southerly winds average nearly 18 days per
year of ,.i-, 4'' Xr, destructive, abnormal, high
risk conditions with wind-driven waves and
*1 assaulting -. .",: roadsteads and
':..,, _, i.:.. C: a' i 7 the isolated
day or two day period with a mild westerly
wind is no cause for alarm.

But an extended period of three or four con-
A....i .- days with a stronger westerly wind

(or, of course, the occasional hurricane which
also reverses wind direction) can generate
damaging waves and swells which lay siege to
the normally protected leeward coast, severely
eroding otherwise stable beaches and knock-
ing about boats, barges, docks and other
shoreline facilities. This can happen even in-
side customarily safe leeward coast harbours
when entering waves and swells are reflected
off vertical surfaces like piers, jetties, seawalls

and buildings, refracted by shorelines, and
amplified by harbour and channel geometry --
offering the prospect of extensive damage in
unlikely places (Deane, 1987). Modifications
to harbour shoreline configurations, therefore,
need to be done with great care to avoid unin-
tended, potentially damaging wave building in
precisely the places where calm, still waters
are needed and, in fact, are required.

Table 1.1 (1). Annual average wind speed and direction on the seas around St. Lucia.

0-3.0 3.5-8.0 8.5- 14.5-
14.0 20.5

N 0.5%


NE 3.1% 18.7%


6.2% 0.2%

E 6.1% 38.1% 12.4% 0.3%

SE 2.4%


S 0.6% 0.8%

SW 0.2% 0.2%

W 0.1% 0.1%

NW 0.1% 0.0

VAR 0.0 -

CALM 0.7% -

TOTAL % 13.8% 65.5%

1.2% *

0.1% 0.0

* 0.0

* 0.0

0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0

20.0% 0.5%

Notes: 1. Frequencies are based on 17,650 observations taken between 1858 and 1973.
2. represents percentage frequency between 0.0 and 0.09.
3. To convert m/sec to km/hr multiply speed by 3.6 = km/hr.

Source: Deane, 1987. Presented as Table 2.1, adapted from U.S. Naval Weather Command,












For most of the year, however, and for most
of the island, the oceanic regime of trade
winds provides a cooling effect and also en-
ables high islands like St. Lucia to manufac-
ture their own local weather, shaping a kind of
home-grown microclimate which varies
greatly with height, location and orientation
on any given island. St. Lucia has more than a
dozen peaks or ridges over 2,000 feet (600 m)
high. Accordingly, these island land-masses
force a marked upward deflection of westerly
moving moisture-laden air currents. This ris-
ing sea air is cooled by expansion and the
moisture is condensed so that "orogenic" cloud
formations and often heavy precipitation re-
sult. In fact, a typical feature of all the central
mountain peaks in the Eastern Caribbean is a
great billowy mass or cap-like "trade wind
cloud" which masks their summits day after
day and is only dissipated in very still or very
dry weather (see Figure 1.1(3)).


Typical of a small tropical island, the temper-
ature of St. Lucia at sea level is generally
rather high with little seasonal, diurnal or lo-
cational variation due to the damping effect of

the ocean mass and its near constant temper-
ature between 23-28 degrees C. Diurnal var-
iation is almost entirely within the range of 23
degrees C (73 degrees F) to 31 degrees C (87
degrees F). Monthly averages for four sta-
tions, all less than 20 metres (65 ft) above sea
level, are displayed in Table 1.1(2). Differ-
ences are hardly significant.

Annual mean temperatures for all four sta-
tions are displayed in Table 1.1(3), but to dis-
play the effects of altitude, a final entry in the
calculated average annual temperature at the
top of Mt. Gimie peak, 3,117 feet (950 me-
tres) above sea level, has been added.

Temperature falls with altitude above sea
level at a rate of one degree C drop per 100
metres in elevation. Thus, the temperature at
the peak of Mount Gimie (with its cloud for-
est habitat and ecological conditions pro-
foundly different from those at lower altitudes
only a few miles distant) is normally around
18 degrees C (57 degrees F). While this
method of estimating upland temperature at a
given altitude is very simple and does not,
therefore, take into account other elements
that may affect temperature in a given place, it

Figure 1.1 (3). Cross-section of a high oceanic island, showing typical arrangement of
vegetation zones (source: Beard, 1949).

Table 1.1(2). St. Lucia average monthly temperatures (degrees C).

Table 1.1(3). St. Lucia average annual temperatures (rounded).



Castries (Botanical garden)
Hewanorra Airport
Roseau (WINBAN)
Union (Agricultural Station)
Mt. Gimie*


18.5 (estimated mean)

* Peak altitude is 3,117 feet on DOS (1:50,000) 1982 topo map, but 3,145 feet in GOSL,
1986 Annual Statistical Digest (Table 1), which presumably includes steel antenna tower
for air traffic clearance height.

Source: OAS, 1986a.

is especially useful in classifying environmen-
tal units and in working out evapo-transpira-
tion rates for which approximate ambient
temperature data is needed (see also Section


It is often remarked that St. Lucia does not
have a water supply problem, only a water dis-
tribution problem, and in a simplistic way this
is true. St. Lucia does receive a lot of rain.
Unfortunately, the temporal and spatial pat-

Jan Feb Mar Apr May JUn

Botanical Station 23.4 23.3 23.4 24.5 25.7 25.5
Hewanorra Station 25.6 25.8 25.8 26.5 27.6 27.7
Roseau Station 24.7 24.7 25.1 25.7 26.7 27.2
Union Station 25.7 26.2 26.2 26.0 26.8 27.6

Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Botanical Station 25.0 25.3 25.4 25.1 24.2 23.3
Hewanorra Station 27.8 27.7 27.7 27.4 26.9 26.0
Roseau Station 23.1 26.9 26.8 26.4 26.0 24.8
Union Station 27.7 27.6 27.5 27.7 27.4 26.8

Source: GOSL, Min. of Ag., Land and Water Use Unit.

tern and the extremes of the island's wet and
dry season rainfall regime are ill-matched to
its agricultural, residential, and industrial
needs, considered both seasonally and loca-
tionally. At certain times and locations, it is
just too dry. At other times, billions of gallons
of excess rainwater descend in drenching rains
on the high central mountain region only to
then run off downstream into the sea (via rel-
atively short watersheds with limited infiltra-
tion capacity), often causing flood conditions
and damage to soils, crops, roads, bridges and
houses en route.

The main problem is that catching, im-
pounding, pumping, and distributing water,
especially in large volumes, requires an odd
combination of skilled engineering, costly in-
frastructure, and exquisite foresight and accu-
racy in predicting rainfall and storm-
water/river runoff flows within projected time
frame variables -- for both demand and supply
side requirements. It is risky business. When
estimates are wrong, by even a small margin,
disaster can strike with little notice, despite a
seemingly adequate commitment of public
monies for reservoirs, pumps, gauge stations,
and the like.

One thing is certain: there is great variability
and a high degree of unpredictability to the
quantities of rainfall from year to year. For
example, the annual average rainfall over only
a seven year period varied over 20 percent
(see Table 1.1(4)). Many are the farmers who

have faced financial ruin in a local drought
waiting for the so-called "average rainfall" that
never came to their small patches of ground
(irrigation needs, opportunities and impacts
are discussed in Section 2.4).


For St. Lucia, the period of lowest rainfall oc-
curs generally in mid-to-late December
(always by the beginning of the year), when
the so-called Bermuda high pressure cell ex-
tends its sphere of influence southward,
bringing attention to its arrival by forcing a
pronounced shift of the ubiquitous trade
winds from the southeast to out of the north-
east. These so-called "Christmas winds," as
they are known to seamen, also bring clear,
relatively dry conditions to St. Lucia from
mid-December to early May.

Furthermore, at this time of year, the trade
winds have such a low moisture content that
they are insufficient by themselves to give
"rise" to either convective or orographic rain.
Under these conditions, the rain comes infre-
quently and then only in short showers. Lo-
calised droughts and the sunny weather loved
by tourists are both common during these
"winter season" months. For the other months
of the year (May through mid-December),
rainfall increases with varied intensity ac-
cording to the degree of windward exposure
and height above sea level.

Table 1.1(4). Island-wide average annual rainfall, St. Lucia (1980-86).

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986

In 72.83 88.30 71.67 71.21 74.50 74.70 82.20

mm 1849.90 2242.80 1820.40 1810.30 1892.20 1897.30 2088.00

Source: GOSL, 1986 Annual Statistical Digest.

Island-wide i:i'J..!' data are ,' ,.- '
; :.:.; in -.. 1.1(4) as a small scale
'Isohyets" I -.. : ,..,... levels of .r'
., *;_. St. Lucia's rainfall is '... in the
*;, or mountainous ..u.e. -,c i part of the
country which .1;.s.; .I; receives more than
120 inches (3,048 mm) of rain a year. The
heaviest rainfalls are experienced at Quilesse
(3,682 mm) and Edmond (3,697 mm) slightly
-,-rT.- -2., i' i. .,: ( .. the L .:" peak in
the country.

By way of contrast, most of the valleys and
coastal plains are relatively dry, with annual
:',:.i -.:. of less than 80 inches (2,032
mm). An exception is the valley of the Lower
Soufriere i- ,- which receives over 100 inches
(2,540 mm) per year. Cap Estate to the north
and Vieux Fort to the south, which are ., L-.
peninsulas with mostly low relief, both aver-
age less than 60 inches (1,524 mm) of rain a
year and are, therefore, the driest parts of the
country with the most sun, the fewest clouds
and both Atlantic and Caribbean sea frontage
and exposure.

N r WALL D. 1,. BASE

While ambient air temperature on a high is-
land like St. Lucia is more or less inversely
proportional to ,.:i'td. and while rainfall lev-
els are the %. .:.-i; (that is, directly propor-
tional to height above sea level), the relation-
ship between these two and various other
agro-meteorological parameters is generally
less linear and more *:....i. In order to il-
lustrate this point, Table 1.1(5) displays, for
three sample stations, mean monthly and an-
nual summary data on rainfall and temper-
ature, plus relative humidity, evaporation, so-
lar 'S .'..i, sunshine hours/cloud cover, and
average wind speed. Figure 1.1(5) displays, in
histogram form, the same kind of information
presented in the table and is included to
demonstrate how changing the mode of pre-
sentation from tabular to graphic can make
trends, reversals, .- A.i '., and A. .-' ,.-
larity more readily discernible. In the same
fashion, monthly variation is more readily per-
ceived when the data are transformed into a
bar graph as in Figure 1.1(6).

.i. .-i' data collection is an --':ij effort in
St. Lucia, with several dozen active rainfall
measuring (and also stream gauge) stations
and, at the present time, five full-fledged agro-
meteorological stations. These are:

Union Ag. Station
....o ,.-(WINBAN)
Hewanorra Airport
- '.>,,r School
Co. .' -' (La Ressource)


,'^..-? i- _).

These stations collect a full range of climate
data as i 1 e.:. in Table 1.1(5). Some mon-
itor additional parameters like evapotran-
spiration, 3, ..*i -;;:: pressure, and dew
point and also log daily maximum and mini-
mum temperature readings. In addition to the
five, the Vigie .-,.,:.r i station collects rainfall,
temperature, and wind data, and there is an
automated station operated by the U.S.
,(. .-- B.:.. -.-o at Marisule (.3 .-!' i which
-.-*. cloud cover, rainfall, temperature, and
wind (speed and direction) data. The range
and specifications of instrumentation installed
at these meteorological stations and that of
the related, more elaborate rain gauge and
stream/river gauging network are discussed in
Section 2.4.

Over the past decade, interest in expanded
irrigation services, water storage and flood
control has led to a vastly expanded agro-me-
teorological data assembly and analysis pro-
gramme in St. Lucia, involving not only
GOSL/Ministry of Agriculture (MOA), but
also OAS, UNDTCD, -F'.-F, CIDA, and
USAID. Much of the assembled data has
been organised and vFLb'i:-li.., and some is
computerized (using an IBM-PC) at the
MOA's Water Resources and Irrigation Unit
(formerly called Land and Water Use Unit).
It is possible to obtain climate summaries on
both a monthly and an annual basis, and the
..- i has been used for rainfall and runoff
catchment modeling as well as water qual-
ity/sediment .rr.p.-p, analysis. Despite
lacunae in some data strings (some of which
run back as far as 1900), it constitutes a re-
markably comprehensive "high, wet" island

inches millimeters Vieux Fort
60 1524
70 1.77 8 6m, ,m
83 2032
2286 -.- 5 = -_ I .
100 2540 0 5 1okm.
120 3048
150 3810

Figure 1.1 (4). Average annual rainfall for the island of St. Lucia (source: Leonce, 1978).


Table 1.1(5). Average monthly agro-meteorological data from selected stations in St. Lucia.



JAN 122.t 126.0 24.8 7.2 77 0.37 21.93 107.1
FEB 75.7 129.0 25.3 7.4 76 0.56 22.BB 109.7
MAR 66.0 158.0 25.4 8.0 74 0.61 25.46 134.3
APR 86.3 152.4 26.0 B.3 73 0.72 24,08 129.5
KAY 132.0 155.8 26.9 7.8 74 0.66 23.57 132.4
JUN 194.1 142.6 27.3 6.5 74 0.69 22.76 121.2
JUL 229,7 144.9 26.9 6.2 76 0.63 22.92 123.2
AUG 226.9 [49.1 27.0 6.5 77 0.45 23.30 126.7
SEP 229.5 132.0 26,8 5.6 76 0.34 22.45 112.2
OCT 262.9 133.3 26.5 6.B 77 0.32 23.13 113.3
NOV 266.6 112.6 26.4 6.4 77 0.27 21.77 95.7
DEC 151.6 121. 1 25.8 6.6 76 0.40 20.52 102.9

TOTAL 2040.0 1656.8 --- --- -- ---- -- 1408.2
MEAN 170.0 13B.1 26.3 6,9 76 0.50 22.90 117.4

PERIOD 1923/85 1979/95 1976/85 [980/85 1979/85 [981/85 1979/85 1979/B5



JAN 152,0 95.0 24.7 7.5 76 0.95 -- 80.7
FEB 97.0 115.0 24.8 B.2 73 1.12 -- 97,8
MAR 84.0 140.B 25.2 9.1 72 I.1B -- 119.7
APR 95.9 156.2 25.9 8.1 70 1.21 -- 32.B
MAY 113.0 163.9 26.B 8.1 72 1.29 -- 139.3
JUN 175.1 146.2 27.3 7.3 72 1.37 -- 124.3
JUL 245.8 135.8 27.1 7.4 74 1.12 -- 115.4
AUG 251.9 134.5 26.9 7.4 75 0.96 -- 114.3
SEP 251.5 129.1 26.8 7.1 76 0.72 -- 109.7
OCT 266.5 125.4 26.6 7.2 78 0.73 -- 106.6
NOV 237.2 96.5 26.1 7.4 78 0.71 -- 82.0
DEC 176.4 100.4 25.3 7.2 76 0.89 -- 05.3

TOTAL 2147.0 1538.8 ---- --- -- ---- 307.6
HEAN 178.9 128,2 26.1 7.6 74 1.02 -- 109.0

PERIOD 1966/85 1978/85 1968/95 1968/B5 1978/85 19781/5 1978/85



JAN 696 197.3 25.7 7.7 74 3.18 -- 157.8
FEB 48.3 191.0 25.B B.4 73 2.82 -- 152.8
MAR 49.2 231.8 26,[ 9.2 73 2.82 -- 185.4
APR 68.8 261.5 26.8 9.6 72 2.71 209.2
MAY 77.8 246.6 27.6 7.4 74 2.96 -- 197.3
JUN 92.8 202.B 27,5 8.0 76 3.05 162.2
JUL 152.3 191.8 27.6 7.7 77 3.09 -- 153,4
AUG 158.6 208.4 27.5 8.4 78 2.67 -* 166.7
SEP 139.1 181.6 27.6 7.4 77 2.38 145.3
OCT 230.6 192.6 27.5 8.B 77 2.25 -- 154.1
NOV 180.3 144.6 26.8 8,6 75 .96 -- 115.7
DEC 12B.5 207.9 26.2 8.4 74 2.30 166.3

TOTAL 1385.8 2457.9 ---- --- -- ---- t966.2
MEAN 115.5 204.8 26.9 8.3 75 2.68 -- 163.9

PERIOD 1974/B4 [982/94 1974/84 1974/84 1982/84 1982/84 [982/94

Source: Migeot and Hadwen, 1986.







Union Agriculture Station w:..;: monthly agro-meteorological data
(source: Migeot and Hadwen, 1986).

data base on rainfall and runoff phenomena,
perhaps the best in the Ft-,,:r a Caribbean.

As for country-wide base figures, the most ac-
cessible source for the average reader is the
meteorological section of GOSL's Annual
Statistical Digest (see tables 2 and 2A, 3 and
3A, 1987). This handy summary section also
presents equivalent multi-year coverage of
annual rainfall totals at fifty stations and
monthly rainfall data from Union Agricultural
Station. This is a good first source for a. gen-
eral picture although there is no discussion of
methodology, reliability or sources, and the
data provided, almost as a sample, constitute a
very small portion of a very large data base, a
subject discussed in more detail below.


St. Lucia lies in the path of tropical storms, in-
cluding hurricanes, situated as it is between
the subtropical high pressure belt of the At-
lantic Ocean and the equatorial low pressure
belt to the south. It is, however, far enough

south so that passing tropical cyclones nor-
mally do not reach ;w.:' maximum intensity.
Nevertheless, there is a high frequency of
micro-disturbances that generate squalls and
winds with 1, ., .it;, damaging, short burst,
high velocities.

On land, the risk of wind and rainstorm dam-
age can be serious, especially during the
August-November period as is illustrated by
Table 1.1(6). Lesser storms, even though not
of hurricane or even gale force and of only
short duration, are common, and St. Lucia av-
erages about 25 such windstorms per year.
However, by way of contrast, the country has
experienced only one serious hurricane since
the turn of the century -- hurricane Allen
which hit the island in 1980 (see Figure 1.1(7))
and left in its wake a devastated banana, cit-
rus, cocoa and coconut crop, a severely dam-
S''.. rain forest (estimates ran to 40 percent
loss) and millions of dollars worth of wind and
flood damage to property and infrastructural
facilities. Recovery has been a painful, costly




Figure 1.1(5).


01W I'I ,.;r'ri ..

..r' ', l T [~ i.


Figure 1.1(6). Typical St. Lucia annual rainfall pattern (source: Talbot and Bottrell, 1983).

1.1.3 Topography

The island of St. Lucia is mountainous, having
an exceedingly disordered interior topography
with a south-central mountain cluster rising at
Mount Gimie to its highest elevation of 3,117
feet (950 m) above sea level and extending to
the northeast and southwest in an irregular
but pronounced axial ridge about 24 km (15
miles) long. The main highway from Castries
to Dennery is the only one to cross this Barre
de L'Isle ridge. In so doing, it climbs to 850
feet (260 m) above sea level, above Ravine

On 1:,, .,i the eastern and western sides of the
ridge, sharp, heavily wooded offset spurs de-
scend to the coast, some interrupted by
spectacular isolated pitons (cone shaped pin-
nacles of solid lava from residual volcanic
plugs) and others extending outward in steep-
sided, buttress-like ridges with deep, serpen-

tine valleys. In a few cases the ,Yr:,d,
ally separate, opening up enough to make
room for a narrow but increasingly expansive
valley, perennial streams and a river, and fi-
nally, just before reaching the sea, a flat, fer-
tile, alluvial plain.

Needless to say, this irregular steep terrain
makes communications :.ilfi..ut, I::;-',i
costly and erosion likely. But it also makes for
dramatic landscapes with unexpected streaks
of sunlight, green shadows, giant ferns, ledges,
perched boulders, dark canyons, hanging val-
leys, waterfalls and ever-changing skylines.
Beneath the surface, always lacy green, there
lurks in a slightly menacing but not depressing
way the ever present risk of flash floods, land
slips, rock falls and the lesser nuisances of
isolation, dampness, mold, mud, and the long
walk back up the steep and slippery track.
From outside, there is, at least for part of each


500 -

375 -


125 -

Table 1.1 (6). Hurricanes and tropical storms affecting St. Lucia.




(H. David)
(H. Frederck)
(H. ler)
(H. Klaus)
(H. Gloria)

[Key: H hurricane; TS tropical storm.]

Source: Adapted from Deane, 1987 (adapted from Stevenson, 1969); DuBois, 1985.

I i I

B R A O ,, .. ,:

0- _____

... -. -- --- -.. .14

13 N

.,,. 1.1 (7). Passage of the central area of Hurricane Allen, 3-4 August, 1980 ..' <:,' Deane, 1987).



14 -. -. .



year, the vaguely looming risk of a knock-
down, mash-up, no-warning hurricane.

Taking the country as a whole, three separate
and distinct physiographic regions can be
identified, although exact boundaries are
sometimes difficult to trace and fortunately
not terribly important. In simplified terms,
there is an "old part" (to the north and east), a
"new part" in the midwest "pitons" coastal
area, and, in the far southwestern corner, an
old part modified by an overlay of new mate-
rial spilled over from the nearby "new part."
In sum, there is an old and a new section and
one that is a little bit of both. In geomor-
phological terms, the regions are identified as

(1) The topography of the northern,
central and eastern parts of St. Lucia has a
softened, rounded quality to it that reflects its
age and the long history of geological erosion
and weathering that has worn down the origi-
nal stark landscape generated by flowing lava,
pyroclastic muds and other volcanic ejecta
which formed the island when it first emerged
from the sea. Clear traces of individual vol-
canic centres are difficult to identify, and
peaks in the north barely exceed 60 metres.

Throughout this older sector can be found
numerous valleys -- expansive, flat, and ma-
ture, now filled with alluvium and highly suit-
able for intensive agricultural pursuits (for ex-
ample, Roseau, Cul-de-Sac, Mabouya/Fond
D'Or, Marquis, and Troumassee Valleys).
The Roseau Valley, in particular, is notable
for having the largest watershed (49 sq km)
and the longest river (19 km), with an average
flow of 3.62 mgd. It also has the largest clus-
ter of readily irrigable acres (1,300) in the en-
tire country and is the site of both the
WINBAN (Windward Islands Banana Grow-
ers Association) Research Station and the St.
Lucia Model Farms Project (see Section 3).

At the upper reaches of this and other simi-
larly mature watersheds in the central portion
of the "older" part of the country, the elevation
of rounded ridge tops reaches to about 900
feet (274 m), but these are thoroughly over-
whelmed by surviving pitons such as:

La Sorciere :', ft., 677 m)

Piton Flore (1,850 ft., 564 m)
Mount Lacombe (1,485 ft., 453 m)
Piton St. Esprit (1,919 ft., 585 m).

(2) On the west and southwestern
edge of the country, the newer, more dra-
matic, more geologically active section of St.
Lucia is shaped like a four-sided schooner
mainsail. Starting just south of Roseau Val-
ley, the boundary line extends inland and east
along the line of the Anse La Raye River to
the ridge, then south passing about a mile east
of Mount Gimie and along the ridge to Mount
Magazine and then turning west towards the
Gros Piton and the sea. The topography of
this mid-western, younger part of the island is
more mountainous with some of the highest
and most precipitous mountains in the island.
Among these are:

Mount Gimie, (3,117 ft., 950 m)
Piton Canarie (3,012 ft, 918 m)
Mount Paix Bouche (2,445 ft., 745 m)
Mount Tabac (2,224 ft, 678 m)
Mount Parasol (2,010 ft., 613 m)
Mount Houelmon (2,094 ft., 638 m)
Mount Grand Magazin (2,117 ft.,
645 m)
The Petit Piton and Gros Piton (at
more than 2,000 feet, 750 m).

These "pitons" at Soufriere Bay are especially
dramatic because they are situated directly on
the coastline and their steep, almost sheer,
western slopes rise directly out of the sea.
The region also contains the remnants of the
island's last massive caldera and the only ac-
tive "Soufriere" or sulfurous steam and water
vent, located just south of the village by the
same name.

(3) The extreme southwestern area
is the smallest and is wedge-shaped with its
boundary extending from Gros Piton inland
and east to Mount Grand Magazin and then
south down the Vieux Fort River to the sea.
The most notable topographic feature is a
huge fan-shaped glacis sloping gently seaward,
spreading around and almost ',r'.;g sev-
eral older isolated hills. It stands as mute
testimony to an earlier era and belongs to the
larger, more easterly, older region discussed
in (1) above. The glacis slopes have been
deeply cut over geologic time by the erosive

force of heavy rains, r..*:- ; a complex sys-
tem of very narrow and deep, steep-sided
gorges which make road building in the area
very costly. The River Doree canyon is an
outstanding example. To the east in the
neighbourhood of Vieux Fort, the land levels
out to form a sandy plain of about ten square

1.1.4 Geology and Soils


The Au:;.. arc of islands is geologically
young, probably not exceeding 50 million
years, and is predominantly volcanic in ij. i.,

Some islands were formed primarily by sub-
aqueous and subaerial lava flows and pyro-
clastics followed by seabed uplift. Some of
these acquired thick coral reef caps while still
submerged and, thus disguised, emerged from
the sea looking like a limestone island.

At the present time the active tectonic or
mountain forming process has all but ceased
in the region except for St. Vincent's
Soufriere, which last erupted in 1979, and the
rambunctious underwater volcano north of
Grenada known as Kick 'em Jenny. But
within the arc, there are still eight active vol-
canic sites on as many islands -- some with gas
vents, some f3ma :i.-, some sulfurous steam
vents, one real boiling lake, and a few, like St.
Lucia, with near-surface h,.Jbihcu ,-J hot
spots that have promising geothermal tro..
potential (see also Table 1.1(7)).

Table 1.1(7). Eastern l.wa ,.- volcanic phenomena.

St. Lucia S-c' o s.

Kick'em Jenny

St. V;: e,: Soufriere

Montagne Pelee

" i.: y of '.. _* ., .... "

Montserrat Soufriere

St. Kitts Mt. Liamuiga
(now Mt. Liamuiga)

caldera with domes and solfataric activity,
most recent e6,.i.!oA, about 50,000 years ago

submarine basaltic volcano north of Grenada,
more or less continuous activity

andesite-basaltic volcano (1,325 m), four historic eruptions
(1812, 1902, 1971, 1979), all with emission of lavas

four historic .. ipi.r,- (1792, 1851, 1902, Martinique 1929);
the first two were phreatic (hot water discharge) the last
two .* n- ..ii-

near the recent Micotin volcano; .... ia... activity (boiling
lake 80 m in :iii .-;.-), one historic -.n r'i.,; in 1880

numerous recent phreatic eruptions preceded by one
magmatic eruption in 1600 +/-50 years

:.:..a.'. i activity, most recent .i. ;-. 20,000 40,000
years ago

a activity; one -,:,!.i,: eruption in 1843

Source: m i;.. -.._i Hadwen, 1986.

St Lucia and the associated undersea '.,..
upon which it is 1, I are located on the
edge of what is known as the C .-
which behaves like a raft of crust '.-l.. on

the less dense underlying mantle (see : -
.:.. movements are ... related
to the convection '.- ... "in the mantle.

-0z. "f'N TIF-IT rollTlIC

SI I ',. 'I, -' -* :- ',

i ,.. ,i" 1, ,

F "~-~ A

* 1~*
* Ii *I

.. ,
,,: -. % .** ; '

I .1

*QA> ,.'9 L


- .1 .1 '. .: :..features of '. 1. zone of. ': plan
(source: .. et al., .


. ,: .. ..

0 100

St. Lucia
(Active Island Arc)




* .. ,,, -1 -

'LATE 40


1 d ..- 80

The eastern margin '. .... at the:. of Barbados and
St. Lucia. Cross I .. showing the : plate ..-i .: ." by
the ..... ': American plate. Figure '.-' ..' from :. etal., 1987.



. ,-


I .. 1.1


-11,II i II

The Caribbean Plate is bounded by the North
American Plate to the north and east, the
South American Plate to the south and the
Cocos Plate to the west and southwest. The
North American Plate moves to the west rela-
tive to the Caribbean Plate, while the Cocos
Plate subducts towards the northeast. There
is little relative displacement between the
Caribbean and South American Plates at this
time in geologic history.

Closer to home, the eastern boundary of the
Caribbean Plate is a subduction zone in which
the North American Plate is subducted, i.e.,
passes under the Caribbean Plate and into the
mantle where melting occurs. This resulted in
the formation of the magmas which, when ex-
truded as lava by volcanoes, have resulted in
the formation of the islands of the Antillean
Arc (see Figure 1.1(8)).


St. Lucia is almost entirely volcanic with its
oldest rocks, largely rhyolite, andesite and
various basalts, dating from the Early Tertiary
period or about fifty million years ago (see
Table 1.1(8)). These older rocks are found at
the surface, principally in the extreme north-
ern and southern parts of the island, and
probably underlie most of the more recent
rocks found elsewhere.

During the Lower Miocene (25 million years
later) St. Lucia experienced an extended
oceanic "baptism" as part of a wider general
submergence of the entire Lesser Antilles. As
one might expect during this immersion pe-
riod some islands acquired a veneer of reefal
limestone, which in St. Lucia's case resulted in
some lenticular (lens-like) deposits of lime-
stone in amongst the volcanics which were
under water at the time and later uplifted
above the sea surface. Therefore, a few small
sedimentary beds of granular limestone occur
intrusively, but these are of negligible extent.
Along the coast can also be found beds of
mixed sedimentary volcanic materials with
good bedding and stratification (tuffs, ag-
glomeratic tuffs and conglomerates). Since
corals grow in most coastal waters, most
beach "sands" are a mixture of terrigenous

sediments and rock fragments, intermixed
with calcareous coral and shell particles.

The geology of the island has been studied
and mapped by William R. Newman, under
the aegis of the United Nations Department
of Economic and Social Affairs (1965). His
work was supplemented by J.M. Tomblin's
study of the Soufriere area, also in 1965. More
recently the larger geological picture was fur-
ther improved upon by the Organisation of
American States within the framework of its
Natural Resources and Agricultural Devel-
opment Project which issued (1984) an en-
larged (1:50,000 scale) redrawn version of
Newman's map as part of a six map set dis-
tributed as a St. Lucia Development Atlas.

Newman and his successors have found it con-
venient to group the rock formations of the
island into a northern (Early Tertiary-Eocene)
series, a central (Middle Tertiary-
Miocene/Pliocene) assemblage, and a south-
western (mid- to late-Pleistocene) series.

(1) St. Lucia Rock Formations:
Northern Series. These older rocks are pre-
-,im;r'l;y basaltic in composition, often
highly folded and quite probably of Eocene
age (see Table 1.1(8)). Some andesite por-
phyry (with large well-developed feldspar
crystals) in blocks up to two metres in diame-
ter can be seen at the old quarry site on the
southwestern side of the Vigie Airport. In
general, there are few surprises and fewer
anomalies, although no one has yet explained
the odd single patch of ryolite exposed in the
Choc River Valley near Union. A few ex-
amples of the underlying basaltic rock plus
andesites, mud flows, and lava agglomerates
can be found on the extreme southern tip of
the island at Moule a Chique Peninsula. Ad-
ditionally, the nearby quarry northeast of the
Hewanorra Airport also exposes to view a
combination of basalt, interbedded andesite,
agglomerate and tuff.

(2) Rock Formations: The Central
Series. Thirty to forty million years ago,
during the Miocene Epoch, the entire central
massif and ridge, or Barre de L'Isle, and the
rocks underlying the eastern coast from
Grand Anse as far as upper Savannes Bay (in
other words the central part of the island

Table 1.1(B). Geology of St. Lucia: geologic column.

Sedimentary VoLoani c
Quaternary Recent u Alluvium, beach Last eruption at Soufriere
o and terrace sands

Tertiary Late Tertiary Pumiceous Tuffs Dacites
(Southern Series) z Dacite Tuffs Belfond pumice fLow, tuffs
o BeLfond pumice fall
[started in Late Belfond dome Lava
Pliocene] Terre BLanche dome lava
Pi ton agglomerate
Piton dome Lava
St. Phillips agglomerate
St. Phillips lava flow

Pale andesite dome leaves
Andesite pumice flows, tuffs
Andesite agglomerate calderae
Dark andesite cones

Porphyrtsaltc bas
Porphyritic basalt
Aphyric basalt

Middle Tertiary Limestone granular Andesite
(Central Series) Thin-bedded tuffs Altered andesite, andesite
z Agglomerate tuffs, Porphyry, breccia
[Miocene to o tuffs Hornblende andesite
PLiocane] Andesite porphyry
Andesite breccia
Columnar andesite
Andesite ash, altered
andesi te
Mud flow
Andesite agglomerate, mud

Early Tertiary Agglomerate tuffs, Rhyolite
(Northern Series) tuffs Andesite
1U Basalt, some andesite
[58,000,000 a Basalt agglomerate
before the ,

except the southwestern wedge) were f-..1
by an extended sequence of volcanic activity
which generated vast, .., .1 extrusions of
younger andesites, basalts, agglomerates and
tuffs, and, as a by-product, some ':,.. 1h ..* -,. ,d,
conglomerates. Near L'Anse La Raye can be
seen a high cliff of andesite pillars, but shapes,
colours and hardness vary widely. While most
of the andesite ,.- p1,-' ',,, as in the f. i,-i area,
is a greyish colour, west of Ravine Poisson it is
green to purple as a hard, dense breccia but,
up on the central ridge where it has been and
continues to be exposed to high levels of
rainfall, it appears as highly coloured red to
orange cliffs visible in the steeper, ;:i -.

(3) Rock ,, 3 : The .'-i ..
:,e A line drawn from Canaries on the
sea coast due east to the Roseau River, then
south-southeast by Mount Gimie to Mount
Grand T _, 4. and then due .... n, to Black
Bay just east of Laborie more or less defines
the land boundaries of the newest
(geologically p *-.K" dacite of St.
Lucia. This highly ...;,: area contains four
pitons, seven craters, hot sulfur ;.A the
town of Soufriere, the island's highest peak
(_-[.. Gimie) and has been a focal point for
years of '... '. ,-.1 .' about the .-. i *' of
'. ',,' the geothermal potential of its subter-
ranean, -... .. steam supply. It now
. ;i-:._. that the geological dreamers and op-
timists may carry the day, and the naysayers
and pessimists have been proven wrong (see
.,. 4.3).

The main structure in the Soufriere area is the
massive circular v,... i about 6 .. -..--
tres in diameter known as the -.....:,
*-.. .-,. It is actually an enormous defunct
volcanic crater produced on a grand scale in
mid-Pleistocene times by either a major vol-
canic explosion or more likely the collapse of
a very large volcanic cone, ,-..., behind a
1 --.-p."- depression.

The caldera itself and especially its walls re-
sulted from an extremely active period of vul-
canism when enormous volumes of dacite and
.:.' ::.'. were the products of thirty-three
consecutive eruptions which triggered glowing
avalanches of andesite i"',. on the receiv-
ing slopes. These were .. i' with long
cycles of torrential rains and i~.... that peri-

odically redistributed a large '"i' o of the
recently deposited, unconsolidated -... :n.,...
One pumice flow cycle resulted in a deposit
near the foot of the southern glacis that is
over 40 metres thick. As much as a thousand
years went by between eruptions since de-
posits of ash were exposed to weathering long
enough to develop a thin layer of soil.

At some point in this cycle of cataclysms, the
caldera abruptly collapsed, dropping the floor
about 250 metres. This literally and figura-
;' set the stage for the gradual emergence
of a half dozen lava domes and seven volcanic
craters which built up, one by one, on the
i,."....': caldera floor in the Belfond area where
they can be seen today. We do know that
these were violent times because the vertical
eruptions from these newer smaller craters
carried pumice blocks, ash and other pyro-
clastic ejecta up to 13 ;.. ,'ier.-: beyond the
caldera rim. There was no place to hide!

During this same r(.:.. the dacite domes
were extruded that formed the four notable
Pitons of Gros, Petit, Plaisance and Pi :'.:-
These Pitons represent domes from which the
,-r.r.ri ..J-. marginal talus (or skirt) of sedi-
ments has been almost completely removed by
erosion ...... ',*' the striking, well
known shape of the dacite rock core which has
come to i.-:'.) St. Lucia, even in its na-
tional 'o

0,. 4?....7.:.N. PARENT MATERIAL

With the waning of active vulcanism in St.
Lucia during the mid- to c. *.-i.:'i.., pe-
riod, the raw exposed surface area of : A% i4
andesitic and dacitic rock ; ,...[I underwent
a r..-.- v. process and, under the -
of sun and rain, heating and cooling, algae and
bacteria, leaching and abrasion, was trans-
formed into a primitive kind of soil. The pro-
cess was sometimes accelerated by the chemi-
cal action of wind-driven salty sea spray or
interrupted by occasional r`:. ?. -. land-
slides, storm tides and floods. The various
types of -".-,.ig base material and their
areal extent are listed in Table 1.1(9).

No one knows how many years passed before
. physical and chemical breakdown i: .-

Table 1.1(9). i. r.;,-pa soil-forming ;.;a e t material.

reached the momentous day when a small
damp patch of half-formed soil material at
some unknown location received and nour-
ished to life the island's first seed which had
drifted ashore or arrived in the digestive tract
of a migratory bird. That seed became St.
Lucia's first green growing plant. The rest
was painstakingly slow as other species ar-
rived, one by one -- plants, birds, insects, and
animals, one by one, species by species, year
by year, century by century, millennia after
millennia, until St. Lucia had a living envi-
ronment more or less as we know it today.

As this living vegetative cover grew more
complex, so did the soil-building process. For
example, with an expanding surface cover of
vegetation the new, primitive soils could catch
and hold more rainwater, capturing even dew
at night, with the added moisture accelerating
both the physical breakdown and chemical
transformation of volcanic rock and ash parti-
cles into proto-soils. Over time these would
mix with increasing quantities of organic plant
materials and nutrients and eventually become
host to an interstitial resident mychorizal

fungi which, in a classic example of symbiosis,
would help plants in the uptake of needed
trace element chemicals from the soil.

A wide variety of soils have developed in St.
Lucia from a relatively narrow range of origi-
nal parent materials. There are five major
variables in soil formation: (1) type or mix of
parent material, (2) climate, (3) topography,
(4) vegetation and (5) time. In St. Lucia's
case, temperatures are relatively constant
throughout the year, but the rainfall regime
varies widely and increases greatly with eleva-
tion in the high central mountains where the
length of the dry season is greatly diminished.
Thus, throughout the island, the parent
materials are subject to differing amounts of
weathering, with thick soils prevailing in
higher, wetter areas and thin soils in lower,
drier areas.

Most of St. Lucia's soils formed very slowly
beneath a thick forest cover where the trans-
formation took place under conditions of sus-
tained high temperature and humidity. In the
heavier 1--il__1. areas, latosols or latosolic soils


Andesitic agglomerate 62,190 25,106
Ja.c ash 26,520 10,737
Andesitic ash 12,100 4,899
Tuff 4,700 1,903
Agglomeratic ash 3,300 1,336
Dacitic agglomerate ash 3,010 1,219
Basalt 1,500 607
Andesite agglomeratic ash 540 219
Calcareous tuff 350 142
Colluvium 10,700 4,332
Alluvium 7,800 3,158

Source: Taken from W.R. Newman (1965), "A Report on General and Economic Geological Studies St. Lucia,
West indies," UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Reprinted in OAS, 1987.

Table 1.1(10). Soil classification table, St. Lucia.

Dome anta
Dominant Drainage Mean Moisture Factors, if any, Erosion Natural Any Special
Soil Type Slope Through Annual Supplying Limiting Root Hazard Ferility Soil Mnargement
Range Soil Rainfall Capacity Peretration Problems

Annus Clay 5-25' Slow 6o'-12o" Good Mottled clay Moderate. Medium. Acidic Drainage. Erosion
subsoil below Tendency control.
from 6'-zs' to alip
Anse Clay 10-30* Slow 70'-Is5o Good Mottled clay Moderate Low. Very acidic Drainage. Erosion
subsoil below control. Low
from 6'-12" fertility.
Assor Clay 10-20o Slow 70'-oo'" Good Mottled clay Moderate Medium. Very Drainage. Erosion
subsoil below acidic control. Often
from 6'-za' stoniness.
Balembouche 2-8g Slow in 60'-90' Fair Compact clay Slight to Medium to low. Difficult of cultivation.
Gritty Clay subsoil subsoil at moderate Acidic In arid area.
Loam t6"-28". Drainage in wet
Silica pans periods.
tending to form
Balembouche 2-8* Slow in 60"-90' Poor As above, but Moderate to Low. Neutral to Erosion control,
Gritty Clay subsoil much nearer high slightly acidic Moisture supply.
Loam surface Shallowness.
Belfond Clay io-30' Moderate 95'-120' Good Moderate High. Acidic Erosion control.
Loam to rapid Shallowness.
Becune Loam a5-30' Rapid 5o0-60o Fair to poor Very high Medium to low. Erosion control.
Neutral Moisture supply, in
arid area.
Bocage Stony 25-35' Rapid 70'-120' Good High. Medium. Acidic Erosion control.
Clay Subject to Stoniness.
Calfourc Silt 1o-o20 Rapid too'-I6o" Fair to poor High Medium. Acidic Erosion control.
Canelles Clay 5-25s Moderate 70'-120' Good Moderate Medium to low. Erosion control.
Acidic Stoniness in places.

Casteau 5-25' Rapid 95-05o Good Slight to Medium to high. Erosion control.
Gravelly moderate Acidic Stoniness.
Bouldery Steepness.
Silt Loam
Cochon Silty 0o-35* Rapid Bo"-150' Fair to poor High Very low. Very Erosion control.
Clay Loam acidic Steepness.
Deglos Silty o-I' Extremely 70'-85" Good Highly mottled Nil High. Acidic Great drainage
Clay slow clay at B'-Io' problem.
and water table
at 20'-30'
Delomel Clay 5-25' Slow to 60'-75' Fair Compact Moderate Medium. Acidic Erosion control.
very slow mottled clay Difficult soil to work.
g'-IS Moisture supply.
Drainage in wet

Dennery Clay 20-20o Slow to 50'-80' Fair Agglomeratic Slight to Medium to low. Erosion control.
very slow ash or agglo- moderate Acidic Moisture supply.
merate at less wet
than 2 ft. periods.
Dugard Clay 5-i5' Moderate So"-65' Fair Weathered Slight to Medium. Acidic Moisture supply.
to slow agglomerate at very slight Difficult soil to work.
2'-4' Saline subsoil.
Esperance 10-30* Slow to g'-loo" Good Moderate. Low. Slightly Erosion control.
Clay very slow Subject to acidic Drainage.
on steeper

Falaise Stony 15-35" Rapid 5o'-Izo" Poor to fair Agglomerate at High to Low. Slightly Erosion control.
Loam 15"-20' very high acidic Should not be

Franciou 5-25' Rapid 50'-70' Poor Agglomerate at High to Low. Neutral to Erosion control.
Stony Clay 12"-24' very high slightly acidic Stoniness. Little
agricultural use.

Garrand Clay 5-:5" Rapid 75'-ioo' Good to Agglomerate at High Medium to low. Erosion control.
Loam fair 24' -40" Slightly acidic Stoniness.
Gormnier 5-25' Extremely so'-So' Poor to Basalt bedrock High Low. Neutral Erosion control.
Stony Loam rapid very poor at 6'-z2' Shallowness. In arid
area. Little agricul-
tural value.

Hardy Clay 5-25' Moderate 50o'-70' Good Slight Medium. Slightly Difficult soil to work.
to slow acidic Moisture supply in
arid area. Drainage
in wet periods.
Saline subsoil.

Haut Clay 10-25 Rapid so'-loo" Fair High Medium to high. Erosion control.
Loam Slightly acidic Moisture supply in
dry periods.

Ivrogne Stony 20-35' Rapid 70'-t120' Good High Medium to high. Erosion control.
Clay I Slithtv acidic Stoniness.

Source: Stark, et al., 1966.

Table 1.1(10) ,.-,.ii:.,. Soil classification table, St. Lucia.

Dominanto "-. ..- Mean Moisture Factor1 if any, Erosion Natural Any Special
Soil Type Slope .' *,-. Annual Supplying Limiring Root Hazard Fertiitry Soil Manageomen
Riaose Soil Rainfall Capacity Penetrarton Probhlsu
Jalousie Clay 2-6 Slow to 9o-roo' Good to Mottled clay Very slight Medium. Slightly Draina4e.
very slow fair subsoil at acidic
Jamberte 5-25 Rapid 60'-90" Poor to Agglomerate at Moderate to Medium to Low. Erosion control.
Stony Silty fair 2o'-3o0 high Acidic Stoninesst.
Clay Loam Shallowneas.
Moisture supply.
Jean Baptiste 15-35* Rapid to So'-1so5 Fair to good High to Low. Very acidic Erosion control.
Silty Clay moderate very high. Low natural fertility.
Loam Subject to
Latille Clay 0-2 Moderate 6o0-8o' Good Almost nil High Acidic Almost none.
Mabouya 18-25 Slow to 9o'-20o Good Mottled clay High. Medium. Acidic Erosion control.
Silty Clay very slow subsoil at from Subject to Drainage.
I5'-25" sliding
Mahaut Silty 5-25- Rapid to po'-iso- Fair Slight on Medium. Acidic Erosion control on
Clay Loam moderate gentle steep slopes.
Marquis Clay 15-25. Rapid to 75"-o100 Fair to Moderate Low to medium low. Erosion control.
moderate good Highly acidic Stoniness in places.
Low fertility.
Michel Gritty 1-5 Slow to 6o'-Bgo Fair to Mottled clay Slight Medium. Acidic Drainage in wet
Clay very slow good subsoil at periods. Moisture
123-20" supply in dry
periods. Very
difficult soil to work.
Micoud 5-3i5 Slow 6o'-90' Poor to Often silica pans; Extremely Medium. Acidic Extreme measures for
Gritty Clay very poor at l7'-3s" high erosion control.

Moreau Clay 5-25* Rapid to 80o-120o Fair to Moderate Medium to low. Erosion control.
moderate good Acidic Low fertility,
P-.rasol Clay 30-40' Rapid to g'-oo Good High to Medium. Acidic Erosion control.
moderate moderate Stoniness. Only
suited to forestry.
Panache Silty 25-40' Moderate go'-6o0' Good High. Very acidic Erosion control.
Clay Loam to rapid Subject to Steepness. Suited to
slipping forestry,
Pisye Silty 0-2 Very slow 6o'-70* Fair Water table at Nil High. Acidic, Drainage. Often
Clay I" -30' (often neutral with depth salinity. Only really
saline) where saline adapted to pasture
and rice.
Quilesse Silty 5-5' Slow to 20"o-i6o" Good Slight to Very acidic Diversion of seepage.
Clay very slow moderate Drainage. Extreme
Robot Clay 15-25' Rapid 90'-120' Good Dadite at 20'-30o High to Medium. Acidic Erosion control.
moderate Stoniness.
Raveneau 0-1' Slow to 50o"-go Good to Mottled clay Nil except High. Acidic Drainage. Moisture
Clay very slow Fair subsoil at stream supply in dry
15"--.4" bank season, Heavy
intractable soil.
Regnier Stony 20-35* Rapid 80'-90' Good High Acidic Erosion control.
Clay Steepness.
Stoniness. Only
suited to forestry,
c *. Moderate 70'-90" Good Nil except Medium to high. Almost none.
Fine Sandy to rapid stream Very acidic
Clay Loam bank
Rozette 2-iS' Slow to 55'-o"' Fair Clay subsoil, Moderate Medium. Acidic Erosion control.
Gritty Clay moderate often with to high Moisture supply in
silica pans at dry season. Heavy
i2'-35' soil to work.

Soucis Silty 0-2' Slow to 70-120o" Good Water table at Nil except Medium. Acidic Drainage.
Clay Cloam very slow 3'-4' stream
Troumasse 0-2* Rapid 6o0-90" Good to Nil except High. Acidic Almost none.
Loam fair stream
Vanard Peat c-2, Water- go'-9o' Very good Water table Nil Neutral to slightly Drainage. A high
logged almost at the acidic organic content.
Venus Loam 20-35' Rapid go'-12o" Fair to High to Medium. Acidie Erosion controL
poor moderate Shallowness.

Warwick Clay o20-35 Moderate 90o"-5o' Good High Low. Very acidic Erosion control.
Steepness. Acidity.
Zenon 2-g' Rapid 90"-too' Fair Slight Medium. Acidic Stoniness,
Loamy Sand

Source: Stark, t atl., 1966.

have developed; the clay of these soils is
generally kaolinitic, but allophane and illite
may also occur.

Soils in the interior tend to be acid, heavily
leached and deficient in minerals, especially
those on the central ridge and on the pitons
which are continuously wet. In fact, from a
resource management perspective it is im-
portant to understand that little of the fertility
that sustains forest growth in St. Lucia is in
the soil itself; rather it is bound up and stored
for recycling in the living biomass, the forest
itself -- the trees (from canopy to ground) and
organic leaf litter and deadfall material on top
of the ground. If this storehouse of nutrients
is removed in any way, it is certain that it will
not be a forest that grows back right away --
only scrub bush which can survive the nutri-
ent-poor conditions. Furthermore, as is typi-
cal of most tropical soils, the top soil layer
tends to be shallow and vulnerable to erosion.
Consequently, the removal of vegetation from
steep slopes tends to be followed by mudslides
or landslips which expose a subsoil that is a
very sterile mixture of clay, iron compounds
and quartz.

In the drier areas of St. Lucia, lattice clays of
the montmorillonitic type are common, and
soils along the coast except near the river
mouths and around Hewanorra Airport tend
to be stony, shallow and infertile. By way of
contrast, the best and thickest soils are the
alluvial deposits in the lower reaches of the
main river valleys, especially Roseau, Cul de
Sac, and Mabouya, plus the plain around
Vieux Fort.

Regardless of the location, however, the high
quality productive soils of St. Lucia tend to be
taken for granted and undervalued. Concern
about soil loss by erosion centers on the fact
that reformation of replacement soils is an
extremely slow process. Best estimates are
that it takes from 200 to 700 years to form just
2.5 cm (about 1 inch) of top soil ',..ghin
about 360 tons/hectare (Pimentel, et al.,
1986). Under certain rainfall conditions,
some St. Lucian rivers carry that much sedi-
ment in one day! And some of this unfortu-
nately is top soil; all of it is lost into the sea.
Such loss is unnecessary if common soil con-

servation practices are followed (see also Sec-
tion 3 of this Profile).

J. Stark, et al. (1966) prepared a useful classi-
fication and pedologic matrix of St. Lucian
soils, a useful component of which is the ero-
sion susceptibility classifications. This matrix
is presented as Table 1.1(10).

1.1.5 Vegetation


Few areas of comparable size anywhere in the
world are endowed with a botanical heritage
as diverse and as interesting as the flora found
on the Caribbean assemblage of islands. For
botanists and naturalists, however, the region
is a tough taxonomic, ecologic and biogeo-
graphic nut to crack because of its checkered
geologic past, the intermixture of high and
low, wet and dry, volcanic and limestone is-
lands and because of the proximity of and flo-
ral species input from the islands of the
Greater Antilles to the marth and the South
American mainland to the south. One of the
region's notable forester-ecologists, J. S.
Beard, in a very utilitarian book published
nearly 40 years ago (Beard, 1949) reported
that the Lesser Antilles alone had nearly 2,000
species of flowering plants. As for trees,
Beard's list stood at 243, of which 68 were re-
gionally endemic, that is, peculiar or native to
the area under discussion. St. Lucia's share,
at the time of Beard's study, was 151 tree
species or 62 percent of the regional total
(Table 1.1(11)).

Isolated from larger land masses, true oceanic
islands are expected to show a highly endemic
flora with a few waif origin types. St. Lucia, as
an archipelagic or quasi-oceanic island, ex-
hibits these phenomena but not in a very
marked degree. Endemism only reaches an
appreciable proportion in the mountainous
interior of the island. Thus, there is a striking
difference between the coastal, dry zone,
lowland flora, with endemism at about 12 per-
cent, and the rain forest and montane floras
with endemism at 40-50 percent.

Table 1.1 (11). Distribution among Lesser Antillean islands of 243 tree i."- ;: *-
68 si.-,1.-..X'. endemic.




St. -,, .,-I

St. Lucia
St. G rna-n

Source: Beard, 1949.

Part of the reason for this difference is geo-
logical. When the four central islands of the
Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe, Dominica,
Martinique and St. Lucia), which also form
the oldest group, began to form in T,.li '-c--e
time (see geologic time line, Table 1.1(8)),
there was only open sea to the north of St.
Lucia all the way to Puerto Rico. Subse-
quently, during the Pliocene period, there was
widespread regional uplift. In the south,
Grenada made its appearance above the
ocean surface, but north of St. Lucia the tem-
porary uplift process appears to have pro-
duced a fairly large, low emergent land mass
or cluster of islets more or less f'r'.r, Puerto
Rico and the Virgin Islands group to Antigua,
which was very close to Guadeloupe, the
northernmost of the "big four". This made it
possible for Greater Antillean dry zone flora
(but not the montane flora) to migrate across
the low, dry land bridge" to Guadeloupe and

Slightly later in Pleistocene time, sub-
mergence caused the fragmentation of the
prototypic "Leeward Island" land bridge or
platform and an outburst of vulcanism, finally

resulting in the appearance of Montserrat, St.
Kitts, Nevis and St. Vincent.

These much more recent island systems were
then i,:;di. colonised by flora and fauna
.trici.'-. mostly from the four older islands
at the centre of the group. It is n. ::.'ig to
note that nearly all of St. Lucia's rain forest
trees, even though they are large, tend to be
species with relatively small seeds, easily con-
sumed by birds at one island, carried in-
testinally, and *. *...i. u deposited in fae-
cal matter on another island. Birds were the
primary vehicle for seed transport and floral
colonisation of upland areas. Furthermore,
since inland areas with more fresh water pro-
vided a less hostile environment, the upland
areas were vegetated first and got a head start
in the adaptive process leading to endemism.

Coastal tree types, on the other hand, tended
to have larger seeds or nuts r' 'A_,:k'
which arrived by sea as floating waifs and
which were cast ashore into a fairly hostile en-
vironment, only occasionally taking root and
Si.. Even when the colonisation process
was successful, coastal vegetation was always
at risk from inundation caused by secular

changes in sea level and periodic, short-term
but destructive storm flooding and tidal waves.


There are nine significant and distinct vegeta-
tional associations customarily used for classi-
fication purposes in Lesser Antillean islands
like St. Lucia. They are:

Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 3
Zone 4
Zone 5
Zone 6

Zone 7
Zone 8
Zone 9

Rain Forest
Lower Montane Rain Forest
Montane Thicket
Elfin Woodland
Littoral Woodland
Swamp Formations
(mangroves, etc.)
Secondary Rain Forest
Dry Scrub Woodlands
Fumerole Flora.

The normal distribution of natural vegetation
in St. Lucia is, at first glance, quite simple
(Figure 1.1(3)). The great majority of the
climax formations, in St. Lucia's case the first
six in the above list, are climatically, and
therefore topographically, induced. While
edaphic (soil) factors are important, they lack
the controlling force of climate, except in the
case of the swamp/mangrove formations and
the fumarole sites at Soufriere. In effect, the
forest zones or vegetational belts mirror the
climatic belts described in Section 1.1.2, and
this results in a nearly concentric zonation of
vegetational types related to the increase of
rainfall with altitude above sea level (see Fig-
ure 2.2(2) in Chapter 2 of the Profile).

Zone 1 (Primary Rain Forest). In-
cludes the axial mountain ridge, Barre de
L'Isle and its elongate spurs, pitons, steep
slopes and upper valleys. This central, heavily
forested core of St. Lucia encompasses per-
haps eighteen thousand acres, containing four
closely related but different formations.

(1) RAIN FOREST: (Dacryodes-
Sloanea Association). The
dominant trees are Gommier,
Chataignier, and Mahoe. (See
Figure 2.2(3) and Table 2.2(3)
in Chapter 2.)

FOREST: (Licania-Oxythece
Association). The dominant
trees are Balata, Balata Chien,
Laurier Puant, Corosol Mar-
ron, Dacryodes and Paletuvier.
Despite its name, this
assemblage is located upslope
from the rain forest but is
"lower" than the mountain
peak and ridge top area as
described below. (See Figure
2.2(4) and Table 2.2(4) in
Chapter 2.)

Association). This formation is
found on the numerous peaks,
pitons and higher ridges, the
principal localities being La
Sociere, Piton Flore, Morne
Locombe, Piton St. Esprit, and
Grand Magazin. (See Figure
2.2(5) in Chapter 2.)

(Didymopinax-Charianthus As-
sociation). Restricted in St.
Lucia to the top of Mt. Gimie.
Trees are small in stature,
mossy, knarled, wind-
deformed, and festooned with

These four forest types basically cover every-
thing above the altitude line where an annual
drought has no effect and there is abundant
moisture all year round. This is the zone of
the most luxurious, least disturbed forest. As
used here, however, "undisturbed" does not
necessarily mean pristine. As far back as 1949
Beard noted that the area was "...not a defined
forest reserve and has not been well pro-
tected, so that, while there is a large central
core of irc',.L ii"'Si- virgin forest, the shifting
cultivator has been very active all round the

This nibbling away process continues to this
day. It is seldom difficult to find after the fact,
marked as it is by an unnatural break or gap
in the forest canopy ir'.'!'; exploitation by
some unknown and uninvited itinerant banana

Casearia guianensis
Cocccolo6is pu escens
Faraa occidentalis
in, T-n -. courbaril
Manilkara bidentata
Mayenus elliptical
Pisonia fragrans
Pimenta racemosa
Ta .uT.-I~f-T

Figure 1.1 (9). Profile diagram of evergreen forest site
near Praslin, St. Lucia, as it existed
four decades ago (source: Beard, 1949).

00 -30
o--25 R.
1 Ta.

Chrysochlamys caribaea
I1, r r j C m Osa
Exostema sanctae-luciae
Sterculia caribaea
Tapura antillana

Figure 1.1(10). Profile diagram of riverine forest along the
Roseau River, St. Lucia, as it existed four
decades ago (source: Beard, 1949).

farmer, parrot poacher or charcoal burner
who escaped detection long enough to make
and leave an ugly, grafitti-like mark on the
face of the forest.

Zone 2 (Secondary Rain Forest).
Surrounding the central, mostly primary rain
forest there is an irregular band of secondary
forest that has been devastated by the shifting
cultivator who has moved to a new plot, leav-
ing behind abandoned gardens which often
generate groves of tree ferns. Breadfruit trees
are frequently seen, having been planted by
the former cultivator-tenant. Pioneer speci-
mens of most rain forest species are common.

Zone 3 (Dry Scrub '.'. ',
Downslope of the secondary forest, with
which it shares an irregular boundary, the
formerly forested, dry scrub woodland is now
the primary agricultural zone. This wide band
of land -- now farms, rural villages, roads,
pastures and banana stands -- was once an
area of dry evergreen or semi-evergreen sea-
sonal forest. According to Beard, only a few,
probably non-representative, examples of this
type of forest remain. Figure 1.1(9) displays a
profile diagram and key species list for a dry
evergreen forest site near Praslin on the east
coast as it existed four decades ago.

Zone 4 (Littoral Woodland Dry
Scrub). A discontinuous band of dry scrub
woodland occurs around the coastlands, inter-
rupted by an occasional embayment, by a half
dozen or so significant rivers making their way
to the sea, and by numerous protruding rocky

These physical discontinuities have vege-
tational counterparts in the form of a fresh
water swamp (Bois d'Orange), sand beach
areas, salt flats, a swamp forest (Marigot),
some herbaceous savannah, and, most im-
portantly, fourteen mangrove wetlands which
are listed in Table 2.5(1) and displayed in Fig-
ure 2.5(6) in Chapter Two of the P' .F. The
vegetational formations and relative abun-
dance of plant species in each of these spe-
cialised coastal habitats is presented in Table
1.1(12), and avian (bird) species common to
mangrove areas are shown separately in Table
2.3(2) found in Chapter Two of the Profile.

Another specialised forest formation, not cov-
ered in the preceding summary, is the low al-
titude, valley floor, riverinee rain forest" which
mimics the higher altitude rain forest associa-
tions (see Roseau Valley example shown in
Figure 1.1(10)). This type of valley floor, mi-
cro-forest site was common in the 1940's at
the time of Beard's survey but has, in the in-
tervening decades, been cleared and dis-
placed. What is illustrated is the climax stage
and represents the kind of formation that
would grow back if the sites were left alone,
all other things being equal.

Other specialised vegetational sub-climax
formations are found in the extreme north
and south near Cap Estate and Vieux Fort,
respectively, which are St. Lucia's driest areas.
Here the "dry scrub woodlands" merge into
thorn scrub, logwood thicket, cactus bush and
thorn savannah. (For more information, the
reader is referred to OAS, 1984, "Land Use
and Vegetation" map.)


In 1942 the British Treasury in London pro-
vided funds under a Colonial Development
and Welfare plan for a forester from Trinidad
and Tobago to undertake some exploratory
investigations into the state of forestry matters
in the Windward and Leeward island group.
At that time, only Trinidad had a Forestry
Department, established in 1901, and no
forestry research efforts had been previously
undertaken in the Lesser Antillean region.
Since the intention was to start an insular for-
est service and execute a forestry programme
in each of the islands, and since the venture
was, in the absence of any prior research,
starting from first principles, it necessitated
mounting a series of field surveys and ecologi-
cal investigations we would today call a forest
resource assessment.

At the time J.S. Beard, then of the Colonial
Forest Service, started his decade of work in
the Lesser Antik, (which led to pbiki-ion
of his classic monograph, The Natural Vege-
tation of the Windward and Leeward Islands,
in --)-4., he found the existing classification

Table 1.1(12). Relative abundance of plant species in different coastal habitats.

Habitat and species

Sand beach
Ipomoea pes-capreae
Wedelia trilobata
Stachytarpheta jamaicensis
Paspalum vaginatum
Euphorbia mesembryanthemifolia
Ipomoea cairica

Salt flats
Sesuvium portulacastrum
Fimbristylis spathacea
Spartina patens

Strand woodland
Morinda citrifolia
Terminalia catappa
Coccoloba uvifera
Erithalis fruticosa
Hippomane mancinella
Jaquinia arborea
Cytharexylum fruticosum
Randia aculeata
Haematoxylon campecnianum
Lonchocarpus benthamianus
Acacia farnesis
Fimbristylis ferruginea
Clerodendron aculeatum
Melia azedarach
Cocos nucifera

Mangrove awamp
Rhizophora mangle
Laguncularia racemosa
Avicennia schaueriana
Avicennia germinans
Conocarpus erect a
Acrosticum aureum
Thespesia populnea
Dalbergia ecastaphyllum
Hibiscus tiliaceus
Pluchea odorata
Anona glabra
Brachypteris ovata
Sporobolus virginicus
Sporobolus indicus

Mangrove type

> S .4 C si6
03 0 a0.a> w
r- 0 >0 :6 4) a-t*' *- ;
O0 1 o >0 '0 a
so> 0 --m a
a- aa aac cu a k aU

+ + 3 2
3 + + +

+ r 4




* + + +

2 2 44 3 3
4 + 2 2 + 4 1



+ +
+ 2
3 2



4 4 4
3 + 2
+ 3
+ + 4-
+ +
+ +


Mangrove swamp (contd.)

Mariscus planifrons
Fimbristylis dichotoma
Rhabdenis biflora
Cydista aequinoctialis
Eichhornia crassipes

Swameep forest
Pte'rocarpus officinalls
Lonchocarpus domingensis
Calophyllum calaba
Montrichardia arborescens
Pimenta racemosa
Mangifera indica
Ceiba pentandra
Leonotis nepetaefolia
Nephrolepis rivularis
Gynetium sagittatum

Herbaceous savanna
Eleocharis mutate
Ludwigia octovalvis
Hyptis verticillata
Eleocharis interstincta
Mariscus mutisli
Schrankia leptocarpa
Capraria biflora
Enicostema verticillatum

Mangrove type

,.s ca aa a3 Lia
Wa assW> k
L 0 U 5.'a 0 a
SW-. o C Oa -I ^a a
k a C -oa 0 -a a 0 o 0 -^ 'a C

o'xc Sm ' c --o aoccsa 0a
Z c Q ao 0 a C a U >
is + 0 a L a 4 0 aQ a a

+ -i+

Key:- Index of abundance= frequency of
occurrence in sample areas within each
+i = occasional,<10%
1 = 10%
2 = 25%
3 = 50%
4 = 75%
5 = 100%

Source: Portecop and Benito-Espinal, 1985.

+ *t

2 1

+ +
+ + 3

system, one developed by French <.ri.i...,--
alist, M. Henri Stehle, quite unsuitable, lack-
ing a sufficiently broad and comprehensive
ecological perspective. In Stehle's book, For-
est Types of the Caribbean Islands (1945-6), as
in two previous studies (in French), he fol-
lowed the nomenclature used by Gleason and
Cook in their study of the vegetation of Puerto
Rico (1927), where the principal names --
Mesophytic, Xerophytic, Hygrophytic and Al-
titudinal -- were cryptic to all but the author.

Beard p' I .. d simpler terms that would ap-
ply to more specific kinds of communities
which "...are united by common structure and
life-form." Beard was convinced that the
"...natural vegetation itself gives a much better
index of the local environment." His system
not only informs the structure of this St. Lucia
Environmental Profile but also now serves as
the working foil and forerunner of one
component of an Organisation of American
States' strategy to develop an improved in-
formation base for St. Lucia on 1:50,000 scale
maps. In fact, the fifth map in the new OAS
series is entitled "Land Use and --.-' ..'"
and retains Beard's vegetational classification
framework almost in its entirety.


In the same map series referred to above,
OAS also introduced a more precise nomen-
clature for the vegetation. It produced a new
"Natural Life Zone" map based on the so-
called Holdridge system of classifying bio-
geoclimatic zones by using an elaborate
nomogram which identifies all first order
ecosystems. Favoured by the agriculturalists,
the Holdridge classification technique gives
the appearance of being a more finely tuned,
more ,it:.,l c version of Beard's classifi-
cation methodology. The Holdridge vegeta-
tion classes for St. Lucia, displayed in Table
1.1(13), can be useful indicators of the kinds
of plants best adapted to each "life zone"
ecosystem (see Annex A of OAS, 1986a, for
species composition data). Conversely, ob-
servation of the natural vegetation can be used
to p,'.'.t broad environmental conditions
where such site-specific data are not available.
This is of some utility in scheduling the intro-
duction of either annual or tree crops in areas
newly opened up to farming.

Table 1.1 (13). St. Lucia life zones (Holdridge's terminology).

Acres Hectares AREA

Tropical dry forest 48,207.0 19,517.0 31.7
Tropical dry forest transition
to tropical very dry forest 3,046.3 1,233.3 2.0
Tropical moist forest 20,448.6 8,278.8 13.4
Subtropical moist forest 11,186.1 4,528.8 7.3
Subtropical wet forest 47,835.5 19,366.6 31.4
...JLt ,.-,.i wet forest ", .. '....
to subtropical rain forest 18,661.6 7,555.3 12.3
Subtropical rain forest 2,870.6 1,162.2 1.9

Source: OAS, Life Zones Map (1984).

But on islands as small and as rugged and hilly
as St. Lucia, ritual concern for micro-detail
and for establishing "boundaries" for irregular,
ill-defined "transition zones" leads to zonal
P, :hI-.1.: and a very confused picture.
Under these circumstances, the value of devis-
ing individual "management plans" for each
discrete life zone, as has been recently sug-
gested (Lugo, et al., 1981), appears quite
doubtful, even impractical -- at least for a
country as small as St. Lucia.

1.1.6 Water

Rainfall is the primary source of fresh water
in St. Lucia. Average annual total precipita-
tion is about 150 gigalitres or 1.5 cubic kilo-
metres of water (35 billion gallons). Due to
the rugged topography and the absence of
lakes and ponds to serve as storage reservoirs,
most of this water flows quickly to the sea.
Worse yet, a rather low proportion is stored
naturally as ground water because of the gen-
erally impervious nature of the volcanic bed-
rock. Consequently, the timely interception of

some portion of this rainfall run-off is the only
means of making water available for human
use, while the remainder performs its essential
role in maintaining natural vegetation and
r.jri .F'J agriculture.

The forested areas of St.Lucia (see Figure
2.2(2)) provide a reliable, cost-free rainwater
storage service for the country that works in
the following way. Nearly all rain that falls in
the protected upland forest and watershed re-
serve areas (approximately 19,000 acres (7,600
hectares), see Table 2.2(2)) is first intercepted
and atomized (broken up) by the forest
canopy (which minimises the soil erosion ef-
fects) and then is absorbed by the humus,
soils, root systems, subsoils and fractured rock
layers which form the forest floor (see Figure
1.1(11)). This infiltration process gradually
evolves into a down hill subsurface flow called
percolation, with the groundwater sometimes
finding its way into and through rock fissures
or pores, sometimes surfacing in the form of
seepage or natural springs, with nearly all of it
ending up in the streams and rivers of the
watershed surface drainage system which
eventually discharges into the sea.



Infiltration I I I

Water table





Ground water flow

Figure 1.1(11). The water cycle.

When there is a heavy ah,.,! which exceeds
the infiltration capacity of the watershed, the
surplus water moves 3, i- ., -,. on the surface
as sheet run-off, often eroding valuable topsoil
from disturbed areas en route and flowing,
with its newly acquired sediment load, directly
into the nearest tributary stream. Sometimes
it also picks up floatable trash, which often
ends up blocking cul-verts, filling and clogging
catch basins and causing localized flooding.
Hence, the infiltration capacity of the forest
, i.'.rI..% a function of canopy integrity) is an
important factor in optimizing water storage
and reducing .. r i.- .,p flooding and water

While only covering a little more than a tenth
of the island, government forest and water-
shed reserve areas and adjoining protected
forests receive about 30 gigalitres (7 billion
i'. i of water per year, perhaps 20 percent
of the total rainfall for St. Lucia. C
about one-third of this total is intercepted at
various springs and river sites by WASA
dams, weirs and intakes and channeled to
about three dozen publicly maintained water
supply reticulation systems. Some are village-
sized at about 100,000 gallons per day (gpd),
with others ranging upward in size to a 1.0
million gpd (4.5 MI/day) treatment and dis-
tribution system at Vieux Fort and a 3 million
gpd (13.6 MI/day) integrated facility ,e..i.;
the Castries area. The existing network of
production and distribution facilities is de-
picted in Figure 1.1(12).


Present -'. oj,-,:... by users of piped water
systems, based on 1987 WASA data, is ap-
proximately 6.5 rilir gallons per day or 29
megalitres per day. This calculates out, as-
suming a rp.'to:j. of 140,000, to about 200
..., or 45 gallons per person day. Figure
1.1(13) div':,;- historical trends of water
production/ .. -,,-;... since 1977. r .,...
the most striking thing about the data is the
growing steepness of the curve and fact that it
confirms a 200 percent increase since 1977, a
figure considerably higher than most previous
estimates. Of 1'. -.. -i. :.. note is the 1.5 mil-
lion gallon (6.8 T.h, ;-) per day shortfall be-

tween water demand and delivered produc-

The entire coastal development zone from
Cap Estate in the north to Vigie is served by
water piped from the Grande Riviere and the
Choc River. This system is interconnected
with the municipal network serving Castries
and the extensions as far south as Roseau
A'i ,J '...".4) and Marigot Bay. Most of the
water comes from intakes within the Castries
Waterworks Reserve, part of which was estab-
-:.. I in 1916. It has been recommended that
the Castries Waterworks Reserve be ex-
!,, .-_J by at least 300 hectares (750 acres) to
ensure a continuing source of water for the
urban area. Other, less elaborate water sup-
ply networks serving non-metropolitan areas
are listed in Table 1.1(14).

At the present time, 50 percent of the popula-
tion is directly connected to the water supply
system, 38 percent is served by community
standpipes, and 12 percent has no access. As
the service network is extended, bringing
water to more and more users, total con-
sumption and per capital consumption will
both increase. Population growth, improved
living standards, industrialization, urbaniza-
tion, tourism development, and irrigation
schemes are all actively forcing an escalation
of water demand with no counterpart expan-
sion of productive capacity.

The St. Lucian Government's 1977 National
Plan somewhat boldly estimated that the "...
total water demand will be 10.00 mgd [45
i,/day] by 1990." Even that figure, which is
the equivalent of 45 Ml/day (70 gallons per
;,,, >'. .'r), will in all likelihood be exceeded,
given recent government and private sector
announcements regarding scheduled and in-
tended new hotel construction by 1990.
Unfortunately, no data are available on pro-
jected water demand by industry, but an anal-
ysis of the 1987 annual reports from NDC,
SLBGA, CDB and the SLDB suggests that
any figure below an ..- '. 2.0 mgd would
be unrealistic.

As for agriculture and its projected seasonal
need for 'i;;.I..r water, the most recent es-
timate is 25 mgd (112 Ml/day) to serve irriga-
ble lands of major interest, mostly


- 14


- 13'

- 13'

Figure 1.1 (12). Water production and distribution network.


D Treatment Plants

05' Tanks

1* Reservoirs

O Pump Stations

V River Intake

P- Pipeline

/,- Roads


Anse la Raye/'


Canarip ..

Soufrie .- '.N




1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Miles

1 0 1 2 3 K45 675 m
61' 05'


60 55'

2920 million gallons = WASA estimated demand for
- - -- 1987 (@ 8 MCD x 365 days = 2920 million gal./yr.)
NB. Does not include irrigation demand at 25 MGD


2373 million gallons = actual WASA production for
----------- ----------- ---_-^^o 1987 (Ch 6.5 MGD x 365 days = 2373 million gal./yr.)

[---] no data available from 1983-1986



1977 745 MC
1978 820 MC
1979 984 MC
1980 1080 MG
1981 1187 MG
1982 1281 MC
1983 1375 MG
1984 1588 MC
1985 1606 MC
1986 no data
1987 2373 MG

1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 19 5 1986 1987

Figure 1.1 (13).

Historic trends in water production and consumption, 1977-1987
(source: 1977-1985 data from GOSL, Annual Statistical Digest;
1987 data from WASA).

alluvial soils which exceed 5,000 acres (2,000
hectares) in seven principal river valleys (see
Table 1.1(15)). This is ten times the area now
irrigated and forecasts a heavy need for water
should these lands be brought under irriga-
tion. This subject is also discussed in the agri-
culture section of the Profile (Chapter 3) and
in Section 2.4 on hydrology.


There is a growing volume of both historical
and ,..n.* .,r:,r', information on quantita-
tive, qt-,:i: .0i, spatial and temporal aspects

of St. Lucia's rainfall and its associated infil-
tration, runoff, stream and river flow volumes
and rates, evapotranspiration, floods and
droughts, and water uses -- rural, urban,
industrial and agricultural. Consulting reports
and data books on water fill a small bookshelf;
some measuring instruments are now auto-
mated and some rainfall and stream flow data
can be retrieved from and ;-r.I n:nr.i.i4 i, on an
IBM computer.

But there is some confusion because there is
so much data, not all of it consistent. The
problem has arisen largely since 1980 as a
consequence of different outside consultants


Table 1.1(14). Water intakes serving non-metropolitan water supplies.


Forest Reserve (3 intakes)
Ravine Bassin Noir (2 intakes)
Ravine Saut
Fond River
Forest Reserve
Grand Riviere du Vieux Fort
Grand Riviere du Vieux Fort
Grand Riviere de L'Anse Noir
Grand Riviere du Vieux Fort
Doree + L'lvrogne Rivers
Local springs
Canaries River
Grand Riviere de L'Anse La Raye

Mabouya Valley
Mabouya Valley
Patience, Mon Repos
Pierrot, St. Urbain ]
Vieux Fort ]
Vieux Fort, Laborie ]
Choiseul Villages ]
Choiseul Villages ]
Anse La Raye

1,825 ha

Source: Stevenson, 1985, 1986, based on data from CPU Issue Paper No. One (1985).

Table 1.1(15). Irrigable lands and water demand by major watersheds.

Acres Hectares (mgd)

Marquis 378 153 1.89
Roseau 1,332 539 6.66
Troumassee 299 121 1.50
Fond D'Or 1,169 473 5.84
Camelles 250 101 1.25
Cul de Sac 1,443 584 7.22
Vieux Fort 163 66 0.81

TOTALS 5,034 2,037 25.17

Source: Oelsner, 1981; cited in OAS, 1987.

250 ha
400 ha
50 ha

675 ha

400 ha
50 ha

and contractors each, in the absence of local
standards or guidelines, "inventing" de novo
his or her own way of organising and mapping
primary watershed-related or focused infor-
mation. Subsequent users, analysts, local
planners and resource managers have not
helped matters by compounding old errors, by
i-,_;',. inconsistencies, and by not I:.. :-
ing proper reference standards and then
H.ii.i consultants to the mark. This matter
needs some sorting out as part of any up-
graded strategic planning initiative,

In Oelsner's OAS technical report on St.
Lucia's water resources done in 1981, he
identified 28 river basins to which he assigned
.,' -d..L,... numbers ,-..... to maps and
various tables of data such as area, slope,
. i. 1! river flow, etc. This base list of 28 is
reproduced as Table 1.2(5) below. In October
of the same year, a different OAS/C -,'.L re-
search team, Pretell and Polius, came up with
yet another watershed list. i/ r',,, the new
list ..:'-!.; '::i. looks like an expansion of the
first list (i.e., it has the same 28 key entries
with only new sub-heads ;.:..i:i), there are
actually 47 catchment areas, with new water-
shed identification numbers and with new
(different) acreage figures cited for each wa-
tershed! This change (not explained) then
throws off all associated, previously done
calculations such as total rainfall volume per
watershed and land usage percentages.

To confuse matters even further, a later OAS
summary document on its St. Lucia natural
resource project published in 1986 (OAS,
1986a) reprints both watershed lists with no
accompanying errata sheet or footnote expla-
nation, and with incorrect column acreage
totals on the adapted 7-.-'?i and i' list
(OAS Table 7, Map B-1 and A-1). Y,,
thermore, in the accom-panying text, it states
that there are 31 watersheds, a statement that
leaves the reader understandably confused.
But this was not end of the matter.

In that same year, 1986, after the completion
of two related hydrological study efforts by
two -*ide-,:.: consulting teams, one UN and
one EDF-sponsored, the official reports pre-
sented St. Lucia with yet another watershed
inventory list using 37 catchment units (see
Figure 2.4(1)), a brand new numbering sys-

tem, a new map key and, once again, different
acreages shown for each catchment area.

iv.,'i i.. a seven year period, a half dozen fairly
significant studies were done for St. Lucia fo-
cusing on its rainfall and river flow data base,
on water supply and hydrology. But the find-
ings are structured by four different, uninte-
grated, incompatible, numerically different
tabular systems -- 28 watersheds, 31 water-
sheds, 37 watersheds and 47 watersheds, with
mostly inaccurate acreage figures as far as the
reader can discern.

L.: i ..- these .i. I'-I;I data problems, there
is more than enough -.:iii....- available to
undertake a comprehensive water resource
management ;.,',i_;, effort in the country.
These matters are :.; '.-,-* .1 in some detail in
_:. .,i 2.4 on Fl-:. "' -1, and Water Resource

Until recently, the only limiting factor in the
supply of water to I..z- ',1e f communities has
been the ability and willingness of Gov-
ernment to make funds available for the oper-
ation and maintenance of water intake, purifi-
cation, pumping and the pipeline network.
Even now, there remains some untapped
potential in a few river basins with high rain-
fall and relatively low population such as the
Troumassee and the Canelles. There has
been some discussion about transferring
"surplus" water from these rivers to the water-
short Roseau and Vieux Fort rivers.

However, the cost of water supply increases
dramatically when water has to be shifted by
costly gravity feed tunnels or pumping from
one basin to another. Costs escalate even
further when the demand exceeds the base
flow, necessitating the construction of elevated
.,,.i.r.- r, .: _.: in the form of tanks,
ponds or reservoirs. Er... -, losses at an
average of 4 inches of water per month from
,.i..-,: e>:;,..,',._- exacerbate the problem.
The alternative of more effective watershed
protection and ',... : -:.- aimed at cap-
turing more rainfall through improved infil-
tration, is, by far, the preferred strategy.

Matters of money and technology notwith-
standing, there remains a limit to the amount
of .- i.-.-. run-off that can be "harvested" from

a given watershed acreage with a given as-
semblage of vegetation. River flows during
drought periods are & q-nrp.-g. St. Lucia is fast
approaching that maximum water withdrawal
limit. In a somewhat slower mode, it is ap-
proaching the stark reality that although it has
an "i pic- '. collection of hydrological stud-

ies and consulting reports addressing pieces of
the problem, there is no water supply and
watershed development plan, no water system
management plan, no water conservation
plan, no water quality monitoring plan and no
water resource policy.


1.2.1 Overview

The existing pattern of land use and set-
tlement in St. Lucia, as in the case of most
rugged volcanic islands, reflects a general
historical preference for living on or near the
coastline due to the difficulty of road building
and transport in the upland interiors. Com-
munications between places like Vieux Fort
and Soufriere and Vigie were customarily by
ferry boats and cutters which used the inshore
waters as a "highway" or seaway. In more re-
cent times, coastal settlements have been ar-
tificially linked together by a sinuous, narrow,
sometimes dangerous and often dramatic
coastal road. Like St. Vincent and
Montserrat, St. Lucia does not have a truly
circumferential highway; in the northeast the
coastal area from Dennery Knob all the way
to Cap Estate is more or less inaccessible. It
has only one significant cross island road.

St. Lucia is basically a village society with farm
families living in quasi-urban (St. Lucian-
style) centres and walking to their land daily.
Rural women market their food crops in the
the urban or town centres, and many urban
households have family land in the "country"
which provides them with a link to the land
and access to a part of their food require-
ments. Even Castries is, in many ways, more
like a large waterfront village than a small

It is no accident that all ten "urban" areas are
located at river mouths on the generally flatter
coastal plain and have had a long dialogue
with both the sea and shipping (as a local en-
trepot) on the one hand and with agriculture
and inland farming areas on the other. At one
time, before the interior network of paved
roads was developed, the standard commu-
nication link between Castries and the outly-
ing towns along the sea coast was by boat. It
is notable that transportation for w: L.:a! dig-
nitaries from Castries to Soufriere for the re-
cent ceremonial events marking the discovery
of a five megawatt geothermal steam source at
Soufriere was by sea using the coast guard
vessel, as in days long past.

In addition to Castries, which has always been
the metropole (although its predecessor, the
Vieille Ville, was originally situated where the
Vigie Airport now is), there are nine "old"
primary coastal villages that are now under-
going an urbanization process. These include
(see Figure 1.1(1)):

Anse la Raye
Vieux Fort
Gros Islet

There are, additionally, over 120 small towns
that are mostly but not entirely agricultural.
Table 1.2(1) organises them by type and func-
tion into six categories which reflect and sug-
gest the complex, three-way interaction
among historical, social, and environmental
forces as they affect the landscape, the style,
and the structure of human settlements in
rural St. Lucia.

Choices about nearly all land use in St. Lucia,
whether public or private sector driven, are in
general constrained by the rugged nature of
the terrain. Whether the task is siting a new
town ,indpip. or dump or laying out the
route of a new feeder road or selecting new
sites for small farm plots, all these tasks are
affected by one common denominator --
namely, the degree of flatness of the location
and its approaches, or the obverse, which pro-
vides an index of its slope or steepness. This
is generally measured in angular degrees of
arc from the horizontal and called the gradi-
ent, or it is sometimes referred to as a ratio of
rise to run and called slope (as in 1:28, which
is the same as a two degree gradient).

Even a cursory review of Table 1.2(2), which
displays land distribution by slope in St. Lucia,
brings home the inescapable fact, confirmed
by looking at any topographic map, that St.

Table 1.2(1). Types of human settlements in St. Lucia.

Type Characteristicts Settlements

A-l: Urban, or urban function Less than 50% of population engaged in agriculture, Castries, Vieux Fort, Marisule, Augier, Reduit,
related, as defined by forestry and fishing, and/or concentration of tourism, Black Bay, Bois D'Orange, Gros Islet, Dennery (village),
functional and economic industry, commerce, and construction, and/or served Soufriere (town), Choiseul (village), Laborie (village).
relationships, with greatest frequency by independently owned Settlements which show signs of increasing dependency on
transport vehicles allowing residents to commute to urban jobs, e.g., Bexon area, Babonneau area,
work in urban areas. Ti Rocher (Castries).'

A-2: Related to urban area by Heavy reliance on non-agricultural sources of income Reunion, Cafetere, Monchy, Desrameaux, La Borne,
location but have no urban (e.g.: craftwork in the Choiseul Quarter,remittances Theordorine, Anse La Verdure.
functions. in Anse La Raye and Canaries Quarters).

8: Rural, agricultural Concentration of small farmers producing crops that Babonneau,' La Gare, Balata, Marquis, Paix Bouche, Marc,
functions supported by good en3oy the most reliable market system (bananas, Fond Cannie, Chassin, Forestiere, Trois Piton, Fond Petit,
natural resource base. coconuts, fresh vegetables) and/or good rainfall, Ravine Poisson, Guesneau, Odsan, Boguis, Oeglos, Becage,
soils not seriously eroded and/or high percentages Barre de L'Isle, Ti Rocher (Castries),' La Ressource.
of 1-5 and 5-10 acre holdings. Mon Repos, Woodlands, Au Leon, Belle Vue, Morne Panache,
Banse, Canelles, Grande Ravine, Vige, Desruisseau, La Rue,
La Caye, Annus, Micoud, Giraud, Saint Joseph, Ti Rocher,
Saltibus, Blanchard, Millet, La Croix, Maingot, Grace,
De Mally, Latille, Ti Riviere, L'Eau Mineur, Moreaux,
Degard, Durocher, Mahaut, La Cour Ville, Galba, Lumbard,
Seleau,2 Raillon, Choco Mel,2 Londonderry, Praslin,
Patience, Mamiku, Derniere Riviere.

C-l: Predominantly small Holdings generally smaller than type B with a greater Roseau, Soucis, Saint Philip, Crown Lands, Migni, Garrand,
holdings (under I acre). percentage under 1 acre and/or greater land constraint Colombette, Debbarrah, Sarot, Fond Assau, Durandeau,
than type B because of mountainous terrain which Oupui, Hill 20,Z Pois Oous,2 La Haut, Talvern, Eating,
restricts settlement expansion or because nearby lands Dauphin, Belle Fond, La Pointe, Malgretoute, Jac Mel,
are controlled by well-cultivated medium and large Grand Riviere, Fond Saint Jacques.

C-2: Predominantly small Lower rainfall, than in type C-1 or poorer soils and/ Morne Sion, Delcer, Ravenau, Fiette, Victoria, La Fargue,
holdings (under 1 acre) or heavier rate of emigration (especially the 15-44 age Industry, Debreul, Esperance, La Pointe (Choiseul),
group) than occurs in areas characterized in type C-1. La Riche.

D: Former sugarcane Areas that did not go into intensive cultivation of Morne Jacques, Mal Mason, Masacre, Sarot, Au Tabor, Robot,
growing areas, replacement cash staples. Belvedere, Gertrine, Ravine Duval, Savanne, Bouton
Chateau Belair, EsperanLe (Canaries).

1. Settlements that have characteristics of more than one type.
2. Rot traceable on the 1: 25 000 scale. Directorate of Overseas Survey Map.

Source: OAS, 1986a, based on Carnegie (1981); Directorate of Overseas Survey 1: 25,000 scale map and GOSL,
Ministry of Agriculture, 1980 Farmer Survey.

Lucia has precious little flat land. Eighty per-
cent of the country has slopes greater than 10
degrees, and almost half of the entire country
has to live with slopes in excess of 20 percent.
Nearly 20,000 acres (a little under 8,000
hectares) are over 30 percent and suitable
mostly as forested water catchment and
wildlife habitat -- both of which leave the veg-
etation and canopy undisturbed.

The reader is alerted to the fact that there are
several different slope tables circulating in St.
Lucia among both local professionals and vis-
iting consultants. Over the years various
modifications have been made by persons un-
known, with little consistency and less concern
about the effects of arbitrary exclusions (for
example, the forest reserve acreage which is
not a constant) which skew the base figure
downward and the percentage value upward
and almost always guarantee false conclu-

1.2.2 Classifying Patterns of Land Use

Amongst the various land development and
resource planning consultants who have
sought to help St. Lucia develop new ways to
observe, measure, map and project land usage
patterns, there has been an occasional lapse of
consistency, a common tendency to invent
ever new land classification systems or use
categories, and an unfortunate lack of consis-
tency regarding area or acreage figures for the
various classes of slope, usage or vegetation
type. This has led to some confusion, best il-
lustrated by several examples.

Example #1. Recent land utilisation
surveys and studies are in general agreement
that St. Lucia has about 15,000 acres (9.8% of
total land area) dedicated to urban and rural
settlement use. According to OAS's land use
survey by river basin (see example #3 below),
about one-third of this (or 5,000 acres) is liter-
ally urban, and a little more than 9,000 acres is
made up of rural villages and towns and linear
settled areas characteristic of residential de-
velopment alongside roads and highways in
hilly terrain. It is perplexing, however, to find
no change in the urban classification total
after 14 years (see Table 1.2(3)).

Between the ,.rii.-: and the upland forest,
a broad band of 50,000 acres (33% of total
land) is devoted to mixed agricultural uses
(1988 figures). This contains the majority of
small and medium-sized farms and represents
the most highly productive agricultural land
use zone according to the Government's 1986
Agricultural Census.

Approximately 13,600 acres are described as
"pure banana stands." These alluvial, river
valley lands are in the main occupied by
medium to large farms and are generally lo-
cated on lands of Agricultural Capability
Classes I to IV (see Section 3.1 of the Agricul-
ture Chapter). Finally, GOSL designates
31,320 acres as scrub and pasture lands and an
elongated central zone of primary and sec-
ondary forest and woodlands covering 44,960

The reader's attention is drawn to column
three in the comparison table (Table 1.2(3))
with its built-in dilemma for any prospective
user. It is obvious that one or more entries
must be incorrect because the table has 2,380
more acres than the country had in the 1973
Agricultural Census and the 1977 National
Plan and 2,986 more acres than Piitz shows
(Table 1.2(4)).

Example #2. What happens when a
professional forester approaches the task of
developing a profile of land use in St. Lucia,
addressing the very same 152,500 acres?
Inspect Table 1.2(4) and notice how different
it looks compared to the GOSL information
cited in Table 1.2(3). How could nearly
10,000 acres of urban area simply disappear?
Why would the forester (Piitz) find more
farmland and the planners more forest? ...
and the forester find grassland (1,500 acres)
where the planners found none, but the plan-
ners found 13,600 acres of bananas which the
forester never mentions except indirectly as
"mixed agriculture".

It is, of course, obvious that the problem
arises out of the matter of structuring and
defining appropriate classes or categories.
There is always the difficult choice to be made
between simplicity and complexity, between
generalities and explicit detail. In the above
tables, GOSL errs on the side of simplicity;

Table 1.2(2). Land distribution by slope in St. Lucia.


Under 1:28



1:28 1:11.5 3,900

1:11.5 1:6 15,000

1:6 1:3 37,580

1:3 1:1.7 46,000

Over 1:1.7 19,800

(133,180 ac)*












(152,180 ac)**









53,805 100%

Misc./Mixed* 19,068.6 7,719 : ;.

TOTAL 152,248.6 61,524 *** 100.0%

* Miscellaneous surface types: barerock, salinas, urban areas, beaches, swamps, and other excluded
areas. N.B. Several documents leave out this line/category and calculate percentage on a base
acreage of 133,180 + (see column #5).

** A few documents (for example, see Talbot, 1984), as well as information provided by the GOSL/CPU
for the CEP study, calculate percentages using a base of about 152,200 acres, with minor variations.
Caution is suggested in using all of the various slope tables available for St. Lucia as they vary

*** This hectare column varies as a function of the acres to hectares conversion factor used by different
researchers. Some use 2.4, while some use 2.5 as a divisor. This column uses 2.47, a more accurate
figure, but it changes the total. At least four standard sources have an apparent error in the
acreage figure shown for gradient over 30 degrees often showing 19,000 acres, not 19,800 acres.

Piitz, the forester, errs on the side of detail as
the descriptive guide for his classification sys-
tem is larger than his table -- and too lengthy
to reprint here but very useful to future inves-
tigators for the following reason. The advan-

tage to the data user is that once he or she has
access to the criteria by which the classifica-
tion was accomplished, it is possible to subse-
quently disaggregate, i.e., take apart, the com-
ponents of individual classes (which are com-





10 20

20 30

over 30

posites anyway of different subgroups) and,
without distorting the numbers, put them back
together again in whatever way will be most

Secondly, one can more easily replicate the
survey methodology at a later date in order to
measure changes to specific areas and classes

and over given time frames and establish rates
of change -- an important input to good fore-
casting and planning. In Piitz's favour is the
fact that he elected to borrow and use a stan-
dard FAO set of land use categorical labels
and definitions. His work and his allocations
can therefore be checked for accuracy by
other researchers.

Table 1.2(3). Comparison of three land use tabulations (acreage by class).

1973/74 1977 1988

Urban Areas 15,000 ac 15,000 ac 15,000 ac
Banana Land 13,300 ac 13,500 ac 13,600 ac
Scrub and Pasture 23,000 ac 23,000 ac 31,320 ac
Mixed Agriculture 55,200 ac 55,000 ac 50,000 ac
Forest and Woodland 46,000 ac 46,000 ac 44,960 ac

TOTALS 152,500 ac 152,500 154,880 ac

Source: 1973/74 data from the 1973/74 Agricultural Census; 1977 from the 1977 National Plan;
1988 data from CPU background information submitted for the CEP based on the
1986 Agricultural Census.

Table 1.2(4). Area of land by land class as classified by Piitz.


Rain Forest 16,752 11.0%
Montane Thicket 1,501 1.0%
Mangrove 135 0.1%
Elfin Woodland 329 0.2%
Plantations 608 0.4%
SCRUB FORESTS 30,911 20.4%
OPEN WOODLAND 4,624 3.0%
GRASSLAND 1,530 1.0%

151,894 100.0%
Source: Piitz, 1983.

Example #3. Since 1981 the Orga-
nization of American States has carried out a
lengthy series of investigations in St. Lucia fo-
cusing on natural resource and agricultural
development issues, all within the framework
of a technical co-operation agreement with
the Government of St. Lucia. A major group
of basic planning and resource assessment
studies, undertaken in the early 1980's, sought
to employ an *n. r ....3 strategy, combining
work on land tenure, watershed assessment
and management, rainfall data assembly and
evaluation, and an impressive sequence of
incremental "building block" projects classify-
ing land capability, land uses, water storage,
water supply, and water demand.

It was decided early on in the OAS natural re-
sources project that the Holdridge life zone
vegetation classification system (see Section
1.1.5) would be supplemented by a watershed
framework for recording land and water use
systems and for applying environmental data
to the task of basin y.l.-wi,: and manage-
ment. This was a thoroughly defensible strat-
egy for watersheds are excellent analytical
units or "building blocks" in both resource as-
sessment and planning. (They are often diffi-
cult "management units," however, as their
boundaries, which are natural, seldom coin-
cide with political and administrative bound-
aries.) OAS also sought to assemble in a tab-
ular or graphic format as much basic data
about the resource base as could be located,
collated, massaged and published within the
project framework. It employed a small army
of research consultants to undertake various
tasks producing, between 1981 and 1988, a se-
ries of over 65 reports covering nine broad
thematic areas of focus. They are very helpful
documents -- if used carefully.

The first OAS water study (Oelsner, 1981)
introduced a simple 28 unit clockwise num-
bering system for watersheds (see Table
1.2(5) and Figure 1.2(1)). It was, with some
adaptation, to become the basis for the OAS
data base on watersheds. It seemed harmless
and innocuous at the time, but its roots were
planted and, with OAS's nurturing, it grew.

To begin with, several years later two other
project teams working in St. Lucia with
WASA, apparently _.Li.-g the OAS 28 water-

shed code too small, proceeded to develop a
37 unit system which provides slightly more
detail (Migeot and Hadwen, 1986; HTS,
1986). (The reader is re-ferred to Section 2.4
for further information on the 37 watershed
system.) In the meanwhile, at some point
before 1986, OAS expanded its own 28 unit
numbering system to a heirarchical file system
with sub-files, suitably designed for computer
"file" use. This may explain the peculiar nu-
merical coding used to identify each water-
shed in Table 1.2(6), i.e., there are 47 in 28
primary river basins.

This "Land Use by River Basin" table is an
extremely useful assemblage of information,
but a comparison of the basin acreage column
in Tables 1.2(5) and 1.2(6) immediately sug-
gests a problem: they do not agree. Now
compare these basin/acreage figures with the
similar column in the table entitled "Land
Capability by River Basins" (Table 1.2(7)).
Alas, there one discovers yet a third, com-
pletely different, set of basin acreage figures.
They need to be used with caution and at the
very least the issuing agency, OAS, should dis-
seminate an appropriate errata sheet with
notes on the methodologies used in the vari-
ous classifications and labelling exercises.

It is important that such contradictions and
*:' .:&....*.c errors be clarified. Until they
are, land use planning efforts by various
branches of Government, which need and use
baseline information such as is presented in
these various tables and the documents from
which they have been extracted, will be at risk
and, at best, calculations by the user are ren-
dered more complex than they need to be.

1.2.3 Spatial Patterns of Development

Population distribution shows a marked spa-
tial concentration in what is referred to, in
planning terms, as the northwest urbanised
zone, i.e., the Castries/Gros Islet coastal cor-
ridor. Just under half the total population
lives in this administrative zone (see below,
,:.;,i 1.3.3). Economic activity is domi-
nated by three main productive sectors -- agri-
culture, tourism, and manufacturing -- with
the construction ..3 -.!, performing a critical

Table 1.2(5). OAS initial 1981 numbering code for St. Lucia river basins.


1. Sallee
2. Esperance
3. u' i -
4. Marquis
5. Fond D'Or
6. Dennery
7. ". i;
8. Fond
9. Volet
10. Troumassee
11. Micoud
12. ;.C C..
13. Vieux Fort
14. Black Bay
15. Piaye
16. Balembouche
17. Doree
18. Choiseul
19. L'Ivrogne
20. Soufriere
21. Canaries
22. Grand Riviere de L'Anse La Raye
23. Petite Riviere de L'Anse La Raye
24. Roseau
25. Cul de Sac
26. Castries
27. Choc
28. La Brelotte

Source: Oelsner, 1981.

Acres Sq. Kmn.



and supporting role to all three. See Section
1.5 for a full economic profile of the country.

This concentration of population, services,
and economic activity has serious implications
for the future. For example, despite the pres-
ence of an international airport at Vieux Fort,
the smaller Vigie Airport at Castries handled
14,158 aircraft movements, or 83 percent of
the total in 1982. In addition, Castries is the
centre for banking and insurance, health and
education, electricity, water and telecommu-
nications. Official planning policies call for

decentralisation away from the northwest ur-
ban region. However, this earlier settlement
pattern, dominant since colonial times, has
not been reversed or even significantly slowed.

Urban Areas. Urban growth rates
have varied over the period 1970 to 1980.
Only five of the ten settlements defined as
"urban" (see above, Section 1.2.1) showed
positive growth rates, but the 1986 Agri-
cultural Census data suggest that during the
first part of this decade several of these have
reversed the negative trend and by the time of


SCALE 1 50000







Figure 1.2(1). OAS drainage basin numbering system; see also Table 1.2(5)
(source: OAS, 1987).

Table 1.2(6). St. Lucia land use by river basin.


1 LAPIRS AREA 458.2 0.0 0.0 402.5 0.0 SS.5 o.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
2.0 ESPERANCE 2221.6 24.6 S68.8 992.9 40.4 12.7 65.0 10.8 139.2 367.1 0.0
2.1 TROU GRAUVAL AREA 1048.4 0.D 0.0 1048.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0
3.0 DAUPHIN 1432.5 0.0 343.0 646.3 0.0 0.0 29.' 168.6 171.5 73.4 0.0
4.0 MARQUIS 7483.2 1777.5 804.7 324,0 65.5 0.1 1420.6 1203.6 955.2 816.9 0.0
4.1 LOUVET GRAND ANSE AREA 5027.3 345.3 1371,0 2484.6 0.0 0,0 51.2 215.9 539.7 18.1 0.0
5 0 FOND 'DB 9898.5 1848.6 1462.9 846.0 30.7 0.0 1901.4 1963.8 1166.4 678.0 0.0
5.1 RAVINE TROU A L'EAU AREA 406.5 0.0 0.0 220.9 SO.4 30.6 0.6 32.4 0.0 43.0 19.2
6.0 DOENNERY 4662.0 586.4 1490.4 436.8 172.6 0.0 449.3 258.8 1140.5 15.7 75.7
6.1 RIVIERE DES TROIS ISLETS AREA 2656.3 83.8 131.3 1798.8 0.0 0.0 395.4 0.0 228.3 18.4 0.0
7.0 PRASLIN 1890.9 310,1 97.1 172.8 0.0 0.0 1179.9 0.0 80.6 50.3 0.0
7.1 PATIENCE AREA 1756.2 0.0 10.4 1451.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 0,0 108.6 185.0 0 0
8.0 FOND 4681.5 2438.6 138.2 97 1 0.0 0.0 1548.0 0.0 277.6 181.9 0 0
8.1 LUC POINT AREA 69.3 0.0 0.0 69.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 O.0
9.0 VOLET 1918.5 166.8 92.0 354.7 0.9 0.0 619.2 245.1 439.1 0.0 0.7
10.0 TROUMASSE 8013.2 2660.7 738.3 401.1 164.8 186.3 880.3 2183.2 420.1 226.4 151.0
11.0 MICOUD 2200.9 16.6 78.4 716.6 127.7 1,3 55.6 716.1 252.6 236.0 0.0
11 1 RAVINE BETHEL AREA 748.3 3.2 0.0 448.0 22,5 85.9 1.7 11.0 89.4 86.7 0.0
12 0 CANELLES 4142.8 856.7 549.3 770.8 112.6 27.1 196.9 1102.0 183.0 343,8 0.0
12 1 SAVANNES BAY VIEUX FORT 5149.6 154.0 0.0 2434.7 220.4 457.3 327.1 192.6 438.8 311.9 532.9
13.0 VIEUX FORT 7129.0 954.3 967.6 730.4 672.1 323.5 355.4 1606.6 928.8 525.0 63.8
'4.0 BLACK SAY 3652.6 0.0 40.7 966.3 595.4 13.0 130.0 87.4 726.8 338.3 204.7
141 LABORIE BAY AREA 799.6 0.0 0.0 491.8 51.8 0.0 49.2 46.4 10.4 0.0 109.3
150 PIAYE 2904.8 0.0 730.1 762.5 30.4 59.6 241.6 425.7 360.4 294.6 0.0
16.0 BALEMBOUCHE 1042.9 0.0 12.1 6.5 0.0 42.7 650.3 156.5 89.4 85.4 0.0
17.0 DOREE 2826.8 38.1 1032.6 276.G 56.3 4.5 9G6,2 213.3 108.6 130.5 0.0
17.1 LA FARGUE AREA 414.1 0.0 0.0 17.3 0.0 0.9 241.6 11.0 58.2 84.9 0.0
18.0 CHOISEUL 4754.2 0.0 358.9 614.1 48.5 872.8 223.3 530.6 1087.1 1011.8 6.8
19.0 L'IVROGRE 1405.3 0.0 87.5 364.6 0.0 61.1 467.1 154.6 192.5 77.8 0.0
19.3 ANSE DES PITONS AREA 1455.9 0.0 1.0 380.J 222.9 0.0 499,2 261.5 31.4 58.0 0.0
20.0 SOUFRIERE 3874.3 76.1 1337.2 141.2 0.0 144.6 775.6 793.5 262.8 261.5 66.1
20.1 MAHAUT 3143.2 0.0 745.9 1716.1 0.0 0.0 353.0 118.5 109.0 85.8 14.5
20.0 CANARIES 3452.1 764.0 1946.5 24.;.1 0.0 0.0 120.4 284.7 61.8 0.0 10.0
21.1 ANSE COCHON ANSE GALET 3121.7 162.9 997.7 1520.3 0.0 0.0 297.5 111.3 0.0 22.5 5.0
22.0 GRANO RIVIERE DE L'ANSE LA RAYE 2198.0 447.6 1011.5 253.0 0.0 0.0 225.4 45.7 196.5 0.0 3.9
23.0 PETITE RIVIERE DE L'ANSE LA RAYE 1183.8 0.0 72.7 958.5 0.0 0.0 68.2 0.1 57.5 20.3 1.9
23.1 ANSE PILORI AREA 188.4 0.0 0.0 187.9 0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
24.0 ROSEAU 11838.0 4295,2 1706.1 429.0 80. 0.0 1504.9 517.1 1492.2 853.9 1.1
24.1 MARIGOT AREA 1165.2 9.7 37.8 242.5 0.0 0.0 17.8 51.8 57.1 50.6 697.3
25.0 CUL DE SAC 9508.1 894.5 1896.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 1579.8 2359.9 1230.7 732.0 162.6
25.1 COUBARIL ESTATE AREA 851.8 0.0 183.4 98.1 0.0 52.S 0.7 0.0 142.9 112.0 261.7
26.0 CASTRIES 1231.1 0.0 113.8 0.o 0.0 0.0 0.0 51.7 219.4 124.7 416.3
26.1 VIGIE AREA 1147.0 0.0 75.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 140.5 30.3 704.6
27.0 CHOC 3294.2 0.0 415.9 364.7 41.5 0.0 326.9 495,3 97?.6 367 8 87.3
28.0 BOIS D'ORANGE 2603.6 0.0 80.4 976.2 266.8 57.6 130.2 381.5 81.1 233.5 395.3
28.1 REDUIT CAP AREA 3546.9 0.0 20.8 1893.6 457.3 140.5 111.8 0.0 0.0 143.2 751.7

Total 148089.9 18995.8 22344.7 31311.9 3804.7 2778.8 18801.7 17008.6 15575.0 9399.4 4743.4

Source: OAS, 1987. N.B. Because of rounding, figures may not add up to totals cited.

Table 1.2(7). Land capability classes by river basin.

8.0 FOND
15.0 PIAYE
17.0 OOREE
27.0 CHOC

9992 76

111 .85













32.42 208.44 208.44

89.55 29.34 140.50

72.57 24.70
245.50 78.74 81.83

77.20 32.42

46.32 49.41
55.50 B4.60 277.90
29.34 805.97
58.67 656.20
4.63 38.60
6.17 30.88 335.05
46.32 271.75
177.56 88.00 259.39
125.06 33.97 120.43
123.52 152.86
58.67 15.44 10.81
121.98 154.40






49.41 169.84
46.32 69.48


Source: OAS, 1986a. Based on Pretell and Polius, 1981, and Oelsner, 1981.






603 72
640 .76












Tablel 1.2(7L Land caailt clse by river__ basin.'.

the 1990 Census will show a modest gain. The
most rapidly growing urban area was Gros
Islet, although in absolute terms Castries
added the most people, over 5,000 persons.

The most striking feature of urban growth has
been urban sprawl, the uncontrolled and hap-
hazard spread of development in the vicinity
of urban areas. This p ...i. i r, has resulted in
the loss of a yet undetermined amount of
prime agricultural land (see also Section 3.4)
and the loss of lands more suited to recre-
ation, commercial or industrial use. This ur-
ban sprawl has further resulted in spiraling
costs for infrastructure >I.._ bi,. and mainte-
nance. Land subdivision has therefore in less
than two decades literally leapfrogged" all the
way from Castries to Point de Cap leaving in-
tervening blocks of only ?.rr;i;di serviced
lands, generally held for speculative reasons.

Another result of urbanisation has been the
growth of slums and squatter ("spontaneous")
settlement areas within and on the periphery
of the larger urban areas. These areas are the
SE-k.ii manifestations of rural-urban migra-
tion, of a critical shortage of urban housing
and land, and of the failure of land use man-
agement schemes to adapt to new problems.
Such areas are concentrated in: (1) the inner
neighborhoods of Castries from La
Clery/Vide Bouteille in a broad area to Faux
a Chaux; (2) the peripheral neighborhoods
of Castries and Vieux Fort, and (3) other
small pockets of other rural and urban settle-

Other serious problems associated with rapid
urban growth include:

(1) -.portation, traffic and roads:

Severe traffic congestion and critical
shortage of parking space in Castries
and Vieux Fort;

The absence of an organised public
1, b ....'.J' ,; ..,- system ;

The failure to provide for pedestrian
usage of miban streets and roads and,
in particular, the absence of policies
aimed at child safety on school

The effects of the by-pass roads on
the growth and development of
Micoud, Dennery and to a lesser ex-
tent Laborie.

(2) Utilities:

The lack of functioning systems for
sewerage disposal in all residential
centres outside of Castries. In
Castries the prc.b1-rc is more
complex with underuse of the existing
system by the urban poor and failure
of the system to serve the rapidly
growing communities to the south
and north of the city centre (see also
Section 4.2.2);

The failure to integrate utility
expansion plans and programmes for
all urban areas.

(3) Recreation and open space:

A continuing shortfall in the pro-
vision of recreational la, ..,: and
open space for active and passive
recreation in all urban centres.

Rural settlements patterns. The
southeastern dr. '.. of Micoud and Vieux
Fort have experienced rapid rates of growth
since 1970, with the total population of the re-
gion :i,..r,.1.. from 18,253 in 1970 to an es-
timated 27,055 in 1984. This rapid increase
was most pronounced in the rural parts of
these districts. The west coast districts of
Anse La Raye, Canaries, Soufriere and
Choiseul continue to be areas of net out-mi-
gration to other areas of the island, while the
districts of Laborie and Dennery are com-
- a:1;i' more stable (CPU, "Population" Is-
sue Paper, i ',

Overall, rural areas grew by 17.0 percent, or
9,918 persons (compared to 22.5 percent or
9,504 persons in urban areas), during the ten
year period 1970-1980. `T%., rural -.-1.-
ments have experienced relatively rapid
growth marked by horizontal sprawl similar to
that of urban areas. Most rural settlements
are ': .v. .d and lack a distinct settlement
centre. The costs of infrastructural provisions

and m maintenance are ...... i.,, ... .. ..r

The : i. L. issues continue to affect the de-
. O.- ..-..-. of rural communities:

An archaic land tenure system and
the ..*.- .i j high rate of r, :.1 ..'
land fi: -t .... ..' (see also Section

The need to '.... .. .. ...'
production and increase rural in-
comes (see .:. 3.4);

T'.- need for non-agricultural em-
.. I, ....i opportunities in a growing
number of rural communities;

v.:, expansion of utility and
social services to rural areas;

The need to better ii :..:. the
service ,5..: ..., strategies of the
i".nt i r of i. 0 ,i and
C .": i -' .. i in rural
settlements (a problem which the
new 1 .-' ''i ... scheme was
designed to alleviate; see also Section

1.2.4 Land '.. .

The "land 'i." in St. Lucia has been a
topic of study and debate for decades. It is a
a.-,, ,.. J issue, but in recent years atten-
tion has tended to on: the need for a
more effective definition of land ..... .;,
and tenure, Government land ,. -.....
programmes for ~.' r, farmers and/or
..'.., .. ..:c : .. of a land registra-
tion and .,',n,, system, and .-.' ,'., < of a
new .. ,.-.. policy for management of Gov-
ernment or -,.,. Lands. All of these issues
are .. ,r directly to natural resource man-
agement i-'.-O.r.. and are .-. -- I in more
in several chapters of the *...' most
. -c.t;i.o Ci .. : -. 3 (..:: ... and
sections of ( ... 2 (Section 2.2 on Forests
and Section 2.6 on .' Area Manage-

The problem of an :.. i',..1.k ',:; :,;i....i of
land in St. Lucia has deep historical roots
dating from ;..:.. ,. ;, French land system.
The first and only national land survey in the
country prior to this decade was conducted by
the French Government in the eighteenth
.._,-', and was used as a .'..*. ,.-- o point for
land surveying until i" '.---.. i. The lack of
a nationwide cadastral land survey, with com-
.,' :. t!,; .. created only confusion
and mismanagement, ','.: land deeds fre-
*,...... ...,1 i precise information on size
and .:. ': < boundaries, a large number
of ', 7 .. having no documentation whatso-
ever for land they worked, and., -. ~ .-i of
an archaic form of deed registration which re-
sulted in more *.,- over legal ownership
rights and J. 1,F'. in *:- .-'..l clear title
to -. .o ._r, '. .. 1986a).

All of this was h... ,.....p.. ...; by a ,
tion of o ,', land" (inherited land held in
common by :. .,' ii, heirs, : ', s.
fragmentation of the commonly shared
erty over time) and the 1....'. of
:.. .." which characterises a .'. of
- 1. '1 .. 1 :. ,.l,!': in the rural sector
: -,,.. ". the rental of land to ; .. .. on
.'. .-owned or held Crown Lands.
During the 1970's, debate on ,:.*- need for
Government to do .:r'. ... about the .....
; .-, i.-, .... ". ...- and led to increasing
calls for land ;.- .... and ultimately to cre-
ation of a Land .. i.... Commission (,'.i i
in 1979 and subsequent I :_"-. w' of a
new section in the j .' -- of..", *. .. the
Land F...,., Management Unit, to imple-
ment recommendations from the

(.. of this spirit of reform, ,.. land re-
S< ,l. land ., .' ",;., and land man-
agement .: '* were initiated in the 1980's.
St. Lucia Model 7 Limited was set up as
a C ..' '- .- in land J '...._ for
the .i,;. :-' ". and is ,t in
more *. '. in ,-.... 3, as is the integrated
rural -' ..-. i. scheme for the .
"' at the site of the -.*... -..--owned
Dennery Farmco Estate. .-.,,. I ':'- ..'.,,r
has been ; ,. r, of the first national
land survey carried out in St. Lucia in over 200
years, the : -, -.-1' Land -, ...-
and i 1 h ,,' T .. .- j 0 'P),

Government-owned land is another facet of
the land management issue in St. Lucia. Such
lands are widely dispersed throughout the is-
land and include land held in the official forest
reserves (see Section 2.2); properties held by
Government-owned corporations like the Na-
tional Development Corporation (NDC);
Crown Land estates (most of which have been
subdivided and leased for agricultural or
mixed residential/agricultural purposes); land
vested in the St. Lucia National Trust for the
protection and management of unique natural
and historical resources; land required for
Government services; and coastal land con-
stituting the so-called "Queen's Chain," land
from the mean high water mark extending 186
feet (60 m) inland which belongs to the State.
Management of Crown Lands, including reg-
istration, distribution, and leasing, is the re-
sponsibility of the Department of Forest and
Lands in the MN1;n1in'y of Agriculture.

Long-standing problems associated with ille-
gal squatting in the forest reserves and lack of
definitive boundaries for management of
Crown Lands both within and external to the
forest reserves should be somewhat alleviated
by completion of the recent LRTP and by
implementation of a CIDA-funded forest
management and conservation project which
has surveyed and demarcated the entire For-
est Reserve and is now in the process of com-
piling information on protected forests on
Crown Lands outside of the forest reserves
(see Section 2.2). An unresolved issue is that
of the use and ownership of land in the coastal
zone, the so-called "Queen's Chain."

A recent Cabinet-approved Crown Land Pol-
icy (1988) establishes revamped procedures
for the management of Government-owned
lands, including establishment of a Crown
Land Committee whose duty it will be to re-
view and make recommendations on the allo-

cation and use of these lands (see also Chap-
ter 5).

1.2.5 Current National Land Use

The 1977 National Plan and Development
Strategy, although never officially approved by
Government, did outline broad land use poli-
cies to guide government actions and devel-
opment activities (see Section 5.2 for a more
complete discussion of Government planning
efforts since 1977). These broad policy guide-
lines call for Government to:

(1) contain the drift of population toward
the Castries region through inte-
grated rural development pro-

(2) consolidate facilities in selected vil-

(3) establish a new pole of development
in Vieux Fort;

(4) establish strict limits on urban expan-
sion in order to protect agricultural
land from deleterious urban sprawl;

(5) identify and zone for environmental
protection certain selected areas;

(6) consolidate industrial activities in the
Castries/Gros Islet urban region,
reserve land for port-related industry
in Castries and Vieux Fort, and
provide for the zoning of sites in
selected villages for industrial
activities; and

(7) consolidate tourism development in
Castries/Gros Islet, Soufriere, and
Vieux Fort.


Did You Know... ?

Less than 10% of the total land area occurs on slopes less than five degrees, which
indicates for the n emainifir, 90% the need to apply soil conservation measures of one type or
another (regardless of use) proportional to the degree of steepness.

... Prime agricultural lands (U.S. Department of Agriculture Classes I, II, III) account
for about 6% of land available for all uses.

*. About 30% of the total land area is forest with 70% of this under legal protection
and 30% in private hands.

.. About 92% of land holdings are 4 ha (10 acres) or less in size and produce about
60% of St. Lucia's agricultural products. Some of this intensive farming is conducted on very
steep slopes which should either be under forest cover or properly terraced and managed
according to strict soil conservation practices in order to prevent erosion, to enhance water
infiltration and to maintain water quality downstream.

... Drainage ditches at Cul de Sac which fill up with sediments were cleaned once a
year four years ago but, because of increased upland soil erosion from expanded banana
patches on steeper slopes, now have to be cleaned out four times a year. This quadrupled
labour costs, and the value of the soil lost constitutes externalized banana production costs
not borne by the grower but by his neighbours.

.. Between 1973 and 1986 the number of farms grew about 6%, from 10,938 in 1973
to 11,551 in 1986, while the total amount of land under cultivation diminished from 72,000 to
58,000 acres (29,000 to 24,000 ha), which clearly illustrates a shift towards smaller farms.

Farms over 50 acres (20 ha) represented nearly half (46%) of the land in holdings in
1986 but only 0.8% of the total number of farms.

... Over 60% of St. Lucia's best agricultural lands are located in four watershed areas:
Dennery, Canelles, Roseau, and Cul de Sac.

Steep slopes account for the largest proportion of St. Lucia's forest area, ac-
counting for 66.4% or 4,500 ha (11,122 acres).

1.3 THE Hi. Hir N RESOURCE ,.ir F, rto.l, tl:C'i

1.3.1 ''.p. Characteristics

As one of the larger islands in the Lesser An-
tilles with an area of 232 square miles (616 sq
km) and a modest but steady out-migration,
St. Lucia has never been considered c ,-.:'-
ulated. In 1850, population density was a
mere 100 persons per square mile; even in
1950, that density was only about 500 .. a..
per square mile, and today it still is under 700
(if the population estimate 140,000 is used). It
is a manageable figure, and more 1-'.I
questions concerning .ir-'J ".. .' -
ity" have not yet become an issue (except per-
haps at the ': .- Airport terminal and for
anyone looking for a parking space near the
market in Castries).

In 1843 a total of 20,694 .~i.."- lived in St.
Lucia and by the time of the 1901 British
Commonwealth census, the population had
more than doubled to 49,883 giving an .-...d
annual growth rate of 1.5 s-- 4...i (The size
of any population is determined by natural in-
crease [births minus de".,i. and by net mi-
gration [net movements into or out of the
country]). Decennial censuses were mounted
from 1851 to 1921 and again in 1946 at which
time the population stood at 70,113 1,' ,.
1.3(1)). At that time the crude birth rate was
37.8 per 1,000 and the crude death rate was
15.1, yielding an annual rate of natural in-
crease of 2.3 percent, less, of course, an aver-
age annual out-migration of 600 persons (net)
which resulted in a 1.2 <.,,, .,F. annual rate of
growth observed between 1921 and 1946
(Bouvier, 1984).

Over the 14 years between 1946 and 1960 the
average annual rate of growth in St. Lucia
rose -i.j., ,- to 1.4 percent, but a significant
new stream of migration to the United King-
dom developed to the point where net emi-
gration e- 'l.- 42 !'. -, .:.. of St. Lucia's natu-
ral increase. Were it not for this 1 ...-.- move-
ment away from the island, St.Lucia's popula-
tion would have soared to over 100,000 by
1960 and would be over 200,000 today.

During the decade of the 1960's the annual
rate of population growth moved downward

slightly to 1.3 percent despite the negative ef-
fects of the Caribbean Immigration Act of
1962, which severely limited movement from
the West Indies to the United Kingdom and
induced a fairly significant shift of migration
to new destinations. Fortuitously for St.
Lucia, immigration requirements for entry
into both the United States and Canada were
eased between 1965 and 1979, and immigra-
tion flows to those countries began to in-
crease, making up for the loss of the U.K.
outlet (see Table 1.3(1) for U.S. data).

Reduced net emigration notwithstanding, the
major contributor to St. Lucia's increased
population -, w. 1 in the 1960's was the rapid
decline in (c a ..i;.. The crude death rate,
estimated at 14.6 in 1960, fell to about 8.4 by
1970 (it now hovers around 6 per 1000; see
Table 1.3(2)). This stands as a remarkable
improvement within a relatively short time
frame, an improvement facilitated by technical
assistance programmes in the public health
sector, an upgraded cleaner water supply sys-
tem, and the demonstration effect on public
health practices generated by the Rockefeller
Foundation-funded schistosomiasis research
and control project, which was based in St.

As a result of these factors and variations in
demographic behaviour, the population of St.
Lucia p:.,-..,/ the 100,000 mark, for the first
time in its Y,'-i. -, in 1970. The succeeding
decade was a growth period, with an average
annual p:.,.'I'': increase moving upward to
1.8 -'.- -- according to the F'*,'- ,..,,, Ref-
erence Bureau (PRB) (Bouvier, 1984) and a
2.1 percent increment if a Central Planning
Unit (CPU) figure is preferred (see CPU
Issue Papers," unpublished report, 1985).
Why the ..ii.-.. .... in the two figures, i.e.,
PRB vs. CPU? It relates to L- fact -1 dif-
ferent JIc.;.uka' -u figures were used for 1980,
which closes one decade and becomes the
base figure for the next.

As noted in Sections 1.1 and 1.2, there is a
certain elusive quality to many statistics

bearing upon the natural, ,hi ... .l and human
environments of St. Lucia. Population and
census data are no exception. By way of il-
lustration, the variations for the 1980 pop-
ulation figure include:

113,409, 1980 Census
(later -. '*.. for low count)
118,900, from OAS, 1986a
122,264, from CPU, Issue Paper
#3 7- .i:v, .,', 1985
120,300, from PRB (Bouvier, 1984)
120,300, from CPU, background
information provided for the
CEP project (1988), Table 7
123,435 from GOSL, Annual
Statistical Digest, 1986
-3 .*. 7 f,., World Bank, 1986;
CDB, 1987.

With this kind of ;-,. rp: n -. regarding a
fairly important base figure (the last census
was in 1980), various estimates of recent or
current growth rates can only be used with

some caution, remembering that the popula-
tion base figure is used for growth projections,
as well as for other important calculations
such as gross per capital income.

In St. Lucia, despite a long history of net out-
migration, population growth rates have been
surprisingly high, and its fertility levels are
among the highest in the region. Over the ten
year period from 1977 to 1986, the birth rate
fell from 35.7 to 29.3 per 1,000. At the same
time, total fertility rate (TFR) (the average
number of live births per woman of child-
bearing age) dropped from 7 to 4.3. Similarly,
its counterpart aggregate indicator, "fertility
rate" (the number of women per thousand of
child-bearing age, 15-44, who give birth in a
given year), decreased from 238 in 1970 to 154
in 1984. However, these trends towards a less
dynamic growth pattern have to some extent
been nullified by the opposing effects of de-
clining death rates, reduced levels of out-
migration, and some return migration.

1SC'X _-j.l 'L'h',".1 '-"^" .h ^rJL .
S12.. k ':.. 1V A

1 5000o0 .' 10

1750 1800 i5 1-'0 1,50 2000i

The 1986 popution figure is estimated.
I 4 BG0D04-

1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 200

Figure 1.3(1). St. Lucia population curve, 1843-1986. N.B. 1851 to 1921 census held in the first year of the decade.
The 1986 population figure is estimated.



St. Lucian-born immigrants admitted to the United States,



Total, 1960-1986:

Source: Bouvier, 1984; GOSL, Annual Migration and Tourism Statistics for 1986.


Population trends since 1976 are summarised
in Table 1.3(3) for thirteen different parame-
ters. An age/sex distribution pyramid, based
on the 1980 census, is presented as Figure
1.3(2). Fifty-two percent are female and
forty-eight percent are male, but the out-mi-
gration process which favours males visibly
skews the distribution pattern beginning at

age group 20 to 24. Infant mortality has
dropped, but annual fluctuations suggest
marginally effective responses to outbreaks of
infectious diseases, especially of the water-
borne type.

The population of St. Lucia is, as in the case
of most West Indian islands, very young with

Table. 1.3(2). Crude birth and death rates in St. Lucia, 1977-1986.

[per 1,000 population]

1977 35.7 7.1
1978 33.5 6.7
1979 31.5 7.2
1980 29.3 6.7
1981 31.2 6.9
1982 32.6 6.6
1983 31.0 6.0
1984 31.0 5.5
1985 30.8 6.0
1986 29.4 6.0

Source: Bouvier, 1984; GOSL, Annual Statistical Digest for 1986.

Table 1.3(1).

Table 1.3(3). St. Lucia population trends.

1976 1977

Total Population (mid-year) 114270 118575

Density (population/sq mi) 549

Crude Birth Rate (per 10001 34.3 35.4

Crude Death Rate (per 1000] 7.7 7.0

Rate of Natural Increase 28.6 28.4
(per 10001

Total Births 3920 4127

Total Deaths 883 818

Natural Frcuo.a'-an Increase 3037 3311

Net Migration 839 1008

Migration to U.S. 379 545

Net Population Increase 2198 2305

Annual percentage growth rate 1.8 2.0

Infant Mortality

1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986

118927 121326 123773 126270 128817 131415 134086 138771 139529

553 557 568 570 584 818 631 858 688

33.9 30.8 30.6 30.6 31.4 31.0 30.0 29.2 29.4

6.6 7.0 8.8 8.7 8.3 8.0 5.4 5.8 6.0

27.3 23.8 23.8 23.9 25,1 25.0 24.5 23.4

4029 3732

781 850

3248 2882

898 483

572 953

2352 2399

2.0 2,0

3789 3880 4045

843 843 817

2946 3017 3228

499 520 881

1093 773 588

2447 2497 2547

2.0 2.0 2.0

25.3 23.8 22.7

4069 4159 4223

782 728 799

3287 3289 3201

689 6838 496

662 884 499

2598 2651 2705

2.0 2.0 2.0

26.1 17.1 22,8





Sources World Bank, 1988; GOSL, Annual Statistical Digest for 1986.


Males Females



rr~rt I

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 4 2 3


Figure 1.3(2). Age-sex distribution of St. Lucia's population based on the 1980 census
(source: Bouvier, 1984).

4 5 6

over 50 percent under the age of 15. Life ex-
pectancy in 1980 for males was 67.4 at birth
and for females it was 71.8, and by 1982 it had
risen to 68.7 for males and 72.4 for females,
levels more typical of a continentally devel-
oped nation than a developing island state,

Of the approximately 4,000 annual live births,
four-fifths are illegitimate, and one-quarter of
the total or about 1,000 per year are born to
teen age mothers, ages 15 to 19 (GOSL, An-
nual Statistical Digest, 1986). Unlike some of
her neighbours, St. Lucia has not vigorously
pursued strategies to restrain population
growth as an environmental policy matter ap-
propriate to an insular system with limited re-

1.3.2 Population Futures: 1980-2030

It is not p-'.';i to predict the future popula-
tion of St. Lucia, and therefore the demo-

graphic future of the country is uncertain.
This makes it hard to project the number of
schools or teachers that will be needed and
makes it even harder to anticipate levels of
demand for scarce local resources, including
land for various purposes. There seems to be
a widespread consensus that the population
cannot increase much more, given growing
density patterns and the social and economic
costs to St. Lucia of a high level of emigration,
if that alternative remains open. For some,
the prospect of a population of 200,000 seems
less than desirable, in part because it could
spread the resources of St. Lucia too thin.

It is fairly certain that if the fertility rate stays
as high as it is, the population will double in
less than forty years, since the safety-valve of
out-migration is not functioning as well as it
did in the past -- there seems little prospect
for changes in immigration policy on the
world scene, especially in popular destination

7 8 9

But it is, unfortunately, very easy to overlook
the fact that the slope of St. Lucia's popula-
tion L--..h curve has been .. growing
steeper by the decade. This problem will not
just go away. It is likely to become worse,
densities will rise, as will difficulties with
youth alienation, crime, crowding and social
unrest. Two key factors in any policy choice,
TFR and net migration, are presented in Fig-
ure 1.3(3), which displays three population
growth scenarios for St. Lucia.

Scenario A assumes no action
on the part of Government re-
garding the continuation of the
current, relatively high i
rate of 4.5 and also assumes a
continuation of out-migration of
1,500 persons per year.

Scenario B assumes a replace-
ment level fertility rate of 2.1
and half the current level of
emigration (750) per year.

350,000 r-




Scenario C assumes a policy-
driven adjustment of the fertility
rate to 2.9 and a net emigration
of 1,500 per year.

In another set of projections -- a GOSL for-
ward planning exercise -- the following as-
.,'.r I,:.;i- were ..;::.-d regarding future pop-
ulation trends for the period 1980-2010:

(1) Birth rates will continue to decline,
then fluctuate at around 21 26 per
1,000 by 1990.

(2) Death rates will also decline to sta-
bilise at 5.6 per 1,000 from 1990

(3) The rate of out-migration will con-
tinue to fall to reach a low as 0.5%
over the 1990 to 2000 decade.


1990 2000 2010 2020 2030

Figure 1.3(3). Three hypothetical growth scenarios for St. Lucia, 1980 -2030 (source: Bouvier, 1984).
N.B. TFR = Total Fertility Rate (average no. of live births per female, ages 15-45).
In 1988, it appears St. Lucia is on line for scenario C, but this will not be known for
certain until the 1990 census since population totals and TFR are all estimates and less
reliable at the end than at the beginning of a census decade.

(4) Annual growth rates will fluctuate
between 1.1% to 1.6% over the
period but are assumed to average
1.32% between 1980 and 2000 and
fall to 1.20 between 2000 and 2010.

The unrestrained optimism displayed in these
assumptions, especially in the face of evidence
of continuing past practices and the limiting
ranges of change in various demographic pa-
rameters shown in Table 1.3(3), should be
cause for concern. The miracle/parable of
the loaves and fishes will not easily be dupli-
cated in St. Lucia. There will come a day when
there are no more fish, and the fuelwood to
bake the bread will have long since been used

Finally, it should be noted that the allocation
of scarce natural resources to more and more
people is the kind of problem that becomes
more and more difficult, the margin of error
thinner, and the margin of response capability
less resilient when confronting unanticipated
natural disasters or unpredictable, externally-
caused economic crises.

1.3.3 Population Distribution

The population of St. Lucia is concentrated in
the northeastern portion of the country, with
the distributional pattern continuing to show a
marked preference for the Castries/Gros Islet
administrative area where over 65,000 persons
or 46 percent of the total population live.
Furthermore, when the population of Anse La
Raye and Dennery are included within the
Castries/Gros Islet "commuter catchment"
area, it merely confirms the reality of twenti-
eth century transport capability within a
metropolitan sphere of influence. This larger
commuter watershed constitutes, informally at
present, a substantial population/market/re-
source user group of at least 82,500 persons,
or 58 percent of the total population.

Within the Castries to Gros Islet nexus, or
corridor as some have called it, the city's pro-
portionate share of total population has been
marginally declining since the mid-1970's,
while Gros Islet's share rose (as did Vieux
Fort's over the same period). The Gros Islet
administrative area manifested the most rapid

rate of population growth over the 1970-1982
period, growing at an average annual rate of
seven percent, although this has since tapered
off. Gros Islet has become a virtual extension
of the Castries urban area, and the entire
coastline from La Toc to Mount Pimart and
beyond to the base of the Pigeon Island cause-
way is rapidly filling up, in many cases with
non-water dependent uses.

1.3.4 The Labour Force

The labour force of St. Lucia is estimated to
be 33 percent of the total population, this rate
being midway between the relatively low fig-
ure used in the 1980 census and the high esti-
mate (35%) provided by the World Bank
(1985). A 33 percent rate yields a 1986 labour
force of 46,045 persons (139,529 x 0.33). The
reader is cautioned, however, that this calcu-
lation may be off the mark because the World
Bank's 1986 population estimate of 139,529
persons is based on (1) a probably incorrect
1980 "corrected" census base figure, and (2) an
arbitrary two percent per annum growth in-
crement which is probably too low.

The level of unemployment represents the
difference between this labour force figure
(46,045) and an estimated total employment
for 1986 of 38,510 (extrapolated from World
Bank, 1985, figures), that is 7,535 persons. As
a result, the 1986 unemployment rate is esti-
mated at approximately 16.5 percent
(7,553/46,045). This figure is somewhat
higher than levels reported in the late 1970's,
but considerably below some estimated pub-
lished rates for the mid 1980's. The fre-
quently observed higher unemployment rates
between 20-25 percent may reflect an in-
creasing incidence of uncounted, part-time

Despite the vicissitudes to which agriculture is
subject, it continues to absorb a high percent-
age of the labour force, about 40 percent ac-
cording to the World Bank (1985) and almost
34 percent for 1985 in the latest GOSL Statis-
tical Digest. At the height of the tourism sea-
son about 11 12 percent of the employed
labour force find jobs in this sector (World
Bank, 1985); tourism may indirectly generate
a similar number of ',rp iiril.:.. in other

Labour Force


40,000 i i

i I i i li h ii

1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030
4 A TFR of 4,5, net emigration of 1500 1 C: TFR of 2.9, net emigration of 1.500
EM[ B: TFR of 2,1 net emigration of 750

g-- 1.3(4).

Projected expansion ,re labour force for the decades 1. .-::.
(source: Bouvier, 1 '.-!;

sectors (see f.i .:......i on this ip in
Section 4.1 of the 'r. l,:l.- T h' Government
sector is also a large employer, with a -. .
manent civil service staff of approximately
4,300 (CI .,. Bank, 1985).

Projected expansion of the labour force is r,
seated decade by decade in !,,.: .'

w which r,,,-t .-. .'.', ,- i .. h ,., ,-i.
and low -I, J. tracks -- each achievable with
a p,'-_ ,i:.: set of government I. !, .'. relat-
ing to :'. 3;; rates and net emigration levels.
Obviously, the first is ,L..ii; !.,',, m and the
second more subject to external than internal

1 .4 ,ii i- .. i" -.'.-.:

The history of St. Lucia is not only one of the
most turbulent of any island in the Caribbean
but also one d-..JI.'- to debate according to
historians who have tried to pinpoint the exact
date and circumstances of its first sighting by
Europeans. Indeed, even its National
(Discovery) Day -- celebrated on ..::,i.,..-
13 -- remains open to question and is almost
certainly based on an unproven historical

St. Lucia was first .,.. .j....' by the Ciboneys --
an Amerindian, pre-ceramic culture -- about
two thousand years before Columbus. The
,..' i .K.M.' of the Arawak .ii,.:r. who fol-
lowed became firmly established about 200
A.D. An industrious people who live largely
by agriculture, fishing and hunting, the
Arawaks enjoyed about 800 years of -d '.. .,fv-2
occupancy before being invaded and eventu-
ally crushed by the more warlike and can-
nibalistic Carib Indians, who .d-;-id and some-
times devoured the Arawak men and enslaved
and interbred with their women. By the early
thirteenth century the Carib takeover was
complete, and the pure-blood St. Lucian
Arawak had become extinct.

The first European discoverer of St. Lucia
may have been Juan de la Cosa, Columbus'
map-maker, who undertook a voyage to the
southeastern Caribbean in 1499. A year later,
St. Lucia appeared on his maps as 'The Fal-
con." Columbus' lookout may have sighted
the island in June of 1502 during the Admi-
ral's fourth voyage to the West Indies, when
he put his fleet into nearby Martinique for
wood and water. Just which Spaniard gave
the island its haunting name of Santa Lucia in
honor of the virgin saint is not known; later
the French were to change it to Ste. Lucie.
The Indian name for the island had been
Iouanalao (thought to mean "there where the
iguana is found"); the pronunciation was later
, :'..1 and --.-.~, evolved into
Hewanorra, which is also the present day
name of St. Lucia's international airport.

What is beyond dispute is that the first at-
tempt at settlement by Europeans occurred in
1605 when a band of 67 L- ..i,_-_r.,i from the
i-,i. ... ship Olive .-o- .*, bound for Guiana,
an English colony on the South American
mainland, put into what is now thought to be
the Vieux Fort area rather than risk a voyage
home with scant rations. .h.i o,,. the
awaiting ( .i, 'iTiii-- were at first friendly,
most of the party was eventually ambushed
and killed, with only a small group making it
back to South America. Sometime later in
1639, an .::- i- planter from the island of St.
Kitts, a Judlee, sponsored a colonis-
ing scheme for St. Lucia, but this venture too
was wiped out by hostile C ti *b. within a year
and a half. The Caribs were *Ai.i'l', ex-
pelled from the island in 1663.

In the meantime, the French had also laid
claim to St. Lucia through a grant of territo-
ries sought and secured in 1627 by a Sieur
d'Esnambus, from the island of St. Kitts, for
the newly formed French C.(> p '-i of the
Isles of the Americas. Thus began an almost
200 year, often bloody tug-of-war over St.
Lucia between the English, who claimed the
island by virtue of the two early settlements,
and the French whose claims were in the form
of a grant. St. Lucia was to change hands
fourteen times before r..l, being ceded to
Britain by the 1814 Treaty of Paris.

:-.r,:; this ,. '1i, the island was primarily
,,..'.i.i.. by the French -- for over 150 years
except for five short interludes of occupation
by the .. ii:J -! which totaled less than twelve
years. Thus, while the English were eventu-
ally to earn the island by rights of capture and
treaty, French claims of history and culture
remain apparent even to :1 .: day. For exam-
ple, while the vin ch. language was officially
abolished in 1838, remnants survive in place
names and geographical locations, in family
names, and in the .,. .i'.-. Creole patois which
is still widely spoken.

* Historical background for this section of the Profile is largely taken from Devaux, 1987b; Jesse, 1953;
Durham and Lewisohn, 1971; and Koester, 1986.

The period of 1 _.. Franco warfare took
place during the height of the ;J'_.i. slave
trade which saw '. s population multi-
plied many times over with the importation of
thousands of captive -', Africans. In the
nineteenth century, Great Britain moved to
abolish slavery, and emancipation for all
slaves was secured in St. Lucia in 1838. Ap-
I. _u ..,. 13,300 former slaves were freed
on August 1, E. -. ,' Also at this
time, St. Lucia was joined for administrative
,.! ...:.: :. several other British Vi i. ..1 ,
i.i .Ji. under a governor-general n.:, -:. in
S ,'-_.;,.:, while still retaining its own local
.I -.. and executive councils.

Early cash crops in St. Lucia included indigo,
*- tobacco, and cassava, ':_.;i._.* ;. by the
introduction of sugar cane which, largely due
to continuing warfare, did not emerge as the
primary cash crop here as early as it had in
other Caribbean islands. By the nineteenth
century, however, sugar had gradually become
the dominant crop, foretelling St. Lucia's fu-
ture as basically a one-crop economy. Some
.ii.- oui. were made to find new cash crops;
the first coconut plantations, for example,
were established in the 1870's.

In its pursuit of agriculture, St. Lucia was
rarely beset by the droughts and near-famine
conditions of -.-.:':*^..,.shi.i islands which were
less endowed with fertile soil and dependable
rainfall. The island was not free of all natural
, -.<-1-1-, however; a hurricane caused consid-
erable -..- and some deaths in 1831, and
the country was devastated by an earthquake
in 1839,, -.' by a :.:.;i fever epidemic.
The town of Castries was partly destroyed by
fire in 1813, only 17 years after its total de-
struction by the same cause.

It is interesting to note that during this period
there was an early attempt at sulphur mining
at Soufriere, I. .>.r,:; in 1836. The infant in-
dustry was quickly killed, however, with impo-
sition of an export tax.

Before the nineteenth century was ended, an
Agricultural Society had been t',-, = (in
1882); a Botanical 'r, .- established in 1886;
a '.,.* .:p-. The Voice, launched in 1885,
which continues to publish today; and new
:: &.;, wharves constructed at Castries. The

latter was important to the island's promi-
nence as a major lb.oi station for the re-
gion; for approximately fifty years between
1880 and 1930 more than 1,000 steamships per
year :-,i.-. at the `.: .. .. station in the
superb natural harbour of Castries. In 1885,
Grenada i-,.1 more removed -r ...'.. as
S : -...'.. :.: of a new British ', i : Is-
lands Government, which ; .;..: St. Lucia
with St. Vincent, Grenada, and Tobago.

The early years of the twentieth century were
marked by labour unrest, triggered by a strike
of coal carriers in 1907 which .7'--. :..0' set
off uprisings elsewhere on the island. :.> i.
land cotton emerged as a new cash crop, ba-
nana o'r,,,,ri-.:. were established in the
1920's and efforts were made to expand the
coconut and lime industries -- :idk,,uh sugar
continued to dominate until the 1950's when
banana 'cj2Ti .....; later joined by tourism,
emerged as the leading economic activities.
In 1901, an Agricultural School had been
opened at Union; in 1916 the Castries Water-
works Po '.. 1..-- was .*.:, to protect up-
land watersheds, the source of the urban
area's water supply; and in 1917 the U.S.
'r,:,i,, r Service opened the first meteoro-
logical station.

Following World War I, most of the island's
:'.rW,,, services were r,... *, .. and modern-
ized, including new roads, bus services, coastal
*.-.ini.,; and radio and telephone communi-
cations, along with a new legal and taxation
system. In 1927, Castries was again destroyed
by fire, but, on a more :..:.,., .,', note, only
two years later St. Lucia became linked to the
rest of the world via sea plane service. The
coal trade had entered a period of decline,
and increasingly the economy of the island
was I. r., ., to agriculture, but at a time when
the worldwide sugar beet industry, which had
been depressed during the War, would prove
to be stiff competition for St. Lucian sugar

The .- .-, years were a time of extreme
i', -hb.' particularly for St. Lucia's agricul-
tural workers. Unemployment was wide-
spread, and -- with the :.1. .:n .. of sugar -- the
country was without a reliable cash-generating
,...,- -'Resulting deprivation led to a
strike of sugar workers in 1937 and :,-f.ra:

labour 1;::i,..-. As if economic conditions
were not severe enough, mother nature also
took her toll, with ',i,.i,...;r.g floods and
landslides in 1938 which destroyed roads,
bridges, and homes with a great loss of life.
World War II was to bring a temporary
respite from these difficult times.

The advent of the War produced dramatic
changes in St. Lucia, at one point even bring-
ing the European conflict to the island's front
door with German torpedoing of two ships at
Castries wharf in 1942. The signing of a
wartime Anglo-American agreement -- out-
moded U.S. warships were swapped for air-
bases in the British Caribbean -- resulted in
construction of a U.S. naval station at Gros
Islet Bay near Pigeon Island and an airfield
near Vieux Fort. The new Vigie runway and
airport was also built in 1942. With the end of
the war,. :-- -.. befell Castries again, with yet
another fire destroying four-fifths of the entire
town, including most of the commercial area,
in 1948.

With the end of the War, the demise of the
sugar cane industry had to be .. .,, ...i, i.
the British government encouraging a revival
and -. .!-' of the ., banana industry.
Unlike cane, bananas could be grown by small
farmers, an important consideration in St.
Lucia with an increasing number of small
holders. Throughout the history of sugar cul-
tivation in St. Lucia, ,;2 .,l.. I during peri-
ods of downturn in the export market, agri-
cultural labourers had traditionally turned to

the cultivation of subsistence crops on small
plots of land -- some on plots purchased from
private owners, some on Crown Land, some
on rented land, and others as squatters on
Crown or other land to which they did not
have title. With the introduction of bananas, a
profitable cash crop could now be grown on
these small holdings, as well as on large es-
tate-style plantations.

The post-war period has been marked by a
steady transfer of political control from Great
Britain to St. Lucians. Full adult franchise
was granted in 1951, followed in 1960 by abo-
lition of the Windward Islands Government
and establishment of a new Constitution with
ministerial government. On March 1, 1967,
St. Lucia became an Associated State of Great
Britain with full control over its internal af-
fairs, and just twelve years later, on February
22, 1979, the island became an independent
member of the Commonwealth.

Perhaps the symbolism and colours of the na-
tion's flag best explain how St. Lucia had
come to see itself at the dawn of ;,, 1.-,rn.ri
dence. On a field of blue, ,-'p<, the
I r- ., Sea, rises an island of yellow sun-
shine, surmounted by two triangles of black
and white, ..- i'ng the dominant black
culture in association with the European. In
their shape, the two triangles also represent
the island's best known geographical feature
-- the twin Pitons, symbols of the ascending
expectations and hopes of the young country.


History Repeats itself in St. Lucia

Following emancipation, displaced slaves lacking access to estate land moved from coastal
.4ill.xj in droves to Crown Lands in the interior of St. Lucia to cultivate provision lands as
squatters. This practice of shifting cultivation gradually devastated more and more of the for-
est land. Government apparently took the path of least resistance, tacitly acquiescing in this
practice and legalising the procedure by the offer of Crown Lands for sale in parcels of any
size at a nominal figure -- 10 shillings per acre -- which was less than the value of the timber
on the land.

As the effects of deforestation began to have serious impacts on stream flow and water con-
trol and as public concern mounted, an officer of the Indian Forest Service, Mr. E.M.D.
Hooper, visited the British West Indian Islands in 1886 and recommended a series of reser-
vation forests. Hooper's warnings, however, passed unheeded until 1916 when St. Lucia
adopted a Crown Lands Ordinance similar to that enacted a decade earlier in St. Vincent. The
St. Lucia Ordinance was followed by a Timber Protection Ordinance in 1918 which was de-
signed to prevent the unlawful felling of timber on Crown and vacant land. In practice, how-
ever, there seems to have been no slowdown in the deforestation process.

Writing in the Caribbean Forester in 1939 (Vol. 1, No. 1), Mr. E.Y. Wald, then Agricultural
Superintendent in St. Lucia, repeated earlier warnings about the continued exploitation of the
forests. He also noted at this early date that the primary importance of the country's forests
lay not in their timber value. Rather, he wrote, "... the importance [of forests] in soil and
moisture conservation, particularly in the vicinity of the headwaters of the principal rivers, can-
not be overstated, and it is unfortunate that these points have been appreciated insufficiently
in the past." One might add that almost 50 years later, this same point could be made.

In the early 1940's, Mr. J.S. Beard, a forester from Trinidad, began his now famous forest as-
sessment work in the Lesser Antilles, including St. Lucia. The 1945 Caribbean Forester (Vol.
6, No. 3) summarised Beard's .er),iet for the island as follows: the total forest area was esti-
mated at 68,444 acres, of which 15,400 acres were rain forest, generally in good rondiionr,
The Crown was found to hold only 4,913 acres of forest but another 10,131 acres were noted
as "vacant" land for which no clear title existed.

Surveys to clarify all of this were needed, said Beard, as well as land acquisition of sensitive
areas, timber surveys, protective legislation, a management working plan, a cutting budget
and a regeneration plan for 60 acres per annum to equal estimated cutting area. Other re-
quirements identified by Beard were research, education, encouragement of private forestry,
and land use surveys for the preparation of a "land allocation" policy. Does any of this sound
familiar to the present day St. Lucian resource planner? See the forest section of Chapter
Two, for example, for a replay forty years later.

1.5.1 H,- ,

The development of the St. Lucian economy
has been ,..W constrained by its small pop-
ulation and limited natural resource base. r1..
mineral assets of economic ,.,. .; ,i have
been .' r ."., but the ,i fertile vol-
canic soils .. ..-.". the resource base for agri-
i_'T .'d .,- .-1 *,..:, :':, long the dominant eco-
nomic sector. Other natural resources are
now being .*!..1-' in support '. tourism,
which ': ..; rivals agriculture as the country's
lead economic F; ..... "', sector.

The period of the 1960's and early 1970's was
characterized by relatively high rates of overall
economic growth, but the economy ex-
....-. ? a slowdown i:..- n ;. ._ in the late
seventies and ....n ,.s'-,, through the 1980-82
I., 1 .t 5(1)). This decline can be at-
,:, ,i.. to a combination of factors, .,.- -..o
the international recession, a series of de-
structive natural disasters, and :.i"... un-
certainty. However, since 1983, St. Lucia has
experienced real growth rates ..... ,.
S,..1. 1 percent, 1. V', I. as a ,'i of in-
creases in banana r., ., and tourist ar-
rivals and high levels of construction activity
(4 1 1'., 1987).

St. Lucia's economy exhibits two ,, .- .. .
characteristics which are also common to the
microstate economies of other Eastern
Caribbean states: (1) the .-. j.' ".,, of
S, : '..- .. initiatives which .i rapid
of the economy, and (2) exces.-
sive -.'.r. to trade and foreign depen-
dency, a tendency endemic to small island

(1) .._...r .. t. ..!.._,. The m ost dy-
namic j :-; of St. Lucia's economy has been
the ... -- restructuring of the colonial
-, .. aw ay from ,.,i i:. ... -..:;..
_. .. and .. towards:

fruit, .-"' .. and meat produc-
tion for the domestic market,
petroleum storage and light man-
ufacturing for export, and
international tourism services.

Table *. traces economic ....... .
over the past quarter century. Using broad-
brush data to maintain or,'t'.-, .2. across
the sectorial .. ,,. of Gross ;-....
' .. ,. (( .: the ,- show a .. i...".- n
the .. ...' .... ;,. -, the tra-
ditional export i:., .r which was halved --
S...r 34 percent of the :_..." in '. to less
than 17 ..-. in 1986. The decrease in
-. _.,<. ..-,-. was matched by the '-.. .-: of
tourism (up to 17.1 percent from 6.7 .. .1
which is clearly the .-. .-- i' sector.

Less dramatic during the 26 year .. -, are
the increases in .. r ,... 1 :'.!
t,.':...t.. *. .'. 1 .. .; paper and wood
products, fabricated metals, electronics), gov-
ernment, and local services. -'... smaller
, Tr components are still ... ,: .... how-
ever, for the balance which they contribute to
St. Lucia's .. : economy.

In less than a .:. ,.-. .. St. Lucia has been
; ,. ,,,. from a .,':1 .' ii rural soci-
ety to a modern -" ,.,,, '* .- on a ..
-' .'1 export base. This -i.. ...:r has
been .. -.. -', 4'i- ; I --': by a combination
of relatively low regional wages, the .
sighted provision investment incentives and
supportive ..- .. .' and a '. -., .: 10o-
. .i, and abundance of natural recreational
and scenic assets (U.: IT.., 1985a). As a re-
- i, St. Lucia today is considered the most
balanced economy among the ; '.- islands
of the Lesser.-, u,. i ., with the most sophisti-
cated manufacturing structure and, with the
.-. -,'- .. of Antigua, the most 1: -1 -i
tourism sector (T..: '.'

Despite past success, the pace of ; :
slowed during the 1980's. A .... ...'.
f .. has been the substantial increase in ba-
nana demand and output since "'.. (see Fig-
ure 1.5(2)), which has ,. ,..-1 an under-
standable ambivalence in -'C rT.. economic
policy and ...- -. for .- ,'. ., On the
one hand, local .. .,: ..: are encouraged and
supported in every -. '. to take ad-
vantage of .-.' ..'. .- strong market

45 Mi


1 17 97 10 190 9 1

1.. 1g7S 19' I u 1981 982

Figure 1.5(1). : i. .-. .. ,,- k. ,':,h, ; (source: CDB, 1987).

conditions for bananas '- example, banana
growers earning t to EC$75,000 per year are
exempt from payment of income taxes). On
the other hand, ..',. clearly recog-
nises -i. the current "'..._-; ,. is a boom of
I.,, .- ; duration and is -" -,, to all -- r:.. n
designed to '' St. Lucia for the day
when banana prices -..,, (see also "Banana

Over the longer term, ,:. ; .'-.. and
economists are united in .-. -,ki.' : a return to
sluggish or negative 1. -.. in foreign demand
for St. Lucia's j;.'t '.' staples. This will
S ., to a i. J... in the country's terms
of trade (i.e., the change in prices 'goods ex-
ported divided by the ,-1 >,. *_ in the prices of
goods ",., -', r *1.Y In fact, the World Bank
(1985) estimates the terms of trade will de-
cline nearly 20 -, -- '' over the next decade.
In addition, St. Lucia will face mounting
. '.:-.,: from i.-_."' i ; '.R- P r- --. ,'-. at hom e.

As a result of persistent balance of trade
deficits, rapid increases in the costs of im-
ported F.,. and 1. ,--*., exchange shortages,

the cost of St. Lucia's economic restructuring
has been financed increasingly by foreign aid
and borrowing. The ratio of external debt to
CT7. doubled w .: 10 ;_...-i in 1975 to
above 20 *......; by the mid-1980's (World

In ... '. ,. .-. i..,,;..-, and labour force
._... over the past decade of reduced emi-
gration outlets has ..- -I the .... 's
capacity to create jobs. .-.' L,. data in
Table 1.3(3) :...' .:".. a rate of natural .4'..
tion increase of 2.5 percent per year, com-
< ....1 of a birth rate of 3 ...- and a i1.-
rate of 0.5 -,-,." 5 .. :' ., the rate of
.;.-. .... 0.5 percent yields a net rate of
population a,-_.,b of 2 .-.r .. n one of the
! '," in the E_ ." "-.
growth exceeds the i.c." '. annual in-
crease in -.: ..r, -,.' between 1975 and 1983
(World Bank, As a consequence, is-
land .... :; r, : ': has risen from 14 !. .
in 1975 to an alarming figure of around 20
percent in the :..i -'" s.

1-' 1-84 ,1 --

- ** ."

Table 1.5(1). Estimated distribution of gross domestic product by sector,
1962 and 1986.



Manufacturing and Mining


Total Tourism Sector


Other Local Services*


(EC$ Thousands)








% (EC$ Millions)











84.3 **




* Includes distribution, finance, real estate, utilities, transportation, and other services.

** This is estimated to be hotel/restaurant expenditures times a multiplier of 2.48, following
Bryden's methodology for 1962 data.

Sources: Bryden, 1973 (for 1962 data); GOSL, Annual Statistical Digest for 1986 data, with total GDP
quoted AT MARKET PRICES. Note that preliminary GOSL GDP estimates have subsequently been
increased by $28 million over the $494.1 million estimated for 1986.

(2) Openness and Dependence. The
second structural feature St. Lucia shares with
other island economies is excessive openness
to trade and foreign dependence, a legacy of
colonial monoculture and small size.

In contrast to larger, more self-sufficient and
diversified continental economies, insular
production systems are usually specialised
along a few lines. To achieve the rising stan-
dards of living associated with economies of
scale, it is necessary to penetrate large foreign
markets. The foreign exchange earnings from
the sale of narrowly specialised exports enable
islanders to satisfy their diverse consumption
requirements and overcome limited resource

endowments. This intensive specialization,
however, engenders instability since minor
changes in foreign demand or costs can pro-
duce widespread local positive (booms) and
negative (recessions) impacts.

Such highly open economies are most gen-
erally characterized as "export-propelled" (see
also page 70). This term emphasises that
sales to the large foreign market represent the
primary engines of economic growth because
they fuel the secondary responding that filters
through the smaller local markets.

Export income multipliers of 2.0 or above
have been calculated for large *,,;i.,-n .,i






Long Tons
of Bananas






0U -----*----- *----------.-- ----.----------------------------------*-----*-----------------*----.----- -------.------.----------------------

30. I--- --------------........................................................................................... .... ...............
Do -------------------------------------------------------------------------- I------------------------------------------------------------------- -


2------ -----
)a- ---------------------------- --------------------------------------------------- --- ----- --- --------- ---- -----------------------

- -- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I -- -----------------

54 SS 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 6S 67 6G 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 0 81 82 83 84 85 86

Figure 1.5(2). St. Lucia banana production, 1954-1986 (source: WINBAN, 1987).


.-".. .. : ....,1."....., and .i. from St. Lucia in 1988 will be double the level of just '..: : ago.
... ,, .. are ... .--. to remain near historic highs for at least the remainder of the year.

,. are the reasons for i. upward swing in -* and .i. Access to a :.: ,.',
improved ,.-p. production .. -r and favourable currency .. .' -.. are cited as primary causes
for the recentr I.. ..... windfall. Yet the final chapter of this boom .. remains to be written --
and it to. .. i to bea I.r ,.. -.-

The mid-1980's .. ., of the St. Lucian banana:. is related to the .. of .,:- Eu-
ropean Common '.' where the highly .. .. .. ... i.. i., :. ., -:- of r gov-
ernments -- .:,.... Great T. .7 : have long been an issue of debate. Under current ,, -.-.are
..':... which would .v-.'. .,. eliminate the special price and market access .1 the former
colonies of member countries, viewed as an s....: i..', i.. subset of the larger .-: ,: prob-

Like of ACP countries (the former colonies of the .- : ..'-. in ... ,the I. -.-*:
and the .--,. ,.-., Jamaica and. .'. ...- .... Islands have i- I '.* access to the UK banana
market where ,'are ... .*. as .. .-,s '.. .- of that .:';,. This ... ,' i i ...i has
been ., ... by successive British -,.: ,;,.- most .. '. in 1987 and is i'-. :.. in Protocol
4 of the current Lome C .7 -." In St. Lucia, the arrangement has had the effect of rr ac-
cess to markets in the UK at _. ." ".

This achievement on the ,* front coincided with ..4-, ,, of USAID, I*,.',:_- i.. islands
.- Growers .' .i .' and .: .. to .. 4 :- -..0i i -., -. the efficiency of banana ,.. 6 k. i
in St. Lucia and other r i-. areas. The increase in 1: .,.-, 1 "-, was .-:.. .- by an
increase in local .. .* for banana exports as a .v* for example, of the Ir-fr n... i of iv i
". ', : the box -.'. plant.

As a .. factor, over *- past three .. ."': U.S. dollar has declined against the .u :,
is ..: -. fortunate for C.. ,. i.; .. who sell to ,,ii'. ... markets, while most of their in-
..i'. come from .. economies. ..- 1 on recent data .. U .. .. 1985), nearly 60 .-, ".:-
of St. Lucia's '.. r.. .i ,. .. are sold to the i.,. .. .... the rising *,- area -- ...i-i.
over half of essential imports ...i... i1. food, manufactured --and '.; are purchased in
the *... *.- ....-., markets of the U.S. : :1 and C; '...' (17^., For the short term, St. Lucia
has the best of both worlds because the cost of its inputs remains constant while the value of its ex-
ports increases with value of the pound.

i*: : s no doubt that the current market will '. -,,. reverse. The : -*, therefore, are:

whether. reversal will occur before 1992, when the special '- .. :. prices and
1 1- market access are scheduled to end (unless ... ....- -

how abrupt or ..'. such a reversal i -. be; and

the eventual "i- of Lucian banana -. -. to -.-. in open, world market

of the -" .

economies .,. .- '...., and '. .
countries ,. .- is--
lands, however, values between and 1.20
are common '
.... '; the more abundant the resource en-
dowment and the more :. the :
ductive base, ., the size the .:
,...--. For .i. a value 1.0 means that
one dollar in .... 'the
export sector creates, .. :' are
subtracted, one dollar of island .' This
income or ,. is of the sum ,
the direct on-island value-added .1 in
the export sector, plus the -. value-
added output ;-. .' from the secondary
.. ... on local goods/services -...-.
by the original ;i ..--"' .-

The export income '., for St. Lucia is
calculated below. -. some weakness in
the local national income estimates (World
. -'. '.- -.. and despite the hazards ex-
cessive numerical ... .
economic activities, this exercise *.. an
introduction to the ... ,.. econ-
omy in broad macroeconomic detail and also
provides a context for the tourism impact
analysis in .. 4.1.

Table .'. converts -'data St. Lucia
for the period 1981-1984 into U.S. '. and
... estimates of the s
four major activities. These include:

(1) .
exports and tourism .. ,
which account percent of
the total;

net transfers consisting .
wages and income remitted
Lucians 1." abroad;

* of

., grants and .
infrastructure con-
struction; and

.'" .. investment to con-
struct factories, hotels, and the

The i. .. : ; .. streams are
. ..:. and into island ( to
determine the estimated export income .. "
each year. Then an average value is

calculated over the 1981-84 .' to prevent
'.., arising !. -year

dramatic increases in banana
.. .'., and export earnings since .'
are ..., '. 1 .. :. ., ; because of
a lack of consistent data across sectors.
". .. ... it is an of this analy-
sis that the recent boom is an -, -.":- to a
a '. :,. share of ex-

... is 1.0, suggesting that
the average dollar ... one .. 1.-
in island Note, however, that ,.
: ;... : . sub-sectors such as
or tourism may vary considerably
.,. this mean value .1. :'..- upon their
respective : intensities and local link-
ages. .. .* :. show, for exam-
ple, that the .. .. for
S 1 .. by '. ..
S be '4 higher
than the figure for tourism.

The data in Table :. also :' the in-
creasing dominance of .
and tourism in the economy and
the related : ...... .... *. emigrant
S: -. external aid and -. ,r invest-

a .. model yields
several pieces of .

It provides a and
intuitively of
the structure and of the

.. of one-to-one cor-
respondence between Lucia's ex-
port revenues and local GDP, the
S planners and
...Y makers with a rough rule of
thumb for gauging the ., ex-
annual changes in export per-
..: trade, tourism, ... ,
investment on local (. ;: .

S'.,,. .. by reworking the export
income .. '- : as:

GDP = X Kx

the model lays open the two broad op-
tions for stimulating island growth,

(i) promoting exports and/or
foreign capital
inflow, or

(ii) raising the value of the

(4) The latter direction is achieved by
replacing existing imports with do-
mestic substitutes, and to a lesser ex-
tent by increasing local ownership of
productive enterprises and thereby
reducing the repatriation of profits
off-island. (Note that both these
factors have operated to increase the
local multiplier for banana
production in recent years.)

(5) Finally, the model underlines the
need to continue restructuring St.
Lucia's economy toward a diversified
export base to avoid the economic
vulnerability associated with highly
specialised external markets.

1.5.2 Summary and Environmental
Implications of Economic Policy

St. Lucia's economy is typical of the Eastern
Caribbean in its openness and its restructuring
away from traditional export crops. The
St. Lucian economy is special in the success of
Government's programme to diversify the
economy, both in terms of increasing total ex-
ports and in increasing the local multiplier
through import substitution.


A Caribbean Economic Development Paradigm

At its simplest, the export-propelled model assumes the economy can be divided into two
distinct macroeconomic sectors:

(1) export production and other off-island activity such as tourism
that injects income into the system; and

(2) local transactions including government.

The model predicts that GDP varies according to export sector fluctuations which cause
simultaneous repercussions in island spending on domestic goods/services in the local sec-
tor. The strength of this transmission from export-to-local activity is measured by the size of
the export income multiplier (Kx). The formula is:

Kx = GDP

where GDP accounts for all export and local production combined, and X represents all rev-
enue attributed to export sales, foreign investment on-island, and vwae- remitted to island

Exports have increased through the devel-
opment of tourism, light manufacturing and
oil transshipment. The local multiplier has in-
creased as a result of land reform (more ex-
ports being produced by smallholders), in-
creased production of import substituting food
stuffs, and the movement of more local per-
sonnel into higher levels of management for-
merly occupied by expatriates.

In the short run, Government's major chal-
lenge is to find politically acceptable ways to
channel the windfall earnings from the "ba-
nana boom" into public or private investments
which will support further diversification of
the economy. This general strategy has spe-
cific implications for resource management
policy objectives because of the en-

vironmentally high risk cultivation practices
which the current boom has generated (see
further discussion in Chapter 3). Short-term,
marginal profits in bananas at the expense of
ecologically sound agro-production will di-
minish the sustainability of the natural re-
source base over time, with .'cg. .ii impacts
not only for the long-term profitability of agri-
culture but for the country's most important
growth industry -- tourism.

Over the longer run, Government will need to
pursue further diversification of the export
economy and identify ways to increase the ex-
port income multiplier. St. Lucia has been
notably successful in this process over the past
generation, and there is every reason to expect
this pragmatic approach to continue.

Table 1.5(2). Estimation of the export income ,jituipli e for St. Lucia, 1981-84
(US$ millions).



1981 1982 1983 1984

126 134 141 151










71 74 89 97

15 13 12 14

9 9 9 7

45 36 12 15

140 132 122 133 133

0.90 1.02 1.16 1.14

* Source: World Bank, 1985, converted to US$ (US$1.00 = EC$2,70).
** Source: World Bank, 1985.
*** Calculated by dividing GDP by total export revenue.

-,-^^ -

: ** t4-A

* tSK
.. -, .-


*-; .-
S* 1.c V' ; iF l

.. .. ...-a"1 S ^?f'" -
; J." ,. --,'
i' .* ,7
i' I '-':, ." ,
i: _:.. ..-
1*-?* ,4&t *.:^ ,
i' t' 1 ^ *

i *,^ F'

.. ,:-

......,....; .,


r 0."~*
'- e '- -'

, '. -, ,* ,. -
< ***-..i .' ;-

'. ',. = ,. -* -' :. !,
*. ; *'-' ^," ; '* 1 ': **
..' -. s- ,'- -... .
... i = "**- '. --.--. -|.

,* e'^. ,

*; ... '^

? : . : .1 ,.

,. !* ,, i'.
,, Af

AK.. ..:-



--4k- 4
* Li

St. Lucia Amazona versicolor.


2 .1 ; ... ,- ;. .r i"'

2 .1 "r; -,.:" .',.' '. .;:: 1

Certain natural resources, for instance y. 1 ..
lands, forests, fisheries, wildlife, coral reefs,
beaches, and irrigation waters, are considered
to be common ,.' ,'.:, (or .. --l .'.',.' re-
sources, that is, ownership of the resource is
held in common so that the resource can be
shared and jointly used. Common .-N :
resources, by definition, are resources from
which exclusion is u:';l .. ., 1, .. use of
common property resources requires an un-
derstanding of the historical and '.:'....?
context in which the resource is exploited and
of the ecological and ,:.,. ;,.1 nature of the re-

This chapter focuses on the common property
resource base in St. Lucia and discusses the
contribution of these resources to national de-
velopment. In general, these resources share
similar characteristics, including:

relative diversity;
fragility which subjects them to
rapid alteration ...,. human in-
-i gT,::,.i natural productivity;
capacity for important economic

subjection to exploitation which in
some cases exceeds the natural
rate of renewal.

.h:,g to a recent 'i:' : on this issue
(._.. m:., 1986), there are four types of man-
agement regimes for natural resources:

(1) Private property, in which resource
use rights are exclusive and
transferable, as in the case of
agricultural lands;

(2) Open-access, which may be
characterized as a "free- :

(3) State :..'.., and

(4) Communal p,.. ..-t-., which in-
cludes situations wherein resource

use rights are held by an
i "- ,,.,.,!-- group which, i.+i,.,-i.,
formal and informal procedures,
manages (i.e., prevents degrada-
tion but allows use of) the

The last three <,.-,* forms of common
property ''. .'.. .,ki, and much of St.
Lucia's resource base falls under one of these
categories, in complex combinations of prop-
erty (resources) and management regimes.

:-ir.,... :. some of St. Lucia's natural re-
sources have been, de facto, under an. ,, o
access regime, as in the case of Crown ".. --
erty, where lack of -..'.-- .- and public
e .n' ',-Z,.rt. r6 i has v ,,i'..-i access and unreg-
ulated use. This also applies to most of St.
Lucia's marine resources as well as to some of
the marginal lands which, although in private
ownership, have 'r ,.i .'.c i, been left open for
use by estate workers and landless peasants.
This open-access regime is considered largely
:. .:; .. for excessive exploitation of many
natural resources, :,.I .i .:, ii .,- en-
croachment on forested lands.

On the other hand, the open-access regime
;.,'.'..': a number of opportunities for com-
munal forms of management which have also
been explored in St. Lucia, for -:-. T"..- k- har-
vesting of the edible sea urchin (or sea egg)
which has traditionally, in certain areas of the
island, been regulated by the user community
or the communal r r.'.-h t k of ii..... ... on
public or :-.." .- -,1 1.,,-' I marginal lands. In ef-
fect, when open access does protect the liveli-
hood of the resource user, some communities
establish user group management .:,-...'.

In the last four decades, the Government of
St. Lucia (G(,' ,. has assumed an increasingly
active role in J3.J b..; c and '" r,. -.:,' state
property management regimes for natural re-
sources, for ,.. 1l. : ':.1 : .:- of forest
reserves or the exclusive economic zone. Pre-
sent r .... management systems for natural
as well as historical/archaeological resources

are discussed in the various sub-sections of
this chapter.

In addition to state property management
regimes, many communal management sys-
tems have a valuable role to play in resource
management but are often overlooked or un-
derutilised in the development process. But
community-based or communal management
regimes for common property resources can,
in partnership with government, help to en-
sure the social acceptability of whatever col-
lective action is necessary for management of
the resource.

To paraphrase Bromley (1986), a common
property regime is really a people man-
agement regime, the presumption being that
the interests of the group transcend the inter-
ests of the individual. The goal of common
property management is sustainable develop-
ment as an explicit human choice that selects
to pass on to the future what has been inher-
ited from the past. The management goal
says, in effect, that common property re-
sources will not be exhausted by accident or
by default -- or without a plan for what the

options are if and when the resource is de-
pleted or gone.

Governments and others preparing strategies
for the sustainable development of natural re-
sources should:

1. Systematically analyse such re-
sources and any existing or potential
institutions to determine which re-
sources might best be managed as
common property, assuming user
group involvement.

2. Strengthen existing institutions
involved in planning and implementing
development goals affecting common
property resources.

3. Support decision-making by
communities of common property re-
source users and promote and support
interdisciplinary common property re-
source organizations, as well as public
and private institutional initiatives, that
would increase their effectiveness.


2.2.1 Overview of the Resource Base

The forests of St. Lucia have been steadily ex-
ploited since the time of the first settlements
-- as wood for construction, as a source of
food, fuel, and folk medicines, and as an ex-
pendable resource in the clearing of land for
roads, housing and agricultural development.
Gradually, the natural forest has disappeared
from the coastal areas, and today the forest is
largely confined to more inaccessible moun-
tainous areas in the interior. Even in this re-
gion, shifting cultivation practices have had a
marked effect, and gardens of bananas, coco-
nuts, citrus and dasheen are not uncommon
throughout the forest.

A reclassification of current forest land use
has recently been undertaken by CIDA as a
part of its Forest Management and Conserva-
tion Project for St. Lucia. March 1988 esti-
mates from CIDA indicate that ;p.-...-...
13 percent of the total land area of the island,
or 7,707 hectares (19,044 acres), is occupied
by primary forest, including plantations (see
Table 2.2(1). This estimation varies slightly
from the result of an earlier CIDA study
(Piitz, 1983) which indicated the total area of
primary forest was 7,820 hectares (19,323

Both estimates agree the rain forest rep-
resents 11 percent of the total land area in St.
Lucia, 6,781 hectares (16,756 acres), of which
one-fourth is under oir', A, .,, .:r.p (Piitz,
1983). The remaining forest land (see Table
2.2(1)) represents plantations and several
unique climax forest communities of limited
distributions in St. Lucia, including Montane
Thicket and Elfin Woodlands (Q',', 1983).

There are seven climax and two secondary
forest associations recognized on the island
(see also Section 1.1.5)):

Rain Forest
Lower Montane Rain Forest
Montane Thicket
Elfin Woodland
Littoral Woodland

Swamp Formations
Fumarole Vegetation

Secondary Rain Forest
Dry Scrub Woodland.

Rain Forest and Lower Montane Rain Forest
account for nearly all the commercial timber
land. These forests are rich in flora with 104
species enumerated during a 1982 inventory
(Piitz, 1983). Six of these species account for
half of the merchantable timber volume:
gommier (Dacryodes excelsa), chataignier
(Sloanea caribea), balata chien (Oxythece
pallida), bois de masse (Licania tematensis),
bois pain marron (Talauma dodecapeela), and
mahaut cochon (Sterculia caribea).

Steep slopes ,i:., C:e 20 and 30 .IL_:..', ac-
count for the largest proportion of the island's
forest area (nearly 60 percent according to
Piitz, .._-. while approximately nine percent
of forest land occurs on excessively steep
slopes of over 30 degrees. Together, these ex-
tremely mountainous lands represent about
, -, ;:'.i: of St. Lucia's forested area (Piitz,

Only 12 percent (7,496 hectares) of the total
land area of St. Lucia has been designated as
proclaimed Forest Reserves (see Table
2.2(2)). It has been e::m'e... that approxi-
mately 1,000 hectares (2,470 acres) of Crown
Lands lie outside the forest reserves (CIDA,
1987), .dii-' iug, total areas of protected forest
on private lands and Crown Lands outside of
the forest reserves have not yet been officially
compiled Establishment of clear title to
Crown Lands has been an historic problem in
the country, although implementation of the
recent GOSL-1.i'.Ai Land ..g .-;,. and
Li.JIg Project should begin to p.. .i'r clarifi-
cation. In March of 1988, the CIDA forestry
project team began to compile such informa-
tion, and this data should be available by mid-
year. Up to March 1987, 170 hectares (422
acres) of 'i`. )". and Crown Lands were des-
ignated as Protected -., ;. e (Table 2.2(2)).

Table. 2,2[(1 Initial forest land use cLassification, with forest Land in the reserve and outside the reserve classified
by management option in hectares (preliminary classifications by CIDA Forest Management and Conservation
Project, March 1988).

ForRes Other ForRes Other ForRes Other ForRes Other ForRes Other ForRes Other

RAIN FOREST 1819 442 1288 18 1652 491 4257 949 1022 553 5279 1502

MONTANE "TI .LC 220 108 175 87 503 87 8 41 508 128

FOREST PLANTATION B8 134 200 89 289

Sub-Total/ 18605 442 1394 1B 1981 578 4860 1036 1117 594 8077 1830
Primary *..- 2047 1410 2538 5996 1711 7707

SECONDARY FOREST 105 84 9283 1112 414 1528

1710 442* 1478 18 2884 578 6072 1036 1531 594 7603** 1630
TOTALS 2152 1494 8482 7108 2125 9233

* This figure does not include all watersheds.
** Includes Crown Estate of Polouze,

Source: CIDA Forest Management and Conservation Project.


The first step for establishment of a manage-
ment and protection framework forest re-
sources occurred early in this century when, in
recognition of the need to safeguard water
catchment areas, the i .*'.
:r.. was 1916.

Between 1942 and 1946, Dr. J.S. Beard, As-
sistant Conservator i: .. i in Trinidad and
Tobago, carried out a now i. .,,. -,
reconnaissance of forests in the .. .
and Leeward islands. His report and recom-
mendations 1 n..,-'-. : .- : the legal
basis for forest management '. .-! .. in St.
Lucia (and elsewhere in the region). By
time of .. ."s inventory, the Government

held I.- to a little over two thousand hectares
* .r, acres) of :.*-.s-'.- lands in the interior
of the island, 'w. the Castries Water-
works Reserve .- .' ha), -, *'. Reserve
(16 ha), Barre de L'Isle Forest .- ... (40
ha), and the Quilesse Forest (925 ha).

S-,.-.;, :. in 1982, under a CIr _- -,:.. ,
Forest Management Pi.. [. i the entire Forest
Reserve, which had increased -..'-.r l ,
since Beard's inventory, was surveyed and
demarcated. This task was I -.. -.. in 1987,
and most surveys and maps have now been
-.. :.', gazetted concurrently with the
USAID Land 7. i-'. i.... and Titling i-'.
register. Table 2.2(2) shows a total GOSL
Forest Reserve area of 7,496 hectares (18,526
acres). See also F i!,i. 1 2.2(1).

Table 2.2(2). St. Lucia Forest Reserves and

(ha) (ac)

(ha) (ac)

Castries Waterworks Forest Reserve
Barre de L'sle :.... :t 1,-'; .'- North
":C- de L'Isle .*.,-. Reserve South
Central Forest Reserve "A"
..,-'ni.- Forest .;.- "B"
Quilesse Forest
Saltibus Grand Magazin Forest ;.:. ,'-
P: ti:), to ..'..: r :. Forest t-,:.r .; "B"
Dennery Waterworks Forest Reserve
.ef..-y pFi':!,' Forest Reserve
Crown Estate of Pelouze
Marquis Estate Parcel M-1
Marquis Estate Parcel M-2
,.l.--. .j.i Estate Parcel M-3-6
Forestiere Forest

Source: CIDA, 1987; Harris, 1987. N.B. Some figures above have been rounded.


' *,, .... Forests.








42 103

14 36

107 262
1 2

6 19

170 422

GFR-1 Castries Waterworks 1,392
GFR-2 Barre-de-L'Isle North 231
GFR-3 Darre-de-l'Isle South 724
GFR-4 Central Forest A 1,631
GFR-5 Central Forest B 1,474
GFR-6 Quilesse Forest 1,400
GFR-7 Saltibus Grand Magazin 107
GrR-B Addition Central Forest 121
GER-9 Dennery Waterworks 145
GFR-10 Dennery Ridge Forest 71
GFR-MI Marquis Estate Parcel 1 134
GFR-M2 Marquis Estate Parcel 2 35
GFR-M3 Marquis Estate Parcel 3-6 19
GFR-F Forestiere blocks 12


1 Marquis
2 Boguis
3 Mardi Gras
4 La Sorciere
5 Mon Desir
6 Marc
7 Thomazo
8 Pelouze
9 Des Cartier
10 Basse I
11 Veuve Vottier

,-, -- 2.2(1). Forest reserves and key areas of deforestation.



Beard (1949) was the first to classify St.
Lucia's forest resources by cover types with
ecological descriptions of each (see Figure
2.2(2), Beard's vegetation map of St. Lucia).
It is remarkable to note that at the time of his
survey in the mid-1940's, Beard was able to
report that there were significant remnants of
virgin forests still surviving in St. Lucia. The
primary types identified are provided below.

(1) Rain Forest (see also Table
2.2(3) and Figure 2.2(3)). Pure rain forest
types (dominated by Dacryodes excelsa and
Sloanea spp) are restricted to the sheltered
valley bottoms of the interior on deep, less
compacted red earth soils. These forests are
typically three-tiered with a scattered main
canopy at 24-40 meters, a second layer of spe-
cific species and a scrub layer. The ground
vegetation is moderately dense and consists of
semi-shrubs, seedlings of the main dominants
and ferns. Epiphytes, lianas and climbers are
common throughout the main canopy due to
the relative openness of the stands.

(2) Lower Montane Rain Forest (see
also Table 2.2(4) and Figure 2.2(4)). This
cover type is dominated by Licania tematensis
and Neoxytheca pallida and is two-tiered in
structure with a main canopy at 21-30 metres
and a dense secondary shrub layer and sparse
ground vegetation. Beard (1949) states that
the best examples of this forest type were
found along the Barre de L'Isle Ridge from
Piton Flore to just south of Mount La Combe,
on ridges between the Roseau and Cul de Sac
Rivers and the Dennery Waterworks Reserve.

(3) Montane Thicket/Elfin Wood-
land. Montane thicket is to be found on the
top of the most prominent peaks and on some
of the higher ridges (see Figure 2.2(5)).
Major species as recorded by Beard in this
cover type include:

Palmiste (Euterpe globosa)
Bois Cote (Tapura antillana)
Feuille Doree (Micropholis
Grigri (Aiphanes luciana)
Goyavier (Myrcia spp.)
L'encens (Protium attenuatum)

Bois Tan .g. (- ..-:;.,
Casse (Swartzia caribaea).

Elfin woodland consists of gnarled, low-
growing tree species heavily covered with
mosses and epiphytic plants. This cover type
is essentially a "cloud '.,:"" formation, and
the only area of any size in St. Lucia is atop
Mount Gimie. The most common species are
Didymopanax attenuatum and Chariathus
coccineus and a few other minor species.

(4) s.'sd, Forest. In general,
the secondary forest woodlands of St. Lucia
(see Table 2.2(5)) contain a high proportion
of aggressive, light-loving species, younger
trees, and trees that more easily withstand
disturbances of the soil, plus a profusion of
ferns and mosses. No hard-and-fast distinc-
tion can be made in St. Lucia between sec-
ondary forest and plantations because the
former contains a high proportion of useful
exotic species, notably Mahogany (Swietenia
macrophylla), Blue Mahoe (Hibiscus elatus),
Caribbean Pine (Pinus caribaea), and teak
(Tectona grandis).

(5) Dry Scrub Woodland. St. Lucia
has extensive areas covered by xerophytic
vegetation particularly along its coasts and on
the northern portion of the island. The vege-
tation is typically scattered, low-growing and
predominated by Logwood (Haematoxylum
campechianum) with some Acacia (Acacia
nilotica). Further south on both coastlines dry
scrub predominates resulting from eroded top
soils due to past cultivation practices. Al-
though some areas may support occasional
large trees such as Poire (Tabebuia pallida)
and Grand Feuille (Cocolobis pubescens),
dense scrub and thickets predominate.

Since Beard's ecological study, a major forest
inventory was undertaken in 1982 by P.O. Piitz
under the auspices of the GOSL-CIDA Forest
Management Project. Tables 2.2(6)and 2.2(7)
compare apparent changes in the reported
cover types over a 40 year period. Both iden-
tify three main forest types in St. Lucia: scrub
xerophyticc woodland); primary forest (rain
forest and lower montane); and secondary


0O 0 Savanna & Grazing Land
Th K Rain Forest
ILower Montane Rain Forest

S, Thicket
., Scrub-Woodlands

++ Elfin Woodland
Secondary Forest

0 1 2 3 4 F
Scale of Miles

Pt. du Cap

Pigeon L

Gros Islet

.2 .

Cap Moule & Chique

Oraw by VLahd, Compiled by J.S Beard, 1946.

Figure __. .. .-- .;:. map of St.

Lucia ... .... P'.. ... 1949),

It should be noted that the two surveys ;_ not
use exactly the same criteria. The major dif-
ference -,i,; '.. to be in the ....... 11. :
classification .:' classification included
mixed < a i and open woodlands while
Beard's did not). It is also more a matter of
opinion than definition where the secondary
forest gives way to scrub.

Given the fact that L-- ,t and Piitz are not
interchangeable, it is L. -'Ir. to in-
terpret the changes in the natural forest which
have occurred during the forty year -" ;"..'
which separates their i,,.-. Forest en-
croachment since -. survey has been se-
vere but is not reflected in a simple ..., '
son of .,,.., and as shown in Tables
2.2(6) and 2.2(7).

-i .... .,.-, ,.. in .. data and that of
Piitz cannot be ,., J.:J by .7- :, to a dif-
ference in sample size as was noted by Piitz
(1983) and the St. Lucia .:. Management
Plan (1983). These documents observe incor-
rectly that '.. .,' s study was based on a very
light sample of only 20 acres (8 ha) out of
14,799 acres (6,023 ha), or a sample size of
0.14 !- i..- ,i (: -..-.-- w ith -'rr 's r.1 -
size of 1.8 percent). -.. _:.r Beard writes in
a '.,. *..J _.i, ._ section of his study:

In St. Lucia a regular grid system of
'..d and east-west enumer-
ation traverses on 100-chain squares
was laid out and enumerated, to-
taling 2,189 chains of line and ef-
fecting a 1.5 per cent enumeration
of the 15,000 acres of forest land in
the interior. :. ; i... i;.;:. crossed
S: .-. broken country between
o -..-... of 300 and 1,800 feet
above sea level. Two 1-acre
P-" '. were also recorded and
five :.r '.: were measured .. -.

A more convincing observation about the
7 .I'/ ",, data is presented elsewhere in the
GOSL-CIDA Forest T V.,.-,,. Plan

.. it is :,...- to note the
4, j:._! ,-' i increase in the area of
Primary Forest '7-.I1.L; 7 ;-!,.

may be due to an .; ..1 underes-
timate by Beard but is more !..
the 3 ..., of the '; -,,,.4 of forest
renewal, i.e., some ".-,: :-
est has -. into young pri-
mary forest over 40 years.... In spite
of this ... i,-. secondary succes-
sion, it is also very obvious that
large .. .; of Primary Forest
have been "lost" and converted to
.-' _- ".: .- .': Shifting ..' .
culture, '- .'. .-.I the '
de L'Isle ridge. The very large in-
crease in areas classified as Sec-
ondary Forest- "..'-i '- ,..
illustrates the ,- :.. :: .-
on remaining forest resources and
1,.. very real need for sound man-
agement u' i-"

i..:.p;, the lack of .,:'. ": .'. -i ." data
from a direct _.,...,.,. of '.,. and if,
estimates of the rate of li.'. i.-. in St.
Lucia have been made, varying between an
annual loss of 0.2 percent of :' forest.
cover .-- .. --. 1986) to 2.0 percent (G.
Ci.,,-' Chief Forester, personal commu-
nication). Such : .. which have occurred
can be "-,. h-i;-S, in part, to the ,i;!: reg-
ulated harvesting .' individual species, the il-
legal "- by '. -''. .. in I J
regions, and the eight hurricanes that have af-
fected the ,i since the turn of the century.

."._ F -i 0 ..

In .. '. .. to the natural ".--., St. Lucia has
since 1938 .: -. r.,-.. plantations of exotic
species (the first plantation was a six hectare
plot of I -f ..-. at 0 .' :'. ...:
were developed for a variety of reasons:

to increase production of --. i,.

to reforest A-. :- .- lands;
to control soil erosion and main-
tain watersheds;
to reduce the pressure on natural
to ,-, : i.. .' .' ',.' the ......'
of the country by reducing im-
ports of forest products;

Full Text


ehalf Of:


ssoeiation .is very


investigators. piementation of this project, ation, contact any one of I; (June 19


briel s rici ert Louis ini ulture rect Lu


2.3 WILDLIFE 2.3.1 2.3.2 Legislative Oversight 2.3.3 Problems and Issues 2.3.4 Directions for the Future and Policy Recommendations 2.4 WATER RESOURCES 2.4.1 Overview of the Resource Base 2.4.2 Institutional Responsibilities 2.4.3 Relevant Legislation 2.4.4 Problems and Issues 2.4.5 Directions for the Future and Policy Recommendations 2.5 COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES 2.5.1 Overview of the Resource Base 2.5.2 Institutional Responsibilities 2.5.3 Relevant Legislation 2.5,4 Problems and Issues 2.5.5 Directions for the Future and Policy Recommendations 2.6 RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND HERITAGE PROTECTION 2.6.1 Archaeological and Historical Sites 2.6.2 Conservation of St. Lucia's Historical and Natural Heritage 2.6.3 Institutional Responsibilities and Relevant Legislation 2.6.4 Problems and Issues 2.6.5 Directions for the Future and Policy Recommendations 2.7 2.7.1 2.7.2 Major Natural Hazards 2.7.3 Environmental Damage from Major Natural Hazards 2.7.4 Trends Affecting Future Natural Hazard Risk 2.7.5 Institutional Responsibilities 2.7.6 Directions for the Future and olicy Recommendations CHAPTER 3 THE RURAL/AG RlAN ENVIRONMENT 3.1 3.2 Institutional Responsibilities and Relevant Legislation 3.3 Problems and Issues 3.4 Directions for the Future and Policy Recommendations R 4 THE URBAN/INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT 4.1 TOURISM 4.1.1 Overview of the Tourism Sector -1.2 .1.3 4.1.4


4.2.2 .2.3 .3 .3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 CHAPTER 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 SECTION 6 Directions for the Future and Policy Recommendations MEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEME Government Structure nt of Environmental Management nvironmental Management Machinery of GOSL The Non-government Sector in Environmental Management Donor-supported Environmental Research and Resource Management Programmes and Projects Overview Assessment of the Institutional Framework for Envir~nmental Management SYNTHESIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND RECOMMENDATIONS vii


0 ddd &&Ad &&Ad&&&& dddddd&& ...*... & iujQbK,iubiuK, -a;teA~~~ VVV ~~~~g~~ d&&&&&~ @p@f-Q&o'-..r--vv


rin r


4.2 4.2(1) 4.2(2) Estimates of sand mined from beaches, 1960-1970. 4.2(3) Water-related diseases in St. Lucia. 4.2(4) Distribution of households and type of waste disposal. 4.2(5) eneration by administrative districts. CHAPTER 5 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK 5.1 GOSL agencies with planning and development control functions. 5.2 GOSL agencies with resource management functions. 5.3 GOSL agencies with regulatory functions. 5.4 GOSL agencies with resource conservation and protection functions. 5.5 GOSL agencies with resource co-ordination functions. 5.6 GOSL agencies with resource development functions.


Location map, Eastern Caribbean islan D NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS Location map, St. Lucia. Caribbean basin bathymetry. h oceanic island, with vegetation zones. Average annual rainfall. Mean monthly agro-meteorological data, Union Station. Typical annual rainfall pattem. Passage of Hurricane Allen, 19 Geological features of the Caribbean plate, Eastern margin of the Caribbean plate. Profile of evergreen forest at Praslin. Profile of riverine forest along Roseau River. The water cycle. Water production and distribution nehnrork. Historic trends in water production and consumption. 1.2 LANDSCAPE AND LAND USE 1.2(1) OAS drainage basin numbering system. 1.3 THE HUMAN RESOURCE BASE: DEMOGRAPHICS 1.3(1) Population curve, 1843-1 986. 1.3 (2) Age-sex distribution of St. Lucia's population. 1.3(3) Hypothetical growth scenarios, 1980-2030. 1.3(4) Projected expansion of the labour force, 1980-2030. 1.5 THE ECONOMIC CONTEXT 1.5(1) Gross Domestic Product, 1977-1986. 1.5 (2) St. Lucia banana production, 1954-1986. CHAPTER 2 COMMON PROPERTY RESOURCES 2.2 FOREST RESOURCES 2.2(1) Forest reserves and areas of deforestation. 2.2(2) Beard's vegetation map. 2.2(3) Profile of rain forest as measured by Beard. 2.2(4) Profile of lower montane rain forest measured by Beard. 2.2(5) Profile of montane thicket as measured by Beard. 2.2(6) Watersheds requiring priority protection. .3 lLDLlFE 2.3(1) Terrestrial life zones. 2.3(2) Area-species curve of the West Indian herpeto-fauna. 2.3(3) St. Lucia parrot sanctu 2.3(4) Recommended nature .4 CES 2.4(1) ments.




tunities for effective responses.


focuses on the institutional


SAINT LUCIA CHANNEL ALa Sorciere A Mt. Paraso A Mt. La Combe Piton Esprit A A ME. Grand Magazin 60' 00' SAINT VINCENT CHANNEL60*55~ I I


Lucia Channel" which leads c Ocean into the Caribbean Sea. This often choppy, heavily used channel is about eighteen miles wide and a little more than 800 metres (450 fathoms) deep at the "sill," except on the southernmost end where the top of the submerged ridge rises to the 100 fathom (175 metre) mark nearly four and a half miles offshore north of Point de Cap. For the rest of the island, however, including the 25 miie (4 krn j wide St. Vincent passage to the south, St. Lucia exhibits relatively bold bluff shorelines, a fairly narrow submerged coastal shelf and is generally clear of off-lying dangers to navigation, In fact all coastal hazards that might endanger approaching vessels are contained "close in," within the 18 metre (ten fathom) curve generally lies a mile or so from shore (e in the extreme north and south). This navigational advantage, however, also means that the narrower, shallow shelf presents a rather limited target area for fishermen, yachtsmen, and divers and a more restricted substrate for energy absorbing coral reef and seagrass ecosystems (both of which are highly efficient, ductive marine habitats requiring specific r es of water depth and clarity). act of the Atlantic Ocean and its easterly and northeasterly trade winds, waves, swells and storm systems. There are knowledge for use. an excellent, though facility with conginning of a waterfront renewal programme. All things considered, t is, at once, both compact and complex, full of jwrtaposed dissimilarities and con closely interlocked ecosystems. small, with a land area of 616.4 s are miles) and maximum dime (27 miles) long and 22 km (14 miles) wide. way of comparison ghbours, Dominica an north are half again larg Grenada to the ed miles to the rugged with the last, pletely different geologic history as an uplifted limestone platform capping an ancient volcanic base. The normal climate of the oceanic region at degrees North in the western reaches of the Atlantic is characterised by a pleasant average temperature of about 78 deC) and a relative humidity with little seasonal or dia fairly constant, strong wind out of the east. Rain tends to be showinto a drier seafrom June to December, with a risk of hurriNovember. y way of contrast, the leewar arbours on the south




nee I ND IND SPEED (m/sec) PERCENT DIRECTION FREQUENCY 0-3.0 3.5-8.0 8.514.514.0 20.5 N 0.5% 1.0% 0.1% 1.6% NE 3.1% 18.7% 6.2% 0.2% 28.2% E 6.1% 38.1% 56.9% S E 2.4% 6.6% 1.2% 10.2% S 0.6% 0.8% 0.1% 0.0 1.5% 0.2% 0.2% 0.0 0.4% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0 0.2% 0.1% 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1% V AR 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CALM 0.7% 0.7% TOTAL % 13.8% 65.5% 20.0% 0.5% 100.0% based on 17,650 observations taken between 1858 and 1973. 2. represents percentage frequency between 0.0 and 0.09. 3. To convert m/sec to km/hr multiply speed by 3.6 = km/hr. : Deane, 1987. Presented as Table 2.1, adapted from U.S. Naval 1974.




ouses en route.


Soufr inches millimeters Vieux For 0














w ;Z LLJ 8 Alluviump beach Puni ceous Tuffs W S) 5 Dacitefuffs 0 0 -I a i ton egg lomerate i ton dome Lava Andesi tes Pale andesite dome Levas Andesi te pumice f Lows, tuffs glomerate calder tuffs Dark andesi te cones


Dominant Lhinnge Any Special Soil Mamgemmt oblem Dominant Slope Ranpe Factors, xj' any, Limiring Roar Natural Ferrility Mottled day subsoil below fmm 6"-xz" edium. Aeidic Dninage. Tendency to slip Snnus Clay be Clny Slow Mottled day subsoil below from 6"-12" Very acidic hinage. Erosion control. Low fdiry. Drainage. Erosion control. Often stoninas. 3ifficulr of cultivation. wet 4ssor Clny Mottled day subsoil below Darn 6"-12" I Medium to low. Balernbouche Grimy Glay LoPm Slow in subsoil Fair Cornpacr d~y subsoil at I 6"-28'. Siliea paru rending to fom Moderate to hi Low. NcuaPl to sk&tly acidic Erosion control. Moisture supply. Shallowness. Balcmbouche Grimy Clay Loam (Shallow variutt) Bclfond Clay Loam Becune Loam Poor As above, but much nearer surfice Erosion control. Shaliowness. Good Very high Medium to low. / Ncu Fur to pool Erosion control. Moistwe supply, in arid area. Shnllownas. Rapid Bocage Stony Clay High. Mediurn. Acidic Subject to slumping High Medium. Acidic Erosion control. Stoniness. Caliourc Silt Loam Rapid / I~--I&. Fair to poo Erosion control. Canelies Clay Moderate Medium to low. j Aadic Erosion control. Stoninas in places. Siight to moderate ~edium to high. Acidic Erosion control. Stoninas. Steepness. hteau Gravelly Bouldery Silt Loam Cochon Silty Clay Loam Dculos Silty Clay Rapid Flir to pool Good High Very low. Very I acidic Erosion control. Steepness. Nil Great problem. dminage Highly mottled clay at 8"-lo" and water mblc nt 20"-30' Delomel Clay Slow to very slow Fair Fair Fair Good Poor to fail Poor Good to fiir Poor to very poor Compan motdcd day $"-I 5" Moderate Medium. Acidic Erosion control. Difficult soil to work Moisture supply. Drainnge in wet periods. I Slow to go0-80" very slow Slight to moderate Agglomcratic ash or agglcmcrate at 1-3 than 2 it. Erosion control. Moisture supply. Drainageh wet periods. Dennery Clay Dugard Clay Moderate to slow Weathered ap;glornerate at 2-4' Slight to Medium. Acidic very alight Moisture supply. Difficult soil to work Saline subsoil. Low. Slightly Slow to 80'-roo" very slow Esperance Clay Erosion control. Should not be cultivated. Falaisc Stony Loam Agglomerate at I 5'-20" Agglomernte at 12'-24. I High to 1 Low. Neutral to very high I slightly aadic High Ero~ion control. Stoniness. Little agricultural we. Franciou Stony Clny Erosion control. Stoniness. Garrand Clay Loam Gommicr Stony Loam Agglomernte at 24"-40Basalt bedrock at 6#-12. rnpid Erosion control. Shallowness. In nric ma. Little sgriculturd vdue. Modcrate 50'-70' to ;low 1 Medium. Slighdy acidic Difficult soil to work. in wcr periods. Saline subsoil. Hardy Clay Good Fur Good High Medium to hi&. Slightly acidic Haut Clay Loam Rapid O.--IOORapid i ~o.-~~o* Medium to high. High I Slirhiiv acidic Ivrogne Stony I


Dominnnt Mean Amwl Rainfall C we-xco" MDirrurc Faamr if any, trmtrt$ ipwt Penemarum Droi~gr Through Soil acidic nmbene Stony Silty C1.y pid Moderate to Subject to sliding Medium to Law. Aadic Erosion control. Stoniness. Shallowneu, Moirnur ~uppl y. Erosion tonml. con Baptirte Sitry C2.y Low. Very acidic 80"-1 so" iigh Acidic Almost none. rtille Clay Loam Good Urn-t nil Good I Monled dry subsoil ar from 15m-25m Liabou a Silty &ay Slaw to PCry llow Xigh. Subien to sliding Slight an gentle siopes Aedium. Acidic Fair Aedium. Aadic Erosion control on steep rlopcr. Clay Loam Rapid to rnodvrrte xrw to medium low. Highly acidic Erosion control. Stoniness in placca. Low feniiiry. Rapid to modernte Fair to Slow to very tiow Monled day subsoil at 12--20. Slight Aediurn. Acidic Dminage in wet puioda. Moisnve supply in dry periods. Very difficult 6oll to work. Often ~ilicn pans; Micoud Grirry Clay Extremely high High ro modemte High. Subject to slipping Nil Siedium. Acidic Emurre measurer for erosion conuol. Erosion control. Low futility. Erwion conuol. Stoniness. Only suited to fomuy. dedium to kw. Acidic vledium. Acidic pid to moderate Erosion conerol. Steepneas. Suited foresuy. Jery acidic ?anache Silty Clay Loam Moderate to rapid Water table nt I 8"-30" (often saline) Drainage. Often saliniry. Only redly adapted to pasture and rice. Diversion cf seepage. Drainage. Exueme acidity. Erosion control. Stonincss. Dmimge. Moisture 2;:. %%Vy intremble roil. Erosion conuol. Steepness. Stoniness. Only suited to foresuy. ost none. ?iayc Silty Clay Very slow ligh. Acidic neutral with &pth where saline &~ilease Silr). Clay Slow to very slow Jery acidic Rabot Clay Rapid Good High ro moderate Nil except stream bank High Nil excepr stream bank Moderate to high Nil except stream bank kledium. Acidic Good to Mottled day Fair I iiubsoil at r 5"-24" Ggh. Acidic Raveneau Clay Slow to very slow Regnicr Stony pid ici di c Richefond Fine Sandy Clay Loam Roretre Gritty Clay Medium to high. Moderate to rapid Clay subsoil, often with silica pant st 12~-35* Slow to modernte Uediunn. Acidic Erosion control. Moisture supply in dry reason. Heavy soil to work Drainage. Soucis Silty Clay 610 Slow to very slow pid Medium. Acidic Troumasre Loam Nil except ~rearn bank Nil Nigh to Nigh Slight ost none. A high orgwc content. Water table dmosr at the surface Vmnrd Peat Medium. Acidic w. Very acidic Erosion control. Steepness. Acidiw. Venus hem Zenon GrsvcUy BouIdery y Sand




ne ne Zone ne ne Zone Zone 7 Zone Zone


Hc. Hvmenaea courbaril L. Lauraceae M. Myrtaceae Mb Me. Pf. ~kilkara bidentata Ma ytenus Pi sonia Pr Pimenta racemosa caribaea Chimarrhis Exostema sanctae-luciae Rubiaceae Sc. St erculia caribaea Ta


abitat and apeciee edelia trllobata Stachytarpheta jamaicensis Paspalurn vag inat urn Euphorbia mesembryant hem1 flral la Ipomoea cairica Sesuvium port ulacast rua Fimbrist yl is spathacea Spart ina pat ens Morinda citrifolia Terminal i a cat appa Coccoloba uvifera Erithalis fruticosa Hi ppomane marc 1 rte 1 1 a Jaquinia arborea ytharexylum fruticosum andia aculeata aematoxy lon cawpecn lanur17 Lonchocarpus bent hamlanus acacia farnesis Fimbristylis ferruglnea Clerodendron aculeat urn elia azedarach Cocos nucifera angrove awaap Rhizophora mangle Laguncular ia racerflosa avicenni a schauer ~ana Rvicennxa germinans Conocarpus erect a Rcrost icum aureum Thespesl a populnea Dalbergia ecastaphyl lurti Hibiscus ti l iaceus Pluchea odurata Rnona g 1 abra Brachypteris ovata Sporobolus virginicus Sporobolus ind~cus Riverine Fringe angrove swarp (contd.1 Mariscus plani frons Fimrbrxstylis dichotoma Rha,bdenis biflora Cydista aequl.noct ialis Eichhornxrer crassipes Pterocarpus officinalis Lon~chocarpus domingensls Calophyllum calaba Monitrichardia arborescens imenta racemosa angifera indica Cei ba pentandra Leonotis nepetaefolla Nephrolepis rivularis Gynst i urn sag ittatum arbdceau~ eavanna Ludwigia octovalvis Hypt is vert icif lata Eleocharis interst incta arxscus mutisii Schrankla leptocarpa Capraria biflora Enicostema vert ici l latum -angrove type Key:Index of abundance= frequency of occurrence In sanple areas site; + = occasional,



2920 million gallons = WASA estimated demand for .___.______I___-1987 (@ 8 MCD x 365 days = 2920 mill ion gal Jyr. ) N.B. Does not include irrigation demand at 25 MCD 2.8 SHORTFALL = 1.5 MILLION GALLONS PER DAY 1 2.62.4. 2373 million galons = actual WASA production for -------------------------Q 1987 (@ 6.5 MCD x 365 days = 2373 million gal./yr.) 8' #' [---I no data available from 1983-1986 WATER CONSUMED PER YR. IN MILLION GALLONS 1977 745 MC 1978 820 MC 1979 984 MC 1980 1080 MC 1981 1187MC 1982 1281 MC 1983 1375 MC 1984 1588 MC 1985 3695 MG 1986 no data 1987 2373 MG YEAR river flow volumes since 1980 as a


INTAKES SERVIN Source: Stevenson, 1985, 1 6, based on data from CPU Issue Paper No. jor


Table I ,2(1), Types of human settlements in St. Lucia. Characteristicts Settlements A-1: Urban, or urban function Less than 50% of population engaged in agriculture, Castries, Vieux Fort, Marisule, Augier, Reduit, related, as defined by forestry and fishing, and/or concentration of tourism, Black Bay, Bois D'Orange. Gros Islet. Dennery (village), erce, and construction, and/or served Soufriere (town), Choiseul (village), Laborie (village). with greatest frequency by independently o Settlements which show signs of increasing dependency on transport vehicles allowing residents to c urban jobs, e.g., Bexon area, Babonneau area, work in urban areas. Ti Rocher (Castries). elated to urban area by Heavy reliance on non-agricultural sources of income location but have no urban (e.g.: craftwork in the Choiseul Quarter,remittances functions. in Anse La Raye and Canaries Quarters). Reunion, Cafetere, Monchy, Desrameaux, La Borne. Theordorine, Anse La Verdure. Concentration of small farmers producing crops that enjoy the most reliable market system (bananas, natural resource base. coconuts, fresh vegetables) and/or good rainfall, soils not seriously eroded and/or high percentages of 1-5 and 5-10 acre holdings. La Caye, Annus, Micoud, Giraud, Saint Joseph, Ti Rocher, Saltibus, Blanchard, Mlflet, La Croix, Maingot, Grace, De Mally. Latille, Ti Riviere. L'Eau Mineur, Moreaux, Regard, Durocher, Mahaut, La Cour Ville, Galba, Lumbard, Seleau, Rai 1 lon, Choco Me1 Londonderry, Prasl in, Patience, Mamiku, Derniere Riviere. Holdings generally smaller than type B with a greater Soucis, Saint Philip, Crown Lands, percentage under 1 acre and/or greater land constraint ette, Debbarrah, Sarot, Fond Assau, than type B because of mountainous terrain which Dupui, Hi71 20,' Pois DO US,^ La Haut, Talvern, Eating, restricts settlement expansion or because nearby lands Dauphin, Belle Fond, La Pointe, Malgretoute, Jac Met, are controlled by well -cul tivated medium and large Grand Riviere, Fond Saint Jacques. estates. Lower rainfall, than in type C-1 or poorer soils and/ Morne Sion, Delcer, Ravenau, Fiette, Victoria, La Fargue, or heavier rate of emigration (especially the 15-44 age Industry, Debreul, Esperance, La Pointe (Choiseul), group) than occurs in areas characterized ln type C-1. La Riche. Areas that did not go into intensive cultivation of Morne Jacques, Ma1 Mason. Masacre, Sarot, Au Tabor, Robot, replacement cash staples. Belvedere, Gertrlne. Ravine Duval, Savanne, Bouton Chateau Belair, Esperan~e (Canaries). more than one type. lrectorate of Overseas Survey Map. ased on Carnegie (1981 ); Directorate of verseas Survey 1: 25,000 scale map and GOSL, gricul ture, 1980 Farmer Survey.


sions. ever new acres.






Table 1.2(6). St, Lucia land use by river BASIN AREA PRIMARY SECONDARY SCRUB GRASS OPEN SCALE SMALL SMALL RURAL URBAN ----. 1.0 SALLEE 1245.2 53.5 74.5 722.5 234.2 101.5 0.0 0.1 58.8 0.0 1.1 LAPINS AREA 2.0 ESPERANCE 2.1 TROU GRAUVAL AREA 6.1 RIVIERE DES TROIS ISLETS AREA 7.0 PRASLIM 7.1 PATIENCE AREA 8.0 FOND 8.1 LUC POINT AREA 9.0 VQLET 72.1 SAVANNES BAY VIEUX FORT 13.0 VIEUX FORT 4.0 BLACK BAY 14.1 LABORIE BAY AREA 17. t LA FARGUE AREA 18.0 CHOISEUL 19.0 LVVROGNE 19.1 ANSE DES PITONS AREA 22.0 GRAND RIVIERE OE L'ANSE LA RAYE 23.0 PETITE RIVIERE DE L'ANSE LA RAYE 23.1 ANSE PILQRI AREA --Total 148089.9 18995.8 22344.7 31311.9 3804.7 2778.8 18801.7 17008.6 15575.0 9399.4 4743.4 Source: OAS, 1987. .B. Because of rounding, figures may not add up to totals cited.








ltur ll rot




A: TFR of 4.5, net emigration of 2,500 C: VFR of 2.9, net emigration of 2500 8: TFR of 2.2 net emigration of 750


economies, insular




lective action 1s necess source users

PAGE 101

GFR-l Castries Waterworks GFR-2 Barrc-tlc-L' Isle Hort h GFR-3 Darre-de-l'lsle South GFR-6 Qui lense Forest GFR-10 Dennery Ridge Forest 7 1 CFR-M1 Marquis Estate Parcel 1 134 GFR-M2 Morqrris Estate Parcel 2 3 5 GFR-M3 Marquis Estate Parcel 3-6 19 GFR-F Foreskiere blocks 12

PAGE 103

cak of Miles

PAGE 106

KEY TO CODE LETTERS Am. Aiphanes minima Mi. Micone spp. D. Dacryodes excelsa Mr. Marila recemosa Dm. Dussia martinicensis Sc. Sterculia caribaea If. Ixora ferrea 51. Sloanea caribaee L ~auraceaeisc. Sw. SwartZa-a L1. Lonchocarpus latifolius Ta. Tapura antillana Lt. Licania ternatensis Td. Talauma dodecapetala M. Myrtaceae (misc. ) Tp. Tovomita plumieri

PAGE 108

KEY TO CODE LETTERS Am. BP &a. P* If. L Ll. Ai rohanes minima -tizrtella pencfula Ixora ferrea ~aurac~isc. ) Lonchocarpus latifolius Lieania ternaltensis y rtaceae (rnisc. ) Mc Mi. 0. Pa. Pe R. Sa Sc Sm. Te. TP

PAGE 109

Am. Bm Ce 1

PAGE 113

loitah Forest fo ajor ojec

PAGE 115


PAGE 121

I Gros First priority for protection

PAGE 128

Statute Mi

PAGE 129

St. Lucia Figure 2.3(2). The area-species curve of the West Indies herpete-fating (amphibians plus reptiles), modified by CEP st 67) by the addition of St. Lucia with data from Corke, 1987b, who reports 16 native sp square miles. 7'3) rictor nstn'ctor orophius)

PAGE 130


PAGE 134

tions. States.

PAGE 135

--Table 2.3(2). Distribution of bird species in selected mangrove habitats during April 2Source: Portecop an

PAGE 137

sen un

PAGE 138

solut soiut solut solut solut +/+ /-I 20 Possibly extinct Restricte habitat; noornatus St. Lucia Parrot Thrasher brachvurus Almost nothing is known about this St. Lucian (Rufous) ht Jar rufus Finch richardsoni solut common aedon P mesoleucus Restricted solut to specific habitat; n lcterus laudabilis -solut and locally common ra

PAGE 141

C;; -= Fous Is Gros Islet Barrel OIBeeE Rock @ Bois dtOrange Wetlands Rat Is. and mangrove) 101 23 4 5 Miles Ravine La Cha Roche Is. Dennery Knob and coastal cliff Povert Is Fond d'Or an grove and surrounding littoral woodland @Offshore Islets/Rockr See Section 2.3.4 of text for description of each site recommended for pro@ tected area status @ River Doree Canyon Maria Is. Pointe La Vierge Liverpool Rocks Islet Is. liff areas of Moule a Chique Peninsula

PAGE 142

Des Bateaux Rocks Dennery Island L'isiet Island Maria Island (Laborie) Tapion Rock Rat lsland 0.6 acres 0.3 acres 0.5 acres 0.1 acres 0.2 acres 3.0 acres TOTAL

PAGE 146

Miles Vieux For v

PAGE 147

Table 2,4(1). St. Lucia water catchments by number, names, and size, Raarne/fiugei t-ie/F'al mi ~;te/E;t. Urban Vi eux -Fort a1 embcsuche / Trou Earbet / Trnu Marc Sou+ ti Ere Mamin Mahaut Canar i e5 s la Verdure / Cochejn / Galet Grande Riviet-E de Anse-Paray^, Petite Ri viere de Ansr-l a-Rave. Raseau Mt. Eellevue Gul de Sac Castries Chsc ais d'tlrange

PAGE 155

Figure 2,5(1). Recorded landings of major species, 1983-85. igure 2,5(2), Total reporte fish landings for 1985 by month,

PAGE 156

T ecen

PAGE 157

Figure 2.5(3). Monthly composition of landings by major group for 1986. nvirons Figure 2.5(4), Contribution of major landing sites to annual catch, 1985-86.

PAGE 159

MARINE HABITATS angrove sttes [see table 2.5(1)1 Leatherback @ Green Cast Anse Sou M l coud

PAGE 160


PAGE 163

source users I

PAGE 164

MARINE RESOURCE USE sites (with approx. ff boats) 14*05' FISHERIES TOURISM 14*00E $ OTHERS Conch Lobster Fin fish (Net) Fin fish (Pot) Pin fish (Line) Marina Sand mining Coral hawesting Souf r iere Choiseul /--7 Miles

PAGE 169

Rodney Bay Artificial .s Mangrove Bois do Orange Mangrove Esperance Harbour Mangrove Marquis Choc Bay Mangrove Mangroves rand Anse each and angroves Marigot Bay Mangroves 13.55' Praslin Mangroves Reef between Grand Cai 1 le Souf r iere and Rachette Point Reef at Malgretoute 13.50' Reef at Anse de Pitons Anse L'Ivrogne Reef 13-45' Fond d'Or Beach Mangroves Anse Pointe SableMan Kote Mangrove 0 Q Maria Island Reef

PAGE 170

of artificial reefs is an on-

PAGE 171

sit n

PAGE 173


PAGE 177

to erosion.

PAGE 184


PAGE 186


PAGE 189

tional Trust atur 1 alional Trust

PAGE 207

Pasture Other Crops nery d Vieux-Fo

PAGE 208

ecent census 19

PAGE 210

ndless are owne ere are 13,500 parcels he agricultural sector in St. been ing sy

PAGE 214

(already established), uncertain and often co tenure; a high degree of auto ing systems, largely to minimise economic and environmental risk. E~ension Delocations on a single parcel.

PAGE 217

* intensive use of all available land in a mix of crops for export (principally bananas), for the domestic market (vegetables and fruits) and for subsistence ** less than 70% of the land dedicated to the same mix of crops, with secondary and scrub forests covering the remaining lands not under cultivation Source: OAS, 1988. The utilisation of natural resources in St. Lucia's rural sector is largely directed toward economic and social patterns which minimise risk through a diversification of activity. Even ractices such as multie this overall objective. n represents a logical e rural population to the tainty associated with b economic environment wit occurrence of hurricanes and land tenure practices, and e curity. These can be cat threa ot only economic livelihood but even St. Lucia it helps accommodate a rapidly growing rural population which must engage in pursuits other than farming to ensure economic viability. t resource-based rural acti a are engaged in by both non-farmers alike as e satisfy basic needs rather than a of profit. In fact, statistics fr cultural Census re

PAGE 218

inistry of Agriculture, Lands, Fisheries and Co-operatives has broad responsibilities for agricultural services (including soil conserministration of Crown lands hrough the Department of Forest and n&), for fisheries (see Section 25), for forests (see Section 2.2), and wildlife (see Section 2.3). The Ministry comprises four major sections or departments: Fore resource conservation (other than Fisheries ith a field staff of approximately 40 agents, the Extension Division's duties include providing advice to farmers on soil conservation, protection and rehabilitation practices. The Engineering Division implements programmes and services for land clearing and drainage, irrigation, and soil conservation, and within the Engineering Division responsible responsibilities are the Irrigation Unit, until recently known as the Land and re than five acres husbandry (Lausche, 1986). The present ratio of extension officers to mers is seen as one impediment to t &try's more active role in promoting s conservation among small farmers. As reported by Dodd and Jackson in their 1982 assessment of St. Lucia's agricultural sector, the inistry's support services to small farmers are not adequate because of: the inaccessibility of many small holdings to Extension Division ersonnel; limited incentives for extension personnel due to low wages, ate transportation and lack of experience and eaching aids, and assi staff to non-extension tasks suc as survey and data collection. er constraints to the inistry's efforts to promote soil conservation by small farmers are: (1) the large-scale, commercial agriculuch of its work and (2) inadequate funding for experi side areas to demonst sound cultivation practi ch programme is centred at the ental Station just outside CasLucia which attempts to carry out lirnite bacteriological analysis for food quality control. All of its research efforts, includin

PAGE 221


PAGE 222

face. unave

PAGE 225

d base falls in cain some lowland areas. the forest reserves. the absence of alternative ortunities, an exs are an attrac ternat~ve tree cr

PAGE 227


PAGE 234

o veteran va

PAGE 240

Ktt = Rt/ revenue.

PAGE 242

stimated from Spinrad's winter (1.47) and summer (1.26) to conform to Spinrad's (1982) definition.

PAGE 243

Although of this e reconciled by definitional and mzth repancies reflects disagreements ov hese definitions (direct versus i fusion is due to "the 83" (USAID, 1985). in interpreting results. jobs in other local non-tourist businesses. Applying this ID/R to the estimated 3,510 in direct tourist employment yields 74 workers indirectly em (see Table 4.1(7)). In order to determine the proportion of total ent these 8,284 tourist jobs reprenecessary to estimate the total level ent in 1986. To remain consistent this is accomplished nt-to-population ratio only marginally (5%) or derived from the trapolation procedure yields total employment for all industries of 38,510 of which 8,284 or 21.5 percent is due to tourist activity. ected, these results are than Spinrad's 15.8 perc employment impact. They are also quite similar to and consistent with find CDP and tax impact analyses. t antly, they reveal the significan suggesting that one in every five jobs in the St. Lucian economy is dependent on the visitor industry. From a different perspective, the analysis suggests that each job is associated 'th EC $21,411 in gross tourist expenditure. t another way, since each stayover visitor contributes EC$ 1,593 ($177 per day x 9.0 days), the number of stayover visitors needed to produce one job is 13 ($21,411/$1593). The same job would require the spending of roughly 180 cruise passengers. chandise trade deficits. These result from obvious imbalances in the narrow structure of production and the diversified structure of

PAGE 244

1978 data. This s that in 1986 the St. Lucian residents ared with just eight years before. omy in St. Lucia, and Caribbean, is characteris cent '%anana boom") aside, tourism has emerged as the leading sector of the economy, d is Year

PAGE 245

erlative scenic an

PAGE 246

Social acceptability. A tourism Environmental sustainability. (1) ensure coastal resources clusively ; (2) institutionalise ategy for common operty resources any so-called amenities or attractions which special carrying capacity icularly true of natural cenic landscape panorac sector investment vate industry groups.

PAGE 247

visitor use. and facilities, and tax benefits particularly fur smallholder producers of local foodstuffs and art isanal fishermen. he Government ay also wish to consider the feasibility of imposing a nominal surcharge on all stayover tourists -in addition to hotel occupancy and departures taxes -as a "environmental depletion both to emphasise the ing primary tourist inparks, museums, nature Large-scale projects eviewed by Government Environmental Impact not only because of density ambience. country's present tourism style and leave open ion the long-term economic onmental sustainability of

PAGE 248

ercent rate recor

PAGE 249

Winter // Summer Total or year-round weighted ave. $177 (US$ (1) Source: CTRC, 1987b (September). (2) These ratios represent the percentage of tourists who visited December-April (48%0) and May-November (52%) during 1983. Step Three. Annual gross tourist expenditures are simply estimated for cruise day-tr plying the number of visitors in 1986 times the average daily spending rates. 1986 expenditures of EC$7 million (US$2.6 million). Visitor Aver age Daily No. Expenditure Cruise ship 58,756 x EC$119 = $7.0 (US$2.6) enditures requires: (1) factoring in t e average length of stay per visitor. ere conservatively assu be 9 days for land-based stayovers and 3 days for yachtsmen; (2) estimating the percentage of "hotel visitors" in total stayovers -i.e., those who use commercial accommodations. Following standard historical practice in St. this proportion is assumed to be 92 percent. These adjustments yield gross tourist expenditures for stayover visitors of EC$171.1 million in 1986. Average Percent e No. Stay D X 9.0 X 92% X Yacht 13,787 X 3.0 X

PAGE 250

ove calculations, estimate ditures in 1986 for visitor ed is $EC 177.5 million (US ch over 95 percent is conters because of their long per capita daily spending. from tourism represent 3 or local economic contribution of this spending, it is necessary to t import leakages due to the highly open, dependent structure of the economy. Direct imports represent those immediate off-island purchases by tourists during their vacation stay: food, luxury fuel, transport and other services, and the like. Indirect imports represent those off-is purchase by islanders and resident businesses generated from the income, wages, taxes and investment deriving from the original tourist expenditure impulses. model, these import streams are netted out by the tourist which calculates exclusively the local economic content or C or expenditure. Spinrad's estimate (1982) of the tourist inco ata) is 0.55. This value is at the lower end of the obviously a misquote.) However, given the maturation of the industry in t. Lucia since 1978, this easuring contemporary impacts. In fact, s of all seafood, fresh fruits, vegetables o percent of beverages cally. Other factors arguing for a higher multiplier are the balanced, predictable, and long-staying ase, and the relatively large avily in the local sector. I ouse/villa properties with local tion has increase 1961 to 70 percent in 1983 and of .60 is used in this an income multiplier of 1.0 lower given the high import content characteristic of the visitor indus that the average tourist dollar spent in St. Lucia generates 60 cents in local island activity.

PAGE 251

he equation reveals a total tourism his contribution represents n. Assuming an estimated 1986 po is equivalent to $763 in annual income for every island resident. ected, this impact is higher than Spinrad's calculation of 18 percent for 1978 largely because of the observed ongoing maturation of the ind at time. These are bestguess estimates, however, highly sensitive to the under must be interpreted with caution. If in fact local link analysis, such that the actual TI approaches 0.70, then tourism's $124 million and accounts for a full quarter of all island Step Five. The breakdown of this tourist GDP is calculated in Table 4.1(4) following the categories developed in Spinrad's (1982) IDRC study, which used 1978 data. The percentage of GDP attributed to tourism for each individual sector is based on Spinrad's estimates but adjusted upwards in most cases to account for the increasing local linkages and import substitution discussed previously.

PAGE 253

may have a more profound economic sectors, im Agriculture and fisheries develop in Sections 3. and 2.5, respectively. One environmental issue not mentioned in the Agriculture Chapter is the increasing concern about solid waste disposal problems associhe banana industry. The St. Lucia owers Association, a government statutory body, has been t en to task in the oil, soap, and coconut

PAGE 254

60 Transport '& Uti 1 i ti 5 0 4 0 reference for c

PAGE 255

COP SOAP Y Ton 0 Roseau in the north central area. Deane these sites. As also discussed in Section 2.5.4 of the file, indiscriminate and often ining from beaches in St. Luci rious coastal erosion, first ext by Deane, et al., 1972. Deane estited the volume of sand mined at seven St. ia beaches for selected years from 1960-62 to 1969-70 and foun that volume mine increased 142 percent during that period (Table 4.2(2)). Full estimates are not available for the years since Deane's study; however, the CPU, using the amount of concrete building floorspace approved as an indicator, an annual demand of 98,000 cubic yards for 1984, representing a stabilisation of demand at the level shown by Deane, et al. 2.5.4 of the Profile (134,000 cubic yards of sand), where demand level is derived by applying a 6:l sand to cement ratio when the ount of cement importedlyear is each Protection Act of 1967 was deto regulate removal of sand from quiring that a per stry of Communications and moval continues to a greater or lesser degree on all major beaches, although mining on key northwest beaches is at a comparatively low groups. Unfortunately, Sand dredging activities are now largely conto harbour and channel maintenance. Deane, et al., 1972, carrie out a preliminary evaluation of potential offshore sand sources and concluded the total amount available was not large enough to warrant further activity, particularly in light of serious environmental risks and high operational costs. River sand mining is carried out by istry of Communications and to clear river mouths of large sand barriers (and trash) which build up during periods of low flow. This proce as periodically prontal consequences

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ESTIMATED VOLUME OF SAND MINE otal (e.g., removal of the entire sand bar including adjoining beach and alteration of river profile causing accelerated back and stream head erosion), and the Ministry occasionally has been forced to halt mining at the Anse La Raye and Dennery River mouths (Williams, l985a). Serious coastal erosion -the progressive loss of sand and of large stabilised berms which protect coastal areas from the effects of storms -has been accelerated by sand mining activities in St. Lucia. On the island's windward beaches, this process contributes to seaborne flooding as the berms which protect low-lying coastal valleys disappear (for example, at Fond D'Or and Troumasse). The problem is more severe on the island's leeward beaches if only because the effects of beach mining are often delayed here. The low-energy character of these beaches can mask the effects of sand removal, and only after the beaches are subjected to the relatively infrequent southwest and northwest swells associated th hurricanes an Atlantic winter storms does the accumulated damage become observable (DuBois, 1985). at the mouths of rivers (current Govt policy) is a very unsatisfactory solution as it cuts off the princi sand replenishlnent which is required for stabilised beaches to compensate for the loss of sand occurring under normal cyclical patterns of shifts in wind and wave regimes (DuBois, 1985). Human-induced change in t of replenishment can cause progressive sand volume losses and decline of beach quality. Pumice deposits on the island have been studied and tested to determine their suitability as a substitute for sand in the construction industry. This alternative option for the manufacture of lightweight concrete blocks has been under discussion since the 1970's. A pilot project to test consumer acceptance of pumice, using material mined at Millet (north central area), was initiated early in 1983 as a joint effort of the CPU and the Ministry of Communications and orks. Unfortunately, the project was abandoned later in the year, and equipment provided by a donor was transferred to another unnamed GOSL agency (Williams, l985a). fforts continue within Gover velop a cement manufacturing plant using pumice and to interest the private sector in investing in a pumice mining venture. Generally, pumice deposits in the north central area are regarded as priority sites because of their areas of greatest de

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residential homebuilders, for example. Several quarry sites in St. Lucia offer fine agsea turtles today.

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Power Station (under construction) Anse Ia Union Power C

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area was airport infrastructure

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A Fi rewood & Charcoal B LPG & Kerosene C Gasolene D Diesel & Jet Fuel E Electricity A Transport B Residential C Industrial & Other D Tourism & Commercial

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sources. cant mcreases in

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ANSE LA RAYE SOUFRI ERE ENVIRONMENTAL teenth century, serious consideration of the

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a is ac

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(i i) n on for lation of forest production and isheries Act, 198 UNIT (FMU) (2) Ministry of Communications, (1) WATER AND S Ma tim to farmers on land use Control of sand minin

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(iii) LT

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T r Conservation Fisheries Act, 7 384 UNIT (FMU) (iii) ) Ministry of Communic tion programmes to protect forested areas Recommer;da%or;s for designation of marine reserves; management of marine protected reas romotion of soil conservation ction m for tion and protection of

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nt (Int (1 TAL

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(Table 5.6)

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(responsible to Ministry of Planning) (2) TOURIST (responsi inistry of Trade, Industry and Tourism) Ministry of Trade, lndustry and Tourism) (responsible to Ministry of AUTHORITY (responsible to Ministry of Communications, Works and Formerly Tourist lndustry Development anni ajor and coastal construction jects romotion of economic growth/industrial development; specifically charged with infrastructure development in Vieux Fort nesses for the same Development of timber industry; promotion of timber production Development and management of St. Lucia's air and sea port facilities nd development of housing projects

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rowers Association (ii) St. Lucia Coconut rowers Association coconuts.

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The co-operative sector in St. Lucia is si cant, comprising ove Although primaril as been noted by the co-operatives and resource management programmes. Less direct involvement with en~onmental sociation to be we village level. t the community level, sever are already active in the fi ment committeestt e been formed to provide infrastructur services and to pro-

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everal researe een resource

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or resource

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out. resource Issues.

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sent dternatives tn illegal squatting or illegal land clearing. ation. Future conservation be d areas; only ten years ago. The economic consequences of this erosion are profound but unquantified in the absence of suitable evaluation and monitoring y any Government agency or unit. tional costs of damages to roads, br other cropiands, an -to say nothing roduction -appear lem. dation following heavy rains.

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national waters

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tional resource.

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son, R., a. ons

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., 19 an, e coast. Dissertation, U no. 79. Univ. of ort on the residential sector for ucia national ener ans. Un

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nventur Service Gm 1983. Regional forestry Rese

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tic. Nat. ucia initiative. U D e conservation on t 7): tec

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a. ent touri ociat eration (1970-71). Regio ean coastal investigations, 1970-73. interference on Vi Devawr, R., 1987a. Conservation for St.

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sic ucia sout

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iences, University o c attitude and awareness roposal. Case study: erspectives on St. an roject fmdings an recommendations. t du 3 au 7 Septe sertation, Univ. of sic

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ean, the George, C., 1972. Evaluation of slicing cucu oratory's report: in, Overseas Dev., UK. uation of coral reef ement activities in St. Lucia: Re onhery sector assessment for the Eastern Caribbean: Anti e Government of ion (solid waste rn t. Lucia). Dissert

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tation, infection an nutritional status o st Indies. Trms. Royal Society ., 1969. Notes on forest icultural credit in oseau, Dennery an

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Jesse, C., 1953. Outfines of ubl. Co., Castries, n, L., 1986. Investigation of astries charcoal market. ple's participation, ment and the environment: ., Castries, St. Lucia. Cacao-Vigie communities (Vie ent plan Soufriere annex: Keenlyside, R., 1987. t. Lucia, January 4-12, 1987. Carib. E ohin Leonoff Consulting Engineers ( study. Submitted to Can. Int. Dev. Agency, Ottawa, Canada. ohn Leonoff Consulting Engineers ( ydrologic data collection on Roseau and Cul de Sac Rivers, St. Lucia. Submitted to Can. Int. Dev. Agency, Ottawa, Canada. oester, S., 1983. The effects of the Rodney ay development on the Gros lished report in the files of Is1 Resources Foundation, St. T Koester, S., 1984a. A close encounter

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as and 1987. Directory of i ons ect, 9 is,

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. Disasnternationd Develshop on coastal resources and orley, ID., Victor, energy planning in St. Lucia. Environmen action strategy for tourism. OAS, anagement Unit, Castries, St. country of St. Lucia. ca, 17-22 July 1983. U ress/ Gulf Carib. Fish. pelagic fish species of the fishty on assessment of marine eries management unit turtle watch programme. Un ., 1987. Use of ELEFAN progra in the estimation of gr 00, Acanthocbium solandn', caught off St. Lucia est hdies. Fishbyte, 5( ahon, R., 1987. Fishery data collection system for St. Lucia. In: s.), Data collection system for Eastern Caribbean Islands. Org. s in St. Lucia: An anthropological

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's newest nation. Re ency Organization, 198 Lucia. ort on general and econo eologcal studies ucia national abattoir. O A fishery development lan for St. Lucia, 198 arine degradation: -1970. Development d Statistics, Castries, ., 1985. Cooperative infor ater resources. O ater resources, natur ., 1983. Coral reefs, s nes of the Caribbean, U erican States, 198 Tourism sector plan. ates, 1982. Saint Lucia ent of attractions an

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erican States, 198 erican States, 198 ucia: Geology. Scale 1:50,000. De and distribution an ofg Saint Lucia: Land use and vegetation. Scale erican States, 198 ife zones. Scale 1:50,000. Dept. of erican States, 19 cia: Rainfall and drainage system. Scale egional Developme erican States, 1984i. -investment study of the Dept. Reg. Dev., States, 1985. Draft: Tourism evelopment plan for Soufriere, St. Lucia. States, 1986a. Saint Lucia natural resources and agricultural Soufriere: Short-ter ican States, 1986~. Soufriere touris erican States, 1987. aint Lucia develop ap preparation. O erican States; and National Emergency Organization, 1987. A manual for to Conservation strate lands. Natural Re

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of tates, 1986. iat, onit orhg system lanning Section of t anual version 2.0. OAS na costing study in St. costing survey in St. nst, Soc. Econ. Res., Cave arbados. ility of reintroduc 986. Deforestation: Inter & ective natural resources an 001, D., 1981. Natur ental assessment o tive: Natural resource an ton, DC. sula. Dissertation,

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er. Vie Visitor center retation, contents, layout. 8 utilization levels on

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amme alternatives 1985-90, coastal environmental stress in the wider Gar decline of associe national agricultural transformation and land refor ., 1981. Institutional gal aspects of agricultural Ian evelopment planning and i Rojas, E., 1984. The anagement of land development in St. Lucia: ., 1985. National ment training program short term training activities. O Rojas, E., 1986b. aint Lucia. OAS, 9 I?* R., 1987. land development in t Use ): 157-167. rachan, L., 1981. short-term strategy for Ian stribution in Saint Lucia. O Rojas, E., et al., 1988. Land conservation in small developing countries: Computer assisted studies in d economic develo ange in St. Lucia:

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ent of Schistosorniasis. Resources for t irectory of neotropical s. Int. Union Consew. Nat.,

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., 1983. Observations on the marine ., 1984. Cracilaria culture in St. Lucia. 1987. Survey and ine component of the S9 Dept. Reg. Dev., Cultivation of seamoss (Gracilaria) in Reg. Res. Cent., ley Sotela, R., 1983.

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and mitigation of haz dous risks in coastal set. Castries, St. Lucia. er o ublication. Castries, report, 1986/87. Castries, St. Lucia. ission of enquiry into the banana industry of St. Lucia, 1963. Castries, St. Lucia. St. Lucia Government, 196 Five-year development plan, 1964-1969. Castries, St. Lucia. ent, 1966. Five-year development plan, 1966-1970. Castries, St. Lucia. and nutrition policy for St. Lucia. Castries, St. Lucia. ent, 1976a. Agricultural statistics, census data 1973/74. Castries, St. Lucia. St. Lucia Government, 1976b. e national food and nutrition survey of St. Lucia, 1974. e St. Lucia marketing board: An analysis of existing arrangements roposals for improvements. Castries, St. Lucia. St. Lucia Government, 1977. St. Lucia national plan: Development strategy. Castries, St. Lucia. ent, 1978. Soil and water conservation. in. Agri., Castries, St. hcia. Agricultural rehabilitation and development, St. ent, 1980b. Inquiry into the banana industry. in. Agi., Castries, St. Lucia Government, 1981a. Land Reform Commission. Final report. LRC, Castries, St. Lucia. ent, 1983. National physical plan, 1984-89. Draft sector papers. nit, Castries, St. Lucia. igest, 1984. Statistical De

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ulation issues St. Lucia. ealth Newsletter, p edule of notifiable diseases 1985. nfo. Serv., Castries, St. St. Lucia Government, 1985f. erminal report (1982-31985). Castries, St. Lucia. St. Lucia Government, 1986a. nual statistical digest, 1985. Statistic Dept., Castries, St. Lucia. St. Lucia Government, 1986b. Draft charcoal production survey report: St. Lucia. Energy, Science and Technology Division, C U, Castries, St. Lucia. St. Lucia Government, "186~. Draft energg secior paper. Eiimergy, Science and Technology Sectioc. lanning Unit, Castries, St. Lucia. ucia Government, 1986d. Jacquot Forestry and energy issue. Department of Forestry, Castries, St. Lucia. St. Lucia Government, 1987a. A report on Leucaena in St. Lucia. Dept. Forestry, Castries, St. Lucia. St. Lucia Government, 198%. Annual migration and tourism statistics, 1986. Statistical Dept., Castries, St. Lucia. St. Lucia Government, 1987c. ual overseas trade of Saint Lucia, 1986. art 11. Summary tables. Statistical Dept., Castries, St. Lucia. St. Lucia Government, 1987d. Annual statistical digest, 1986. Statistical Dept., Castries, St. Lucia. St. Lucia Government, 1987e. Estimates of revenue and expenditure for financial year 19871 Castries, St. Lucia. St. Lucia Government, 1987f. a1 report on the 1986 census of agriculture in Saint Lucia. Agri. Lands Fish. Coop., Castries, St. Lucia. ultural diversification in St. L res. at OECS Heads of Goversification. Castries, St. Lucia Agri., Castries, St. Lucia. St. Lucia Government, 1988b. ual statistical digest, 1987. Statistical Dept., Castries, St. Lucia. St. Lucia Government, 1988c. Forestry in St. Lucia. Govt. Printery, Castries, St. Lucia. cia Government, n.d. U the protection of the coastal an ent of the Caribbean Islands.

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ey Associates Engineerin td., 1986. Surface water hydrolo paper no. 2. Castries, td., 1987. Roseau asin water development/dam: Drdt tec land-use surveys no. 20, Saint Lucia. Imp. Coll. rop. Agri., Reg. Res. td., 1969. Development stu ciates Ltd., 1973. ost-construction beach stability investigatio Stevenson, S., 1985. Issue one paper: ater supply (draft). rep. for Central Castries, St. Lucia. st w,,s~~, % 'as A+% S., 1986. St. Luck eilwkonmer;ltd study. Prepared for @"vC j'int. Union Cons. Nat., Gland, Switzerland. Strachan, L., 1981a. Land reformulat in St. Lucia: Evaluation of the need for change an ing proposals to bring it about. OAS, ot project of land redistribution in the e area: Project profile. DC. Strachan, L., 1982b. arm size for resettlement purposes in the pilot project area. OM, Planning stages for resettlement within the anache project area. OAS, 1982c. Reconsolidation of farm lots in the project area: ent lands in Glavieranache farmer resettlement project: situation and poss le directions. OAS, the Commonwealth Caribbean: A case study of St. survey. Commonwealth Su

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onmental assessment: St. erican consulate report no. 1 function for bananas in St. I. na Lucocephalen and ot heir cultivation an to St. Lucia: Geology of the Soufriere volcanic centre. Fourt J., 1984. Volcanic history and of the Soufriere region, St. Lucia. Oxford Univ., UK. Stuart, 1357. A skdy of the opportunities for impro~ng the banana i~ducCastries, St. Lucia. nt: Development St. Lucia Rodney D, 1979. St. Lucia. ountries of the Caribbean Co Disaster Assistance, iculture structural adjust cia on soil erosion olworth, Surrey, UK, ), 1975. Castries u sic

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ona ster s. Development of a geo ic information system for the island of of re-establishing the sugar industry n analytical source book wit forecasting model: A case study of St. Report, Castries, Vermeiren, J., 1983. anache land registration and farmer resettlement project: Status reVermeiren, J., 1986. C emo. to Chief Forester, Castries, St. Lucia. Vermeiren, J., 1987. Natural azards mapping in Saint Lucia. aper presented at PCD ence, Jamaica, November 30-December 4,1987. OAS, Dept. Reg. Dev., St. Lucia. of the St. Lucia fishing industry. UNDP/FAO Caribbean Fishery reliminary report on a survey of charcoal production in ngston Harbour, Jamaica. Res. rpt. no. 5. Zool. Dept., isheries development in St. Lucia. roc. Gulf Carib. Fish. Inst., 3:38-42. ling small Caribbean island fishery problems. and Robertson, L., 1980. arine resources plan g and development in St Lucia. Rome. 85. A fishery development plan for St. ucia, 1984-1991. orkshop on FishECAFC Region). FAO, Rome. ority for coastal resource the south-east, St. Lucia. reliminary results from St. oe sample plots. try in the Caribbean, 121-129. Institute of Tropical Forestry, Rio

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. Union Conserv. Nat., Clan bean. No. 7. Foundation for iles, D., 1965. Report of inquiry into t e causes of the failure of the St. Lucia fisheries scheme evelopments. Un ucia household ener oufriere. Central land use planning: Some thou N), 1987. N,

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irt, D., 1985. R., et al., 1987. Develop ation system for t d cdtural aspects of land tenure in t ot project area. OM, emorandum. Latin arib. Reg. Off., report no. ssues and options in the energy sector. ank, 1985. St. Lucia: Econo ic performance and prospects. International struction and Development, k, 1986. St. Lucia: Updating economic memorandum. Int. ank for Reconstruction and ., 1979. Island fishery St. Lucia. Canadian aid could turn a backward fishery into a model for the Caribbean. News Int., 18(5).