Material Information

Grenada country environmental profile
Country environmental profile
Physical Description:
xv, 276 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
United States -- Agency for International Development
Grenada -- Ministry of External Affairs, Agriculture, Lands, Forestry, Tourism, and Legal Affairs
Caribbean Conservation Association
Island Resources Foundation (Virgin Islands of the United States)
Grenada National Trust
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Conservation of natural resources -- Grenada   ( lcsh )
Environmental policy -- Grenada   ( lcsh )
Environmental protection -- Grenada   ( lcsh )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 253-276).
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared under the aegis of the Caribbean Conservation Association on behalf of the government of Grenada, Ministry of External Affairs, Agriculture, Lands, Forestry, Tourism, and Legal Affairs with the technical support of the Island Resources Foundation, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands and the Grenada National Trust ; funding provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development.
General Note:
"Draft prepared 1989-1990, edited and published 1991."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 24561423
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-B.V.1. U.S.V.1. Anguilla til St. Martin .St. Barthelemy S:lba BARBUDA St. Eustatius -:T. K.nS NEVIS ANTIGUA Montserrat DOMINICA 't. Martinique t ST. LUCIA f ST. VINCENT -,I Barbados THE GRENADINES -I GRENADA


G R E N A D A COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE Preppred Under the Aegis Of: THE CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION St. Michael, Barbados On Behal f Of: ntE OF GRENADA Ministry of External Affairs, Agriculture, Lands, Forestry, Tourism, and Legal Affairs With the Technical Support Of: THE ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION st. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands And Tt-lE GRENADA NATIONAL TRUST st. G.:orge's, Grenada Funding Pr< vided By: THE U.S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Regional Developmen! Office/Caribbean Bridgetown, Barbados Draft Prepared 1989-1990 Edited and Published 1991


FOREWORD One of the most serious threats to sustainable economic growth in the Caribbean is the increasing degradation of the region's natural ecosystems and a concurrent deterioration in the quality of life for Caribbean people. The task of reversing this unfortunate trend requires better knowledge and un derstanding of the unique environmental problems and the deVelopment of appropriate technologies and public policieo; to lessen and even prevent negative impacts on our fragile resource base. In an attempt to provide such a framework, the Caribbean Conservation Association, with funding provided by the United States Agency for International Development and with the technical assis tance of the Island Foundation, has produced a series of Country Environmental Promes for six Eastern Caribbe:tn countries --Antigua and BarblJda, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Even though these documents do not claim to be encyclopedic ;n lheir treatment of individual sectors and issues, each Prome represents the most current and comprehensive information base assembled to date on environmental and conservation issues that affect, and are affect\!d by, the development process in the Prame countries. Each document addresses key problems, constraints, and policy directions as these were and fleshed out by a team of researchers and vrriters, in collaboration with a local co ordinating committee. Each Prome also identifies and examinl!s a variety of opportunities and plan ning tools which may prove useful in meeting environmentidevek'pment goals in the future. All of this information should play a significant role in informing and influencing ecologically-sound development in the region, and should provide a basis for improved decision-ma.!ung --both :mmcdiate as well as long-term. This may test be accomplished by using the data to derme priorities (in view of related benefits and costs), to pursue in-depth analysis of issues, and to undertake neces sary follow-on activities in such a way that they are mutually reinforcing. In short, action emanating from the recommendations contained in the Prome might best be undertaken within a comprehensive environmental management framework, rather than from a piecemeal, project-oriented perspective. The Caribbean Conservation Association is very pleased to be able to make this contribution to de velopment planning in the region. (April 1991) Calvin A. Howell Executive Director Caribbean Conservation Association


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Overall project management for the Grenada Country Environmental Profile Project was provided by the Caribbean Conservation Association (CCA) under the direction of Acting Executive Director, Mr. Calvin Howell. Technical guidance in preparation of the Profile was the re5ponsibility of the Island Resources Foun dation (IRF). Dr. Edward L. Towle, Preo;ident of the Foundation, is the Team Leader fOi' the Prome Project in the Eastern; Judith A. Towle, IRF Vic.:; Preddent, is the Editor of the CEP Re port Series; and Mr. Robert Teytaud served as Deputy Team Leader for the Pwfile Project in Grenada. Grenada Government liaison for the CEP effort was the Ministry of External Affairs, Agriculture, Lands, Forestry, Tourism, and Legal Affairs. Signator of the Project Memorandum of Understand ing between the Grenada Government and the Caribbean Conservation Association was Ms. Pamela Steele, then Permanent Secretary of the Ministry. Local project coordination in Grenada was imple mented through the offices of the Grenada National Trust, Mr. Andrew Bierzynski, Presklent. Ms. Tessa Johnson served as project secretary on behalf of the Trust and provided expert assistance to both in-country and visiting researchers. The in-country advisory and technical review committee for the Grenada Profile Project was ably chaired by Mr. Charles H. Francis, Land Use Officer in the Ministry of Agriculture. Staff at the U.S. Agency for International Development, Caribbean Regional Development Office in Barbados facilitated implementation of the Grenada Prome Project, in particular, Mission Envi ronmental Officer, Rebecca Niec, whose support has been appreciated throughout this effort by both CCA and IRF. Many other organizations and individuals gave valuable and much appreciated assistance during the course of the project. The OAS Integrated Development Project Office in Grenada, beaded by Mr. Richard Huber, was especially helpful in providing documents and reports based on its three-year program in Grenada. Particular recognition is also due to members of the Grenada National Techni cal Committee, whose names appear on the following page and whose role in the project is discllssed in more detail in the Introduction. For further information, contact anyone of the implementing institutions: Conservation Association Savannah Lodge, The Garrison St. Michael, Barbados (February 1990) Island Resources Foundation Red Hook Box 33, St. Thomas U.S. Virgin Islands 00802 ii Grenadn National Trust c/o National Museum St. George's, Grenada


GRENADA NATIONAL TECHNICAL COMMITI'EE 'or the Country Environmental Profile Project Core Committee Mr. Charles Francis, Chairman Mr. Andrew Bierzynski Land Use Officer, Ministry of Agriculture President, Grenada National Trust Mr. Carlton Frederick Head, Physical Planning Unit Dr. Guido MarceUe Chief Chemist, Produce Chemistry Lab Mr. George Vincent Manager, Parks and Attractions, Forestry Department Members Jude Bernard George Brizan Michael Church Celby Dabreo Basil Decoteau Roy Decoteau Dr. Cyril Dominique Curtis Edwards James Finlay Claude Francis Eric Gittens Rudolph Griffith Secretary Tessa Johnson Wilan Hamilton Richard Huber Alister Hughes Michael Jessamy Joseph John Alan Joseph Gilbert MasseU Shirley Mathlin Crofton McGuire Irvin McQueen Terrence Moore Roger Naimool R.E. Noel Everson Peters Thelma Phillips Dr. DeVere Pitt Hansen Raeburn Wilfred Redhead Vaughn Renwick Terrence Smith Pamela Steele Deana Taylor-Hopkin E. Welsh Margaret Wilkinson ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION TECHNICAL TEAM 'or the GI'enada Country Environmental Profile Project CEP PROJECf TFAM LFADER CEP COORDINATOR FOR GRENADA PROFILE EDITOR, CEP REPORT SERIES Section 1 INTRODUCIlON AND BACKGROUND Section 2 DEMOGRAPHICS Section 3 11#E ECONOMIC CONTEXT Section 4 THE NATURAL RESOURCE BASE Section 5 AGRICULTURE Section 6 ENERGY AND INDUSTRY Section 7 TOURISM Section 8 POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL HPALllI Section 9 LAND USE, PlANNING, DEVELOPMENT CONTROL Section 10 NATIONAL PARKS AND PROTECfED ARPAS Section 11 PROTECTION OF HISTORICAL HERITAGE Sect jon 12 INSTfIUIlONAL FRAMEWORK Section 13 SUMMARY Edward L. Towle Robert Teytaud Judith A. Towle Robert Teytaud, Alister Hughes LaVerne Ragster, Robert Teytaud Bruce Potter Robert Teytaud Avrum Shriar, Robert Teytaud Avrum Shriar, Robert Teytaud Bruce Potter Robert Teyta\ld Robert Teytaud Robert Teytaud Judith Towle Judith "'')wle, Alister Hughes LJ Towle, Robert Teytaud GRAPHICS Jean-Pierre Bade BIBLIOGRAPHY Ian Jones iii


TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Foreword I AI=knowledgements II Grenada National Technical Committee III IRF Technical Team III Ust of Tables vIII List of Figures x Acronyms and Abbrevlatl'Jns xII-xiii Conversion Between Imperial Measures and Weights and the Metric System xlv I ntrod uction xv SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 1 1.1 Environmental Getting 1 U.l Landscape and Our Changing Perspective 1 1.1.2 Climate 1 1.1.3 Topography 8 1.1.4 Geology and Soils 10 1.1.5 Vegetution 18 1.1.6 Natural Hazards 26 1.1.7 Global Environmental Change 30 1.2 Pc 'pIe, History and CuHure 32 SECTION 2 DEMOGRAPHICS 37 2.1 Overview: Population Charlcteristics 37 2.2 Problems and Issues 44 2.3 Policy Recommendations 45 SECTION 3 THE ECONOMIC CONTEXT 47 3.1 Overview 47 3.2 Environmental I mplications 54 SECTION 4 THE NATURAL RESOURCE BASE 57 4.1 Fnrests and Forestry 57 4.1.1 Overview 57 4.1.2 Problems Issues 65 4. '1.3 Policy Recommendations 68 4.2 Fresh:,yater Resourt:es and Water shed Management 72 4.2.1 Overview 72 4.2.2 Problems and Issues 86 4.2.3 Policy RecommendAtions 89 v


4.3 Blodlverstty and Wildlife Resources 91 4.3.1 Overview 91 4.3.2 Problems and Issues 103 4.3.3 Policy Recommendations 110 4.4 Coasgl and Marine Resources 113 4.4.1 Overview 113 4.4.2 Problems and Issues 127 4.4.3 Policy Recommendations 135 SECTION 5 AGRICULTURE 139 5.1 Overview of the Agricultural Sector 139 5.2 Problems and Issues 148 5.3 Policy Recommendations 155 SECTION 6 ENERGY AND INDUSTRY 157 8.1 Energy 157 6.1.1 Overview 157 6.1.2 Problems and Issues 164 6.1.3 Recommendations 165 8.2 Industry 166 6.2.1 Overview 166 6.2.2 Problems and Issues 168 6.2.3 Policy Recommendations 168 SECTION 7 TOURISM 171 7.1 Overview 171 7.2 Problems and Issues 173 7.3 Policy Recommendations 176 SECTION 8 POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 179 8.1 Overview 179 8.2 Problems and Issues 185 8.3 Policy Recommendations 192 SECTION 9 LAND USE, PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL 195 9.1 Overview 195 9.2 Problems and Issues 202 9.3 Policy Recommendations 204 SECTION 10 NATIONAL PARKS AND PROTECTED AREAS 207 10.1 Proposed System 207 10.2 Problems and Issues 212 10.3 Policy Recommendations 213 vi


SECTION 11 PROTECTION OF HISTORICAL HERITAGE 215 11.1 Overview 215 11.2 Problems and Issues 220 11.3 Polley Recommendations 220 SECTION 12 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 223 12.1 Government Organization 223 12.2 Historical Development of Environmental Management 224 12.3 Govern:nenl Institutions Concerned with Environmental Management 226 12A The Non-Governmental Sector In Environmental Management 238 12.5 Externally-supported Environmental Research and Resource Management Programs In Grenada 240 12.6 Overview Assessment of the Institutional Framework for Environmental Management 242 SECTION 13 SUMMARY OF POLICY ISSUES 245 13.1 Establishing Directions 245 13.2 Identifying the Issues 245 13.3 Toward Balance and Sustalnabllity 249 13.4 Launching A Program: First Steps 251 BIBLIOGRAPHY 253 vii


LIST OF TABLES Page 1.1 (1) Mean monthly and annual average maximum temperatures. 5 1.1 (2) Eastern Caribbean volcanic phenomena. 10 1.1 (3) Schematic geological history of Grenada. 13 1.1 (4) Classification of Grenada's soli series according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Soil Taxonomy. 15 1.1 (5) Mature or climax" vegetational formations In the LeE',ser Antilles, according to Beard. 19 1.1 (6) Lesser Antillean life zones (Holdridge's termlnologv), showing rough correspondence with Beard's formations. 21 2.1 (1) Grenada population data, 1844-1986. 38 2.1 (2) Grenada population Indicators, 1970-1987. 40 3.1 (1) Balance of payments current account, 1986. 53 4.2(1) Grenada rainfall at selected stations and for selected years. 75 4.2(2) Watershed numbers and areas in Grenada, according to Department of Agriculture. 79 4.2(3) Information regarding water treatment plants in Grenada. 81 4.2(4) Grenada's twelve largest watersheds. 83 4.3(1) Distribution among Lesser Antillean Islands of 243 tree spp. 94 4.3(2) Distribution on Grenada and Its satellites of amphibian and reptile species. 97 4.3(3) Summary of data on sea turtle populations In Grenada. 98 4.3(4) Seabird species reported to breed In Grenada and the Grenadines. 99 4.3(5) Grenadian birds listed as endangered by the Caribbean Conservation Association. 100 4.3(6) Principal Grenadian game species and their hunting seasons In Grenada. 102 4.4(1 ) Fish landings In Grenada, 1978 to 1988, In metric tons. 123 4.4(2) Ship arrivals In Grenada, 1978 to 1987. 126 5.1 (1) Land capability classes and suitability uses. 142 5.1 (2) Slope categories and their extent. 143 5.1 (3) Main types of agricultural land use and their area In Grenada. 144 5.1 (4) The change In cropping pattern through time. 144 5.1 (5) Approximate extent of unit 3 land uses. 145 5.1 (6) Percentage of farmers by land tenure and district. 148 5.1 (7) Information on Grenada's Model Farms. 150 6.1 (1) Energy consumption by resource (T J). 158 6.1 (2) Residential energy consumption by resource (T J). 159 6.1 (3) Summary of usage of firewood and charcoal In households. 159 6.2(1) Grenada Industrial waste disposal and its Impact on the coast and sea. 169 7.3(1) Tourism growth and rates. 173 viii


8.1 (1) Blocldes Imported Into Grenada In 1988 In quantities exceeding 1000 Kg (2,200 Ibs). 185 8.1 (2) Pesticide Imports In the OECS countries. 186 8.1 (3) Incidence of gastro-enterltls and viral hepatitis In Grenada, 1980-1986. 186 9.1 (1) Land use summary for Grenada, based on Eschweller map, 1982. 197 11.1(1) Historic sites and national landmarks selected for protected status by the Grenada National Trust. 218 12.3(1 ) GOG agencies with resource management functions (expanded from Bourne, 1987), with principal legislation and key responsibilities. 227-228 12.3(2) National resource management legislation In Grenada, as identified and updated from Lausche (1986). 230-231 ix


LIST OF FIGURES Page 1.1 (1) General map of Eastern C9rlbbean, showing location of Grenada. 2 1.1 (2) Country location map, Grenada. 3 1.1(3) Location map of Grenada and the Grenadines. 6 1.1 (4) Location map of Carriacou. 7 1.1 (5) Topography of Grenada and Carriacou. 9 1.1 (6) Geological features of the Caribbean Plate. 11 : 1 (7) Geologic outline map of Grenada. 14 1.1 (8) Distribution of "climax" forest types In G.enada. 22 1.1 (9) Vegetation map of Grenada. 23 1.1 (10) Profile diagram of Rain Forest at Gr1nd Etang, 1400 ft. elevation. 25 2.1 (1) Grenada national population curve, 1844-1988. 39 2.1 (2) Age-sex structure of national population. 41 2.1 (3) Age-sex structure of Carriacou's population. 4. 2.1 (4) Grenada natlonal population projections, 1980-2030. 43 2.1 (5) Grenada national labor force proJections, 1980-2030. 43 3.1 (1) Gross domestic product, 1980 to 1987. 47 3.1 (2) Per capita gross domestic product, 1982 to 1987. 47 3.1 (3) Annual growth: gross domestic product, 1977 to 1987. 48 3.1(4) Gross domestic product by sector, 1984. 3.1 (5) Prices for e)ttJort crops received by growers, 1980 to 1987. 49 3.1 (6) Index of per capita food production, 1980 to 1987. 49 3.1 (7) Tourism receipts, 1980 to 1987. 51 3.1 (8) Imports and exports, 1970 to 1983. 52 3.1 (9) Balance of visible trade, 1980 to 1987. 52 3.1 (10) External debts, 1982 to 1986. 53 4.1 (1) Location of Grand Etang Forest Reserve and selected catchment areas, Grenada. 58 4.1 (2) Location of forest reserve areas in Carrlacou. 59 4.1 (3) Location of nurseries, forest plantations, silvlcultural experimental areas, and Morne Delice Moist Forest. 61 4.1 (4) "High Density" zone in Great River watershed. 63 4.2(1 ) Rainfoilisohyetal map, Grenada. 73 4.2(2) Rain gauges and water level recorders in Grenada. 74 4.2(3) River drainage network in Grenada. 76 4.2(4) Major watersheds in Grena.da, according to the Land Use Division. 78 4.2(5) Existing water supply facilities (reservoirs and water Intakes) In Grenada. 80 4.2(6) Major watersheds In Carrlacou. 82 4.3(1 a) Aree.s In which selected game species or endangered/threatened wildlife are known to occur, Grenada. 92 4.3(1 b) Areas In which endangered/threatened species are known to occur, Grenada Grenadines. 93 4.3(2) Distribution map of Grenada Doves, July 1987. 104 4.3(3) Distribution map of Hook-billed Kites, July 1987. 106 x


4.4(1) Grenada Insular shelf, 1 00 contour. 114 4.4{2a) Distribution of major coastal and marine habitats, GrC'lada. 115 4.4 (2b) Distribution of major coastal and marine habitats, Grenada Grenadines. 116 4.4(3) Condition of Grand Anse Bay reef communities In 1987. 118 4.4(4) Type, distribution and seasonality of nearshore fisheries. 120 4A(5) 1978-1988 annual fish landings In metric tons. 122 4.4(6) Grand Anse beach monitoring sites and critical areas of erosion. 130 4.4(7) Location of sand mining, quarries and beach profiles in Grenada 'Jutslde Grand Anse. 132 5.1 (1) Lor..atlon of model farms In Grenada. 151 6.1 (1) Existing and proposed electrical grid, Grenada. 161 7.1 (1) Economic performance: GOP, exports, and tourism. 171 7.1 (2) Comparative of growth since 1982. 171 7.2{1 ) A decade of tourism stay-over and total visitors, 1979 to 1988. 173 7.2(2) Estimated tourism revenues, 1979 to 1988. 173 8.1 (1) Location of pollution problems In Grenada outside St. George's-Grand Anse. 180 8.1 (2) Some pollution probfems in southwestern Grenada. 182 9.1 (1) Generalized land use map, Grenada. 196 10.1(1) Proposed system of national parks and protected areas, Grenada. 208 10.1 (2) Proposed system of national parks and protected areas, Carrlacou. 209 11.1(1) Places of historic and cultural Interest. 217 xi


ART BDD CARDI CARICOM CCA CDB CEHI CEP CERMES CFTC CIDA CSC CTO CTRC CWC CZM ECNAMP EDF EEC EHD EHO EIA FAD FAO FSR GBCS GCA GCNA GDB GDP GESL GFC GHA GMFC GNT GOG GRENLEC GTZ HIAMP ICBP ICOD IDB IDC IDRC IFAD IICA ACRONYMS USED IN THE COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE Agency for Rural Transformation British Development Division Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute Caribbean Communty Caribbean Conservation Association Caribbean Development Bank Caribbean Environmental Health Institute Country Environmental Profile Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies Commonwealth Fund for Technical Cooperation Canadian International Development Agency Commonwealth Science Council Caribbean Tourism Organization (formerly Caribbean Tourism Research and Development Center) Caribbean Tourism Research and Development Center (now Caribbean Tourism Organization) Central Water Commission Coastal Zone Management Eastern Caribbean Natural Area Managament Program (renamed as Caribbean Natural Resources Institute, CANARI) European Development Fund European Economic Community Environmental Health Department Environmental Health Officer Environmental Impact Assessment Fish Aggregating De\/ise Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Natiolls Farming Systems Research Grenada 8anana Cooperative Society Grenada Cocoa Association Grenada Cooperative Nutmeg Association Grenada Development Bank Gross Domestic Product Grenada Electricity Services, Ltd. Grenada Farms Corporation Grenada Hotel Association Grenada Model Farms Corporation Grenada National Trust Government of Grenada Grenada Electricity Services, Ltd. German Agency for Technical Co-operation (Deutsches Gessellschaft fur Technische Zusammenerbeit) High Impact Agricultural Marketing and Production (USAID) International Councl! on Bird Preservation International Center for Ocean Development (Canada) Inter-American Development Bank Industrial Development Corporation International Development Research Center International Fund for Agricultural Develupment Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture xii


IRF IUCN LDCA LPG MSCMS NCS NDF NGO NHA NRSE NSTC OAS Island Resources Foundation International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Land Development Control Authority Liquid Propane Gas Minor Spice Cooperative Marketing Society National Conservation Strategy National Development Foundation Non-Government Organization National Housing Authority OECS OECS-NRMP New and Renewable Sources of Energy National Science and Technology Council Organization of American States Organization of Eastern Caribbean States Organization of Eastern Caribbean States-Natural Resources Management Project OLADE PADF PAHO PCB PPU PRG TFR TVA UNDP UNDTCD UNEP USAID USEPA UWI WHO WIDECAST WINBAN WWF ac BOD cm EC$ ft g gpd ha In kg km kn kV acre Latin American Energy Organization Pan American Development Foundation Pan Arne; :can Health Organisation Pesticide Control Board Physical P/::!nning Unit People's Revolutionary Government Total Fertility Rate Tennessee Valley Authority United Nations Development Program United Nations Department of Technical Co-operation for Development United Nations Environment Program U.S. Agency for International Development U.S. Environmental Protection Agency University of the West Indies World Health Organization Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Windward Islands Banana Growers Association World Wildlife Fund ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE biochemical oxygen demand centimeter kW kWh Ijs Ib m MGD mi ML mm MW TJ TOE US$ Kilowatt Kilowatt-hour liters per second pound Eastern Caribbean Dollar foot gram gallons per day hectare inch kilogram knot Kilovolt xiii meter million ga/lons per day mile millions of liters millimeter megawatt Terajou/e Tonnes of Oil Equivalent American Dollar (US$1.00 = EC$2.67)


CONVERSION CO-EFFICIENTS BETWEEN iMPERIAL MEASURES AND WEIGHTS AND THE METRIC SYSTEM IMPERIAL METRIC SYSTEM lENGTH 1 Inch 2.540 centimetres 0.39370 Inch 1 centimetre 1 yard 0.91440 metre 1.094 yards 1 metre 1 mile 1.609 kilometres 0.6214 mile 1 Kilometer 1 fathom (6 feet) 1.829 metres AREA 1 square foot 0.093 square metre 10.6 square feet 1 square metre 1 acre 0.405 hectare 2.471 acres 1 hectare 1 square mile 2.59 square kilometres 0.386 square mile 1 square kilometer VOLUME 1 pint 0.568 litre 1.76 pints 1 litre 1 gallon 4.546 litres 0.220 gallon 1 litre 1 cubic foot 0.028 cubic metre 35.31 cubic feet 1 cubic metre WEIGHT 1 pound 0.4S3C kilogram 2.205 pounds 1 Idiogram 1 longton 1016 kilograms 1 short ton 907.185 kilograms 0.9842 long ton 1 tonne (1,000 kilograms) 1 .1 02322 short ton 1 tonne (1,000 kilograms) TEMPERATURE Conversion F to C: Conversion C to F: subtract 32 and multiply by 1.8 and divide by 1.8 add 32 xiv


INTRODUCTION Preparation of Country Environmental Pro flies (CEPs) has proven to be an effective means to help ensure that '!nvironmental is sues are addressed in the development pro cess. Since 1979, the U.S. Agency for Inter national Developlllent (USAID) has sup ported Environmental Profiles in USAID-as sisted countries, principally in Latin America and the Caribbean. CEPs completed to date have provided: (1) a description of each coun try's natural resource base, includ ing a review of the extent and eco1I0mic importance of natural re sources and changes in the quality or productivity of those resources; (2) a review of the institutions, legislation, policies and programs for environmental planning, eco nomic development and natural re source management; (3) identification of the major issues, conflicts or problems in nat ural resource management and opportunities for effective re sponses. Profiles have highlighted gaps in the existing information base, influenced the design and funding of development programs, pinpointed weaknesses in regulatory or planning mecha nisms, and illustrated the need for changes in policies. Most importantly, the process of car rying out a profile project has in many cases served to strengthen local institutions and to improve their capacity for incorporating envi ronmental information into development planning. PROFILES FOR THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN Country Environmental Profiles have been prepared for several countries in the Wider Caribbean Region, including Panama, Belize, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Jamaica. The potential utility of CEPs in the Eastern xv Caribbean sub-region (essentially the countries) has been a subject of discussior: since the early 1980' s. The need for the pro filing p.ocess to begin in those countries wa5 reaffrrmed during a seminar on Industry, En vironment and Development sponsored by the Caribbean Conservation Association (CCA) and the University of the West Indies in August 1986. Shortly thereafter, USAID entered into a Co operative Agreement with CCA for prepara tion of a series of CEPs for the Eastern Carib bean. It was decided to begin the profile pro cess in the country of St. Lucia as a pilot pro ject, to be followed by profiles for Grenada, Antigua, Dominica, St. Kitts-Nevis and S1. Vincent. Early in 1987, CCA and the Island Resources Foundation (IRF), of SI. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, entered into an agreement whereby it was determined that IRF would provide technical assistance and support to CCA in the execution of the profile project in the Eastern Caribbean. The Executive Director of the Caribbean Conservation Association is the CEP Project Director, while the President of the Island Resources Foundation serves as CEP Project Manager ITeam Leader. THE GRENADA COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE In 1989, a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was signed by CCA and the Govern ment of Grenada (GOG) for the purpose of executing a Country Environmental Profile in Grenada, with the Ministry of External Af fairs, Agricull ure, Lands, Forestry, Tourism, and Legal Aflairs the designated counterpart agency for the Government. At that time, the G;enada National Trust was also designated by CCA and GOG as the local implementing and coordinating organization in Grenada for the CEP project. A National Technical Committee was formed as an advisory, technical information, and re view body for the CEP project in Grenada.


The Comm;.tee is comprised of representa tives from GOG agencies and private sector organizations with responsibilities for or expertise about environmental issues in the country. Individuals not representing a par ticular group but with appropriate expert:se were also included in the CEP Technical Committee membership. The first meetings of the Committee were held in 1988, predating the signing of the project MOU, and the group has met consistently throughout the project. The Committee has assisted the technical writing team from Island Resources Foundation in the formulation of the CEP report outline; in the identification of critical environmental issues; in providing technical input at various stages of the writing process, as well as ad ditional references and source materials not already in the IRF library; and in the review of documents prepared by the IRF technical writing team. A CEP project office was established by the National Trust during the course of the Pro file effort in Grenada. An in-country library of reference materials was established at this location, with docu,.-..;nts provided by Island Resources Foundation and members of the Committee. This collection now forms the nucleus of a National Trust environmental library which will outlive the ProftJe Project. ORGANIZATION OF THE GRENADA CEP REPORT As determined by the Grenada CEP National Technical Committee and the IRF technical writing team, this Profile has been organized in thirteen primary sections. SEcnON ONE provides background informa tion on the general environmental setting of the country and also briefly reviews the his torical and cultural background. This is fol-xvi lowed by a demographic overview in SEcnON lWO and a discussion of the economic context in SEcnON TIIREE. SEcnON FOUR begins a review of the coun try's natural resource base, including a discus sion of primary environmental issues within each of four key resource sectors. The Profile moves on to examine primary economic sectors, beginning with agriculture in SEC110N FIVE, key industries and energy is sues in SECllON SIX and concluding with tourism in SECllON SEVEN. Environmental pollution is the subject of SEC110N EIGI-IT. The role of land use planning, development control, parks, and other protected areas pro grams is examined in SECllONS NINE, TEN, AND ELEVEN. SEcnON 'IWELVE focuses on the institutional framework for environmental management in Grenada, including an overview of key agen cies and organizations with resource man agement and development responsibilities. The fmal chapter of the Profile, SEcnON TIIIRTEEN, summarizes the key environmental issues and problems facing Grenada and makes recommendations to enhance the achievement of a sustainable balance between resource development on the one hand and resource conservation and resource manage ment on the other. A comprehensive bibliography of source ma terials dealing with natural resource develop ment and environmental management is found at the end of the ProftJe. Most refer ences cited deal specifically with Grenada or with the Eastern Caribbean sub-region. It is the most thorough assemblage of such refer ence material on Grenada to be published to date.


----.' .,. .... < .......... -, ".--Bathway Beach, northeast coast of Grenada. Throughout the Caribbean, bread stable beaches like this attract development, but tourism facilities re quire careful planning to minimize adverse environmental impacts. At such beaches, 9.11 sand mining should be prohibited and illegal sand removal severely penalized. However, alternative sand mining loec.tions where mining activities will have less detrimental impacts on natural systems also need to be identified and then rigo(ously monitored.


SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 1.1 ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING 1.1.1 Landscape and Our Changing Perspective The original European explorers and colonizers of Grenada were nearly unanimous in noting the island's beauty, its lush tropical forests, and varied topography. From the rain-fed, wet mountaintop areas of the main island of Grenada, dwarfed forests (called "e1fm woodlands,,) strett;hed downslope to merge wilh lush montane rain forests, which, in turn, gave way along the c03stlines to more diverse lowland dry forests, mangroves, la goons, rocky headlands, and bays with fringing coral reefs. In the four centuries since the time of European colonization, Grenada has been largely transformed from this once densely forested state to a mostly agriculturallar.dscape. Along the way, due to its successful, specialized production of nut meg and mace, the island acquired a rep utation and nickname unique in the region, where it has come to be kl!own as "the Spice Island". Despile cenluries of agricultural cul tivation and recenl lourism development, Grenada still retains some of its mountaintop forests and coral reefs, over 450 species of flowering plants and ] 50 species of birds. and broad expanses of pleasing, slill mostly un damaged landscape vislas. The nation also has a diversity of cultural resources: Carib (Amerindian) archaeological sites; historical sites spanning over 400 years of human drama and socio-economic aClivity (including forts, sugar mills, rum distilleries and cst ale houses); and examples of fast-disappearing traditional West Indian ways of life (such as spice-producing estates, re.nole arlisanal fishing communities and a traditional boat building industry). However, the nalion's accelerated population growth and development over the past several decades has placed ever-increas ing pressures on these natural and cultural re sources. While largely beneficial, develop ment has had a variety of adverse, mostly un-1 desirable impacts on the environment, in cluding: increases in soil erosion pollution and sedimentation of rivers, water supplies and coastal waters hydrological regime imbalances re flected in flooding and decreaseti availability of water declines in agricultural and fisheries production loss of wildlife habitat the continued deterioration of his toric and archaeological sites. At the same time there is an increas ing demand for better recreational opportuni ties and environmental education programs for Grenada's population and a demand for a greater variety of natural and cultural attrac tions for both nationals and tourists. Competing demands for landscape use are more and more common, while com plaints by one resource user about the impacts of other users and their wasle products arc also more frequenl and increasingly more dif ficult to manage. But as a former planner in Grenada so cogently observed, the landscape of Grenada warrants a management slrategy commensurate with its value as a national resource. The risk is in under-valuing this remarkable, common resource, and by doing so, inadvertently allowing il to deleriorate and devolve into a second rate, diminished habitat for Grenadians of the next generation. 1.1.2 Climate The normal climate of an oceanic region at the latitude of Grenada is a humid tropical marine type, with little seasonal or diurnal (daily) variation and a fairly constant, strong ("trade,,) wind out of the east. This regional climate is affected mainly by the




GRENADA CARRIBEAN SEA George PoInt Sa 1 I nes {) CLOVER 1. 12' LEVERA 1. \J '(?GREEN 1. Levera () 1 Pond St. Patrick St. Mary o Lake .... \ __ ,,,,.. ,..-""-.... '" I I I ,..... -I' I I I \ I ./ Mt. St. C"therlne '-I' / I I I''' / St. Andrew \ \ \ 0 Grand Etang Lake I I I ,t. ____ _.. I .... 10 o Pe.aAl/, Rock (:) La Baye. Rock os I ......... I \ I I I I / \ St. David ATLANTIC OCEAN 12 00' 61' Figure 1.1 (2). Country location map, Island of Grenada. 3


GRENADA'S "VITAL STATISTICS" Grenada, located at the southern end of the Lesser Antillean Island chain (approximately 90 miles north of Trinidad), Is the largest of the three main Islands which make up the nation of Grenada, the other two being Carriacou and Petit Martinique In the Grenada Grenadines. There are also a number of small Islands, and rocks which lie offshore from the main Islands. (See Figures 1.1(1) -1.1(4).) Location latitude: 11 degrees 58 minutes/12 degrees 13 minutes North Longitude: 61 degrees 20 minutes/61 degrees 35 minutes West Area/Grenada 21 miles long and 12 miles wide 120 sq. miles or 78,000 acres (312 sq. km or 31,200 ha) Area/Carrlacou (15 miles to the north of Grenada) 13 sq. miles or 8,500 acres (34 sq. km or 3,400 ha) Area/Petit Martinique (2.4 miles east of Carriacou) 0.9 sq. miles or 575 acres (2.3 sq. km or 230 ha) Total Land Area 133 sq. miles or 86,500 acres (346 sq. km or 34,600 ha) Population 1 00,000 see Chapter 2), largely concentrated in the southwestern part of the main island near the capital of St. George's; largest villages: Grenville, Gouyave, Sauteurs, Victoria and Hillsborough (Carriacou) Economic Activities/Grenada Economic Activities/Satellite Islands Agriculture, tourism, small manufacturing sector Inter-island trade, fishing, livestock raising, subsistence agriculture, boat-building Primary Crops Secondary Crops Tourism Industry Airport Major Port Cocoa, nutmeg and bananas Coconuts, sugar cane, citrus Centered around the southwestern part of Grenada, with most of the tourism plant concentrated in the area of Grand Anse Beach New (1984) international airport at Point Salines In the south western corner of Grenada which replaced much smaller Pearls Airport on the east coast St. George's; other ports of entry: Hillsborough in Carriacou and Grenville in Grenada Physical Features/GI'enada Apart from some limestone In the north, the Island Is volcanic. It is mountainous and thickly wooded, with numerous streams and rivers. The central mountain mass consists of a number of ridges, some of which contain crater basins. Mount St. Catherine (2,749 tt/ 840 m) is the highest peak. There are several out standing beaches. Carrlacou and Petit Martinique Both islands are volcanic mountain peaks with shallow and highly eroded soils. 4


subtropical cyclone belt and the intertropical convergence zone. The location of these two meteorological systems varies in a cyclical pattern, and their movement gives a seasonal character to the weather. Rain tends to be showery and is distributed roughly into a drier season from January to May and a wetter season from June to December. There is some risk of hurricanes from June to December; however, Grenada lies just south of the path of most tropical storms and is only rarely affected by hurricanes (see Section 1.1.6 below). THE LOCAL CLIMATE High islands like Grenada manufac ture their own local weather, creating a range of microclimates which varies greatly with location and orientation I)n any given island. Grenada has several mountain masses, one rising to 2,749 ft. (840 m) at Mount S1. Catherine, which cause a marked up ... :ard de-flection of the westerly moving moisture-laden air. This rising sea air is cooled by expansion, and the moisture is condensed so that "orogenic" cloud formations and often heavy precipitation result. A typical feature of cen tral mountain peaks in the Eastern Caribbean islands is a cap of "trade wiald clouds" which masks their summits day after day and is only occasionally dissipated in very still or very dry weather. Typical of small tropical islands, the temperature of Grenada at sea level is gener ally rather high with little seasonal, diurnal or locational variation due to the damping or stabilizing effect of the ocean mass. Monthly temperature data for Pearls Airport and Point Salines Airport (both close to sea level) are displayed in Table 1.1(1). Temperature records fOl :he higher elev:ttions in Grenada do not appear to be readily available, but Beard (1949) suggests an average of 21 to 22 degrees C between monthly means of 19 to 24 degrees C with very high humidity, no frost Table 1.1 (1). Mean monthly and annual average maximum temperatures (degrees C). MONTH January February March April May June July August September October November December ANNUAL AVERAGE: TEMPERATURE Pearls Airport (1976-1981 ) 29.7 28.9 28.5 29.6 30.3 29.8 29.7 30.1 30.4 30.4 29.9 29.2 29.65 TEMPERATURE Point Salines Airport (1986-1987) 28.3 29.7 30.2 33.3 31.3 30.6 30.6 30.8 30.6 30.9 30.4 30.1 30.56 Source: Adapted from Grenada Facts and Figures, 1982 and GOG Annual Abstract, 1987. 5


o Kick'em Jenny Submarine Volcano GRENADA Levera Pond The Sisters .. oj. GRENAVINE ISLANVS o Diamond I. Cl Les Tantp.s drO vcaille I. :"' 'London Bri dge I. \) Sandy I. 61' Figure 1.1 (3). Location map of Grenada and the Grenadines. 6 CARRIACDU White I. Mushroom 1.0 V Saline I Bonaparte Rks Fri9ate 1. Large Rk


Ma bouya I. [J i 61' Jack A Dan Sandy I.

and little sunshine. As a rule of thumh, the temperature falls with ?.ltirude above sea level at a rate of one degree C drop per 100 meters in elevation. This method of estimating up land temperature at a given altitude is very approximate, but it is useful in classifying en vironmental units and in working out evapo transpiration rates. The Windward Island group of which Grenada is a part is located within the belt of wtrade winds w famous among seamen for their directional reliability and generally pre dictable schedule. These winds move westerly along the southern edge of the Atlantic Azores sub-tropical high pressure zone and approach Grenada from directions between east north-cast to east -south-east. Changes in this wind regime arc mostly caused by the an nual seasonal (vernal and autumnal) shift in the declinatioll of the sun from the equator, with stronger, more northerly winds being common from December to May. Distur bances to this sysICm can be induced by the passage of so-called 'easterly waves in the upper atmosphere and other low pressure systems during the wet season: The extremes of Grenada's wet and dry season rainfall regime and its temporal and spatial paHern create wide variations in annual precipitation at different locations. For the island as a whole, the period of lowest rainfall occurs generally in winter, when the so-called Bermuda high pressure cell extends its sphere of inOuence southward, bringing attention to its arrival by forcing a pronounced shift of the ubiquitous trade winds from the southeast to out of the northeast. These Christmas winds," as they are known to sea men, also bring dear, relatively dry conditions to Grenada from mid-December to early May. Island-wide average rainfall data arc presented in Section 4.2 (see Table 4.2(1) and Figure 4.2(1) which show the spatial variation in rainfaH distribution). Grenada's rainfall is highest in the hilly or mountainous part of the country; for example Grand Etang, located at an altitude of 1980 ft. (600 m), normally re ceives about 153 inches (3880 mm) of rain a year. Rainfall intensities are frequently greater than 50 mm/hr. and maximum inten sities of 112-132 mm/hr. have been reported 8 (Eschweiler, 1932a). By contrast, most of the valleys and coastal plains are relatively dry, with anuual precipitation averaging about 40 inches (990 mm) at Point Salines. These are, therefore, the areas of the country with the most sun, the fewest clouds and both Atlantic and Caribbean sea frontage and exposure, making them attractive to the tourism indus try. 1.1.3 Topography The interior of Grenada is dominated by mountaia peaks, steep ridges, and deep narrow valleys. The volcanic geolob'Y of the interior is the dominant factor that produced this landscape. A single north-south trending ridge is also the major watershed of the isbnd (Figure 1.1 (5. Grenada's principal peak, Mount St. Catherine, is 833 m (2,749 ft.) high and is located in the nonhern half of the is land. Carriacou rises to a height of only 297 m (980 ft.) at High North, while Peti! Martinique attains an altitude of 226 m (745 ft.). The coastal periphery of Grenada presents a landscape which is much more subdued than the interior. The western side of the island displays a more rugged aspect as the central ridge is nearer to the coast on that side; the slopes are gentler on the east, and there are some fairly extensive coastal plains. The topography of the southwestern and northeastern parts of the island consists of low hills. With the exception of the harbors at St. George's and Halifax, the west coast con sists of a series of shallow bays separated by headlands, as do the north and northeast coasts. The southeast coast south of Tele scope Point and the south coast westerly to Point Salines are deeply indented with many small bays backed by mangrove swamps.


<:;), GRENADA A S( Antuine 12H,' GOUYAVE W"" () S T. GEORGE'S cONvthS lOllS fEE' MflRrs 11U ROO '600 49U 1.00 7 JU D Mll[S Figure 1.1 (5). Topography of Grenada and Carriaeou, elevation in feet (source: Weaver, 1989). 9


1.1.4 Geology and Solis GEOLOGY OVERVIEW The Caribbean's Antillean arc of is lands is geographically young, probably not exceeding 50 million years, and is predomi nantly volcanic in origin. Grenada and the as sociated undersea ridge upon which it is perched are located near the edge of what is known as the Caribbean Tectonic Plate (see Figure 1.1(6. Tectonic plates are mobile; they behave like rafts of solid crust floating on the less dense fluid materials of the underlying mantle layer ("If the earth. Their movements are apparently related to the convection wcurre.ntsW in the mantle. east, the South American Plate to the south, and the Cocos Plate to the west and southwest. The North American Plate moves to the we!.t relative to the Caribbean Plate, while the Cocos Plate subducts towards the northeast. There is little relative displacement between the Caribbean and South American Plates at this time in geologic history. The eastern boundary of the Caribbean Plate is a subduction zone in which the North American Plate passes under the Caribbean Plate and into the mantic where melting occurs. The melted plate material forms magmas which, when extruded as lava by volcanos, have resulted in the formation of the islands of the Antillean Arc. The CaribbC'an Plate is bounded by the North American Plate to the north and At the present time the active tec tonic or mountain forming process has all but Table 1.1 (2). Eastern Caribbean volcanic phenomena. St. Lucia Soufriere Kick'em Jenny St. Vincent Soufriere Montagne Pelee Martinique Dominica "Valley of Desolation" Guadeloupe Soufriere Montserrat Soufriere Hills St. Kitts Mt. Misery (now Mt. Uamuiga) Source: Migeot and Hadwen, 1986. caldera with comes and solfataric activity, most recent eruption about 50,000 years ago submarine basaltic volcano north of Grenada, more or less continuous activity andesite-oasaltic volcano (1,325 m), four historic eruptions (1812, 1902, 1971, 1979), all with emission of lavas four histori-; eruptions (1792, 1851, 1902, 1929); the first two were phreatic (hot water discharge) the last two magmatics near the recent Micotin volcano; solfatarlc activity (boiling lake 80 m in diameter), one historic eruption in 1880 numerous recent phreatic eruptions preceded by one magmatic eruption in 1600 + /-50 years solfataric activity, most recent eruption 20,000 40,000 years ago solfataric activity; one phreatic eruption in 1843 10


rUT AVE!i RIDGE unNCT ISLAHD ARC 80 0 100 Figure 1,1 (6), GRENADA (Active Island Arc) t BARBADOS su ILOOA CARIBBEAN PLATE III" 200 Above: Below: fl,tA[RICAN RIS,NG '.!.'GIlA I I 300 500 600 Geological features of the active boundary zone of the Caribbean plate (sourcs: Dillon, etal., 1987). The eastern margin of the Caribbean plate at the location of Barbados and Grenada. Cross section showing the Caribbean plate being underthrust by the SOllth American plate. Figure adapted from Dillon, et al., 1987. 11 [AST ("CMMt'" "u.r 0 BASEI/ENT ",111 20 PLATE 40 60 V[JIllCAI. fll.GGERAI/Qj 2'1 eo 700 KILOMETERS


ceased in the region, except for St. Vincent's Soufriere which last erupted in 1979 and the underwater volcano north of Grenada known as Kick 'em Jenny. But within the are, there are still eight active volcanic sites on as many islands, plus gas vents, fumaroles, steam vents, one boiling lake, and a few ncar-surface hot spots that have promising geothermal energy potential (Table i.1(2. Kick 'em Jenny is the oniy known ac tive submarine volcano in the Lesser Antilles, as well as the most active volcano in these is lands. The first known eruption was in 1939; I>ince then it has erupted in 1943, 1953, 1%5, 1966, 1972, 1974 and 1977 (Francis, 1988). It is located in the southern (Grenada) Grenadines at 12.30 degrees Nand 61.63 de grees W, about one and a half kilometers west of the Sister Rocks (sec Figure 1.1(3. 1 he lies at a depth of about 160 m. The volcano has no connection with nearby Diamond Island, for which the name "Kick 'em Jenny" is given on some charts. Caille Island, just to the south of Ronde Is land, is the most recently emerged island in the Lesser Antilles. It is w'ry close to Yick 'em Jenny and was probably formed from a similar submarine volcano within the last thousand years (Francis, 1988). Several geologi\.:al studies have been conducted in Grenada; the most useful gen eral works are by Martin-Kaye (1958), Arculus (1976) and Jackson (1970). The fol lowing section on the geologic history of Grenada has been condensed (with minor re visions) from GOG/OAS (1988d), based on the paper by R. Arculus (1976). Table 1.1(3) summarizes the most probable chronology of geologic events, and Figure 1.1(7) shows the location of major geological uni!.s. The geologic history of Grenada be gan approximately 38 million years ago in the upper Eocene Period. At that time, there was only a shallow sea where Grenada now exists. Grenada's oldest known rocks arc the sedi ments deposited during this period which are now called the Tufton Hall Formation. Vol canic activity during and following the deposi tion of the Tufton Hall Formation deformed and uplifted the rock, resulting in the folding 12 and faulting which can be seen today just north of Levera Beach. The oldest of the volcanic rock series arc the andesite domes uf northern Grenada, which formed in the Miocene Period (26-5 million years ago). These andesite domes (Mount Alexander, Mount Rodney, Mount William) have been estimated by radiometric dating to be 21 million years old. The Pliocene Period (5-2 million years ago) witnessed the beginning of Grenada's most intense volcanism. In the southeast of the island, basaltic lava flows estimated at 3.5 million years old arc interlay ered with reworked volcanic sediments. In the north and central parts of the island, major eruptions re-occurred in the Pliocene and continued into the Pleistocene Period. The E'1al stages of this activity formed the an desitic dome summits of Fedon's Camp and Mount Qua Qua and probably ended with the extrusion of basaltic lava on the western ridges of Mount Qua Qua. The Mount St. Catherine massif rep resents the youngest major volcanic structure on the island. Activity at this center likely be gan in the Pliocene and continued throughout the Pleistocene. The large (1.5 km diameter) crater to the of Mount St. Catherine was partially filled in by an andesiti:.: dome which probably concluded the eruptions in the area. The most recent stage of volcanic ac tivity on Grenada involved the formation of explosion craters throughollt the island, most notably at the Lake Antoine, St. George's, and Grand Etang locations. Lake Antoine is a well-preserved crater, and has been described as best example of a true "tufaceous ring" on the island. The Carenage of St. George's and the Oueen's Park area are other explosive craters from this period. The Grenadine Islands formed in the late Oligocene Period, sank or eroded away during the Pliocene and were completely submerged during the Pleistocene Period. Since that time a regional uplifting of the sea floor has raised the islands above sea level.


Table 1.1 (3). Schematic geological history of Grenada. lLJ :z: w u a -J a :J: 0.01 ______ UJ -l 0 o :E 0:: UJ :;c: o -l lLJ :z: lLJ u a l V') ...... lLJ -J c.. 2 -I---f----I I Z UJ Vl UJ 0:: a. UJ 0:: u.."O UJQ) 0:: UJ a. a. :::> 0:: UJ :;c: o 5-l 0:: '" UJ VlU a. 0::11) a. L5 .... 12:::> >0 c: o z o -l -l UJ -l a a :E :E 0:: UJ :;c: o w :z: w u a ...... -J c.. w :z: w u a ...... L 26-l I---0:: UJ a. a. :::> 0:: UJ :;c: o 38-l 0:: UJ a. g; w :z: w u a <.!l ...... -J a w :z: w u a w SCHEMATIC GEOLOGICAL HISTORY OF GRENADA (After Arcu!us. 1976) Mt. Granby/Fedon's Camp Acti vity Levera Area Activity Southeast Activity Northern Domes Activity (Levera Area) Deformation Deformation Local Limestone Deposition Mt. St. Catherine Activity Mt. Maitland Activity Local Limestone Deposition Local Limestone Deposition Northern Domes Activity (Mt. Alexander, Mt. Rodney) Tufton Hall Formation Deformation/Uplift Tufton Hall Formation Deposition Source: GOG/OAS,1988d. 13


GRENADA GEOLOGY mm Pyroclast flows im Andesltlc lava flows and domes 1m Basalt lava flows Undifferentiated South East Mt. volcanit mill \lVvv. Scoria and Ash 0 Reworked volcanics [] Tufton Hall Forma t ion ..... I!ID1 Mudfl ow III Limes tone Volcanic Centers 5 Mt. St. Catherine 4 Mt. Granby-Fedon's Camp 3 Mt. Maitland 2 South East 1 North Domes Approx ima te --center boundary J;,. Mounta in SUlTlTlit ST. GEORGE'S () 61-&tS' /' .-1 2 3 LilIiz!-5iil"""5iiiiiiiiiiiiiil!'!!!!!!!!!'!'!!'!!'iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiil1 H 11 Figure 1.1 (7). Geological outline map of Grenada (source: Weaver, 1989). 14 n"15' 6,'3S'


Carriacou can be divided into two geological zones. The fossiliferous limestone which forms outcroppings in the eastern part of the island is mainly of Miocene age. Vol canic rocks comprising the remaining two thirds of the island consist of lava flows, lava domes and other volcanic products ranging in age from Miocene t(l Pliocene. SOILS OVERVIEW Vernon, et al. (1959) reported on the results of an island-wide soil survey and map ping exercise conducted by his team in 1956-57, which is still the best reference on Grenada's soils. The description of soils in this overview section is summarized mainly from their report. In Grenada the dominant soil-form ing factors are climate and topography. Cli mate is the most important single factor, specifically differences in total annual rainfall and in the length of the dry season. In some areas, the rocks are geologi cally young, (lnd soils formed from such rocks have not had time to mature. In other areas, recent eruptions during historic times on st. Vincent have added fresh volcanic ash materi als to the old soils. This addition of fresh minerals is especially important in the wetter areas characterized by strong weathering and leaching of parent materials. Because of the inputs of fresh ash, the Grenada "red earths," for example, are not comparable to Jamaican soils of similar appearance and origin which have had no recent ash additions. Soils can be classified in many differ ent ways. Some classifications in common use are based on: (a) geology of the parent rocks; (b) climate and vegetation; (c) mea surements of the actual physical al.d chemi cal characteristics of the soil; (d) color, Table 1.1 (4). Classification of Grenada's soil series according to the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Soil Taxonomy. SERIES SUBGROUPS FAMILY EXTENT (all families are isohyperthermic) Belmont (in wetter areas) Typic Tropudolls fine, mixed extensive Belmont (in drier areas) Vertic Eutropepts fine, montmorillonitic mod. extensive Bonair not ciassified (lack of data) inextensive Capitol (in wetter areas) Oxic Humiiropopts very fine, kaolinitic extensive Capitol (in drier areas) Typit: fine, mixed mod. extensive Concord Typic Chromuderts fine, montmorillonitic, nonacid mod. extensive Hartman Typic Chromusterts fine, montmorillonitic, non-acid mod. extensive Hopo Cumulic Tropaquolls very fine, mixed inextensive La Tante not classified (lack of data) inextenslve Palmiste Vertic Tropudalfs very fine, mixed mod. extensive Parnassus Vertic Tropudalfs very fine, mixed inextensive Pearls not classified (lack of data) inextensive PersJverance Udorthentic Chromusterts fine, montmorillonitic, non-acid extensive Plains Auventic Tropudolls fine loamy, mixed mod. extensive Simon not classified (lack of data) inextensive Woburn Para lithic Vertic Ustropepts clayey, montmorillonitic extensive Woodlands Vertic Ustropepts fine, montmorillonitic inextensivl3 Source: Smith,l983. 15


physical appearance, and stratification of the soil proftle as observed in the fiel

TERMS USED IN SOIL CLASSIFICATION Various terms are frequently encountered In descriptions of Grenada's salls. Texture refers to the relative amounts of different-sized soli particles (I.e., sand, slit and clay) present. Clay soils have a predominance of very fine particles ( > 40 percent), sand salls have a predominance of sand-slLeci ,'Jartlcles ( > 80 percent) and loam salls are In be tween. These classes can be subdivided further to cover Intermediate soli compositions, e.g., sandy loams or clay loams. Sandy salls are sometimes called "light" and clay salls are called "heavy" --these teims refer not to weight but to the case of working the soli. Shoal is a term used to describe a special type of soil found in the relatively dry areas of all volcanic Islands. "shoal" Is a kind of parent rock which is made up of cemented volcanic lava material; the cementation process is thought to have taken place under water during a period of submergence. Shoal clay soils are fine-textured, dark brown to grey, and have a poor physical structure. In the dry season they shrink and develop large cracks; in the wet season they become very plastic and sticky. Alluvial soils are derived from river-transported sediments; colluvial soils are derived from materials brought down from neighboring hillsides by gravity. Latosols are a very broad grouping that includes most of the red, yellow and brown soils of the Caribbean region. These are generally mature soils of moist or wet areas with free or only slightly impeded drainage. They vary from slightly acid to acid in reaction and are usually leached of bases. Lithosols are very shallow, rocky soils found In steep, hilly areas with stony, rocky or shaly parent materials. In the special case of Carriacou, with its drier climate, Betish Clay and Top Hill Stony Loam are very shallow soils over steep limestone slopl:s. These soils are of low to moderate fertility and have very low water retention and high erodibility. They have been severely eroded, and, at present, they mostly support scrub and very poor pasture. The best soil in Carriacou is Belair Stony Clay, but because of past erosion, cultivation must be minimized. The only recommended long-term uses for this soil, as well as Top Hill Stony Loam, are improved pasture where possible and natural forest elsewhere (Vernon, et 01., 1959). Recovery will be slow as long as open grazing in the absence of fencing is permitted. LOWLAND SOILS Soils along Grenada's coast except near the river mouths tend to be stony, 17 shallow and infertile. By way of contrast, the best and thickest soils are the alluvial deposits in the lower reaches of the main river valleys. These are the well-drained heavy Woodlands Clay Loam and Plains Clay Loam and the well-drained but lighter Plains Sandy Loam. The first two are alluvial soils of generally high natural fertility and good water retention, and the last two differ mainly in being of poorer structure and water retention. They are nearly all used for sugar cane, bananas and cocoa. Plains Sandy Loam is one of the best soils of Grenada. In Carriacou the only soils with significant depth, and which occur on reasonably g.:ntle slopes, are Sabizan Clay Loam and Limlair Clay. The future of any cultivation in Carriacou must rest on these soils; therefore, intensive and careful conservation measures such as erosion control, mulching, and crop rotation are re::ommended (Vernon, et 01., 1959). If such


measures are adopted, these SOllS can be intensively used for good pasture, cotton, food crops and fruit trees. RESPONSE OF SOILS TO NA TIJRAL AND HUMAN DlSTIJRBANCE Undisturbed land with mature vegetation is characterized by a more or less efficient chemical exchange between the soil and vegetation components of the ecosystem; plant nutrients are recycled and any losses are made up by weathering and prcl.irildtioll inputs. Such efficient recycling enables lush rain forests to grow in many areas with remarkably poor soils which are unable to sustain long-term agriculture when the forests are cleared. However, past generalizations that tropical wet forests are always found on infertile soils and necessarily have tight nutrient cycles are now known not to hold true in certain specific areas. Some tropical soils are inherently more fertile than was previously thought, and not all tropical forests are very efficient at the recycling of nutrients. For example, in Grenada, tropical wet forests once grew on Belmont Clay Loams where nutmeg and cocoa are now planted; these brown earth soils are deep fertile clay loams with a high nutrient-retaining capacity (Ternan, et 01 1989). Natural distllrbances and changes in land use always affect nutrient c:ycles to some extent, but the situation is complex. Under natural forest, a rapid cycling of nutrients takes place in the litter layer on the ground. A much slower cycling takes place in the above-ground woody tissue of the trees, which at any time contains a large percentage of the ecosystem's plant nutrients. This cycling occurs under tree crops as well, but because tree crops ?re shallow-rooted, they cycle less efficiently than natural forest. Disturbance of the vegetation, either by natu:al agents such as hurricanes or landslides or man-induced disturbances such as clearing or burning, disrupts recycling mechanisms and leads to an increased loss of plant nutrients from the system. 18 Natural ecosystems nre adapted cope with, and even take advantage of, natural perturbations; but they may be more vulnerable to human disturbances which do not mimic natural events in terms of periodicity, areal extent or intensity. For example, both hurricane dam(!ge and c1earcutting may cause a decline in soil nutrients in areas where the trees have been felled. However, hurricane damage to forests is often patchy, of variable intensity and is a rel and greater flood discharges downstream. When topsoil is lost, the formation of replacement soils is an extremely slow process. It may take an estimated 7.00 to 700 years to form just 2.5 cm (about one inch) of top soil weighing about 360 tons/hectare. It is considerations such as these that should command our full attention when soil erosion is unnaturally accelerated by accidental or deliberate, but nonetheless disruptive human activities. 1.1.5 Vegetation VEGETATION CLASSIFICATlON: BEARD'S SYSTEM In 1942 the British Treasury in London provided funds under a Colonial De velopment and Welfare plan for a forest re-


source assessment in the Windward and Lee ward island group. The assessment was car ried out by J .S. Beard, then of the Colonial Forest Service in Trinidad and Tobago. At that time, only Trinidad had a Forestry De partment, established in 1901, and' no signifi cant forestry research efforts had been previ ously undertaken in the Lesser Antiilean re gion. When Beard started his decade of work in the Lesser Antilles, he found that the systems of vegetation classification then in use lacked any real ecological basis. He therefore proposed a new classification of vegetation (Beard, 1944) which led to publication of his classic monograph, 771e Natural Vegetatioll of the Willdward alld Leeward Islallds in 1949. Beard defined his climax natural veg etation type:, ("formations,,) on the basis of physiognomy, structure and life-form, and ar ranged them in several Nformation-series" along environmental gradients. Each forma tion was then subdivided into communities ("associations") on the basis of floristic comTable 1.1 (5). Mature or "climax" vegetational formations in the Lesser Antilles. OPTIMAL FORMATION (essentially no dry senson, well-drained soils): Lowland Rainforest SEASONAL FORMATION-SERIES (wet seasons alternating with dry seasons, well-drained solis): Evergreen Seasonal Forest Semi-IJvergreen Seasonal Forest Deciduous Seasonal Forest Thorn Woodland Cactus Scrub MONTANE FORMATION-SERIES (mountain climates and solis): Lower Montane Rainforest Montane Thicket (Elfin Woodland is a subtype due to wind and soli conditions) DRY EVERGREEN (INCLUDING LlTIORAL) FORMATION-SERiES (c:onstant effective drought regardless of actual rainfall, due to wind and/or excessively drained soils): Dry Evergreen Rainforest Dry Evergreen Forest Dry Evergreen Woodland Dry Evergreen Thicket Dry Evergreen Bushland/Rock Pavement Vogetation/Cactus Scrub SWAMP FORMATION-SERIES (constantly or frequently flooded areas with troes): Freshwater Swamp Mangrove Swamp MARSH FORMATION-SERIES (constantly or frequently flooded areas with herbaceous vogetatlon): Freshwater Marsh Sources: Adapted from Beard, 1944, 1949, 1955; Teytaud, 1988. 19


position. Lowland Rainforest was held to be the "optimum" expression of vegetational de the various formation-series rep resented deviations from the optimum forma tion along axes of increasing severity of drought (seasonal formations), increasingly poor soil conditions (edaphic formations), etc. (Table 1.1(5. ECOSYSTEM CLASSIFICATION: HOLDRIDGE'S LIFE ZONES A complementary system to Beard's classification of vegetation is the Holdridge scheme of bio-geoclimatic "life zones" (Holdridge, 19ti7, Holdridge, et al., 1971; Holdridge and Tosi, 1972). This system uses a nomogram which identifies the major bio-c1i matic zones of the world based on "bio-tem perature," potential evapotranspiration and total precipitation. Use of the Holdridge sys tem allows one to place local ecosystems in a worldwide classification framework so that comparisons may be made with other areas. If all other factors besides precipita tion and biotemperature were within "normal" ranges, then each life zone should theoreti nlly support a distinctive "zonal" vegetation type corresponding to one of Beard's seasonal or montane formation-series. However, veg etation responds to other factors (e.g., edaphic conditions, wind exposure, slope and aspect, length and severity of the dry season) in addi tion to the major climatic determinants shown on the nomogram. Therefore, even undis turbed, mature vegetation at a given site may often be different from the "zonal" or "normal" vegetation for that life zone; Holdridge refers to such subtypes as edaphic, hydric and atmo spheric "associations." Life zone maps can be prepared which are useful for environmental manage ment in places such as Grenada, where the natural vegetation has been severely dis turbed, since they are based on the measured or inferred spatial distribution of physical cli matic factors. Conversely, observation of the mature natural vegetation can be used to pre dict broad environmental conditions and the response of an ecosystem to man's manipula-20 tion where site-specific climatic data are not available. A map displaying the Holdridge life zones has not been prepared for Grenada. However, because the climate of St. LlJcia is very similar, the life zone map of St. Lucia produced by the OAS (1984) gives a good in dication of the zones that are likely to be pre sent in Grenada (Table 1.1(6. NATURAL VEGETATION IN GRENADA The classic description of the vegeta tion of the Windward and Leeward Islands, including Grenada, was given by Beard in 1949; Howard (1952) described the vegeta tion of the Grenadines. Weaver (1989) pro vides a map for Grenada (Figure 1.1(8 showing the presumed original distribution of Beard's natural ("climax") vegetation types, bas",d on environmental factors. The majority of the climax formations shown on Weaver's map are climatically determined. While edaphic (soil) factors dre important, they lack the controlling force of climate, except in the case of the swamp/mangrove formations. In effect, the forest zones or vegetational belts mirror the climatic belts. and this results in a nearly concentric zonation of vegetational types related to the increase of rainfall with altitude above sea level. Beard characterized the veget?ttion which existed in Grenada during the as primarily resulting from man's L,je of the land during historical times; only in certain small areas was the vegetation relatively unmodified from its natural state. Beard provided a small-scale generalized map (Figure 1.1(9 showing the major areas of natural vegetation which remained in Grenada at the time of his survey, but he gave no estimates of area. A description of these natural vegetation types, condensed from Beard (1949), is given below. Rain Forest und Lower Montane Rain Forest. Beard considered these two formations together since in Grenada there was very little difference in floristic composi tion between very tall forest with the structure of Rain Forest proper and less tall forest ap proximating Lower Montane Rain


Table 1.1 (6). Lesser Antillean life zones (Holdridge's terminology), showing rough correspondence with Beard's formations. HOLDRIDGE'S LIFE ZONES Tropical dry forest, transition to tropical very dry forest Tropical dry forest Tropical moist forest Subtropical moist Subtropical wet forest Subtropical wet forest, transition to subtropical rainforest Subtropical rainforest BEARD'S CUMATIC CLIMAX FORMATIONS Thorn Woodland Thorn Woodland or Deciduous Seasonal Forest (depending on length of drought) Semi-Evergreen or Evergreen Seasonal Forest 01' Rainforest (depending on length of drought) Semi-Evergreen or Evergreen Seasonal Forest or Rainforest (depending on length of drought) Lower Montane Rainforest Montane Thicket or Elfin Woodland Montane Thicket or Elfin Woodland Sources: Adapted from CAS, Ufe Zones Map for SI. Lucia (1984); Beard, 1944, 1949, 1955; Teytaud,1988. Forest. The Rain Forest was dominated by Gommier (Dacryodes exce/sa) and Bagui or Bois Gris (Licania lemalensis) (Figure 1.1(10. South of Mount Qua Qua, the forest growth was more diverse and included the last remnant lower montane forests in Grenada. In the sheltered lower elevations, the forest was mature and comparable to the type of rain forest exemplified in the otl.'!r islands surveyed. Ascending towards the main ridge forest, stature was progressively reduced. Montane Thicket. Montane Thicket in Grenada covered the summit of the main watershed from Mount Qua Qua south to wards Mount Sinai and lesser ridge tops in the area. Micropholis chrysophylloides was domi nant; nearly aU the big trees are of this 21 species, some of them up to six feet in girth. Composition was probably affected by fellings in the past as in the case of the Rain Forest. There was virtually no shrub layer. Epiphytes seemed to be confined to small orchids and ferns, and while there were few climbers, the forest was extremely mossy. Ground vegeta tion was knee-high and thick beneath typical Montane Thicket, consisting of seedlings, ferns, and razor grass. Elfin Woodland and p"lm Brake. Beard considered Elfin Woodland and Palm Brake together, as they existed for the most part in al' intimate relationship. At the summits of the higher mountains, pure strands of Elfin Woodland were found, a gnarled, mossy, repressed g:owth of trees about 10 feet


N N GRENADA Forest Types SUBCLIMAX Mangrove Woodland CLIMATIC CLIMAX Elfin Woodland Lower Montane Rain Forest 111111111 EVergreen & Semi-evergreen Forest c E: .. ';.' Deciduous Seasonal 0 '" rJ to. Forest ';J Cactus Scrub rn ........ DISTURBANCE CLI MAX I Palm Brake (Hurricane Forest) AREA Km2 Percent 5.3 1.7 3.7 1.2 141 .1 45.2 70.8 22.7 70.2 22.5 10.9 3.5 10.0 3.2 St.. George's 312.0 100.0 Figure 1.1 (8). Distribution of Climax" forest types in Grenada (source: Weaver, 1989).


GRENADA o 2 3 4 Scale of mil es bO 0001 o 0 0 Savama &. Grazing Land l82882 Dry Scrlb-Woodlands 1IIIII W Forest 111111I1 Thicl

in height. Most Elfin Woodland vegetation was covered with moss, epiphytes and climbers. On the very top of St. Catherine and Fedon's Camp, growth was reduced to waist height. The Palm Brake w% evidently a sub climax type, due :0 disturbances such as land slides or storms. Sites where landslides had recently occurred were covered with moss which a.ppeared to stabilize the soil, the next stage being a thicket of small lree ferns or balisier. Other less recent landslides were colonized by Mountain Cabbage, formhg a patch of Palm Brake. These successional stages were set in a matrix of Elfin Woodland. On many of the leeward slopes of the southern mountains which had suffered storm dam age --Fedon's Camp, Qua Qua, South-east Mountain --Montane Thicket was replaced by clumps or groves of Mountain Cabbage palms, sometimes 60-78 feet high and far ('vertl)pping the stunted forest. Evergreen and Semi-ever-green Sea sonal Forest. Beard stated that the only example of fairly intact woodland of this type seemed to be that crowning Morne Delice, an isolated, high and conical hill 900 feet in height, two miles inland from the south coast. Tree growth was evidently allowed to remain due to unsuitability of the terrain for cultiva tion, but was subject to frequent fellings. At the bottom of the hill there were young sec ondary thickets of mahogany, white cedar, and other pioneer species. This moist forest rem nant at Morne Delice still exists, but is cur rently under threat from piecemeal housing development, charcoaling and conversion to plantation forest. Deciduous Seasonal Forest/Cactus Scrub. Some low hills ncar the coastlines were covered with a degraded dry scrub woodland, cactus scrub and acacia bush which probably represented the remnants of a nar row belt of deciduous seasonal forest forma tion which originally grew here. This forest type had been almost entirely eliminated in Grenada by Beard's time, but still survives (in badly degraded condition) in some areas of the northeast coast and in Carriacou. 24 Littoral Woodland. Very little re mained of the Dry Evergreen Littoral Wood land formation in Grenada. At Levera in the northeast the littoral hedge was formed of buttonwood, Jacqllillia, and white cedar (in its monophyllous fonn). The woodland behind also contained sea grape, mampou, manchi neel, cocoaplum, and pigeonberry. On the Point Saline peninsula some sandy raised beaches carried pure groves of manchineel up to 50 feet in height. Swamp. There some :imall mangrove swamps, chielly at Levera Pond in the northeast and at the head of the various deep inlets of the south coast. These con tained the usual red mangrove. black man grove, white mangrove, and button mangrove. Pterocarpus freshwater swamp does not occur in Grenada. Freshwater Marsh. Small areas of freshwater marsh "egetation (e.g., rusll" ... d sedges) occurred along the margins of Lake Antoine and Grand Lake. VEGETATION COVER IN 1982 The most recent map of the actual vegetation cover of Grenada was compiled from interpretation of aerial photography taken in 1982 (map available from Land Use Office, Grenada Ministry of Agriculture). This map (Eschweiler, 1982) shows the vari ous land usc types in the early 1980's, includ ing crops and other cultural vegetation, in ad dition to areas of more-or-Iess "natural" veg etation. Eschweiler's "Explanatory Note" that accompanies his map lists the following acreage figures for natural vegetation types (N.B. Eschweiler uses categories which are broader than Beard's formations and there fore the two maps arc not, unfortunately, di rectly comparable); 4,170 acres of "Montane Rain Forest" (including Beard's Montane Thicket + Elfin Woodland + Palm Brake); 5,630 acres of "C1osed Evergreen Rain Forest" (including Beard's pri mary and secondary Rain Forest + Lower Montane Rain Forest);


KEY TO CODE LETTERS Bm. Byrsonima martinicensis Mh. Meliosma herberti D. Dacryodes excel sa Mg. g:"enadensis Eh. Euterpe Pe. Phoebe elo!1gata If. I xora ferrea Sc. Sloanea caribaea -----Lt Li cani a tern"ltensis Sl. lateriflora ... g ." E 120 35 Figure 1.1 (10). Profile diagram of Rain Forest at Grand Etang, 1,400 feet in elevation (source: Beard, 1949).


4,330 acres of "moist deciduous and semi-deciduous forest" and 7,000 acres of abandoned, "ruinate" cropland and grazing hmd reverting to secondary re growth (including Beard's Evergreen and Semi-evergreen Seasonal Forest and Deciduous Seasonal Forest); 3,030 acres of "Scrub/Cactus Vege tation, partly natural and partly "ruinate" agricultural land (including Beards's Deciduous Seasonal Forest and Thorn Woodland [and/or Dry Ev ergreen Thicket)); 470 acres of Mangrove Swamp; 70 acres of "Inland Swamp." 1.1.6 Natural Hazards Natural hazards, as the term is used here, include those occasional short-term nat ural phenomena which have the potential for negative impacts on the physical, economic and social environment of an area. Natural hazards relevant to Grerlada include: hurri canes and their associated s\.orm surges and wave action, earthquakes and earthquake generated ocean waves (tsunamis), volcanic eruptions, landslides and rock-slides and flooding. Man-made and technical disasters will not be included in this section; examples of these include such events as oil spills in harbors and offshore; ship accidents; air crashes; toxic substance accidents on rivers and the sea; and sewage and solid waste dis posal accidents. MAJOR NATURAL HAZARDS (1) Voicanic Activity. Grenada, Petit Martinique, and Carriacou have no record of major volcanic activity in recent history even though they are islands of volcanic origin. The minor volcanic activity associated with Grenada is limited to hot spring:; which occur in the Mount St. Catherine area and which emit sulfurous water and vapor. The youngest volcanic structures on Grenada, three closely spaced explosion craters associated with 26 Grand Etang Mountain, are thought to be 12,000 years old (Arcuius, 1976). A submarine volcano, 160 meters below sea level, is located about seven kilo meters north of David Point, Grenada (Figure 1.1(3. This volcano, calbd "Kick 'em Jenny", is one of the most active in the Lesser An tilles, having erupted at least eight times this century, and some scientists believp. it may emerge above sea le\'el during its next erup The last eruption occurred in 1977. Seismic activity in the area is being monitored by scientists in Trinidad for indications of re newed activity (OAS, 1988d). Cambers (1985a) also mentions an active fault in the Levera area and that the severe coastal erosion present in that area may be the result of land subsidence. (2) Earthquakes. Grenada's location near the Caribbean Plate margin makes it vulnerable to considerable seism.ic activity. Earthquakes of magnitude 3.2-3.9 on the Richter scale have been recorded with epi centers less than 50 miles to the south of Grenada (Bacarreza, 1988). (3) Hurricanes and Other Storms. Although Grenada is one of the Windward Islands within the hurricane belt of the Caribbean, it is located just south of the major tropical storm tracks. Therefore, the island is rarely affected by the large storms and hurri canes which are prevalent in the Eastern Caribbean during the Junp. through October hurricane season. Records show that between 1901 and 1964 twenty-one hurricanes and tropical ftorms affected the country, but only one hur ricane since the turn of the century has passed directly over Grenada (De Souza, quoted in Frederick, 1987a). Other hurricanes passing to the north have caused lesser damage due to wind and heavy rains in 1768, 1780, 1817, 1831, 1832, 1877, 1921 and 1963 (Finisterre and Renard, 1987; Knight, 1946). In order of decreasing impact, the major causes of damage from most hurricanes are: flooding from rainfall, coastal flooding and damage from storm waves, landslides and


THE NIGHT "JANET" INVADED GRENADA A "killer" hurricane [named] "Janet" swept In from the Atlantic on the 22nd of September 1955. For several days the forecast had said there was bad weather out there to the east, but f.,,,, people took It seriously. In those days, Grenada's tourist literature said the Island was "outside the hurricane belt". In fact, no living Grenadian resident on the island had experienced a hurricane; there was nobody to describe the coming terror. During the afternoon of the 22nd, there was a marked Increase In tha overcast and, by dusk, the wind, which had been light a/l day, began to increase in velocity. Sut, even then, Grenadians didn't worry much. The forecast said Barbados and 51. Vincent would take the brunt of the blow and Grenada expected only to be brushed lightly by the tail end of the hurricane. But "Janet" surprised everybody. After striking Barbados, she abandoned her northwest direction and veered southwards towards Grenada, the eye of the hurricane passing between the northern tip of Grenada and the sister island of Carriacou, 20 miles offshore. The final build-up to this onslaught began shortly after nightfall. Torrential rains poured down, and the island was plunged into darkness as the electricity supply failed. Exceeding 130 miles p,)r hOLir, the wind increased to a roaring Intensity while vivid flashes of lightening rent the sky to the accompaniment of loud poals of thunder. "Janef reached her peak bafore midnight as the eye passed thll'llJgh, but there was no sleep for anyone until well on to morning. Then, with the dawn, Grenadians woke to scenes of devastation beyoncl their wildest nightmares. In 51. George's, the 850 foot long pier and Customs warehouses had disappeared. II lay at the bottom of th'J har bour together ')lith millions of dollars worth of merchandise. Hurled by the roaring waters, bags of flour, boxes of foodstuff, cases of general cargo and bales of assorted merchandise lay strewn In Lntldy heeps on the Carenage roadway encircling the inner harbour. 51. Georges Is a solidly built city, but It did not escape damage. As compared with other parts of the State, how ever, that damage was negligible. In the Parishes of 51. Johns and St. Marks, the loss was much greater. And the Parish of 51. Patricks and the islands of Carriacou and Petite Martinique took the heaviest blow. The uye of the hurricane passed very close to those areas, and they experienced the full flurry of "Janet". The de struction was tremendous, and the death toll was highest here. "Janet" killed 114 persons in Grenada, and of these, 32 were in 51. Patricks, 25 in Carriacou and 2 in Petite Martinique. Throughout the State, thousands were homeless. Communications were knocked out and schools, churches and community centres were ra::ed. Several persons were buried alive as landslides covered their IIomes under sev eral feet of mud and debris. Others died as structures collapsed and stili others were swept out to sea by flood waters of raging rivers. Seventy-five percent of the nutmeg plantations were de::troyed, cocoa and cocon:Jt fields took a tremendous beating and the then new banana pls.,tatlons were completely wiped oul. [More thRn thr",e decades] have passed since Hurricane "Janet", and the memory has grown dim. There is now a new generation without hurricane experience and lurking in their minO::s may be hope that Grenada "is outside the hurricane belt". Extracted from THE GRENADA NEWSLETTER, September 30,1989. 27


winds. Although high winds are hurricanes' most distinctive feature, usually the most damaging winds affect a very small radius (as small as 20 miles) of the entire storm system, whereas torrential rains can be experienced from one edge to the other of a 300 mile di ameter storm. Ten inch rains from well-de veloped tropical storms are not unusual. (4) Floods. Floods may cause prop erty damage, severe erosion and even the loss of life during natural events such as rain storms and hurricanes. Floods can be the re sult of downslope rainwater run-off, especially over paved or deforested area:;, and/or sea water driven inland by above-normal tides and surges. Additionally, storm surges caused by reduced atmospheric pressure during hurri canes can be augmented by wind-driven waves, swells, and spray. (5) Landslides and Rockslides. Landslides occur when the forces of gravity exce.ed the strength of the forces holding soil material together, resulting in a mass of soil being pulled downward. Generally, landslides are localized events and depend on the type of soil, the angle of repose and the steepness of the slope at the site. Water in soils contributes to increased landslide risk because the weight of the water is an added stress on the soil mass that ::; also being lubricated by the water molecules. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF MAJOR NATURAL HAZARDS [Note: In addition to the information below, the report prepared by Bacarreza (1988) for the Government of Grenada and the OAS identifies specific infrastructure elements and some environmental components at risk from natural hazards in the towns and villages of Grenada.] (1) Wind. Wind damage in Grenada is associated with storms and the rare hurri cane that may occur during the hurricane sea son. The coastal communities with exposed west-facing harbors, buildings and roads as well as the town of St. George's, are suscepti ble to damage from high velocity winds (Bacarreza, 1988). Wind damage is a critical 28 risk for developments on west-facing slopes in Sauteurs and Grenville, as it will be for pro posed developments along the coastal areas of St. David's Par;Sh. The most recent hurricane to strike Grenada was Janet, which caused major de struction in 1955. The hurricane produced winds of up to 130 miles per hour and killed over 100 persons, devastated banana, nutmeg, and cocoa crops, severely damaged the forests and caused millions of dollars worth of wind and flood damage to property and infrastructure facilities. Storm waters caused flooding, severe erosion, the collapse of bridges and mini-dams, and the disruption of the water supply system. Storm surge de stroyed coastal roads and jetties, caused the loss of fishing vessels and damaged St. George's harbor facilities and many beaches. (2) Inland Flooding. The extent of environmental inipacts associated with inland flooding in any particular area is depenuent on the amount of rainfall, the slope of the land, the porosity of the soils, and the size and shape of the river basin through which the water will eventually flow. Grenada's combi nation of steep mountains and rolling hills with relatively low porosity soils (Lathwell, 1974) contribute to rapid run-off and down stream flooding. Of the six parishes in Grenada, only St. David's was listed by the Organization of American States (Bacarreza, 1988) as having a low probability of experi encing flo)ding. (3) Coastal Flooding. Grenada has some nearshore coral reefs along Grand Anse Bay and other beaches on the west coast that act to protect beaches from high wave energy. On the east coast at Grenville, the beach is again protected by an offshore reef. However, many beaches and coastal areas are presently exhibiting considerable erosion that is 1/01 the result of natural hazards alone (see also Sec tion 4.4 on coastal resources). Some attempts are being made to reduce these human-in duced risks. Generally speaking, the major sea defense structures in Grenada are sea walls, normally vertical, which serve to protect sec tions of the coastal highway (Cambers, 1985).


There are no major groyne fields, offshore breakwaters or port structures. Therefore, St George's, other towns on the west coast, Sauteurs, and low-lying areas on the eastem side of the island are susceptible to flooding from the sea during storms, hurricanes and tsunamis ("tidal waves"). Most of Carriacou is protected by an outlying reef with substantial openings only on the west coast of the island. Despite offshore reefs, Carriacou is being eroded by the <;ea in se,'eral locations, including Tarleton, Kendeace, amI Gun, During tsunamis, storms and hurricanes the coastal towns would be vulnerable to flooding from the sea as weIl as from land-based rainfaIl run-off. (4) Landslides. In Grenada a sec ondary effect of flooding on steep slopes cov ered with clay-rich soils is the increased ten dency for landslides to occur. Mabouya, in the Parish of St. John's, is listed as one of the worst land slip areas in Grenada (Bacarreza, 1988), but towns like GrenviIle, Victoria, and Sauteurs are also prone to land-based flood ing and landslides. Roads would also be dam aged by landslides during exceptionaIly heavy rainfaIl events. TRENDS AFFECTING FUTURE RISKS FROM NATURAl.. HAZARDS UrbaniLation of towns and villages, as well as the development of new communities in the southern section of Grenada, which re quire modifications to the natural landscape, could easily increase the risk of damage from flooding and landslides. Such modifications may include: construction of higher density, high cost structures (like hotels and condo miniums) closer to the shoreline or in flood plains; removal of mangrove trees along the shore which buffer sea wave and wind energy as well as help to maintain bal anced nutrient levels in adjacent waters by absorbing nutrients in run-off; 29 -filling of salt ponds and swamps which absorb energy and sediments of out-flowing surface waters as well as buffering incoming storm surges and waves; offshore dredging to eliminate sand bars and shallows which normally ab sorb sea wave energy and prevent 10land damage; deforestation of inland watersheds, including loss of ground cover such as decayed leaves or understory vegeta tion and the decomposition of subter ranean root systems of former plants; road building and paving. Population growth and increased em phasis on tourism wiIl promote further devel opment of the major towns of Grenada, which are all located in the coastal areas of the is land. Problems associated with higl: popUla tion densities, insufficient community plan ning, and inadequate infrastructure support have been identified and linked to potential environmental impacts resulting fro;n specific natural hazards (Bacarreza, 1988), Enlarged popUlations in to"'l1S like St. George's, Grenville, or Gouyave place more people at risk from both inland and coastal flooding. Grenada also now faces the conse quences resulting from earlier removal of over 80 percent of the trees along the seaward side of the western coastal road, now exposing the roadway to erosion by waves (Cambers, 1985a). Steep slopes and river banks which have been denuded of trees promote rapid rain run-off, causing an increased risk of flooding and facilitating the occurrence of landslides. AdditionaIly, deforestation to ac commodate agriculture and development in creases the silt load carried by surface run-off into rivers and streams and out to sea, The impact on agriculture of the loss of top soil, as weIl as its effect on river channels and marine life, is discussed elsewhere in this Profile. Construction and waste disposal practices of human settlements along the


banks of the major rivers of Grenada have produced blockages of the river ChaD.'lels, in creasing flood risk and damages iD these areas. Blockages result from poorly situated roads and levees, undersized bridges, culverts and drains, and trash dumped in the river channel. The removal of sand from the beaches of Grenada for construction purposes has reduced the island's sand buffers to storm waves and tides, thereby increasing th(:r neg ative impacts on the shoreline. The problems with sand mining are localized, but severe enough to warrant serious attention. Beach sand mining and its negative environmental impacts (see Section 4.4 for details) are likely to continue, despite the 1979 Beach Protection Law, until alternative sources of fine aggre gate are available in appropriate quantity and locations. INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES In 1983 the OAS, supported by the Offi\:e of Foreign Disaster Assistance (Or""DA) of USAID, began a project for re ducing natural hazard vulnerability in OAS member states. The project focuses on the in corporation of natural hazard assessment into the regional development planning process and provides technical assistance, training, and improved applied research capabilities for target countries. This effort increasingly fo cuses on urban-r1ated natural hazard and nat ural resource management issues. The use of natural hazard assessment and mitigation in formation in investment project formulation is the topic of a manual prepared by GOG/OAS (1988a) for international development assis tance agen6es. Grenada has a relatively new disaster preparedness and response system. The Na tional Emergency Relief Organization is an office ac;c;ociated with the Office of the Prime Minister. It is responsible for the preparation of a National Disaster Pian and mobilization of the country's human and material resources in planning, training, and managing various aspects of a disaster or ma jor emergency. A National Disaster Plan was prepared in 1985 but is now out of date. The 30 Plan has never been fully exercised nor tested for effectiveness or response time. The Government of Grenada and the OAS prepared a manual for local disaster committees and government officials in 1988 based on the work of OAS consultant Vivian Bacarreza (1988) and a workshop held for government officials and parish representa tives involved in emergency management. The document lays out the organizational structure to implement the National Disaster Plan. District Emergency Committees have been established to provide essential links between the National Emergency Organiza tion and the Community Emergency Com mittees throughout Grenada, Carriacou, and Petit Martinique. 1.1.7 Global Environmental Change There is growing international con cern that warming of the atmosphere will have consequent climatic changes. Resulting changes in temperature and precipitation dis tribution could threaten natural ecosystems and agricultural production and could trigger a woridwide rise in sea level. Depletion of stratospheric ozone by one type of greenhouse gas, the chloroflourocarbons, may allow greater penetration of ultraviolet radiation to the surface of the earth, with serious impacts on biological systems, including a probable rise in human skin cancer. The environmental, economic and social disruptions produced by such global changes would pose particularly severe chal lenges for developing island nations like Grenada. In the Caribbean region, critical ecosystems such as coral reefs and mangrove swamps may be seriously damaged if the sea level rises so fast that they cannot compen sate. Global warming would increase sea surface water temperatures and may cause changes in the strength, frequency and paths of hurricanes, and/or an extension of the hur ricane season. Beaches vital to the tourism industry, such as Grenada's already eroding Grand Anse beach, are also at risk. Some studies suggest that the sea level rise due only to climatic effects will be on


the order of 2-3 cm per decade in the Caribbean region (Maul, 1988), but others in dicate that it may be larger and not necessarily linear. This may seem like a trivial change, but one rule of thumb states that a one cen timeter sea level rise will generally result in a one meter shoreline retreat (Gable, 1987/1988). At a conservative rate of 2-3 centimeters rise per decade, within the next 40 years Grenada could therefore expect to lose some 8-12 meters (26-40 feet) of beach width in areas where sea level change is due solely to climate. At this time many if not most experts believe that some global warming will occur, but there is a great deal of uncertainty about the rate and magnitude of warming and its effects on sea level. In the face of such un certainty, the GOG should adopt a flexible, adaptive strategy. In the case of older infras tructure (which will have to be replaced in any event), provided there is an alternative loca tion, the best and cheapest response may be to do nothing. In cases where existing economi cally vital infrastructure is threatened and no alternative location exists, such as certain sec-31 tions of the coastal road and some parts of Grand Ans.: Beach, an immediate response is justified provided it is cost-effective and envi ronmentally sound (see Section 4.4). In other cases, especially where in frastructure can be modified or has not yet been built, measures to prevent or adapt to the warming should be taken only if such steps have good prospects of yielding benefits even without a climate change; if the climate changes do manifest, of course, then they will yield a much greater benefit. Grenada's re cently adopted coastal set-back policy is a good example of this type of response because it also offers protection from storm surges and tsunamis, maintains the aesthetic qualities of the coastline, precludes monopolization of what should be a public resource by private interests, and mitigates impacts from artificial lighting on nesting sea turtles. Other oppor tunities for this type of multiple-benefit mea sure exist in the areas of energy conservation and alternative energy sources, water resource conservation, natural hazard disaster planning, and building code revision.


1.2 PEOPLE, HISTORVAND CULTURE* HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF THE NATION In 1498, six years after his first round trip, trans-Atlantic cruise to the Caribbean, Christopher Columbus made a third return visit to the area, this time favoring a southerly approach to the mysterious, unnamed Wcontinental" coastline known later as the Spanish Main. After a clockwise near circum navigation of Trinidad, the Italian explorer sailed north out of Trinidad's inland sea known as the Gulf of Pari a, passing through the is land-studded Dragon's Mouth Channel sepa rating Trinidad from the mainland. Journals kept by Columbus have been lost, but contemporary records compiled from them say that the day after leaving Trinidad's mountains well astern, low on the southern horizon, he sighted Grenada from a distance and named it "Concepcion". He never set foot on the island and was unaware that it was then inhabited by an Amerindian people. These early inhabitanls were primitive agriculturists who had migrated to Grenada from the Soulh American mainland about the first century A.D. Archaeological analysis indicates that, some six centuries later. another wave of more developed Amerindians, Ihe Arawaks, arrived in Grenada from the mainland. About Ihe time Columbus was open ing up the New World to Europe, the warlike Caribs swept through the Lesser Antilles. They conquered the Arawaks, established sev eral settlements on Grcnada and, after Columbus passed by, remained undisturbed for over a century before European colonization encroached on their lives. Early explorers ren dered the Amerindian name for the island as "Camerhogne: Following two unsuccessful attemr>ts at colonization, 200 Frenchmen from Mar This section of the Profile is drawn largely from a paper entitled "Grenada Historical Overview," prepared hy Mr. Alister Hughes, Grenadian journalist, for the Grenada Country Environmental Profile Project. For details on references used hy Mr. the paper is on file at the headquarters of Island Resources Foundation in St. 'illomas. 32 tinique settled in Grenada in 1650. Within a year, the Carib inhabitants began to murder Frenchmen found hunting in the forest. This brought violent reaction from the French who successfully called for reinforcement from the colony of Martinique. The Caribs retreated to a precipitous hill in the north of the island where they sought refuge. After a long search, the French discovered their refuge and took them by surprise. Most of the Carib Indians committed suicide by leaping into the sea be low. In several raids until 1654, the French all but completely exterminated the Caribs. A few clements of the Amerindian culture survive to day. These include some words of Amerindian origin, pottery and other burial site remains, and petroglyphs in the Mount Rich area. Leapers Hill and tlte town of Sauteurs are named after the tragic events that brought an end to the Indian occupation. This first successful European settle ment of Grenada was a private devdopment venture which was sold 10 the French West India Company in 1665. Nine years later, in 1674, the C0mpany was dissolved and the is land came under Ihe French Crown. It rl! maincd a French colony until 1762, when it surrendered to a British squadron without fir ing a shot. The Treaty of Paris in the following year confirmed British possession, and the first British Colonial Government of Grenada was created by royal proclamation of George III. In 1771 a fire completely destroyed St. George's, which was then a wooden town. Four years later, the greater part of the was again destroyed by fire, as a result of which the Legislature enacted laws prohibiting con struction of buildings which were not of brick or stone and covered with tiles. Those laws had a fundamental effect on the rebuilding of the town and are responsible for the unique ar chitectural characler of modern St. George's. The 1775 War of American Indepen dence involved Brilain in a war with France in 1778, which had repercussions in Grenada. A French neet sailed to the Caribbean after en gaging British vessels along lhe American coasts. For several months, the neet was blockaded at Martinique by the British Navy. Breaking out in 1779, thc French sailed wuth to St. Vincent where the British capitulated.


The fleet then moved on to Grenada and cap tured the island from the British by a clever maneuver, after a brief but fierce fight. Grenada changed hands again when it was returned to Britain in 1783 by the Treaty of Versailles. The Colony of Grenada was then defined as ... the island of Grenada and such of the islands commonly called the Grenadines to the southward of Carriacou, including that island, and lying between the same and a delimitation still in force today. During the French occupation, British settlers had been treated very badly, and this was not forgotten when the island was re stored. Laws repressive to the French were enacted; Frenchmen were excluded from the Legislature and were persecuted because of their religion. But the French in Grenada had their revenge. After the French Revolution of 1789, they rose up in rebellion against the British, in stigated and armed by their countrymen in Martinique. Led by Julien Fedon, a colored Grenadian who owned the Belvedere Estate which was then the largest estate in Grenada, this bloody revolt began in March 1795 and was not cruf,hed until 15 months later. Joined by slaves and "free colored", Fedon took pos session of all of the island except St. George's. In 1796 a f.tror.g British force was sent out under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby, who subdued the rebel forces by capturing their stronghold located on a nat-topped peak in the central mountain range (now called Fedon's Camp). Sir Ralph went on to capture Trinidad from the Spanish. Fedon himself was never captured. In spite of thi" unrest, Grenada pros pered. It had become a "free port" in 1767, a status conferred by Imperial Acts on several British islands in the Caribbean. Under this system, Britain allowed small vessels irom neighboring foreign colonies into certain ports of the British West Indies with the privilege of importing and exporting specified types of goods. Grenada benefited from this trade for about 30 years. Nevertheless, during this time, the principal interest of the British was agri culture, as it had been with the French colonists. 33 The first French settlers in 1650 planted tobacco and by 1700 were producing indigo and livestock. In 1702 sugar cane was introduced from South America, and cane cul tivation gradually took over from indigo in the early eighteenth century. Sugar cane cultiva tion necessitated the introduction of cheap labor into the country, and thus the slave trade was developed. Until the abolition of slavery in 1834, sugar cane was by far the most im portant crop cultivated on almost all low-lying land in the country. In 1714, cocoa, coffee and cotton were introduced and, after 1783, under British administration, exports of these crops were expanded. Fustic (dye wood), slaves, hides alld wood were als() added to the list of exports. Trade in f ustic declined drastically early in the nineteenth century, production of indigo had been abandoned by 1846 and ex ports of tobacco petered out in the late 1890's. Coffee lingered until the first quarter of the twentieth century, and cotton, its production eventually confined to the sister island of Carriacou, was exported for the last time in 1981 --although there is some discussion of reviving the industry as part of a larger regional strategy. Maltese, Portuguese and liberated slaves from Africa were imported in 1839 to solve labor problemf created by emancipation of the slaves, but this experiment failed. Addi tionally, the price of sugar began to show a marked decrease because p:anters had to com pete on the European market with the sugar still produced in Spanish colonies by :;lave labor. By 1856, many sugar estates in Grenada had been abannoned. Immigration of East Indians to work on the estates began in 1857. While this per mitted several sugar estates to be reclaimed, the gradual transference of agricultural interest from sugar to cocoa, which began with eman cipation, continued. The emancipated slaves and indentured laborers took readily to this crop; a quantity of land could be easily had in the interior, and the cultivation of cocoa of fered an independent existence and reasonable profits for a minimum of labor. This unfortu nately led to the clearing of a large part of the remaining upland natural rain forest.


INFLUENCE OF HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS The relatively limited appreciation or recognition afforded by the majority of Grenadians for their historic and cultural background can be traced In large measure to their colonial past. After the Treaty of Versailles In 1783, when Grenada passed finally Into British hands, and Until 1967, when the Island became a State In Association with Britain, Grenada was a possession of the "Mother Country". The Colony was administered by standards approved by the Colonial Office, not necessarily In accordance with Grenadian standards. The Governor was not a Grenadian, but as representative of the British Monarch, he had the final word In all local matters. Additionally, until comparatively recently, all Important posts In the Public Service such as Postmaster, Auditor, Treasurer and Chief of Police were held by Englishmen. To em phasize the dominance of the "Mother Country", the laws enacted by colonial legislatures --the very basis of the govern mont of the Colony --did not come Into effect until they had bE:fen ap proved by the Colonial Office. Annual budgets too needed approval In London. In Grenadian schocls, British history was standard curriculum, but the history of Grenada or of the Caribbean was excluded except as it involved the Caribbean exploits of British naval heroes. Students became familiar with William the Conqueror, the War of the Roses, and the Magna Carta but knew little of the Fedon revolution or the Carib massacre of 1654. British festi vals, such as Guy Fawkes Day and the Queen's Birthday, were unfailingly celebrated. Against this background, it was typical for an adult Grenadian, having amassed sufficient funds to leave the Colony on vacation, to speak proudly (albeit In jest) of going "home" to London. Succeeding generations of Grenadians developed a veneration for British monuments such as Buckingham Palace and the Tower of London, while they carelessly disregarded their uwn historical landmarks. In colonial times Grenadians found it socially advantageous to de-emphasize their cul tural roots because those roots suggested connections with slavery. For the last two decades, the upsurge of the Black Power movement and other contemporary events have generated a search for those cultural roots. It Is significant, however, that the members of these movements do not look for their roots in the land of their birth. For some Grenadians, as In colonial times, the "center of the universe" Is still elsewhere. In this instance, it Is In Africa. Indicative also is the disfavor with which some educated Grenadians held (and still hold) the special Grenadian English spoken by natives of the Island. This English, rich with words and phrases marking the varied International and hi3tcrlcal origins of the Grenadian people, Is spoken to a greater or lesser degree by all Grenadians. Yet, for the most part, Grenadian English is regarded in a patronizing manner, as the means of communication used by "the peo ple", i.e., the uneducated poor. It carries the stigma of being "local", of being Inferior, while the "good English" of the "Mother Country" is more generally advocated. Until Grenadians are able to ferret out and remove such relics of colonial days, the country will continue to be saddled with old hang-ups" which Impede a true appreciation for things Grenadian. Nutmegs (which earned Grenada the name "Isle of Spice") were introduced about 1843 as a curiosity by sugar planters returning from the Far East. Less than a decade later, 34 when disease seriously depleted the East Indies nutmeg plantations, Grenadian agriculturists started planting nutmegs seriously as an eco nomic crop, but it was a slow process and there


were no exports of nutmegs until 1881. Today, together with bananas (which became an eco nomic crop in the mid-1950's) and cocoa, nut megs form the backbone of the island's agri cultural economy. Exploitation of Grenada's excellent potential as a tourist destination was nrst un dertaken in 1938 when Government appointed a "Tourist Committee", but real development of this sector of the economy did not begin un til the early 1950's after World War II. Since then, tourism has developed into an important segment of the island's economy. Constitutionally, Grenada had an elected House of Assembly after the island was captured from the French in 1763. Except for a brief period from 1779 to 1783, that House continued to sit until 1876 when the House voted itself out of existence. From that date, until 1924, Grenada was a Crown Colony governed from London. It was the efforts of one of the island's national heroes, Theophilous Albert Marryshow, which set the country again on the road of constitutional advancement. As a result of Marryshow's agitation, elections for a Legislative Council were held in 1924 under a limited franchise. In the years following, there was grad ual constitutional improvement until, in 1951, adult franchise was introduced. This was also a time of great civil unrest. The liberalizing of the franchise coincided with the birth of trade union activity, and both political and economic issues created strife between the "plantocracy" and the working masses. In 1%7, Grenada became a State in Association with Britain. This arrangement for the fIrst time gave Grenadians complete inter nal self-government, while Britain adminis tered the portfolios of Defensr. and Foreign Affairs. But this constitutional advance her alded another period of civil unrest. The Duffus Commission of Inquiry sitting in 1973/74 found that the Government of that day had employed criminals who unleashed a "veritable reign of terror", inflicting "unspeakable atrocities" on opponents of the Government. 35 Against that background and in an atmosphere of continuing unrest, Grenada achieved independence on 7 February, 1974. During this period, the left-wing New Jewel Movement (NJM) was born, led by young in tellectuals who contested and won seats in the 1976 General Elections. In March 1979, how ever, NJM abandoned democratic parliamen tary procedure for revolution. In an almost bloodless coup, NJM seized and held the gov ernment for four and a half years. In October 1983 a power struggle within the party resulted in the assassination of the revolutionary Prime Minister with members of his Cabinet and in the deaths of a still unknown number of other Grenadians. Days after these traumatic events, military intervention by United States and Caribbean forces recovered the island from the Revolutionary Military Council which had seized power, and, after a period of rule by an Interim Government, parliamentary democracy was restored when General Elections were held in December 19P4. The year 1990, marking the three hundred and fortieth year since the first colo nization of the island, finds the country with a flourishing democracy (seven political parties), freedom of speech (six newspapers), a gener ally good record of human rights (attested to by Amnesty IntelDational in 1988) and an improving economy. There is some, although limited, evidence of an awakening realization by Government and the public or the need for environmental management and control. Pro vided that the lessons of their historical experi ence are heeded, that wise political and eco nomic management prevail and that sustain able use of their nation's resources can be achieved, citizens of the "Isle of Spice" enjoy excellent prospects for continuing improve ment in the quality of their lives.


Like a giant amphitheater, the hills of St. Gel. ge's, Grenada, wrap around the deep harbor to shape one of the most geographically and architecturally remarkable port cities of the Caribbean region. 36


SECTION 2 DEMOGRAPHICS 2.1 OVERVIEW: POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS The first national population census in Grenada was taken in 1844, ten years after the abolition of slavery. At that time 29,650 people lived in the country. Decennial cen suses were held from 1851 to 1921; following 1946 and continuing to the present censuses have been held at irregular four-to live-year intervals. Except during the decade 1851 to 1861 (when there was a cholera epidemic), the population of Grenada grew consistently over the pt:riod 1844 to 1911, when it reached 66,750. From 19] 1 to 1946 growth slowed considerably, showing even a slight decrease in 1921, caused by high levels of emigration as well as a worldwide influenza epidemic (Figure 2.1(1) and Table 2.1(1). Fertility and mortality rates for the nineteenth and early twentieth century were probably around the norm for the era and re gion of 40-45 per 1,000 and 20-30 per 1,000, respectively (Bouvier, ]984). Fertility and mortality rates in 1945 were 31.1 births per 1,000 persons and 15.8 per 1,000 per sons, respectively. The excess of births over deaths resulted in a large natural increase (births minus deaths) of some 30,132 persons between 1921 and 1946. However, natural in crease was counterbalanced by an increasing net emigration after 1920; during this interval the population size only increased by 6,085 persons to a iotal of 72,387. Bouviel (1984) suggests that substantial emigration of up to 25,000 people, or about 1,000 per year, must have taken place during that period. This level of net emigration accounts for more than half the total net emigration from the Wind ward Islands for that 25-year period. As a re sult, around the middle of this century Grenada's population grew at a rate of only 0.2 percent per year, the lowest of all the Windward Islands. Demographic statistics for the period between 1946 and 1960 are based on informa tion provided by Caribbean demographers George Roberts and Jack Harewood since no censuses were taken during this 14 year period (Bouvier, 1984). An increase of 17,573 per-37 sons on Grenada between 1946 and 1960 indi cated an average annual growth rate of 1.5 percent, a significantly higher rate than during the iml;]ediately preceding period from 1911 to 1946. Crude birth rates over this period went up from 32.7 per 1,000 population in 1946 through an historic high of 53.5 in 1957, to seUle at a rate of 44.5 in 1960. At the same time that women were having an 3.verage of six to seven children, mortality fell from 17.0 per 1,000 persons in 1946 to 11.4 in 1960. During the 14 year period from 1946 to 1960, the rate of natural increase rose from 1.6 to 3.3 percent with a high of 4 percent in 1957. Since the popUlation increased by only 17,573 during that period, net emigration clearly was a limiting factor to annual growth. Demographers estimate that net emigration increased considerably after 1955, exceeding 2,000 per year from 1957 til 1960 (Bouvier, 1984). In (his period, many Grenadians emi grated to Great Britain, Panama, Guyana and the nearby island of Trinidad. Population growth over the next decades was low or negative; at the same time both fertility and mortality dropped substan tially. By 1970 the crude birth rate was down from 44.5 to 28.2 per 1,000 popUlation, and the death rate had declined to 7.5 per 1,000 from 11.4 in 1960. Thus, with high levels of net emigration continuing at about 2,000 people per year, the average annual growth rate for the decade of the 1960's was a low 0.3 percent, a considerable drop from a rate of 1.5 percent in the 1950's. The rates and trends seen in the 1960's continued through the 1970's. The drop in fertility that began in the 1960's was particularly noteworthy in that it continued through the 1970's to a low of 22.8 births per 1,000 in 1982. N.B. The above population figures are taken from Bouvier (1984) and do not correspond to information found in the Grenada Annual Abstract of Statistics, 1987 (see Table 2.1(2. For other other popUlation riiscrepancies, see box on page 38.


THE PLANNING DILEMMA: WHEN COUNTING COUNTS I The literature regarding Grenada's national population size after 1970 is confusing and contradictory. Bouvier (1984) indicates that nrJ census was taken in 1980 and th3t in 1984 the 1982 cc.unt was incomplete. How ever, a 1987 study t'repared b!, D. Wirt for the Organization of American States refers to data from the 1980-1981 Population Census of the Commonwealth Caribbean, including Grenada. But the same OAS document gives the source of data as the Ministry of Health, Registrar General's Office. The 1987 Grenada Annual Abstract of Statistics (Ministry of Finance, 1987) Gives a census figure of 89,088 for both 1980 and 1981. Current population estimates range from 93,000 (Weaver, 1989) to 97,000 (EC News, Sept. 29, 1989) to 100,000 (Caribbean/Central American Action's Data Book, 1987) to 110,000 (Tobal, 1985 and The Caribbean Handbook, 1989 [edited by J. Taylor)) to 120,000 (estimated by Soler, 1988). Bouvier (1984) estimated the total fertility rate at 3.5 per 1,000. The fertility rate for Grenada is reported by Wirt (1987) as 4.2 per 1,000 for women with primary or no education and 3.3 per 1,000 for women with secondary and higher education. EC News (Sept. 29, 1989) reports that this rate IS "olmost 4". Table 2.1 (1). Grenada population data, 1844 1988.* YEAR 1844 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 POPULATION 29,650 32,671 31,900 37,684 42,403 53,209 63,438 66,750 66,302 YEAR 1946 1950 1955 1960 1970 1981 1984 1989 POPULATION 72,387 76,540 85,411 89,960 92,725 89,088 115,481 97,000 1844 to 1970 data from Bouvier, 1984. 1981 data from Grenada Annual Statistical Tables, 1987. 1984 data are estimates of Ministry of Health, Grenada (see Wlrt, 1987, and Soler, 1988). 1989 data: Grenada National Population Policy. Wirt (1987) gives the 1984 population estimate as 115,481, the birth rate as 25.09/1,000, the death rate as 6.48/1,000, and the natural increase as 18.61/1,000. The pop wation of Petit Martinique (approximately 5(0) does not appear to have been included in any of these totals. A recent (1989) Grenada National Population Policy document reports that the 38 popUlation is 97,000 and is r.:xpected to grow by 40,000 to a total of 137,000 in the next 25 years --a projection which has nserious impli cationsW for the provision of health care, nu trition, housing and employment. The major factor in population growth is the relatively high fertility rate, fueled in part by an upward trend in teenage pregnancies. Based on cur rent data, Grenadian women are likely to bear an average of almost four children, although


120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 () BOUVIER, 1984 GOS ANNUAL STATISTICAL ABSTRACT, 1987 o ESTIr.ATES OF MINISTRY OF HEALTH (Wirt, 19a7) ESTIMATE FROM 1989 GRENADA NATIONAL POPULATION POLICY CXl CXl \D 0 l/'I 0 ':-l/'Il/'I\D 0'1 0' 0'1 0'1 o ...... 0'1 Figure 2.1 (1). Grenada national population curve, 1844-198e (source: Bouvier, 1984; Wirt, 1987; and Soler, 1988).


Table 2.1 (2). Grenada population Indicators. '1970 1987. YEAR INFANT MORTALITY BIRTH RATE RATE PER 11)()() PER 1000 1970 32.8 29.1 1971 26.1 28.9 1972 16.0 28.3 1973 18.4 27.4 1974 31.1 2(,.3 1975 23.5 27.4 1976 27.7 26.1 1977 16.7 25.3 1978 29.0 23.2 1979 15.4 24.5 1980 2.2.8 23.5 14.9 27.5 13.4 29.5 1983 21.2 315 1984 10,6 3'-'.0 1985 18.0 33.1 1986 15.9 34.8 1987 15.9 33.0 Source: Grenada Annual Abstract of Statistics, 1987. the wdesired averageW (i.e., the replacement level in the absence of migration) is 2.1. The document confirm;; that emigration is cur rently about 2,000 per year. More t:lan half those leaving permanently tod?j are women, which is redressing the sex i't1balance caused by the disproportionate number of men that left in the mid-1950's. The male to female ratio is now estimated to be 93:100. Life ex pectancy is 66 years for males and 72 years for females. Grenada, like many of the islands in the Caribbean, has a very young population (Figure 2.1(2. !n 1981 39 percent of the population was under 15 years of age (Wirt, 1987). The sex ratios (males per 100 females) for all age groups were P5:100 in 1960, 89:100 in 1970, and 93:100 in 1981 (Wirt, 1987). Sex selective migration was thought to be the rea-40 DEATH RATE RATE OF NET PER 1000 NATURAL INCREASE MIGRATION PER 1000 ('000) 7.9 2.1 -2.0 7.4 2.2 3.8 6.4 2.2 2.4 6.8 2.1 -3.1 7.0 1.9 -2.2 5.9 2.1 .0.5 7.2 1.9 -1.1 7.8 1.8 .0.7 7.1 1.6 -1.1 6.8 1.8 -3.7 6.9 1.7 .5 8.3 1.13 -3.5 8.1 1.8 0.8 8.7 1.9 .0.7 7.7 1.8 1.6 8.7 2.3 .3 7.7 2.5 .3 8.3 2.2 1.9 son for asymmetries in the sex ratio of groups older than 20 years of age. Grenada has six major settlements located in the coastal area of the country. These settlements, from largest to smallest, are: S1. George's Town, Gouyave, Grenville, Victoria, Sauteurs, and Hillsborough (Carriacou). Fifty percent of the settlements fall within the size range of 201 te 600 persons and 85 percent are within the 1 to 1,000 size range. According to 1984 population esti mates, St. George's Township had a popUla tion of 6,463 (including St. George's proper: 4,712; River Road: 1,503; and Tempe: 248) (Wirt, 1987;. The island of Grenada is very rugged, with a land area of only 120 square miles (312 sq. km). Its average population density was 742 persons per square mile (286 per sq. km)


75+ 70 65-69 60 55-59 50-54 LLJ 45-49 (.!J c( 40 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10 5-9 0-4 Males Females 987 6 5 4 J 2 1 0 1 2 J 4 5 678 9 Figure 2.1 (2). Age-sex structu(e of Grenada's national population, by percentage of population (source: Bouvier, 1984). 300 200 100 0 100 200 300 Males Females Figure 2.1 (3). Age-sex structure of Carrlacou's population, by number of Individuals (source: GOG/OAS, 1988b). 41


in 1981, using that year's census figure of 89,088 persons. McElroy and de Alberquerque (1989), using a middle-of-the road Grenada national population estimate of 103,000, computed a population density for the country of over 300 per sq. km, the highest of all the OECS countries on the basis of total land area. St. George's, the second largest parish on the island of Grenada, has the high est density, and 33 perc ent of the population is concentrated within its boundaries (Wirt, 1987). Even as the density increased for the entire country, popUlation densities for all the other parishes except St. Mark's exhibited a decrease. St. George's is the predominant settlement with regard to diversification and aggregation of economic activities. Grenville is second to St. George's and serves as a major market center and point of transship ment for agricultural produce and fish to ex port markets. The major settlements in all parishes include persons who work in st. George's and Grenville because the majority of employment opportunities are concentrated in these settlements. The economies of the other major settlements are based almost en tirely on agriculture and/or fishing. POPULATION FUTURES In order to estimate future growth trends for a nation, various assumptions must be made about future rates of fertility, mortality and net migration. The changes (or lack of changes) in these factors will determine future population size. The problem In Grenada Is that hard data regarding the current values of these parameters (or even the current pop ulation size) are not available, making futum predictions tenuous at best. For example, Figure 2.1 (4) presents four hypothetical scenarios constructed by Bouvier (1984) which display dif ferent population growth possibilities for Grenada: Scenario A assumes a fertility rate of 3.5 and a net emlgratior, of 1 ,BOO per year (N.B. present emigration rate is 2,000 per year). Scenario B assumes a fertility rate of 3.5 and a decrease In the level of net emigration per year to around 900 persons, primarily due to an imposition of immigration quotas by popular destinations. Scenario C assumes that information, educational levels or economics could reduce the fertility rate to 2.8 and external factors would cut the net emigration to 900 persons per year. Scenario D assumes extreme conditions of no net migration and a decline in fertility rate to the replacement level of 2.1. Projected expansion of the labor force (Bouvier, 1984) is presented decade by decade in Figure 2.1 (5), under the same four alternative growth scenarios as above. projection indicates that under all assumptions except Scenario A, the country will probably experience some growth in its labor force at least until the turn of century, and that any decline in net emigration would pose major problems of unemployment. These examples from Bouvier are used for illustrative purposes only. Given what little information is available today on current population size in Grenada, it would appear that none of these scenarios fits the pattern of growth which actually occurred. The planning data base deficiency, however, should receive some serious attention if resource allocation deci sions and environmental planning for sustainable development in the future are to be con ducted on a sound policy footing. 42


180,000 I B p ----.:-... .... -' :: ... -.. --_ ... .. -------120,000 -,-.,........ ... --... .. -_. __ _... __ -----C ...... --... -.... ---------... ,-.. ---=--.:::. -.--.... -:.:: ...... -:..--60,000 LABOUR FORCE I J I I 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 A.; TFR of 3.5, net emigration of 1,800 c: TFR of 2.8, net emigration of 900 B: TFR of 3.5, net emigration of 900 0: TFR of 2.1, net migration of zero TFR (Total Fertility Rate) Is the average number of live births per woman. Figure 2.1 (4). Grenada national population proJections, 1980-2030 (source: Bouvier, 1984). 60,000 30,000 .. A.; TFR of 3.5, C: TFRof2.8, net emigration of 1,800 net emigration of 900 DB: TFRof 3.5, TFR of 2.1, net emigration of 900 net migration of zero Figure 2.1 (5). Grenada nat.lonallabor force proJections, 1980-2030 (source: Bouvier, 1984). 43


Population records in Carriacou date back to 1830, when 3,800 residents were couoted (GOG/OAS, 1988a). Population in creased to its maximum size of close to 7,000 persons in 1960, and since that time the is land's population has shown an accelerating rate of decline. The 1970 census figure was 5,950; the 1981 census showed only 4,671 per sons (GOG, 1987). The age-sex pyramid for Carriacou (Figure 2.1(3 shows an over whelmingly youthful population --40 percellt of all residents are under 15 years of age. Also of interest is the fact that there is a high proportion of older people --14 percent are 65 years or older. The constricted middle section of the pyramid is probably due to high out-migration and fewer births during the de pression years from 1930 to 1940. There are eleven well-defined and generally coastal-situated villages in Carriacou, which has a total land area of 13 square miles (34 sq. km). In the 1950's and 1960's (GOG/OAS, 1988a), the average pop ulation density was close to 500 persons per square mile (192 per sq. km). Today, assum ing a population in the neighborhood of 4,700, the average density is probably about 360 per sons per square mile (138 per sq. km). The size of the economically active population was reported (Wirt, 1987) as 31,363 persons for the entire country, includ ing 19,289 males (62 percent) and 12,074 fe males (38 percent). This figure is 35 percent of the total population and 63 percent of all adults counted in the 1981 census. The four major areas of the economy providing the highest percentage of em ployment are agri culture, commerce, services and construction. The study concluded that the labor force has grown since 1970; that employment in the ser vice sector has risen 42 percent since 1970; and that the number of unemployed has also increased since 1970. An overall unemploy ment rate of 17.4 percent was quoted for 1981. Of the total unemployed, almost half were under the age of 20. In summary, large numbers of Grenadians and Carriacouans have left their home land every year since 1920. The prox imity of larger islands which provide opportu nities for employment, changes in immi6ration 44 laws of developed nations like Great Britain and the United States, and unstable political conditions in Grenada have all at various times served as reasons for the movement of people. In the years following the changes in the U.S. immigration laws (1965), the United States has become an increasingly attractive area for Grenadians migrating out of the Caribbean. As a result of this emigration wsafety valvew urenada has experienced a rel atively low growth rate of its total population. Although population growth has not been consistent nor particularly rapid, Grenada's population size apparently continues to in crease at the present time. 2.2 PROBLEMS AND ISSUES Political and economic conditions will no doubt affect Grenada's overall growth rate in the future. Potentially the most volatile factor controlling the growth rate is net mi gration. With the present world population now well over five billion aad projected to be 8.5 billion by the year 2025, there is an in creasing likelihood that emigration opportu nities for nationals of lesser-developed coun tries may soon be drastically reduced. A sig nificant reduction in Grenada's current level of net emigration could occur at any time, and, other factors being equal, this would cause a corresponding rise in the local growth rate. A more rapidly increasing population due to a reduction in out-migration would bring additional stresses to bear on the natu ral resources of the country. Infrastructure problems (e.g., housing, schools, sanitation, water supply, roads), which are already seri ous and which are causing the Government to expend its limited funds in remedial efforts, would be further exacerbated. Beyond some variable threshold, economic and social development is corre lated with a decline in both death and birth rates; this is the so-called Hdemographic tran sition w phenomenon. However, for a lesser developed nation such as Grenada with a pre dominantly resource-based economy and a large foreign debt (see Section 3), achieving a level of development that ,,'ould bring about the demographic transition requires capital investment on a large scale. Unfortunately,


most developing nations can only acquire the necessary funds by entering a cycle of incur ring even gre:'.lter debt and permitting further depletion of their stocks of natural resources. In the long run, the only real hope to redress this situation is for the developed nations to forgive massive amounrs of debt and to re structure their own economies so that the.'1 promote sustainable development on :. \\Jrldwide basis (MacNeill, 1989). For the present, however, Grenada is more fortunate than many other lesser-developed nations in that out-migration has prevented its popula tion from growing explosively, giving policy makers a chance to take action to reduce fer tility levels, implement environmental conser vation measures, and explore ways to find more productive sustainable uses for available natural resources. The continuing loss of skilled person nel, mainly to the United States and Canada, is also a matter of serious concern for Grenada. However, any public policy attempt to reverse this situation must confront the dilemma that high net emig:-ation in general has had a positive impact on the country. The present youthful age structure of the population is another important demo graphic factor, since it means that about two fifths of the popUlation has not yet had its full impact on growth rates. Even if the fertility rate was reduced to a level of 2.1, the current generation of young people is so large that without a substantial net emigra tion. the absolute number of births would re main large for at lea'.t two generations before leveling off. In other words, barring an in crease in the death rate, it would be almost 45 impossible to put a rapid end to population growth in the absence of emigration. 2.3 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS As a proactive measure, Grenada's policymakers could attempt to lower the country's fertility rate as rapidly as possible. To wait until natural constraints and external controls force a response is to ignore the op portunity for positive action now and to accept instead the probability of lowered living stan dards, accelerated unemployment, potential political instability, and ecological deteriora tion in the future. An optimal population strategy would combine accelerated economic and so cial deVelopment (emphasizing environmen tally benign technology and environmental protection) with major efforts to educate the populace in the benefits of smaller family size and the acceptance and practice of birth con trol. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that easily available information about birth con trol and access to contraceptives have been major causes of declining fertility in all coun tries with strong family-planning programs (Keyfitz, 1989). If the counhj":; ... :ological base is eroded by overpopulation and/or non-sus tainable resource use, economic growth will inevitably be depressed. Good population policy must make expensive to citizens that which is expensive to the nation by transfer ring to individual parents the ecological (and other) costs of excessive childbearing.


SECTION 3 THE ECONOMIC CONTEXT 3.1 OVERVIEW Tills chapter is based on the most current data avaiiablc from established sources (e.g., the Government Statistical Office in the Ministry of Finance, the World Bank and the United Nations). In addition, to assure consideration of the most up-to-date data and government economic poli cies, summarized excerpts from the Prime Minis ter's address to the House of Representatives in April of 1989 have been included in the analysis. These data appear in the several sub-sections of this chapter headed "Recent Developments." Sup porting data for trends mentioned in the Prime Minister's speech are not available in published form. Economics like Grenada's arc extra-ordi narily open and dependent on outside factors. Thus, conventional models of economic behavior and development do not work well for Grenada and her sister islands. Although from a technical perspective, the best current economic mudels for countries like Grenada are derived from urban and regional models in the developed world, in each country it is necessary to evaluate individually the external linkages and trade patterns which of ten derive fro;n historic factors not related to eco nomic conditions. In addition to the openness and dependency of island economics, other factors which analysts need to consider arc the high en ergy costs inflicted on islands, because of required transport systems and small scale, and high trans portation costs. Finally, as in many other devel oping economics, islands like Grenada in the Eastern Caribbean usually exhibit dual pricing structures for labor and locally produced goods and services -a high price for modernizing sec tors of the economy, and a lower structure for traditional markets. 3.1.1 General As demonstrated by Figure 3.1 (1), over the past decade there has been a steady increase in the level of economic activity in Grenada. It is a tribute to the industry of the people of Grenada that this progress was achieved during a period of unprecedented social and political upheaval. .,...,. -: .., .w ,';} .'_' _," ....... ,._ .. 11 ,. : ........ .. 47 400 300 Groll DomOltlc Product 100 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 Figure 3.1 (1). Gross domestic product 1980-1987 (EC$ million current factor costs) (adapted from: GOG, 1987a). Even after accounting for a high level of inflation, overall per capita income has been in creasing (Figure 3.1(2. A major contributor to the apparent increase in per capita GDP may re sult from numerical decreases in total estimated population during the 1980's (sec Section 2). 1400 1200 600 400 200 GOP per Capita 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 Figure 3.1 (2). Per capita gross domestic product, 1982 1987 (1984 EC$) (adapted from: GOG, 1987a). The underlying strength of the economy is illustrated by the Figure 3.1 (3), which shows the annual rates of GDP growth for Grenada over the cleven years between 1977 and 1988, as calculated by the World Bank. (These ligures arc not di rectly comparable with the Government's Statisti cal Abstract, but they represent a longer time se-


ries.) It should be noted that low or negative growth is associated with periods of major political unrest. Analysis of this data seems to conflfm the popular belief that the major constraint keeping Grenada from better economic days is the danger of political or social disruptions. The underlying economy seems to be capable of providing real compound annual growth rates in excess of five or six percent. In the world community of nations, only the newly industrializing nations of Asia have consistently maintained a higher rate of growth. 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 8!J 86 87 B8 Figure 3.1 (3). Annual growth: gross domestic product, 19n (adapted from: World Bank, 1988). Since 1984, the economy of Grenada has maintained a real growth rate averaging 5.5 per cent per year. This reflects strong tourism growth and an increase in commercial activity, construc tion and utilities (Worlrl Bank, 1988). Altholit>;; traditional agricultural activities have not ex panded as quickly as other sectors, the economy has become increasingly diversified. According to a special 1988 United Nations study, between 1970 a:ld 1985, the Grenadian 'concentration index" de creased from roughly .6 to .45 (1.0 would be a perfect monoculture economy) (United Nations, 1989). 3.1.2 Recent Developments Based on preliminary estimates by the Statistical Department of the Ministry of Finance, the domestic economy in 1988 continued its steady performance which began in 1985 as a result of its transformation from a tightly controlled economy to a free enterprise system. Real Growth of 5.3 48 percent in Gross Domestic Product was achieved as a direct result of excellent performances within the construction, manufacturing and tourism sec tors. After two years of negligible inflation, 1988 experlenced a rise in prices mainly as a result of the introduction of budgetary measures to strengthen the revenue base. According to the Consumer Price Index, the average increase in prices for the "basket of goods covered in the In dex was 6.5 percent. Data on new registrations by the National Insurance Scheme, which can be used to provide an indication of new employment created, re vealed that :;,435 new registrations were recorded for 1988 compared with 3,127 for 1987, an increase of about 10 percent. Balance of Payments recorded a deficit on the Current Account of approximately $80 mil lion, mainly due to the high level of imports to meet the needs of local consumption, and the in creased level of development. This was, however, largely finanled by private and official capital flows which resulted in a positive overall balance of approximately $11 million. (Blaize, 1989) 3.1.3 Sectoral Performance Figure 3.1(4) illustrates the impact of the major economic sectors on growth in Grenada over the past several years. o Govt. o Bank & Others [5l Trade + Hotel o Manuf. + Canst. aD Ag. Figure 3.1 (4). Gross domestic product by sector, 1984 (EC$ million) (adapted from: GOG, 1987a).


The main points illustrated by this figure are: Growth has been distributed throughout all major economic sectors. The fastest growth is recorded in the trade and hotel sector, reflecting the major improvements in export earnings from tourism. Although not readily apparent in this figure, manufacturing production has not kept pace with other areas of the econ omy -even including other industrial artivities. Government activity has been increasing faster than overall growth. AGRICULTURE Although the agriculture sector recorded some upward trends in recent years (see Figure 3.1(5), for example, which shows an upward movement in export crop prices durir.g a recent seven year period), 1989 indicators point to a sec lOr which has lost some of its growth momentum (see also Section 5). 30 ..................................................................................................... Prices of 25 .. ........ E"xport'Crops ...... .. .... .... ....................... ........................................... .. 15 ......................................................................................................... Nutmeg ..... Mace 1 Cocoa 10 .. :.:::.;Boriooo .... .. .. .. .... ............ ::::::::::::::::::::: 5 .................................................................... ::", ... :;::::::: ................... .. !':=:'7:'7:': :': :'::': :':= :': :': :'::': :'::': ...... ::.:':: o I ---I 1960 1961 1962 198J 1984 1986 Figure 3.1 (5). Prices for export crops received by growers (current EC cenls per pound) (adapted from: GOG,1987a). Figure 3.1(5) summarizes information on prices for export crops during a recent seven year period. There are two cautionary notes to bear in mind with reference (o these prices: 49 1) They are prices of world market commodities, which are notoriously volatile. Compounding the problem for Grenada, both prices are artificially sup ported by either producers' agreements (spices) or special import concessions (bananas). 2) Grenadian producers seem to have been slower than farmers in other countries to respond to improved prices. One indica tion is that from 1980 to 1987, the volume of Grenadian banana exports actually decreased 45 percent, while gross deliveries of nutmeg and mace increased only 17 perc'nt. The other side of the export agriculture picture is that of food production for the domestic market. According to estimates by the World Bank, per capita food production in Grenada has apparently decreased by a significant amount over the past eight years, as shown in Figure 3.1(6). 120 ....................................................................................................... 60 ....................................................................................................... 60 ....................................................................................................... 40 ........................... ... ..................................... 20 ....................................................................................................... o I I I I I I I 1960 1961 1962 1963 1984 1985 1986 1987 Figure 3.1 (6). Index of per capita food production, 19801987 (1979-81 = 1(0) (adapted from: World Bank,1989). From a. strictly economic point of view, this is not necessarily a negative trend since it can be argued inefficient food producers are better off prvducing expensive products such as spices for the export market and buying imported food pro duced more efficiently in other countries. In fact, it is unlikely that this substitution is taking place, given the sluggish response of banana and spice producers to the improved prices shown in Figure 3.1(5). It is more likely that Increasing ur banization has reduced the amount of subsistence


and garden crops which people once fed their own families in the past. In addition, demollc;tration effects of tourism and modern media arc en couraging increased import of food from conti nental sources, at considerable cost in foreign ex change. A second factor affecting food production in Grenada has been the closing of the Trinidadian export market. Between 1985 and 1987, Grena dian exports to Trinidad-Tobago plummeted by 60 percent --to $EC7.5 million from 19.4 million (GOG, 1987). In the absence of any convenient new export markets, the loss of these basic pro duce markets will continue to depress local market prices for fruits and vegetables for several years. The World Bank has identified the im provement of producer incentives in food produc tion by eliminating price controls and the govern ment import monopoly for selected imported foods (rice, sugar and powdered milk) as major priorities for government economic policies (World Bank, 1988). It also suggests that im proved marketing arrangements and maintenance and rebuilding of the existing road network will improve both domestic and export agricultural production. RECENT AGRICULTURE Climatic conditions prevailing at the start of 1988 were such that only a 1.5 percent growth in agricultural production was en' ;saged; however, actual achievement for the :,.;ar was 2.1 percent. But this more optimistic trend did not continue. Since 1988, there has only been a more moderate increase in agricultural production of 1.5 percent; and all export prices, except for mace, have fallen while domestic e ;!,Jrts for the first three quarters of 1989 dropped 17 percent below the level of the corresponding period in 1988. Nutmegs, mace, cocoa, and bananas all had lower than expected production levels in 1989, and all except mace earned less revenue than 1988. Total export earnings from these export crops dropped by about ten percent over the 1988 figure, despite a moderate increase (1.5 percent) in production (EC News, Dec. 29, 1989). Nutmegs and Mace. The production of these crops in 1988 had surpassed targets which were set low because of a drought in 1987. Nut50 megs bettered by 2.9 percent the levels of production achieved in 1987, with a production of 6.3 million pounds for 1988. Mace had an increase of 5 percent to 0.73 million pounds in 1988 from 0.69 in 1987. However, in 1989, despite moderate in creases in production, only mace earned more revenue than in 1988. Ballallas. 1987 had witnessed a reversal of a persistently long downward trend in produc tion. 1988 showed further improvement with pro duction reaching 20.6 million pounds, an increase of 12.8 percent from 1987 levels. Unfortunately, in 1989 there was another drop in production to ap proximately 18 million pounds. Cocoa alld Others. The cocoa industry has experienced several setbacks, j"c1uding falling export prices and the consequem of interest among farmers. Efforts by the Interim Cocoa Board to reverse this trend have included Produc tion Incentives Programs. Farm management competition, low interest credit for replanting, ex tended credit for fertilizer purchases, and the distribution of free shade plants were made to stimulate interest in the industry and hence in crease production. The effect of these measures would affect the industry more in the long run than the short run. For the period January to September 1988, production was slightly below the levels of the corresponding period of 1987. The last quar ter of 1988 saw a slump in production to 0.20 mil lion pounds, as compared with 0.95 million pounds for the same quarter of 1987. As a result, the pro duction for 1988 of 3.1 million pounds was 21.8 percent below that of 1987 and a record low for the industry. TOURISM Tourism is a key development sector in terms of both the current economy and future growth. Because of its importance to the development prospects of the country and its multi-faceted impacts on natural resource man agement issues, tourism is dealt with in detail in Section 7 of the Profile.


Figure 3.1(7) illustrates the recent trend of tourism revenues, especially the rebound from the dislocations caused by the events of 1983. 80.0 60. 0 ....... ................................................... 20.0 ..................................................................................................... 0.0 I I I I I I 1980 1961 1982 1983 1964 1985 1986 1987 Figure 3.1 (7). Tourism receipts, 1980-1987 (current EC$ miliion) (adapted from: World Bank, 1988). RECENT DEVELOPMENTS: TOURISM Tourism's contribution to the Grenadian economy has been significant during 1988. Tourist arrivals numbered 200,632 in 1988, an increase of 7 percent over 1987. Stay over visitors increased 7.6 percent, to 61,795. Healthy increases were observed for visitors from tLe United States, f:anada, United Kingdom and West Germany. In particular, Ihe number of visitors from the U.K. has nearly doubled, mainly as a result of a weekly flight by British Airways. At the same time, the number of visitors from CARICOM countri:!s has been steadily declining. Hotel occupancy rates have also been increasing, wilh both bed-night and room-night rates recording increases of over 25 percent for 1988 compared with 1987. Cruise ship visits declined to 234 from 260 in 1987, but there was a 6.9 percent increase in the number of passengers to 135,980 in 1988, as a re sult of visits by larger capacity cruise ships. 51 Tourist expenditures are estimated to have increased 7.6 percent, to EC$76.3 million in 1988 (Blaize, 1989). MANUFACTURING Manufacturing is the weakest link in the current economy. From an environmental per spective, this is something of an advantage. It means that in designing fUl,Ire industrial promo tion activities, Grenada is able to choose among those potential new investors with the least negative environmental impacts, rather than being forced to cope with (and pay for) the negative effects of established major enterprises. The manufacturing sector is so small at present that analysis is impractical; apparent radical changes in the nmanufacturing sector n are actually reflections of the opening and closing of individual plants. The Government of Grenada offers a package of incentives and subs;, ':es to new man ufacturir.g enterprises (customs exemptions, tax holidays, infrastructure support in industrial parks, etc.) which is comparable to similar programs offered by other OEes states. For a discussion of the key environmental issues associated with the industrial sector, see Section 6 of the Profile. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS: MANUFACTURING During 1988, the manufacturing sector did not live up to expectations but nevertheless achieved 10.3 percent real growth. Good perfor malices were obtained from beer, rum, soft drinks, and paints and varnishes which increased by 17.5 percent, 29.6 percent, 15.5 percent and 48.0 per I.Jnt, respectively. Flour projected a 28.9 percent increase for 1988 but just managed to achieve 5.9 percent due to competition on the export market. The other items had mixed performances, with cigarettes and oxygen and acetylene being among the items that showed increase. Stout and gar ments were among those showing decre; The construction sector, which on a whole increased in real terms by 15 percent, was largely driven by loans amounting to $17 million by financing institutions in 1988 for the purchase of land and the construction of dwellings (Blaize, 1989).


ELECTRICITY AND WATER Improvement of the country's capital infrastructure (roads, water and power) is given high priority by the Governruent of Grenada and most foreign development agencies. Restricted access to potable water and irregular electrical power are cited as restraints on both manufactur ing and tourism development (World Bank, 1988). RECENT DEVELOPMENTS: ELECTRICITY AND WATER This sector grew in real terms by 11.9 percent. The amount of electricity generated continued on its upward trend, increasing by 13 per cent from 40.1 million KWH in 1987 to 4504 million KWH in 1988. At same time consumption increased by 17.1 percent. Domestic consumption, which accounted for 45 percent of total consump tion, increased by 16.5 percent, mainly as a result of the Government's successful rural electrifica tion program; while commercial, and industrial consumption increased by 16.2 percent and 23.9 percent, respectively. Water production, similarly, increased by 10.3 percent from 1.9 Lillion gal\ons in 1987 to 2.1 billion gallons in 1988 (Blaize, 1989). COMMERCE, BANKING AND TRADE 160 140 120 Balance of Payments Trends I rTllO rts 100 80 60 40 20 Exports 0 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 eo 81 Flgure 3.1 (8). Imports and exports, 1970-1983 (current EC$ million) (adapted from: United Nations, 1988). 82 83 52 As illustrated by Figure 3.1(8), in spite of great political and social uncertainty over the past several years, Grenada's exports of goods have gradually increased, while the value of imports, which had been rising stetply in the 1970's, began to level off in the early 1980'E. Using data from the GOG Statistical Department's calculation of Grenada's balance of visibk trade, Figure 3.1(9) demonstrates that the long term trend of a high current account foreign trade deficit persists. 250 200 Baiance of Visible Trade Exports 1960 1961 1962 1963 1984 1985 1986 1987 Figure 3.1 (9). Balance of visible trade, 1980 (adapted from: GOG, 1987a). The need to reduce this deficit defines the objectives and constrains the options of the Government of Grenada for the foreseeable future. Compared to similar countries in the Caribbean, Grenada faces a much higher foreign tra

Table 3.1 (1). Balance of payments current account, 1986. COUNTRY %GDP Antigua ----------------------------------------59.6 Bahamas --------------------------------------1.3 Barbados ---------------------------------------0.3 Belize -------------------------------------------2.9 Dominica --------------------------------------3.4 Dominican Republic ----------------------------1.2 Grenada 26.5 Guyana ----------------------------------------29.3 Haiti ---------------------------------------------4.3 Jamaica ----------------------------------------8.8 St. Kitts ---------------------------------------18.3 St. Lucia ---------------------------------------2.9 St. v-incent ------------------------------------2.5 Suriname --------------------------------------3.2 Trinidad --------------------------------------12.1 Source: World Bank, 1989. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS: COMMERCE, BANKING AND TRADE The level of retail sales, which provides an indication of the general level of business activity, showed an increase of 22.1 percent during calen dar year 1988 for four of the major distributive outlets in Grenada. Even when this increase is adjusted for the additional tax measures intro duced in 1988, the situation for 1988 was quite good. Deposits by Commercial Banks have been increasing at a rapid rate over the past five years, averaging nearly 20 percent per annum. Total de posits reached EC$317.2 million at 31 December, 1988. Saving deposits, which comprise roughly half of total deposits, recorded the largest propor tional increase (20.6 percent), foIlowed by time deposits (17.0 percent) and demand deposits (14.6 percent). Non-resident deposits reduced its share of total deposits from 16.3 percent at December, 1987 to 13.3 percent at 31 December, 1988. Resi dent deposits, on the other hand, increased by 53 200 180 160 80 60 40 20 External Debt 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 Figure 3.1 (10). External debt, 1982-1986 (adapted from: World Bank, 1989). EC$49.6 million or 22.0 percent from 1987 to 1988. Both business firms and individuals doubled their deposits within the past five years. Loans by commercial banks have similarly kept pace with deposits. At 31 December, 1988, total loans outstanding reached EC$246.9 million, an increase of 15.3 percent over the year before. Residents' share of the increase was 97.2 percent, with mrst of the loans going to the distributive trades -tourism, mandacturing, transport -and to individuals, mainly for the purchase of houses, land and durable consumer goods. Non-commercial banks have also played an active role in channeIling funds for investment. During 1988, the Grenada Development Bank and the Grenada Cooperative Bank provided loans to talling about EC$15.5 millil'n, an increase of EC$2.7 million or 21.0 percent over the amount disbursed in 1987. Insofar as foreign trade is concerned, total imports increased by 4 percent, to EC$248.7 million ill 1988. Food, machinery and equipment continued to be the dominant imports, accounting for nearly half of the total import bill. For t"e past five years, an average of 45.2 percent of total imports went to consumptior, goods, 32.1 percent to capital goods, including building materials, and 22.7 percent to intermediate goods. Significantly, while total imports had been continuing on an up ward trend, the percentage share of CARl COM was steadily declining, from 32.8 percent in 1980 to


20.4 percent in 1987. This decline may reflect the country's need for a level of goous and services for business investment which cannot be readily se cured from CARICOM sources. On the other h .. :-,d, in 1988, total exports increased by 1.9 percent, to EC$S7.7 million in 1988. Domestic exports decreased to EC$75.3 million (some 6.4 percent) in 1988, mainly due to the performance of nutmegs and cocoa. Exports of nutmegs were EC$31.3 million, EC$8.1 million less thar, that l,f 1987, as a result of a 25.7 percent decrease in the quantity exported. At 4.0 million pounds, this was just 63.3 percent of production so there was a substantial build up of stocks. Be cause of extremely high pr:ces, the value of mace exported was 1.1 percent above 1987, even though only 67.8 percent of production was exported as compared with 77.4 percent for 19R7. Exports of cocoa by EC$2.0 million, due to re duced quantities exported and extremely de pressed prices 011 the international market. All the other major items of exports increased, except fresh fruits and vegetal-which showed an ex pected decrease of 30,4 percelll, due to weather conditionE early in 1988. Domestic exports were predominantly in the food group. CARICOM's share of exporis has fallen from 35 percent during 1983 to 1985 to 17 percent in 1988, mainly due to substantial reductions in Trinidadian imports of Grenada's produce. Of significance is the increased potential which now exists for direct air freight exports to Europe aild North America. Via such flights, EC$300,OOO worth of produce was exported in 1988 (Blaize, 1989GROWfH Prr.liminary figures for 1989 (first three quartf'fs) suggest a growth rate of 5.3 percent, with better performances in all sectors except agriculture, which experienced both reduced pro duction and earnings (nutmeg, mace and cocoa). Unfortunately, domestic imports incn:ased slightly, resulting in an expanded trade deficit, de spite a significant growth of retail sales, bank de posits, commerciill bank loans "lld tourist arrivals (EC News, Dec. 1989). 54 3.2 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS The preceding summary of major eco nomic trends and priorities for Grenada high lighted tl.e following;trategic goals for the Grenadian economy uver the next five years (World Bank, 1988): Reduction of the current account deficit Improvement of incentives for food producers Upgrading tourism, especially attractions and facilities fer overnight visitors Increasing the number of manufacturing and other industries Reducing the number of public sector enterprises. The public sector investment program (PSIP), which has been defined to achieve this agenda, includes substantial investments (70 per cent of total programmed funds) in capital infras tructure, such as roads, telecommunications, elec tricity, water supply and sewerage (World Bank, 1985). The elerr:ents of this program with the most direct implications for the environment are obviously the road maintenance and improvement program, the extension of the sewerage systems, improvements to the water supply, arid solid waste management systems. In general, sensitivity to or awareness of the environmental needs 0,' consequences of pub lic sector economic activities in Grenada is not well developed. Notions of "sustainable development" are not embedded in the investment strate gies for public works or agriculture. Optimum rates of exploitation of natural resou. ces tend to be equivalent to the maximum short-term yield to Grenadians. It is now generally believed that the single public program with the greatest environmental impact is road building. The effects of a roads prop;rau) are felt for generations and are ge:terally irreversible. They include:


Direct construction impacts, including in creased run-off and risks of land slip pages. The (often uncontrolled) movement of large numbers of people into previously untouched natural areas. Opening large tracts of land to capital intensive cultivation. This usually means destruction of land tover, extensive physi cal disturbance of soils, and possible sur face and groundwater pollution from fer tilizers and pesticides. After road building, stimulation of agri culture is likely to be the economic development program with greatest potential fOI affecting natu ral resources. In this regard, Grenada er.joys some significant environmental advantages in the area of spices which will remain its most lucrative crop. Spices are relatively high value and low in labor intensity. It is probable that many of the tree crups can be combined with cultivation of food crops in innovative and cost-effective agro forestry projects. Pre .notion of tourism is unquestionably dependent upon the promotion of sound resource management programs. Tourism development can have positive impacts too, including increased preservation of natural and historic areas, im proved water quality, and construction of major sewerage s.vstems in key resort areas such as 55 Grand Anse, to a few. These issues are discussed in more detail in Section 7 of the ProfIle. Promotion of manufacturing industrier can have a negative impact on environmental pa rameters, but as a matter of public policy this is unlikely, given the high visibility of new industrial ventures and increasing public sensitivity to new polluting activities. There is :i difference, however, between actions approved as a matter of policy and those effects which result from mIs representation by the investor and inability of gov ernment to assess or monitor industrial conditions. Government requires a strategy for monitoring the environmental impacts of manufacturing activities and a cost-effective means for securing technical assistance on short notice, when needed. Depending on the country's overall en ergy and water development plans, improvements to these key infrastructure systems can have major impact on the country's forest resources and fresh water reserves and carry the increased risk for polluting incidents. Indirectly, reforms to the country's tax and banking systems are likely to have long term impact on natural resource management issues, including, in particular, the kind of cultivation practices supported for export agriculture and the location and infrastructure provided for new housing.


Levera Pond, Grenada. This unusual pond-w9tland area should be one focal point of a national park system for the country --some featurp.s protp.cted for their natural and biological value, with other areas developed for their recreational and educational qualities. 56


SECTION 4 THE NATURAL RESOURCE BASE 4.1 FORESTS AND FORESTRY 4.1.1 Overview Ever since the earliest days of colo nial settlement, clearing by humans, coupled with occasional severe hurricane damage, have greatly reduced Grenada's natural forests. Today remnant natural forests exist mostly in areas with extremely steep terrain and poor accessibility. In 1982 EschweiJer (1982b) calculated that about 9,800 acres (13 percent) of the total land area of Grenada and 450 acres (5 percent) of Carriacou were under forest cover of one type or another. Another 7,360 acres !';:rcent) of Grenada and 2,475 acres (25 percent) of Carriacou were covered by "woodland and scrub" nut being used for grazing. According to Miller, et 01. (1988), about 4,800 ha of nominally "forested" land belong to the Government, including 3,260 ha of Crown Lands and the 1,540 ha Grand Etang Forest Reserve. Johnson (1985) has provided a cap sule history of the development of forestry in Grenada. The earliest European colonists in Grenada cleared the forests over most of the lower elevations to plant sugar, along with some indigo and cotton. In the later devel opm.ent of the island, practically all land right up to the mountain tops was divided into es tates (although some mountainous areas were reserved as Crown Lands), and plantations were with cash crops up to the highest practicable limits. A few landowners reserved belts of forest on the :-idge tops as protective measures (Beard, 1949), but most of the higher lands not planted in cash crops were farmed by shifting cultivation to produce f(YJd for the estate laborers. E.D.M. Hooper, an oUicer of the In dian Forest Service, was apparent!y the fir!.: to make a formal report on forests of Grenada and Carriacou (Hooper, 1887). He recommended that forests on ridges and wa tersheds be protected as reserves for water conservation purposes. A forest ordinance passed in 1906 set aside 1,000 ha (2,500 ac) in Grenada, including some Crown Lands and some acquired lands, as the Grand Etang 57 Forest Reserve. This was enlarged in 1963 to 1,547 ha (3,868 ac) (see Figure 4.1(1. Some 136.4 ha (546 ac) of highlands in Carriacou were also designated as Forest Reserves (Figure 4.1(2. In 1910 a Forestry Board was appointed. A report by Marshall (1932), an offi cer of the Trinidad and Tobago Forest De partment, recommended the creation of addi tional forest reserves, a reforestation project, and the exploitation of the Grand Etang Re serve. In 1935 the administration of the For est Reserves was assigned to the Department of Agriculture. Beard (1944) listed nine silvi culture projects which had been undertaken in Grenada since 1938, including the re forestation of the Les Avocats watershed which was started in 1943; he also rec ommended that a forest inventory and work ing plan for management of the Grand Etang Reserve should be prepared. Nothing came of any of these recommendations I;J(cept for the reforestation project. The story of forestry in Grenada from the late 1950's on is largely the history of Government's management of the Grand Etang Forest Reserve and various small gov ernment plantations of exotic timber species. Hurricane Janet struck Grenada in 1955 and severely damaged about 60 percent of the is land's timber resources, including large parts of the forest in the Grand Bang Reserve. A Forestry Division was established under the Department of Agriculture in 1956; it became an autonomous entity in the 1960's but was then once more subsumed under tne Depart ment of Agriculture. PLAN fATION FORESTRY There are generally a number of reasons given for the establishment of forest plantations, including: to reforest degraded lands;


GRENADA Location Of Grand Etang Forest Reserve and five Important catcnment areas 1 Concord catchment 2 Annandale catchment 3 Les Avocats catchment 4 Mt. Hope/Clabony catchment 5 "High-density" forestry zone in Great Rivet Watersh'!d Grang Etang Forest Reserve boundary ,../ Watershed or catchment area boundary Grand Etang lake Prominent Peaks () 12"15 10 05 12"00 61"35' Figure 4.1 (1). !.ocatlon of Grand Etang Forest Reserve and selected catchment areas. Grenada (source: Weaver. 1989; GOG/OAS. 1988d). 58


CARRIACOU KEY PLACE NAME MlFA (HA) 1 HIGH NORm 32.0 2 Hr. PELEE 3.2 3 CIMITARY 3.2 4 TIP-E., ... u HELL 0.4 5 GREAT HOUSE 2.4 6 BElAIR RICGE 18.0 7 HOSPITAL 10.0 8 Crv\IGSIDN RID3E 4.0 1 9 ELlAIR PAPY. MID 'ITAK 8.0 10 ROCY. QUAF .r.Y 10.8 11 BFAUSEJOUR 22.4 12 WP I!ILL BEUUP. EOAD UlITT 0.8 13 IIIUS60ROUSH UNIT 20.0 14 HILLS60ROl)':;]! H. (SHALL Ul lIT) 0.4 15 OV\PEAU CAFRE 0.4 C.1l.RRL\COU TOTAL 136.0 1f3 P[!:Dtl (PETIT HARTnHQUE) 0.4 GfWID TOTAL 136.4 '[!::iI FOREST RESERVES PROTECITVE fOREST AREAS IIIIJ AGROfORESTRY PRillIer /lJlrA AREAS FOru1ERLY AS rOREST P.ESERVES Figure 4.1 (2). Location of forest reserve areas in Carrlacou (source: Weaver, 1989). 59


to control Goil erosion and main tain watersheds; to reduce the pressure on natural forests; to generally improve the economy of the country by reducing im ports of forest products; to increase production of specific forest products; to create employment opportuni ties especially in economically de pressed rural areas. In Grenada until recently the primary motivation for plantation forestry involved mainly the first two of these objectives, i.e., to stabilize eroding ridges, watersheds, road sides, and stream banks. The forest damage resulting from Hurricane Janet in 1955 more than anything else spurred the development of forest plantations, since the threat of erosion was acute and disaster relief funds were made available to reforest damaged areas. The Forestry Department embarked on a large program of tree planting in 1957; to d!lte about 165 ha have been established in Les Avocats, Panama, Grand Etang, Petit Etang, Vendome and St. Margaret (Figure 4.1(3)). More than 90 percent of the area was planted in Blue Mahoe, ar;d about six percent in Caribbean Pine. The Blue Mahoe (Hibiscus elatus) widely used for reforestation projects throughout the region, is originally from Ja maica but grows successfully in Grenada. The wood is used locally in the manufacture of furniture. It is fast growing and beneficial for soil and water conservation. Caribbean Pine (Pinus caribaea), a species originaily found in Central America and the Greater Antilles, has shown good growth in other areas and is said to be comparable in timber quality to the U.S. Southern Pine. Rotation ages of 20-25 years for pine and 30-35 years for Blue Mahoe have been estimated (Stolz, 1986, in Miller, et al., 1988). However, some authorities (e.g., ForLi in Miller, et al., 1988) have questioned the vall,e of planting with pine since experience in Jamaica has shown that variations in wood density may preclude its use in structural ap plications. 60 In recent years, in line with GOG policy, the attention of the Forestry De partment has turned to greater utilization of forest plantations for timber and fuelwood production, thereby reducing pressure on nat ural forests, reducing imports of wood prod ucts and creating employment. Two nurseries are presently operated by the Forestry De partment at Vendome for the production of timber and Christmas tree seedlings. The GOG would like to expand local production of wood and wood products to reduce the im portation of these product,j. Of the 1985 con sumption of 20,000 cubic meters (roundwood equivalent) of commercial wood products, only 12.5 percent (a roundwood equivalent of about 2,500 cubic meters) was supplied by lo cal production. Ninety-seven percent I)f the remaining 17,500 cubic meters that were im ported was used in the construction industry and only three percent in the furniture in dustry (Kehr, 1986). Most of the local production comes from private lands, forests and bushlands, with a small but increasing share from public plantations. There are four local sawmills, one of which is operated by the Forestry De partment at Queen's Park. In 1986 none of the mills had secondary processing equipment, there was no drying kiln on the island, and there was only one saw capable of processing logs from old-growth forests or mature plan tations (Miller, et al., 1988). The Forestry Department is inter ested in expanding the acreage in forest plan tations by reforestation of logged natural for est, abandoned agricultural lands and lands with fast-growing exotic timber species. In addition, about 37 percent of the 670 ha of land currently involved in the Model Farms program (see Section 5) was designated as inappropriate for agriculture, and Kehr (1986) recommended that these ar eas should be developed for plantation forests, including roads, with an average of 3.4 ha of forest per farm. Some experimentation in the use of agroforestry for watershed protection has been carried out at the government-owned Annandale Estate. Another agroforestry project has been proposed for the Dumfries


0'1 GRENADA Forest Plantations VENDOME (OLD) Forestry Nursery/Forest Plantation 2 VENDOME (NEW) Forestry Nursery 3 MARAN Agricultural Nursery 4 MIRABEAU Agricultural Nursery 5 GOOD HOPE Agricultural Nursery 6 PETIT ETANG Plantation 7 LES AVOCATS Silvicultural Site (Afforestation)/Forest Plantation 8 ANNANDALE Silvicultural Site (Agroforestry) 9 ST. MARGARET Silvicultural Site (Clearfelling)/Forest Plantation 10 PANAMA Forest Plantation 11 SOULIER Forest Plantation 12 RIVER TURNING Silvicultural Site (Shelterwood, Afforestation) 13 LAKE FIELD Silvicultural Site (Liberation Cuttings) 14 BAILLES Silvicultural Site (Afforestation) 15 MORNE DELICE (Remnant Moist Forest) @ ra:r,iij (7),..16) o '4J2I Figure 4.1 (3). Location of nurseries, forest plantations, silvicultural experimental areas, and Morne Dellce Moist Forest (source: Weaver, 1989).


area in Carriacou as part of the GDG/DAS integrated development concept for that is land (see Section 4.2 for further discussion). NATURAL FORESTS In 1982, when the most recent land use map was prepared by the Department of Agriculture with the assistance of FAD, most of the 9,800 acres covereu by Wnaturalw forest in Grenada were concentrated in the Grand Etang Forest Reserve and in the Mount St. Catherine area. Df this area, only about 2,500 acres (1,000 ha, or three percent of Grenada) are estimated to be covered by natural forests which have been relatively undisturbed by man. In 1978 and 1979 the first forest in ventory of GOVl.;;rnment lands in Grenada was carried out by two Peace Corps but it did not include the forests in the Mount St. Catherine area. The inventory covered the whole of the natural forest area in the Grand Etang Reserve south of the St. George's to Grenville Road (Potter and Potter, 1979). The inventoried area comprised approxi mately 1,000 ha (2,500 not only in the catchment of the Great River but southwards over the watershed into St. David's (Fieure 4.1(4. A 348 ha (860 ac) "high densitl zone was identified in the Great River watershed and a 10w densitl zone of 647 ha (1,599 ac) mainly outside the Great River catchment. Timber volumes in the high density zone were estimated at 229 cubic meters/ha (3,269 cubic feet/ac) over 15 cm (6 in) diameter at breast height (dbh), giving a gross volume of 80,000 cubic meters (2,800,000 cubic feet). Volumes in the low density zone were estimated to be 64 cubic meters/ha (901 cubic feet/ac) over 15 cm dbh, with a volume of 41,000 cubic meters (1,456,000 cubic feet). When the Grenadian Government was overthrown by revolution in 1979 (see Section 1.2), the People's Revolutionary Gov ernment (PRG) assigned the functions of the Forestry Division to a new statutory body called the Forestry Development Corpmation. Under the PRG's mandate to utilize Grenada's forest resources to reduce reliance on foreign wood, earn foreign exchange and 62 provide employment, Potter and Lewis (1979) wrote a working plan for the Grand Etang Forest Reserve. This plan called for the en tire area of 995 ha of natural forest to be clear felled in approximately 80 ha plots each year over a 15 year period. Clear-cut areas were to be replanted with plantations of exotic timber species. Access was to be via an extensive network of roads, and logs were to be hauled to a portable saw mill on rubber-tired skid ders. Estimated annual production was two million board feet of sawn timber (equivalent to 7,920 cubic meters of solid wood in the round). In 1980, in response to a PRG re quest for assistance with a proposed inte grated forest industry complex based in Grand Etang Reserve, an FAD mission (FAD, 1981) selected from the previously inventoried area of 995 ha an Wintensive forest management areaW of 575 ha lying in the Great River basin (the Wproject area W in Figure 4.1(4. It was estimated to contain 50,000 cubic meters of timber after subtracting a 38,000 cubic meter allowance tor heart rot and felling damage. In 1982, a consultant's report (Hodam and Asso ciates, 1982) positively assessed the economic and feasibility of using waste timber from the Grand Etang logging project to pro duce 25 percent of the country's charcoal needs and 850 kW of electricity. A land eval uation report was also prepared for the Great River watershed by an FAD consultant (Eschweiler, 1982d). In 1983 a team of consultants working for the Caribbean Development Bank produced a report (Deutsche Forstinventur Service, 1983) expressing serious doubts about the feasibility of the proposed forest industry project in Grand Etang Reserve. They pointed out that Gommier is not a prime timber species and is not widely accepted in local markets. The costs of building roads is high, and the team felt it was doubtful the project could show a net positive economic benefit if road construction costs (especially roads built in an environmentally sound manner) were considered. The consultants recommended a feasibility study, and stressed the envirollmelltal impacts of clear felling on steep erodible slopes ill a major watershed. It is noteworthy that this seems to have been the


GRENADA .. o GRAND ETANG FOREST RESERVE Figure 4.1 (4). Limite of inventoried area Project area High density zone "High density" zone in Great River watershed (source: Hodam and Associates, 1982).


first time anyone had officially raised ob jections which took the environmental impacts of the project into consideration. Following the October 1983 military intervention by the forces of the United States and six Caribbean a Forestry Department was again set up under the Ministry of Agriculture. In 1984 the British Overseas Development Administration's Forestry Advisor, W. J. Howard, recommended that a new forest inventory of Grand Etang Reserve was needed. This was necessary because the original inventory report did not provide a breakdown by tree species and diameter class, and the field data from this survey were no longer available. At the request of GOG, the British Overseas Development Administration funded a forest inventory project which was carried out in 1985 by M.S. Johnson. Johnson's (1985) study area covered 546 ha, all located within the watershed of the Great River (see Figure 4.1(1). Using aerial photographs, he stratified forest into types based on Beard's 1949 classification and found that rain forest (the only type with commercially exploitable volumes of timber) covered some 328 ha. Using steepness of slope as the sole criterion, he divided the project area into two zones: a 190 ha "exploitable zone" in areas with average slopes less than 30 degrees and a "non-exploitable zone" with slopes greater than 30 degrees. Only 159 ha of rain forest fell within the exploitable zone, comprising about 84 percent of the exploitable zone and 29 percent of the total area. Gommier is the dominant species in exploit::.ble forest, accounting fur 62,800 cubic meters (or 81 percent) of a tot"l gross timber volume of 77,200 cubic meters in the 190 ha exploitable area. Over 90 percent (56,520 cubic meters) of the Gommier was judged to be merchantable. Johnson recommended that loggil'g should be confined to the 190 ha exploitable zone plus a 90 ha "plant able area" in secondary scrub and Blue Mahoe plantations. No logging should be done where slopes locally exceed 30 degrees or closer than 20 m to the main course of the Great River. He 64 estimated that, of this total project area of 280 ha, about 250 ha would be suitable for conversion to plantations of exotic species (allowing 30 ha for locally unplantable areas). To minimize damage to the soil, he recom mended that logging should be done by mobile tower yarder systems; skidders should only be used locally in areas of gentle slope. FAO has continued its studies of the forestry sector under its Forest and Accessibility Development Technical Co operation Project and has made recom mendations in a series of recent reports (Gardiner, 1986; Kehr, 1986; and Stolz, 1986; summarized in Miller, et 01., 1988). Gardiner (1986) estimated that plantations and a somewhat larger area of exploitable rain forest (275 ha instead of 190 ha) in the Grand Etang Reserve can sustain an annual cut of about 2,180 cubic meters. Gardiner also recommends the use of a light skyline cable yarding system mounted on a truck, with logs cut up at the stump. With such a relatively low production system, logging could be re stricted to the dry season, if a suitable log storage facility were built (Miller, et 01., 1988). These more recent FAD forestry de velopment recommendations still put consid erable emphasis on industrial forestry while also stressing sustained yield management, strict erosion controls during road building and logging, protection of watersheds, and recreational and tourism development in ecologically fragile and scenic areas. How ever, forest cover loss -whether due to illegal felling of trees for timber, land clearance for cultivation, or removal of wood for fuel continues to be of concern in Grenada. Re forestation figures since 1957 show that on av erage, only 5.7 ha per year have been planted (Weaver, 1989). A Forest Management Plan for forest reserves and other lands in Grenada, Carriacou and Petit Martinique is currently being prepared by GOG with the technical as sistance of an FAD consultant (Weaver, 1989), focusing on plans for utilization pro grams, reforestation, and nurseries.


4.1.2 Problems and Issues (1) logging scheme hI' the Great River watershed. The last remaining large stand o,"natural" forest is located in the upper watershed of the Great River (Stolz, 1986). Beard (1949) studied this area and sin gled it out for special mention as an ir.:p,rest ing exampll! of mature high forest which be longed physiognomically to the rain forest, lower montane rain forest, and montane thicket formations. However, perhaps due to profound modification by selective felling of valllable timber species in the nineteenth century, he found that this fl)rest differed con siderably from forests on most other West In dian islands in terms of floristic composition. Evidently protection afforded by the Forest Reserve had allowed the forest to recover to a m:tture structure by the 1940's, but floristic re covery had no! yet attained a "climax" state. area has long been targeted by the Forestry a part of a scheme for timber exploitation in the G'and Etang Forest Reserve, the history of which has been summarized above. The terrain in this part of the Grand Etang Forest Reserve is very steep and highly dissected, is subjected to high rainfall and has large areas of unstable soils. According to Johnson (1985), in order to protect the densely developed communities downstream, it is vital that the logging project should not cause serious damage to the natu ral drainage system in this area. Johnson down plays the probable negative environ mental impact:; of the project in favor of pro viding a straightforward, descriptive for(;st inventory, but a close reading of his report re veals some rather important concerns. For example, the Capital Clay Loam soils which predominate in the area are un stable and susceptible to erosion. Some places with very steep slopes are often subject to landslips, causing the loss of all shallow soil above the parcnt material. Vernon, et al. (1959) stated that these soils on land in [he 20-30 degree slope category are marginal for cultivation due to extreme danger of erosion. In slope categories greater than 30 degrees, they recommend that the land should n'!ver be cleared of its natural vegetation because of the danger of excessive erosion and landslips. 65 Johnson notes that the slopes shown on the topographic maps used in his survey are too conservative, since they represent the shape of the tree canopy rather th .1 the ter rain beneath it. He found the terrain to be even more rugged than the map contours sugl'Sest, and he recommends that a ground survey be carried to .neasure the actual slopes. John son admits that local areas with slopes steeper than 30 degrees will be found within the ex ploitable area; conversely, some areas with slopes less than 30 degrees will be found in the non-exploitable zone. He points out that, although the proposed logging road align ments generally follow ridge crests, it will be important that the loggers resist the tempta tiou to reach isolated "exploitable" areas by driving roads throu6h steep terrain where ero sion and severe disruption to drainage is likely to result. However, he offers no comment on the likelihood of such restraint actually being exercised. Johnson further states that even under undisturbed forest the present rates of natural erosion in the watershed are sufficient for the Great River to be discolored with sediment during heavy rainfall, and flash floods occur at such times. In the study area, streams run in steep-sided V -shaped valleys or even ravines, ridge crests are frequently less than 10 m broad, and slopes generally are in excess of 20 degrees. In this type of terrain, it is likely that the erosion impacts mentioned by Vernon, et al. will occur when the natural for est is clear-clIl and roads arT built on 20-30 degree slopes. It is also likely that whatever erosion does occur will not be filtered out by leaving a thin strip of forest on the main cOllrse of the Great River itself (to say nothing of its tributaries). In order to avoid the undesirable consequences of clear-cutting large areas in the Great River watershed, selective logging, tropical shelterwood, and clear-cutting in small blocks followed by reforestation with fast-growing sp.;;..ies have been suggested by other consultants. For example, Stolz (1986) recommends that the m-,in and central of the area should be managed by a "permanent tropical shelter wood systemn (i.e.,


a system that maintains a certain amount of tree cover), aiming at: promotion of natural regeneration and permanent soil cover; maintenance of natural vegetation on exposed ridges; enrichment planting 10 palm brake areas; restriction of logging to slopes less than 30 degrees; clear-cutting an j conservation plantations on I', in the heavily hurricane damaged, relatively flat areas along the St. George's to Grenville Road; sustained yield management; strict erosion controls for roads and logging activities; establishment of permanent mon itoring plots in managed forests. However, Gardiner (1986) contra dicts Stolz and states that in this kind of tropi cal rain forest under the existing conditions, shelterwood management is impractical be cause of difficulties in extracting the timber without damaging the remaining trees. He recommends instead that clear-cutting in small blocks using a mobile tower yarder and skyline cable system is the only practical solu tion. Aside from the apparently unresolved question of which logging method would be the least damaging, all the FAO consultant<; have emphasized the extreme importance of proper design, construction and maintenance of logging roads. It seems clear th::t this log ging project, if it can be done in an ecologi cally acceptable manner at all, can only avoid heavy soil loss by the use of advanced and ex pensive means of erosion control. In this type of terrain, such measures are rarely successful even in affluent countries with relatively strict environmental control regulations and en forcement. In a developing nation like Grenada, which lacks the funds and expertise to maintain even the main thoroughfares of the nation in good repair, it would seem to be very unlikely that the proper controls would be implemented and maintained throughout the life of the project. 66 Kehr (1986), a consultant wita FAD, points out that logging on such steep terrain and vulnerable soils with only a few small ex ploitable patches available within the total area, requires building a relatively high den sity of logging roads at very high costs (US$60 75,000 per km in 1986). Moreover, previous economic fea .ibility studies of the Great River basin logging project charged only the yearly road maintenance costs to the final costs of the extracted logs. Kehr states that unless the road cons/mcrion costs can be charged to Wother economic activities than ferestry such as tourism, environmental protection and wa ter conservation,n the proposed forestry de velopment seems to be economically unfeasi ble and should be dropped. The justification for charging the road costs to other sectors (when no impact or costs would exist without a forestry is nol explained and would appear to be simply an example of ncreative bookkeeping W to avoid internalizing full envi ronmental costs. In summary, severe damage to the watershed of th:.: Great River remains a dis tinct possibility if this logging project is car ried out. Stolz (1986) rightly cautions that de structive exploitation of the forest resource in this watershed would incur very large envi ronmental and socio-economic costs, which would probably far outweigh any short-term economic benefits derived from the harvesl of its timber. Grenada would inevitably have to bear the costs of heavy soil erosion in the wa tershed, flash flooding, siltation of water treatment plant intakes and hydroelectric fa cilities, sediment deposition in the Great River, significant flood damage. to the lower lying, densely populated towns and cultivated areas, and sediment damage to nearshore ma rine ecosystems. In return for this heavy envi ronmental cost, the estimated long-term an nual harvesting volume from the area would amount to 2,180 cubic meters (Gardiner, 1986) or about 10 percent of the 1986 annual demand for wood products. Given its species composition (mainly Gommier, Dacryodes exce/sa, with a relatively low commercial value), average trunk diame ter and age distribution, the short-term rev enues from timber exploitation of this forest may fall far short of possible future profits de-


rived from other economic uses such as nature tourism and watershed protection. Today the forest is also of considerable scientific interest for studies of rain forest recovery in island ecosystems, since it has been under protection for more than eighty years and is one of the few wet forest areas studied by Beard in the 1940's which has remained essentially undis turbed by man. Much the same is true of the moist forest remnant which still survives at Morne Delice. (2) Additional areas for watershed protection. The north central parts of Grenada, e.g., the massif of Mount St. Catherine, are also areas with high rainfall, extremely steep slopes and erodible soils. There is an urgent need to designate addi tional areas in this part of the island for wa tershed protection, either as forest reserves, national parks or multiple-use areas (Stolz, 1986). A plan for a nationwide system of na tional parks and protected areas which ad dresses this need by proposing several nmuItiple-use areas n has been prepared (GOG/OAS, 1988d) but so far has not been officially accepted by Government. Multiple-usc designation implies an intent to manage areas so as to optimize the level of various activities allowed in them, e.g., protection of water supply, production of for est products and forage, provision of wildlife habitat, hunting and recreation. Three sub watersheds recommended as multiple-usc areas in the 1988 GOG/OAS study --the Annandale catchment, the Mount Hope/Clabony catchment and the Concord catchment --are especially important. The proposed parks and protected areas plan points out that in addition to the Forestry De partment, the Central Water Commission and the electrical utility company should also have an interest in the integrated management of watersheds. However, no formal institutional arrangements exist between these bodies and the Forestry Department (sec further discus sion in Section 12). (3) The Moist Forest at Morne Del ice. Perhaps 10 ha -25 ha of the moist forest remnant at Morne Delice (see Section 1.1.5 and Figure 4.1(3 still exist. This late secondary forest is currently under threat 67 from piecemeal housing development, char coaling, and conversion to plantation forest. Apparently much if not all of the land is Gov ernment-owned, but it seems that no bound ary map is available. There is a need to sur vey the boundaries and gazette them and to take action to protect the remaining forest from further damage. (4) Fuelwood Production. Charcoal has traditionally been the primary cooking fuel in Grenada. The continued demand of poor and marginalized rural populations, in particular, for charcoal and firewood con tributes to the overall exploitation of forest re sources. Since the early 1980's, concern about the contributory role played by fuelwood cut ting or charcoal production in deforestation has increased, but there arc no reliable data on utilization of these fuels in Grenada or rates of deforestation related to their use. Therefore, the current status of fuelwood har vesting and its impact on forests is difficult to state with any degree of confidence or relia bility. A 1980 UNDP survey found that charcoal was used in 75 percent and fuelwood in 51 percent of Grenadian households for cooking. The quantity of these products pro duced locally was estimated by UNDP at a roundwood equivalent of 14,923 to 19,500 cubic meters per year, and the total demand was estimated by a FAO consultant to l;e a roundwood equivalent of 40,000 cubic meters per year (Kehr, 1986; Smith, 1986). Smith be lieves these figures to be very suspect since he feels that such quantities would quickly di minish the existing forest resources. Never theless, it seems that fudwood cutting may represent a significant impact on the environ ment in Grenada, one which requires further research aimed at accurate quantification. Fuelwood plantations do not appear to have been tried on any large scale in Grenada. Limited experience has been gained with experimental plantations for charcoal production by the St. Lucia Department of Forest and Lands, as part of a regional OAS funded study on Leucaena (Lellcae1la /ellcocepha/a) yields. Proponents of the fast growing Lcucaena species had anticipated av erage annual growth rates of approximately 50


cubic metres per hectare per year, or about ISO cubic feet/acre, when the original exper iments were established. Howl!ver, assess ments of early plantings under a community forestry project indicate actual Leucaena yields are considera!Jly less than expected ranging from 16 metres/hectare/year to a high of 38 cubic metres/hectare/year (CCA/IRF, 1988). These yields may reflect lower than optimal inputs and the early ex perimental stage of community management strategies. 4.1.3 Policy Recommendations For the most up-to-date, detailed recommendations on forests and forestry, see Weaver's (1989) recently completed technical report for FAD, Forestry Development: Grenada. FOREST MANAGEMENT The highest and best use of the few remaining mature or nearly mature forest stands may well derive from conserving a major portion of them for their potential as a genetic reserve, for \lrildlife habitat, for water shed protection, for education, for scientific research and for nature tourism development (Stolz, 1986). Secondary forests and planta tion forests are more suited for the production of forest products. RESEARCH The rationale for the .:urrent em phasis on exotic species in Grenadian planta tion forestry needs to be examined. In St. Lucia, CIDA has proposed that a review of Beard's 1949 classification of the indigenous forest be carried out and that one or more in digenous and/or exotic species, adapted to each ecological condition, be identified, fol lowed by establishment of small experimental plantations of species within each ecological type. Research efforts would be initiated which focus on the most highly valued ill digenous speci ::s, with a view toward estab lishing silviculture prescriptions for these. A 68 similar program in Grenada would be de serving of consideration. Research to select the most appro priate silviculture system needs to be con ducted with indigenous species in each of the major forest types. The major silviculture al ternatives for tropical forest management are plantations, shelterwood cuttings, secondary forest management following natural distur bance or logging, enrichment plantings, and agroforestry with timber species. All of these management systems have already been tried in Grenada (Weaver, 1989), but in most cases the experiments were abandoned after a few years and results were inconclusive. A long term program to compare merits of the various alternatives is needed. Throughout the Caribbean region, dry forests have been disturbed more than any other type, and Grenada is no exception. At the Virgin Islands Biosphere Reserve in St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, techniques are be ing developec. for thr restoration of degraded dry forests. Similar research should be ap plied to the dry forests in the area of the pro posed Levera National Park, perhaps through a cooperative agreement with the Virgin Is lands Biosphere Reserve. Such a project would be of considerable value to neighboring islands and to the region. The moist forest at Morne Delice could also benefit from a simi lar approach. FOREST CONSERVATION AND DEVEWPMENT To reduce and eventually halt for est cover loss, GOG conservation and re source development policies need to be re-ex amined to focus on the need: (1) To prevent agricultural en croachment and the harvesting of trees in specifically designated "completely protected" forest areas; (2) To provide for carefully su pervised harvesting on the basis of ecologically sound, sustained yield management in other parts of forest reserves, including natural for est areas and plantations, which should be


zoned according to their most appropriate use, e.g., "wildlife conser/ation/sustained yield production" and to plantation forest"; (3) To develop new pla!!tations in areas where they are appropriate, such as on marginal farm lands, and on some degraded forest lands; (4) To rigorously defend water catchment areas against encroachment and to permit no land use other than controlled forestry in such areas. Specific recomnlendations to assist in carrying out these policy goals in clude: (1) Experimentation with agro forestry techniques. Given the high costs of plantation maintenance and the continued infringement on protected natural forests by illegal farming, additional pilot projects in agroforestry such as the Annandale project (see Section 4.2) should be implemented to test their feasibility for future plantation maintenance. In such projects, farmers inter plant agricultural crops "lith forest trees on selected .)ites which are monitored and evalu ated. (2) Support for an integrated wood products industry. The premise that a viable wood products industry in Grenada is not only desirable but possible still needs further in and testing. To achieve this goal, a pian to rationally link processing facilities to both supply (quality and quantity of available timber) and to demand (existing markets) is needed. Attention should be focused not on the remnant areas of natural forest, but on plantations of native and exotic species. Appropriate technology for logging, transporting and processing of timber needs to be adapted to Grenada. Existing roads should be upgraded and maintained; road de sign for any additional forest access roads should follow stringent soil and water con servation requirements. (3) Support should be provided for upgrading existing small saw miIls to process 69 trees harvested under the forest management program and to provide lumber for the local, small-scale woodworking industry (Miller, et al., 1988; Stolz, 1986). A great deal of information already exists on the structural and mechanical quali ties of native Caribbean woods. Support sys tems for incorporating native woods into the local construction and furniture industries need to be developed, including drying kilns, treatment, ad engineering specifications. (4) of protected water catchment areas. It has been proposed i.hat forest reserves established primarily for wllter catchment purposes should be increased in size, and that a long-term program of af forestation should be undertaken (Stolz, 19&. Increasing the size of watersheds falling under protected management strategies (by incorporation as part of the national parks and protected areas system) is an option which must be seriously examined by ap propriate government agencies. Before this can happen, Crown Lands which offer potertial for forestry must be surveyed, gazetted, and demarcated. (5) Incentives for the practice of private forestry management --e.g., technical assistance, tax credits --need to be sturlied, and legislation that will strengthen the ability of Government to protect and manage critical land areas, including private watersheds, is needed. In St. Lucia, for example, the institu tion of a levy on .. tic water bills to raise funds for the purchase and maintenance of key private forested watersheds has been rec ol'olmended. This is an inno::-tive proposal and could serve as a model ror the Eastern Caribbean region. A si.' H:u source of funds will need to be identified Grenada to finance protec tive measures such as the following: (1) purchase of conservation ea.;e ments (where the owner agrees not to do certain things, e.g., build a road, cut trees, harvest fuelwood);


PRECEPTS ON SOCIAL FORESTRY 1/ The term social forestry has been used to distinguish a new approach to the management of trees, which Is dlffArent from the technically and commercially dlrocted development that pre viously prevailed In the field. Commercial foresiry deals with trees on a large scale, In mono crop operations, and without involvement of the people who live In and around the forests. Conventional approaches often appear to regard people as enemies rather than as partners In forest management and include no more local Institutional developmrnt t:lan assigning a few technicians and many forest guards. Social forestry recognizes the need for associating local people closely with any forest man /Jgement effort. In social forestry, trees are managed in association with other plants ,md animals, often in small or fragmented areas. Multiple uses not necessarily for market s.iles are emphasized, and management Is done largely by the people living nearby and primarily for their benefit. Users of forest resources are an ambiguous group even the resources are readily identifiable and delimitable. Not only do persons In the immediate area uti,ize the sources, but outsiders may use them as well. Therefore, voluntary user cannot be re lied upon as a management institutior.. More authoritative institutions, such local govern ments, are usually required to regulate outside as well as local resource use anc to mobill7.e people's time and funds for Improving the resource base. Successful forestry management depends or the cooperation of the poorer strata In rural areas as well as the richer ones. Although local governments are often dominated by the more substantial elements of the community, tMy are more likely than central government agencies to produce a consensus on a resource management regime that Is broadly per ceived as fair and binding. With appropriate technical guidance, locally elected bod Iss at the village level can provide ef fective institutional support for small social forestry schemes. However, simply assigning certain responsibl:IUes to local government within administratively conceived and imple mented social forestry programs Is not the answer. Since the benefits from planting and pro tecting trees are relatively long-term, before local people will commit their time and effort to forest management, they will usually require unambiguous control over use rights and bene fits. Thl) local government should therefore be given clear responsibility for the resources, and all or most of the immediate benefits from improved mananement should accrue to the commu nity. If by doing this forests are preselved, soil erosion reduced, and the water cycle pro tected, there are obvious gains at the nationalleve! as well. Source: Uphoff, 1986. (2) payment of a premium for im proved landsca!)e/forest management, e.g., terracing of damaged areas or reforestation; (3) purchase of development rights; 70 (4) payment for a long-term lease of watershed land needing protection; (5) compensation for landowners for down-zoning (reclassifying) land as a re stricted or no development, protected area


(which might allow certain uses but not others, by defmition). FUELWOOD A more systematic evaluation of fuelwood extraction rates is required in order to identify specific areas in Grenada where continued harvesting for this purpose poses a serious environmental problem. Although conclusive documentation is not presently available, it would appear that fuclwood pro duction may represent a high. risk threat to forest resources at this time. Obvious areas of concern are the forest reserves as well as pri mary watersheds where removal of ground 71 cover for any reason endangers key water sup plies. Key management strategies should focus on enforcement (a trespassing and policing issue) and monitoring (for example, repeated monitoring of the charcoal market to pinpoint production increases from areas of critical concern). Finally, the planning, mon itoring and quantifying of fuelwood harvesting and new community-based fuelwood plant.a tion production may be sufficiently imporlant to warrant the eventual creation of a fuelwood forester post and/or a community/social forester post (see box, page 70) within the Forestry Department.


4.2 FRESHWATER RESOURCES AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT 4.2.1 Overview Annual rainfall in Grenada varies from approximately 1,270 mm (50 in) in dry coastal locations to 4,060 mm (160 in) in the wet central mountains (Evans, 1973, cited in Francis, 1986); see Figure 4.2(1) and Table 4.2(1). The length of the dry and wet seasons varies greatly depending on location, but there tends to be a dry season from about January to May and a wet season from about June to December. About 75 percent of annual aver age rainfall occurs during the wet season. In Carriacou and Petit Martinique annual rain fall is variously estimated at between 762 mm (30 in) to 1,360 mm (54 in), although there are no long-term meteorological records readily available (Mente, 1985). According to Kennedy and Donkin (1983), consulting engineers to the Grenada electrical utility, rainfall data have been col lected in Grenada since 1926, but aU the data coUect.:d before 1976 have reportedly been lost in a rrre. Data on daily rainfall were col lected from about 12 mostly coastal gauges between January 1980 to 1984. Since then, more gauges were set up, including some in the interior highlands. Figure 4.2(2) displays the location of rain gauges in Grenada at pre sent. No data are available for evapotranspiration, but rough estimates from Grenada and neighboring islands range from 1,000 mm/year to 1,500 mm/year (Kennedy and Donkin, 1983). A figure of about 1,000 mm/year was adopted by Kennedy and Donkin for their area of interest, i.e., the proposed hydroelectric water catchment areas in Grenada's central mountains. Figure 4.2(3) shows the country's river drainage network. Grenada has 71 dis tinct watersheds according to a map used by the Department of Agriculture'S Land Use Division (see Figure 4.2(4) and Table 4.2(2. Surface water (streams, rivers and ponds) is the major source of fresh water for human consumption and agriculture in Grenada. The locations of the 23 surface water supply facili ties in Grenada are shown in Figure 4.2(5), 72 and information on source, dry season supply and storage is provided for each one in Table 4.2(3). (N.B. The Central Water Commission uses a different watershed map and number ing scheme which assigns watershed numbers as high as 92; the CWC's system is the one shown in Figure 4.2(1. Very little data on streamflow exist for Grenada, except for some dry weather measurements and estimates for potential water supply projects. Kennedy and Donkin (1983) summarized the available data from Grenada and nearby islands, including extrap olated average flows, flood flows and a flow duration curve. However, three water level recorders have been installed on the Marquis River, the St. River and the Great River; their locations are shown on Figure 4.2(2). MAJOR WATERSHEDS AND KEY CATCHMENT AREAS Watersheds provide a convenient and valuable framework for studies of erosion, biogeochemical balances, and ecological sys tems in addition to assessment of hydrological budgets. For these reasons, FAO guidelines (F AO, 1976) recognize the watershed as the fundamental unit for land use planning and land suitability classification. There are eight major watersheds on Carriacou, shown in Figure 4.2(6). Carriacou and Petit Martinique have no important per manent streams or springs. Household water supplies in these islands depend upon catching rainwater and storing it in cisterus, while water for agriculture and livestock comes mainly from withdrawal of groundwater and surface water (run-off) stored in ponds. The 12 largest watersheds in Grenada according to Waal (1987), a consultant work ing for the Central Watt;r Commi5sion and the United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development, are


GRENADA Rainfall GOO 1 ETflNG 500 400 300 200 100 o 3880 mm/yr 0 2 J L 5 mi. c----:=__ B kID HAIN DRAINAGE AREAS RIVER AREA (ha) Greol Rrver 4719 LJ Beausejour 1568 90 SI Polrick'S 1240 55 SUohn's 1229 Doillies Bocolel 1077 It SUlork's 1022 73 Anloine 981 LB Simon 936 1.1. Chemin 805 9 Duquesne 794 fiG Chorlolle 769 79 Gouyuve 721 80 PT. SALIIIE PT. SALINE 1510 mm/yr RICHMOND HILL 2350 rma/yr Figure 4.2(1). Rainfaliisohyetal map, Grenada (source: Weaver, 1989). 73 1520 IIlID


GRENADA Rain gauge Water level recorder 10' Q 05 Figure 4.2(2). Rain gauges and water level recorder in Grenada (source: Weaver, 1989). 74


Table 4.2(1). Grenada ralnfa" at selected stations and for selected (In mm). SELECTED STATIONS 1981 St. George's Botanical Garden 1,823.0 Grand Roy, St. John 1,672.6 Oougladston Est., St. John 2,645.2 Maran Cocoa Station, St. John 2,472.2 Boulogne Cocoa St., St. Andrew 1,825.8 Mt. Horne Cocoa St., St. Andrew 1,951.7 Mlrabeau Estate, St., Andrew 2,445.5 Ashendon Cocoa St., St. David 2,200.2 Mlrabeau Ag. Station, St. Andrew NA St. Rose Estate, St. Patrick NA Mardigras, St. George 2,174.0 Notes: 10 = !ncomplete data; NA = Not available. location. Source: GOG,1987a. listed in Table 4.2(4). Taken together, these watersheds comprise 159 square km, or about one-half the area of GrenadJ. In some cases the numbering system, !lames, shapes, and acreages of the watershd:; used in the Waal report differ from the sysiem used by the Deparlment of Agricllhure's Land Use Division. Table 4.2.1(4) compares the nu merical designations and areas for these 12 watersheds as given by toe two systems. The catchment areas (i.e., sub-water sheds) surrounding all of the reservoirs and water intakes shown in Figure 4.2(5) should be managed to prevent sedimentation and pollution of the water supply. However, be cause of their critical importance, three catchments were singled out for special wan agement as wmultiple-use areasW in the 1988 GOG/OAS National Parks and Protected Areas study: Ar,nandale, Concord and Mount Hope/Clabony. Multiple-use designation means that all area will be managed so as to optirr. 'le the level of the various activities al lowed in it. (A fourth catchment originally 75 1683 1985 1987 1,914.4 2,639.2 3,032.0 10 1,683.5 1,841.0 10 NA 10 2,589.8 2,416.8 1,878.6 1,624.6 1,575.6 10 2,120.9 2,097.0 2,041.9 2,235.2 2,302.8 1,783.3 2,257.0 2,103.6 10 1,909.5 1,729.5 NA 4,253.5 3,169.9 NA NA NA 10 Parish rE:lferences follow name of site proposed as a multiple-use area, Les Avocats, was later dropped but sti'l appears on the cover map of the GOG/OAS report.) The Annandale multiple-use area, 202 ha in the central mountains at Annandale Es tate northeast of St. George's, comprises the upper portion of the Beausejour watershed. It acts as the catchment area for the Annandale water treatment facility. This area has been designated as a critically important sub-water shed by the Ministry of Agriculture and the Central Water Commission because it sup plies about 40 percent of the water for the most populous region of the country, the town of st. George's and the Grand Anse hotel area. The Concord multiple-use area is lo cated in the Concord Valley r '1St of the Con cord Falls and includes 96 ha in the upper watershed of the Black Bay River. The head waters of that river have heen tapped to supply piped water to about 3,000 people in the villages of Concord, Marigot and Colton


GRENADA River Drainage Network 12'15' Gouyave 10' Mad got 05 It 00' () Figure 4.2(3). River drainage network In Grenada (source: Francis, 1986). 76


Bailey in St. John's Parish. The area of the valley between Concord Falls and Fountain bleu Falls is privately owned and cu!tivated. The Central Water Commission has identified this as a key catchment area because it is one of the only reliable water sources that remains for development by the Parish of St. George's. The Mount Hope/ClabollY catchment consists of about 260 ha of privately owned land, mostly forested but with some cultivation on the lower slopes. Located in the uplands west of the abandoned Pearls Airport in St. Andrew's Parish, the area en closes the headwaters of the Simon River and the Grand Bras River (the latter is a major tributary of the River). The Mirabeau and the Mount Horne water tr\;atment plants which are situated on these rivers are the main sources of domestic water supply for Grenville,Jrenada's second largest town. Kennedy and Donkin identified other important catchment areas for proposed hy droelectric instdlations on the St. Francis, Marquis, St. Marks and Great Rivers. PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND DEMAND Approximately 52 percent of the population have private water service, 23 per cent use public standpipes, and 22 percent use rain water catchments, private springs, streams or ponds (Waal, 1987). There are presently 29 water supply facilities on Grenada (23 surface water and six ground water). These facilities provide a total supply capacity of about seven million gallons per day (gpd) in the rainy season. In the dry season this capacity may diminish to about 4.8 million gpd. Maximum demand occurs in the dry sea son, estimated in 1985 to be on the order of 6.5 million gpd. Therefore, wet season pro duction is adeqvate to meet demand, but there is a deficit of 25 pen.ent in the dry sea son. At pres!!nt, a conservative estimate for wastage of water is thought to be about 40 percent of the total water supplied (Waal, 1987). Tourism demand is expected to grow as the number of visitors increases; the distri-77 bution of demand by parish is projected to be 70 percent in St. George's, 20 percent in St. David's, and 10 percent in Carriacou (Weaver, 1989). Tentative estimates of the current agricultural water demand are in the neigh borhood of 15 percent of total demand (Weaver, 1989). While cocoa, bananas, nut meg and sugar t:::me do not require irrigation during the dry season, under GOG's agricul tural diversification effon, the production of new vegetable crops which do require dry sea son irrigation increasing;

GRENADA Major Watersheds 60 Gouyave 10' os ST. GEORGE'S It 00' Figure 4.2(4). Major watersheds In Grenada, according to the Land Use Division (source: Francis, 1986). 78


Table 4.2{2}. Watershed numbers and areas In Grenada according to Dept. of Agriculture. NO. TITLE AREA (AC.) NO. TITLE AREA (AC.) 1. True Bluo 1045 37. Black Bay 1525 2. Grand Anse 487 38. Marigot 263 3. Grand Anse Valley 452 39. Trand Roy 1065 4. MI. Hartman 1191 40. Dothan 191 5. Clark's Court Bay 258 41. Palmiste 401 6. Richmond 1157 42. MI. Nesbit 306 7. Woburn 1094 43. Dougladston 1830 8. Confer 162 44. Gouyave 2019 9. Chemin 1953 45. Millet Bay 134 10. St. George's G02 46. Maran 205 11. St. John's 3022 47. Gros Point 406 12. St. Louis 1607 48. North Gros Point 143 13. Petit Baccave eo2 49. Nettle Point 234 14. La Chausseo 2861 SO. Victoria 2528 15. La Sagesss 1689 51. Waltham 459 16. Petit Trou 788 52. Silver 105 17. Requin 473 53. Great Ravine 177 18. Belle Vue 421 54. Great Crayfish 19. Bishop 186 55. Uttle Crayfish 162 20. La Tante 812 56. Crayfish 67 21. Crochu 827 57. Duquense Point 162 22. Mama Cannes 1122 58. Union 2182 23. (;rand Bacolet 1433 59. La Sausos 478 24. Munich 931 60. David Point 110 25. Marquis 1362 61. Mt. Rodney 277 26. Deblandc 717 62. Sauteurs 1133 27. La Digue 654 63. St. Patrick's 2933 28. Harford 728 64. Levera 119 29. Great River 11167 65. Levera Pond 849 30. Grand Etang 282 66. River Sallee 1352 31. Beausejour 3793 67. Mt. Ross 893 32. Grand Mal 396 68. Lake Antoine 115 33. Fontenoy 167 69. Tivoli 2699 34. Mt. Moritz 411 70. Conference 645 35. Perseverance 745 71. Pearls 3066 36. Wocdford 454 Source: Land Use Division, Government of Grenada .. 79


----GRENADA Existing Surface Water Facil ities l' 1 PETIT ETANG 2 MAMMA CANNES 3 POMME ROSE 4 MUNICH 5 PLAISANCE 6 BELLEVUE 7 BRANDON HALL 8 MIRABEAU 12-1S1 10 MT. HORNE 11 PEGGY'S WHIM 12 UNION 13 TUFTON HALL 14 DUG LADS TON 15 GLOZIER 16 GRAND ROY 17 CONCORD 18 ANNANDALE 19 VENDOME 20 BON ACCORD 21 MARDIGRAS 22 RADIX SPRING @ 23 LES AVOCATS 10' @ @ @ @ C?) @ (4) @ @) @@0 @ 21 61 Figure 4.2(5). water supply facilities (reservoirs and water Intakes) In Grenada (source: Weaver, 1989}. 80


Table 4.2(3). Information regarding water treatment plants in Grenada. KEY PlANfNAME ELEVATION1 SOURCE RIVERS DRY SEASON srORGAGE 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 (m) Dams Springs SUPPLY (gpd) (g) Petit Etang 352 3 Little Marquis/Bacolet 210,000 81,000 Mamma Cannes 293 Francis 250,000 250,000 Pomme Rose 262 Francis 100,000 175,000 Munich 259 Great Bacolet 60,000 1,100 Plaisance 250 Marquis 40,000 Bellevue2 358 Great River 12,0002 14,000 Brandon Hall 195 Balthazar 100,000 72,000 Spring Garden 341 Great River 250,000 Mirabeau 244 Grand Bras 180,000 145,000 MI. Horne 152 Simone 160,000 56,250 Peggy's Whim 244 2 Antoine Tributaries 400,000 33,000 Union 152 2 25,000 10,125 Tufton Hall 107 250,000 3,300 Dllugladston 68 2 Gouyav:,IGreat Ann 250,000 32,800 ('!ozier 366 2 35,000 1,000 Grand Roy 198 Small Stn: .. !ll 30,000 1,500 Concord 305 Black 50,000 1,500 Annandale 234 Beausejour 1,000,000 200,000 Vendome 288 2 Beausejour 300,000 225,300 Bon Accord 244 Bon Accord 30,000 30,000 Mardigras 358 SI. Louis 150,000 250,000 Radix Spring 213 30,000 ,,500 us Avocats 333 Baillies Bacolet 300,000 71,630 1 Estimated elevation or clear wells. 2 Plant abandoned, no output. Source: Weaver, 1989. In the dry climate of Carriacou and Petit Martinique, an adequate water supply is highly dependent on the timely arrival of the rainy season. Estimates of the water resource availability in Carriacou were made for a 100 Day Critical Period (lOO DCP), corresponding to roughly the last three months of the dry season (Mente, 1985). Except in very dry years, the cisterns fed by rainwater are still full (or close to full) at the beginning of this critical period, but are then dr?wn down during these months. Estimates based on the 100 DCP are thus "low side w volumes 81 related to drought rather than wnormal" con ditions during the wet season. Wet season es timates would be about 25 percent higher, the increase being accounted for by larger vol umes of surface water stored in ponds at that time. Mente's study indicates that the total sum of water available in Carriacou during the 100 DCP (summing up rainwater, surface water and groundwater) is about 9.5 million gallons. Of this total, about six million gallons (62 percent) is groundwater, three million


CARRIACOU 300 ] 200 :J .,; !:: H rii 0 .. -+-HAITP.5llED LmrrS .'1....... DPAII IAGES E3 lWlGROVES MOtmlS SIX RQADS, Figure 4.2(6). Major watersheds In Carrlacou (source: Weaver, 1989). 82

PAGE 100

Table Grenada's twelve largest watersheds. RIVER BASIN NO. ACRES BASIN NO. ACRES (de Waal) (Land Use Div.) Great River 43 11,657 29 11,167 Beausejol.. 90 31 3,793 St. Patrick's 55 3,062 63 2,944 St. John's 1 3,035 11 3,022 Bailles Bacolet 14 2,660 14 2,861 St. Mark's 73 2,524 50 2,528 Antoine 48 2,424 69 2,699 Simon 44 2,311 71 3,066 Chemin 9 1,989 9 1,953 Duqu:"sne 64 1,960 58 2,182 Charlotte 79 1,950 44 2,019 Gouyave 80 1,781 43 1,830 Source: Waal, 1987; Land Use Division, Government of Grenada. gallons (32 percent) is water in cisterns, and a little more than half a million gallons (6 per cent) is stored surface water. Rain water catchments are the most widely distributed type of water supply system, followed by dug wells. Most dug wells are sited along the coast; there are also three drilled wells (now in disrepair) and three perennial ponds. Aquifer capacities are low and only suitable for small withdrawals, public rainwater catchments are badly in need of repair and maintenance, and private rainwater catch ments are adequate in only 40 percent of houses. The three large perennial ponds are in good condition, and there are a dozen small ponds which contain water only in the wet season. Existing water demand in Carriacl)u is about 60,000 gpd; 30,000 is used for human consumption and the other half i:; needed for livestock watering. The present rate of water consumption is estimated at about 10 gallons per person per day. Available water storage capacity in the rain water catchments can just about meet the lOO-day minimum require ment for dry-season demand from the present 83 human populatioll, but the \"/ater available from ponds and dug wells can meet only 80 percent (80 days) of demand fro,n the live stock. Carriacou's potential water demand has been estimated at about 1.85 million gpd for the next five to ten years; 95 percent of this potential demand will be needed for irrigation in the rural areas. The assumptions used in predicting potential water demand were that: (a) the present prJrulation size of about 4,600 will remain constant for the next five to ten years; (b) in the rural areas, significant improvement and expansion of agricultural programs requiring irrigation wii take place; (c) in urban areas, a small-scale piped distribution system (i.e., a main and several public taps) will have been restored, hotel accommodations will increase to at least 200 beds, one small industry will be established, and the

PAGE 101

size of the averagr: Wfloating" population will be about 1,000 persons; and (d) the rate of water usage will in crease to an average of 30 gallons per person per day. CURRENT WATER MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Water supply on Carriacou and Petit Martinique is the responsibility of the Public Works Department under the Ministry of Communication!> and Works. Since the de mand for potable water is met almost entirely through private catchments and cisterns, the Department has focused on the need to in crease the availability of water for irrigation and small industries by repair and improve ments in infrastructure. The restoration of twelve public cisterns by the OECS Natural Resources Management Projr:ct, with cooper ation and funding by OAS and GTZ, has been completed as the initial water development component of 14n Integrated Development Program for Carriacou (St. Helene, 1986; GOG/OAS, 1988b). Under the Water Supply Act of 1969 the CWC has powers to construct and operate surface water production, treatment and dis tribution facilities, levy water rates, acquire property under the Land Acquisition Ac., and control ali groundwater abstraction in Grenada through the issuance of licenses and permits. The CWC implements its program almost exdusively on revenues from water rates, with only a minor monthly contribution from Government. The present emphasis of the CWe's program is on extending the dis tribution system and bringing new sources of groundwater into production. The only dams of any size are Annandale Dam and Mardigras Dam, each of which impounds approximately two million gallons. Grenada's only natural water supply storage reservoir for surface water is Grand Etang Lake. A number of years ago it was proposed to raise the dam at the outlet to the lake, which drains into the Annandale water shed, in order to raise the level of the lake and thereby supplement the water available to the 84 Annandale and Vendome treatment plants during the dry season. These plans have been dropped; presently the Forestry Department plans to use the lake as a tourist attraction and has restrirted the outflow from the lake to that which would occur naturally (Waal, 1987). INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND There is an emerg:.-.g interest within GOG regarding the integrated management of watershedc; for purposes which are broader than water production per se. Fe-; example, two pilot projects in agroforestry, one at Annandale Estate in Grenada and the other at Dumfries in Carriacou, are beginning to ad dress these concerns. The Annandale project is of special interest because of the area's documented history of abuse through poor land use prac tices, followed by an attempt by GOG to in stitute proper watershed management. E3.Ily settlers clear:d most of the natural vegetation (rain forest and lower monta"1e rain forest) and replaced it with cocoa and nutmeg plan tations. Much of the tree cover W:.iS damaged in 1955 by Hurrkane Janet, after which exten sive arChS w('-:e pla:tted with Blue Mahoe. Sometime later thc spice plantations were abandoned and a period of neglect followed. The present cover is a mix of vegetation typ:!s, including natural forest species, areas of ma turing Blue Mahoe, derelict cocoa and nutmeg plantations, and open scrub/grassland. The latter vegetati0n type makes up about 10 per cent of the basin area and is used for cattle grazing (Ternan and Williams, 1986). Prior to 1964, when the GOG took over the area from private ownership and de clared it to be a protected watershed, there were already water pollution problems re sulting from heavy use of herbicides and fer tilizers. Until fairly recently, the activities of illegal r.harcoal cutters denuded some parts of the basin of its tree cover, resulting in acceler ated erosion and siltation of dams (Thomas, 1984). In spite of the now generally good veg etation cover, there are continuing problems of erosion and siltation of water intakes. Dry

PAGE 102

weather water yields at the Annandale treat ment plant have declined from about eight million litres/day in the early 1970's to around 4.1 million in 1985 (Ternan and Williams, 1986). The Ministry of Agriculture and the Department of Forestry now have an ongoing agroforestry project in the Annandale basin, funded by USAID/CDB and begun in the early 1980's. The project is aimed at provid ing economically productive crops while pro tecting the value of the area for water supply. This scheme is based on mixed plantings of spice and fruit trees, with surviving nutmeg trees being brought back into production. Nearly 17,OOU seedlings of mahoe, mahogany, gaIba, Luecaena, Christmas trees, citrus, cloves and mango were planted on 13 ha of the watershed between 1985-1987 (Weaver, 1989). Areas of abandoned cocoa plantations are being cleared, forest access roads are be ing installed, and Blue Mahoe seedlings are being thinned. However, there are no good data as yet on tile hydrological or erosional impact of these management activities. The Dumfries watershed in Carria cou (Figure 4.1(6 is the site of a proposed demonstration project in agroforestry aimed at redressing of that island's chronic land management problems. These problems include a shortage of water during the dry season, free-roaming goats and sheep which ruin crops and diminish regeneration of brush lands and forests, general overgrazing with consequent widespread erosion, a short age of timber for the boat-building industry, and a s!tortage of fuelwood. The Dumfries project site includes about 20 ha of land which is presently covered by grasses and brush in the lower areas and by secondary forest in the steep uplands. The agroforestry project plans (Weaver, 1989) call for maintaining the steep slopes ant! ridges in natural forest, for enrichment plantings of fruit or forest trees on the intermediate slopes, and for intensive cultivation of irri gated on the lowlands. Rainwater will be collected on the rooftops of existing build ings and stored in renovated cisterns for use in irrigation of crops. 85 OTHER WATERSHED RESEARCH EFFORTS An ambitious program of land evalu ation surveys was undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture's Land Use Division in 1981. Land evaluation is the process of assessing the suitability of land for different uses and de termining the effects of changes in land use. The intent of the program was to avoid detri mental effects on the watersheds which might be caused by changes in agricultural land use. Any farmer wishillg to obtain government funding for agriculture was required to review his proposed project within the context of "land evaluation units"; recommendations for appropriate aops and land use pr lctices would then be made by the Land Use Officer. A series of large-scale land use maps of the entire country were compiled from aerial photographs (Eschweiler, 1982b); maps are currently available from the Land Use Office. A methodology for land ev .. :uation, combining physical attributes of the land, a climatic inventory and an agro-climatic suit ability classification, wns adopted, following FAO guidelines (Eschweiler, 1982 a, c and d). Land units, defined on the basis of slope, land form, and soils, were mapped to gether with other characteristics such as cli mate, geology, vegetation, fauna, and man made structures. Each mapped unit was eval uated to produce a land suitability tdole aild a report was compiled for that area. A project to produce such ecologically-oriented land evaluation reports for each watershed in Grenada was begun, but to date reports for only twelve watersheds have been completed. Further surveys are not being actively pursued at the present time. Under a project funded by Lhe Com monwealth Foundation, two other surveys re lating to watershed management have been conducted: a small-scale detailed study of soil hydrological properties in the Annandale wa tershed and a large-scale reconnaissance sur vey of water chemistry in the majority of Grenada's watersheds. The hydrological study, carried Ollt in 1986 (Ternan, et 01., 1987; Ternan, et 01., 1989) was designed to investi gate the impacts of different forestry and

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agroforestry practices on total stream flow, storm flow, and low season flow. Attention was focused on the soil hydrological proper ties of selected sites within areas of typical land use, i.e., in order to study the flow pro cesses within the soil, permeability was used as an indication of soil water pathways. The results of this study showed that surface soil permeabilities at Annandale var ied widely, being highest beneath a Blue Mahoe canopy and lowest at a cleared and over-grazed site. Indications were that under trees the upper soil horizons are well struc tured, and soil permeabilities were sufficient to absorb even the most intense rainfall. In sites where overgrazing of cattle had taken place, there was damage by compaction of the soil structure, which caused decreased perco lation and increased overland flow, tending to increase soil erosion. However, at all sites a discontinuity in the soil profile at a depth of about 20 inches severely limits percolation to the deeper horizons. During prolonged rain fall, the upper horizons at all sites may become saturated, causing surface run-off and a hir,h risk of erosion if a good protective cover is not maintained. A reconnaissance survey of water chemistry (Ternan, et al., 1989) was done during the dry season in April, 1986. This project was intended to clarify some of the major influences on water chemistry and es tablish a baseline against which to measure the effects of future changes in land use. The parameters measured were: specific electrical conductance (S.E.C.), silica, chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. Unfortunately, with the exception of a single flood event on the Great River, suspended sediment concentrations were not reported. In Figure 7 of their 1989 paper, Ternan, Williams and Francis show which watersheds were surveyed and give the results of the mea surements. Stream water chemistry was found to be largely a reflection of natural processes relating to very active chemical weathering of volcanic rocks, rather than pollution. Such processes produce high silica concentrations in the rivers. Some watersheds in the area of most recent volcanic actiVity have extreme sil ica values, which are considered to result from volcanic water inputs. 86 4.2.2 Problems and Issues DRINKING WATER POLLUTION Agricultural C01ltamillatioll. Pollution levels measured in a reconnaissance survey of stream water quality in Grenada's lower wa tersheds were generally low even towards the end of the dry season. Although data are sparse at present, the results of this single sur vey indicate that fertilizer pollution of Grena dian rivers by agricultural activities may be minor. The maximum nitrate concentration recorded (1.6 mg/litre) was in the Great River. Potassium concentrations were also found to be low (Ternan, Williams and Francis, 1989). Nevertheless, CWC personnel report having chronic problems with agricultural fer tilizers getting into the upper watershed water treatment plant intakes and causing algal growth in the slow sand filters. Pre-chlorina tion is being used in an altern pt to deal with this problem. CWC has no informatioll on whether biocides in drinking water are causing a problem at this time. EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION Lugo, et al. (1981) point out that ero sion due to deforestation is a widespread problem in the region. The recommended maximum annual rate of soil loss is 1-3 tons/ha, but measured annual rates in some Caribbean countries are as high as 35 tons/ha. In Grenada, various sources are in apparent conflict about the extent of soil ero sion. For example, Ternan and Williams (1986) state that in spite of the protective tree canopy, measurements of sediment levels in some Grenadian rivers have demonstrated that erosion rates are already excessive, e.g., an estimated 700 tonnes/year of soil loss from the Annandale watershed upstream of the water intakes. Siltation of the water intakes is already a recurrent problem at Anr They point out that such erosion rates are comparable to other tropical areas subject to accelerated erosion and pose major implica tions for water storage and treatment facili-

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ties, hydro-electric d.-::velopmt;nt, and down stream coa .. tal ecosystems such as coral reefs. Nevertheless, in their 1989 paper, Ternan, et al. (1989) state that ... sevc,re soil erosion is not at present a widespread prob lem in Grenada because agriculture is mainly based on tree crops." In the same paragraph, however, they report that high suspended sediment conct!ntrations in excess of 1,000 mg/litre have been recorded in the Beause jour River (which drains the Annandale wa tershed) during floods. Flow was estimated to be greater than 2.5 cuhic ;neters/ secol'd, which meant that more than 150 kg of soil was leaving the watershed t!very minute. Persons intcrvi::..ved by the CEP project team --public of{icials in the National Parks, Land Use, and h)restry units of Gov ernment, with the National Sdence and Tech nology Council, and ,,!lith individuals in the water sports industrb (e.g., divers) --tended to view soil erosion a serbus issue in art:as olItside of the forest These individu als mentioned the following priority iswes on private lands. (a) Erosion of river banks, likely due to removal of vegetation (e.g., bam boo) and by fanlJing too close to the banks. No legislation exists at present to deal with this problem; therefore, no GOG agency has authority to take ac tion. The problem has been discussed in the context of proposed revisions to forestry and wat-:r resources legisla tion, but there has been no observable action. (b) Soil erosion caused by fanning on slopes that are too steep. Many farmers who have crops on steep slopes in mountainous areas traditionally make their furrows down the slope in stead of across it in Jrdcl' to shed water in the rainy season. This greatly accel erates erosion. (c) J-Vatershed management. The Forestry Department is hoping to set up an extension servirc to implement integrate\! watershed management. However, they are restricted to dealing 87 with Forest Reserve areas and Gov ernment-owned lands such as Annan dale Estate. The watersheds on pri vately owned lands are not being man aged properly, if at all. Huber, et 01. (1987) reported on the status of the St. John's River watershed and made rec ommendations for its management. There is no specific soil or water con se:vat:on legislation for agriculture, private iands or non-forest state lands. Adams (1986) notes that, with refer ence to the state-owned farm lands, erosion is not a serious problem at present. Exceptions do occur, such as at St. Orner where cultiva tion of pure stands of bananas on steep slopes have resulted in clear signs of excessive soil loss. He stresses that prevention uf erosion reqLlires appropriate management of the land. In Grenada, according to Adams, this means emphasizing biological measures (i.e., the maintenance of good vegetative cover to pro tect the soil surface from rain splas'.), rather than the usc of physical measures of erosion control, such as terraces and benches. ENGINEERING MA TIERS (1) Distribution Network. There are no good maps ')f the water distribution net work in Grenada; in f(!ct until recently there were none at all. At present the only maps available are small-scale, rough location plans of existing/proposed well sites and draft-form maps of intakes, treatment plants and major water distribut:on mains for some areas. About 40 percellt of the water pro duced appears to br lost in the distribution system (Waal, 1987), indicating a need to trace leaks and possible illegal taps. De Waal's projections for future water supply needs have been made 011 the basis that these 101lses will be traced and that conservation measures will be implemented. If this is not done, then there is a real possibility of serious shortfalls in water suppEcs. (2) Alternative Supply. CWC is now completing preliminar; geological mapping and borehole drilling to assess ground water

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productivity and recharge in Grenada and Carriacou. (3) Produc;tion and treatment. All treatment plams are operated as more or less autonomous units; plant operators are gener ally left to run the plants as they think best, with minimal communi calion with the head office. Most operators have little training, and the equipment with which they work is inade quate. Operation and maintenance of the water treatment plants :.s generally poor, and repairs are often d'!layed, resulting in periods of sub-standard treatment (Waal, 1987). POLICY MATTERS (1) Protection of Water Production Facilities. The silting up of dams and conse quent loss of water quality at water production facilities due to soil erosion in the catchment areas has been identified as a major environ mental concern. The Central Water Commission, which has responsibility for water production and for the operation of water production facilities in Grenada, was legally set up as a statutory body in 1969 under the Water Supply Act. However, CWC did not become a func tional entity until 1979. The agency previously in charge of water supply was a GOG depart ment under the Ministry of Works. While the CWC has substantial holdings of land in theory (some 40 plus properties), it has clear title to only a few. Some lands were appropri ated by GOG, and others were acquired by verbal or other informal agreements, resulting in many cases of contested ownership. CWC is currently re-surveying its holdings as a pre requisite to at least confirming titles to treat ment plant sites, wells, stonge facilities and dam sites. (2) Institutional Relationships. There are major weaknesses in the existing legisla tion pertaining to the mission of the Central Water Commission and other GOG depart ments with overlapping responsibilities for watershed management, such as Forestry. Formal working relationships among these agencies are not clearly defmed, nor are areas of specific responsibilities effectively desig88 nated. Several consultant reports have ad dressed the:;e issues (e.g., Clark, 1988a; Lausche, 1986). Draft legislation is now under review for revision of the Water Supply Act, which will include watershed protection mea sures (Clark, 1988b). Passage of this legisla tion may occur in the near future. At present, the responsibility for management and conservation of catchment areas rests with the Forestry Department; yet the Water Supply Act makes the CWC re sponsible for the prevention of pollution or contamination of the rivers, springs, wells, catchment areas, or other water source or supply. In spite of this overlap, there are no mandatory reporting requirements, little co ordination, and no formal procedures for shared management responsibilities between the CWC and the Forestry Department. Moreover, there are no r:!gulation:> to imple ment the CWC's legislative authority (see also Section 12). The CWC also shares administrative authority in the area of water quality moni toring with the Ministry of Agriculture's Land Use and Water Resources Unit and with the Environmental Health Department of the Ministry of Health. It is not clear which agency is actually responsible for monitoring and enforcement of water quality standards, especially in rivers and marine waters. Re sponsibility for monitoring water quality in the distribution network and at the consumer lies with the Ministry of Health. Because this Ministry does not have laboratory facilities, the CWC takes its own daily samples for chemical and bacteriological testing and sends results to the Ministry of Health. That Min istry can advise people in areas of contami nated water to exercise precautions, but ap parently this is rarely done. Samples are tested for total coliforms; facilities for fecal coliform testing are available, but this is not done on a routine basis. Samples from bore holes are analyzed for chemical content once a month (Waal, 1987).

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4.2.3 Policy Recommendatlona FRESHWATER RESOURCES It is cruciai that the wastage of water in the public distribution system in Grenada, cwrently estimated at 40 percent, be reduced to at least 25 percent by the year 2000 in to avoid a shortfaU in It should be noted that this recommendation is based on the assumption that current trends in population growth will continue and that therefore growth will be slow over the next 35 years. This trer.d is a result of the present high rates of emigration, which could decrease at any time, exacerbating the water supply sit uation (see Section 2). Immediate maintenance of the twelve rainwater l:atchments which have re cently been restored in Carriacou is important to ensure a small reserve beyond the mini mum loo-day supply of water for the human population on that island. Several of these catchments are already in need of repairs (Martinez-Solo, 1989). Other priority mcommendations for freshwater resources in Carriacou include (Mente, 1985; GOG/OAS, 1988b): (I) The existing perennial fresh water ponds. drilled wells and dug wells should be repaired, cleaned and maintained in the near future to increase the water supply for livestock to at least the loo-day minimum. (2) To meet pOll:ntial water de mands, new sources of supply will have to be developed, including: construction of new rainwater catchments or the improvement of existing ones at the private level, with soft-payment loans financed by a donor agency (a mid-term project); drilling of two new public weIls at Hillsborough and one at Harvey Vale (a mid-term project); implementation of a water con servation rilot project in one selected 89 small watershed, to include the con struction of a small earth dam and two ponds (a mid-term project). implementation of a water management project, designed by the Forestry Department, which calls for the damming of one of the larger sea sonal streams to irrigate 250 acres of mixed crops and vegetables (a long term project). WATERSHED MANAGEMENT If watershed boundaries can be clearly defined and the inputs, throughputs and outputs of matter can be measured, then the function of the whole ecosystem can be studied. Measurements of solute inputs and outputs can be usel' to characterize the ecosystem and to stUli." its internal cycling mechanisms, and measurements of sediment loads in streams can be used to calcu]ate rates of erosion. This would enable the "health" of these watersheds to be assessed. A research program aimed at obtaining such measure ments for several representative watersheds in Grenada and the Grenada Grenadines is needed (Ternan, el al., 1989). ]n order to gauge and monitor the effects of future land use changes, a baseline should be established now for the various pa rameters which can be used to judge the con dition of watersheds. Data obtained from baseline research programs in typical upland watersheds would be transferable to other watersheds in Grenada as weIl as to other vol canic islands in the Eastern Caribbean. Initial land evaluation efforts and reconnaissance work in watershed chemistry and soil hydraulic properties have laid the groundwork for an understanding of Grena dian watersheds at the whole-system level, but further research and field work remains to be done. Ternan and Williams (1986) rec ommend that the following studies be carried out for at least some of the more important or threatened watersheds. (I) Establish a hydro-meteorologi cal network to obtain dat" on rainfall

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characteristics (rainfall totals, intensities, al titudinal effects, etc.), river discharge, soil water storage component, and evapotranspi ration. These are the essential data for water shed hydrology and erosion investigations. (2) Conduct plot studies using exist ing planted areas to obtain data on run-off, soil erosion, and soil water conditions under the principal crops and vegetation types (including natural high forest, mature and re cently planted Blue Mahoe, economic tree crops, derelict cocoa, and grassland). (3) Collect suspended sediment samples, on a regular basis and during floods, from rivers and principal tributaries in the watersheds to identify sediment source areas and take remedial action. Successional forests should be managed for growth and yield, mature or wclimax" forests for environmental protection, and plantations for certain wood products which cannot be produced as quickly or as effectively in natural forests. Achieving this goal calls for a combination of enlightened forestry research, aggressive implementation programs, and strict enforcement of protective legislation (Lugo, et al., 1981). If the watershed management ob jective is to optimize for some mix of water yield, timber or crop production, and soil con servation, plot studies are essential to evaluate the effectiveness of natural forest, exotic tim ber species, and tree crops for erosion protec tion and minimal water loss by evapotranspi ration. Various planting combinations and densities, harvesting methods and feeder road construction plans must be evaluated as well. Any tree cover, whether tree crops, plantation forests or natural forests, leads to significant evapotranspirational losses of water but confers superior percolation and protection of the soil surface from raindrop erosion. Hardpans may be penetrated by planting deeply-rooting trees which facilitate the percolation of water to deeper horizons, thereby somewhat increasing water yield over shallow-rooted tree crops. Conversion of forests to crops or grassland will generally in crease the total yield of the watershed in terms of stream flow but, on the other hand, will significantly increase sediment yield. Cattle grazing causes additional damage by compaction of the soil further de creasing percolation and increasi'1g overland flow. The recommended land management for watersheds with steep slopes such as An nandale is therefore a scheme based on forest and/or tree crops, with the elimination of grazing (Ternan et al., 1987; Ternan et al., 1989). SLOPE STANDARDS FOR EROSION CONTROL Steeper slopes are generally at greater risk from erosion than gentler ones when the vegetation cover is disturbed, but it is well known that a number of factors influence erosion rates in addition to the degree of slope. For ex ample, whether steep slopes can be farmed in a sustainable manner aepends on the skills of the farmer, the methods and rate of clearing, the types of crops employed and how they are planted, variations in the length and complexity of slopes, the physical and biological methods of erosion control used and the intrinsic stability of the soil (Adams, 1986). However, not all farmers will necessarily have highly developed skills, and the optimum com binations of other factors will not always be present. One way to deal with this problem is to set standards for the maximum slopes on which various types of farming and other development activities will be allowed. For example, in St. Lucia, Stark, et al. (1966) recommendod that only land with slopes less than 10 degrees should be farmed intensively. Land with a slope of 2().3O degrees should only be used for tree crops, which should gen erally be deep-rooted to hold the soil and have a dense canopy of leaves to break the force ot the raindrops. Land of greater than 30 degree!! slope should be kept under permanent forest and not used for agriculture at all. Similar standards were also suggested by Vernon, et al. (1959), but they have never been adopted in Grenada (see also Section 9). 90

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4.3 BIODIVERSITY AND WILDUFE RESOURCES 4.3.1 Overview J. Groome (1970), in a small booklet entitled A Natural History of the Island of Grenada, West Indies, compiled much of the information available at that time on the ani mals and plants of Grenada and their origin. According to Groome, most of Grenada's small flightless animal speciec; colonized the island from the vicinity of the Orinoco River delta in South America, arriving by over-water "rafting" on mats of vegetation. The majority of birds and flying insects, however, appeared to be of tropical North American origin. Within the past few thousand y?ars the natu ral biogeographic patterns have been altered by man through hunting, habitat destruction, and introduction of exotic (non-native) species -e.g., food plants, domestic animals, "weeds" and animal "pests". Some mammals introduced by man have become naturalized in Grenada and now thrive in the wild (Groome, 1970). Two species cf rats (the Brown or Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus, and the Black Rat, Rattus rattus) and the House Mouse (Mus musculus) were introduced accidentally, probably from ships. The Large Opossum or Manicou (Didelphis marsllpialis) is thought to have been introduced from South America by Amerindians. The Mona Monkey (Cercopithecus mOl/a) was introduced from West Africa during the slave trade. Euro peans brought the Mongoose (Herpestes auropul/ctatus) to Jamaica from Indo-Asia, and in the 1870's it was introduced in Grenada in an attempt to control cane rats. The mongoose and the monkey are now con sidered serious pests and predators of other valuable wildlife species. The large opossum, the armadillo and the monkey are hunted as game animals. Several species have become extinct in Grenada since the arrival of Europeans, in cluding the Manatee (Trichecus manatm,), the Grenada Parrot (Amazona sp.), the Agouti (Dasyprocta albida), Neuweid's Moon Snake (Pseudoboa Ileuweidi), Shaw's Racer (Liophis melanotus) and the Morocoy Tortoise 91 (Geochelone carbonaria). Groome (1970) suggested that the introduction of the monkey led to the extinction of the parrot and that the manatee and morocoy tortoise were hunted to extinction for food (the latter has been rein troduced through escapes from captive popu lations). Groome (1970) has also reported that Hurricane Janet severely reduced agouti and other wildlife populations in 1955, and he blames this event together with over-hunting by humans and predation by mongoose for the probable extinction of the agouti in the wild. Hurricane Janet also may have played a large role in reducing populations of Shaw's Racer and Neuweid's Muon Snake according to Ludeke, et al. (1989). A recent report by Ludeke, et al. (1989) examines the status of wildlife in Grenada today and reviews historical evidence and contemporary research on introductions. extinctions, endemic species, endangered species and game species. Bindernagel (n.d.) conducted a reconnaissance survey of wildlife during September/October 1986 and made recommendations regarding the management of wildlife species and their habitats. The ap proximate areas where some selected game species and endangered or threatened wildlife are known to occur in Grenada and Carriacou are shown in Figure 4.3(la and Ib). Howard (1974-1989) has provided the most treatment of the flora of the Lesser Antilles, but as of early 1989 only four volumes had been published (covering Ochi daceae, Pteridophyta, Monocotyledoneae, and part of the Dicotyledoneae). The recent pub lication of volumes five and six have com pleted the series, representing the first com prehensive flora of the lesser Antilles. Until the recent publication of Howard's work, no complete flora of Grenada was available.

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GRENADA Game Species IIH Green monkey G Tatoo ro-J Ramier l!:.J Endangered/Threatened wildlife Grenada Dove & Hook-billed Kite Wading bird nesting & feeding area Seabird nesting site Turtle nesting area Hawksbi 11 o Leatherback
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GRENADA GRENADINES ENDANGERED & TREATENED WILDLIFE fSeabi rd nesting area Wading bird and feeding art!il Turtle nesting area --ce Hawksbi 11 ....... 0 Leatherback Species unknown o J( ClO c....;Ronde I. o Cai 11e I. London Bridge o '-Co 'l Peti t ..--:'\ artiniqut!\!.;j \) .. t:f, Sa 1 i ne I. (10. Frigate i Large I. \) '" .' Std tute Mil es iii iii o 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 4.3(1b). Areas in which endangered/threatened species are known to occur (source: 1982; GOG/OAS, 1988d; Johnson, 1988). BIODIVERS!'!Y AND ENDEMIC, TIlRJgATEI\lED OR ENDANGERED SPECIES (1) Plants. Beard (1949) estimated that about 2,000 species of flowering plants occurred in the Lesser Antillean region; he compiled a regional list of 243 native and nat ld aIized tree species of whicL 6R were regionally endemic (i.e., found only in this area). According to Beard, Grenada at that time had l20 known tree species or 49 percent of the regional total, with 'i5 of these being Lesser Antillean endemics (Table 4.3(1). (1949) lists only one Grenadian rain forest tree, Maylellus 93 grenadensis, which he considered to be a single-island endemic (i.e., found only in Grenada). Two plants --the fern Danaea sp. (found in the Grand Bang region) and the Palmiste or Cabbage Palm Oreodoxa oleracea --were reported as endemic to Grenada by GOGjOAS (1988d, citing Groome, 1970). (It is prubable that the latter species is the same as Royslollea oleracea listed by Beard (1949) as occurring Wthroughout the islandsw ; hence, not endemic to Grenada at all.) Johnson (1988) could find no references in the litera ture on threatened or endangered species pertaining to Grenadian plants, and no Grenadian endangered plant species are listed in IUCN's Red Data Book (Lucas and Synge, 1978) or in Davis, el 01. (1986).

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Table 4.3(1). Distribution among Lesser Antillean islands of 243 tree species (68 regionally endemic). TOTAL NO. ISLAND TREE SPECIES St. Kitts-Nevis 121 Montserrat 132 Guadeloupe 193 Dominica 167 Martinique 181 St. Lucia 151 St. Vincent 151 Grenada 120 Source: Beard, 1949. (2) Invertebrates. The decapod crustacean fauna of Grenada includes several species of freshwater shrimp and freshwater or terrestrial crabs, but there seems to be little information concerning these animals in the literature. Chace and Hobbs (1969), in their review of West bdian terrestrial c, .. cea, list only Macrobrachillnl crelllliacu11l, M. heleroc"iros, and M. /allstillillnl as collected in Grenada, but there are certainly other species which occur there. Groome (1970) reports that several Wtypes of freshwater shrimp (genera Aiya and Macrobrachill11l) are present in rivers; that Blue (probably Cardiso11la guall/lllmi) and Red (Gecarcilllls sp. or spp.) Land Crabs are common and are used as food; that the "Manicou Crab" (family Potamonidae) is present in freshwater; and that a terrestrial Hermit Crab (almost cer tainly Coellobila c/ypeallls) is present. Shore living species sllch as ghost crabs, rock crabs and mangrove crabs (family Grapsidae), con sidered semiterrestrial by Chace and Smith, are no doubt also present. Most of these animals are widely distributed in the Caribbean. NO. NO. REGIONAL AEGlONAL ISLAND FLORA ENDEMICS ENDEMICS 94 50 13 1 54 17 78 43 3 68 42 2 74 47 5 62 35 3 62 29 49 15 1 Some of the most remarkable West Indian biological phenomena are the seasonal mass migrations of several land-crab species from inland areas to form dense aggregations at the shore, where they release their larvae into the sea. The larvae generally require some salinity (varying from estuarine condi tions to full-strength seawater) to complete their development. For these species, re cruitment of larvae from other islands (and therefore genetic exchange) is likely, so that Grenadian popUlations are unlikely to be genetically distinct. No endemic invertebrates have bl!en described in Grenada, with the possible ex ception of the weevil, Diaprepes sp. (Groome, 1970). Johnson (1988) was unable to find any sources of information on regional endemism among invertebrates, or any information on the ecology and status of invl!rtebrate groups except swallowtail butterflies, none of which appear to be threatened. (3) Fishes. The freshwater fish fauna of the Lesser Antilles is derived from only a few families --Poeciliidae, Anguillidae,

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Gobiidae, Eleotridae, Mugilidae, Gerridae, Centropomidae, and Carangidae --and ap parently includes no species which occur exclusively in freshwater. Freshwater fish, particularly the mountain mullet (Agonostomus monticola) are a traditional West Indian food resource. Grenada's fresh-water fish fauna, consisting of about twelve species of gobies, mountain mullets, c1ingfIsh, etc., is not well studied; CCA (unpublished; cited in Miller, et al., 1988) considered it to be threatened by sedimentation and pollution in rivers. All tile known species can move between fresh and salt water and some spawn at sea. Two fresh-water fish species, the Tete-chien and the "Go-bird" Fish (a corrup tion of Gobiid?) are believed to be rare in Grenada. The Go-bird Fish is a goby (Sicydiul1I pllll1lieri) which migrates up the rivers from the sea in the post-larval stage and matures in fresh-water habitats, returning to the sea to spawn. The Tete-chien is a very odd fresh-water fish (SYllbrallchus mamlOraIUS), resembling a snake and belonging to the Swamp Eel Family, Synbranchidae. It wan ders about on land during the rainy season and estivates in the dry, can grow to three feet in length, and has a scaleless skin, giIl open ings confluent in a single ventral slit, vestigial teeth and no paired fins (Groome, 1970). Marine fishes and invertebrates found in Grenadian coastal waters are those typical of the Lesser AntiIlean Region. Estu arine fishes such as Mullet (Mllgi/), M udfish (Celltropol1lus), and Shad (Alosa) have be come scarcer or have been extirpated ID re cent times (Groome, 1970). (4) Amphibians. Grenada has four amphibian species: the Giant Toad (Bllfo marillus), which was intfl)duced from South America; the Highland Piping Frog (Elcuthcrodactylus llrichi Cllph rOil ides ), which is confined to the wet forests around Grand Etang; the P:ping Frog (. johllstond); and Garman's Woodland Frog (Lcptodactyills wagllcri), which is also characteristic of the Grand Etang forests. The Giant Edible Frog (Leplodactylus fal/ax) reportedly was intrlJduced but did not survive (Groome, 95 1970). No single-island or regionally endemic amphibian species occur (Schwartz and Thomas, 1975), although Crombie (pers. comm., in Johnson, 1988) feels that the endemic subspecies Eleuthcrodactylus urichi eup/ironides is probably a valid species. Information is lacking about the status of am phibian populations in Grenada. (5) Reptiles. There are eight species of lizards reported from Grenada -these are the Common Anole or Wall lizard (Allolis richardi), the Crested Anole or Tree Lizard (A. alleus), the Mabouya gecko (Hcl1lidactyllls mabouia), introduced from Africa, tht Wood Slave gecko (77lecadactylus rapicallda) Gar man's Ground Lizard (Amciva ameiva tobagalla), Allen's ground lizard (Bachia heteropus al/elli) the Slipperyhack Skink (Mabuya mabouya), and the Green Iguana (Igualla igualla) (Macleall, ct al., 1977; GOG/OAS, 1988d). The iguana is reportedly becoming increasingly rare due to hunting and is considered threatened by CCA (unpublished; cited in MiIler, ct al., 1988; Ludeke, et al., 1981); GOG/OAS, 1988). The status of the other lizards is unknown, but some species may be in danger of extinction because of mongoose predation (MiIler, ct al., 1988). There are five species of snakes known to occur on Grenada today: the bur rowing species Typhlops fasymicris which was described from a single specimen collected in SI. David's Parish (Schwartz and Thomes, 1975), the White-headed Worm (Lcptotyphlops margaritac), the Tree r30a (Coral/us cllydris in Schwartz and Hendet:,on, 1985; = "Boa ncar cllhydris", formerly Bvn grCIIadcnsis, in Groome, 1970), Boddaert's Tree Snake (Mastigodl)'as bmcsi in Schwartz and Henderson, 1985; = Drymobills ncar boddacrti in Groome, 1970) and the constric tor or Cribo (CIC/ia clelia gruomci). Most snakes arc either rare or their status is un certain (CCA, unpublished; cited in Miller, ct 01., 1988). Two snakes formerly found Oil Grenada arc now thought to be extinct (Neuweid's Moon Snake, Psclldo/Joa Ilcllwcidi, and Shaw's Racer, Liophis mclallotlls; = Dromiclls mclanotus in Mclean, c/ al., 1977). There arc no venomous snakes dangerous to humans.

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The snake Typhlops tasyn"cns is presently the only known single-island en demic reptile in Grenada according to John son, 1988. However, at least one worker (Crombie, comm., in Johnson, 1988) thinks tha[ the endemic snake subspecies Clelia delia groomei may be a valid species. Groome (1970) thought it likely that the Tree Boa was a valid endemic species (Boa grenadensis), but Schwartz and Thomas (1975) and Schwartz and Henderson (1985) do not differentiate it from the mainland form Coral/lis enydris, which is also found in St. Vincent and the Grenadine<. Three Grena dian reptiles are regional endemics: Anolis aenellS, A. richardi and Mastigodryas bruesi (Johnson, 1988). There is a r,ingle record of an Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodyills intemledills) being washed ashore in Grenada in 1910 (Groome, 1970). The Morocoy Tortoise (Geochelone caroonaria) has been reintroduced to the wild in Grenada through escapes from captive populations (Groome, 1970). Bindernagel (n.d.) reporls that Frigate Island is known lo cally for its populations of Morocoy and Iguana. The distribution on Grenada and its satellite islands of living terrestrial amphibian and reptile species is given in Table 4.3(2). All marine turtles are listed as en dangered by IUCN, with the ;-Iawksbill being the most critically endangered species. Natu ral factors such as storm damage tC' nesting beaches, disease and natural predators have .. lways taken their toll, but the actions of man have had the greatest impact on sea turtle populations. The eggs of all species are eaten; juvenile and adult turtles are killed for their meat, as well as for an oil rendered from their fat which is reputed to have medicinal prop erties, and for sale to tourists as stuffed cu rios; Hawksbills are killed for their colored shell which is valued for jewelry. Besides direct slaughter, other threats to the survival of turtles are destruction of nesting beaches by sand mining and develop ment; bright lighting along (he shoreline which disturbs nesting females and causes dis orientation of the young ;it hatching; preda96 tion on hatchlings by domestic animals such as dogs and pigs; floating tar balls and plastic bags that cause injury or death when ingested; and floating monofilament fishing line in which the turtles become entangled. In the case of the Hawksbill, the increasing damage to coral reefs from siltation, pollution and dredging affects the survival of populations, since this species feeds on the invertebrates associated with corn! reefs and also depends on reefs for shelter at all stages of its life cycle. Four sea turtle species Leatherbacks (DemlOchelys coriacea), Hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata), Logger heads (Caretta caretta) and Greens (Chelonia mydas) --have been reported to nest on beaches in Grenada and the Grenadines (Bacon, et al., 1984; Goodwin, Goodwin and Putnam, 1982; Groombridge, 1982). Figure 4.3(1) shows lurtle nesting beaches, and Tlble 4.3(3) summarizes data on sea turtlc populations as compiled by Bacon (1981). Although ECNAMP (1980a) re ported Leatherback nesting along the south coast of Grenada (see Figure 4.3(la, this in formation could not be confirmed more re cently by WIDECAST, which reports Leatherback nesting taking place between March ano July in five areas: Sauteurs, Levera, Grenada E3Y (Bathway), the beach north of Artiste Point (Antoine River beach), and the beaches of Conference and Great River Bays. According to WIDECAST, these beaches are, for the most part, under consid erable threat from sand mining and, at least in the case of Sauteurs, from residential and fishing development on the beach (K. Eckert, WIDECAST, pers. comm., 1990). Carr, et al. (1982) conducted inter views on Carriacou and Grenada; they re ported that favorable nesting habitat for mu rine turtles is extensive in the Grenadines. Hawksbills are the prevalent nesters there, coming ashore from April through October. A few Leatherbacks nest each year on Carria cou, but no Loggerheads or Green turtles were reported to nest in the Grenadines. Hawksbills and Leatherbacks are the pre dominant nesters on Grenada, emerging in small numbers during the summer months;

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Table 4.3(2). Distribution on Grenada and Its satelllt&s of terrestrial amphibian and reptllo species. GRENADA Bufo marl nUll Eleutherodactylus johnstonel Eleutherodactylus urlchl Leptodactylus wagnerl Geochelone carbonarla Arnelva amelva tobagana Anolls aeneus Anolls rlchardi 3achia heteropus alieni Hemldactylus maboula Iguana Iguana Mabuya m. mabouya Thecadactylus raplcauda Clelia clella groomel cOralius enydrls cooki Dromlcus melanotus (extinct?) Mastlgodryas bruasi Pseudoboa neuwiedi (extinct?) Typhlops tasymicris Loptotyphlops margaritae Crocodylus intermedius (accidental) BIRD ISLAND ? SANDY ISLAND Anolls aeneus Arnelva amelva tobagana GREEN ISLAND Anolls aeneus Arnelva ameiva tobagana Thecadactylus rapicauda Anolis aeneus Anolls richardl LONDON BRIDGE ? ISLE RONDE Anolls aeneus Arneiva ameiva tobagana LES TANTES Anolis aeneus LARGE ISLAND ? FRIGATE ISLAND Geochelone carbonarla Arnelva amelva tobagana Iguana Iguana SALINE ISLAND ? CARRIACOU Anolls rlchardl Hemldactylus maboula Iguana Iguana Mabuya m. mabouya Corallus enydrls cookl Mastigodryas bruesi MABUYA ISLAND Anolis richardl Iguana Iguana PETIT TOBAGO Anolis aeneus PETIT MARTINIQUE Anolis aensus Hemldactylus maboula ILEACAILLE Arnelva amelva tobagana Anolis aoroeus Iguana iguana Mastigodryas bruesl DIAMOND ISLAND (KICK 'EM JENNY) Anolls aendU5 Iguana Iguana GLOVER ISLAND Anolis aeneus Mabuya m. mabouya Source: Groome, 1970; 19n; Blndernagel, n.d. 97

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Table 4.3(3). Summary of data on sea turtle populations In Grenada. Species Present: (Key: Ei=Hawksbill; Dc=Leatherback; Cm=Green; Cc=Loggerhead) STATUS Abundant Common Frequent Occasional Rare NESTING Ei Dc Cm Cc ADULTS EI Cm Dc FORAGING JUVENILES EI Cm Cc Nesting Areas: Hog Island, Uttle Bacolet Bay, La Sagesse Bay, Soublse, Pearls, Levere, Sandy Island, Groen Island, Callie Island (Ei Dc). From Telescope Point to La Poterle, Hartman's Lagoon, L'Anse Epine, Caliviny, Wasterhall, Baccaye (Dc); Marquis Island (Cm). F')raglng Areas: Woburn, La Sagesse, Crouchu, Soubisse, La Poterie (EI Cm); Black Bay (Cm). Population Estimates: None. Sancluo;ic::: None. Legislation: Closed Season, 1 May to 30 September, Birds and Other Wildlife (Protection of) Ordinance, 1957. THE GRENADA GRENADINES: Nesting: Carriacou Petit Carenage, Anse la Roche (Ei Dc); Tarlton Bay, Bogies, Hillsborough Beach, Grand Bay (Ei); Sandy Island, White Island, Moplon, Punalse, Petit St. Vincent, Petit Martinique (EI). Foraging: All around islands (l:1 Cm Ge). Source: Bae;on, 1981. Greens und Loggerheads have been reported to nest only rarely. A::, in the other Eastern Caribbean islands, sea turtle stocks in Grenada are con sidered by many experts to be depleted, but qllantitative information is scarce. The exten sive shallow waters and reefs around the Grenadines are foraging habitat for HawksbiUs and Greens; the m0st commonly seen turtles there are the Greens, with the Hawksbills second in abundance, followed by Loggerheads. Green turtles are also the most 98 abundant species around Grenada. The Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys o/ivacea) is present pe ripherally in the Wider Caribbean region, but is considered to occur only accidentally in the Lesser Antilles. Kemp's Ridley (L. kempi) has not been recorded from the Caribbean (Carr, et al., 1982; Meylan, 1983). (N.B. Grenadian wildlife literature (e.g., Ludeke, et 01., 1989; GOG/OAS, 1988d) frequently cites Kemp'S Ridley as an endan gered sea turtle species occurring in Grenada. This appears to be an error deriving from the

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fact that this species is listed in Groome's (1970) booklet on Grenadian natural history. However, Groome rightly points out that the infrequent records of L. kemp; from the Caribbean --he does not say Grenada -probably are mistaken identifications of L. olivacea). (6) Birds. About 150 species of birds have been recorded in Grenada and the Grenadines (Groome, 1970), and Grenada has 35 resident species of land birds (Blockstein, 1988). Information on seabirds is considered poor by Halewyn and Norton (1984), who reported three species of breeding seabirds from Grenada and twelve from the Grenada and St. Vincent Grenadines combined (see Table 4.3(4) and Figure 4.3(1. Habitat destruction and disturbance and the exploitation of adults, eggs and/or young are listed as the known threats to seabirds. Halewyn and Norton (1984) assigned to each area a rough subjective rating of its regional importance for breeding seabirds; on this basis Grenada is classified as "relatively unimportant" and the Grenadines as ;;extremely importart". With regard to re gional conservation priorities for the twelve Table 4.3(4). SElabird species reported to breed in Grenada and the Grenadines. COMMON NAME Audubon Shearwater(1)* laughing GUll Roseate Tern GRENADA SCIENTIFIC NAME Puffinus lherminieri larus atricilla Sterna dougalljj REG. CONSERVATION PRIORITY Special Concern No Immediate Concern Special Concern GRENADA GRENADINES/ST. ViNCENT GRENADINES COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME Audubon Sheearwater (1) Puffinus Iherminieri Redblllod Tropicbird Phaeton aethereus Magnificont Frigatebird (1) Fregata magnificens Masked Booby Sula dactylatra Redfooted Booby Sula sula Brown Booby Sula leucogaster laughing Gull Larus atricilla Gullbilled Tern (1) Gelochelidon nilotica Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata Brown Noddy Anous stolidus (1) means breeding is unconfirmed. Source: Halewyn and Norton, 1984. 99 REG. CONSERVATION PRIORITY Special Concern To Be Monitored Special Concern Special Concern To Be Monitored To Be Monitored No Immediate Concern Special Concern No Immediate Concern To Be Monitored No Immediate Concern

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species of seabirds listed for Grenada and the Grenadines, these authors listed four species as being "of special concern-, the status of five are "to be monitored", and three are "of no immediate concem" (Table 4.3(4. Bindernagel (n.d.) states that some species of seabirds, including the Brown Booby, Laughing Gull, Noddy Tern and possi bly Red-Billed Tropic Bird, are reported to nest on Saline, White and Frigate Islands during April/May. Grazing by goats is caus ing habitat delerioration on these islands, and it has been reported that "people from Martidque" visit them to shoot birds and dy namite fISh. The Grenada Flycatcher (Myriarchus nugator), Scaly-breasted Thrasher (Margarops fuscus), Lesser Antillean Bullfinch (Loxigilla noct;s) and Lesser Antillean Tanager (Tangara cucullata) occur in Grenada and are endemic to the Lesser Antillean region. None of these except for the Thrasher, which may possibly be extinct there, is believed to be un der any threat in Grenada (Johnson, 1988). Two birds are endemic to the island of Grenada only: a subspecies of the Hook billed Kite (Chrolldroh;erax uncinctus m;rns) and the Grenada Dove. The Grenada Dove was first described in 1884 as a distinct species (Leptotila wells;) but was reclassified in 1983 as a sutspecies of the Gr3y-fronted Dove (L. mfaxilla), to which it is morphologically simi lar. Blockstein and Hardy (1989) recently ar gued that the Grenada Dove should be re stored to the status of a full species on the grounds that there are significant differences between it and L. rnfaxilla in the details of songs and plumage. Beth the Grenada Dove and the Hook-billed Kite are now found mainly in the dry southwest portion of Grenada and are listed as endangered by the International Council for Bird Preservation (King, 1978-1979) and the u.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1987). Table 4.3(5). Grenadian birds listed as enC:angered by the Caribbean Conservation Association. Blue-hooded Euphonia, Euphonia mus/ca Blue-tailed Emerald Hummingbird, Chlorostllbon mel/isugus Broad-winged Hawk, Buteo platyterus Common Snipe, Gal/inago gaJlinago Everglade Kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis Fulvous Tree-duck, Dendrocygna bicolor Great Egret, Casmerodius albus Grenada Dove, Leptotila wel/sl Grenada Hook-billed Kite, Chondrohlerax unclnctus mlrus Large-billed Seed Finch, Oryzoborus crasslrostrls Lesser Elaenia, Eldenla chiriquins/s Lesser Seed Finch, Oryzoborus anglolens/s Limpkin, Aramus guarana Masked Duck, Oxyura dominlcal Scarlet Ibis, Eudocimus ruber Swallow-tailed Kite, Elanoldes fortlcatus Source: Ludeke, et al., 1989. 100

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In addition to the Grenada Dove and the Hook-billed Kite, another fourteen Grenadian bird species are listed as endan gered by the CCA (Table 4.3(.5, and thirty four other sped;!s of birds arc presently listed as "vulnerable" in Grenada (eCA, unpub lished; cited in Ludeke, e/ al., 1989). The Grenada Hook-billed Kite, the Grenada Dove, and the Tundra Peregrine Falcon (Fale':) peregrinlls /undJills) are listed in t.he IUCN Red Data Book on Endangered Birds (King, 1978-1979) as regionally endav.gered. The Grenada Parrot (Amazona sp.) became extinct shortly after the arrival of Europeans. (7) Mammals. Four native species of terrtstrial mammals occur in Grenada: Nine-banded Armadillo or Tatou (Dajypus novemcinctus); Lesser Chapman's Murine Oppossum (MamlOsa Jusca/a carri); Greater Chapman's Murine Oppossum (MamlOsa robinsoni cltopmani); and Agouti (Dasyproc/a albida) There are no single-island or region ally endemic species of mammals in Grenada or the Grenada Grenadines (Johnson, 1988), and none of the mammals is listed as threat ened in the IUCN Rcd Data Book (Thorn back and Jel'kins, 1982). Nevertheless, GOG/OAS (1988dj consider some native mammals to bc locally threatencd. The Nine banded Armadillo or "Tatou" which lives in forested areas and is heavily hunted for food, is listed as endangered. The Lesser Chap man's Murine Opos:mm is listed as vulnerable, and the Greater Chapman's Murine Opossum is thought to be rare. There are eleven native species of bats recorded from Grenada (Groome, 1970): Sac-winged Bat (P/erup/eryx macro/is) Fish-eating Bat (Noc(i/io leporinlls) Bare-back Bat (P/erono/us davyi) Micronyc/eris megalotis (no common name) Long-tongued Bat (Glossophaga longiros/ris) Leaf-nosed Bat (Carollia perspicil/a/a) Fruit-eating Bal (Artibells jamaicellsis) Large Fruit-eating Bat (Artibeus lilllratlls) 101 Pygmy Fruit-eating Bat (Artibells cinerells) Little Black Bat (Myo/is nigrieans) SmaJI Free-tailcd Bat (Molllsslis ObSCllnlS) None of the bat species is known to be threatened (Johnson, 1988), but very little information on the status of bats is available. The Manatee (Tdeheclls manallls) was extirpated soon after the arrival of Euro peans in Grenada, and the Agouti (Dasyproc/a alhida) is thOUght to have becn hUllted to ex tinction only recently (Groome, 1970). There is a stock of Humpback Whales (Megap/era novaeangliae) which mi grates betwcen Grecnland and the Eastern Caribbean. A small group of Humpbacks still winters in thc watcrs betwccn Sl. Vincent and Grenada. Their calving grounds are located in the Grenadines and also betwcen Anguilla and Antigua. Humpback Whales had been hunted from a aalion on Glovcr Island off Grenada sincc at least 1857 but were virt ually exterminatcd in this area by American whalers by 1927 (Groome, 1970). Other species of cetaceans formerly taken by whalers operating out of Glover Island and Barrouallie Village in St. Vincent (Mitchell and Gold, 1982) included Pilot Whale or Blacktish (Globicephala macrorhynchlls) Killer Whalc (Orcinlls orca), Beaked Whale (Zizyp"us sp.), Bottlenose Dolphin (Tllrsiops /nlneahls), and two species of Ocean Dolphin (S/enel/a spp.). Artisanal whalers from Bequia are still permitted by the Intcrnational Whaling Commission to take a maximum of three whales per year from this sevcrely depleted popUlation 1988), but this fish ery ill virtually defunct. Although the Bequia whalers are the only ones officially still oper ating in the Caribbcan, it appcars that a whale fishery for Humpback, Sperm and Pilot Whales may slill be carried out from Bar rouallie Village in st. Vincent (deGeorges, 1989).

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Table 4.3(6). Principal Grenadian game species and their hunting seasons In Grenada. Hunting season opens 1 September, closes 1 March: Ramler or Pigeon (Columba squamosa) Tatou or Armadillo (Dasypus novemclnctus) Mona Monkey (Cercopithecus mona dentt) Manlcou or Opossum (Didelphis marsupia lis insularis) Birds Mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchus) Blue-winged teal (Anas discus) Green-winged teal (Anas crecca carolinensis) American widgeon or baldpate (Anas americana) Shovaller duck or sucet (Spatula clypeata) Lesser scaup duck (Athya affinis) Florida gallinule or waterhen (Gallinula chlorous cerceris) Caribbean coot or waterfowl (Fulica caribae) Hudsonian curlew or whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus hudsonlcus) Greater yellow legs (Tringa melanoleuca) Willet or tell-bill-willy (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) Wilson's snipe or common snipe (Capella gallinage delicata) Violet-eared dove or Trinidad ground dove (Zenaida auriculata stenurs) Zenaida dove or mourning dove (Zenaida aurita) Broad-winged hawk or chicken hawk or gree-gree (Buteo platypterus antillarum) Peregrine falcon or duck hawk (Falco peregrinus ana tum) Glossy cowblid (Molothrus bonairiensis minimus) Lesser Antillean Grackle or Blackbird (Quisicalur: lugubris luminosus) Hunting season opens 30 September, closes 1 May: Sea Turtles Green (Chelonia mydas) Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) Loggerhead (Caretta caretta) Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) Source: Ludeke, et al., 1989. WILDLIFE LEGISLATION Protection was given to birds and certain other species of wildlife in the Grand Etang Forest Reserve by the Wild Animals and Birds (Sanctuary) Ordinance (Cap. 314) of 1928. This law gave absolute protection within any forest reserve to a species of ar madillo and certain snakes specified in a schedule and to agouti throughout the island for a period of six years. Since then, the 102 agouti and armadillo have been over-hunted throughout the country (Ludeke, et 0/., 1989; Lausche, 1986). The Birds and Other Wildlife (Protection of) Ordi.nance (Cap. 36) of 1957 designated game species in Grenada and es tablished hunting seasons for each, as shown in Table 4.3(6). This law was extended until the end of 1972 by Ordinance No. 26 of 1964,

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Birds and Other Wildlife (Protection of) (Amendment). Ordinance 26 of 1964 included 18 other birds (mostly durks and waterbirds, also listed ill Table 4.3(6) under the coverage of the September 1 to March 1. hunting season. The Broad-winged Hawk and Peregrine Fal cons were included in the hunting season be cause they are thought to prey on domesti cated fowl, and the glossy cowbird and the Lesser Antillean Grackle because they were considered garden pests. AU other wild birds and their eggs were provided ahsolute protec tion. Turtle, lobster, and oysters were also protected during closed seasons (Ludeke, et 01.,1989). However, according to Bindernagel (n.d.), Ordinance 26 of 1964 has never been extended beyond its original expiration date of 1972. Therefore, it appears that none of the species covered this ordinance or the Birds and Other Wildlife Ordinance of 1957 are currently protected. RESERVES, NATIONAL PARKS AND OTHER PROTECTED AREAS The 1906 Grand Etang Reserve Or dinance (Cap. 135) designated the area around the Grand Etang Lake as a forest re serve, as well as two areas in Carriacou. The Forest, Soil and Water Conservation (Amendment) Ordinance of 1984 (Ordinance No. 34 of 1984) established as forest policy the protection of "such areas as may be required to provide natural and undisturbed habitat for the flora and fauna of Grenada." At the present time, there are no of ficially designated national parks in in Grenada or the Grenada Grenadines, but a proposed National Parks and Protected Areas Plan has been prepared (GOG/OAS, 1988d). Although the plan itself has not yet been ac cepted by GOG, some of its recommendations have already been implemented by the Na tional Parks Unit. The objectives of this plan which are most directly related to wildlife are the following: 103 to preserve genetic materials as ele ments of natural communities; to maintain biological diversity by minimizing the loss of any plant or animal species; and to preserve and manage fish and wildlife resources in view of their im portant role in environmental regula tion, sport, and recreation activities and as producers of protein and other products. The Minister may declare any fishery waters (and, as appropriate, any adjacent or surrounding land) to be a marine reserve. The Grenada Fisheries Act of 1986 gives the Fisheries Department the authority to prevent the disturbance, alteration or destruction of the natural environment in any marine reserve or conservation area --this includes the con trol of fishing, dredging, extraction of sand and gravel, and discharge or deposit of waste or any other polluting matter. Unfortunately, these broad powers are inconsequential at the present time since no such marine reserves or conservation areas have be.!n set up. It is not entirely clear whether such authority would include jurisdiction over marine parks if and when such areas are designated under the proposed National Parks and Protected Areas Plan. 4.3.2 Problems and Issues (1) The Grenada Dove and Grenada Hook-billed Kite. A population survey carried out in 1987 by Blockstein (1988) estimated that there were only about 100 Grenada Doves and 15-30 Hook-billed Kites on Grenada. Aside from two recent records from dry secondary woodlands on the central west coast, almost the er.tire Grenada Dove population now appears to be located in an area of about 500 ha in the southwest penin sula (Figure 4.3(2. Most of the Doves are found in the Government-owned Mount Hartman Estate, an abandoned sugar cane plantation. The estate has extensive agricul tural clearing and cultivation in the lowlands,

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GRENADA o 1 Km ... Grand Anse Estate ... Figure 4.3(2}. Dlstrlbuilon of Grenada Doves, 1987 (source: Blockstein, 1988). ... ... ......... ... Mont Tout Petit Bouc .. ...... ......... ... at ... ... ... ... ......... .. ......... ... Mt. Hartman Estate ... ... ....... ... ........ ...... ... ( Lance aux

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but some thickets of deciduous thorn scrub still remain on the hillsides. Blockstein believes that the range of the Grenada Dove has contracted in recent decadrs. The species has probably always had a small population, with the main center of distribution being the dry scrub woodlands of the southwest peninsula. However, at one time, they also existed in the Levera Pond area and on Creen Island, but they were not found in either of these placl!s or on the islets off the southwest peninsula during Block stein's survey. The Hook-billed Kite has always been regarded as rare in Grenada. Except for occasional sightings in the area of Mount Fedon and near Levera, all observations of this species have been in the southern part of the island (Figure 4.3(3. Sinc:! the Kite feeds exclusively on a few species of snails which are most abundant in the xeric parts of the island, the number of snails available may be the limiting factor on the population size. It is not likely that the population can be in creased significantly above the present level (BJockstein, 1988). Destruction of dry woodlands and scrub for agriculture and development is hav ing a negative impact on the Grenada Kite, especially luxury home in the ridge-top forests which are used as roosting, foraging and nesting sites. Building on ridge tops is reportedly illegal in Grenada, but this law is not enforced at present (J. Pitt, pers. comm., in Blockstein, 1988). The major threat to both the Grenada Dove and the Hook-billed Kite is the continuing loss of their habitat, although the Kites seem to be somewhat more tolerant of disturbance and altered habitats. The survival of these species now depends largely on the preservation of the hillside scrub habitat in Mount Hartman Estate. However, land use in the southwest peninsula has become more intensive since the 1970's. Tourist hotel and luxury home development, quarrying, resi dential subdivisions, and the construction of the international airport at Point Salines in the early 1980's have permanently converted many of the wooded areas to other uses. The 105 airport construction projrct alone destroyed about ten percent of the scrub habitat on the peninsula (Wunderle, 1982). Agro-industrial land uses are also proliferating in the area (e.g., expansion of sugar cane plantations, a proposed large pig farm and meat processing industry). Much of the present clearing of scrub woodlands in Mount Hartman Estate is due to various development projects supported by Government, e.g., its Agricultural Rehabilitation/Crop Diversification Program, funded by the International Development Association of the World Bank/Caribbean Development Bank. Andrews (1988) invesLigated and re jected the area as an alternative sanitary landfill site and also recommended that the pre sent quarrying operations be discontioued in favor of tourism development. The laUer, if done sensitively, may in fact be the land use which is most compatible with the continued existence of these endangered birds. It is almost inevitable that the world's only population of the Grenada Dove will be extirpated if present trends continue. Block stein (1988) reported that in 1987 the lower part of the estate was being bulldozed for new sugar cane fields. Observations by the CEP Project Team in June 1989 show that this habitat destruction is still continuing and has now spread to many of the hillsides. (2) Effect of mongoose and monkey predation on wildlife. The possible impact of predation by monkeys and mO:1gooses on the Grenada Dove and other wildlife in Grenada has not been investigated quantitatively. However, the mongoose (Herpesles auropul/clalus) is known to be destructive to poultry, lizards, turtle eggs and hatchlings and ground nesting birds. Hummelinck and van der Stein (1983) estimated a high mongoose population density of 10.4 individuals per hectare in a small gridded area on the south west peninsula, and 3.2 per hectare on the Mount Harman Estate. It is probable that eggs and nestlings of the Grenada Dove are preyed upon to some extent by mongooses. The Mona Monkey is common in the upper montane forests of Graud Bang and Mount St. Catherine and is hunted for food.

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.... St. Georges ....... .... 1Ii. Mont Tout AA Mt.Hartman .... .... Estate o Figure 4.3(3). Distribution map of Hook-billed Kites, July 1987 (source: Blockstein, 1988). o -, A Km

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These monkeys are reputed to be very dan gerous and destructive to the local fauna (GOG/OAS, 1988d). While their numbers were reportedly reduced in numbers by Hur ricane Janet in 1955, recent restrictions on the use of fIrearms has apparently allowed an ex pansion of the population. (3) Need for amended wild lire legis ration. The laws pertaining to wildlife in Grenada are l'oth outdated and not effectively enforced (Luoeke, et 01., 1989). The major pieces of legislation protecting wildlife and setting hunting seasons have lapsed and therefore have no legal force at presenl, as uiscussed above in relation to birds. More over, thesf; laws do nllt conform to interna tionally lecognized standards, especially in regard to endangered species. Some species (e.g., marine turtles) are listed both as enclangered species and as game species. (4) Hunting. There are two hunter's associations, which are Ihe only nen-govern mental organizations allowed to bear arms in Grencda. The members of the Grenada Wild Game and Conservation Associ:.ltion, founded in 1970, are allowed a limited number of shot guns, and the recently founded Grenada Hunting and Fishing Group is also allowed a number of shotguns. Both groups favor the protection of game species pnpulations by strict observation of the hunting season, and both want the GOVCrnmp.ilt to approve more shotguns for their members. A third objective of these groups is the introduction or reinlro duction of wildlife (e.g., agouti) for hunting purposes. Currently there is concern that the presenl five year bal. on hunring in Trin;dad may severely stress Grenada's remaining wildlife by increasing illegal hunting to fill the demand for "wild m";at" in Trinidad. It I., fclt by some that more knowledge of the popula tion dynamics of game species is needed beCore additional gUll permits arp. issued by GOG. Ludeke, c( al. (1989) emphasize that extensive research 011 the effects of e.\otic game species on the native flora and fauna are essential before such species are introduced. (5) Prottrtlon ror coastal wetland habitats. Many mangroves and freshwater 107 wetlands, critical habitats for birds and other wildlife, are at risk from development. Man groves total only 470 acres in Grenada and 98 acres in Carriacou, and freshwater wetlands total a mere 70 acre!. in Grenada (EschweileJ', 1982b). Some of these areas have already suffered damage (e.g., Lcvera Pond, Halifax Harbor wetlands, mangroves in Mount Hart man and Woburn Bays, Lake Antoine). Forests, wetlands and coastal habitats in the Lesser Antilles provide critical fee.ding and nesting habitat for many species of birds migrating along the West Indian Flyway be tween North and South America (Johnson, el 01., 1988). The loss of these habitats, espe cially coastal systems such as mangroves, salt ponds, and other wetlands, could threaten the long-term survival of a number of migratory shorebird and songbird species. Over 100 mi grant species are regularly recorded in the Lesser Antilles; most of these species nest in North America and over-winter in the Caribbean or South America. Levera Pond in Grenada is the north ernmost range extension of the Scarlet Ibis, an occasional visitor to Grenada. This pond is also an important breeding and fceding area for waterfowl and uther migrant birds, but is under pressure from charcoal cutters. Fund ing is presently being sought from EEC to establish a wildlife sanctuary in the Lcvera area (Vincent, 1989). La Sagesse and many of the man grove-lined bays on the southern coast of Grenada, as well as Point Salines Ponds, are important for migratory shorebirds. Calivigny Mangrove Swamp supports a seabi:d colony, and numerous seabirds are reported to nest on Glover Island (P. Hall, pers. comm., in Blockstein, 1988). In Carriacou, the "Carriacou Man groves" and Petit Carenage mangroves have many resident waterbirds and rare migrants, and London Bridge has seabird colonies (Johnson, 1988). Not any of these areas arc legally protected at present, although some are proposed for inclusion in the national park system.

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(6) EfI'ects of blocldes on bIodiver sity and wildlife. Large amounts of pesticides and herbicides (collectively referred to as bio cides) are applied to agricultural crops in Grenada (see Chapter 8), but the effects of these chemicals on wildlife and the terrestrial and marine ecosystems of Grenada remllio unstudied. Even if standard toxicological data were available for Grenada, there is growing recognition that such data are frequently not sufficient to predict the path and conse quences of toxic synthetic compounds in an ecosystem. Furthermore, the consequences for wildlife populations of exposure to sub lethal levels of one or more pesticides in com bination with multiple environmental stresses (e.g., habitat reduction, an unusually severe dry season) cannot yet be predicted even at the single-species level. With these sweeping caveats in mind, it can be noted that birds are generally more sensitive to pesticides than mammals, perhaps in part because mammals have better detoxifi cation systems. Fi:;h are frequently, but not consistently, more sensitive than warm blooded vertebrates. There is also a general developmental hierarchy of sensitivity within each species. Vertebrate embryos, eggs and larvae are often more sensitive to toxicants than adults because they are less protected from the surrounding environment, have lim ited means for detoxifying absorbed sub stances, and ate less able to move away from noxious substances. Evaluating the possible effect of bio cides requires information on the distribution of wildlife across habitats, daily and seasonal movements, and diet --a fairly detailed eco logical picture which is rarely available for tropical vertebrates and which is exceedingly labor intensive to acquire. Because such de tailed field data are not available for Grenada, the following brief discussions of biocide ef fects on terrestrial wildlife are based on a study by Rainey, et al. (1987) in Dominica, which was concerned orJy with the biocides used in the banana industry. (a) Direct observation at night of tiny streams coursing through banana plots in Dominica revealed significant numbers of at least two genera of 108 shrimp (Atya and several species of Macrobracllium), inclllding adults, even though one of the streams served peri odically for spray tank washing. In these upland hanana growing arl'as, a shrimp population of varied age stnu: ture persists under current pesticide application practice,s. Freshwater shrimp on Dominica feed on macro scopic organic debris, suspended or deposited organic particles. Their continued presence indicates that lethal levels of biologically available pesti cides are not constantly present in the streams either in solution or adsorbed on plant debris or soil which they in gest. However, it should be noled that periodic fish-kills in the lower reaches of Dominican rivers offer a strong indi cation that there is indeed an aquatic pollution problem. These areas com bine the cumulative pollution load of biocides and other toxic materials with higher temperatures and slower flow. If catastrophic destruction of freshwater fish, shrimp or crab popUla tions on Grenada did occur due to bio cide contamination, those species with abundant marine larvae would likely recover most rapidly. For species whose link to the sea is weaker or bro ken -larval developmenl is completed in fresh or low-salinity water --local adaptation is possible but recovery from extirpation would be slower. (b) Frogs occur widely m Grenada in wetter natural and man made habitats likely to be exposed to pesticide contamination from banana and tree crop farming, but their appar ent abundance in similar "reas of Dominica suggests there is no reason for concern about species survival. Reptiles are most diverse and abundant in the warmer, drier coastal areas of both Dominica and Grenada; ;n Grenada they are likely to be affected either by habitat destruction or by agrochemiccls from tbe sugar cane,

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vegetable and fruit growing industry in these drier areas. While no quantitative data have been identified, it is commonly ob served that spraying programs for mosquitoes kill lizards around human habitations. Where adjacent, un sprayed habitat provides a refuge, populations of small lizards probably recover fairly quickly, and there is no serious threat to species survival. But if the bulk of any lizard's habitat comes under cultivation, it should be kept in mind that use of insecticide may well reduce reptile populations. Iguanas are arboreal leaf eaters, typically seen feeding or basking in the crowns of trees along streams and beaches. There is some possibility that they will consume biocide-sprayed fo liage in aerially sprayed areas, but the major threat to survival as a species and a resource is likely to be hunting and habitat destruction. This and in troduced predators are the primary pressures elsewhere --if pigs or mon gooses are present where iguanas nest, they are remarkably effective at finding concealed eggs. (c) Birds which forage (or reside) in banana cultivations are likely to be directly exposed to fungicides from aerial or ground spraying. They also may be contaminated as they perch and forage on sprayed plants. If they forage on or near the ground they may contact or the substantially more toxic nematicides used. In Dominica there were reports of disorientation and mortality of small birds foraging in areas recently planted in bananas. Either some nematicide intended for the planting holes remained on the surface, or they consumed poisoned soil invertebrates which had emerged on the surface. Despite the likelihood of fungi cide exposure and indications of some mortality from nematicides, it was found in Dominica that mixed plantings of citrus and banana supported the highest bird diversity among the several types of cultivated hahitats examined. Some birds, such as the bananaquit or sucrier (Coereba Jlm'eola) and bullfinch (Loxigil/a noctis), were particularly abundant in these and other cultivated habitats. Many of the bird species common in the banana plots have rela tively short generation times and have coexisted with current pesticide use patterns for several years, indicating that the fungicides do not cause sub stantial mortality or lead to population declines by disturbing reproduction or other mechanisms. Because of evi dence for at least some mortality, there should be an evaluation of nematicide and insecticide n.ffects on popUlations of longer-live:! ground foraging birds. (d) As with birds, in Dominica the diversity of native mammals (all bats) is highest in rain forest areas. There is generally a broad overlap be tween the habitat of Doth native and introduced mammals and agricultural areas in Caribbean islands; many species forage in crop plots. Among th agricultural areas, bat diversity and abundance was highest in mixed plant ings of citrus and Since bats conceal themselves in the daytime, only those which seek shelter in forest fo liage adjacent to cultivated plots are likely to be directly exposed to drifting biocide spray. The diversity and abun dance of bats in established banana plots in Dominica suggests that current pesticide use patterns in that island's banana industry have no marked im pact on their populations. (7) Loss of native forest habitat. The primary negative impact of development on wildlife is habitat reduction via the conver sion of forested wildlands to other habitat types and land uses. Home range require ments and minimum viable population sizes for most species are as yet poorly known. The proposed system of parks and protected areas, if maintained largely aj native forest and other native types, may perhaps include 109

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sufficient area to prevent the extinction of i.!iC smaller species of wildlife. Among natural vegetation types or. Dominica, rain forest supported the highest bird diversity and biomass (but this is not nec essarily the case on Grenada). In the Dominica studies, the pattern as well as the extent of forest clearing was found to be sig nificant because the forest birds differ consid erably in home range size. The pattern of clearing was also significant to the substantial number of birds which foraged in cultivated areas but required :lrest for roosting and nesting. Cultivated plots with native forest adjacent had higher bird diversity than exten sive crop monocultures. The importance of lIative forest for wildlife perhaps needs to be underscored. Unfortunately. even-age plantations of exotic timber trees ;tre typically almost free of native wildlife; even mixed tree-crops arc bett.!r habitat. The s'Jggestions offered elsewhere in the Profile that, for the smaller species, ex isting forest reserves and proposed parks may be adequate to assure species survival depend on retaining substantial tracts of native forest. To the extent that native within the is replaced by exotic trees, those suggestions grow more tenuous. The question of how much forested land is necessary to have a reasonable probability of maintaining a given species or community is difficult, but not impossible, to answer by means of research. (8) International trnde in threat ened and endangered wildlire. International trade is a major threat to the survival of many species in the Caribbean (TRAFFIC IV.SA.I, 1988). Many Caribhean countries permit commercial export of wildlife, including species listed as endangered by IUCN. The Convention on International Trade in Endan gered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) attempts to regulate wildlife trade through a worldwide system of import and ex port controls. However --in the Caribbean the Bahamas, Dominican Republic, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago arc the only independent nations which have joined CITES. Grenada is not at present a member of this convention. 110 In some instances, Japanese dealers, in particular, have sought the cooperation of non-CITES countries to disguise the true ori gin of sea turtle products imported in defiance of CITES regulations. An increased member ship in CITES by those Caribbean countries having sea turtle populations may help to en sure the survival of the species by further lim iting the availability of turtles for such markets --providing turtles arc not exempted as many countries have done. Non-commercial trade, specifically exotic tourist souvenirs or live wildlife, is probably the area of most concern to those monitoring wildlife trade in the Caribbean since it is largely unreported (TRAFFIC IV.SA.], 1988). The Hawksbill and other ma rine turtles, corals, black coral, some seashells, marine aquarium fish, reptiles and birds are examples of wildlife species in which there is a substantial Caribbean trade. It has been reported (Carr, et al., 1982) that the trade between fishermen and yachts in stuffed souvenir and turtle shells was lively in the Grenada Grenadines in the early 1980's; this trade probably still exists to some extent. It should be noted that a nation's membership in CITES docs not limit domes tic use of CITES-listed species. For species which play a significant role in local subsis tence and co:nmercial markets, a CITES member country is obligated only to en sur e that products from such species do not enter illtematiollal trade. Although it offers imper fect protection to endangered species, the treaty docs contribute to the goal of bringing wildlife exploitation down to levels that wild populations may be able to sustain. 4.3.3 Policy Recommendations LAND USE A det.cled land use plan should be completed for Grenada which includes con sideration of biodiversity issues. Restrictions should be placed on clearing native forest from agriculturally marginal lands in certain areas and for specific habitat types. Since

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wildlife values are typically given little weight in planning efforts, one item needed is an ecologically sound, quantitative analysis of current land use practices and trends and their effects on wildlife. BIOCIDES An "institutional memory" (i.e., long-term record keeping by an appropriate GOG office) should be developed for pollu tant impacts on wildlife by means of a simple database. Descriptive information, even if un confirmed by site visits, would provide a per spective on the frequency and distribution of events. It would also be desirable to do tive sampling of soil and groundwater levels for the more toxic biocides used in the agri cultural industry. Such a survey could con structively include a limited of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in wildlife as well. There is a need to establish a small scale pesticide disposal system and to review how to avoid or lllinimize dispersal of pesti cides from agricultural industry warehouses in hurricanes. RESEARCH .. To maintain biodiversity in the face of increasing demands for agricultural land requires at least semi-quantitative knowl edge of wkt is required to maintain species or communities (in terms of land area or other resources). One way external aid a gencies, whose funds fuel the engines of de velopment, can aid in the maintenance of bio diversity is to support ecological and de mographic assessmer.ts of species which are either obviously threatened (e.g., the Grenada Dove) or are less well-known but closely linked to the habitat being modified. A Wildlife Unit needs to be estah Iished within the Forestry Department, em ploying a trained wild!ife biologist and one or two assistants. Responsibilities of the Unit should emphasize applied research in management for selected species (e.g., estab lishing ranges and ecological requirements, 111 assessing degree of threat, estimating mini mum population and habitat sizes) as well as long-term monitoring of wildlife populations and habitats. Those species which are most significant and/or most critically endangered should be given priority attent;on by the Unit. .. B10ckstein (1988) recommends that the threats to the Grenada Dove and the Hook-biUed Kite (e.g., habitat destruction and fragmentation, mongoose predation, hunting) should be assessed quantital:ively and that the populations should continue to be monitored. He does not recommend captive breeding at this time, but this will sooner or later become the only option for savine these species if habitat destruction continues. Seabird breeding sites should be surveyed and populations should be moni tored, particularly on !he offshore islets and in the Grl.:nada Grenadines. Some management of exotic species (e.g., goats) and habitat restoration may be required. Seabird popula tion dynamics appear to be controlled largely by unpredictable climatic events such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomenon (Schreiber and Schreiber, 1989). Therefore long-term monitoring is the only method of gaining insight into the true status of seabird species in the local area. A data base on the status of Grenadian wildlife populations alld tlleir habitats, probably in computerized form, should be established and maintained by the recommended Wildlife Unit. A public education and awareness program for wildlife (along the lines of the in novative programs recently implemented by RARE, Inc. and the St. Vincent Government or the excellent, longer-standing environment education programs of the Forestry Depart ment in St. Lucia) should be established to work hand-in-hand with the proposed GOG Wildlife Unit. In addition to working closely with the Grenada National Trust, the. Unit might also encourage the formation of nature study groups, non-governmental wildlife con servation diving clubs, and sim ilar groups with conservation objectives. The role of such citizen groups in environmental

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monitoring is invaluable and does not require the expenditure of scarce government funds. The Forestry Department should seek start-up funding from appropriate donor agencies for staff training, technical support, and equipment for the proposed Wildlife Unit and related public education program. PROTEcrED AREAS The proposed system of National Parks and Protected Areas, or some subset of it which includes the most critical areas for the preservation of Grenada's biodiversity, should be implemented as soon as possible. The areas of dry scrub in the Gov ernment-owned Mount :-Iartman Estate and the adjacent wooded hillsides should he des ignated as a national landmark or multiple use area within the proposed national park and protected areas system (GOG/OAS, 1988d). Blockstein (1988) l.tates that the most critical factor in the continued existence of the endangered Grenada Dove and the Hook billed Kite is the preservation and manage ment of these scrublands. Management should be along the lines of the international UNESCO /MAB Biosphere Reserve concept, with patches of scrub and woodland reserved for scientific and conservation purposes, habitat restoration, and other compatible land uses in the surrounding area. The selection and appointment of a wildlife officer would also be most timely. LEGISLATION The proposed National Park plan highlights the fact that existing legislation in Grenada does not adequately provide for wildlife conservation. Indeed, it appears that the strongest pieces of legislation relating to 112 wildlife protection have been allowed to lapse. Urgent action is needed to re-enact legislation protecting all wildlife, but especially endan gered species and endemics (e.g., sea turtles, the Grenada Dove and the Hook-billed Kite). New or revised laws are needed which will promote the management of non-endangered game species for sustainable harvest, while also protecting endangered species and non game wildlife. New legislation should be based on a strong scientific foundation and should include enforceable restrictions on the capture and/or killing of endangered and threatened c;pecies. The introduction of exotic game and other species should also be con trolled by legislation (Ludeke, el 01., 1989). The existing laws prohibiting building on ridge tops, mining of beach sand, and construction within the coastal set-back zone should be strictly enforced. Habitat loss and disturbance due to human activities con stitute a grave threat to many species of wildlife in Grenada. Sandy beaches which are nesting habitat for sea turtles are being devel oped for tourism and mined for construction sand. Bright lighting insta,lIed adjacent to such beaches is a known impact on hatchling turtles, causing them to become disoriented when leaving the nest. Blockstein (1988) states that forested habitat on ridge tops in the southwest peninsula is critical to the sur vival of the endangered Hook-billed Kite. INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS The actual extent of wildlife trade in Grenada, which appears to be largely un known at present, should be assessed by GOG. Grenada should become a member of CITES, since membership offers access to a wealth of matl!rials, training and expertise on species conservation and wildlife trade regu lation.

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4.4 COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES 4.4.1 Overview PHYSICAL FEATURES, CRITICAL BABITA 1'8, SYSTEM INTEGRITV AND PRODVCl'M1Y Grenada has a relatively large insular shelf area of 3,100 sq. km. The shelf is quite narrow on the west coast, extending out an average of 0.5 mile to the 100 fathom line (Figure 4.4(1. From the southeast to the northeast the shelf varies in width between 2.5 miles and 7.5 miles, and it extends to the west southwest in a 12-mile wide tongue for about 20 miles. Depths on the shelf vary from 20-40 fathoms with average depths of 15-20 fathoms; in the Grenadines the shelf is from 10-30 fathoms deep over the greater part of its area (Goodwin, et 01., 1985). The dominant ocean currents in the vicinity of Grenada flow from the east-south east. Some upwelling of deeper ocean waters is thought to exist along the eastern part of the insular shelf. During the South American rainy season, enor'llOUS quantities of fresh water are discharged from the Orinoco and Amazon rivers; the water then drifts toward and across the $outhern islands of the Eastern Caribbean chain. As this low-salinity water mass (called "Orinoc" by the Grenadian fish ermen) moves across the area, distinct inter faces between the turbid green (Orinoco) and clear blue (oceanic) water are recognizable. Neither oceanic pelagic nor bottom fishes are easily catchable by fishermen when such water masses are present in the area. Three habitats --mangroves, coral reefs, and seagrass beds --are of critical im portance in nearshore tropical marine ecosystems; there is a direct link between the extent and health of these habitats and the productivity of inshore fisheries. The majority of bottom-dwelling fish species in shallow nearshore waters of the Eastern Caribbean are associated with coral reefs as adults (more than 300 species), and many of these reef fishes art', associated with mangroves and/or seagrass beds as juveniles. Mangroves and seagrass beds also provide significant energy 113 inputs to the reefs and ftIter out sediments from land-based run-off before they reach the reefs. Figures 4.4(13 and 2b) display the generalized distribution of these major marine habitat types in Grenada and the Grenada Grenadines, but there is a lack of detailed mapped information on marine bottom com munities. Marine benthic surveys and map ping have been carried out in only a few loca tions, such as Grand Anse Beach, off the Point Salines Airport and in Levera Bay. (1) Mangroves. According to Eschweiler (1982b), there were a total of 470 acres of mangroves in Grenada in 1982 (six tenths of one percent of the total land area). Several significant areas of mangrove wetlands still exist on Gr.:nada, including: Levera Pond ("best mangroves on Grenada" according to GOG/OAS, 1988d), Conference Bay, La Sagesse ("best salt pond in Grenada"), and the bays and islands from Woburn Bay to West erhall Bay. However, little or no detailed in formation is available on the status of the na tion's mangrove systems. Charcoal cutters and other users have caused significant dam age to mangroves at Levera and Calivigny Bays (Johnson, 1988). Important wetlands in Grenada, including mangroves, are described by Scott and Carbonell (1976). In Carriacou, there are important mangrove systems at Petit Carenage Bay ("best in entire country" according to GOG/OAS, 1988ct), Saline Island, Tyrrel Bay, and Lauriston Point near the airport. Eschweiler (1982b) estimated that there were 98 acres of mangroves in Carriacou in 1982 or a little less than one percent of the land area of the island. (2) Coral reefs. Reefs occur mainly on the north, cast, and south coasts of Grenada. GOG/OAS (1988d) reported that Levera Bay and the adjacent islands have large areas of coral reefs. However, an earlier marine survey by Goodwin, Goodwin and

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GRENADA Insular Shelf I \ \ I I ( ,/ ) C\l Potlt Sl. Vincent I. c() Petit Hartinique I. (Depth contours in fathoms) Petit Tobago I. 12' IHabouya I. CARIBBEAN SEA I I ... ,. ,. / ,/ ,/ r Oi amond I. ,/ I \ I \ / I 100'" 0 .. 'IOSaline I. b Frlgato I Large I.(}, '. .' Bonaparte Rk, ) .. ::. e .. ""'" r ",,-.I GC.ille I. ,../ -' Levera I. C 1
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GRENADA Coastal and Marine Habitats @ Seagrass bed Living reef Sa ltpond Wetlands (mangroves) Beach () Figure 4.4(2a). Distribution of major coastal and I'Mrine habitats, Grenada (source: ECNAMP, 198Oa). 115 10' It 00'

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'" GRENADA GRENADINES Coastal and Marine Habitats Wetlands (mangroves) Seagrass bed Martinique .. Island ...... Li vi ng coral .... Beach White I ., F I CJ r1 gate I. o Statute Miles Iii i .. o 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 4.4(2b). Distribution of major coastal and marine habitats, Grenada Grenadines (source: ECNAMP, 1980b). Putnam (1982), while identifying some patches of corals and gorgoniaos in this area, found there are no well-developed reefs due to turbulence and the scouring action of strong currents. The Grenada Preliminary Data Atlas (ECNAMP, 1980a) shows several areas of "living reer along the east coast of Grenada but does not comment on their species composition or status. Reefs at a depth of lOW m on the southeast coast from Marquis Point to Telescope Point were described by Adey and Burke (1976) as the bank-barrier reef type. These authors also described small fringing reefs (mainly of elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata) in several bays along the south coast from Point Salines to Westerhall Bay. No algal ridges have been found in Grenada. Large bank-barrier reefs occur on the east coasts of Carriacou and Petit Martinique and around some of the smaller islets in the Grenadines. Many of these reefs are strongly dominated by elkhorn coral in the shallow areas, with well-developed boulder coral zones on the deeper forereefs (Wells, 1987): 116 I

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Two small algal ridges occur on the south side of Carriacou. Saline and White Islands are said to have -the best reefs in the country" (GOG/OAS, 1988d). Mabouya Island and Sandy Island are also said to have good reefs (these two ISlands are apparently also called Sandy Island and Jacl.:-A-Dan Island, respec tively. Bank-barrier reefs are also found off Watering Bay, Grand Bay, Petit Carenage Bay, and ManchineeI Bay in Carriacou (Wells, 1987; ECNAMP, 19t1nb) but there is no in formation about their status. The northern tip of Ronde Island reportedly has an excellent reef. While there is not any documentation on the status of reefs around Petit Martinique, the ECNAMP data maps (1980b) do identify an area of "living reef" off its east coast. Grenada's "best reef" is reputed to be the Molinere Reef on the west coast north of Grand Mal Bay, which is proposed for an underwater park and marine reserve (GOG/OAS, 1988d). However, Molinere Reef seems to be under a significant degree of sediment stress, presumably from upland ero sion; Grand Anse and other west coast beaches such as Grand Mal and Morne Rouge also appear to be under stress from high sedimentation rates (DuBois, 1984). In Grenada and the Grenadines run off, dredging, pesticides, coral harvesting, an chor damage from boats and fishing by explo sives have reportedly caused reef damage in the past (Goodwin and Bannerot, forthcom ing); other threats include sewage pollution, sand mining, and coastal developments (Johnson, 1988). Local divers have reported a general increase in coral death and algal over growth on Grenada's reefs in recent years, but no long-term quantitative data are available. Local boatmen have stated that the Grand Anse reefs appeared healthy and were good fishing grounds through the 1960's, but dete rioration of both the reefs and fish be gan around 1970 (Archer, 19P.4a; Cambers, 1984). No detailed information on the dis tribution or effects of various "natural" stres sors is available for Grenadian reefs. A die off of the long-spined black sea urchin (Diadem a an til/alUm ) occurred in Grenadian coastal waters during an apparently Caribbean-wide event in 1983-84. Reef dam age from white-band disease and storm dam age have been reported in Grenada and the Grenadines (Wells, 1987). The only major hurricane to hit Grenada since European col onization was Janet in 1955 (see Section 1.1.6), but its effects on Grenada's reefs and other marine systems were not documented. Goodwin, et 01. (1976) studied species density and coral associations at Saline Island and Jack-A-Dan Island off Carriacou. These reefs and these in Grand Anse Hay are prob ably the best-studied reef areas in Grenada in terms of community composition and species diversity. Marine biological surveys of the reefs and other benthic habitats in Grand Anse Bay and adjacent areas were carried out by DuBois (a preliminary, mostly qualitative survey in 1984) and Hunte (a quantitative baseline survey in 1987). Based on his experience with the better-studied reefs in Barbados, Hunte (1987a) believes that the community structure of all living nearshore reefs within Grand Anse Bay is characteristic of reefs subjected to stress from high nutrient levels. Species di versity of corals is low compared to unstressed reefs, and the community is dominated by fm ger coral (Porites porites). Sea urchins are common, and algae are beginning to overgrow the corals. The species numbers and abun dance of sponges are reduced (see Figure 4.4(3. Hunte found that nearshore reefs outside the Bay and north of the deep basin, as well as the most northerly offshore reef, had community structures characteristic of reefs exposed to sediment stress. Algal and coral coverage is low, but the species richness and abundance of sponges is high. He sug gests that these reefs are subjected to severe sediment stress by water probably coming from the region of the St. George's harbor mouth during periods of heavy run-off. Most reds offshore from Grand Anse on the Three Fathom and Six Fathom Banks were found by Hunte to be in a healthy condition at present, despite the elevated nu-117

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LEGEND o Sediment-stressed nearshore and offshore reefs o nearshore reefs Healthy offshore St. George':; Bay reefs St. George's municipal sewer outfall St. GRAND ANSE BAY Ro" PO'"t De Silver Sands Grand Anse Beach Figure 4.4(3). Condition of Grand Anse Bay reef communities In 1987 (source: Hunte, 1987a). 118

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trient levels measured in the water. It is likely that these reefs may also begin to show mea surable signs of stress if nutrient levels are not reduced. (3) Seagrass beds. Little accurate information exists on the distribution of sea grass beds in Grenada or the Grenada Grenadines. The rough maps by ECNAMP (1980a; 1980b) show some areas of seagrasl> along the east-central and south parts of Grenada's coast and on the west coast of Carriacou. Smith (1987) shows seagrass beds in Grenville Bay, Great Bacolet Bay, the southern bays from Mount Harmon to West erhall, and Windward Bay in Carriacou. (N.B. Some resource management documents by outside researchers mention the occurrence of "Eel Grass W beds in Grenada, but this is highly unlikely since Eel Grass is tht common name of a temperate seagrass, Zo:,tera. The species referred to is probably Turtle Grass, 77wlassia testlldillum, which is ('ommon in the region.) FISHERIES RESOURCES The regional framework for Grenada's fisheries i1.. best described by Mahon (1988), who has summarized the cur rent state of knowledge regarding resource problems and suggested management options for large offshore pelagic fishes, flyingfish, reef fishes, deep demersal fishes, coastal pelagic fishes, lobster, conch, turtles and sea urchins in the Windward Island area. Grenada has the second largest shelf area in the OECS countries as well as sub stantial fishery resources in comparison to many other Caribbean islands. The major fIShing centers on the island of Grenada are at St. George's, Grand Mal, Gouyave, Victoria, Duquesne Bay, Sauteurs, and Grenville; with the exception of Grenville, all are on the west coast. Fishing is ellso an important activity on the Grenadine islands of Carriacou and Petit Martinique. At the present time the fishery is mainly artisanal; in 1988 there were 1,749 fulltime and 266 part-time fishermen and 580 boats (Finlay, et al., 1988). There are two fishing seasons during the year, the "low sea-119 son" from July to December and a "high sea son" from November to June when offshore pelagic species become more abundant. The type, distribution and seasonality of the nearshore flSht!ries is shown in Figure 4.4(4). The major types of more-or-less Wtraditional" fishing gear and methods used in Grenada and other countries of the Eastern Caribbean include (Goodwin, et al., 1985; Mitchell and Gold, 1982): bottom hand lines (in depths from 20 m to 200 m, with monofilament lines and several baited hooks) trolling lines (witl'. artificial feather lures or baited hooks, deployed at 100 m or more whHe the boat is drifting or at the surface with outriggers when underway) -fish traps or Wpots" (usuafly Z-shaped with one or two funnels, made from chicken wire or sometimes wicker reinforced \vith wooden stakes and weighted with stones) beach seines (set from a rowboat to enclose schooling fish and then hauled to shore) gill nets (primarily used for catching pelagic flying-fish and occasionally used for both demersal and other pelagic species) trammel nets (consisting of three panels of netting --an inner panel hanging between two larger-meshed outer panels --attached to common float and lead lines; typically set in shallow reef areas where lobster, conch, and a wide variety of fish may be captured) diving (often with SCUBA equip ment; live lobsters are caught by fish ermen using snares, conch are taken by hand, and spearguns are used for fishes).

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61'40' I 61'30' NEARSHORE FISHERIES \ \ ) I p n ... I. .... I. .... Figure 4.4(4). November-June July-November Pelagic Plentiful GRENADA n. .Surgeonflsh I' D. I. n. .. IUU" 0 .. ( : \ n.1 : r I I n. \ l.lrqc I I I I I '. .' Ilon'parte Rk. .... Au.1s thazard .... rochfl C\l Petit St. Vincent I -0 Petit H.rtlnique I. Petit I n. I I 100 C \ I In. n. I I I I .... Euthymus a 11 eteratus Naullc Mil., ,...., ,...., 12'30' 12'20' 12' 12'00' Type, distribution and seasonality of nearshore fisheries (source: Mitchell and Gold, 1982; supplemented by data from J. Finlay, Grenada Fisheries Division, 1989). 120

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Four categories of fishing are recognized (unpubl. dat.a, Fisheries Division, 1989). The mnjor category concentrates on the oceanic pdagics as tuna, billf:sbes, flying fISh and dorado during the traditional "ocean season" from November/December to Junej.luly. This fIShery 3CC/Junts for approxi mately 50 percent of national landings and is carried out principally by fishermen from the area around (30uyave, llsing 18-2S fool wooden-hulled canoes and pirougues pov!er'!d by gasoline outboard motors. These :lIti5W1al fIShermen are now using longli!les 1.5 to 3.5 miles long to e>;ploit this rewt;rce. The second type is rhe fishery for bottom-dwelling Cdemersal") species on the deeper shelf and ocean drop-off, where groupers, snappers and oth;;r tropical ror:kfish are caught from June to November. The same vessels which target oceanic during the ocean season are used in this fish ery. Additionally, on the north shelf of the island, i.e., Carriacou and Petit Martinique, 25 40 foot sailing sloops are used to catch de mersal fish. This demers:!1 fishery ar:counts for 15-20 percent of' 'ltallandings. The third type is the nearshore beach seIDe fishery which uses ellcirclir;g nets to har vest small schools of fishes s'Jch as scad (Decaptunis spp.) or sardines. Nets vary in length from 500 to 750 feet with the deepest section being 30-36 feet. Thi!:> lishery accounts for perhaps 30 percent of natinnal landings. The fourth type comprises the shell fish, sport fish, and dive fisheries for species such as white sea eggs, turtles, lobsters and conch together with some fin fishes. This fishery may accoulll for five percent of na tionallandings, of which less than olle percent at present is landed by sportS fi<;hing tourists. Organized in 1987, the Fisheries Di vision has data on annual landings of fin fishes between 1978 and 1988, which is shown for the entire nation in Figure 4.4(5); also 'shown ili a breakdown for the islands of Grenada and Carriacou uetween 1984 and 1988 (see also Table 4.1(1. These dala represent estimated total landings, based on the landings recorded at the fish markets multiplied by a factor to correct for unreported landings. 121 There are six established public fish markets in Grenada, but the majority of the catch has not traditionally been sold through these outlets. In the past, most of the fish catch was marketed directly at the landing site ..... ithout processing or was transported without refrigeration to individual buyers. This situa tion is changing. There has been an increase in the availability of ice and cold storage facil ities, and a greater proportion of the catch is now sold to buyers who export it to other countries. In Carriacou and Petit Martinique, most of the catch (about 90 percent) is now sold to fish buyers who export it to Martinique, and the local retail market is negligible (Martinez-Soto and Gabriel, 1989). Because the export fish buyers offer a higher price than local buyers will pay, only a few fishermen sell locally. About 12-15 locally made sailing sloops from Carriacou and Petit Martinique go out daily to fish for shellfish and demersal species such as snappers, parrot fish, groupers, grunts and other reef fishes; but they only fish whenever there are boats with ice available to buy their catch. There are about 13 of these buyer boats, powered by both engines and sails. Each has a capacity of 10,000 Ibs. of ice and 6-12,000 Ibs. of fish. There are roughly five boats on stand-by in the Grenadines in any given month. Each buyer from Carriacou and Petit Martinique must have an agent in Martinique who is li censed by the Government there. Despite the seasonal availabiiity of the same offshore pelagic species that are caught in Grenada, Grenadine fishermen do not exploit this resource because they have not deVeloped a market for it. During November to July fishermen in the French is land of Martinique can catch enough pelagic species to supply that island's demand (the importatioll of pelagics to Martinique is strictly prohibited at this time and the trader boats will buy only demersal fishes). After July, boats from Carriacou and Petit Mar tinique are allowed to take both demersal and pelagic species to Martinique, but the avail ability of the latter is then low. Therefore Grenadine fishermen concentrate on demer sal species year-round (Martinez-Soto and Gabriel, 1989).

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2500 2000 151)0 1000 500 o I i r 1:'+ +..:.. 1= t-IE IH-I In: 1= 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 NATIONAL D CARRIACOU _GRENADA Figure 4.4(5). 1978-1988 annual fish landings in metric tons (source: J. Finlay, Grenada Fisheries Division, 1989).

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Table 4.4(1). Fish landings in Grenada, 1978 to 1988, in metric tons. YEAR NATIONAL TOTAL 1978 1,872 1979 1,328 1980 data missing 1981 651 1982 871 1983 1,337 1984 1,368 1985 1,437 1986 2,112 1987 2,215 1988 2,001 Source: Data from GOG Fi3heries Division, 1989. A GOG Ice Plant/Fish Storage Fa cility at Windward in Carriacou provides small volumes of ice at low cost to fishermen, as well as fishing equipment (GOG/OAS, 1988b). The plant was built in 1986 with funds from the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), but no electrical power was available until September 1988 when the power lines were extended to the facility. It is presently operated with community develop ment funds through the Ministry of Works (EC $l1,850/yr). Due to chronic equipment problems, the ice plant is only operating at about 50 percent of its capacity. The fish storage facility is not being used, for reasons having to do with the current marketing structure (i.e., the major market is the Mar tinique buyer boats, and other markets which might require the storage of fish for export have not been developed). The OAS Integrated Development Project for Grenada recently stationed a con sultant in Carriacou to provide assistance with several fisheries development projects, e.g., renovation of the fish market in Hillsborough, a seamoss mariculture project, development CARRIACOU GRENADA LANDINGS LANDINGS data missing data missing data missing data missing data missing data missing data missing data missing data missing data missing data missing data missing 123 403 953 682 744 1,060 1,036 925 1,272 730 1,254 of the mangrove oyster bed in Tyrrel Bay, im provement of the fish marketing and distribu tion system, development of pelagic fisheries and marketing for pelagics in Grenada (Martinez-Soto and Gabriel, 1989; GOG/OAS, 1988b). In recent years increased emphasis has been placed by GOG on artisanal fisheries development. An artisan:!1 fisheries project, funded by IFAD, was begun by GOG in 1979 to give assistance to fishermen. The project originally emphasized the development of physical infrastructure, a fishermen's loan scheme, training, sale of equipment, and the establishment of cooperatives. Today the arti sanal fisheries project operates under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Youth Affairs, Sports, and Social Security (which includes Fisheries) as a semi-autonomous agency dealing with the commercial aspects of the fisheries sector. With the recent opening of its new fish processing facility in St. George's, funded by the Venezuelan Investment Fund, the emphasis of this project is now on buying surplus catch from fishermen at the Govern ment markets, processing it, freezing it and

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reselling it to retailers and exporters. Grenada is also a participant in the FAO sponsored Caribbean Technical Cooperation Network in Artisanal Fisheries and Aquacul ture. A prototype of a 36-foot catamaran fishing boat, designed to be capable of a vari ety of fishing activities and to be easily fabri cated in fiberglass by fishr-rmen themselves, has recently been launched by the Grenada Fisheries Division. The boat was designed to be very stable and virtually unsinkable and was built with funding from FAO as a demon stration project in appropriate technology for fisheries. Training in construction and opera tion of this type of vessel is being provided tu fishermen. One fish aggregating device (FAD) has been installed about 10-15 miles offshore in about 1500 m depth as a part of this project. Grenada and other OECS countries are presently initiating joint licensing ar rangements to facilitate the dr.velopment of the swordfish and tuna fishery in the region, according to a report oy a Grenadian repre sl!ntative at the 1988 Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute meetings. Three larger longline ,esselr are licensed and are now be ing operated as joint ventures between Grenadian and U.S. companies, and much of their catch is exported to Puerto Rico and Miami. These pay annual fees based on the size of their catch. Three of the five-per son crews on e3ch of the boats must be Grenadians, and the majority of stock in such joint venture companies must be held by Grenadians. MARICULTURE Seamoss (Graci/aria spp., a red alga) is harvested from nature and used as an in gredient in a popular drink in many Caribbean islands. It seems to grow best on windward coasts which are not too exposed but where agitation of the water by wave adion is suffi cient to keep the plants free of epiphytes. In volcanic islands such as Grenada, available nitrates appear to be the main limiting factor for the growth of seamoss. 124 In 1981, Canada's International De velopment Research Centre began a project with the Fisheries Management Unit in St. Lucia to develop simple and profitable meth ods for the cultivation of seamoss (Smith and Renard, 1988). In 1985 ECNAMP began a successful 18-month project to transfer seamoss technology from pilot stage to com mercial production in St. Lucia and to pro duce instructional material to assist transfer in other countries. In early 1987 the OECS Fisheries Unit and GOG, with support from ICOD, engaged ECNAMP to execute a pro ject for the extension of seamoss cultivation to Grenada. The Grenada seamoss project aims at the establishment of small commercial farms in a five-phase strategy: training of the staff biologist at the Artisanal Fisheries Develop ment Project in seamoss cultivation; site iden tification; set-up of a pilot project; workshop for potential farmers; and establishment of commercial farms. Smith Jean (1987) have surveyed the coastlines of Carriacou and Grenada to locate bays which are well suited to seamoss cultivation. A test raft for growing seamosc was installed in Grenville Bay on Grenada by Smith, and the species of Graci/aria harvested by the local people were identified. There is also a private seamoss aquaculture venture in Carriacou. USAID /HIAMP is considering a Mangrove Oyster Mariculture pilot project to start raft culture for Crassostrea rh;zophorae in Carriacou. Several rafts have already been constructed in the lagoon at Tyrrel Bay (GOG/OAS, 1988b). CURRENT COASTAL DEVELOPMENT TRENDS The major marme industries, i.e., fisheries, tourism and sea transport, have played an important role in Grenada's devel opment. In 1978, the contribution of these marine industries to the GOP was estimated to be about 30-35 percent; by far the largest contribution was from tourism, followed by fisheries. From 1970 to the total number of visitors to Grenada increased from 72,000 to 171,000, due primarily to the number of

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cruise ship visitors which increased from 41,000 to 139,000, an average increase of 13.9 percent per year. Yacht visits to Grenada in creased from 830 in 1973 to 1,415 in 1978 (Mitchell and Gold, 1982). These figures began to fall after the 1979 revolution but have been gradually returning to the levels achieved before the political unrest of the early 1980's. Policy guidelines developed by a joint GOG/OAS task force (Moore, et 01., 1986) point to the ongoing expansion of the tourism sector, which continues to be highly dependent on marine resources and on the development of recreational pursuits which are water-related. The guidelines recom mended that tourism accommodation estab lishments should be increased to a total of about 1,500 rooms by mid-1989 and that cruise ship arrival figurps should be increased to reach 1980 levels (i.e., 145,594 visitors via 236 cruise ship calls). At the same time the Grenada Ports Authority published a concept plan calling for the creation of a new cruise ship port which would involve the dredging and filling of a large area of seabed along the Esplanade in St. George's (Grenada Ports Authority, 1986). The GOG/OAS report also recom mended that a steady growth in yacht arrivals (beyond the 1986 total of 1,689 arrivals) could be achieved by the provision of an additional 300 yacht berths alld expansion of yacht repair and marina facilities. Room for the expansion of yacht facilities was to be provided by dredging the seaward and filling the landward sides of the lagoon in St. George's. The Government's guidelines have been generally met in the case of tourist ac commodations and cruise ship arrival figures: there were 136,443 ..,;sitors in 1988 via Z42 cruise ship calls (Grenada Ports Authority), and there are currently about 1,050 hotel rooms with another 400 rooms scheduled to be under construction by the ehl of 1989. No expansion of the existing marina services in the Lagoon has yet been under taken, and no recent dredging and filling has been done in that area. However, there is another marina facility at Prickly Bay (Spice Is-125 land Marina), and in 1988 combined yacht ar rivals for the two marinas totaled vessels (no data on yacht arrivals in Carriacou or Petit Martinique are collected by the Ports Authority). A bareboat charter operation and marina is under construction by The Moor ings, Inc. at the Secret Harbor Hotel in Mt. Hartman Bay. At present the proposed new cruise ship port is in the discussion stage only; there are no plans drawn, and no funding source has been identifiet' by the Ports Au thority. All these existing and proposed tourism and port projects clearly have impli cations for the marine and coastal en vironment and the potential for negative envi ronmental impacts in the absence of adequate cor-trois and standards. Expanding numbers of yachts and cruise ships will increase the ex isting level of pollution in harbors and bays from routine discharges of oil and sewage, particularly since yachts aad other vessels en tering Grenadian waters are not required to have holding tanks for wa!Jtes. Greater traffic of large cruise ships, tankers and cargo vessels will increase the likelihood of major oil spills in the marine environment, a potentially seri ous situation in view of the fact that the Gov ernment of Grenada has no oil spill contin gency plan, spill control equipment, or per sonnel trained in cleanup methods. Table 4.4(3) shows annual ship arrivals in Grenada by class and net tonnage. Greater numbers of tourists, in the absence of adequate treatment facilities, will increase sewage discharges into nearshore waters, which may result in further degrada tion of coral reefs. Clearing ')f beach vegeta tion for coastal resorts may result in increased erosion of beaches if proper setbacks are not observed. Dredge and fill projects for ports and marinas will result in larger inputs of sediments into marine waters. More tourist demand for fresh seafood will put greater pressures on tce country's conch and finfish fisheries. Garbage from more hotels, yachts and cruise ships will compound the problems of the already overloaded land fill site at Halifax Harbor.

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Table 4.4{2}. Ship arrivals in Grenada, 1978 -1987. NUMBER OF SHIPS SHIPS UNDER SHIPS OVER PASSE/llGER YEAR SCHOONERS 100 TONS 100 TONS TANKERS SHIPS TOTAL 1978 166 436 256 47 188 1093 1979 137 270 263 60 209 939 1980 102 212 272 49 239 874 1981 143 155 252 54 144 748 1982 125 144 299 48 100 722 1983 127 95 327 49 83 681 1984 153 57 402 59 70 741 1985 124 124 451 60 171 930 1986 146 162 497 68 217 1090 1987 140 134 533 63 274 1144 NET REGISTERED TONNAGE SHIPS UNDER SHIPS OVER YEAR SCHOONERS 100 TONS 100 TONS 1978 7,497 9,747 358,859 1979 5,782 8,751 375,389 1980 3,187 11,551 NA 1981 4,753 17,183 470,815 1982 4,900 6,201 465,272 1983 6,991 3,755 643,668 1984 7,671 1,943 748,381 1985 7,034 4,013 685,542 1986* 14,668 3,799 1,139,755 1987* 16,074 3,933 1,343,3n Gross Tonnage Source: Grenada Annual Abstract of Statistics, 1987. These potential impacts on the coastal environment from increased sea trans port and tourism development argue for the need to integrate economic development with greater efforts in the area of environmental protection. 126 PASSENGER TANKERS SHIPS TOTAL 53,7::!3 1,788,201 2,218,011 42,942 1,829,371 2,262,234 42,741 NA NA 47,840 1,095,449 ,,636,040 50,882 1,on,115 1,604,370 53,367 NA 67,183 508,733 1,333,911 58,630 1,208,684 1,963,903 107,923 2,993,324 4,259,469 80,659 3,526,386 4,970,429 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND CONTROLS The Fisheries Division manages fISh eries resources through an extension program; currently there is a chief fisheries officer, a bi ologist, an aquaculturist and several other support staff engaged in working directly with

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fishermen. The Fisheries Management Plan for 1989 addresses the promulgation of safety regulations for fishermen, additional regula tions for threatened species, size limits, the phasing out of destructive fishing gear such as trammel nets, and regulations for the use of SCUBA gear as a fishing method. The Fisheries staff collects basic fish eries :;tatistics such as gear, species, sizes and quantities caught, area fished, effort and price. The fi.,hery data collection system in current use con.."ists of forms filled out by the man agers of the markets at each major fish land ing site, which contain information from each boat. All fishing boats except those involved in the bea.:h fishery are required to ob tain an annual license, and there has been a recent inventory of fishing boats by landing site. It is proposed to expand the present data collection system to include additional sam pling tools (Finlay et al., 1988). Some fisheries controls have been implemented. The minimum size for lobsters is 9 inches total length or a tail weight of 225 g. There is a closed season for lobster which ran from May 1 to August 31 in 1988 but which will be extended to September 30 in 1989 to coincide with the closed season in St. Vincent. The closed season for turtles runs from May 1 to September 1. The taking of sea turtle eggs is prohibited by jaw but is probably not effectively enforced. There is a minimum weight limit of 25 lbs. for any species of sea turtle (Leatherback, Green, Hawksbill, and Loggerhead). There is no closed season for conch, but in response to the perception of fisheries autholities that it is a commercially threatened species, a minimum weight law has been enacted (SRO Nu. 9 of 1987), and individuals are required to have a shell with a flared lip. All fisheries officers together with the customs, coast guard, and district police offi cers, are authorized to enforce the fisheries regulations, including closed seasons and size limits. Andrews (1988), an engineering con sultant from Geotech working with the Min istry of Health, briefly discussed the concept of turning discarded automobiles and tires 127 into an asset by using them as materials for construction of nearshore artificial reefs. He recommended that consideration be given to bottom topography, depth, wave action, boat traffic, seabed bearing capacity, siltation and mobility of bottom sediments. Conspicuously absent is any discussion of the biological and ecological aspects of siting and construction of artificial reefs, without which such a project becomes merely an excuse to dump such ma teria:s at sea. Care must be taken in building artificial structures so that the "reeF provides the necessary shelter space, is close to a source of recruitment for juvenile fishes and food for adults, and toxic substances (e.g., oil) are carefully eliminated. Many reefs built without these considerations in mind are sim ply junk piles. To be fair, Andrews points out that the necessary studies should be carried out before any decisions are made, a require ment which is reiterated here. A large literature exists on this topic in other tropical and temperate areas, some of them within the wider Caribbean (e.g., Good win and Goodwin, 1981; Goodwin and Cam bers, 1933; Fourth International Conference on Artificial Habitats for Fisheries, 1989). 4.4.2 Problems and Issues OVERFISHING The paucity of information on land ings, fishing effort, and exploited stock and the multi-species nature of reef fisheries makes it difficult to estimate sustainable yields for Caribbean nearshore fisheries in general. Fishery development proposals for Caribbean nations often base their recommendations on guesswork by experts (e.g., Guidicelli, 1978) or else rely on abundance or yield estimates determined by extrapolating results of ex perimental fishing or visual censuses of known smaller areas to larger oceanic areas. These procedures may provide a useful starting point, but there are many and difficulties of interpretation inherent in such methods. Nevertheless there has been a ten dency among fisheries biologists and planners in the region to use a single figure (often the

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most optimistic one) for potential yield when writing development plans. The wide range in published esti mates of maximum sustainable yields for nearshore fISheries of Grenada and other Eastern Caribbean nations illustrates the in adequacy of the available information (Goodwin, et al., 1985). In an effort to ad dress this problem, CIDA has recently funded a projected seven-year-Iong stock assessment survey on a CARICO,\1 regional level, to in clude assessments for each country in the OECS. Shallow-water pot fisheries for reef fishes around northern Grenada and Carriacou are heavily exploited and may be approaching the limits of sustainable yield, if indeed they are not alrr-ady overfished as many pr.rsons believe. Overfishing of the nearshore stocks has not been scientifically dOl;umented, but has been reportr.d by fish ermen and biologists in all of the Eastern Caribbean islands, including Grenada, on the of extensive circumstantial evidence. Harvesting of small inshore pelagics (jacks, sprat, herrings, anchovies, round robin and small tunas, etc.) is traditionally done by beach seine and represents a significant aspect of the fisheries economy. There are about 50 beach seines and crews currently aClive on the small beaches around Grenada, Ca{riacou and Petit Martinique. Details of this fishery are given in Finlay (1984). In Grenada the stocks of small coastal pelagic fishes and deepwater demersal fishes (snappers and groupers) are not believed to be overfished at present, but there woe no good data. The potential yield of these fIShes is not known. Many of the deep water demersal stocks are thOUght to be "under-fIShed" because of the difficulty inher ent in traditional me.thods of hauling deep water fishing gear by hand (Goodwin, et al., 1885). There has been concern with over harvesting of conch and lobster for more than a decade, but again conclusive data are lack ing. There is little doubt that they are seri ously over-exploited at least in the Grenadines -fIShermen now have to dive much deeper areas with SCUBA in order to fmd them in 128 any quantity. Mangrove oysters were once harvested commercially at Tyrrel Bay on Carriacou, but these oyster beds have been depleted. Sea turtle stocks in Grenada are probably depleted due to over-exploitation as is common throughout the region, but almost no quantitative data exist on the local popu lation. Leatherbacks (DennoclJelys coriacea), Loggerheads (Caretta caretta), Hawksbills (EretmoclJelys imbricata), and Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) arc the sea turtle species which are taken in Grenada (see Section 4.3). Grenada's inshore fisheries have also suffered as a result of the pollution and de struction of highly productive wnursery" areas such as seagrass beds, mangroves, and shallow coral reefs. Other contributing factors to the depletion of stocks of fishes, lobsters, conch, and sea turtles are exploitation of reproducing females and eggs, illegal poaching and poor enforcement of size limits and closed seasons. Offshore pelagic fishes (swordfish, kingfish, wahoo, dolphinfish, big-eye tuna, yellowfin tuna, mako shark, etc.) account for the majority of fish landings in Grenada and most other Eastern Catibbean islands. The use of longlines by the artisanal fishermen for offshore pelagics has raised some problems relating to the territorial boundaries of neigh boring states. Grenada and other OECS countries have also initiated joint longlining ventures with industrial fishing companies from the United States and other nations, and much of the offshore catch is exported to them. Although large-scale expansion of the pelagic fishery is sometimes advocated, esti mates of abundance and sustainable yield are not available for most Caribbean stocks (with the exception of some tunas, dolphin, and fly ing fish -e.g., Hunte, 1987b; Oxenford, 1985; Oxenford and Hunte, 1984). Many important species are migratory and possibly consist of several stocks, which implies that any man agement of such stocks must be carried out on a regional basis. Regional management is not presently feasible, but it is an OECS Fisheries Unit agenda item pending collection of the required data.

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It is possible that the pelagic fIshery resources of the region are not large enough to sustain further large increases in fIshing pressure, and uncontrolled expansion of in dustriallongline fIShing could severely deplete these fISheries. Population estimates of some commercially exploited pelagic fishes in the southeastern Caribbean are much lower now than they were thought to be in the 1970's, and the potential for large-scale fIshery devel opment of these stocks does not seem to be promising. For example, sharks have been promoted by many persons as an wunderfIshedw resource which holds promise for in dustrial fishery development in the Caribbean, but it is now recognized by the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service that shark stocks arc heavily overfished, at least in U.S. waters in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. Since the mid-1980's, the United States fIshing fleet has greatly increased its exploitation of the billfish resource in the Eastern Caribbean. Japan, Taiwan and South Korea have ,"Iso rapidly expanded their longlining activities in the Caribbean in the last few years. The Asian sometimes work in conjunction with a mother ship and are able to bypass monitoring by delivering their catch to ports outside the regIOn (Greenpeace International, 1988). Kecent (1989) findings by the U.S. Soutl. Atlantic Fishery Management Council provide a sobering preview of the possible fate of pelagic industrial fisheries in the Caribbean islands. The Council concluded after a lengthy study that the swordfish spawning biomass off the southeastern U.S. has de clined steadily since 1979; the current biomass is estimated to be only 40 percent of the 1978 level (Leech, 1989). The average weight of swordfish has continually declined due to high fishing mortality rates. This stock assessment was based on the 1987 data, the most recent available, but presumably the swordfish has continued to decline in 1988 and 1989. An emergency management plan has been drawn up in an attempt to save the fishery; it rec ommends a quota system which is a reduction of 78 percent from the 1987 commercial har vest. 129 COASTAL EROSION, SAND MINING AND DREDGING (I) Coastal Erosion. Under the auspices of BOD, a baseline study of beach geomorphology and offshore geology was car ried out during 1970-73 around the coastline of Grenada for the purpose of erosion control (Deane, el 01., 1973). These authors found that the beaches were fairly stable. However, a Physical T(lurism Development Plan pre pared for GOG/OAS by Jackson, et 01. (1983) identified beach erosion as a critical problem at Grand Anse Beach, Grenada's most im portant tourist resort area. Erosion rates for the period 1970-1982 were as high as 2 m per year in some places. These findings prompted further study of the problem, and a team of consultants funded by OAS carried out inves tigations at Grand Anse during 1984. These studies were divided into three components: beach dynamics (Cambers, 1984), water qual ity (Archl',r, 1984a) and coral reefs (DuBois, 1984). Grand Anse is a 2.5 km long white sand beach on the southwestern coast of Grenada (Figure 4.4(6. It is divided into a major section trending east-west, behind which much of Grenada's tourism infrastruc ture is located, and a north-south trending section behind which the land is less devel oped. The east-west section is subtly subdi vided into two bays which separate at the ap proximate location of the Africa Club. The form of the beach is influenced by various structures such as storm drains Cseaheads") and jetties. The beach typically has a moder ately steep intertidal zone and a narrow berm, but vegetation clearing in front of some of the hotels alld accretion of sand ncar the seahead drains have resulted in a wider beach in these places. Wave energy is low during most of the year on the west coast, but higher wave energy may occur during winter swell events and hurricanes. Wave direction in the vicinity of Grand Anse is predominantly from the north; however, refraction results in wave fronts that arc nearly parallel to the shoreline. The beach is composed of fine sand (0.125-0.25 mm), with the sand size becoming coars.:.:r towards the southwest. There is a slow

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GRAND ANSE BEACH MONITORING SITES AND CRITICAL AREAS OF EROSION GAl GA2 GA3 GA4 GAS GAG GA7 GAB GA9 GA10 GAll Cottage north of Silver Sands Hotel Jetty piles south of Silver Sands Hotel French Restaurant Northern Boundary of Ramada Hotel Restaurant of Ramada Hotel Riviera Hotel Afri ca C1 ub Northern end of Spice Isle Inn Restaurant of Spice Isle Inn Southern end of Spice Isle Inn Beach Cottages at south end of beach Area of beach where erosion will become critical in the next 10 years GRAND ANSE <;J<;J ,Afri ca Club '\ .., \ .\ ', ..-" -----!----! '---t. George's University CAMERHOGNE RECREATIONAL Figure 4.4(6). Grand Anse beach monitoring sites and critical areas of erosion (source: Cambers. 1986b). GA2 GA3 o 200 metres 400 III Q) C'I L. o Q) a +> V) o +> "0 to o 0::

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movement of sand ("longshore drift") along the beach face from northeast to southwest, and an equally important seasonal onshore offshore movement. Average erosion rates at Grande Anse were abOlt 0.4 m per year between 1951 and 1970, but this was partly related to exten sive sand mining for construction which has been stopped in recent years. By comparison, average erosion rates were found by Cambers to be 0.7 m per year, with considerable spatial variation along the length of the beach. Other areas of concem. Comparative measurements of other beaches in Grenada (Figl'.re 4.4(7); Cambers, 1984) showed that during the period 1951-1970 there was gener ally little change; beaches were stable except for some localized accretion and erosion (the worst erosion was related to sand mining at Grand Mal Beach). At Lcvera Bay a tom bolo (sand spit) on the coast in the shelter of Levera Island showed no change between 1951-1971; a coastal road ran along the beach and a bridge crossed the outlet to Lcvera Pond. Between 1970-1984 there was a gen eral increase in erosion rates, particularly on the west and north roasts. Beausejour Bay showed a very high erosion rate of 2.9 m per year, but this was at least partly related to on going sand mining activities. The erosion rate at Sauteurs Bay was measured at 1.8 m per year, and in 1984 several houses were in dan ger of being washed away. At Lcvera Bay the erosion rate of 3.6 m per year was the highest measured in the country; the tombolo had virtually disappeared and the coastal road and bridge had been washed out. On the cast and south coasts there were also some signs of erosIOn. The generally increased beach ero sion around Grenada during this period par aJlels a similar trend of increased coastline erosion noted in other Eastern Caribbean is lands, e.g., Barbados, St. Vincent, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, possialy the result of sea level rise (Cambers, 1984). The erosion at Lcvera, however, may be a long-term phe nomenon possibly related to local subsidence of the lal"ld; apparently there was a previous 131 road seaward of the present one that was also washed out. In mid-1985 a coastal monitoring program was set up in Grenada to collect and analym data on beach proftle changes, waves, surface currents and tides at Grand Anse and other beaches. This program has been carried out more or less continuollsly to the present, at least for some coastal areas (Cambers, 1985b-c, 1986a-f, 1987b, 1988). The data col lected so far generally confirm the conclusions of the 1984 studies and show that Grand Anse is still experiencing serious long-term erosion. Where the beach is already narrow, the situa tion will become critical within the next ten years (Cambers, 1986b). In the short term the two are"s in greatest danger are those near the Silver Sands Hotel and the area from the northeastern end of the Spice Island Hotel to the public area northeast of the Africa Club (Figure 4.4(6. Morne Rouge, a nearby beach to the south of Grand Anse, also seems to be experiencing similar erosion problems (Cambers, Prelim. Draft, n.d.). The major conclusion of Cambers' beach erosion studies was that the present trend of increased erosion at Grand Anse is due mainly to natural causes, such as sea level rise and/or laud subsidence, and possibly in creased wave energy from winter swells and hurricane swells. Man-made causes such as removal of vegetation cover, localized pollu tion which kills coral reefs, and the residual effects of previous sand mining arc of lesser importance but most likely also contribute to the problem. The data base is insufficient to rank the importance of these factors. Healthy nearshore reefs shelter beaches from wave erosion and act as a sand source, but Cambers (1984) feels that by itself coral reef degradation and die-off cannot ade quately explain th.:! high beach erosion rates recorded at Grande Anse. High erosion rates have been measured in the area northward from the Silver Sands Hotel where the nearshore reefs have apparently been de graded for a considerable time. Man-made pollution was probably a major factor in the death of these northern reefs, which have been exposed to the highest concentrations of pollutants originating from St. George's and

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GRENADA Serious erosion due to sand mining [] EXisting major quarries o Proposed quarry ..Beach profi 1 es Levera West of Sauteurs ___ .... Sauteurs West of River +Beausejour Bay North _--Perseverance Estate site Beausejour Bay South Morne Rouge () Prickly Bay r Mt. Hartman Quarry o Westerhall Spit Southside Westerhall Spit Northside Spit West end Estate by Spit 10' os ltOa' Figure 4.4{7}. Location of sand mining, quarries and profiles In Grenada outside Grand Anse {source: Cambers, 1987; Andrews, 1988}. 132

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from the St. John's River. Nevertheless, Cambers notes thal living nearshore reefs still occur along most of the rest of Grand Anse Beach, and yet in these areas the erosion rates were also high. Not everyone agrees with Cambers regarding the causes of erosion at Grand Anse. For example, Taylor (1986, 1987), an engineering consultant with OAS, is critical of Cambers' conclusions. He believes that a combination of several causes, linked mainly to development rather than natural factors, is responsible for the increased beach erosion. He argues that the areas where estimated ero sion rates are highest (the Silver Sands Hotel and the Africa Club) are areas where wave energy is focused during storms. These two areas were also the sites of wooden jellies which were destroyed about 1966 and which had previously provided the beach with pro tection from storm waves. Additionally, sub :;tantial mining of beach sand was done be tween the Riviera Hotel and the Africa Club, which removed vegetation and contributed to erosion. Findlly, Taylor says that uncontrolled surface run-off is also causing loss of sand from the beach at these areas. Some progress has been made in ad dressing the problems of drainage, run-off, sewage pollution and beach erosion at Grand Anse (Cambers, Prelim. Draft, n.d.). A tree revegetation program has been carried out at Grand Anse, sponsored by the OAS, and coastal setback guidelines (50 m) have been recommended for the country. In 1987 a re tention pond was built at the southern end of Grand Anse to improve the quality of the run off. A drainage improvement scheme which includes a similar pond has been proposed for the northern end of the area, but it has not yet been implemented. Many studies have been conducted on sC'wage treatment for the southwestern section of Grenada which in cludes the Grand Anse area (see Section 8). A recent study funded by USAID recom mended an aeration treatment system with a long ocean outfall at Grand Bay just to the south of Point Salines Airport. Environmen tal studies for the project have just been com pleted, and construction will probably also be funded by USAID. 133 (2) Sand Mining. During the pe riod in which coastal monitoring has been done, small-scale sand mining has been ob served at most beach profile sites. Extensive sand mining which has caused serious erosion was observed at Beausejour, Palmiste, Con ference and Telescope Bays (Figure 4.4(7); Cambers, 1986b, 1986c). Grand Anse Beach was extensively mined in the past, and other south coast beaches were reportedly mined for construction of the Point Salines Airport. Jew Bay is the major sand mining area on Carriacou. Much of the erosion experienced along the west coast beaches could at least in part be related to sand mining. Often Sl!a defense structures have to be built to protect the coastal highway following a con centrated period of beach sand mining, e.g., at Beausejour, where the beach has been almost totally depleted (Cambers, Prelim. Draft, n.d.). The principal uses of beach sand are in the construction industry for production of concrete, for manufacture of concrete blocks and for plastering. Almost all of Grenada's sand comes from the beaches; no appreciable amount of sand is produced from the crushing of rock at the quarries. No solutions will be found to the problem of beach sand mining until alternative sources are identified. GOG has recently asked the OAS to investigate off shore and inland sources of rock and gravel that could be crushed to provide sand. Millillg for aggregate alld rock. Grenada's toto.l maximum demand for aggre gates is estimated at about 150,000 tons/year, with the greatest demand in the southern sec tion of the island (Andrews, 1988). There are three quarries on Grenada, located at Mt. Hartman, Queen's Park and Telescope (Figure 4.4(7. The Mt. Hartman and Tele scope quarries produce high quality basalt rock and gravel, but the Telescope operation takes sand directly from the beach as well (Cambers, Prelim. Draft, n.d.). The Queen's Park quarry produces coarse sands and medium gravels (red and black volcanic scoria) used in road work and concrete mak ing, not for first-grade construction materials. The Grenada Rock, Asphalt and Concrete Products, Ltd. (GRAC) runs the

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main rock quarries at Mt. Hartman and Tele scope and is considering the establishment of a third quarry at Perseverance. Another company, the Grenada Gravel and Concrete Corporation (GCC), has jurisdiction over all grave! and sand sources with the exception of Telescope and Mt. Hartman; these include Queen's Park, Marybou, Lcvera, Grenville and Pilot Hill. Andrews (1988) recommended in a consultant report to GOG/OAS that the Mt. Hartman quarry be closed, based on its potential impact on the tourism industry in that part of the island, e.g., the impacts from heavy truck traffic on the newly rebuilt road in the area and the fact that the existing equip ment is very old and needs replacement. He states that the Perseverance site should be de veloped as the major rock quarry serving St. George's and the southwest peninsula, as well as the northwestern coast, and that the Tele scope quarry should be retained to meet the needs of the eastern section of the island. Andrews (1988) carried out a pre liminary analysis for identifying alternative sources to beach sand for construction mate rial. The gravels and sands produced by the Queen's Park quarry arc not line enough to be used for plastr:ring sand, either in their natural state or after screening. Suitably fine sand can only be obtained by crushing the material to improve the grading. A combina tion of crushing and screening could produce sand fine enough for plastering, and Andrews suggests that this is one approach that should be considered. Although there arc other quarriablc lava flows and domes among the main mountain ridges, Andrews docs not be lieve that they represent a practical alternative for sand production. Riverine sand sources have not been traditionally exploited in Grenada, although it might be feasible to mine sand in the estuar ine reaches of the Great River and the An toine River, both located on the northeastern coast. The potential impact of such activities on the erosion of river banks and the sand budget of nearby beaches would need to be carefully investigated beforehand. Because these sites are far from the major areas of de velopment and would cli.)l for specialized mining equipment, Andrews does not recom-134 mend exploitation of these sand sources at this time. Offshore sand deposits in bays and on insular shelves have been mined in various Caribbean islands and elsewhere in the world. This is an undertaking fraught with environ mental risks, and the materials obtained are often substandard or even unusable for con struction purposes. It is therefore an option that should be approached with ex1reme cau tion; fortunately, an extensive literature exists on the subject (sec, for example, DuBois and Towle, 1985). The only area considered by Andrews (1988) as a source of offshore sand is St. George's Harbor, which the Ports Au thority is interested in dredging. Samples of harbor-bottom sand from a abortive dredging attempt were analyzed for suitability as construction sand. The material is coarser than required for plastering sand but, with screening, could be made of acceptable grain size. The presence of shells and sea salts arc other constraints. Preliminary indications arc that the shell content of the dredged material is unacceptable for usc in concrete or the salts can be leached out by rain if the sadd is stored on land for an appropriate time. (3) Dredging and Filling. Archer (1984) mentions but docs not discuss the envi ronmental impacts of the following d;-edge and/or fill projects carried out in the St. George's area: construction of the deep water harbor at the port during 1958 to 1960; dredging of a channel into the Lagoon in 1958; reclamation of a swamp on the boundary of the Lagoon in the early 1%0's; and dredging of the area southeast of the port breakwater known as The Spout to provide berthing facil ities for small craft. Hardy Bay to the cast of Point Salines was partially filled in to build the !nternational Airport runway, and the swamp behind Grand Anse Bay was filled in during the 1940's (Taylor, 1987).

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4.4.3 Polley Recommendations FlSHERlES MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT The most important fisheries management and development challenges for Grenada are: to implement long-term monitoring of catch and fishing effort for each major fishery; to regulate fishing effort so as to maintain levels that will not over-exploit the resources; and to introduce appropriate technology that allows economically efficient fishing operations and therefore provides good ret.urns to :he fishermen. Fishing effort must be utilized efficiently. It is l:rucial to avoid premature intro duction of large (greater than about 65 feet, Mitchell, 19&1), r.oslly and sophisticated vessels into the national fleet. The recently initiated strategy of licensing foreign vessels which pay fees and royalties and employ Grenadians as part of the crew is a sensible alternative. Where appropriate, levels of fishing effort must be regulated by measures such as gear restrictions, closed ar'!as, closed sea sons and economic measures such as fees and royalties; provision for such measures has been made in the harmonized fisheries legislation of all the OEes countries but requirr::; better implementation. Artisanal fishermen should cater primarily to meeting domestic demands for fish, and the indusl:-ial fleet should concen trate on meeting txport demands or any short-fall in the domestic market. This would ensure that the industrial sector would not adversely affect the artisanal sector, which is the major source of employment in fisheries, by depressing fish prices (Mitchell, 1988). Given the scarcity of economic re sources and the poor performance in the tropics of traditional stock assessment proce dures, GrenClda should instead opt for a strategy of adaplive mallagemellt of fisheries; i.e., implementation of common sense, trial and error management measures while simultaneously emphasizing monitoring of the fishery tc evaluate the impact of those measures. Sum135 maries of appropriate management ap proaches for fisheries regulation are given in Hunte (1986) ROd Mahon (1988). The working principle for fishery managers should be that most fisheries, even those that are artisanal and relatively lowtechnology, tend towards over-exploitation and excessive fishing effort if not regulated. Fishery management plans should be oriented towards conserving the resource ano at tempting to optimize its long-term returns, rather than towards the classical objective of maximizing long-term catches (Mahon, 1988). Fishery managers, in concert with other GOG planners, must decide on the relative importance of the fisheries sector to em ployment, total food production. local food availability, return on investment, and export commodities. They must then evaluate the feasibility of attaining the desired mix of ob jectives, both in terms of the I!stimated capacity of the fishery resource and in terms of the practicality of implementing necessary regula tions. For large pelagic fish species with ranges extending outside of the region and which are fished by industrial fleets from other nations, management measures imple menteJ by Grenada are not likely to have any significant impact on the status of the resource. An appropriate strategy for Grenada would be to improve the harvesting efficiency of existing vessels so as to catch as many of these species as are available. Major indus trial fleet expansi. 1S based on expectations of increasing catches for these species should not be undertak(;n. For those species which are likely to be regional in distribution, Grenada should participate in discussions on cooperative re gional management. Because of the many unknowns regarding migration patterns and stock structure. it would be futile to consider management based on estimates of stock size for these species. A priority is the establish ment of regional data collection systems for catch and effort. Following a period of 5-10 years of monitoring, a picture of migration, distribution and the response of the resource to increasing fishing pressure may emerge.

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Similar considerations also apply for flying fIsh. Effective management of reef fishes could probably be implemented, at least for trap fIsheries, without knowledge of po tential yield. If it is clear that the resource is over-exploited, it may be desirable to simply reduce the fishing effort by an appropriate amount and observe the results over a period of several years. Management objectives for reef fIsh popUlations should probably be oriented towards conserving the artisanal nature of the fIshery and rebuilding the stocks. The imme diate objective should be to reduce fishing mortality, particularly on juvenile fIshes. Mesh size regulations for !:aps coupled with limits on the number of traps per fisherman may be the most appropriate strategy. Too little is currently known about the status of deep demersal fishes to propose management measures. However, there are reports of local depletion in the Lesser An tilles, particularly of known spawning aggre gations. Monitoring of catch and effort, as well as mapping the distribution of these re sources, would be priorities for management. Lobsters are protected by the har monized fisheries regulations which are al ready in place in Grenada, but these regula tions are poorly enforced. Monitoring of catch and effort for several years ... till be es sential to determine whether the new regula tions are effective. Some means of limiting effort will probably be required in the long run. The shortage of suitable juvenile nursery habitats -mangrove lagoons and seagtass beds --may limit the abundance of har vestable lobsters and these habitats should be protected. The situation for conch is very similar to that for lobster, and the same rec ommendations apply. A total moratorium on the ex ploitation of all species of sea turtles has al ready been approved by OEes countries (Mahon, 1988). Assuming that in the near future this moratorium can successfully be 136 implemented and enforced, there will be no r.atch to monitor, but the recovery of popula tions should be monitored by collecting data ")n nesting frequency. Inc.reased public edu cation and the utilization of natural historj enthusiasts, members of the National Trust, and local schools for monitoring efforts may be one appropriate method to support the monitoring of nesting turtles at low cost; it should be pursued by Government. Management of white sea urchins in Grenada should aim at conserving the re source and monitoring the stocks. Many coral reefs in Grenada show excessive algal over growth, perhaps related to increased levels of nutrients, a regional die-off of long-spined black sea urchins in 1984, overfIshing of her bivorous fishes, or other causes. Since sea urchins eat algae from coral reefs, encouragoo ing expansion of the fishery for these animals is probably unwise. A priority item for Grenadian fish eries management is to expand the existing data collection system as soon as possible by implementing sampling routines for minor landing sites; purchase slips for middlemen, hotels and restaurants; enforcement of export licenses; logbooks for large offshore boats to include catch and effort data; and monitoring strategies for foreign fishing (Finlay, et al., 1988). COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT The current program of coastal monitoring should bt continued with the aim of acquiring a continuous and reliable data set. Long-term monitoring is essential to the documentation of trends in sea level changes and the formulation of a rational GOG re sponse to changes in the resource base. The 50 m coastal setback should be implemented and rigorously enforced, and beach vegetation should be protected. Reveg etation of beaches cleared in the past should be accelerated in order to stabilize the beaches. GOG resource managers need LO assess available sand deposits and make

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judgments as to where continued sand re moval will have the least detrimental impacts on natural systems and is more compatible with current site utilization. Until a substitute for sand has not only been identified but also has demonstrated technical and monet"ry capability for widespread use, sand will con tinue to be removed from the beaches. To better manage and control an almost in evitable exploitation of this resource in the near-term, GOG must make hard decisions to earmark priority areas where sand removal will be absolutely protected and areas of lesser concern and stress where regulated sand removal will continue at some deter mined level. At the same time, every effort must be made to identify :md develop alterna tive sources of construction aggregate. An oil and hazardous materials spill contingency plan should be developed, and a spill response capabilitv should be cre ated by the training of a response team and 137 the acquisition of basic spill control equip ment (see also Section 8). Control of upland erosion and sediment discharges and appropriate treat ment of sewage and other discharges with high nutrient loads is vital to protect coastal water quality, public health and the integrity of coral reefs. This is especially critical in the area of SI. George's Harbor and Grand Anse Bay on Grenada (see also Section 8). An environmental impact assess ment process should be required for all large coastal development projects such as the pro posed new cruise ship port or any new marina expansion. The ClIl1/ulalive effects of such projects must be assessed ratha than analYL ing each project in isolation. The Physical Planning Unit should be designated as the GOG lead agency responsible for impact as sessments in the country (sec also Section 9).

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SECTION 5 AGRICULTURE 5.1 OVERVIEW OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR Agriculture has long been and contin ues to be the single most important sector of Grenada's economy. It accounts for 25 per eent of gross domestic product (GOP), 40 per cent of export earnings, and about 50 percent of employment (USAID, 1988), in all cases higher than for any other single sector. In 1984, 75 percent of the overall value came from the four export commodities of cocoa, bananas, nutmeg, and mace (World Bank, 1985), but other fruits and vegetables were and still are gaining in importance. The island's earliest inhabitants, the Arawaks and their successors the Caribs, ob tained much of their food through farming Grenada's fertile soil. These Amerindian peo ples maintained a highly nutritious diet based largely on the cultivation of rool crops, beans, maize, squashes, papaya, guavas, and a wide variety of other fruits and vegetables. Cotton and tobacco were also grown. In fact, it was the potential for profitable to bacco production that drew European settlers to Grenada in the mid-1600's when a group of French colonists pushed aside the Carib in habitants, gained a foothold on the island and harvested the first tobacco crop in 1651 (17le Courier, 1986). Tobacco and cotton cultivation be came the island's most important economic activities. Production of cotton, as well as cocoa and coffee, expanded considerably il! the first half of the eighteenth century, a process which carried with it a anI ial ir,crcase in the island's population, from about 800 in 1700 to 13,000 by 1750 (17le Cour;er, 1986). The latter figure included the thousands of African slaves imported to work the plantations by the French, and later, the British, colonists. Over the course of the 1700's :iugar cane became the dominant crop on Grenada, grown for production of both sugar and rum. The industry led to extensive deforestation of the island, first to expand the area under culti vation and subsequently to fuel the sugar fac tory boiling houses and rum distilleries. By the ,". ", .. L:f! I .. ,t:t' :."'. 139 end of the eighteenth century, the mostly monocrop plantations had almost completely displaced the relatively undisturbed multi species ecosystl!m which had prevailed during the pre-Columbian period. In Carriacou the first European set tlement wac; also established by the French. Sugar cane and cotton were introduced, as were African slaves to work the plantations. During the eighteenth ant{ nineteenth centuries the expansion of areas under cultivation brought about the displacement of Carriacou's native vegetation. i.'he impact on the land scape has been severe and pervasive, a fact wLich is evident from an examination of pre sent conditions. Soils with well developed proftJes are virtually non-existent on the island, having been eroded long ago. Both local in formants and the available literature attribute this degradation to the abusive agricultural practices that have prevailed since European settlement. As discussed below, such practices continue today, particularly in the form of overgrazing. The naturally scrubby vegetation is now sparse and impoverished, and in many locations the land base is too degraded to allow for a spontaneous process of re-vegetation. This deteriorated state of the natural resource base has been identified as one of the most important obstacles to development in Carriacou (GOG/OAS, 1988b). In contrast to some selected im provement in performance within the agricul tural sector during specific years of the 1980' s (as discussed in Section 3), over the long-term period of the last twenty years, there has been a more decline in agricultural produc tion in Grenada. This has been due in large part to fluctuating world prices for the major export commodities of nutmeg, mace, and ba nanas, to foreign exchange constraints, and to price increases leading to reductions in the use of imported fertilizers and pesticides (USAID, 1984b; Babb, et al., 1984). Marketing problems for nutmeg and mace have led to donor assis tance for agricultural diversification projects

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which focus on crops such as bananas, sugar cane, coconuts, cocoa rehabilitation (CIDA, USAlD, PADF), and on other tree and food crops (World Bank, OAS, llCA). Other problems facing the sector have included increasing labor costs, inefficiency in the management of grower associations, seri ous crop disease and pest problems (particularly for banana and cocoa), low levels of farm investment, rampant praedial larceny, poor transportation infrastructure, and weak government research and extension services. A critical factor contributing to a gen eral decline in agricultural production has been the dislocation associated with the demise and break-up of the estate system, particularly during the 1970's, and the failure to develop a productive alternative. Government programs for the acquisition and control ot several large estatt!s have been fraught with poor manage ment. Some of these estates have been re tained under public-sector control, whi.1e others have been divided into small plots for \'edistri bution to small farmers. Many of the difficulties f<,.cing the agricultural sector in modern Grenada have their roots in the legacy of the colonial past and in particular its plantation-based economic structure. Under colonial rule throughout the Caribbean, investment in a& .. icultural produc tion, infrastructure, technology, and marketing, focussed almost exclusively on the traditional export crops of sugar, cocoa, bananas, conuts, nutmeg, and citrus. Research pro grams sponsored by colonial regimes adminis,l by Great Britain were primarily designed to serve the vested interests of those involved in plantation-based export crop agriculture. Small farming, on the other hand, functioned as a secondary activity (at [east in the eyes of the authorities) on marginal lands at the fringes of commerciai plantations. The small farming system lad,l" .. support structure to assist farmers in "\{Imtly increasing pro ductivity. With the recent decline in the estate system foI.:owing World War Two, it has be come increasingly evident that the now dumi nant small farm sector (and thus the broader national economy) has suffered and will con140 tinue to suffer from this history of neglect. Poor cultivation practices, low productivity, and a considerable level of resource base degradation remain as entrenched features of the existing system. At the same time, in a pattern comnJOn throughout the Caribbean, the historical development of the agrarian sector in Grenada also fostered a continuing, widespread avoid ance if not disdain for plantation agriculture and, in general, a view of farming as a low status occupation. Perhaps more importantly, the colonial structure served to severely hinder the development of managerial competence and entrepreneurial skill among the general popUlation; the metropole provided the market and dominated its supply through a system in which few local people were meaningfully involved. On a more posItive note, the small farming and other rural resource systems which have emerged in the last 40 years have been characteri7.!d by a considerable degree of crop diversity, occupational multiplicity, and self-reliance. The!>e features remain largely intact to the present and will contribute to ef forts to develop a productive and thriving rural sector. With the growing importance of the small farm sector since independence, the challenge ahead is to improve the institutional structures, managerial performances, and technical expertise necessary to promote and support productivity expansions necessary to e!Jsure an improved quality of life for Grenadian people. Concurrently, it is impor tant that the country reverse existing patterns of resource degradation and thereby allow for sustained improvements in productivity and in the overall quality of life. 5.1.1 Land Capability Grenada's soils are mostly well drained and reasonably fertile. Together with high temperature and rainfall in most areas, the country's land base has conc;iderable po tential for productive crop growth. I !owever, as a mountainous country, there is also a high erosion potential, a factor which places sub-

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stantial C01i.c;traints on the way the vast majority of the country's land base can f'C sustainably utilized. This point will be discussed in more detail below. The most recent work in evaluating land capability in Grenada was conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture (Eschweiler, 1982a). The methodology used was based on a "land unit" approach in which a series of units were defined (primarily according to land form, slope, and soil characteristics) and subsequently mapped. The units were evaluated for various possible types of land use through a procesc; of matching the land unit characteristics with the requirements of numerous crops. Accompanying land unit reports contain tables which indicate the units with the "highest acceptability classes" for each crop (Ternan, et 01., 1989). To date, 12 surveys of land units have been completed on the basis of this system. Unfortunately, the program has lapsed, and no surveys have been conducted since the original pilot study (C. Francis, Land Use Officer, pers. comm., 1989). An earlier land capability study (Vernon, et 01., 1959) identified seven broad capability classes based on overall suitability, taking into consideration, among other factors, "the risk of soil erosion or other damage and the difficulties of management." Table 5.1(1) lists these classes along with the hectarage that falls within each on both Grenada and Carriacou. It also describes the most intensive suitable use to which land in each class should be put. Table 5.1(2) describes the slope cate gories upon which the capability class designations have been largely based. Within each class, four possible limiting factors were identified, creating a number of subdivisions within all classes except Class 1 which has no limitations. These limiting factors are: slope and erosion risk; seasonal or permanent excess water (poor natural drainage); edaphic factors (e.g., shallow or droughty soil); and climatic factors (usually low rainfall and a long dry season). 141 As shown in Table 5.1(1), only about 25 percent and 28 percent of all land in Grenada and Carriacou, respectively, is considered suitable for cultivation (tillage) --a total of 7,490 ha (18,500 ac) in Grenada and 931 ha (2,300 ac) in Carriacou. However, the vast majority ofthese "cultivable lands" (e.g., 81 percent in Grenada) are actually in Class 3 and thus have "strong limitations" to their use. Given that terrain in Class 3 has "mainly D slope[s)" of 10-20 percent (see Table 5.1(2, it can be assumed that erosion risk is the most common limitation. This picture of land capability vs. land use is of considerable importance to conservation practices in Grenada. The country's land resources must be utilized and managed in ways that arc appropriate given the serious risk of erosion. If they are not, then quite simply, the country's land resource base, arguably the most important foundation of its economy, is being degraded. In the following section, existing land use and farming systems are examined with this precept in mind. 5.1.2 Land Use Patterns and Farming Systems LAND USE AND FARMING SYSTEMS eN THE ISLAND OF GRENADA The agricultural system in Grenada is one of mixed cultivation, particularly OD small farms. At present, some 90 percent of the farms are unrier 5 ha r 2.3 ac) in size (Ternan, et 01., 1989). Such sm.ill farms support a system that has changed little over time and remains largely subsistence-based. The system serves as a buffer or lnsl!fance mechanism against external forces such as natural disasters and fluctuations in export crop prices. It also acts as a cushion against [mancial hardship when production of traditional export crops is low, since fruit crops are available to be sold. Pure stands of export crops occur primarily in some of the few remaining large estates. The hurricane of 1955, before whirh there were relatively vast acreages of pure stands, bighlighted the vulnerability and risks of a monocrop system. For example, about 80

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Table 5.1 (1). Land capability classes and suitable uses. CLASSES AND FEATURES GRENADA ha % I. A and B slopes, good solis 749 2.5 II. Mainly C slopes, good solis 668 2.2 III. Mainly D slopes, some 6,073 20.4 gentler slopes with less favorable solis rv. Mainly E slopes, some 7,692 25.9 Dslopes V. Mainly E and F slopes 7,287 24.5 VI. Mainly steep rocky land 7,287 24.5 or dry climate 29,756 100% Source: 1959. percent of all pure stand nutmegs were de stroyed or severely damaged by the hurricane (Eschweiler, 1982b). Table 5.1(3) provides a quantitative breakdown of the main types of agricultural land use in Grenada as of 1982. It is clear that tree crops were (and still are) the dominant agricultural product, occupying 13,700 ha (33, 839 ac) or roughly 70 percent of the total culti vated area. This high proportion of tree crop ping manifests a relatively good adaptation to the island's steep topography and climate. Nutmeg and cocoa were the ftrst most important tree crops, followed later by co conuts, limes, and other spices such as cloves 142 CARRIACOU MOST INTENSIVE ha % SUIT ABLE USE 81 2.5 Cultivation (tillage) with almost no limitations 486 14.8 Cultivation (tillage) with moderate limitations 364 11.1 Cultivation (tillage) with strong limitations 739 22.5 Tree crops, grasses and very limited CUltivation 1,478 44.9 Not suitable for cultivation; suitable for forest, trEle crops or improved grass 142 4.3 Not suitable for cultivation; suitable for poor forest 3,290 100% and cinnamon. Only after the 1955 hurricane did bananas become an important crop (Eschweiler, 1982b). As noted earlier, Grenada's main export crops currently are cocoa, nutmeg, and banana. Table 5.1(4) displays the land use changes that have occurred recent decades. The ftgures presented are based on the Agri cultural Censuses of 1%1 and 1975 and on air photo interpretation conducted in 1982 by Es chweiler (1982b). The most substantial land use changes occurred in the 1970's with an average annual decline of 500 ha (1235 ac) in the total area under agriculture between 1967 and 1975 (Ternan, et al., 1989). Grassland de clined most, but primarily during the 1960's,

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Table 5.1 (2). Slope categories their extent. SLOPE CATEGORY GRENADA CARRIACOU ha A 0 to 2 degrees 476 B-2 to 5 degrees 1,012 C -5 to 10 degrees 1,457 o 10 to 20 degrees 5,709 E 20 to 30 degrees 14,170 F over 30 degrees 6,923 29,747 Source: Vernon, et al., 1959. with 1,250 ha (3,087 ac) coming out of produc tion between 1%1 and 1%7. This pattern has continued to the present, coinciding with a de crease in the livestock population. The under bananas has increased recently, while cocoa and nutml!g cultivation has remained static or have decreased (Ternan, el 01., 1989). The increase in banana cultivation, 12.8 per cent between 1987 and 1988 (Blaize, 1989), has seemingly occurred in response to the high prices the crop has been receiving in tLe late 1980's. Most of the land use changes have taken place in the estate secto.:-, consistent with the pattern that has prevailed throughout the Caribbean. Land use maps for the State of Grenada are based on aerial photographs taken in 1982. Two map sheets exist for the island of Grenada, while an additional sheet depicts land use patterns on both Carriacou and Petite Martinique. Among the agricultural land uses in Grenada proper, ten units or c1as-143 % ha % 1.6 81 2.5 3.4 466 14.2 4.9 253 7.7 19.2 931 28.2 47.6 1,457 44.3 23.3 101 3.1 100.0 3,289 100.0 sifications based on cropping patterns have been identified. In Calriacou and Petite Mar tinique, seven such units are relevant to agri culture. The following is a brief description of each of these land use units on the main island of Grenada, derived from Eschweiler (1982b). The units identified for Carriacou and Petite Martinique are outlined in the following sub section. AGRICULTURAL LAND USE UNITS IN GRENADA Unit 1 Food Crops and Vegetables. The vegetables and other foodcrops cultivated in Grenada include peas, corn, sweet potatoes, yams, beans, dasheen, tannia, eddoe, cassava, peppers, cucumbers, tomatoes, carrots, and cabbage. They are grown throughout the island but especially around urban and suburban settlements in the southern half of the island. A total of 591 ha (1,460 ac) falls within this unit, most of which (405 ha/l,OOO ac) are found in the south.

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Table 5.1 (3). Main types of agrlcutturalland use and their area In Grenada. CATEGORY Food crops (maize and vegetables) Sugarcane Tree crops Cocoa Banana Nutmeg and spices Coconuts Fruit trees Grassland (pasture) Grassland and scrub Tatal Area In AgrlcuhurallJae Source: Eschweller, 1982b. TOTAL AREA pn ha) 1882 4,160 530 4,460 3,560 3,780 940 930 170 290 18,820 Table 5.1 (4). The change In cropping pattern through time (data derived from agricultural censuses of 1961 and 1975, and air photographs). YEAR OF CENSUS CATEGORY 1961 (ha) Total area In agricultural use 19,810 Foodcrops and sugar cane 5,163 Tree crops Including cocoa and nutmeg 11,109 Grassland, cultivated and uncultivated 2,480 Forest/woodland 3,830 Source: Eschweiler, 1982b. Unit 1 Food Crops and Vegetables Mixed With Fruit Trees. Fruit trees are commonly grown on the edges of the food crop/vegetable plots, serving as a windbreak. Some 425 ha (1,050 ac) fall within this unit in the south, and an additional 259 ha (640 ac) occur in the north (684 ha/l,690 ac total). An 144 1975 (ha) 1982 (ha) 14,090 18,820 4,018 4,690 9,170 13,670 590 460 2,880 3,970 estimated 25 percent of the area in this unit is under fruit trees; thus, there are roughly 170 hectare-equivalents (420 ar) ofthe latter. UP't 3 Mixed Cultivation. This unit is an as!;ociation of units 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10. At 15,304 ba (37,800 ac), it is the most

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Table 5.1 (5). Approximate extent ct. unit 3 land uses. CIItegory Ell." Foodcrops/vegetables Fruit trees Treecrops: cocoa nutmeg banana Other (Including Idle land) TOTAL Source: Eschweiler,1982b. widespread of all units, a reflection of the great extent to which intercropping is practiced. Table 5.1(5) lists the approximate acreage equivalents for each crop. Unit 4 Sugar cane. Most of Grenada's sugar cane is grown in the south, near a factory at Woodlands where the crop is processed to sugar. Only 12 ha (30 ac) is under cultivation in the north, in the vicinity of two rum distilleries (other estimates place this figure at about 45 acres; E. Peters, CEP Tech. Com., pers. comm., 1990). Total current hec tarage is 534 (1,320 ac). Unit 5 Banana. This unit includes relatively pure stands (at least 70 percent) of banana. Normally the crop is interplanted with cocoa, acting as a nursery shade crop for the latter. The banana, however, is generally not later removed (following the period when its use as a shader has ended), as would be ex pected. Some mixtures with nutmegs/spices and with fruit trees also occur. Total area in Unit 5 is 344 ha (850 ac), with most (267 ha/660 ac) in the wetter, northern part of the island. Unit 6 Banana Mixed With Cocoa and/or Spices. This unit includes lands which contain 50 percent bananas, 30 percent cocoa, and 20 percent nutmeg/spices. Total acreage, occurring mostly in the south, amounts to 899 ha (2,220 ac), consisting of 449 ha (1,110 ac) of 20 5 20 15 15 25 100 145 HI (Ie) 3,061 (7,560) 765 (1,890) 3,061 (7,560) 2,296 (5,670) 2,296 (5,670) 3,826 (9,450) 15,305 (37,800) bananas, 271 ha (670 ac) of cocoa, and 178 ha (440 ac) of nutmegs/spices. The total area under bananas in Grenada, most of which lies within the mixed cultivation unit (Unit 3), is 3,563 ha (8,800 ac), as shown in Table 5.1(3). Unit 7 Cocoa. In a pattern consis tent with that described above, cocoa is usually mixed with bananas and/or spices (mostly nutmeg). This unit includes lands which sup port at least 70 percent cocoa, a total of 328 ha (810 ac) (227 ha/560 ac in the north and 101 ha/250 ac in the south). Unit 8 Cocoa Mixed With Bananas and/or Spices. Unit 8 consists of areas with about 50 percent cocoa, 30 percent banana, and 20 percent spices (mainly nutmeg), a total of 1,579 ha (3,900 ac) located primarily in the northern part of the island. The total area under cocoa in all units amounts to 4,460 hectare-equivalents (10,990 ac), as shown on Table 5.1(3). Unit 9 Coconuts. This tree crop is grown throughout the island, primarily along the coast. The total extent of Unit 9 is 943 ha (2,330 ac), a fIgure that does not account for the scattered trees throughout the island. Ac cording to Eschweiler (1984b), "Many of the

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coconut plantations are in a deplorable state at the moment. Unit 10 Nutmeg. Nutmeg trees are grown almost exclusively in the northern half of the island. The unit describes areas with an estimated minimum of 70 percent nutmeg --a total of 996 ha (2,460 ac). In the south, the crop is heavily mixed with other crops and even with forest. Lands supporting less than 50 per cent nutmeg have been classified under Unit 3, in which are found an estimated 3,061 ha equivalents (7,560 ac) of nutmeg and other spices. A simple comparison of the land ca pability and the land use ftgUJ"es for the island of Grenada seems to suggest that, in general, the land base is being used in a suitable man ner. For example, Capability Classes I and II together account for 1,417 ha on the island. Similarly, some 1,488 ha have slopes below five degrees. These figures generally reflect the maximum amount of land that can be utilized for intensive cultivation without taking special measures to guard against land degradation due to erosion or otherwise. The three most intensive land use units --food crops and vegetables (Unit 1), sugarcane (Unit 4), and pure stand bananas (Unit 5) --have a combined total area of 1,469 ha, roughly equivalent to the figures indicated for high capability and mod erately sloped lands. All the other agricultural land use units on the island fea.ture mixed cropping with tree crops, a pattern that generally would render them apprupriate for the remaining steeper and otherwise harsher lands. However, these island-wide, 1982 figures only reveal that the amount of land that can be used intensively in a sustainable manner (without special protection measures) corre sponds to the total amount of land that is in fact being used very intensively. The figures do not indicate whether the land uses associated with each unit described are actually occurring in the high capability, slope areas. It is clear that at present, at least some of Grenada's pure stand banana crop is actually being raised on much steeper slopes. During the late 1980's bananas have commanded a high price, and thus they have been planted more extensively, including in areas that are 146 excessively steep or otherwise are unsuited to their cultivation. AGRICUL1URAL LAND USE UNITS IN CARRIACOU AND PETITE MARTINIQUE Carriacou has a long hktory of agriculture, based fust on sugar cane and subse quently on cotton, peanuts, and eventually the current system of livestock and the production of animal food crops such as :naize and peas. Livestock grazing is presently carried out on about half the island, mostly in the south. Mixed crop farming is practiced on both Carriacou and Petite Martinique but little is produced due to unreliable rainfall and an ex tremely long dry season. Eschweiler (1982b) describes a total of 11 different land use units. Those which are relevant to agriculture are summarized below. Unit 1 Food Crops. A total of 197 ha (486 ac) in Carriacou and 7 ha (17 ac) in Petite Martinique are planted with food crops. These include maize and pigeon peas grown mainly on a subsistence basis and groundnuts which are shipped to Grenada. Unit 2 Fruit Trees. Fruit trees gen erally are found on a scattered basis around dwellings or in suburban settlements. Some have been planted on the edges of small food crop plots. The main fruit trees are citrus (limes), mangoes, guava, tamarind, golden ap ple, and soursop. Unit 3 Coconuts. This tree crop also occurs on a scattered basis both in Carriacou and in Petite Martinique. Several small pure stands, with a total estimated area of 15 ha (36 ac), can be found near Hillsborough. Unit 4 Citrus. Isolated patches of pure stands of citrus (mostly limes) exist throughout Carriacou. Total acreage amounts to 10 ha (25 ac). Scattered trees also occur in settled areas of the island. Unit 5 Pastures and Grazing Land. Most of Carriacou's land base is considered pasture, but much of it is extremely weedy and contains very poor quality grasses. In fact,

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"many pastures are little more than ruinate" (Eschweiler, 1982b). Nevertheless, livestock is the primary source of income, derived mostly through sales of goats and sheep. Overall totals of 800 ha (1,976 ac) and 26 ha (63 ac) are used for grazing in Carriacou and Petite Mar tinique, respectively. These acreages include the grazing lands that comprise 70 percent of the total area within Unit 11 (see below). Unit 10 Open Scrub Cactus Vegeta tion With Scattered Trees Used lor Grazing. This type of land use is the most widespJ'ead in both Carriacou (1,219 ha/3,OlO ac) and Petite Martinique (143 ha/353 ac). The vegetation is reportedly "nothing else but ruinate and bush where people turn loose their goats, sheep, and some cows" (Eschweiler, 1982b). Soil erosion directly resulting from overgrazing is a cant problem on Carriacou. Unit 11 Mainly Pastures and Graz log Lands But Mixed With Food Crops. This unit is found in the vicinity of rural and urban settlements, extending over 5SO ha (1,358 ac) in Carriacou and 15 ha (38 ac) in Petite Mar tinique. About 70 percent consists of pasture and grazing land; 30 percent is under food crops. The acreages that stem from these per centages have also included in the total figures provided for Units 1 and 5. The statistics for Carriacou show that a vast area is being used for grazing and that much of this land is already degraded. The extent to which the degradation process is con tinuing, and how severely, depends primarily on the density of animals being permitted to graze the land relative to the latter's carrying capacity. 5.1.3 land Tenure In 1988 there reportedly were 5,959 farms in Grenada, more than in any other country in the OECS. Some 49 percent of these farms were under 0.4 ha (1 ac) in size, 47 percent were between 0.4 and 4 ha (1 and 10 ac), 3.4 percent were 4 to 20 ha (10 ac to 50 ac) in size, and only 0.9 percent were larger than 20 ha (SO ac) (Chemonics, 1988). 147 Very many of the small farms actually consist of several parcels. In fact, only SO per cent of all farms under 2 ha (5 ac) in size con sist of a single parcel. Some 18 percent are comprised of 2 parcels, while 32 percent con sist of3 parcels (Chemonics, 1988). The various parcels that together make up given farm are commonly located at some distance from each other, a factor which likely complicates certain aspects of the farm ing operation (e.g., mechanization) and in creases commuting time. Concurrently, how ever, the focus of effort on different micro-en vironments serves to reduce production risks for the individual farmer. Table 5.1(6) presents data on tenure in terms of the percentage of farmers that own, rent, sharecrop, etc. It is noted by Chemonics (1988) that despite the high percentage of rentals, leases, and occupancies without owner ship (i.e., squatting), Wthese arrangements usu ally are reasonably secure, even when on a year-to-year basis." However, the to which such casual tenure arrangements serve to stimulate long-term investments, for in stance, in soil conservation practices, crop di versification, and the like remains question able. Farms in the broader Eastern Caribbean region frequently are characterized by precarious tenure due to unregistered titles and/or a "farllily land" situation in which multi ple family members are vested with ownership. As displayed in Table 5.1(6), almost 20 percent of the farms in Grenada are classified as Wfamily land". In theory all family members are entitled to a share of produce from the land in question and must agree to a property sale before the land can be transferred. Such a sit uation also tends to limit the commitment to long-term soil conservation practices and other such improvements. During the 1960's the Government began a program of expropriation of agricul turalland by eminent domain, creating almost 3,375 ac (1,350 ha) of publicly owned state farms. In 1980 the People's Revolutionary Government (PRG) formed a statutory body called the Grenada Farms Corporation (GFC) to manage the state-controUed farms (see page

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Table 5.1 (6). Percentage of farmers by land tenure and district. TENURE EAST NORTH Owner 54.9 48.7 OwnerRent B.9 7.4 Renter 9.B 12.B Mc.nager B.2 11.6 Family owned 13.B 12.9 Share cropped 0.9 0.4 LandleBS 3.3 6.0 No. of farmers 2,476 1,801 Source: Grenada Annual Abstract of Statistics, 1987. 149). By 1983, after three years of accelerated expropriation by the PRG, the GFC controlled 35 farms totaling 7,800 ac (3,120 hal, or about 20 percent of the farm land then in use (Babb, et 01., 1984). The GFC has since been superseded by the Grenada Model Farms Cor poration (GMFC) which, among other things, is engaged in returning much of this govern ment-controlled farm land to private owner ship (Tobal, 1986). 5.2 PROBLEMS AND ISSUES EROSION RELATING TO CULTIVATION According to Ternan, et 01. (1989), -severe soil erosion is not at present a widespread problem [in Grenada] because much of the agriculture is based on tree crops." Tree cropping generally manifests a more appropriate form of land use in area" of high erosion hazard, simply because it protects the ground from the direct erosive force of heavy raindrops and because many tree crop species have a rooting system that effectively consolidates the soil in which it is anchored. The prevalent pattern of mixed aopping in Grenada also helps protect against 148 WEST SOUTH C/COU GRENADA 35.6 46.9 39.5 46.7 10.7 5.1 3.4 7.9 16.4 11.7 9.4 12.2 6.0 2.9 1.B 7.0 22.9 24.1 40.3 19.4 1.7 4.5 3.9 1.9 6.7 4.7 1.7 4.B 1,790 1,542 593 B,202 accelerated soil erosion, by ensuring the maintenance of a continuous vegetative cover. There seems to be a problem with accelerated erosion in certain areas of the island. In some rivers sediment ccncentrations of greater than 1,000 mg per liter were recorded during floods. With an es timated flow of more than 2.5 m 3/s, over 150 kg of soil was estimated to be eroding from the watershed every minute. And at least 12 hours had passed since the stf',rm in question had be gun (Ternan, et 01., 1989). Although a suspended sediment con centration of 1,000 mg per liter "may not be an absolute indicator of accelerated erosion,re portedly the situation is of -most concernto the Ministry of Agriculture (Ternan, et 01., 1989). Watersheds of the central mountain zone provide the main water supply for St. George's and for tourist developments in the southwest part of the island. Siltation of the water intake pipes is a recurring problem (see also Section 4.2). Reportedly the high sedi ment discharges and their effect on water quality are degrading reefs south of Sl. George's (Ternan, et 01., 1989). (See also Sec tion 4.4 of the Prorue.)

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GRENADA MODEL FARMS The Grenada Farms Corporation (GFC), created In 1980 by the PRG, at one time controlled 22 percent of the agricultural land but produced only six percent of the Island's export crops. After the Intervention of 1983, GOG decided to Itself of this unproductive operation and return the farms to the private sector. In 1984 ten large farms totalling 1,440 ha (3,557 ac) were returned to their previous owners. The GFC was then dissolved In 1986 when the Grenada Model Farms Corporation (GMFC) Act was passed. At that time GFC operated 24 estates ranging from 15 to 142 ha (37 to 351 ac) In size, comprising a total area of about 1,300 ha (3,211 ac). Under the new law, the GMFC subsumed the assets and liabilities of the GFC, even though about half of the estates were the subject of legal claims by former owners who had not yet been compensated by GOG (Adams, 1986). Some of these claims are stili under review by the courts. Table 5.1 (7) provides data on each government-owned estate. As Indicated, about 45 percent of the total area originally involved In the Model Farms program was considered inappropriate for agriculture; In fact, Adams (1986) felt that some estates (Levera, Perseverance, and St. Orner) should be entirely excluded from the Model Farms program In light of "derelict" conditions or a high erosion risk. He also concluded that "much of the natural vegetation [In the program area] should be retained as It covers slopes which are too steep, dry, or stony to be cleared for CUltivation." The total land area to be subdivided under the program has since been reduced to 670 ha (1,655 ac). However, about 37 percent of thl3 hectarage stili Is considered marginal for agri culture C/'Ieaver, 1989). In order to prevent unauthorized squattlr.g, Adams (1986) recommended that all program land (both cultivable and uncultivable) not set aside for housing be Included In the agricultural subdivisions. Depending on land together with considerations of yield, Input/output prices, and environmental concerns, the consultant felt that gross farm sizes should not be smaller than about 4 ha (10 ac) of cultivable land In hili areas or 1.6 ha (4 ac) In fertile alluvial He warned that If holdings are too sn;all te provide returns sufficient to cover Inputs, forested slopes Inevitably will be cleared for c ... .arccal production and to extend the planted area. Farm sizes should thus be large enouC;1 to minimize land hunger while allowing for grad ual replacement of the natural forest cover on a given farm with economic species of timber trees (Adams, 1986). With funding from EEC and lOB, GOG Is currently divesting Itself of the land by breaking up the estates Into farms averaging 7 ac or garden lots of 1 ac (V.I. Dally News, Nov. 27, 1989). More specifically, fanns established In valley bottom areas ranged from 4 to 5 ac; those In more marginal areas generally have ranged from 5 to 10 ac In size. Forested areas have been excised from the program and put under the management of the Forestry Department (C. Francis, land Use Officer, pers. comm., 1990). To date, seven of the estates have been divested and the lands transferred to 76 farmers. The latter lease the farms with an option to buy after 15 years. Paradise Estate was the most recent property Involved In the land reform program. In light of the fact that much of the land Involvoct Is marginal, a development program for each farm reportedly Is being prepared Jointly by the recipient farmer and the Ministry of Agriculture. Each plan covers land use, cropping patterns, etc., and thus Is designed to help ensure suffi cient protection of the land from degradation. 149

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Table 5.1 (7). Information on Grenada's Model Farms. See also Figure 5.1 (1). KEY NAME ELEVATION (m) SIZE (ha.) MARGINAL LAND GROSS NET (%) 1 Black Esay** ().15 10.1 81 2 PerserveranCit *** Q-305 64.8 51 3 BelleVue, SG 150-215 m.1 13.8 40 11 Bon Accord*** 230425 56.7 20.2 64 5 Laura 120-180 39.7 31.2 22 6 La Sagasse ().10 47.8 21.9 54 7 Requln-0.15 41.3 15.8 62 8 Marlmont 4().OO 48.6 24.7 9 Percher 395-460 26.7 12.6 s:: 10 La ForCit 105-230 60.7 27.9 54 11 BelleVue, SA 215460 89.1 53.4 40 12 Grand Bras 1().75 74.5 55.1 26 13 Parallse ().10 80.2 34.4 57 14 Mt. Home 120-150 12.6 9.7 23 15 Sprlngs** 150-305 84.2 56.7 33 16 Carriere 9().18O 28.7 22.7 21 17 Poyntztleld 10 17.4 16.2 7 18 Montrevll 150-300 64.4 51.4 20 19 Levera*** ()'5 48.2 4.0 92 20 Samaritan*** 45-150 15.0 12.1 19 21 Diamond 45-200 55.1 43.7 21 22 Socage-20-290 141.7 83.0 42 23 Loretto*** 6().150 19.8 19.8 0 24 St. Orner** 3Q5.410 36.4 8.9 76 RangefTotais ().460 1,296.1 714.1 45 Reduced RangefTotaIs**** 0460 668.4 418.6 37 ** Estates to be returned to previous owners. *** Estates that will be BOld by the Model Farm Corporation. **** ReduCitd totals after removal of estates returned to previous owners or sold. SourCit: Organization of American States. In 1959, Vernon, et 01. identified a connection between soil erosion and the level of tenure security on Grenada's small farm holdings. With no security of tenure, for in stance on land which is rented for short peri ods of time, there is a tendency to over-exploit the land, to avoid planting long-term (tree) 150 crops and otherwise implement necessary soil conservation measures. As noted earlier, there has been an in crease in the extent of banana cultivation on the island in recent years. This trend has im plications for soil erosion. As a growing

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GRENADA Model Farms Project 1 Black Bay 2 Perseverence 3 Belle Vue 4 Bon Accord 5 Laura 6 La Sagesse 7 Requ;n 8 Marlmount 9 Pecher 10 La Force 11 Belle Vue 12 Grand Bras 13 Parad;se 14 Mount Horne 15 Spr; ngs 16 Carr;ere 17 PoyntzHeld 18 Montreun 19 Levera 20 Samar; tan 21 O;amond 22 Bocage 23 Loretto 24 St. Orner 2 1 ** ** 3 23 22 *** *** 4 *** 9 **5 ** Figure 5.1 (1). location of model farms In Grenada. 151 21 ** 24 :*20 **** **** **** 18 *** *** *** ** 17 *** *** 10 16 *** *** *** ** 15 14 **** **** **** **** 12 **** **** **** 10 **** **** 11 os 7 ltOO' 6," lS'

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crop (roughly nine months to throw a bunch after pIa. ling), it is often the choice crop of squatters (or others with insecure tenure) seeking a quick return, even on very steep slopes within forest reserve areas. The banana is an herbaceous perennial plant, rather than an actual tree crop. It has a very shallow rooting system and no tap root. Thus, while its large leaves afford some protection to the soil from the erosive force of raindrops, it does very little to consolidate the soil and thereby prevent it from being weathered and transported downslope. The only sites on Grenada's state-owned farms where soil erosion is a serious problem are those where pure stands of bananas are being cultivated on steep slopes (Adams, 1986). EROSION RELAT!NG TO OVERGRAZING Soil erosion and general land degra dation resulting from overgrazing have become significant problems in Carriacou. Almost ev ery family on the island has many (in some cases, a dozen or more) animals, and the herds are expanding. The principal reason for this situatioll is the existence of a relatively high priced livestock market in Trinidad which re inforces the view that animals are a ready and reliable form of cash. Trinidad's healthy mar ket for livestock is rooted in that country's large East Indian popUlation which maintains the tradition that meat must be blessed before it is slaughtered. The herd size on Carriacou expanded significantly following a 1983 ban on exporting breeding female livestock, effected through the withholding of necessary quarantine docu mentation. (Crane and Rojas, 1985). The Government was seeking to force livestock owners to sell within the national market rather than to the much higher priced external markets, primarily Trinidad. The herd's size is considered to be in excess of Carriacou's present carrying capacity. It is estimated that there are over 10,000 ani mals on the island, equivalent to about 1.3 animals per acre on average. This figure seems reasonably accurate given that in 1982 almost 6,000 sheep and goats alone were ex ported (i.e., not including cattle, burros, pigs). 152 Effective livestock management on Carriacou is made particularly difficult by a long-standing tradition known as the -tet go season. When gardens are being cultivated, from June to December, animals remain fenced or tethered. But after the harvest, when vegetation on the island generally begins to dry, animals are permitted to roam and browse throughout the islaud at their own free will. An excessive number of animals also results from the fact that much land is unsuited for agriculture and/or is owned by absentee landlords who leave their properties unman aged. An island resident can thus possess many more animals than could be supported on the actual amount of land (if any) which he or she owns, particularly during the dry season. The effect "is a classic case of overuse of what essentially becomes a communal resource the land" (Crane and Rojas, 1985). USE OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS USAID (1984b) reported that yields per acre of cocoa and bananas in Grenada were low in comparison tl) other areas in Latin America and Africa where these crops are grown. This was believed to be partially due to the high cost of agricultural chemicals, leading to "insufficient levels of fertilizer and disea:;e control inputs". The solution recommended by USAID was to set up an incentive program to increase significantly the amounts of agro chemicals used by Grenadian farmers. USAID grant funds were also earmarked to support, train and equip a Pest Management Unit within the Ministry of Agriculture. A CIDA funded cocoa rehabilitation also in cludes incentives to farmers to increase the use of agrochemicals (see additional discussion in Sections 8.1 and 8.2). It is important that such efforts also include attendant training on ap propriate application and management tech niques. However, recent interviews conducted by DeGeorges (1989) with key persons it>. volved with pesticide management, including Grenada's Pesticide Control Board (PCB), in dicate that Grenada does not yet have proper management controls in place. There currently are no pesticide in spectors in the PCB, and the country generally

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larks both trainer1 personnel and equipment to monitor systemaLcally pesticide residue in hu mans and in food products. Farm workers, for example, are not monitored regularly for the effects of pesticide exposure. Once per year only c.ocoa sprayers reportedly are indirel examined through hemoglobin blood counts and body ion and fluid acalysis. Additionally, pesticide poisonings are believed to be occur ring frequently than reported or are di agnosed incorrectly when reported. Concerns over the chronic sublethal effects of long-term exposure remain unaddressed. There is a soils laboratory in Grenada, a plant diagnostic laboratory, and a produce laboratory, all operated by the Ministry of Agriculture, as well as the CWC's water quality microbiological laboratory. However, qualified staff in each of these facilities is limited, and equipment is periodically non-functional. It has been suggested that all the labs should be combined to form a central government labo ratory that could jointly serve several or all branches of Government, as is done it! Trinidad and Antigua. An alternative ap proach, with specific reference to pesticide analysis, might be for Grenada to carry out only preliminary extractions on pesticide sam ples in-country, sending the specimens for more detailed analysis CARICOM's Caribbean Environm
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ment are discussed in detail in Section 12. The Department's effectiveness in promoting soil and water canservation programs has been diminished by the fact that many former quali fied officers have been lured away from Gov ernment to work with one of the various commodity boards. Some of the boards maintain their own extension programs (Bourne, 1987). According to Lausche (1987), no existing legislation stipulates requirements for soil and water conservation on private lands or on non-forested state lands. However, the 1949 Forest, Soil, and Water Conservation Or dinance (updated in 19B4) allows for private lands to be declared reserves and state lands to be C:eened "protected forest". 1l also contains provisluns for controlling squatting on state owned lands. 1984 amendments to the law in clude lists of tree species to be protected on private lands as well as updated penalties for offenses. Reportedly, the amendment rehting to tree protection is not presently enforceu, but given improved forestry-related extension wo .. k and advice to farmers in the future, it is hoped that such enforcement wilt be possible (A. Joseph, Min. of Ag., pers. comm., 1990). COMMODI'IY ASSOCIATIONS AND COOPERATIVES Three commodhy associations Grenada Banana Cooperative Society (GBCS), Grenada COCl)a Association (GCA), and Grenada C
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ernment, it is unlikely that these groups will as sume such responsibilities. 5.3 POUCY RECOMMENDATIONS FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH FOR IMPROVEDPRODUCTnnTY Given the number of people involved and their collective c,'ltribution to Grenada's GOP, farmer productivity should be a key gov ernment priority. According to Babb, et lil. (1984), gains in productivity should be sought in small increments through better extension programs, fertilization, reductions in praedial larceny, improvements in pest and disease management, and diversification. Among the recommendations of these authors is that a new approach to research, extension and training, based on Farming Sys tems Research (FSR), be adopted by the Min istry. Such an approach involves working with farmers in analyzing and planning for their to tal farm enterprises in light of available re sources and prevailing conditions. It relies on a farmer's knowledge of what will grow, as well as available labor and marketability. The approach should be well inte grated with the country's marketing entities, including hucksters and private traders in volved in non-traditional crops. An FSR ap proach can foster a mutually supportive system as traders will be more aggressive in seeking market opportunities if the Government's pro grams are supportive, and farmers will be more inclined to diversify if marketing opportunities are made available. Babb, et al. (1984) point out that only minor structural reorganization of the Ministry would be required for an FSR framework as the key element is a re-orientation of ap Jiroach. The Caribbean Development Bank maintains a similar view on what is needed to improve the agricultural sector. It reports th(!.t "agricultural development in Grenada requh'es a consolidation phase with emphasis on insti15'5 tution building with long-term objectives and policies focussing on the [small] farmer as the center of [GOG] decision-making .... The en trepreneurial spirit that has led to the estnb lishment of small farms deserves support in helping farmers to improve their management methods" (COB, 1987). A renewed focus on the small farmer as an active participant in a learning-by-C:oing process (almost an individualized or cus tomized extension strategy) would presumably contribute to improved environmental man agement practices in the agricultural sector. A CAUTIONARY NOTE As discwjsed above, beginning in 1986, with the objective of divestiture of about 3,400 acres of farm land from 24 Government-owned estates, the so-called Model Farms Project has methodically proceeded to dete without any se rious environmental problems. As of the end of 1989 the has transferred 76 farms, averaging seven acres, or approximately one seventh of the project's origiual goal. It has a long way to go. Initial funding for this program came from the World Bank, but more recently, for the 12 farms in the Paradise Estate, the EEC provided EC$827,OOO for roads, improved drainage, and a new irrigation system, averag ing about USS25,OOO per farm in capital im provements. This investment will be at risk if proper envirr)Dn:eutai management strategies arc not conveyed to the farmers by pro.iect leadership. As the number of new farmers on the remaining, yet to be distribu'.edl estate lands increase, there will be a significant need to press for land husbandry practi..;es :timed at reducing erosion impacts. One promising as pect of the Model Farms privatization initiative is its linkage with the USAIDand CIDA funded cocoa production assistance project which requires a degree of environmental sen sitivity because cocoa crops grow so slowly. PRIVATIZATION OF PUBLIC ENTERPRISES While privatization of non-financial public enterprises in Grenada (mostly statutory

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bodies) has proceeded as p!anned, some tar gets of the I\trategy, such as the agricultural commodity marketing boards and a few re maining active agricultural estates, suffer from continuing inefficiencies. Because of their congenital shortage of operating capital, and consequently their continued state of indebt edness, they have no funds to deploy for environmental programs aimed at either reducing farmer impacts on the landscape or improving the environmental management of product waste. Marginally solvent statutory bodies are disinclined to spend scarce funds on environmental technologies or conservation practices. Therefore, the successful privatization of at least some of these surviving public enter prises, especially those for which either pro duction or processing activities involve an environmental risk, should include a program of environmental contr'Jls which prer,umably the converted, more profitable private-sector en terprise would be able to support. 156 ADDmONAL RECOMMENDATIONS GOG should establish more direct linkages between the expanding tourism sector and agriculture. A pesticide application certification process for small farmers should be set up, using some combination of the Ministry of Agriculture's extension agent system and local farmers' p.ssociations. GOG should establish procedures for the regular testing of potable water and food stuffs for pesticide residue (with special attention to groundwater) It is extremely impoitant to establish a centralized, fulIy-functionai government laboratory testing system serving various min istries with one large or a group of clustered laboratories, in order to maintain operationally redundant instrumentation and to thereby ensure back-stopping.

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SEcnON 6 ENERGY AND INDUSTRY 8.1 ENERGY PRODUCTIONANDCONSUMYnON PATIERNS Energy consumption by resource type has been computed for Grenada by the Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) for 1975-1980 (Koulen and Livingston, 1981) and was updated to 1983 by UNDP (1985). Table 6.1(1) (drawn from Alexander, 1978) illus trates this energy budget and provides a com parison with four neighboring island ooun tries. table reveals that, as in all the OECS nations, imported petroleum products constitute Grenada's largest energy source, as a proportion of totai supply. As in every OECS country for which published data are available, the most common petroleum fuels are gasoline and diesel oil. Gasoline is used nImost entirely within the transportation sec tor. Diesel is used primarily for generating electricity but also for transportation and as an industrial fuel. All fuel used on the island is received at the Grand Mal Bay Petroleum Terminal and subsequently distributed by truck. In 1980 a preliminary household en ergy survey was undertaken by OLADE. This has been the only attempt to date to precisely quantify consumption of commercial as well as non-commercial renewable sources of en ergy (e.g., fIrewood and charcoal) in Grenada. The survey results can be summarized as fol lows (Hodam and Associates, 1982; Alexan der, 1987; see also Table 6.1(2) for compari son with four other Caribbean countries): -48 percent of the energy consumed in Grenadian households was obtained by burning fIrewood, mostly for cooking and baking. Almost 50 per cent of all households sampled used wood as a cooking fuel, but the num ber varied greatly with location. 157 Electricity accounted for 22.1 percent of household consumption. It was used mainly for lighting, refrigeration and ironing; cooking and water heat ing with electricity were very uncom mon. -14.3 percent percent was derived from kerosenc, used mostly for lighting and, to a lesser degree, cooking. About 75 percent of households sampled use kerosene. Liquid propane gas (LPG) 9rovided 13 percent of total household energy oonsumption and was used almost ex clusively for cooking. Although the Grenada household en ergy survey has becn widely quoted, its results were, ('act, later found to be flawed due to bias iu[roduced by interviewers (UNDP, 1985). Many of the interviewers compromised the random nature of the survey design by avoiding targeted households that were not easily accessible in heavily forested, steep rural areas. The survey thus reveals more about energy usage along public roads (where electricity is more readily available) than about household energy consumption patterns in general. While the 1980 household survey re sults are not entirely reliable, and assuming an overall bias toward roadside homes, it is still quite evident that a large proportion of Grenadian households use more than one source of energy, and that the rural residential sector consumed nearly all of the fIrewood and charcoal. Based on this survey, the OLADE energy balance for 1980 estimated that fuelwood and charcoal accounted for over 20 percent of the total energy supply (UNDP, 1985).

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Table 6.1(1). Energy consumption by resource (TJ). RESOURCE ANTIGUA GRENADA Electricity 135.7 76.7 Gasoline 515.6 328.0 Diesel 179.4 51.1 Kerosene 13.6 46.9 LPG 60.4 42.6 Fuel Oil TOTAL PETROLEUM & ELECTRICITY 904.7 545.3 Firewood 166.1 Charcoal 23.7 8.5 Bagasse Other Biomass 8.5 TOTAL RENEWABLE SOUR(ES 23.7 183.1 TOTAL ENERGY 928.4 728.4 Source: Alexander, 1987. It is useful to compare statistics from different countries derived from survey esti mates, and the data on per capita household energy consumption provide useful bench marks. Table 6.1(2) shows in both absolute and per capita terms that firewood consump tion figures for Grenada are the highest re ported for any of the OECS nations. As noted above, the Grenada survey found that 70 per cent of households use charcoal, compared to SO percent in Antigua, 39 percent in Montserrat, and 88 percent in st. Lucia. Yet in Table 6.1(3) the figures for consumption of charcoal in Antigua and Grenada appear low in comparison with the other countries. The low figures are most likely due to an under reporting of charcoal. In Grenada, in particu lar, it seems unlikely that a society which con sumes such large quantities of flfewood would consume so little charcoal (Alexander, 1987). MONTSERRAT ST. LUCIA ST. VINCENT 158 29.5 167.8 SO.l 72.8 701.2 313.1 27.5 266.2 213.9 6.3 46.0 50.3 14.7 146.1 95.4 14.9 150.8 1,342.2 758.8 115.0 115.0 15.3 211.7 106.5 89.5 42.2 15.3 368.9 311.0 166.1 1,711.1 1,063.8 Problems with estimating the con sumption of energy from New and Renewable Sources of Energy (NRSE) are common in all the OECS countries. Several factors account for this. First, tbe trading units employed for traditional fuels of charcoal and flfewood are inconsistent. Second, various wood species with differing moisture contents are utilized; and, third, it remains difficult to select a sur vey sample for which the results will be repre sentative of the broader population. As a re sult of these problems, consumption of energy from NRSE is not regularly reported (OAS, 1987). These database limitations have impli cations for institutional attempts at energy sector analysis and management strategies. The estimated demand for fuelwood and charcoal in Grenaca is on the order of 40,000 cubic meters roundwood equivalent

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Table 6.1(2). Residential energy consumption by resource (TJ). RESOURCE ANTIGUA GRENADA MONTSERRAT ST. LUCIA ST. VINCENT Electricity 57.4 72.4 6.6 52.4 36.6 LPG 38.5 42.6 12.9 106.9 82.6 Kerosene 7.7 46.9 5.7 46.0 46.9 TOTAL PETROLEUM & ELECTRICITY 103.6 161.9 25.2 205.3 166.1 Firewood 157.6 115.0 115.0 Charcoal 13.7 8.5 15.2 211.7 106.5 TOTAL RENEWABLE SOURCES 23.7 166.1 15.2 326.7 221.5 TOTAL ENERGY 127.3 327.1 40.4 532.0 387.6 Source: Alexander, 1987. Table 6.1(3). Summary of usage of fIrewood and charcoal in households. COUNTRY ANTIGUA GRENADA MONTSERRAT ST. LUCIA ST. VINCENT % OF HOUSEHOLDS USING FIREWOOD N/A 50% N/A 43% N/A Source: Alexander, 1987. 159 % OF HOUSEHOLDS USING CHARCOAL Over 80% Approx. 70% 39% 88% N/A

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(Kcbr, 1986). The quantity of these products produced locally was estimated by UNDP at a roundwood equivalent of 14,923 cubic meters, a figure which Smith (1986; cited in Miller, et oJ., 1988) believes to be unrealistically high. Nevertheless, even allowing for a large error in the estimates of fuelwood usage, it seems that fuelwood cutting may still represent a siplificant im pact on the environment. Electricity. The Queen's Park Power Station, sited just north of St. George's, is the only electrical generating station on Grenada proper. The total installed generating capac ity in 1988 was officially 13,460 kW (although actual output is considerably less than this, perhaps as low as 9,700 kW; Blaize, 1989). The total annual electrical consumption was about 38 million kWh (V. Renwick, Director of Trade., pers. comm., 1989), although, again, this figure has been reported lower at 22.4 kWh by the former Prime Minister (Blaize, 1989). Total installed capacity is expected to increase to about 23,000 kW over the next 5 yeaJ!, (V. Renwick, Director of Trade, pers. comm., 1989). Electricity is currently transmitted throughout the entire island via an 11 kV grid, although plans exist for the installation of 33 kV lines. Normal consumer voltage is 230/400 V, 50 HzThe proposed grid im provements are shown in Fig. 6.1(1). For the period 1970-1988, both the gross supply of commercial energ'j resources and the net fmal consumption show a fluctu ating pattern with a mafked trough in 1973-1974. The latter is probably a reflection of the increase in petroleum prices in 1973 combined with the local political instability in 1974. Supply increased between 1970 and 1988, from 17,700 Tonnes of Oil Equivalent (TOE) to 34,190 TOE. In terms of petroleum fuel consump tion specifically, the trends have shown a re duction in kerosene, increases in non-electric ity-related diesel fuel, gasoline, and LPG, and large increases in electricity-related diesel fuel (V. Renwick, Director of Trade, pers. comm., 1989). 160 Energy costs in Grenada's trans portation sector are higher than in any other, a pattern that is common in tropical, small is !and states. Presently there are no viable al ternatives to oil. In light of the above, it is important that a vigorous attempt be made to explore alternative energy sources in those sectors of the economy where this is presently or potentially feasible and where such sources will contribute to greater self-re liance and improved environmental health. Several New and Renewable Sources of En ergy (NRSE) are examined in the foUowing sub-section of this chapter. Since its establishment in 1980, the collection and compilation of data on com mercial energy resources have been carried out by the Trade, Industry, and Energy Divi sion of the Ministry of Finance. The Division uses four main data sources: imports of petroleum (from the Customs Department), sales of petroleum (from the petroleum mar keting companies), electricity (generated, con sumed, and lost in transmission and distribu tion), and price levels of refmed products. Local retail prices for fuelwood and LPG should be added to the list of collected data. NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES In Grenada and the other OECS countries, the only renewable energy source which currently makes a significant contribu tion to total energy consumption is oiomass. Other renewable sources are relied on else where in the region, but their total contribu tion remains small. These include wind en ergy in Antigua, bagasse (sugar cane residue) in St. Vincent, and solar water heating on sev eral islands. The following is a discussion of the renewable and/or new sources of energy which currently are used in Grenada or which have been studied.

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GRENADA _._._. Existing 11 kV Proposed 11 kV Proposed 33 kV Queen's Park 61" 12"15 10 05 12" !Xl FIgure 6.1 (1). ExIstIng and proposed electrlcaI grtd, Grenada (source: UNDP and Federation of Danish Export Counci, 1986). 161

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Biomass. As noted above, biomass is the only significant renewable energy source used in Grenada, mainly in the form of ftre wood and charcoal. These resources are used almost exclusively for domestic cooking, but, reportedly, ftrewood is burned in some of the country's commercial bakeries (OAS, 1987). Coconut shells and husks, both by products of the copra industry, are also used. Most are burned as a fuel to generate process heat in the copra factories while about 17 per cent are used to produce charcoal (Ale, ander, 1987). Bagasse (sugar cane residue) main tains some potential promise as a biomass fuel, but there are problems with: (a) costs related to transportation from the outlying areas, where cane crushing takes place, to the sugar factory at Woodlands and (b) the high degree of residual moisture in the bagasse. Use of agricultural wastes has many of the same problems, and, additionally, given the size of Grenada, the amounts available are likely to be small (UNDP, 1985). Biogas (methane) is produced through anaerobic digestion of vegetable and animal wastes. Since it does not require cen tralized production and distribution, it is well suited to small fa.-ms and remote communities (Hinrichsen, 1981) and thus to use in a coun try like Grenada. Ten biogas plants at Mirabeau and one at Mount Hartman have been commis sioned since 19K' (but only six plWlts were completed). The technic:tl feasibility of biogas production in Grenada has been amply demonstrated. However, the question not yet addressed is whether biogas can make a sig nificant contribution in reducing Grenada's dependence on petroleum. According to UNDP (1985), the years of biogas experi mentation undertaken by the National Science and Technology Council have ... merely en dorsed the obvious fact that biogas can be produced, provided external funds can be ob tained to construct and run the plants." Fac tors such as net production costs, optimal lo cation of the plants, and social acceptability of the gas as an energy source have not been in vestigated. In fact, it appears to be generally 162 true that the main attraction of biogas tech nology is its capacity to dispose of agro-in dust rial and agricultural wastes, rather than its potential as an energy source (UNDP, 1985). Alcohol fuels can be produced from aerobic fermentation of sugar or starch-bearing crops like cassava. These fuels can even be used as a substitute for gasoline (Hinrichsen, 1981). However, on the small islands of the Eastern Caribbean, any large scale use of land to grow crops for this pur pose rather than food production would un doubtedly be unacceptable and therefore not feasible. With regard to the traditional biomass fuels, firewood and charcoal, it is ap parent that significant gains in efficiency could be made. Firewood generally must be gath ered close to where it will be sold and/or used as it can rarely support transportation costs and remain competitive with other available fuels. However, in producing charcoal from wood, a great deal of the raw material is wasted. As a result, there is same justification to support the argument in favor of agro forestry projects and community-based fuel wood plantations. The conversion process in Grenada is much less efficient than it could be, even without substantially changing the systems currently employed. For example, Nelson (1981; cited in OAS, 1987) reports that fire wood is stacked for only one to two days be fore it is put, insufficiently dry, in a charcoal kiln. Virtually all kilns in use in Grenada are earth kilns in which it is generally difficult to restrict combustion to only that portion of the total wood supply required to generate suffi cient heat to char the remainder. Since the conversion efficiency of charcoaling is primar ily a function uf the wood moisture content and of the technology employed for the pyrol ysis process, there is cons!derable room for improving efficiencies and reducing wastage. WiUl traditional, low-cost earth kilns, a maximum conversion efficiency of about 20 percent is attainable. However, the efficiency can vary a lot depending on the size of the kiln, the skill of the charcoalers, soil damp ness, breeze, rainfall and the care provided to

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control smoke (Jennings, 1979). With more modern charcoal kilns, the conversion effi ciency rises to 25 and even 40 percent. If the gaseous and liquid products of pyrolysis could be captured and used, the efficiency could be increased to 80 percent. Nevertheless, the charcoal stoves used by individual households are more efficient than wood fires; presum ably, a simple wood-burning cooking stove de sign could be made available at an attractive cost to improve efficiency at the consumer level. Hydropower. Often promoted as one of the most promising forms of NRSE for Grenada, hydropower has the potential to re duce on imported petroleum sig nificantly (UNDP, 1985). The economics of small hydro-plants in Grenada may be favor able, but it is doubtful whether the net bene fits would be quite so favorable if the envi romnental costs of construction of even small dams on extremely steep terrain were to be factored in. According to a pre-feasibility study of hydropower conducted in 1981 by S.C.E.T. International, the total power which could theoretically be derived from hydro is about 8,000 kW (8 megawatts). This is only a little less than present system capacity. Other studies on hydropower in Grenada include OlADE (1981), Kennedy, et 01. (1983), Clark (1983), and Caribbean Institute for Meteorol ogy and Hydrology (1983). A primary con straining factor in all these studies has been the lack of hydrological data. Currentiy, hydropower is viewed by GOG as offering a partial solution to energy generation, probably effective only in the wet season. A pilot project of 150 kW is now be ing contemplated in the Marquis River; the next planned development site is in the Great River (V. Renwick, Director of Trade, pers. comm., 1989). Several other small-scale (100300 kW) hydro-development projects are be ing considered for the st. Francis, St. Marks, Riviere Antoine and Concord watersheds. All watersheds are steep enough so that large dams are not required to build up the neces sary head of pressure. However, the very of the topography calls for careful attention to the control and mitigation of likely environmental impacts in the construc-163 tion of hydro-plants, roads, dams and trans mission lines. Geothermal. A reconnaissance study of Grenada's geothermal energy potential was carried out by Geothermica Italiana (1981). The conclusions of this study are that the most promising area in Grenada for development of this energy source is Mount St. Catherine and that there is a high probability of fmding sufficient heat resources for electric power generation. Two or three geothermal wells driving small (3-5 MW) generating plants would make a very significant contribution to electrical power capacity. Neve(theless, there are serious technical problems or unknowns associated with such development. Some of these can be reduced through additional pre-feasibility studies (e.g., geological and hydro-geochemical studies and drilling of test holes), but, even then, there would be some risk of failure. Access to the area is difficult because of the rugged terrain, and this would further add to the costs of an already costly venture. In light of these factors and the high costs associated with geothermal exploration, GOG feels that the benefits of investing in geothermal energy development appear to be marginal at this time. At the same time, Gov ernment remains interested in investigating the long-term development possibilities (V. Renwick, Director of Trade, pers. comm., 1989). Wind Enersy. A study of the feasi bility of wind-generated electrical power in Grenada (based on a 130 kW NORDTANK Danish turbine design) was recently com pleted by UNDP /Federation of Danish Ex port Council (1986). Since the study relied on existing wind data which did not account for night time hours, the calculated energy pro duction potentials should be considered rough estimates only. Winds appear to be strongest in the: dry season, a condition which would nicely complement the availability of hy dropower, but no long-term data are avail able. Five sites were recommended as suit able for construction of wind turbines: Lance awe Epines, Little Bacolet Point, Telescope Point, Artiste Point, and Bathway Beach.

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Telescope Point is felt to be the most suitable of the five from the standpoint of wind condi tions as well ru; factors. Only one or two turbines were rei: ommended for installation at each site, due partly to the limited availability of suita1Jly sit uated Govemment land and partly to limita tions of the existing electrical distribution grid. The total additional powt':.j' which can be gen erated without major extensions of the grid system is about 0.9 MW, or 10 percent of the existing in.'italled power capadty. Ac cording to the study, three out of the five sites can produce energy at a lower cost than the existing power plant. At present, GOG is -moving cautiousl1 in lool-ing at wind-gener ated power (V. Renwick, Director of Trade, pers. comm., 1989), and efforts are being made to obtain more complete data. Despite their historical wind-powered mechanical devices etc.) are not much used in Grenada at pre sent, due to their replacement by d'!Clrical devices and perhaps due to limited mainte nance services. They may still be a useful and economically attractive option 01] the smaller islando like Carriacou ahC Yetite Martinique (UNDP, 1985). Solar Water Heating. A number of small-scale solar units in difft;rent applications are presently viable, including water heaters, water pumps, desalinization devices, and crop driers. Such systems can to im provements in the quality of life, particularly of rural peo,le living in remote areas. Solar water heating, for example, b a very well-de veloped technology and the most immediate use of solar energy at present. Its ad0ption in Grenada, however, has been slow due io the disincentive provided by a 30 percent tax on the import of solar units (UNDP, 1985). Pro posals for removal of this tax and other simi lar disincentives on energy-efficient appliances are currently being prepared by the Energy U nit of Government. INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES There is a single national electrical utility company, Grenada Electricity Services, 164 Limited (GESL or GRENLEC), which has been a fidly-owned Government company since 1982. ThrOlllghout the 1980's, the ('.om pany was plagued by a variety of problems, including an insufficient actual capacity, an in adequate tariff structure, low levels of techni cal and a hOilt of general financial difficulties (World Baru::, 1935). c\s noted above, capacity has been increased but the utility is presently facing an accumulated debt of about $10 million. A Government report on the company notes that it "IS in a serious crisis situation that can cause tremendous fis cal and political embarrassment to the Gov ernment of Grenada as its sole shareholder. The report claims that the troubling situation permeates all aspects of Jte utility's opera tions and recommends that its upper i:"an agemcnt be reorganized (Virgin Islands Daily News, Dec. 15, 1989). On Carriacou and Petite Martinique, electrical generation is the of Carriacou Efectricity Deprutment, part of the Ministry of Works and Communications. There are no formal links between this de partment and GRENLEC. Plans are under way, however, for GRENLEC to purchase and operate the Carriacou facilities (V. Renwick, Director of Trade, pers. comm., 1989). 8.1.2 Problems and Issues Favorable strata for oil and gas re sources exist in many areas of the Eastern Caribbean, including the South American coastal shelf, the Grenadines, and in deepwa ter areas to the east and west of Grenada. A report to GOG by Van Meurs (1981) assesses some of the issues involved in oil exploration offshore of Grenada. Follow-up seismic and geophysical surveys were conducted by Canada International Assistance Corporation in 1984 and Geo'physical Services Interna tional in 1984. The primary constraints to further efforts ar(; the lack of agreel .ent re garding the maritime delimitation between Grenada and its neighbors, lam. pertaining to offshore exploration, and weak administrative infrastructure within GOG (UNDP, 1985). Petroleum and maritime laws have recently been updated, and GOG is now

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making efforts to delimit its boundaries and interest companies in offshore exploration. Obviously, an offshore oil strike would have a significant impact on the energy (and economic) picture of Grenada; unfortu nately, it would also have the potential for sig nificant environmental impacts, such as di'i turbances to bottom communities during ex ploration and installation phases and even more significant environmental risks during production phases, as a result of the pctential for oil spills from tankers and/or oil well acci dents. A commou problem with NRSE, il lustrated by the biogas project, is the tendency of local administrators and technicians to fo cus on projects aimed at establishing the tech nical feasibility of energy sources, ignoring the fact that in most cases feasibility has already been well researched i.n otber countries (UNDP, 1985). With the exception of geothermal and wind technologies, investigating technical feasibility of most NRSE in Grenada is simply a waste of resources. What needs to be addressed in the local context are the positive and negative socio-economic and environmental impacts, net energy cost/benefit accounting, raw material avail ability, and cultural factors affecting the acceptability and economic feasibility of alternative energy sources. 8.1.3 Recommendation. POLICY ISSUES It is clear that Grenada is heavily re liant on imported petroleum products and, as a result, is depleting itself of badly needed foreign exchange. To counteract this undesir able situation, the courtry must: (1) place greater emphasis on en ergy conservation; (2) improve and develop simple technologies for more efficient energy conversion and utilization of indigenous resources (e.g., better charcoal kilns); and 165 (3) make a greater effort to pro mote and adopt alternative forms of energy which already are feasible in the Caribbean context. According to UNEP (cited in Hin richsen, 1981), Caribbean islands "seem well suited to the large scale application li many non-conventional methods for the production of energy ... coupled with a strict energy conservation policy." Furthermore, the use and sustained production of biomass fuels is obviously an is sue of major importance for small island countries. It is rarely given tJje attention it de serves and may oue day prove to be a greater barrier to development than the very serious one posed by the cost of sustaining an" ex panding oil imports (Kristoferson, et aI., 1985). TECHNICAL ISSUES (1) BlolIWs. (a) Develop sustainable forestry management strategies for wood harvesting. The resowce supply should be protected over the long term through careful management 'If existing and future resources, through multi ple land use policies (e.g., agroforestry), and through effective use of agricultural process residues. (b) Promote integrated land use systems (i.e., agroforestry) and community forestry throughout Grenada. This will help make fuelwood resources available on a rHore widespread basis and thereby reduce thr need for charcoal, in light of the latter's lower sys temic efficiency. (c) Utilize more efficient systems for processing biomass into charcoal. Char coalers should be encouraged to employ more efficient kilns in converting wood to charcoal. This has often been difficult in many countries because earth kilns require very low capital investment and provide much-needed em ployment. However, metal kilns of very sim ple design which are easy to build and main tain can be utilized. Such devices are often

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transportable, i.e., assembled on-site from several previously constructed pieces, and can produce charcoal more efficiently and quickly than with the traditional earth clamp method. They may be constructed of sheet metal by local craftsmen in workshops equipped with basic facilities for cutting, welding, rolling, and drilling. Two men working a normal five day work week can produce 2-3 tonnes of charcoal with such kilns. They also can be operated in an alternative manner suitable for carboniza tion of small wood pieces or coconut shells. (2) Geothermal. Several important questions need to be carefully studied and re viewed as the country moves to exploit its geothermal potential. (a) The viability of geothermal elec trical power generation is not assured. Stud ies in St. Lucia by the U.S.-based Los Alamos National Laboratories in 1984 indicated only a 30 percent cost advantage for geothermal power over a 3O-year project life (CCA/IRF, 1988). Grenada might do well to monitor the expenence of other Caribbean islands (especially St. Lucia) which have recently in stalled geothermal wells. (b) There are a wide range of largely unforeseeable damaging environmen tal effects associated with development of geothermal-generating facilities. Some of these impacts include: Chemical and thermal pollution of stream water and air from the geothermal steam di5:charge, all of which have been reported; health im pacts on workers from toxic gases and environmental injury to vegeta tion and wildlife have been reported at geothermal plants (e.g., in Sonoma County, California); Physical damage to the vegetation and soil erosion in the watershed re sulting from construction activities and pollution of drinking water sup plies by sediment, induced erosion, chemicals, and hydrocarbon wastes; 166 The risk of siting incompatible in dustries in the area to use the waste heat from the generators; Diminishing the value of the Mount St. Catherine area for nature tourism. (c) If successful, the project risks over-dependence on a very fragile producing system. A small geologic shift could sever all of a country's geothermal wells at the same time. RESEARCH AND DEVEWPMENT In the Caribbean, there is insufficient support for research and development activi tit!s by both the public and private sectors. This is as with reference to energy as in other sectors. If technological development is left to extra-regional interests, local conditions will be given insufficient consideration and lo cal development patterns will continue to be dominated by outsiders. 6.2 INDUSTRY Following the military intervention in 1983, a substantial amount of foreign and pri vate investment was optimistically expected. Unfortunately, the actual amount of invest ment has lagged behind these expectations, and the country's economy remains weak and in need of considerable external support. In dustrial development, however, is still a na tional priority, and in view of long-standing Government enthusiasm and programs for encouraging industrial growth, as well as the possibility that this sector may grow in the future at a more rapid pace, it is increasingly important that the Government take steps now to protect against industrial-related envi ronmental pollution. 6.2.1 Overview In 1987, manufacturing grew by 16.5 percent, faster than any other sector (GIDC,

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1987). However, in growth in the sector was down to 10.3 percent, lower thau pected. Growth in 1987 was primarily based on the traditional commodities of beverages, cigarettes, 1nd flour and related produl:ls. In 1988, paints and varnishes also showed a strong performance with 48 percent gro ..... th (B!aize, 1989). New manufacturing industries such as garments and foods are facing diffi culties due to the virtual disappearance of CARICOM markcts and to limited absurption into the local market (GIDC, 1987). In 1989, a manufacturing grvwth level of 8.5 percent was projected, but Governmellt also maintains that capacity in the has been underutilized and that therefore the fu ture of Grenadian manufacturing might hold even more potential (Blaize, 1989). Accord ing to the Industrial Development Corpora tion, which may be a bit over-optirr.istic, ... Grenada is on the threshold of a period of rapid industrialization [and] this will require real transformation of the society" (GIDC, 1987). Current manufacturing activities in clude preparation of food and food products, rum distilling, processing of copra to refined oil and soap, lime juice and lime oil extrac tion, ice cream making (using ice cream mix, skim milk and fat imports), milk production, three soft drink factories (using imported con centrate flavors), a cigarette factorj, an ani mal feed factory (using imported concen trates), a brewery, a rice mill, a juice plant, a meat packing plant, a canning and bottling plant (using imported raw materials), three garment factories, a pre-galvanized sheet steel rolling mill, and amn ti:e retreading shops. Carriacou has a ginnery and boat building industry. During 1986, with fundiug and tech nical assistance from USAIO, maj(;! road works were undertaken, Point Salines airport was completed and became fully operational, and a project was begun to develop about 20 acres of land near Frequente into an industrial park under the Industrial Development Commission (IDC). The LJSAID-fmanced project at Frequente will total approximately 108,000 square feet (.If new factory space in fourteen buildings ("factory shells). At pre-167 sent only one building in the park remains unoCClJpied. The Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) has financed another 40,000 square feet of factory space in four buildings adjacent to the USAID project. Two other IDC pro jects involve the construction of a total of 60,000 square feet of "factory shells" in the vicinity of Mt. Gay/Tempe, which is already a major manufacturing area. (See Section 8.1.3 for a discussion of environmental impacts due to industries in these areas.) GOG originally wanted to develop an industrial park at Pearls Airport, but report edly rejected this site due to a negative envimnmental review and the presence of archae ological remains (Amerindian burials). CDB is now looking at funding the industrial park and is considering a site at Seamoon Estate. INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES The Industrial Development '.:orpCi ration (IDC) was created by the Industrial Development Corporation Act (No. 2 of 1985). Its primary functions are to promote investment in tourism and manufacturing and to manage; Grenada's industrial esta.tes. The IDC acts as a one-stop agency both local and foreign investors by identifying in vestment opportunities, conducting sectoral surveys and feasibility studies, providing training, coordinating investments, and fur technical, fmancial, and marketing as sis(ance to small, local entrepreneurs (World Bank, 1985). The Grenada Development Bank was creatrd in 1976 by the Grenada Agricultural and Industrial Development Corporation Act (No. 11 of 1976), as amended (No. 33 of 1980). The GDB provides technical assistance and loans to help the development of promis ing industries. It is closely linked to the In dustrial Developmeut Corporation through a common board ..... :,:.LI conducts separate meetings for each corporation.

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8.2.2 Problema and IIIUH The industries listed below, all common in the Can1>bean, tend to generate high liquid waste loads which create treatment and disposal problems. In most cases, waste streams are subject to little or no treatment prior to disposal and thus contribute to coastal and marine pollution. The major industrial pollutants are biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended and dissolved solids, and nutrients in the form of phosphates and nitrates (Archer, 1984b). cane sugar molasses rum or other alcoholic beverages beer soft drinks edible oil soap animal feed abattoirs poultry processing arrowroot production canneries margarhle produ1ction. Table 6.2(1) provideJ pollutioD data on the industries in Grenacla, includinf w .. ,ste loads and coastal marine impact. Wastes from the sugar factory and rum distilleries are discharged into rivers and appwximately 75 percent reach the sea following naturai aera tion and dilution. Caustic waste from the brewery is neutralized prior discharge to a stream via which a ;arge portion reaches the sea. Dairy waste with high BOD is released to the marine environment as is that from the slaughter house ,;"ith its nutrients and chloride content .!.:J84b). waste loads in Grenada are low comp?Jed to other CARICOM countries. Grenada I s agro-chemical and agricultural waste, as well as &cwagt;, are considered more signifiCJ'.Dt water pollution pmblems (see Section 8). Essentially, there is relatively little industry in Grenada at present and most of the newer industries, such as garment and furniture ml:tDufacturing and ekctronic components assembly, use little or no water for industrial processes. They therefore are noticeably absent from the table as their efflu-168 enis were not analyzed in the Archer (1984b) study. In specific areas, industrial effluent contributes to specific problems. At St. ('\corge'b, for example, the sewage problem is compounded by unchlorinated effluents from "badly operattxl package plantsW at Grand Anse Bay (Archer, 1984c). About 12 new industries have begun operation in Grenada in the last two to three years. All are reportedly wrelatively clean w (R. Buckmire, IDC, pers. comm., 1989), with the possible exception of four or five plastics in dustries, most of which are using an extrusion process. One factory is consiJering manu facturing foam products. A codfish processing plant is being considered for the Telescope area. COB has mandated the avoidance of industries with heavy BOD or chemical emu ents in future projects financed by the Bank. A COB consultant is writing a iJ1anual for IDe on mitigating practices for industrial ef fluents harmful to the environment, especially for the plastics, paints and chemical industries. The Bank is also interested in starting a pro gram to reduce the toxic content in the effluent of existing paint industries by 10 percent per year (R. Buckmire, IDC, pers. comm., 1989). With regard to industrial solid waste, Archer (1984b) notes that in the fish process ing industry, unknown volumes of scales and entrails are disposed of at sea or in dumps, contributing to and marine poliutiua:. Abattoir waste (bones, skin, and entrails) also are dumped at sea. Archer classifies bagasse (sugar cane residue) and banana trash as rmdustrial wlid wasteW and notes, "It seems that the greatest threat to the coastal ecosystem lies in the waste discharge from the ba nana 8.2.3 Policy Recommendations Acooiding to Archer (1984b), Grenada and other CARICOM countries should develop a regional code of practice for industrial waste disposal to marine and coastal environments to ensure tlie protection of

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Tahle 6.2(1). Grenada industrial waste disposal and its impact on the coast and sea. Types of Total Waste Total Waste Loads/ Industl)'/ Volume Contaminants Air Pollution Process lrY m3/yr. tons/yr. Sugar Cane 7,236 127.60 No air pollution COD 23.00 problem except in Molasses SS 172.70 the immediaf e and syrup IDS 114.00 leeward side. of Distillel)' Oil 0.80 refuse burnt in Nitrogen dumps. Brewel)' Compounds 0.31 Zinc oxide 0.82 Edible oil Chlorides 0.20 Alkalinity 1.24 Coconut meal Total 440.67 Soap Dail)' products Fruit cannery Abattoir Fish processing SoCt drinks Flour Mill Source: Archer, 1984b. 169 Impact On Coast and Sea High BOD and discolored waste from brewery, distillel)' waste, and caustic effiuents Crom oil, soap, and soft drink manuCacture" that are discharged to rivers and streams reach the &ea at local areas in a dilluted state. Waste load comparatively low. Remarks There is need for Jetter control over the treatment and disposal of in-dust rial waste into rivers and streams. These eventually reach the &ea, but volume is comparatively low, and may not cause large scale destouction of marine life. and fertilizer residues and soil erosion pose greater threat to the Toxic waste through marine environment. pesticides and her bicides used in bl'.nana and nutmeg cultivation could possibly have more adverse effect on marine ecosystems. Fertilizer wastes have been suspected in causing eutro phication in some coastal areas.

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coastal ecosystems and amenities. Countries in the region should consider taking this one step further. It would be worthwhile for them to cooperatively set standards on the degree to which effluent and all other forms of in dustrial pollution must be treated before dis posal and on methods of disposal, as well .. In reality, such measures would be very difficult to achieve. The need or desire for short-term economic benefits in virtually all developing countries is very great, and of ten there is little or no regard for long-term concerns such as environmental protection. 170 However, when it is realized that environ mental impacts invariably involve opportunity costs, for instance by degrading fisheries or tourism amenities, it becomes more critical that at least some minimum pollution stan dards should be developed. Furthermore, in the absence of such standards, additional in dustrial development in the Caribbean may create a situation in which one country be comes a "polluter's haven," affecting not only existing industries and the quality of life in the polluted countr'J but also in nearby islands that are seeking to maintain better environ mental

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SECTION 7 TOURISM 7.1 OVERVIEW 400 Economic Performance 300 200 100 Exports .. -_ ...... _---...... .. ---.. Tourism 0 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 11gure 7,1 (1), Economic performance: GOP, exports, and tourism (current $EC millions), 1982 to 1987. (adapted from: World Bank, 1988, 1989). A general comparative analysis of growth indicators in Grenada during a recent sir year pe riod is provided in Figure 7.1(1). At fIrst glance, tourism does not appear to be particularly signifI cant. The fIgure displays the comparative growth of GDP, total exports and tourism receipts from 1982 through 1987. The ratio of tourism receipts in 1987 ($EC75 million) to Gross Domestic Product ($376 million) is less than .25 --for many countries in the Eastern Caribbean, tourism to GDP ratios are over 50 (McElroy and Albuquerque, 19(6). Nevertheless, the Government of GreD3da assigns a high priority to tourism devel opment for the nation. One explanation for this (despite the analysis in Figure 7.1(1 is that tourism is the most dynamic growth sector of the economy. In Grenada, during the period since 1982, tourism appears to be growing signifI cantly faster than the overall economy. This fact is illl'strated in Figure 7.1(2) which displays the comparative growth rates for GDP, exports, and tourism for the period 1982 to 1987 (McElroy and Albuquerque, 1986). 171 2 1.8 1.6 1. 1.2 0,8 Exports 0,6 0, 0,2 0 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 Rgure 7.1 (:'). Comparative Indices of economic growth since 1982 (adapted from Rgure 7.1 (1}). McElroy, in the St. Lucia Country Envi ronmental ProfIle (CCA/IRF, 1988), offers addi tional jw:tification for assigning a high priority to tourism development. Tourism is an effIcient earner of foreign exchange (in many Eastern Caribbean economies, each dollar of tourism expen diture generates approximateiy one dollar of foreign exchange). Tourism taxes tend to be progressive -shifting some of the tax burden to richer consumers. Tourism is a fast growing regional sector, thus providing symbiotic growth for East ern Caribbean islands which benefIt from regional communication and transport systems built to support regional tourism. From an environmental perspective, there are reasons to view skeptically unrestricted growth of tourism. There are abundant examples within the Caribbean, and even within Grenada's own ex perience, of tourism developments which have generated negative social and environmental impacts.

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Furthermore, any tourism promotion plan for Grenada faces obstacles unique to that coun try, predicated primarily on the historical events of the past twenty years. It will take a prolonged ef fort to fully convince both visitors and potential in vestors that Grenada is a safe, serious to do business. This is a special problem at this stage in the growth of Grenada's tourism sector which, nevertheless, like its sister OECS counu-;' .. needs to import capital and some private sector man agement talent to support significant sector growth. On the other hand, Grenada's tourism potential has advantages over some of its Eastern Caribbean neighbors which need to be carefully evaluated. Among the major advantages are: Areas of relatively unbesmirched natural lands in the interior. An agncultural base which featl!r es high value-added products which also offer at tractive tourist experiences. Small hotels. No significant industrialization (with the potential of land use conflict with the tourism sector). A remembered history as a major yacht ing center and relatively easy access to world-recognized cruising grounds. A proposed system of national parks and protected areas with significant potential for further development of both local recreational and touristic attractions. INSTITUTIONAL ROLES There are thr institutions with a major role in tourism in Grenada. These include the Department of Tourism, the Tourist Board (which has been reconstituted and is sched uled to take over the functions of the Department of Tourism), and the Grenada Hotel Association. In addition, Grenada is a participating member of the Caribbean Tourism Organization from which it has received assistance in tourism planning. As sistance in the tourism sector has ,.lso been re ceived from the OAS through its cooperative Tnte grated Development Project with GOG. 172 Less than five percent of government expenditures go to support tourism development and promotion (Moore, et al., 1986). This low level of support is in line with the expenditures of other Caribbean countries, given the relative con tribution of tourism to Grenada's GDP and tax revenues. GOALS OF TOURISM POLICY The Government's policy statement on the tourism sector (May, 1985) includes the fol lowing key goals: 1. To further integrate tourism with agrI culture, handicrafts and fisheries. 2. To create and promote island-wide histor ical and environmental attractions. 3. To diversify the industry to cater [to] in ternational, regional and local clientele, as well as high, medium and low income persons. 4. To strive for an ailpreciation by visitors of the authentic Grenadian culture. 5. Improvement in the Quality of Life. Stan dards of physical and mental health re quire adequate recreational opportunities be created for the positive use of leisure time. 6. The Generation of Employment. Em ployment generation is critical and poli cies must emphasize growth in activities such as tourism with employment multi plier effects. The capability for foreign ex change earnings is an added bonus. 7. Reduction of Geographic Inequity. The development of tourisrr. attractions through the establishment of a system of parks and protected areas can assist integrating peripheral areas into the ur han centered national growth process, and improving regional/rural '..:conomic conditions.

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7.2 PROBLEMS AND ISSUES 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 19781979 1980 19811982 1983 1984 1985 1986 198719881989 Agure 7.2(1). A decade of tourlam atay-over and total vla/tora. 1979 to 1988 (adapted from: GOG. 19888). PAST PERFORMANCE Figure 7.2(1) compares the number of stay-over visitors to the total number of visitors to Grenada during the last decade. The apparent regular growth of stay-over visitors, evtn including the turbulent period of the early 1980's, is caused by the inclusion of "Grenadians residing abroad" in the count of stay-over visitors, beginning in 1983. Casual inspection of the source data indicates that 10,000 or more additional visitors may be ac::cUilted for in this category in recent years. When examining longer term trends of Grenadian tourism and their implications for the future, it is to note that 1968 stay-over tourist arrivals totaled 23,164 (Bryden, 1973) and had increased only to 32,252 by the end of the 1970's --suggesting very slow growth for a decade long period Table 7.2(1. More than any other single factor, it is this historic pattern of growth --and the economic and political stress which underlie it --which has the potential to deter future investment in Grenadian tourism. 173 Table 7.2(1). Tourism growth and rates. Dates Stay-over Tourists Rate 1961-68 7,970 to 23,164 16.5% 1968-79 23,164 to 32,252 3.1% 1979-88 32,252 to 61,795 6.7% Overall Average Compound Growth 7.9% Developing reliable tourist expenditure information is very difficult. It is generally neces sary to conduct detailed local surveys of both tourist expenditures and of the sources of goods and services which they buy. Furthermore, general estimates of "revenue" (or, more properly, expen ditures) need to be carefully analyzed on a sector by-sector basis to determine the real impact of ex penditures. 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 W.O 30.0 Stoyover Vis/tor Revenue Agure 7.2(2). Eatlmated tourlam revenuea ($EC Mlillona). 1979 to 1988 (adapted from: GOG. 1988a). Keeping these limitations in mind, Figure 7.2(2) illustrates that over the past ten years, rev enues from cruise ship visitors have been only from one-tenth to one-twentieth the size of penditures generated by stay-over visitors. This has significance for the design of future tourism development efforts in Grenada.

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According to this analysis, on a per head basis, each stay-over visitor is worth about $1,125, whereas each cruhe ship passenger spends about $33. That means each stay-over visitor is "worth" 34 times as much as each cruise ship visitor. Get ting a stay-over visitor to simply stay one day longer (e.g., increasing his or her stay from 8.5 to 9.5 days) is roughly equal to recruiting four new cruise ship passengers. The implications for Grenada tourism planners seems clear --the pri mary t.:mphasi!' of the country's tourism develop ment strategy should focus on stay-over visitors. This is not to say that such an emphasis needs to exclude Government's efforts to promote crUIse ship tourism or that further efforts should not be made to increase revenues from such visitors during their short-term stay in Grenadd. SMALL SIZE Tourism in Grenada is small in compari son to many other Eastern Caribbean areas both absolutely and relatively. As mentioned pre viously, tourism expenditures are less than lJiie quarter of Grenada's Gross Domestic Product. Nevertheless, th'! small relative size of the tourism sector is a potential advantage in planning future development. In addition, the small size of the typical hotel or resort in Grenada has meant that locz! bllsiness!Olen have been able to finance the acquisition and manageme .. t of these facilities. As a result, it seems that foreign ownership of hotels and resorts is lower in Grenada than in many other Caribbean areas. There are, however, to small size. Thr total supply of tourist rooms in Grenada is 1,040 (CfO, 1990), with about ha:f of these in Wguest houses, cottages, and apartmentsW (GOG, 1988a). In the Caribbean, hotels of less than 250 rooms are at iI major disadvantage be cause they cannot afford the costs of a regular in ternational marketing campaign. Grenada has only one hotel with more than 100 rooms. Grenada employs only 85 people per 100 tourist rooms. (deAlbuquerquc and McElroy, 1988) This low rate of employment gp.neration is another reflection of the small scale of many ho tels which are often run by owner-proprietors. The most importan', ;;ource of tourists for the Eastern Caribbean in general is the United 174 States. With only 25 percent of its stay-over visi tors coming from the United States, Grenada ap pears to be drawing even a smaller share of the U.S. market than might have been expected given its distance from the U.S. mainland. On the other hand, the country has not yet been able to take ad vantage of its location in order to draw Venezue lans and others from the South American main land. (These markets have become very important to places such as Aruba and Bonaire.) In spite of its previous history as a yacht ing center and the renown which it achieved as the home for Don Street's yacht lo/aire, Grenada lacks a strong foundation for increasing its yacht ing-based tourism. All of the existing bareboat and crewed charter operations lack direct U.S. (or other continent-based) reservation services and supply systems, which are generally necessary for a successful fleet of fifty or more boats. THE NATURAL ENV!RONMENT Half of all tourist facilities in Grenada are in apartments, guest houses and cottages. It is doubtful the environmental impact of tourists lodging in such facilities is distinguishable from other Grenadian residents. Indeed, these tourists may have an indirect, positive impact on the en vironment, to the extent that their presence dnd comments raise questions about environmeutal quality and amenities. In other words, the process of hosting tourists may haw! a wconsciousness raising" effect on public awareness of environ mental issues. An alternative way of expressing the same process is that tourism creates significant markets and increased economic values for envi ronmental amenities. Most of Grenada's hotel and resort rooms are clustered in the south'vestern peninsula, with many localed directly on Grand Anse beach. These facilities have made a contribution to the two major environmental problem:; of this region --scarcity of fresh water and r.llluted shorelines. They have also made a disproportionate contribution to the country's solid waste problem, but this is generally not rt; ognized as being as critical as the potable water and marine pollution problems.

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Hotels and resorts, however, are not the cause or even the predominant contributor to these problems because there simply are not that many tourists. To illustrate: Assume 500 hotel/resort rooms are located in the watershed between Golflands-Grand Anse and Point Salines. Assume each room is occupied by an average of 1.5 people, with an occupancy rate "f 60 percent; the result would be to 450 residents. Even if tourists use water and generate sewerage (the two are related) at a rate equal to 10 full time local residents, impact of these theoretical tourists would still be equivalent to only four or five thousand residents. There are already many more than 5,000 resident Grenadians now living between Golflands and Point Salines. Therefore, the negative envirunmental impacts of tourism on fresh water and on liquid and solid waste may be substantial and disproportionate to the tourist presence, but it is largely overwhelmed by the population pressures of almost 100,000 Grenadi ans living on a small island with limited arabk land and limited, accessible fresh water resource5. What is significant is the Cllmlllatil'e effer.t of nef1, ative environmental impacts generated by tbe Grenadian pIlls the tourist populations. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS Additional negative effects are often cited as reasons to control or restrict tourism devel opment. For example, it is generally felt that tourism results in the deprecation of local culture and values. II' recognition of this danger, one of the goals of thL official Tourism Policy 172) is strive for an appreciation by visi tors of the authentic Grenadian Several other goals also stress the integration or tourism values and experiences with local culture. The economic version of this argument is that tourism stimulates demands for goods which are not appropriate for' he country at this point in its nalional development, thus resulLing in wasteful imports. An opportunity to assess this effect is provided by evaluating the profile of imports to the country during the 11 years 1969 to 1978 (half a generation) when there was a very low rate of tourism growth. Thus far, there has been no reli able proof --or disproof --of this Jemonstration effect (McElroy and deAlbuquerque, 1986). 175 In recent years, numerous examples have been documented which illustrate the socio-cul tural impacts of tourism. The lessons a pragmatist might take from such examples is that there is little profit to be gained from trying to control the spread of ideas and values. A better objective might be to teach universal respect for people in gr.neral and to seek to maximize choices and op portunities within the dominant values of a given society. This is also a fair paradigm for a strategy for environmentally sustainable development in Grenada. INFRASTRUCTURE Planning. Government has a special in terest in a planning study of the adequacy of water and electrical power resources to support tourism, especially in the south and southwest. A variety of planning decisions for the sector could incorporate this data, many of them related to the scale of tourism which the country desires to promote and the costs that the country expects tourism in vestors to assume. That is, is it appropriate for the national government to pay for all water and power needs to support tourism, or should major investors he pxpccted to bear a significant portion of these costs? Alternatively, can Government justify providing a higher level of public services to tourists than are available to the majority of Grenadian citizens? Facilities. In recent years, the country has made significant advances in tourism in frastructure construction (see below, "Recent Ad vances). Additionally, many of the recommenda tions for improved cruise ship services by the 1986 Task Force on a Short Term Action Program for the Devebpm.:nt of Tourism in Grenada (Moore, et 01., 1986) have been completed. A remaining priority is onstruction of a sewerage collection and treatment system for the Grand Anse area (see also Section 8). The project is important for many reasons, several tourism-related: To protect the health of all people, Grenadians and tourists alike. To mitigate damage to the Grand Anse reef, which has been a significant tourist amenity.

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To eliminate a source of obnoxious odors in the midst of the island's best beach. To upgrade one of the most popular beaches used by a broad spectrum of Grenadian residents. To demonstrate the seriousness of Government's purpose in supporting and maintaining a minimum level of public services to attract stay-over tourists. To increase property values in the area to a level which would support new resort development. INSTITUTIONAL CONCERNS The ftrst priority of the 1986 Short Term Action Program For Tourism et 01., 1986) was to establish a streamlined institutional struc ture. This remains a priority which is in the process of being realized through the re-'Jrganization of the Tourist Board, which will assume the re sponsibilities of the former Department of Tourism. E.eyorJd tbese important steps, there is a continuing need to i.dentify and support innovative stratcgies which allow public and private sector groups involved in tourism, as well as those with environmental program agendas, to work together. For example, Grenada has an outstanding Hotel Association, which is, nonetheless, limited in what it can accomplish because of the small size of its membership dues base. The revitalized Grenada National Trust has the potential to serve as a central forum for public and private sector interests to explore cooperative ventures for the development of the country's cultural and natural resources, projects which serve both the local community and the tourism sector. RECENT ADVANCES [Statements excerpted from the Budget Speech of the Right Honorable HA.Blaize, Prime Minister anu Minister of Finance to The House of Representatives, 21 April, 1989.] 176 The recent decision of American Airlines to work toward commencing daily Oights into Grenada has given a significant boost to the Tourism Industry. This is certain to spawn the construction of additional hotel accommodation for the increased influx of tourists. Other significant developments have taken place to improve tourism. The Caribbean Tourism Research Centre (C'i'l<.C) and the Caribbean Hotel Associaticn (CHA) have now been merged into the Carib:,ean Tourism Organi zation (CTO). Thus, for the ftrst time, reseru-ch, training and the information system would Li: under a c:>mmon control with a combined techni cal staff of very high calibre. Complemcnting the Caribbean Tourism Organization is the Grenada Tourist Board which is in the process of becoming fully operational. In addition, many projects are taking place as part of a tourist enhancement plan. The Carenage Pedestrian Plaza has already been offi cially opened, thus making the St. George's wa terfront the frnest in the Caribbean. pro jects for which work has already startc d, or will soon start, include the development of a new Na tional Parks System and Fort Frederick which, together with Fort George represent significant tourist attractions. Work ic; also continuing at Grand Anse on the construction of the Camerhogne Park which, when completed, will in clude a car park, picnic area, wash rooms and a recreation area. As a result of these government initia tives, stay-over visitors are conservatively pro jected to increase by 9 percent in 1989 and cruise ship passenge.s by about 4 percent. In terrus of revenue to be earned from tourism, an increase of 8.5 percent is expected. 7.3 POUCY RECOMMENDATIONS MAINTAIN DIVERSITY Economic planners should !:ee the rela tively small size of Grenada's tourism sector as an advantage, i.e., the country is not (yet) over dependent on tourism. By balancing future devel opment between improvements in agricultural ex-

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ports, a modest increase in industrialization, and tourism, the country moves closer to being "recession-proofed. EMPHASIZE STAY'()VER TOURISM As discussed previously, development of the stay-over visitor component of Grenada's tourism industry is important. It should be noted that many of the achievements recorded by the country in the tourism sector have resulted in improvements to the cruise ship visitor infras tructure, e.g., improvements to the waterfront and to Fort George ar:d in the sewerage collection system in St. George's (development of the pro posed parks system should benefit stay-over visi tors, cruise ship visitors, and residents alike). It is important that improvements in systems which support the stay-over tourist also be given priority. USE OUTSIDE RESOURCES CAREFULLY Grenada faces many serious problems in both the short and longer term development of its tourism reSC'lurces. From the standpoint of public policy, perhaps the most difficult problem lies in the process of trying to move from the tourism style characterized by McElroy and deAlbuquerque as "low density, long staying," to an intermediate style. (deAlbuquerque and McElroy, 1988) Generally, to accomplish this transition, a country finds it necessary to rely on ouU .de sources of capital and management ex pertise. Unfortunately, in Grenada in the 1990's, these needs will run up against great pressures to reduce the balance of trade deficit. If it is to be successful in its development program, the tourism sector will need to be unusually efficient in the use of foreign exchange, including the use of innova tive joint ventures between public and private Grenadian resource managers and outside in vestors. IT1 USE LOCAL INPUTS STRATEGICALLY As Grenada looks to larger scale tourism alternatives, it will be very difficult to maintain the current level of local resource utilization. in other words, as the number of tourists increases, there will be a tendem;y to increase the marginal pur chase of imported goods and services to support them. For example, the issue will not be how to increase the sales of local produce; it is more likely to be one of how to avoid reducing such purchases. Resource manag,'rs from both the private and public sectors shvuld meet from time to time with leaders of the tourism industry to identify those sectors which should be "abandoned" to imports and those where better planning can actually in crease the local content of the tOUlist product. For example, by vigorous recruitment of overseas resident Grenadians, it may be possible to hold a large portion of middle and upper management positions in the tourism industry for local "repatriates," --a reverse brain drain which can have multiple advantages from the standpoint of public policy. PROMOTE YACHTING Grenada needs to place a higher priority on reviving yachting-based tourism. Although there are virtually no economic or development studies comparing the impacts of yachting-based tourism with more traditional hotels and resorts, anecdotal evidence is that such t'nterprises, espe cially relatively large-scale bareboat chartering, have favorable employment impacts and relatively benign environmental effects, while making few demands on social capital infrastructure. Cr.r tainly the experience of the pre-eminent chartering center in the world, the British Virgin Islands, would seem to merit emulation by more emerging tourist Yachting also provides a low cost way of distributing some of the benefits of tourism. to outlying communities and islands.

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SECTION 8 POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 8.1 O:vERVIEW SOLID AND LIQUID WASTES Island-wide solid waste generation for the island :J Grenada is calculated at about 89 tons/day, or 32,485 tons/year, based on a waste grneration rate of two pounds per person per day and an estimated population of 89,000 (Ministry of Health estimate, cited in Andrews, 198B). The amount of waste is computed ru, the product of the population size times the waste generation rate, but since estimates of total population size vary widely (see Section 2), the waste figure given above is very uncertain. Solid waste is a serious environmen tal problem in Grenada. Reports over the years have documented the extent of the prcblem a;td recommended various solutions. These have been summa.rized by Andrews (1988), a consultant working with GOG/OAS. Much of the discussion of solid waste in this section is taken from Andrews' report and a report by the Gren'lda Environmental Health Department (GOG, 1988c). The Ministry of Health currently op erates a refuse collection for the miijor population centers and two solid waste dis posal sites in Grenada. The main site is at Perseverance Estate, serving the western side of the island and the other is at Telescope Point, serving the eastern side of the island (Figure 8.1(1. There is one disposal site in Carriacou at Brunswick near Hillsborough Village; no official disposal site is deiiignated in Petit Martinique. In 1984 the Ministry of Health re quested assistance from USAi.D and Project HOPE in addressing the problem of solid waste. Vehicles, funds, training, and technical personnel were provit.ied by these and other agencies, which resulted in in c:leased collec tion nf waste and the uPbTfading of the dis posal site at Perseverance (adjacent to Halifax Harbor) to sanitary landftll status. Since the end of 1986, however, there bas been a steady 179 decline in the effectiveness of I'.ollection and the condition of the PerseveraIi site, which has deteriorated once more to an unsanitary open dump. GOG's Environmental Health Department (GOG, 1988c) attributes the cause of this decline to budgetary constraints, resulting in lack of parts and maintenance to keep collection vehicles and disposal site equipment running. All other sites are also now operating as open dumps rather than sanitary landftlls due to the lack of sufficient and appropriate cover, equipment for obtaining or hauling cover, and reliable landfill equipment. Thr. present landfill situation is a public nuisance and a health hazard because of fly, mosquito and rodent breeding, noxious odors, possible contamination of ground and surface \Vaters and exposure to toxic and haz ardous wastes (GOG, 1988c). Additionally, there are negative impacts on the tourism and investment sectors of the economy due to aesthetic concerns (e.g., litter, overflowing garbage collection containers, disagreeable odors,. and unsightly dumps). All dump sites are located in wetlands close to the coast, where they destroy productive plant commu nities, displact wildlife (JId affect marine water quality vi.l toxic leachates with a high n;.Jlogicai Oxygen Demand (BOD). Garbage from cruise ships also goes to the landfill at Perseverance, adding to the demands on this already overloaded site. Toxic or infectious wastes from the Municipal Hospital in st. George's are reportedly incinerated. The town of St. George's is served by a central sewer collection system with pipelines from 150 mm (6 in.) to 200 mm (8 in.) maximum diameter, reportedly completed in the 1940's. There was no treatment of the effluent; two pumping stations lifted raw sewage to the western shoreline along the bot. "1M of the cliffs below Fort George. The original sewer outfcJl pipe extended 91.5 m (300 ft.) offshore. Nevertheless, because of chronic pump failures, power outag:s, and

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GRENADA 0 0 Presently operating solid waste site Previous solid waste (now closed) Proposed solid waste Halifax Harbor site site Perseverance Sites Sewer outfall di scharge __ ---t t> Hto Hartman Estate Mto Hartman Bay Levera Site Boulogne Estate 12015' 10' os Figure 8.1{1}. location d pollution problem areas In Grenada outside dthe St. George's-Grand Anse area. 180

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apparent overloading of the system due to increased sewage flows ali the town developed, sewage was often by-passed via a pipeline to the inner harbor at the The pipe was broken by Hurricane Janet in lY55, and until 1985 raw sewage was discharged just off the coast near Fort George (Archer, Pre lim. Draft, n.d.). A project funded by CIDA to upgrade the St. George's sewer system and ex tend the outfall was completed in 1988, fol lowing a study of the oceanographic condi tions (currents, tides, etc.) at the proposed outfall location (MacGregor, 1987). Initiatives carried out during this project included replacement of pumps at the two major lift stations; installation of force mains; and eventual installation of a 375 mm (15 in.) ma rine outfall off Greenbridge near the mouth of the St. John's River (Figure 8.1(2. The length of the outfall pipe offshore is now 1,250 ft., and discharge is at a depth of 85 ft.; the ef fluent still does not receive any treatment (Archer, Prelim. Draft, lI.d.). Septic tanks are the standard methou of domestic and commercial sewage disposal in the suburban areas outside the central part of St. George's, and septic tanks and pit priv ies are also the disposal methods most used in the rest of the country. In a few areas where hard volcanic soil makes it virtually impossible to construct soakaways or privy pits, e.g., at Gouyave, pail closets are still used. The gen eral practice, even in suburban arellS, is to al low only wastes from the water closets to go into the septic tank. The gray water from laundries and kitrhen:; runs into concrete and earth drains and fmds its way to the rivers and coastlines. Rivers and coastal waters in densely developed areas such as St. George's, the St. John's River, Tempe and Grand Anse are therefore heavily polluted by a mixture of septic tank leachates and gray water. OIL POLLUTION Oil pollution in St. George's Harbor is reportedly serious (even in the relatively short time spent in-country, the CEP Project Team observed many oil slicks in the harbor). Some of the oil originates from bilge dis-181 charges and boat refueling operations, bui. much of it epparentIy comes from the dozen or so garages and service stations in the area as well as from street surface run-off. Waste oil and grease from garages is simply dumped into storm drains and on the ground and then washed into the harbor during rains. The De partment of Environmental Health is cur rently investigating the problem of surface oil pollution and underground leakage from gasoline station storage tanks into the wate: table. It has also been reported that oil pollu tion frequently occurs in Carriacou's Tyrrel Bay, discharged, perhaps along with bilge water, from the inter-island schooners an chored there. The nation's oil and other petroleum products are brought to Grenada by tankers. The number of oil tankers per year has aver aged about 63 during the period 1984-1987, with an average net registered tonnage of about 78,600 tons (statistics from Grenada Ports Authority; see al50 Table 4.4(2. Ap parently there have bo: ;',!w problems with oil pollution at il1..ll.a petroleum off loading and storage terminal, located at Grand Mal Bay north of St. George's. The occurrence of petroleum tar on beaches is common throughout the region, and the problem has been monitored by the Caribbean Pollution Program of UNEP, known as CARIPOL (Atwood, et 01., 1987/88). WitJdward coasts throughout the Caribbean. induding Grenada, are the most often with tar, indicating that the source flf much of the tar is upwind and beyond the control of individual governments. Fortunately, most of Grenada's important tourist beaches are on toe leeward side of the island. CARIPOL m"futoring data have shown that when beach tar values reach 10 grams per meter of shore front, persons using the beaches oommonly report getting tar on their feet. When levels are close to 100 grams per meter, beaches become virtually unusable for tourism. Average levels of beach tar mea sured on some Grenada beaches between 1980 to 1986 were in excess of 10 grams per meter (Atwood, et 01., 1987/88).

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land-use practices in the St. John's watershed cause sediment plumes. Solution= Bench terracing & other soil erosion pr'evention techniques Molinere Reef Grenada's most diverse reefseaf an-eel gl'as S d sewage from ecosystem ewer pl pe umps raw U Greater St. George1s via 1250ft outfall Oil spills; in St. George1s without holding tanks r St. John's Solution= Requil'e holding tanks; create/ enforce oi 1 sl'i 11 1 aw Garbage dumping along the cliffs and beaches St. George1s causes to wash up on Grand Anse Solution= Provide garbage bins & post fine VJ T. GEORGE'S With 390 existing rooms & 600 more to be constructed, a treatment plan is DTOWN urgent 1 y needed. I neffectua 1 sept i c systems & watershed run off contain sediment, pesticides, fertilizers & oil which give high faecal coliform counts & contribute to die back of reefs & algal I blooms. Grand Anse has lost 58ft of beach in 36 years. Solution:: Sewage treatment pI ant 01' outfall J Protect fvrest on upper watershed #-,-Prohibit mooring of boats Pump sand on beach \ -_ ( Granti Anse Revegetat i on watershed Pntchy fringe reefs show stress in the --r Allse '. ) northern end but remain healthy to the south. \ 25 acre Camerhogne \ Park site to be a Pointe Salines recreation park & I"'soakaway for gray .,,-"" water run off from watershed sewage treatment site o 1/2 1 Mile -,'Figure 8.1 (2). Some pollution problems In southwestern Grenada (source: GOG/OAS Grand Ansa Beach Erosion Study). 182

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INDUSTIUAL WASTES In the 1960's there were ocIy a few simple industries in Grenada engaged primar ily in the prOCf'..ssing of local raw materials for the manufacture of copra products, bay rum, beverages, garments and wood products. To day, as a result of a conscious public policy to industrial production, the sector in cludes a wide range of small-scale industries producing bot" for the local market and ex port. While manufacturing is still in an early stage of development, its potential for em ployment creation and export expansion are ranked highly by GOG economic planners (see also Section 6.2). No inventory (beyond the brief listing in Archer, i984b) has been done with mea surements r)r estimates of the quantities of irtdustrial poUutants received by various wa tershed drainage systems. All watersheds ul timately discharge into the sea, but at present most of the industrial effluents are concen trated in the densely populated urban settle ment areas along the st. John's River. The only operating sugar factory and rum distillery in Grenada is at Woodlands Estate. High-BOD rum distillery wastes are discharged into a ravine which runs into Woburn Bay. Similar problems of high-BOD waste disposal occur at all cocoa proces:;wg fermentaries; the main one is at Boulogne Estate in St. Andrew's. The many nutmeg operations produce tons of sheUs; some dump them into the nearshore waters where they decompose. The fish processing plant in Gouyave formerly discharged wastes directly into the sea but now has a septic tank to process the wastes first. The coconut oil plant located on the St. John's River is now closed, but there are plans for re-opening it. A garment industry factory also dischruges into the river, and there are three to four "heavy" industries, in cluding a pre-galvanized sheet steel roUing mill and auto tire retreading facility located in this area. A fruit proces:;ing plant is also be ing planned for the river. 183 In Frequente/True Blue Indus trial Park area, there is concern about the im pact of an existing paint plant near the Old Sugar Factory at L'anse aux Epines tum-off. The mangrove swamp across the highway from the Industrial Development Commis sion's factory sheUs appears to be under stress clue to drainage changes, land filling and trash dumping which are obviously taking place in the area and perhaps also due to effluents from the Industrial Park. In addition to the industries located in the Park itself, which include the Viking Enterprises Juice Plant and Bartel Mea s, there are a Carib Beer Brewery, a rice mill, and various other small industries along the highway which may potentially produce effluents harmful to the environment. A consultant for the Industrial Development Commission is reportedly looking into various means of reducing impacts of toxic wastes and developing standards for industrial discharges (R. Buckmire, IDC, pers. comm., 1989). Sunshine Meats, Ud. had proposed to build a 2,BOO-ani!Dal hog production facility and meat processing plant at Mt. Hartman with an annual production capacity es timated at 75,000 pounds of processed meat. This venture was to have bt:en partially sup ported with USAID /HIAMP funds. It was estimat::d that the facility would produce an estimated 60,000 gallons of waste on a daily basis, with Cher.lical Oxygen Demand (COD) in the range 1,000-8,000 mg/L, BOD in the range 500-3,000 mg/L, and high oon centrations of organic nitrogen, grease, and suspended solids (Earle, 1988). The facility would also have generated odors inevitably associated with ht)g production operations, no maUer how clean and weU-managed. Because of these factors, Mt. Hd!tman Estate was not the final site selected for this venture. Mt. Hartman Bay has the most reef development on the soulb coast. Waste water discharge from operatiollS such as the pro posed hog farm, coupled ,.r.:ith discharges from the large hotel/charterboat operation under development at Secret Harbor on the west side of the bay, can have :1 strong adverse ef fect on ambient water quality, water sports, and coral reef, seagrass beds and fISh produc tivity in the bay. Unfortunately, there is virtu-

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ally no baseline information on the status of reef systems and fIShing in the coastal area. TRENDS IN USE OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS Agriculture generally and banana growing in particular have become increas ingly dependent on ""mputs", not only of chemical fertilizers but also of pesticides and herbicides (the two classes of chemicals are coUectively called biocides). There are fourteen importers of biocides in Grenada, and in 19P9 they imported a total of 224,488 pounds of these chemicals (see DeGeorges, 1989, for a complete listing). This is a sub stantial increase from the 1986 (159,243 pounds) and 1987 (147,408 pounds) import levels. The imported biocides included 16 compot:nds listed as restricted and four as canceled by the U.S. Environmental Pro tection Agency (USEPA). The banana-producing Windward Is lands arc the heaviest users of biocides in the OECS countries, and it is estimated that the banana industry uses 99 percent of the im ported biocides and 99 percent of the USEPA restricted chemicals in thf' Windwards. How ever, Grenada is not as strongly committed to banana production as some of the othr.{ Windward Isi::mds. The 12 biocides imp::>rted into Grenada during 1988 in quantities exceeding 1,000 Kg are listed in Table 8.1(1); these account for 8: percent of the total imports. Gramoxone is used in the largest quantities, and together with Baygoll, Bop and Furadan it makes up some 67 per cent of imported biocides. Highly toxic chemicals on this list include the USEPA re stricted Furadan and Gramoxone (restricted because of to:ecity to humans). As shown in Table 8.1(2), Grenada imports ilie lowest amount of biocides of any of the Windward Islands (although it imports the greatest number of USEPA restricted chemicals). To put these numbers in per spective, DeGeorges (1989) reports that an estimated fonr to seven pounds of active in gredients of biocide are applied annually per acre in agricultural production on the W"md ward Islands compared to 23 pounds per acre in San Joaquin County, California, known as one of the world's most intensive areas for biocide use. The second phase of a large cocoa rehabilitation program in Grenada, funded by CIDA, seeks to continue training farmers in propagation techniq ues and to increase the wstitutional capabilites of the Grenada Cocoa Association. Part of the CIDA project in volves funding the reorganization of GCA's pest and disease control division and h1centive programs to increase thp. use of agrochemicals for increased production. A USAIDjPADF Cocoa Rehabilitation and Develop Project utilizes cocoa management demonstration ..,lots to transfer lessons learned to cocoa farmers, including improved management practices and improved agro chemical use. A1thcugh not quantified in tlW; re port, the usage of biocides and fertilizers by a number of other existing and proposed pro jects in Grenada ic; ground for concern over the possible environmental effects of these substanCf'.s. For example: (,.AROI has a 10-acre experimental station in Calivigny which has been reported to use large quantities of Banana growers employ aerial spraying on their crops, using a mix ture of mineral oil and fungicides. Nutmeg and cocoa growers use large quant:ties of Gramoxone (Paraquat) to keep down we.eds. Sugar cane growers in the southeast area use heavy applications of fertil izers, and there have been suspicions of groundwater contamination. PUBLIC HEALTH In recent years there has been an in creasing incidence of skin rashes and ear infections among persons swimming in the Grand Anse Bay area, where water quality sampling has shown high fecal coliform counts 184

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Table 8.1 (1). Blocldes Imported Into Grenada during 1988 In quantities exceeding 1,000 Kg (2,200 Ibs). BIOCIDE Baygon Spray Benlate Bop Insecticide Callxln Cooper Aykiller Furadan Gramoxone Mai:ithlon Roundup Herbicide Sevin 85% Sprayable Shelltox Insecticide Tilt Source: OeGeorges, 1989. (see Section 8.2 below). It is suspected but not proven that sewage poUution may be re sponsible for these infections. There is also a high incidence of gastro-enteritis and viral hepatitis in Grenada, two communicable dis eases linked to water and sewage poUution. Statistics on the incidence of the latter two diseases are shown in Table 8.1(3). 8.2 PROBLEMS AND ISSUES COASTAL SEWAGE POLLUTION Investigations of coastal water poUu tion in Grenada have been carried out only in recent years and have focused mainly on the area from the mouth of the St. John's River to Grand Anse Beach. The major sources of poUution by liquid wastes on this stretch of coast are (see also Figure 8.1(2: 185 QUANTITY (KG) 10,865 1,383 21,957 2,950 1,476 16,050 19,095 1,122 2,199 6,522 2,089 1,250 (a) the St. John's River, which dis charges industrial wastes, eroded silt and gray water; (b) the discharges from the abattoir and fISh processing plants immediately south of the river; (c) an outfaU pipe which dumps raw sewage from greater St. George's di rectly into the sea; (d) hillside run-off from housing developments and yachts without holding tanks which dump smaU quan tities of raw sewage into the water in St. George's Harbor; (e) at Grand Anse, 390 existing hotel rooms which have ineffective septic tank systems and discharge gray water directly into storm drains and watershed run-off which contains sediment, pesticides, fertilizers, oil and animal wastes (Archer, 1984c; Taylor, 1986, 1987).

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TablR 8.1 (2). Pesticide Imports In the OECS countries. COUNTRY St. lucia Grenada St. Vincent Dominica Antigua St. Kitts/Montserrat NO. OF IMPORTERS 15 14 9 9 9 minimum PESTICIDE IMPORTS 1/1 /31/1989: 759,182 lb. 1988: 224,488 lb. 1988: 906,697 lb. 1988: 2,345,712 lb. or 847,076 lb ... 1988: no quant. records Needs to be Investigated Based on Pesticide Control Board statistics ** Based on Dominica Banana Marketing Corporation statistics Source: DeGeorgos, 1989. NO.OFUSEPA RESTRICTED PESTICIDES 13 20 10 11 12 minimum Table 8.1 (3). Incidence of gastro-enteritis and viral hepatitis in Grenada, 1980 -1986. Year Cases Reported GASTROENTERITIS ViRAL HEPATITIS 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 Sources: Waal,1987 1,045 334 1,664 994 1,364 621 814 Archer, prelim. draft, n.d. 186 152 34 35

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Discharges from the St. George's SeMrage System. The n:arine outfall pipe from the S1. George's municipal sewer system d!scharges raw sewage 1,250 feet offshore from the mouth of the St. John's River, and the outfall area is now a favorite fishing loca tion. Based on an &cwered popula tion of 10,000, Archer (1984c) derived a total sewage flow of 2,500 cubic meters per day, or 0.66 million U.S. gallons per day. He er,li matt!d waste loads and pollutants discharged from the system, in tons per year, as folluws: BOD = 197, COD = 440, suspended solids = 200, total dissolved solids = 365, nitrogen compounds = 0.33, pho:sph,'\tcs = 4. Discharge:; from the Lagoon. The Lagoon is a shallow hal bor immediately south of the inner and outer harbor at SI. George's, which is used by small craft and yachts. There is a marina here with service and haul-out facilities. Archer (1984<:) estimates that 378.5 cubic meters or 100,000 gallons per day of gray water and 58.3 cubic meters or 15,700 gallons per da)' frc.m oVl!r-llowing septi: tanks 1l0w into the from uphill housing de velopments. Adcied to Ihis pollutallt 10ad are wastes from yachts, repair shops, and persis tent leachates from tl:r:: old municipal refuse dump on the eastern banks of the Lagoon. The Lagoon if, fllJshed mainly by tidal action and therefore retains wastes for long periods. Discharges f\'Om the St. John's River. Archer (1934c) has listed the types of pollutants and has computed the industrial waste loads dischargl!d on the coast north of Fort Gt!orge Poinr, mainly from the St. John's River. Land uses ill the river basin are a combination of iarming (bananas, cucoa, nutmeg, root fmir trees, &heep raising), light industry (an edible oil/soap/cocollut meal factory, soft drink faclories, a fruit cannery, a flour mill, a concrete block plant, mechanical repair shops), and dense housing development. Industrial wastes (approximately 17,280 cubic meters during 1982-1983) are discharged directly into the SI. John's River 01 its tributaries, and there is probably significant pollution of the river b:r pesticides and fertil izer residues, gray war'.:r and sewage. The nematocide Furadan. used on banana plantaIH7 tions, is known to have a half life of three months and persists in water. FoUowing mod erate overnight rainstorms, there are heavy discharges mto the river of sediments from eroded clay soils, leading to the conclusion that sedimentation may be at least as great a threat, if not greater, to marine life than the other pollutants (Archer, 1984c). Miscellaneous Discharges. The abattoir and fish processing facilities immedi ately south of the St. John's River discharge small quantities of suspended solids and high nutricnt directly off the coastline (Archer, 1984c). Discbarges from the Grand Bay An>..a. Taylor (1987) states that the area be hind Grand Anse Beach, the site of the pro posed Camerhogne Park, was 8rigmally a sViamp which was an important natural drainage feature. The swamp was filled in during 1940's, but the artificial drainage system installed on the site is very poor, con sisting of paved shallow collector drains and earthen ditches terminating at the sea head west of the Spice Island Inn. The drain backs up at high tide, and the outlet is frequently clogged with sand. The Medical School, Ra mada Inn and the Gmnd Anse Shopping Center have small individualtr:!atment plants, which discharge their effluent into the drains. Toilet wast os from other hotels and buildings discharge into individual septic tanks, and be cause of the high ground water table septic tank effluent finds its way to the drains during heavy rains. Gray water from the buildings goes directly into the collector drains. Feces from oftcn untended also are washed into the drains by run-off. Water at the se:J head in the southern part of Grand Anse 8ay next to the Spice Island Inn is therefore highly pollutl.:d. Archer (1984c) conducted a fourweek reconilaissance study of water quality parameters at both inshore and offshore sta tions from Grand Anse to the St. John's River, including nutrients, BiCJc\Jemical Oxy gen Demaud, tolal and fecal coli forms, total suspended solids and 'JOlatilc (orp,anic) solids. He found concentrations of sus pended solids at the SI. John's River mouth, the Carenage, the bank of the Lagoon, off

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Memorial Point, the Ship the water course near the Silver Sands Hotel and the northern seahead at Grand Anse. Volatile solids averaged 33 percent of the total sus pended particulate matter, a figure typical of water pollt;ted by fecal matter or some indus trial wastes. Fecal colifor1'ls were present at al most every station, and there were very high counts at the St. John's River mouth, the northern seahead drain at Grand Anse and the Lagoon. Fecal coliforms at Grand Anse Beach far er.ceeded U.S. water quality stan dards for swimming areas. The results of Archer's study were rather inconclusive as to the effects of pollution on the reefs but indi cated a severe public health risk if steps were not taken to ameliorate the existing levels of water pollution. Surface currents have been measured off Grand Anse between Quarantine Point and Eloi Point by the use of drogues (Cambers, 1986b). During the flood tide, the current moved in a southwest to westerly di rection at an average speed of 0.177 m/sec., which is in general agreement with the pattern shown in the ECNAMP data atlas (ECNAMP, 1980). During ebb tide the cur rent regularly moves in a west to northwest di rection at an average speed of 0.115 m/sec., slower than for the flood tide but still a sig nificant water movement. The greater speed of the southwesterly flood current over the northwesterly ebb current indicated that there would be a net movement of polluted water from the St. John's River and St. George's area to Grand Anse. In the Grand Anse area, polluted water may simply move in a body parallel to the coast and not immediately out of the area as would be the case if there were a unidirectional current. Between Quarantine Point and Point Salines the ECNAMP data atlas is somewhat vague, showing only occasional or intermittent currents. In actuality, there is a very strong flood current measured by Cambers at 1.162 m/sec., which agrees with the observations of currents reported by fishermen. Such strong currents indicate that this area may be favor able for the siting of future ocean outfalls for the southwestern section of Grenada. 188 On the basis of water samples col lected at 25 stations on a single day (February 20, 1987), Hunte (1987a) found that nitrate and phosphate levels within Grand Anse Bay were higher than those within the Har bor /Lagoon water mass and higher than within the St. John's River/Fort George water mass. Pending further studies, Hunte tenta tively suggests that the high nutrient levels in Grand Anse Bay result primarily from nutri ent sources within the Bay itself, rather than from the importation of nutrients originating in other areas. Nitrate and phosphate levels at all locations sampled were higher than val ues typical of other non-polluted coastal waters in the Eastern Caribbean. Several sewage disposal studies have been done for the Grand Anse/Morne Rouge area through the assistance of various inter national agencies including PAHO, OAS, CIDA, and USAID. A USAlD-funded pro ject to address sewerage problems at Grand Anse is now in the fmal planning stages. The most recent design and costing studies Steiner (1985) and Berger, Barnard, Thomas (1988). The project will involve construction of a force main with a mariile outfall and is intended to serve the current Grand Anse area population of 12,400. The estimated de sign capacity of 18,000 persons is expected to be reached in 20 years. The level of waste treatment (if any) and the exact location of the pipe have not been decided as yet. A recently completed environmental assessment study funded by USAID (Hunte, et 01., 1989) inves tigated four alternative locations for the out fall pipe and found that Point Salines was the site which offered minimal risk of coastal pollution, taking into account seasonally varying currents, acceptable dilution of pollu tants, a seabed favorable for excavation and placement of the pipe, relatively unimportant biological bottom communities, and a readily available onshore treatment plant site. This study recommended that in order to protect public health, achieve an ac ceptable dilution of nutrients, and yet be fea sible from the standpoint of available techni cal skill and construction, operation and maintenance costs, the most preferred alter-

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native is to combine "preliminary treatment" with a 350 meter (1,148 ft.) long outfall having a diffuser providing initial dilution of at least 100. The cost for this option is projected to be USS300,OOO. "Preliminary treatment" meanc; simply remuval or grit, grease and large particulate maller, not "primary treatment" as that term is used in the United States. ENVlkONMENTAL RISKS OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS Fertilizers. Chemical Fertilizers are in widespread in Grenad1i. NPK (nitrogen/phosphorus/potassium) types of fertilizcrs are most commonly used. Sulphate of ammcnia, a source of nitrogen, is also pop ular as an input to banana production. The greatest potential risks from such use in the environment are reported to be soil deterio ration and nutrient overload in downstream and coastal receiving waters. Coral reef ecosystems are especially sensitive to the ef fects of over-fertilization of the nearshore waters. At present ther.e i:. insufficient infor mation to determine whether there is signifi cant pollution of the rivers and coastal waters by f(!rtilizer residues, although some regard this as likely. Pollution levels were measured in a reconnaissance survey of stream water quality in Grenada's watersheds (Ternan, Williams and Francis, 1987). The re:iults of this very limited survey indicated that fertilizer pollution of Grenadian rivers by agricultural activities at the time of the survey was not sig nificant. The maximum nitrate concentration recorded (1.6 mg/liter) WaS ill the Great River. Potassium concentrations were also found to be low. However, information re ceived bv the CEP Project Team from indi viduals with the Central Water Commission on the subject of fertilizer pollution in drink ing water supplies is in apparent conflict with the results of the Ternan, et al. (1987) recon naissance survey of water quality. More de tailed and more recent testing is needed. Biocides. The benefits of using pesti cides are usually straighl-forward and imme diate, but em lronmental and health hazards caused by their use are much more difficult to 189 evaluate because they are often delayed in ap pearance, subtle, undetected or ignored (Larew, 1988). Properly assessing the risks posed by pesticides requires data on the fate of these compounds in the environment and the level of exposure of humans. The data on environmental impacts in the Caribbean are very limited, but alarming in at least some cases. A Jamaican study (Mansingh and Prasad, cited in Larew, 1988) found persistent pesticide residues in soil, fresh !Uld salt water, and vegetable.:;. Very Hmited sampling in Dominica and St. Lucia (cited in CCA/IRF, 1988) found only low levels of pesticide residues in the environment. Until monitor ing is conducted in Grenada, it will not be possible to assess adequately environmental or human health risks. Some biocides are applied by back pack sprayer, and some Jre sprayed from air planes. The liquid carri.:r in both cases is a mineral oil, known generally as Spray-Tex. The oil, a light petroleum distillate, is mixed at different ratios with the various biocides selected. The oil alone is sometimes applied by ground crews for fungal control. Since a considerable quantity of this oil is applied, the question of its possible effects on wildlife de serves investigation. Among the different insecticides, nematicides, herbicides and fungicides avail able, some are more critical than others from an environmental perspective. Each group has its own characteristics and represents a special challenge to the resource manager who must seek to use them with the least pos sible damage. The insecticides such as DDT, Heptachlor and Chlordane, although no longer in use in developed countries, are still used to some extent in Grenada, mainly for termite control. These chemicals, which can cause acute poisoning in vertebrates (including humans and fishes) are not edsily broken down in the environment (Le., decom posed), and hence they persist for long peri ods after application. If there is high surface water run-off in areas which are predisposed to residues of these organochlorines in bottom s(;diments of water bodies can be locally high, even though drainage water (Le.,

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water that has inftltrated the soil) from treated sites is almost free from contamina tion because of high absorption onto soil particles. The synthetic pyrethroids, another class of commonly used insecticides that im pact negatively on the environment, are not as persistent as the organochlorines. Examples of synthetic pyrethroids are Ambush, Decid and Karate. Like the organochlorines, these chemicals arc toxic to fish and economic in sects such as bees. Thus, in the absence of a well-managed, on-farm spraying regime, the chances of endangering aquatic and useful in sect life will be substantial. The safest class of insecticides are the organophosphorus compounds, such as Malathion, Metasystox-R and Phosalone. Preferential use of these insecticides is advo cated in light of the fact that they are non-per sistent and not very toxic to vertebrates and bees. Nematicides, which are used to con trol the spread of nematodes and soil insects, are very toxic to vertebrates, invertebrates, and wildlife. Due to the fact that they decom pose quite easily, fear of a potential build-up of residues of these chemicals in the environ ment may be unwarranted. Notwithstanding, care needs to be taken when these chemicals are applied to crops because the available granular formulations of the most commonly used nematicides --Furadan and Mocap --are very water soluble and therefore likely to leach into underground springs, rivers and other water catchments. Benlate (Benomyl) and its primary fungitoxic degradation product, carbendazim, are used as fungicides. These compounds have low acute and chronic toxicity for higher plants, mammals and birds. In chronic feed ing studies with dogs and rats, benomyl or its metabolites have not been found to accumu late in tissues. Benomyl is substantially more toxic to freshwater organisms. Earthworms and some mites are also sensitive to but effects on soil io5ects have not been ob served. In addition to spray applications on the surface of the leaves, higher plants absorb substantial amounts of benomyl from the soil, 190 and it subsequently concentrates largely in the foliage. Benomyl degrades rdatively slowly in soils. Among herbicides, most are toxic but do not pose serious threats to animal life be cause these compounds either are absorbed into soil particles or decompose quickly. An exception is Paraquat --commonly known as Gramoxone --which is widely used in Grenada for the chemical control of weeds, in spite of the fact that this chemical has an extremely deleterious effect on humans, other vertebrates and the environment. Its use is prohibited or r-;:stricted in deVeloped coun tries. SOLID WASTE No solid waste management plan cur rently exists for the country; the numerous re ports that have been done on solid waste do not address the problem in a comprehensive manner. Such a comprehensive! plan is essen tial for the proper operation of the solid waste management functions of Government and in order to meet future needs (Andrews, 1988). Solid waste expenditures account for over 54 percent of the Environmental Health De partment's budget. Responsibility for management of both solid and liquid waste programs was to have been transferred to the Central Water Commission by March 31, 1988, but to date this has not occurred, leading to budgetary problems for the Department. This also means that the EHD continues to be in the awkward position of being responsible for both operation of these programs and en forcement of environmental health laws. Because of the erratic manner in which the Perseverance landfill has been manag. "d, concern has been raised about the possibility of toxic or high-BOD leacl!ates contaminating the surface or ground water re sources or Halifax Harbor itself. Waste oil from st. George's, from Government vehicle operations, and from electric generation facil ities is dumped at the landfill and has severely contaminated the adjacent swamp (USAlD, 1984<1).

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Andrews (1988) attempted an as sessment of the likelihood of leachate genera tion at Perseverance, with the caveat that the requisite hydrogeological and meteorological data for identifying the leachate and predict ing its movement within the substrate are not available. Results of this assessment were in conclusive, but Andrews noted that the proce dure of burning the waste at the site may re sult in the combustion of much of the organic material, wpossibly" resulting in low BOD levels in the leachate. No actual sampling of the composition of the leachate appears to have been done. Andrews (1988) also presented tech niques for sealing the Perseverance landfill site and recommended that the most feasible use of the sealed site would be for recre ational purposes. After consideration of sev eral alternative sites, he recommended that the preferred location for a combination new landfill/quarry would be immediately south of the existing Halifax Harbor disposal site in Perseverance Estate. The quarry operation would provide a ready source of cover to the sanitary landfill. PUBLIC HEALTH Responsibilities of the Environmental Health Departmer,t for pollution monitoring and control overlap broadly mth other de partments; e.g., the Central Water Commis sion carries out the actual work of bacterio logical monitoring for fresh waters and gives reports to the Chief Environmental Health Officer. No agency monitors marine pollution on a regular basis, but periodic monitoring of the Carenage and Grande Anse Bay areas has been done by the Central Water Commission within a program directed by CEHI. No regulations concerning specific standards for solid and liquid waste manage ment/treatment, water quality in rivers or ma rine areas, or drinking water quality are in ex istence for the country. Officers of the Envi ronmental Health Department w make use of WHO and [US]EPA guidelines in determin ing the acceptability of waste management proposals w (Earle, 1988), but it appears to be a matter left to the discretion of Department 191 officials as to which guidelines apply to which projects. GrenaJa's pesticide laws include the Pesticides Control Act of 1973 which estab lished the Pesticide Control Board and rules for importation and safe use; the Pesticides Control (Amendment) Act of 1979 which pertains to the labeling of pesticides; and the Pesticides Control Re&'Ulations of 1979 de scribing the role of the Board in controlling importation and distribution. A Pesticide Control Board was set up in 1973 and is cur rently functioning; it appears to be effective in controlling the entry of pesticides to those on the approved list. All biocides must be li censed by the Pesticide Control Board before being sold; restrictions are usually by crop. The law regarding safe use is inade quately implemented because of lack of in spection and enforcement personnel. Al though two chemists have been trained in pesticide residue analysis, there are currently no analytical capabilities for pesticide moci to ring; the two chromatographs in the country are not operational. No standardizeJ programs to monitor worker over-exposure or contamination of food products or the envi ronment by pesticides or herbicides are in place in Grenada. No effort to monitor or report expo sure of pesticide workers in HIAMP projects has been made; therefore, it is not surprising that no problems have been documented. The general lack of training in safe handling of pesticidr-s combined with the toxicity of some of the proposed pesticides present an unac ceptable level of risk according to one study prepared for USAID on its HIAMP projects (Larew, 1988) --and the same may be said of most other projects .vhich handle agricultural chemicals in Grenada. All parties intl!rviewed by DeGeorges (1989) fclt that programs to certify pesticide applicators and farmers and to monitor workers and the environment for pesticide residues should have a high priority. CWC is experiencing chronic prob lems with agricultural fertilizers getting into the water treatment plant intakes and causing algal growth in the slow sand mters. ewe has no information on whether biocides in

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drinking water are causing a problem at this time. OIL POLLUTION The rules and regulations of the Grenada Ports Authority (Sect. 15 of SR 14) cover discharges of various kinds from ships onto land. For example, no dirt, ashes, solid wastes or rubbish may be discharged fwm a ship onto a wharf, but dischargr. of oil or other substances from the ship into the sea is not covered. However, discharges from the land into the sea arc prohibited. According to a Ports Authority official, at present there is no way of implementing these regulations be cause of lack of manpower and equipment for enforcement, control or analysis of discharged materials. No oil spill contingency plan now exists for any port or other coastal area in Grenada. Since Grenada is near the major oil transportation routes from the oil producing and reftning countries of Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela, there is a high risk to coastal areas from marine oil spills. Based on early 1980' s levels of production from marine sources in those countries, the U.S. Coast Guard estimated that oil spills of 26 million tons/year in Trinidad and 1.25 million tons/year in Venezuela are possible (Mitchell and Gold, 1982). Spills of such magnitude could definitely impact beaches in Grenada, especialiy if they occur during the times of heavy outflow from the Orinoco River. Spills from tanker accidents in Grenadian waters are also a significant threat. For example, in 1979 there was a tanker collision in the Grenada Channel which spilled 290,000 tons of crude; damage to lhe beaches was only averted by towing one of the tankers out to sea. Any spill which deposited a heavy coating of oil on tourist beaches could, depending on the size of the spill, diminish or even destroy the tourist industry for years. Oil spills are not the only th) eat to the region. The source of as much as 50 per cent of floating tar and beach tar throughout the Wider Caribbean is probably the adjacent North Atlantic oceanic gyre (current system). This tar comes from illegal tanker ballast wa192 ter and discharge and is carried through the region by prevailing winds and currents. Be sides creating aesthetic problems fot humans when it is blown ashore on beaches, floating tar has other adverse effects. Research indi cates that threatened and endangered species of sea turtles feeding on floating tar balls of ten die after ingestion (Atwood p' 21., 1987). 8.3 POUCY RECOMMENDATIONS SOLID WASTE Financing for all recommended measures in this section is perhaps the most critical element in addressing long-term re quirements. The development of innovative means of raising revenues is necessary to re duce the burden on the Government treasury. Possible options include: charging a levy to all hotels for waste collection and treatment ser vices; selling franchises to private waste col lectors for designated collection areas; and charging industrial and commercial users for waste collection and disposal. A solid waste management plan should be prepared covering a minimum pe riod of twenty years (Andrews, 1988). A properly operated sanitary landfill is likely to be the most attractive option from a financial viewpoint in the short term. However, plan ning for ways to reduce the quantity of solid waste and to promote a variety of recycling options needs to be implemented as a collabo ration between Government and the retail trade sector, in order to ensure that such schemes are organized on economically de fensible grounds. 'It Euucation programs directed at both sch.ool children and adults regarding proper waste storage, disposal and general cleanliness should be incorporated into the management plan. The Anti-Litter Act also needs to be enforced.

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LlQIDDWASTE The sewage treatment alternative sUf.!,gested. by Hunte, et aJ.(1989) for the Grand Anse arra is probably the most cost-effective and ecologically sound solution that can be implemented given the technologkal and 6rumcial cnn'itraints which exist in Grenl\da. Since it is crucial to prevent both public health hazards and Dutrient enrichment of nearshore waters, a long outfall with a diffuser dis charging into an area of strony, currents can achieve these euds witlr.out sacrificing envi ronmental quality. The waste treatment system should be designed so that it will be easy to upgrade to a higher level of treatment should thl" prove to be necessary in the future. A long-term water quality and ma rine biological monitoring program should be implemented to rletermine the effectiveness of his soiution in Grand Anse and to determine the need for remedial action in other areas. Laboratory and personnel capabilities in the country will have to be upgraded in order to accomplish this. BIOCIDES Biocides which have been re stricted or canceUed in the developed coun tries should be removed by the Pesticide Control Board from the list of chemicals ap for imJAlrt. Donor agencies should place restrictioru on tbe use of restricted or canceled biocides and should not fund pro jects which use them. 193 A certification pr<'7aD1 for pesti cide applicators, pesticide control inspectors, extension agents and farmers should be im plemented and training in the safe use of pes ticides should be a mandatory part of any donor-supported program. A monitoring program for biocide residues in farm workers, drinking water and the environment should be implemented. Strong consideration s:t"uld be given to the centralization of all environmental monitoring capabilities in one laboratory (see also Section 5.3). OIL POLLUTION An oil and hazardous materials spill contingency plan should be prepared and implemented. Legislation is needed to re quire proper disposal of oil and hazardous materials, and facilities to accomplish this must be provided. INDUSTRIAL WASTF.s Government policy should be di rected to attracting and subsidizing only in dustries which are relatively non-polluting. Environmental impact assessmer..t reports should be required of all proposed industrial projects before they are granted construction and operating permits. Existing industries discharging toxic and/or high-BOD wastes into the environment should be identified and required to treat their wastes and clean up al ready polluted areas.

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SECTION 9 LAND USE, PLANNING, AND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL 9.1 OVERVIEW As late as 1986, a workable system of physical and environmental planning and de velopment control had yet to be implemented in Grenada, despite the fact that several con ceptual plans had beell written, many techni cal assistanct' projects had been carried out, and numerOUti statements of good intention had been put forward by Government. A Master's Thesis (Frederick, 1987a), written by the present head of the Physical Flanning Unit (PPU), traces the evolution of physical plan ning and development control and discusses some of the instituiional weaknesses. A de tailed discussion of the institutional frame work for planning and development control in Grenada can be found in Section 12 of the Profile. LAND USE PATfERNS AND MECHA NISMS OF DEVELOPMENT CONTROL Figure 9.1(1) a very gener alized map of the major of land uses in Grenada. At the present time, there is no detailed map of current land use information for the entire country. The most rece. I land use maps are the 1:25,000 swte series 'm piled for the Mini.;try of Agrkulture's Land Use Division by Eschweiler in j'.982. The in formation presented in these maps is summa rized in Table 9.1(1). Since 1982, mapping of land uses has only been carried out for specWc planning projects such ac; tourism development in the southern portion of Grenada (known as wZone 1 ,,), the island of Carriacou, the proposed Levera National Park, and so forr.h. Soler (1988) states that there is an immediate ceed for new mapping of Grenada at a scale of 1:2500, which should be based on recent aerial photography. However, Frederick (pers. comm., 1989) points out that 1:2,.500 scale maps are too small for day-to-day use and are incompatible with engineering new mapping at a scale of 1:200 is needed for basic land use maps, comprehensive plan maps and zorung maps. 195 An up-to-date cadastral map and database do not exist for Grenada, making development control even more difficult be cause it is often not clear which parcels belong to whom. Although there is an official land surveyor's office at the Division of Lands and Surveys, several Government agencies employ their own surveyors, and apparently neither the public nor private sectors are required to register new land surveys and subdivisions. Because of this practice of subdividing land without registering it, preparation of a cadas tral map would be a very difficult and time consuming task, albeit an extremely useful one. Development control as it is currently practiced in Grenada is only a loosely defined and poorly impll!mented process. Although legal responsibility for land development con trol rests with the Land Development Control Authority (LDCA), this body is often unable to perform its mission adequately. Between 1970 and 1980 only 12 percent of new resi dential developments applied to LDCA for permits, although most major tourism, urban, and industrial projects did come under its review (Mardones, 1985). One reason for this lack of effectiveness is that the LDCA has no enforcement arm; consequently, it is only able to deal with those developments which actu ally do apply for permits. Another problem which seriously hampers the LDCA is the lack of up-to-date information on actual land use and existing environmental impacts. Other reasons for the limited effrc tiveness of the LDCA are related to the in ili tutional structure of GOG. Theoretically, the LDCA and PPU are intended to funct:on to gether as a single body in charge of planning and development control, even though they are administratively separate. In fact, this ar rangement has frequently not worked very weU when the Chairman of the LDCA and Director of Planning have had differing inter ests and priorities. Furthermore, there are many other GOG agencies besides the PPU and LDCA which have overlapping and po-

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GRENADA lIZ] Wildlands Tree crops UIiI] Grazing c:::::J Annual crops Urban and suburban _Tourism Figure 9.1 (1). Generalized land use map, Grenada (source: ECNAMP, 198Oa; Weaver, 1989). 196 12,5' 10 05 1too'

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Table 9.1 (1). Land use summary for Grenada, bued on Eachweller map, 1982. AREA LAND USE CATEGORY HA. !:Zrenada and Island dee!!ndencles 34,830 MaInland Grenada 31,200 Carrlacou and Petit MartInique 3,630 Grenada malnland* Food crops (maize and vegetables) 4,160 Sugare&ne 530 Grassland (pasture) 170 Grassland and scrub 290 Tree crops Coa>a 4,460 Banlllla 3,560 Nutmeg and spices 3,780 Coconuts 940 Fruit trees m SUBTOTAL (Agriculture) 18,820 Woodland and scrub 5,270 Inland swamp 3Q Mangrove 190 Forest** .3.mI SUBTOTAL (Natural vegetation) 9,460 SUBTOTAL (Other)*** ,UgQ TOTAL (All land) 31,120 Carrlacou and Petit Martlnlgue: Forest reserves**** 136 Remaining TOTAL (All lands) 3,630 SoUrOi): 1989. ** The proposed Grand Bang Park occupies 1,748 ha (1,526 government owned and 222 privately owned). Annandale watershed occupies 202 ha and Concord watershed 96 ha. TO'..lI area for Grand Bang region Is 2,046 ha (6.6% of Grenada). The proposed Mt. St. Catherine Park occupies 573 ha, all govemment owned. The Mt. Hope-CIabony watarsh6d adjacent to Mt. St. Catherine occupies 262 ha. This region encompasses 835 ha (2.7% of Grenada). The proposed Levera Park occupies 220 ha, 48 govemment owned and 172 privately owned, or 0.7% of Gnmadl. The proposed three parks, therefore, occupy 2,541 ha (8.1% of Grenada). only 2,147 ha (6.9%) are govemment ownod. Perhaps only 1,000 ha, or about 3% of G.renada, are comprised of undisturbed climax forests. % 100.0 89.6 10.4 13.3 1.7 0.5 0.9 14.3 11.5 12.1 3.0 .3.:.0 60.3 16.9 0.1 0.6 12.7 30.3 JM 100.0 3.8 m 100.0 *** The other" category Includes urban lIJld suburban areas, roads, playing fields, airports, etc. **** The proposed High North Park oocuples 242 ha (32 government owned Md 210 privately owned) and comprises 6.7% of Carriacou. All of CarrlacolJ or Petit Martinique have been disturbed by fuelwood harvest and grazing. Source: Weaver, 1989 197

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tentially conflicting jurisdictions over the de velopment process in Grenada (see Section 123). Even though they may have representa tives sitting on the LDCA board, these agen cies often do not submit their development plaus for review. This fragmented institu tional structure is perhaps the major con straint to effective planning and de\'elopment control. There is at present no legal require ment or institutional capacity for carrying out formal environmental impact assessments, even for major projects, and the LOCA's en abling legislation and regulations do con tain any prescribed standards for evaluating proposed developments. Until recently, when a very simple and basic set of guidelines was administratively adopted by the LDCA, each development was considered on an ad hoc basis. These guidelines provide information regard;Ug format and contents for develop ment applications and general standards for plot cover, parking capacity, setbacks from roads and property lines, sewage disposal, and building construction requirements. A coastal setback of 50 m from the high water mark (only in low-lying areas less than 3 m above sea level) is also This setback has been recommended by many cC'nsultants due to increasing problems of coastal erosion in the country. No specific slope standards aimed at erosion control from construction, logging, or road building activities appear to exist. Vernon, et al. (1959) made recommendations for slope standards relating to agricultural ac tivities in Grenada, but even these have never been legally adopted. Certain steps have been taken since 1986 to improve the situation regarding devel opment control. Regulations for the LDCA as outlined in Sections 7 and 21 of the Land Development Control Act (No. 40 of 1968) have been put in place (SRO No. 13 of 1988). A tribunal of court appeals, in keeping with Section 11 of the Act, has now been estab lished to review appeals from the decisions of the LDCA. Directors on the board of the LDCA are meeting more often, and as a re sult building applications are being processed more quickly, on average more than 40 per 198 month. Steps have been taken by the Physical Planning Unit to secure funding for drawing and digitizing new 1:200 scale land use maps and assigning an employee of the Unit to keep them updated. It is anticipated that the basic plan ning data to be incorporated in the new large scale land use maps will considerably enhance coordination between the LDCA and other agencies concerned with planning and development. It is intended that the task of updating cadastral information by establishing lot lines or property lines will be handled by the person(s) 1ssigned to deVeloping the new land use maps. The PPU intends in the near future to draft a two-part environmental impact as sessment procedure. Specific slope standards will be established as part of the procedure, based upon soil and geologic conditions. Whe!'e the soil is deemed unstable, adequate measures for controlling run-off and erosion during and after construction will be stipu lated as part of the review process. For all projects costing $1,000 or morc, a developer initially will be required to complete an environmental checklist, ex plaining the impacts of the project and the steps to be taken for mitigation. The checklist will then be submitted to the Chief Planner and Development Officer of the PPU, who wiil review the checklist. If he finds that all impacts have been identified and can be sat isfactorily mitigated, then the project may be constructed. If this is not the case, a full de tailed environmental impact assessment will be required. The environmental impact assess ment will be prepared by 1J..e developer and will cover all the identified in the checklist plus those that are identified during its review. When completed, the environ mental impact (lsc;essment will be submitted to the Chief Planner, who will forward copies to ci11 GOG agencies or interested groups for their comments, to be submitted by a speci fied date. The Chief Planner will review all comments and make a decision as to the ade quacy of the assessment, the ffiitigation mea sures proposed and whether the value of the

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GOG AGENCIES (other than the Land Development Control Authority) WITH ROLES IN DEVELOPMENT CONTROL The Lands Division (under the Ministry of External Affairs, Agriculture, Lands, Forestry, Tourism, and Legal Affairs) Is responsible for development control, management and use of a" state-owned lands, Including the Crown Lands. The Land Use Division within the same Ministry plays a role In agricultural land use planning and zoning. lacking legislative authority, the Division performs primarily an advisory role with reference to soli and water conservation on private or non-forested state lands. The National Housing Authority (NHA) has full legal authority to carry out housing de velopments without the approval of any other agency, including the LDCA. The Industrial Development Commission (IDC), a statutory body, can and does make financial and other agreements with investors before submitting plans to the LDCA, thus making It politically difficult for the LDCA to reject an application. The Ministry of Works and Communications is responsible for Governmenl: construc tion and maintenance activities, for the building of roads, for beach protection, and for grantIng approval to applicants for the mining of beach aggregate. The Grenada Ports Authoritv is presently carrying out Its own planning for a major new cruise ship port to be located on the Esplanade. The project may have a major environmental impact on marine ecosystems as we" as on the town of St. George's. On the other hand, a large new marina is under construction at Mt. Hartman Bay, which apparently Is not being regulated by either the Ports Authority (it Is outside their statutory jurisdiction) or the LDCA. The Environmental Health Department (EHD) has responsibility for a" construction projects relating to solid wastE; management facilities and waste water treatment facilities and for the general management and protection of the environmental health of the population, as we" as urban and regional planning related to health Issues. The Central Water Commission (CWC) is a statutory body with authority over a" pro jects and facilities dealing with the production, treatment and supply of drinking water. The Forestry Department Is the unit of Government responsible for forest reserves on state-owned land and any developments or exploitation schemes taking place within them. The Grenada Model Farms Corporation (GMFC) Is the Institutional body by which GOG Is divesting Itself of the lands prevl\lusly owned by the Grenada Farms Corporation. The transfer of lands for this program Is done through the Lands and Survey Division, outside the control of the LDCA. project justifies its construction even if there are impacts which cannot be mitigated. The Chief Planner will then send the assessment to 199 the Land Development Control Authority Board with all comments and with recom mendations for approval or disapproval.

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INTEGRATED PLANNING FOR mE NATURAL, RURAL/AGRARIAN, URBAN/INDUSTRJAL AND COASTAL/MARINE ENVIRONMENTS Because it has a small staff and is oc cupied chiefly with day-to-day matters of de velopment the PPU has not been able to give much attention to its intended for ward-planning functions. Various interna tional agencies have assisted GOG by preparing a number of sectoral plans (many of which are mentioned in other sections of the Profile). However, there is as yet no accepted national development scheme or national land use plan to guide decision-making by the LDCA. International agencies have assisted GOG in preparing several planning docu ments which address many of the important issues that normally comprise a comprehen sive national land use phn. Most of these documents share an integraJed approach to development; i.e., they attempt to guide de velopment so that activities in each sector will support those in other sectors, or at least will conflict with them as little as possible. Un fortunately, despite the fact that their prepa ration was requested by Government in the first place, none of these plans has been for mally accepted by GOG. In the 1970's the United Nations pre pared a proposed Physical Development Strategy for Grenada (UNDP, 1977) focusing on integrated economic expansion via plan ning for land use, urban design, housine con struction, sanitation and public health, educa tion, and recreation. This effort also included sectoral reports on tourism and housing and a seven-month training course in development planning. This strategy was never formally approved, nor were its guidelines for devel opment formally accepted by GOG, although they have been informally used by planners as a guide for planning and development control. The lack of aceeptance of the 1977 UNDP re port was due in part to the political situation in 1978 and the revolution which foUowed in 1979. Much of the database --technical data, !raps, and plans --produced by this project has been lost or is now out of date (Frederick, 1987a). 200 In 1978, with UNDP assistance, a new Town and Country Planning Act was drafted which was intended to remedy many of the deficiencies of the 1968 Town and Country Planning legislation, specifically in the areas of long-range planning. This UNDP proposal contains many concepts and provisions which are still relevant today, but it has never been accepted acd implemented by GOG (Frederick, 1987a; M:.trdones, 1985). Researchers from the Dalhousie Ocean Studies Program produced a report ti tled The Integration of Marine S?ace in Na tional Development Stralegies of Small Island States (MitcheU and Gold, 1982) which com plementr.d the UNDP study by addressing the role of Grenada's marine industries -fish eries, tourism and sea transport --in eco nomic development. It pointed out the im portant role played by these industries in the nation's history and stressed the necessity for conservation and protection of the linked ter restrial and marine ecosystems if economic growth was to be sustainable. Its recommen daJons have also not been adopted as policy by GOG. The Organization of American States (OAS) has an ongoing Integrated Develop ment Project in Grenada aimed at enhancing the institutional capacity of GOG to plan and implement development projects and to coor dinate projects fmanced by various donor or ganizations so that each supports the other to the maximum extent. A central focus is the rational management of the country's histori cal/cultural heritage and natural rel'ource base, particularly in relation to tourum and agro-industries. There are five main compo nents to the OAS effort: (1) Tourism and the environment --to promote restoration and develop ment of historical, cultural and natural heritage sites as tourist attractions; to encourage coUaboration among the various ministries of GOG in develop ing linkages between development, tourism, and the physical and socio cultural enviromnents; and to enhance the environmental awareness of Grenadians through education.

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(2) Land management --to work with the Ministry of Agriculture in wa tershed man8gement activities, the land divestment pro6t'am and on planning for human settlements. (3) Coastal zone management --to assist in beach monitoring programs, revegetation of beaches, sewage treat ment plans, and the planning of the Camerhogne Park. (4) Grenada National Parks and Protected Areas Plan --to create a plan for the establishment of a system of national parks and protected areas; and to implement various resource management cctions and restoration projects for natural, cultural, and his toric resources throughout the nation. (5) Developmect or Carriacou --to create a program for the integrated de velopment of and to assist in the implementation of projects in agriculture, fIsheries, national parks and protected areas, tourism, and The OAS plan for a national parks and protected areas system has been com pleted and published (GOG/OAS, 1988d), as has the Carriacou integrated development program (GOG/OAS, 1988b). A detailed draft report recommending many necessary changes in land development policy has been prepared by Rojas and Charles (n.d.). None of these documents has been formally ac cepted by Cabinet to date, although several projects recommended by each are in various stages of implementation. In the St. George's urban area, the PPU is currently preparing a de[aiIed devel opment plan for a r..orridor extending along the water fmnt from Queen's Park and River Road to the marina area on Lagoon Road (Frederick, pers. comm., 1989). This plan will indude the following projects: (1) Queen's Park --expansion of the industrial area for warehousing; building a new recreation facility to re place the old one; incorporation of a 201 convention center into the overall plan; building of a new road north of the St. John's River through Queen's Park beginning at the bus garage. (2) Melville Street -building of a promenade extending along the upper part of the sea wall from the fIShing area to the tunnel. A special lane will be built for buses, and the facades of the buildings along the street will be renovated. The PPU considers the view from the sea particularly impor tant a<; this is the "front door to Grenada." (3) Historic area or Government administration area (i.e., library, post office, etc.) --a land<;caping project in volving closing vf the Wharf Road at Matthew Street, allowing only autos on official Government business to enter the ar"'a. (4) Port warehousing and shipping facilities --exploration of the feasibility of expanding the port facilities into the Lagoon area to tie into the heavy commercial development taking place along Lagoon Road. The marina would become a boat storage and re pair facility. In 1988, a Draft Develop ment Plan was prepared by the PPU, but this is more a strategic plan which lacks specificity as well as detailed plans for particular areas. More detailed, area-specillc plans were later prepared with the lssistance of OAS and USAID, e.g., for the Grand Anse area. In 1990, the PPU launched a new one-year effort to produce a full Physical De velopment Plan for the country, which ac cording to the Chief Planner (Frederick, pers. comm., 1990) will provide the foundation for evaluating development applications in the future. The planning process for 1990 in cludes a vetting process for the planning doc uments produced by the PPU (e.g., review by the LDCA, Ministers of Cabinet, and the public) before the completed Physical Devel opment Plan is put to Cabinet for offIcial ap proval.

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For the future, the PPU hopes to be gin addressmg toe problems of coastal zone management on a national level by dividing the shorelines of sea, lakes and streams into environmental districts :;uch as urban, ru ral, conservancy, etc.; specific regulations gov erning development in each district will then be written. Development within 250 feet of the water would be required to comply with the appropriate regulations for the district in which it is located (Frederick, pers. comm., 1989). 9.2 PROBLEMS AND ISSUES FORWARD PI.A'lNING AND COORDINAT20N The failure of GOG to enact the nec essary changes in planning legislation (e.g., the proposed Town and Country Planning Act, 1978) and the continued lack of any ap proved national development pIau are major forces working against rational laud uSe. This has meant that even though GOG has in the last two decades put forward many good poli cies on conservation and wise use of the physical aLJ biological environment, many land use decisions continue to be made on an ad hoc or discretionary basis. The turbultni political scene in Grenada during the last two decades, as well as the fragmented instilUtional structure of the Government, have certainly mitigated against the success of integrated development pro jects. Many proposed plans and pieces of legislation have been prepared but never adopted as legally binding documents; instead they tend to be used as wadministrative guide lines w It is doubtful whether any land use re strictions or zoning imposed in accordance with such guidelines could survive a legal challenge. Even if they could, there is no spe cific government agency which has the legal authority or the manpower to enforce them. Poor institutional structure and lack of coordination in planning and development activities among local Government agencies are also serious problems. In several in-202 stances where supposedly "integrated" devel opment projeds have been planned by inter national agencies, in implementing these pro jects the GOG has chosen to pursue a piece meal approach which is the very antithesis of an integrated development scheme. This lack of coordination makes it very difficult to con trol and mit.igate the environmental and socio economic impacts of development or to take advantage of opportunities for linking mutu ally supportive programs. For example, GOG's Agricultural Rehabilitation/Crop Diversification Program is helping the farmers who grow sugar cane for rum production on the Government owned Mt. Hartman Estate. However, long range land use decisions in this area, as else where, are not being made by GOG alone. Proposals for major tourism and industrial projects are vetted and in some cases imple by non-GOG entities. Consequently, there is uncertainty about the future of farm ing in this particular area. Furthermore, al though the land is better suited to growing tree crops (Phillips, 1989), the Government's diversification program has supported the ex isting sugar cane farming operations since this crop does not require such a long-term in vestment. On the other hand, the expansion of housing devcl(lpments and the intensive agri cultural land uses promoted by GOG in the area of Mt. Hartman Estate are destroying the scrub woodlands, the only habitat of endangered species such as the Grenada Dove and the Hook-billed Kite (see Section 4.3.2). Land use zoning and pollution control are es sential if agro-industrial activities in the area are not to severely impact nearby tourist de velopments and marine water quality in Mt. Hartman Bay. If proper planning and land use control regulations were in place and en forced in this area, there is probably no rea son why some mix of these land uses could not coexist with each other and with wildlife. DEFORESTATION AND EROSION Deforestation and consequent soil erosion due to agricultural, forestry, fuelwood cutting, roact-builuing and construction activi-

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ties on steep slopes and unsuitable soils is a problem which will become increasingly se vere as the country continues to open up new lands Cor development. Land use planning and proper mitigation measures will be neces sary to resolve the inevitable conflicts which will arise when various interests compete Cor available land, e.g., GOG agencies vs. user groups vs. private developers vs. the public interest. Although many Government officials do not believe erosion and deCorestation are serious problems at present, this may well be based more on a lack oC data than on the ac tual situation. There is some evidence that soil -;rosion impacts are already evident in rivers, nearshore marine waters, water catch ments and treatment plants and on some agri cultural lands. As one example, the Grenada Model Farms Project has the potential to create sig nificant environmental impacts if the recom mended Carm sizes, based on considerations oC yield, input/output prices and environmental concerns, are not Collowed (Adams, 1986). If holdings are so small that the returns are not sufficient to cover the inputs, it is inevitable that Corested slopes will be cleared Cor char coal and to extend the planted area, Curther accelerating erosion. In general, gross Carm sizes should not be smaller than about ten acres oC cultivable land in hill areas or Cour acres in Certile alluvial flats (see also Sections 1.1.4 and 5.3). LAND USE CONFLlCfS Frederick (1987a) has looked at land use conflicts in three general zones in Grenada. These are: the Northeastern Zone, where conservation versus economic devel opment is the main issue; the Midwestern Zone, where the main conflicts concern housing versus agricultural development; and the Southern Zone (the most heavily devel oped area, also known as Zone 1"), where there are a variety oC competing land use in terests including tourism, urban development, industry, natural and historical heritage con servation, and agriculture. Most oC the planning efforts which have been carried out so Car have Cocused on 203 Zone 1, since it includes the main tourism plant at Grand Anse as well as the largest population and industrial centers. The OAS has prepared several land use and historical preservation studies Cor this area (OAS, 1933; Jackson, el 01., 1983; John, 1984); and USAID, along with other international aid agencies, has funded major inCrastructural improve ments, including planning studies Cor sewerage systems and construction oC the Frequente In dustrial Park and the Camerh0gne Recre ational Park. The proposed GOG/OAS sys tem oC parks and protected areas includes several sites in this zone but does not consider protective measures Cor the endangered bird habitat in the Mt. Hartman area. Potentially conflicting land use pro posals Cor the Mt. Hartman area include agri cultural expansion, tourist hotel and marina development, quarries and a sanitary landfill. Liquid waste effluents Crom agro :ndustry, hotels and charterboat operations also have the potential to impact reeCs and other marine life, mangroves, fisheries, and recreational uses oC Mt. Hartman Bay. The Northeastern Zone includes some of the least developed and most scenic areas in Grenada, particularly in the vicinity oC Chantimelle (where there is a scenic road with dramatic views oC the St. Marks Mountains), Levera, Sauteurs, Lake Antoine and the east ern seacoast to Telescope Point. The natural and cultural resource values oC the Levera area have been documented in several reports (e.g., Vincent, 1981; Goodwin, el 01., 1982; Renard, 1987; GOG/OAS, 1988d) and in clude recommendations Cor the proposed Levera National Park and several historical and cultural landmark sites. GOG's tourism development plans call Cor the Levera area to be the next zone developed Cor tourism. There is concern among planners (e.g., Frederick, 1987a) that large-scale tourism development ic; inappropriate to the conservation oC the natural resource values in this area; yet there is nothing to Corestall it at present. Already there has been a proposal Cor the development oC a 3OO-acre spa and health camp at the mineral spring and sur rounding area between River Sallee, Rose Hill, and Bathway Beach. This development

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would include the mineral spring, part of the archaeological site, and part of the proposed national park at Levera. There have been many proposals for the use of Government owned lands in the Pearls Airport/Telescope Point area, incluiling housing, an IDC factory shell project, an energy-producing windmill installation, an existing dump, a quarry, and sand mining operations. The watershed of the Great River, which extends into the central mountain range in the vicinity of Grand Etang, is the site of a proposed logging scheme which would destroy the last large area of semi-natural forest in Grenada and very probably cause flooding and sedimenta tion problems for the densely developed communities afid farming areas downstream. The Midwestern Zone comprises the area west of the ccutral mountain range between Duquesne in the north and Beausejour in the south, where the major activities are agriculture and fIshing. Very little good in formation is available for this area, but it is known that its reefs and marine resources are under stress due to overfishing and poor land management. Most of the agricultural estates are now being subdivided and sold to small farmers and as residential plots, with the em phasis on residential development. Contrary to stated Government policies, the limited fertile agricultural lands in the flat areas are being converted to housing, while mure of the steep marginal lands are being cleared for cultivation. Sedimentation impacts from poor land management practices are already evi dent in the marine environment (e.g., Molinere Reef, reputedly Grenada's best-de veloped coral reef and an important site for the dive-tourism industry). No zoning or development plan exists for this area, and there is no Government de partment at this time which is exercising any development control or resource management efforts to resolve the existing land use con flicts. HOUSING The expansion of the housing sector in recent years has resulted in strong pres sures on public and private agricultural land. 204 Authorities dealing with land management have apparently been unable to deal effec tively with these conflicts (Soler, 1988). Housing demand continues to be very high, and housing construction is not able to keep pace with demand. Mardones (1985) states that an average of 570 new units per year were constructed between 1970-1980. The issue of squatting on Crown Lands is also creating a serious problem in Grenada (Bourne, 1987; Frederick, 1987a); two areas where this problem is acute are Grand Anse Estate and Woodlands. 9.3 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS The institutional structure and le gal powers of the LDCA should be revised so it is able to function in a more integrated and effIcient manner and so that it is able to re quire other GOG agencies to comply with its rulings. There is also a need to create an en forcement arm, to increase the personnel in the PPU, and to provide a monitoring capa bility for land-use changr.s. The PPU needs to create and maintain a functional land-use database, in cluding new large scale aerial photographs and land-use maps, cadastral maps, and land ownership information. Much useful information on setting up an appropriate sys tem for small Caribbean islands, with options for eventual computerization, may be found in Potter, et 01. (1988) and Island Resources Foundation (1989). Legislation is needed to require the preparation of environmental impact as sessments for major projects, especially within the coastal zone and other critical areas iden tified in this Profile. Appropriate standards for development shollld be included in the legislation and then enfor<:ed. An institutional capability for interpreting, and later carrying out, the technical aspecls of environmental impact assessment needs lo be created within the PPU and olher appropriate GOG agen cIes.

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* The national Physical Develop ment Plan now under preparation by the PPU needs to incorporate and update some or all of the many sectoral plans which have been written, focussing on the means of achieving sustainable development over long-term. The most important condition for sustainable development is that environmental and eco nomic concerns be merged in the decision making process, as they are in the real world; otherwise even the best land w:e planning ef forts are doomed to fail (MacNeill, 1989). 205 The real costs of development projects need to include a process of internal izing environmental costs (e.g., the principle of "the resource user and/or the poUuter pays") and of integrating resource accounts in national economic accounting systems. Re! form of national economic policies, budgets and subsidies that actively if unintentionally encourage environmental degradation also needs to be examined. In this regard, recent OECS/NRMP work in Montserrat would be useful.

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Islands may be small, but Island ecosystems are complex --appreciation of this comes with environ mental awareness. Field trips, like the one pictured above at Grand Etang, help build understanding about the value of ecological diversity and the role of nature. 206

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SECTION 10 NATIONAL PARKS AND PROTECTED AREAS 10.1 PROPOSED SYSTEM The Government of Grenada and the Organization of American States in 1988 pub lished a Plan and Policy for a System of Parks and Protected Areas in Grenada (GOG/OAS, 1988d). The purpose of this plan was to iden tify and provide a course of action for the protection and wise use of the country's out standing natural and cultural heritage. Under !he proposed Grenada Na tional Parks Systems Plan, the existing, pro tected forest rr.serves in Grenada and Carriacou would continue to be utilized as mandated under the Forest, Soil and Water Conservation Act. In addition to these exist ing protected areas, several new categories of protected areas were proposed (Figures 10.1(1) and 10.1(2)). The five new manage ment categories were defined as: National Parks: to protect out standing natural and scenic areas of national or international importance and provide recreational, scientific and educational activities. These are relatively large areas containing a di versity of ecosystems. -Natural Landmarks: to protect nat ural features of a unique character which are in a ncar-natural state. These are generally small areas, rather than complete ecosystems, and provide recreational activities. -Cultural Landmarks: to protect cultural features of a unique charac ter, and to provide public access for educational and recreational uses re lated to the feature. Protected Seascapes: to protect out standing littoral mangrove and island habitats, beaches and coral reefs which possess special aesthetic and ecological qualities. Multiple Use Management Areas: to manage large areas (e.g., water-207 sheds) which are suitable for sus tained production of water, wood products, wildlife, forage, and/or ma rine products and for soil conserva tion, outdoor recreation and educa tion. Use of these areas would be primarily oriented to the support of economic activities, but zones may be established for nature protection. In order to determine the degree of representation of the country's natural fea tures within the proposed system of parks and protected areas, GOG/OAS planners identi fied and analyzed potential areas in the fol lowing ways: Representation of geological forma tions with regard to their significance as illustrations of the tectonic history of the island. Representation of the main types of natural habitats and ecosystems. Distribution of native species of flora and fauna, particularly those threat ened with extinction. Protection of watersheds and water courses and of high standards of water quality and quan tity. GEOWGIC REPRESENTATION IN THE PROTECTED AREAS Grenada consists mainly of volcanic products and, to a lesser degree, of sedimen tary rocks (sec also Section 1.1.4). From the Miocene to Ouaternary, volcanic activity has emitted a large quantity of products which vary both in chemical composition and ill the way they were emitted. The resulting domes, flows and a wide variety of pyroclastics are related to eruptions with varying degrees of explosivity.

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GRENADA National Parks and Protected Areas ltCitNI7 -,.to} / Iv--q I '--_/ __ ",, ?T-6 L..______________ __ __________________ --.J Figure 10.1 (1). Proposed system of national parks and protected areas, Grenada (source: GOG/OAS, 1988d). 208

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CARRIACOU National Parks and Protected Areas POIIlT I",LA.IR. P.5. I!>Ay CARRIACOU Figure 10.1 (2). Proposed system of national parks and protooted areas, Carriacou (source: GOG/OAS, 1988d). 209

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Table II in the proposed parks plan (GOG/OAS, 1988d) presents a list of signifi cant geological features, their location and their representation within the proposed sys tem of protected areas. Some of the major geologic features represented within the pro posed system of parl'.s and protected areas in clude the fonowing. The Tufton Hall Fonnation (Annandale Falls). The volcanic series visible on the island are underlain by a sedimentary formation; areas where that sedimentary "basement" outcrops on the surface are known as the Tufton Hall Formation. This is made up of sandstones, siltstones and calcareous shales. The Tufton Hall Formation outcrops are mainly situated in the northwest part of the island; the only other clearly visible out crop is at Annandale Falls, which is inc!uded within a proposed Natural Landmark. The Central/Southem Part of the Is land (Grand Etang Forest Reserve and Na tional Park, south of the highway). The main area within this zone is the M aunt Sinai Mount Lebanon axis. Volcanic activity was most intense during the middle Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene. 17,e Volcallic Area of Mt. Granby Grand Etang (Grand Etang National Park and northern part of Grand Etang highway). This area was affected by volcanic activity in the Pliocene and the Pleistocene. The well-pre served morphology suggests that volcanic ac tivity continued until the very recent Holocene period in the Grand Etang area. In this area also are the eroded remains of Miocene vul canite outcrops below Plio-Pleistocene prod ucts. It is believed that Mount Granby, Mount Qua Qua and other intermediate were separate centers of eruptions which emitted lava at different times. The most recent evidence of volcanic activity in this region seems to be the craters located in the Grand Etang area. There are three craters close together (one of them partially eroded) and a fourth at St. Margaret. The Volcanic area of Mount St. Catherine (Mount St. Catherine National 210 Park). This volcanic edifice is of Pleistocene age and is characterized by a large crater with a diameter of about 1.'2 km, open on the south side. The composition of various domes which have formed near the summit ranger. from acid l'lldesites to dacite; they constitute the main outcrops in the area. The area to the northwest of Mt. St. Catherine is domi nated by a thick sequence of andesitic and dacite lavas and pyroclastic flows forming St. Mark's mountain. Coastal Pleistocene Volcanic COlles (Levera National Park and offshore archipelago, Lake Antoine, and Quarantine Point National Landmarks). Those recent emissions, occurring primarily in the South west of the island, include St. George's Har bor, Queen's rark, the crater at Woodford Estate and Quarantine Point. In the Northeast, Lake Antoine has morphological characteristics very similar to the typical tuff-rings produced by hydromag matic eruptions. Lava from Lake Antoine yields an age of approximately 1.5 million years. The two craters near Levera Hill seem to have had very minor interaction between th. magma and the sea. This volcanic area is c}l:tracterized by a large andesitic dome, which is Levera Hill (84B ft. above sea level) and other smaller domes to the northwest of the area. The volcanir. rocks of the Levera Hill area lie directly on the deformed Tufton Hall Formation whic" outcrops at various points on the nearby cor st and is thOUght to have been formed about 7.1 million years ago dur ing the upper Miocene period. VEGETATION REPRESENTATION One of the principal concerns of a national parks program is the protection of entire ecosystems as well as the individual species and assemblages of species contained within them. Table III and Table IV in the prnpo.>al National Parks System Plan (GOG/OAS, 1988d) present the vegetation types based on Beard (1949) and indicate which areas of the proposed system include the best examples (see also Section 1.1.5 of the Profile).

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Additionally, the of plant species to the development of medicines and other medicinal remedies has been well doc umented; thus, it was felt important h) protect representative areas of various Grenadian ecosystems as anyone might contain poten tially valuable economic species. Further more, as most of the forests of Grenada and Carriacou have been converted into agricul ture over the last two centuries, the best rep resentative examples of forest ecosystems which remain in an unaltered or a good state of recovery generally been recommended for inclusion within the system. The High North, Grand Etang, and Levera National Parks score highly in this regard, and as a re sult these units of the system have been rec ommended as the first priorities for park de velopment. The representation of vegetation formations in the proposed system of parks and protected areas can be summarized as follows 17Je Rain Forest and Lower Montane Rain Forest Fonnations (Wet Forest or Dacryodes-Licania association) have been greatly reduced by cutting and disturbed for a&ficulture. The only large, relatively intact example of this formation is in the Grand Etang Forest Reserve, in the vicinity of the Seven Sisters Falls. Another smaller area is between Mt. Qua-Qua and Pedon's Camp. Until now, the inaccessibility of these has made it uneconomical to harvest the ber or convert the area to agriculture. Repre sentation within the proposed system is not considered adequate. The MO."tane Thicket Fonnation is stilI common on all mountain peaks above 2,000 feet, as it is at Mount St. Catherine and Grand Etang. Representation within the proposec system is considered adequate. The Elfin Woodland/Palm Brake Fonnation is confmed to the summit peaks of Grand Etang and Mount St. Catherine. Rep resentation within the proposed system is con sidered adequate. Almost the I!ntire EvergreelJ/Semi-evergreen Seasonal Forest Fonnation (Moist 211 Forest or "Middle Belt Forest,,) has been con verted to agricultural production over time. ntis formation is very poorly represented in the proposed system; only minute areas are included at the Marquis River Natural Land mark. Today the best remnant of moist forest remaining in the entire cc,untry is found at Morne Delice, but this is outside the proposed system. Some other areas show signs of rccurrepce on abandoned agricultural estates. 171e Deciduous Seasonal Forest For mation (Dry Forest) is only fair:, represented in several small areas in Grenada but is also recuperating on some of the peninsulas on the southern coast and at Levera Hill due to abandonment of agriculture. Such areas should be considered for inclusion within the system. Fairly extensive but damaged stands remain in Carriacou in the forest reserves and in the proposed High North National Park. The Swamp and Marsh Fonnations, namely t.he coas:al mangrove swamps and the freshwater herbaceous ecosystems at Grand Etang Lake and Lake Antoine, are generally in a fairly healthy state. Mangrove cutting for charcoal has caused a deterioration of the re source in Levera and North East Seascape, but management actions to prohibit this activ ity have been initiated. These formations are adequately represented within the proposed sysiem. The Lilloral Woodland Fonnation (Dry Evergreen Coastal Woodland) is rela tively common, but most areas are being damaged by exploitation for charcoal and gO'lt grazing. Representation within the system (Northern Seascape, La Sagesse, Canoe Bay, Levt:ra, Hog Island, Calivigny, Southern Seascape) is adequate. WILDLIFE REPRESENTATION Tables V through VIII in the Grenada National Park System Plan (GOGjOAS, 1988d) indicate the status and habitat of threatened and endangered animal species and display the principal units of the proposed protected area system where they may be found. (For further discussion of

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threatened and endangered flora and fauna in GrencsUa, see Section 43 of the Proftle). GOG/OAS park planners felt that wildlife play an increasing role in the economic and social development of the country. Two hunters' groups consider hunt mg an important re,reational activity as well as source of protein. Some local Creole dishes utilize wild meats which appeal to tourists and local people alike. Additionally, the agouti (Dasyprocta albida) is to be intro duced into the wild. INSTl1lJTIONAL RESPONSIBILfflES At present, there is no formal Gov ernment policy on the establishment or man agement of a system of protected areas. Under the proposed National Parks Plan, the Ministry of External Affairs, Agriculture, Lands, Forestry, Tourism, and Legal Affairs would be designated as the agency responsible for planning, management and protection of all areas \llithin the systt".m. This will require extensive coordination and collaboration with other public and private agencies and the gc:n eral public. There is already a National Parks Unit within the Department of Forestry, which is staffed by a single Parks Officer. It is the intent of the proposed National Parks Plan for this agency of Government to prepare managemc.nt and development plans for each unit within the proposed parks system and to develop a funding strategy to fmance the system. Marine areas to the high water mark are the property of the state; when and if ma rine reserves are designated, they would prob ably fall under the administrative responsibil ity of the Fisheries Division (not located within the designated Ministry). Some of the proposed national park areas are in existing Forest Reserves or are unsurveyed state lands. Forest Reserves (&1ld presumably multiple-use areas) will be m<'Aaged with input flO>Jl both the For!stry Department and the National Parks Unit (which is housed within as well as the Central Water Commission where public water supplies are concerned. 212 Lines of authority and responsibility are not at the present time very weU defmed. Most of the protected areas within the proposed system are privately owned, and the plan allows for private land owners to re tain limited management and development rights on their land, to be monitored by the Parks Unit. Although areas of outstanding national significance should be acquired by the state, other areas may be managed by in dividuals or private organizations, perhaps with fmandal contributions from Govern ment. The issue of compensation to private owners for loss of property or development rights has not been T:!solved. 10.2 PROBLEMS AND ISSUES The National Trust Ordin:mce legally establishes a basis for protecting areas with both natural and cultural resources; however, this legislation has not been used for such purposes to date. The Towll and Country Planning Act provides certain tools for plan ning wcommonw areas but does not specifically mention national parks and protected areas or their management. No existing legislation provides ade quate authority to both establish and manage u 1:j'::tem of national parks and protected areas or to protect adequately the natural resource base. Although existing and proposed legisla tion provides for the establishment of both forest and marine reserves, it defines the goals of such in only vague, general terms and does not adequately identify the management regimes which should be applied. Moreover, the central focus of such legislatior. is directed towards forestry and fisheries production and does not specify that management also should ensure the protection of natural and recre ational resources falling within a protected areas status. The National Parks and Protected Areas System (as proposed by GOG/OAS, 198&1) not include the following impor tant areas:

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(a) the habitat of the endemic Grenada Dove and Grenada Hook billed Kite (see Section 4.3); (b) the Morne Delice remnant moist forest (see Sections 1.1.5 and 4.1); (c) the historically and recreation ally important wreck of the luxury liner Bianca c., much valued by the diving publk. Additionally, the area of old-growth rain forest in rue upper watershed of the Great River in the Grand Etang Forest Re serve (see Section 4.1) is still legally eligible for timber exploitation, even though it is m cluded in the proposed protected areas sys tem. It would instead be more appropriate to protect it from logging (Weaver, 1989), per haps by including it under the management category of national park. 213 10.3 POUCY RECOMMENDATIONS The establishment of a viable Na tional Parks and Protected Areas System in Grenada is of great importance and should be given priority attention by Government. The general plan which has been prepared (GOG /OAS, 1988d) includes priorities for action on protected areas and should be ad dressed by Government as soon as possible. This is particularly important so that more detailed planning regarding the spedfics of fi nancing the property acquisition and operat ing costs of the system can move forward. In dividual management plans for each of the units need to be written; Weaver (1989 has provided some general guidelines for such management programs (see Table 16 in the Weaver report). The important sites which are Iisteo at the end of Section 10.2 above should be included for protection under the proposed National Parks and Protected Areas System.

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Old Church, Grenville. This Gothic Revival building has been Identified by the National Trust as one of many extanl historic sites that should re ceive priority consideration in future preservation/restoration programs In Grenada. 214

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SECTION 11 PROTECTION OF HISTORICAL HERITAGE In a developing country such as Grenada, still engaged in the difficult art of nation building and the day-ta-day politics of transforming a dependent colonial society into a viable nation-state, the trade-off's between the long-t.erm benefits of conservation and re source protection and the more immediate, short-term benefits of resource exploitation are not easily defmed. With respect to the built environment and to the preservation of historical and cultural resources, this di chotomy has already resulted in the destruc tion of many valuable artifacts and histOl;c landmarks. For example, stones were stripped from the battlements of Fort Frederick in the 1930' s to use as materials to extend the Public Library; in the 1960's the Government sold lands at "Old Fort," indudhlg the battlements and caves. More recently, in an effort to transport topsoil to another location, a large section of a valuable Amerindian site at Pearls was destroyed. Another structure of historic significance, Mockton's Redoubt, a fortifica tion which stood on Government lands at the eastern entrance to the inner harbor of St. George's, was razed for hotel construction (A. Hughes, Grenada journalist, pers. comm., 1989). Perhaps most glaring has been the lack of attention to preserving the rich archi tectural heritage of St. George's. A survey made in 1945 by the Georgian Society of Great Britain referred to the capital city as "the prettiest town in the Brit.ish West Indies." No small part of its charm, the Survey Report said, are the red fish-scale tiles with which the houses are roofed, while "the buildings them f.elves are a delight" (Acwroth, 1951). At that time, the Georgian Society prepared and presented to Govt:rnment draft legislation to protect the architectural char acter of the towo, but nothing came of this initiative. In fact, Town and Country Planning legislation enacted about the same tim! did not include provis;Jns to protect "buildings of merit," and in the intervening decades many buildings have been lost and replaced with 215 modem structures not in keep!ng with the ar chitectural and historical character of St. George's. 11.1 OVERVIEW HISTORICAL, ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ARCHITEcruRAL FEATURES Military Sites. Like its sister islands in the Eastern Caribbean, the principal his toric sites in Grenada are asc;ociated \vith the island's military history and the Anglo-Franco colonial rivalries of the eighteenth century when possession of the island was contested several times. Its dramatic military history is best symbolized by Fort George, which pro tects the entrance to the harbor and is associ ated not only with colonial wars but also -as the site of the assassination of the Prime Minister in 1983 --with more recent historical events. Other surviving military monuments of primary importance are fortifications on Richmond Hill (Fort Frederick Md Fort Matthews) and Hospital Hill, both over looking St. George's. Fort George and Fort Frederick were the subject of recent studies by USAIO, in co operation with the Tennessee Valley Author ity (TVA). Both reports (Tichy, 1986a and 1986b) focused on plans for conservation of the historic structures and their enhancement as major tourist attractions. More recently, the TVA provided technical assistance to GOG for landscaping and interpretive exhibits at Fort George, while the CIOA-funded SPIF (Small Project Implementation Facility) is conducting a pre-feasibility and development study for Fort Frederick (Arthur Young, 1989). Long-term plans for the Grenada National Trust call for the re-Iocation of the National Museum from downtown St. George's to Ft. Matthew. With a small grant from UNESCO, the Trust has reportedly be gun clean-up and clearing activities at the fort. Additional funds for restoration must still be raised, but the Trust would like

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to move the museum by the end of 1990, thus freeing the St. George's site for use as a Trust office and headquarters (M. Jessamy, Na tional Museum, pers. comm., 1990). Pln<ntioD Sites. Grenada still pos sesses remains of its once numemus sugar estates. Some of the most spectacular of the sites which still survive are those which had adopted giant water-wheels for pnwer, e.g., Westerhall Estate, Calivigny Estate, and laSagesse Estate. Most plantation structures are in ruins, although some still are functional, including the River Antoine Rum Distillery, the oldest intact and operational rum distillery and cane processing system in the Caribbean (Towle, 1978; GOG/OAS, 1988d). Architecture. Fine e}:amples of ver nacular architecture can still be fuund, pri marily in St. George's which, in addition to its exceptional setting --situated as it i!: on both sides of a narrow ridge between two small bays --is further enhanced by what W:tS once an almost perfect architectural integrity. Un fortunately, as indicated above, its early charm is being compromised by major intrusions of incompatible buildings not in keeping with the architectural and historical character of the area. Recent efforts to promote establish ment of a St. George's Historic District re sulted in the publication of Architectural D<: sign Guidelines for the capital city (BnIT, 1988). Developed for GovernmeLt by TV A/USAID, the guidelines carry no official endorsement, nor are regulations in place to enforce the standards contain therein. Simultaneously, and as an adjunct to the architectural guidelines project, the Grenada National Trust initiated a survey of the historical resources of St. George's. The current survey is a follow-up to an earlier ef fort undertaken for the Trust by members Alister and Cynthia Hughes in 1968; that ef fort focused not only on st. George's but on identifying and cataloguing historic man-mnde structures throughout the country. The Trust-supported surveys, along with a forty year old report by the Georgian Soci,:ty (Acworth, 1951) and an inventory undertake .. by IRF /CCA in W76 (Towle, 1978), represent 216 the primary efforts to document the historical resources of Grenada. Arcbaeologlcal Sites. Extant rxaIDpies of Amerindian culture include ru-chaeo logical sites located in every parish across the island. An archaeological survey conducted in 1986 unuer the sponsorship of the Foundation for Field Research, with assistance from American and Grenadian volunteers, recorded several doreu sites. Each was mapped and rt:IJrded on an Archaeological Site Record Form, the originals of which are on rue at the Grenada National Museum. Additionally, samples of diagnostic artifacts were surface-collec!ed from each recorded site, and these are also held at the Museum. Prior surveys were conducted ill 1982 by Henri Petitjean-Roget and in 1%2 by Ripley Bullen. Several sites have been systematically excavated. Bullen excavated the sites of Pearls, Suazey, Calivigny, Wester hall, Salt Pond, and Black Point (Bullen, 1%4). The Foundation for Field Research sponsored two archaeological excavations: Grand Anse Beach in 1987 and Pearls in 1988, 1989, and 1990. Collectiuns from these exca vations are held at the Grenada National Mu seum, and are on file at the Museum and I.he Ministry of Education. PROTECfIO:"
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GRENADA PLACES OF HISTORIC AND CULTURAL INTEREST A Archaeological sites A Architectural sites Cannons + Cemetery Estate houses Ii Forts Wind mills 111111 Slave cells LW Whaling station Lib. Historic sites Li ght houses (0 Lookouts M Military buildings b. Monuments + Petroglyphs .A Sugar mill s 0 White line kilns 0 Shi pwrecks Batteries Grand Roy o Grand Anse Bay o Lance aux Glover I. '1w Epines + A+ A .A JW 111111 Ifil+ o + A +* Grenada Bay S t. Andrews Bay Figure 11.1 (1). Places of historical and cultural Interest as identified by the Grenada National Trust. 217 10 It 00'

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Table 11.1(1) Historic sites and national landmarks selected for protected status by the Grenada National Trust (see also Figure 11.1(1. ;nventory Category Forts or Military Batteries Historical Buildings Natural Sites Shipwrecks Archaeological Sites Estate Houses Look-out Points Slave Cells Wind Mills Military Buildings Whaling Stations Lime Kilns Light Houses Other Historic Sites (associated with Fedon's Revolt in the late eighteenth century) Sites Us ted 30 2 2 4 16 52 2 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 Source: Grenada National Trust (prepared for CEP project, 1989). -Carib's Leap at Sauteurs, St. Patrick's Pearls Archaeological Site (one of the largest prehistoric sites in the Caribbean) -The Copland Monument, St. Patrick's Slave Pen at Hermitage Lavera Fort and National Park -Fort Matthew, Fort Frederick, Fort George Moniniere, site of a coastal battery River Antoine Sugar Factory and Distillery Gouyave Catholic Church (for its copper spire, unique in Grenada) -The tile roofs of St. George's (a generic category) Old Church, Grenville (Gothic Revival). I'he Government of Grenada and the Organization of States in its pro posed Plan for a System of National Parks and Protected Areas (GOG/OAS, 1988d) estab lished a Cultural Landmarks category of pro tection. These are sites which because of their 218 importance to the historical development of Grenada and because of their potential for education and tourism should be preserved and guaranteed protection. The plan further states that the designation of cultural land marks should include representative monu ments, sites, and structures from the different periods of the country's history, specifically: pre-Columbian; pre-emancipation; emancipa tion, and the contemporary period. Ten Cul tural Landmarks were recommended for protection within the proposed system. They are: Carib's Leap (also recommended by the Trust) Fort George (also recommended by the Trust) Fort Frederick (also recommended by the Trust) River Antoine Rum Distillery (also recommended by the Trust) Wcsterhall Rum Distillery Belair Rum Distillery (Carriacou) Fedon's Camp (also recommended by the Trust) The Tower

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Marquis VilJage (for handicrafts from wild pine) Soubise (for hand-fashioned boats). None of the sites targeted for preservation by either the National Trust or GOG/OAS currently enjoys any protected status. MUSEUMS The Grenada National Museum was established in 1976 under the auspices of the Ministry of Tourism and later was transferred to the Ministry of Education. Exhibits were put together 'lth materials from the private collections of ,jrenadians and expatriates and include both Arawak and Carib artifacls and a variety of historical and natural history items. The Museum is presently housed un the ground floor of the Ministry of Education in St. George's and is operated by a nOll-gov ernmental organization, the Grenada Histori cal Society, which was formed for this purpose in collaboration with Govcrnment. Some support is provided by tile Ministry of Educa tion. Carrip,cou also formed an Historical Society and opened a in August of 1976. The Society and its Museum were first housed in the storage room of a local rum shop, but shortly aftcrwards were moved to new premises in a building which had origi naliy been the local coffin shop in Hillsborough. The back of this building was washed away in an unusually strong ground swell in 1984, along with half of the Amerindian collection. This disaster did not deter the Society which, in 1986, was able to buy the land and walls of the old collon gin nery at below-market price from Barclay's Bank. A building fund for reconstruction of the walls, windows and roof of the ginnery was established, and eventually a second storey, made of wood in the old Caribbean style, was added. Grants from the U.S., Canadian, and British Governments all assisted with this re construction effort. Displays are divided into several small sections which include exhibits of Amerindian artifacts, fragments of European 219 ceramics and glass, and an African section (Cummins, 1989). Like the Museum in St. George's, the Carriacou Museum is managed by a non-governmental entity. INSTITUTIONAL CONSIDERATIONS The National Trust Act of 1967 empowers the Grenada National Trust to identify, document and preserve buildings, monuments, and places of historic and architectural interest. The Trust can acquire property and raise funds, but its role is primarily an advisory onc as thc Act does not grant to the Trust the power to make and enforce for the management of protected sites. Furthermorc, therc is no antiquities legislation regarding the owncrship or disposition of ar.ifacts salvaged from archaeological sites, including marine shipwreck sites. The Trust camc into being in thc latc 1960's not in response to eitJler community or Government commitment to long-term con servation goals, bllt rather as a vehicle for promoting tourism. It soon lapscd into a long period of inactivity, to be revived again in the mid-1980's, once more as a means for pro moting tuuiism-relatcd projects (sec also Sec tion 12). A proposed merger between the Trust and the non-governmental Grenada Historical Society had under discussion since 1986 and was finally achievcd in 1990. The objective was to creede a stronger force for conservation in Grenada, but for scveral years there had becil some reluctance on the part of the more activc Historical Society (which operates the museum in Sl. George's) to link i(self with the less ac.:tive National Trust. At approximately the same time the merger discussions between the Historical So ciety and the Trust began in 1986, the 'Crust requested that the Government's ugal De partment update and modify the Nadonal Trust Act to strengthen the authority of the Trust to protect historical, archaeological, and architectural resources. Lacki:,,; such rowers diminishes the effectiveness of the Trust in

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promoting such recent initiatives as designa tion of Historic District status on St. George's. (See also Section 12 for a more detailed discussion of the National Trust and Historical Society.) The proposed GOG/OAS (1988d) Parks and Protected Areas Plzn gives the Na tional Trust and the Historical Society an ad visory role in recommending specific sites aed resources to be incorporated within the sys tem. 11.2 PROBLEMS AND ISSUES The economic and social benefits to be derived from the protection of historic sites, architectural features, cultural land marks, or archaeological resources have not heen full appreciated in Grenada. The result has generally been a Government policy of either benign neglect or in some cases delib erate destruction of these resources. To be more specific: The lack of a building code and design guidelines for St. George's, which require consideration of the town's unique ar _hitectural character in planning applications, has resulted in decades of fragmented and inappropri ate development, substantially dimin ishing the intrinsic value and historical quality of the town. Historical and archaeological re sources are without protection, even if vested in the Trust, for the Trust lacks authority to make and enforce regula tions for the management of protected areas. The National Trust in Grenada, while over twenty years old, has throughout its history been a weak or inactive organization, enjoys only minimal support from Government, owns no property, and has lost consid erable support in the last decade to the Historical Society (with whom a merger was proposed over three years ago). 220 Recent efforts to promote pro grams for the conservation, develop ment and protection of histori cal/ cultural resources have been donor-driven (e.g., OAS, USAID) and have not generally emerged from ini tiatives within Government. The proposed GOG /OAS plan for a System of National Parks and Protected Areas is Grenada's tirst at tempt to integrate historical/cultural resources within a long-term, compre hensive management plan. Prior to its inception, consideration of such re sources in development planning was ad hoc, at best. 11.3 POUCY RECOMMENDATIONS It is not too late to consider an "historic districtW preservation/restoration policy in Grenada, although the integrity of its most significant district of historic and archi tectural value -St. George's --has been di minished through the indiscriminate employ ment of non-compatible uses. Consideration should be given to a Government policy which encourages adaptive use and restoration strategies in St. George's by the employment of economic incentives and to the adoption of design controls for new construction, along the lines of the recently published Architec tural Design Guidelines for St. George's (Burr, 1988). Such guidelines need to be incorpo rated into the building applications required by the Physical Planning Unit. GOG should also give considera tion to enactment of some form of antiquities legislation to provide better protection of the nation's historical and cultural resources. Such legislation might include establishment of a Registry of Historic Places. Criteria could be set for the selection and certification of Registry sites (including buildings indicative of vernacular architecture). Standards for further development of such sites would need to be established, and authority vested in a designated agency to control development and use of the sites.

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'" Archaeological sites --terrestrial and marine --could be protected by their in clusion on the Registry. Such action would help deter disturbance of these sites except under the controls established in the antiqui ties legislation. Prior to any major development, a cultural resource survey should be carried out by professional archaeologists (developers should be required to pay for such surveys). Development control procedures should pro adequate time for the excavalion of ar-221 chaeological sites prior to commencement of development activities. .. The Grenada National Trust is the logical agency to be designated as overseer of the proposed Registry of Historic Places. However, before it could assume such a role, the Trust must take steps to become a more effective organization. This will not happen without increased support by Government for the Trust and its objectives, specifically, the strengthening of the legislative authority of the TrUSl and the provision of adequate oper ational support.

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SECTION 12 iNSTiTUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 12.1 ORGANIZATION Stat;: of Grenada, an indepen dent parliamentary democracy within the British Commonwealth of Nations, comprises the inhabited ir.!ands of Grenada, Carriacou and Petit MartL'lique. In addition, thtre arc several small, uninhabited 01 the Grenadines which fall under the jur:sdiction of the Grenada Government. Following more than a century and a half of British Crown ColoJ.lY rule, adult suf frage was introduced in 1951 (with a voting age of 21, subsequently reduced to 18), and Grenada became a State in Association with Britain in 1967. Under '.hat status, the State was entrusted with complete internal self government, while Britain re tained responsibility for dct'ense and e).1ernal affairs. Independence was gained in 1974 when the British Government terminated the status of Assot;iatcd Statehood. Grenada's Independence Constitu tion Order vests the execut.ive of the State in the British Monarch and provides for a Governor General appointed by and repre senting the Monarch. The Constitution also provides for a bicameral com prised of a 15-menJbcr elected House of Rep resentatives drawn from t5 wnstituencies, and a 13-member Senate appointed by the Governor General, on ,Idvkc of the Prime Minister and Leader of the Opposition. The Governcr General appoints, as Prime Minister, the member of the House who appears likely to command support of the majority of the members of the House. The Governor General also app)ints, as Leader of the Opposition, the membec of the House who appears to command support of the largest number of members of the House in opposition to Government. Acting on the advice of the PI ime Minister, the Governor General appoints Ministers of Government from among mem bers of the House and/or Senate. Those .... -1'" r .. .... '-, '. .. -. ..... 223 Ministers, together with the Prime Minister, form the Cabinet with responsibility to advise the Governor General in the governing of the StH.te. Except in a few instances where he or she is required to act in his/her own deliber ate judgment (e.g., appointment of the Prime Minister), the Governor General must act in accordance with the advice of Cabinet. Effective executive power therefore rests with the Prime Minister and Cabinet. The Cabinet is now comprised of five Ministers and seven Ministers of State (junior Ministers), three of the latter being drawn from the Senate. At present, the Government is organized as follows: Prime Minister and Minister for Home Affairs, National Security, In formation, Carriacou and Petit Martinique Affairs, Finance, Trade and Industry, and Energy; Ministry of External Affairs, Agri culture, Lands, Forestry, Tourism, and Legal Affairs; Ministry of Education, Culture, Youth Affairs, Sports, Social Security, Local Government, Labor, and Fish eries; Ministry of Health, Housing and Physical Planning; Ministry of Works, Communications, Public Utilities, Cooperatives, Com munity Development, Women's Af fairs, Civil Aviation and of Government Business. Local Government was introduced in 1905 when District Boards (with equal num bers of elected and nominated members), re sponsible for administration of certain details of government, were created in each of the six parishes of Grenada (see Figure 1.1(2) for designation of the six parishes). Carriacou

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was given a fully nominated Board which later became partially elected. While each District Board had statutory control in certain matters over the entire parish in which the Board op erated, in practice, each Board exercised little authority outside the main town of the Parish. The exception was St. David's, where no town exists. In 1961, when the City of St. George's was made a municipality, the St. George's District Board was replaced by a City Council. The Council had responsibility for St. George's City only, the rest of St. George's Parish was left without even the nominal local government it had before. Local government bodies (District Boards and the St. George's Council) were dissolved by the Central Government in 1969, but the present Government has pledged to restore local government. For this purpose, draft legislation was prepared and three Bills were given their first reading late in 1986 (i.e., the St. George's Corporation Ordinance, the Carriacou and Petit Martinique Country Councils Ordinance, and the District Boards, Village Councils and Town Councils Ordi nance). These Bills ftill await their second and third readings to be passed in law. Grenada's legal system is based on British Common Law, and, according to the Constitution, the Supreme Court of the State is the Supreme Court of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS). However, following the New Jewel Movement revolu tion of 1979, the Constitution was suspended, and the OECS Court was abolished and re placed with the Grenada Supreme Court. The Ccnstitution, with the exception of the section relative to the Courts, was re stored after the military intervention of 1983, and the Grenada Supreme Court therefore remains in operation as a "Court of Necessity". The Grenada Government has made applica tion to rejoin the OECS Court but has been advised that its application will not be con sidered until the Appeal case relative to the murder of Prime Minister Maurice Bishop and others (presently being heard) has been disposed of. 224 12.2 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMEt.lT OF ENVIRONMENTAL The legislative base for land use planning ano development control in Grenada dates to 1946 with the enactml. nt of the Town and Country Planning Ordinance. Patterned after similar legislation in the region, the law introduced urbttn and 1a.'1d use planning to Grenada. Almost two decades later, in 1965, a Central Planning and Housing Authority was set up to review development proposals and to establbh some control over the devel opment in the urbanized area of st. George's in particular. The Authority put forward a number of standards by which de velopment proposals were to be evaluated, and these were enacted in 1965 as Regulations to the original Town and Country Planning Ordinance. Despite these initiatives, the control of development (for the most part narrowly defined as building development in the town of St. George's) was a matter of controversy for over 20 years, from the late 1940's to the late 1960's. In the first place, the St. George's District Board (replaced by the City Council after 1960) maintained that it had authority over building development within the town's boundary, putting it in conflict with the Cen tral Government's Planning and Housing Authority. Not only were lines of responsibility unclear, but conflicts arising out of political and personal considerations helped to ensure that such development controls as did exist would not be effective. For example, advisors to both the District Board/City Council and the Housing Authority accepted private work to prepare building plans which they were later called upon to evaluate. Furthermore, the District Board/City Council had no in spectors to monitor approved applications, while the Hl'u..,ing Authority had only one. Finally, while the Town and Country Planning legislation contained authority for Govern ment to zoning or land use plans (called "schemes"), such plans were not un dertaken by the Authority, resulting in a lack of standards or guidelines to be used by either

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the Authority or the St. George's District Board/City Council. The result was an almost complete lack of development control throughout the J.94O's, 1950's and into the 1960's. The con sequences could be seen in the loss of archi tecturally important buildings in SL George's, the erection of new buildings not in keeping with the historical chruacter of the town, and the failure to plan effectively for inevitable in aeases in urban population and traffic. When the St. George's City Council was dissolved in 1969, the control of building development in the town reverted entirely to the Central Government. As it happened, at about the same time a new law, the Land De velopment (Control) Act, created a new cen tralized authority in 1968, the Land Develop ment Control Authority, which to the present time is responsible for the administration of the older Town and Country Planning Ordi nance and Regulations and the more recent 1968 Land Development (Control) Act, as amended in 1983 (see also Section 12.3 be low). During the period 1966-1971, the United Nations provided technical assistance in physical planning to the Government of Grenada. Among other tasks, the UN team assisted in the drafting of the new Land De velopment (Control) Act and prepared a number of local area plans including a master plan for St. George's which was approved by GOG. In 1976, the Government of Grenada again requested and received planning as sistance from a UNDP-sponsored, region wide Physical Planning Project, which helped in drafting a proposed Physical Development Strategy (1977-1990) for Grenada, including guidelines for development. The 1977 Strat egy was never formally accepted by Govern ment, in part due to internal unrest just before the 1979 revolution. N<'f did it completely live up to expectations for long-term planning. Some of its projections were wrong, most particularly those for population, which did not account for continuing out-migration. Nevertheless, the Physical Development Stra tegy of 1977 remains the most comprehensive 225 attempt to date for national physical planning; it is still being used as a guideline by local planners (Frederick, 1987a). The problems of inter-agency coordi nation and the need for coherent government action in confronting environmental issues re sulted in the formation of the Environment Conservation Council in April of 1983. The Council was to have authority to coordinate GOG policies and programs for the preserva tion and utilization of the country's natural re sources; its role was to be both a coordinating and advisory vne. Only one meeting of the Council wru. held in 1983, and, perhaps as a result of political changes later that year, the Council has remained inactive ever since, al though its revitalization is still under discus sion (Frederick, 1987a). Following along the lines of similar legislation in other Eastern Caribbean coun tries, Grenada now has in place legislation to protect its water catchment areas (Forest, Soil and Water Conservation Ordinance), its beaches (Beach Protection Law), its wildlife (Birds and Other Wild Life [Protection of] Ordinance) and its national heritage (National Trust Act). It has :.n the last ten years up dated the Land Development (Control) Law (in 1983, with Regulations in 1988) and the Forest, Soil, and Water Conservation Ordi nance (in 1984), and has enacted a new Fish eries Act (1986). In 1988, with assistance from the OAS, a plan and policy for a System of National Parks and Protected Areas was put forward. Yet, despite this body of legislative authority and new initiatives such as the na tional parks plan, Grenada does not have a strong institutional framework for environ mental management. In the first place, some critkal legislation is seriously outdated (e.g., the Public Health Ordinance which provides the basis for pollution control); other legisla tion lacks necessary rules and regulations to make the laws effective (e.g., the Water Supply Act). But perhaps more importantly, in Grenada, unlike some of its sister islands in the Eastern Caribbean, no single government agency can be said to have emerged as a strong leader or voice for environmental con cerns in the country; nor has this leadership

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been forthcoming in the private sector. Such a situation might be attributed to the political turmoil which has beset and distracted the nation for more than a decade; whatever the cause, it has hindered development of a strong framework or comprehensive public policy for the environment. Additional institutional concerns are discussed in more detail in Sections 12.3 and 12.6. 12.3 GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS CONCERNED WITH ENVIRON MENTAL MANAGEMENT Responsibility for environmental management in Grenada is dispersed
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Table 12.3(1). GOG agencies with resource management functions (expanded from Bourne, 1987), with principal legislation and key responsibilities. AGENCY RESOURCE MANAGEMENf LEGISlATION MINISfRY OF HEALTI-I AND HOUSING Physical Planning Unit Environmental Health MINISTRY OF EDUCATIOI-l Fisheries National Trust National Science and Technology Council Town & Country Planning Ord. (Cap. 293,1946) Town & Country Plan's (Amend.) Ord. (No. 36,1%6) Town & Country Plan'g Regulations (SRO No. 44,1965) Public Health Ord. (Cap. 237,1925), as amended, and Regulations (SRO Nu. 218, 1957) Abatement of Litter Act (No. 35,1973) Grenada Fisheries Act (No. 15, 1986) Grenada Fisheries Act Regulations (SRO No.9, 1987) Grenada National Trust Act (No. 20,1967) People's Law No. 28 (1982) MINISTRY OF WORKS AND COMMUNICATIONS Central Water Commission Water Supply Act (No. 23, 1969) Water Supply (Amendment) Law (No. 30, 1979) RESOURCE MANAGEMENf RESPONSlBlLmES Responsibility for the planning, development and use of lands Maintenance of environmenlal health Promotion and management of fisheries; protection and preservation of marine reserves Protection and preservation of Grenada's national heritage Science policy arm of Government Administration of potable water supply; construction and maintenance of water works MINISfRY OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS, AGRICULTURE, lANDS, FORESTRY, TOURISM Agriculture Pesticide Control Board Forestry and Parks Pesticides Control Act (No. 28,1973, as amended and Regulations on Labelling (SRO No.9, 1979) and J-.pproval (SRO No. 10, 1979) Forest, Soil and Water Conservation Ordinance (Cap. 129, 1949) Forest, Soil, and Water Conservation (Amendment) Ordinance (No. 34, 1984) Crown Land Porest Produce Rules (SRO No. 85, 1956) Protected Forests Rules (SRO No. 87, 1952) 227 Extension .. 'rvices; plant propagation and pest management; research on food crops; veterinary and livestock services; agronomy and conservation Enforcement of Pesticide Regulations Protection and management of the nation's forests; soil and water conservation

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Table 123(1) [continued]. GOG agencies with resource management functions (expanded from Bourne, 1987), with principal legislation and key responsibilities. AGENCY RESOURCE MANAGEMEI'IT LEGISlATION RESOURCE MANAGEMENf RESPONSIBILmES Lands Division and Land Use Division Crown Lands Ordinance (Cap. 78, 1896) CI'OMt Lands Rules (SRO No. 36, 1934) Administrative and tec'mical support for Government's land policy; responsibility for management and use of state-owned lands Crown Lands (Amend.) Rules (SRO Nos. 3, 19,39, 1965) Tourist Board Tourist Trade Development Board Ordinance Tourism promotion and marketing (Cap. 292, 1947) Tourist Industry (protection) Act (No. 47 1972) Tourist Industry (Protection) Regulations (SRO No. 2, 1986) Tourist Industry (Vendor's License) rtegulations (SRO No.2, 1986) Tourist Board Act (No. 29, 1988) MINISTRY OF FINANCE, TRADE AND IfI,lJUSTRY Budget and Planning Focus of Government's budget and pllfnning process Land'Development Control Authority Land Development (Control) Act (No. 40, 19(8) Land Development (Control) (Amendment) Law (people's Law No.7, 1983) Decision-making authority for plar.!ling applications Land Development Regulations (SRO No. 13, 1988) Industrial DcwlQpment ConJomtion Iro1ustrial Development Corp. Act (No. 2, 1985) Promotion of industry develop ment in Gn:nada \Chidf Teclniical Officer in the Ministry of Works and Communications took over as iCJhairman. Under this arrangement, the head .of :the PPU :is answerable both to his own MiDistry(Hea1th and Housing) and, as Exec utive .Secretary of the Authority, to the Land Development Control Authority Board. The principal legislation for developmont amtro1, including p:ocedures for en forcement of planning controls, is the Land DeVelopment (Coutrol) Act, 1968, as amCDt2cd, aDd Land Development Regula tions (Statutory Rules ud Dr-den; No. 13 of 1988). Earlier planning legislation ,(the Town aad Couutry Planning Qrdioanre of 1946, as 228 amended) was strengthened in areas of land development control by the 1968 Land Devel opment (Control) Ad (and enacted Regula tions thereto). At the same time, the origiDal planning legislation continues to be used by the PPU to regulate building construction. The Town and Country Planning legislation also contains authority for GOG to prepare legally-binding schemes (zoning or land use plans) for the country or parts of the COlmtry (Lausche, 1986). Despite this provisios; there is no approved national development pkn for the State, which m.;lkes the PPU's task of de velopment control that much more difficult, i.e., carried out as i( is in the absence of an ac cepted planning framework. A new Physical

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Developmen: Plan for the country is currently under preparation by the PPU, scheduled to be completed by early 1991; see also Section 9. Current development control regulatioris do not contain provisions which effectively recognize and protect the unique character of Grenadian architecture, in particular, the st. George's townscape. According to Bourne (1987), the ex isting manpower capacity of the Physical Planning Unit is inadequate. The head, who holds the title Chief Planning and Develop ruent Officer, is assisted by a non-clerical staff of seven. Only one Building Inspector and two persons are assigned task of "site inspection," clearly inadequate for a country the <.:ize of Grenada. Frederick (1987a), the current head of the PPU, maintains that while the Unit likes to think that it has responsibility for envi ronmental management, in actuality very few of its functions are directly related to such tasks. In fact, according to one consultant (Bourne, 1987), this Unit of Government, which has the potential to serve as the major agency for coordinating GOG's long-term ap proach to environmental management, has neither the capacity nor the capability to do so at the present time. Furthermore, the ministerial functions for er.vironmental management have officially been placed in ,the portfolio of the Minister of Education (formally with the Minister of Works and Com"llunications). Many observers, however, would agree that the core function of environmental planning more properly belongs within the PPU (C. Frederick, PPU, pees. comm.., 1990). LAND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL AUTIlORl1Y The Land Development Control Authority (LDCA), a statlltory body. was es tablished by a law of the same title in 1968 (amended in 1983); regulations were enacted in 1988. The Authority consists of a Chairman and not more than eight other members appointed by the Governor on advice of Cabi net. Membership of the Authority is man229 dated to include the Chief Technical Officers in charge of Pbysical Planning, Public Works, Health Services, Agriculture and Housing. As indicated above, the Executive Secretary of the LDCA is the head of the Physical Plan ning Unit, which provides staff for the day-to day functioning of the Authority. Authority for making decisions on development applications is vested in the LDCA. However, the Authority may refer an application to other GOG departments and agencies for guidance in reaching its decision. Furthermore, Cabinet may advise the LDCA that it has granted permission to a particular application, subject to any considerations to be defmed and approved by the Board (c. Frederick, PPU, pers. comm., 1989). With the enactment of regulations to the Land De velopment Control Act in 1988, certain devel opment proposals of Government depart ments and statutory boards must now be sub mitted to the LDCA for approval. Neverthe less, the Land Development Control Author ity is not always the agency first approached in the development approval process. Lausche (1986) points out that there have been cases where developers had plans and concession packages approved by the Industrial Devel opment Corporation before an application was submitted or approved by the LDCA. Also, People's Law No. 38 of 1981, which cre ated the National Housing Authority, gave full power to that body to implement housing de velopments without prior approval from the LDCA (Frederick, 1987a); this was removed with enactment of the 1988 Regula tions to the Land Development (Control) Act, but this section of the new regulations is not yet seriolL5ly enforced by the LDCA (C. Frederick, PPU, pers. comm., 1989). The provisions of the Land Develop ment (Control) Act do not require that the Authority consult with any person or body, within Government or external to Govern ment, in the performance of its responsibili ties. Thus, the development planning process suffers from a lack of public input :md partici pation, effectively reducing the iI1formation available to the LDCA from the non-govern ment sector and diminishing potential public support for its decisions. With respect to in put from GOG agencies, the head of the PPU

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Table 123(2). National resourr.e managem(;nt legislation in Grenada as identified and updated from Lauscbe (1986). PlANNING Town and Country Planning Ordinance (Cap. 293, 1946) Town and Country Planning (Amendment) Ordinance (No. 36,1966) Town and Country Planning Regulations (SRO No. 44, 1"65) DEVELOPMErrr Land Development (Control) Act (No. 40,1968) CROWN lANDS AGRICULTIJRE FORFSfS WATER TOURISM Land Development (Control) (Amendment) Law (No.7, 1983) Land Develooment (Control) Act Regulations (SRO No. 13, 1S'SS) Inuustrial Development Corporation Act (No.2, 1985) Grenada Agricultural and Industrial Development Corporation Act (No. 11, 1976); name changed to Grenada Development Bank by No. :'3,1980 Grenada Agricultural and Industrial Development Corporation (Amendment) Act (No.2, 1977) Grenada Agricultural and Industrial Development Corporation Regulations (SRO No.3, 1978) Crown Lands Ordinance (Cap. 78, 1896) Crown Lands kules (SRO No. 36, 1934) Crown Lands (Amendment) Rules (SRO Nos. 3,19, and 39, 1965) Pesticides Control Act (No. 28,1973) Pesticides Control (Amendment) Law (No. 88, 1979) Pesticides Control (Labelling of Pesticides) Regulations (SRO No.9, 1979) Pesticides Control (Approval of Pesticides) Regulations (SRO No. 10, 1979) Forest, Soil anJ Water Conservation Ordincmce (Cap. 129, 1949) Forest, Soil and Water Conservation (Amendment) Ordinance (No. 34 of 1984) Crown Lands Forest Produce Rules (SRO No. 85, 1956) (5/340) Protected Forests Order (SRO No. 86) (5/357) Protected Forests Rules (SRO No. 87) (5/358) Protected Forests (Tuilleries Bagatelle) Rules (SRO No. 88) (5/360) -Grand Etang Forest Reserve Ordinance (Cap. 135, 1906) -Water Supply Act (No. 23, 1969) Wllter Supply (Amendment) Law (No. 30, 1979) -. 'Jurist Trade Development Board Ordinance (Cap. 292, 1947) -Tourist Industry (Protection) Act (No. 47, 1972) Tourist Industry (Protection) Regulations (SRO No. 20, 1975) -Tourist Industry (Vendor's License) Regulations (SRO No.2, 1986) Tourist Board Act (No. 29, 1988) 230 (continued)

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Table 12.3(2) [continued]. National resource management legislation in Grenada as identified and updated from Lausche (1986). BPACHES Beach Protection Law (No. 67, 1979) PROTECfED AREAS Grenada National T:1Jst Act (No. 20, 1967) National Botanical and Zoological Gardens Act (No. 25,1968) National Botanical and Zoological Ga"Jens Rules (SRO No. 55, 1968) WILDLIFE Wild Animals and Birds (Sanctuary) Ordinance (Cap. 314, 1928) Birds and Other Wildlire (Protection of) Ordinance (Cap. 36, 1957) Birds and Other Wildlire (Protection of) (Amendment) Ordinance (No. 26, 1964) MARINE RESOURCES Grenada Act (No. 15, 1986) Grenada Fisheries Act Regulations (SRO No.9, 1987) WASTE MANAGEMENT/ POLLUTION CONTROL Public Health Ordinance (Car. 237, 1925), consolidated with revisions through No. 20, Public Health (Amendment) Law (No. 40, 1981) Public Health (Amendment) Law (No.9, 1973) Public Health (Ame.,dment) Law (No. 17, 1973) Public Health (Amendment) Law (No. 29, 1973) Public Health Regulations (SRO No. 218, !957) (6/953) Abatement or Litter Act (No. 35, 1973) and his staff -serving as the technical arm of the LDCA -routinely refer applications to persons within Government ap propriate before submitting them to the Au thority. The Board of the Authority is often comprised of those same persons so con sulted, plus representatives of a few other bodies such as the Chamber of CJmmerce. The head of the PPU reports that there is presently no environmental expertise within his office (c. Frederick, PPU, pers. comm., 1990). Lausche (1986) points out that gener ally speaking the body of existing planning and development control legislation in Grenada is one of the strongest of the six OECS countries she reviewed, particularly in specifying pro VISIOns on enforcement. Nevertheless, Lausche and others have pointed to weak-231 nesses in the LDCA and in the overall plan ning/development control process. Lausche attributes this to poor coordination across in stitutionallines (see also Section 12.6). Additional problems associated with the LDCA were pointed out in 1977 by a United Nations consultant attached to the UN Physical Planning Unit in Grenada. Accord ing to the consultant, one weakness of the LDCA can be traced to the provisions of the 1%8 Land Development (Control) Act which provide only for the restrictive side of plan ning (Mardones, 1985). Over time, this has produced negative perceptions about the work of the Authority. When combined with the fact that development control decisions are made by the Authority in the ahsence of an official physical development strategy, the re sulting lack of confidence by decision-makers

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in Government as weU as the general public in the LOCA is perhaps not surprising (Frederick, 1987a). ENVIRONMENTAL HEALm The Environmental Health Department of the MinistIy of Health, Housing and Physical Planning is the agency responsible for monitoring and enforcing the health and san itation provisions of the Public Health Ordi nance (1925), as amended. Responsibilities include solid waste management, liquid waste disposal, meat and food sanitation, water quality control, sanitary burial, occupational health, and port quarantine. PoUution control under the Public Health Ordinance foUows the legal theory of "nuisance," which the enabling legislation de fines to include any accumulation or deposit which is injurious to health. The difficulties of proof under nuisance theory, plus the very outdated provisions and the extremely low penalties of the law, weaken its enforcement by Environmental Health officials. Lausche (1986) caUs for a complete review and up dating of Public Health legislation in Grenada and states that both substantive and procedural sections need to be modernized and strengthened. The country is divided into three "environmental health" districts, each headed by a senior Environmental Health Officer who, in turn, supervises District Environmen tal Health Officers --three each in the Eastern and Western Districts and seven in st. George's, which includes the airport and sea port. Generally speaking, district officers are required to function in all areas of environ mental health. There is also one officer with primary responsibility for food inspection and sewerage matters. Functional interrelationships between Environmental Health and other units of the Grenada Government include the presence of the Chief Environmental Health Officer on the Board of the Land Development Control Authority and on the newly revitalized Pesti cides Control Board. Furthermore, the De partment's responsibilities for poUution monitoring and control overlap broadly with the Cen!ral Water Commission (.,;ee below). At the present time, the Commission carries out the actual work of bacteriological monitoring for fresh waters but provides reports to the Chief Environmental Health Officer. Also, aspects of the Department's port quarantine and environmental health mandate are linked to the responsibilities of the airport and sea port authorities. FISHERIES DMSION The FISheries Division is currently housed within the MinistIy of Education, Culture, Youth Affairs, Sports, Social Secu rity, Local Government, Labor, and FISheries, with which, unfortunately, it shares a limited number of common objectives. Bourne (1987) describes the unit as "a one man show" (i.e., the Chief Fisheries Officer) with all other positions attached to the Artisanal Fisheries Project, a quasi-governmental activity externaUy funded and designed to provide technical support for development of a small-scale, in digenous fIShing industry (see Section 4.4.1). More current information places the FISheries staff at 12, including -in addition to the Chief FISheries Officer -two fISheries biologists, five district officers, a fISheries trainer, an aquaculture specialist, a technician, and an officer in charge of statistics (R. Huber, OAS and J. Fmlay, FISheries Division, pers. comm., 1989). Much of the day-to-day work of the FISheries Division according to Borne (1987) is the management of the public fISh markets (staffed by positions which are all classified as temporary). Other activities are focused on implementation of extension work and en 'forcement of fISheries regulations. Fisheries was also designated in the draft GOG/OAS plan for a National Parks System as a cooperating agency to assist Forestry by managing protected seascapes and multiple use marine areas (GOG/OAS, 1988d). Although the Artisanal Fisheries Project office operates as a semi-autonomous agency within the Ministry, dealing with the commercial aspects of the fisheries sector, there has been discussion of the Project be-232

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coming a statutory body, leaving the Division free to carry out resource management and protection programs as well as provide exten sion services. To date, no action has been taken. Relevant Ir.gislation, the Grenada F'asheries Act (1986), provides for the promo tion and management of fashing and fisheries in Grenada. Additionally, it gives the Minister the authority to identify and declare as marine those areas requiring special status in order to protect and preserve the natural breeding grounds and habitat of aquatic life. Such l'rotection can also be afforded to pre serve and enhance an area's natural beauty or to promote scientific study and research. Frohibited activities within reserves are speci fied and penalties are set. MINISTRY OF WORKS AND COMMUNICATIONS The Beach Protection Law of 1979 gives to the Minister of Works and Communi cations responsibility for protection of the beaches and regulation of sand mining. Specifically, the law prohibits the removal or digging of sand, stone, shingle or gravel from any beach or seashore in Grenada except with the written permission of the Minister. The Minister, however, may declare any beach exempt from the law and will an nounce at regular intervals which beaches are open to mining. Any police officer may make an arrest for violation of the law. Bourne (1987) found that the institutional arrange ments to control santi mining were weak, causing sand mining to remain largely uncon trolled, with the Ministry of Works as one of the chief offenders (see also Section 4.4.2). The Ministry of Works and Commu nications is also responsible for maintaining sea defenses (e.g., seawalls) as well as the planning, development, and maintenance of other major infrastru.-:ture, including roads. Such activities make the Ministry ... significant -developer" in the country. Nevertheless, the Ministry, like other government departments, was not required to plans for its de activities to the LOCA for vetting 233 and approval until new Regulations to the Land Development (Control) Act were passed in 1988. However, the new regulations remain relatively untested, and it has not yet been determined exactly how effective they will be. CENTRAL WATER COMMISSION T!te legislation governing the supply of potable water and the construction and maintenance of waterworks is the Water Sup ply Act of 1969 (as amended). This legislation established the Central Water Commission (CWC) a statutory body, and tram:ferred to the Commission the assets and responsibilitier. of the water authorities existing before 1969. The Commission has powers to levy water rates, acquire property, and control all groundwater abstraction through the issuance of licenses and permits. Water supply on Car riacou and Petit Martinique is the responsi bility of the Public Works Department under the Ministry of Works and Communications. The Commission's Board of Direc tors includes representatives from the Min istries of Finance, Agriculture, Works, and Health, with the engineer from the Ministry of Works and Communications serving as Chair man. Until recently, the chief executive of the Commission --i.e., the Manager/Secretary who also serves as Secretary to the Board was a member of the Land Development Control Authority, but this link no longer ex ists (Bourne, 1987). The seat is held by a public utilities representative. The Board is fully autonomous and does not refer to the Ministry or Cabinet even in decisions affecting rate increases; it imple ments its programs based almost exclusively on revenues from water levies (Bourne, 1987; Lausche,1986). The enabling legislation charges the Commission with the prevention of pollution or contamination to rivers, springs, wells, catchment areas or other water source or supply. However, regulations have not been enacted (although available in draft), thus making enforcement of pollution control standards difficult, if not unlikely. Furthermore, management and conservation

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responsibilities for catchment areas also fall under the mandate of the Forestry Department under the Forest, Soil and Water Conservation Ordinance. Additionally, responsibility for monitoring water quality lies with the M:nistry of Health; nevertheless, the Commission does its own monitoring includ ing water quality testing. Thus, the CWC shares administrative authority with Forestry (for the protection of water catchment areas) and with Health (for water quality). There is also an inter-agency water resources unit (primarily concerned with the collection of rainfall data and the measurement of stream flows), which was set up in 1985 under the joint responsibility of the Ministry of Agriculture and the CWC --al though it is effectively under the control of the Commission. Given these overlapping responsibili ties, inter-agency coordination between the CWC and other government departments (e.g., Forestry, Environmental Health, Agri culture) is reportedly not as effective as it should be (Bourne, 1987; Lausche, 1986); this fact, is highlighted by the absence of the Commission's chief executive from the Board of the Land Development Control Authority. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE The Agriculture Department is a part of the largt;r Ministry of External Affairs, Agriculture, Lands, Forestry, Tourism, and Legal Affairs, with Agriculture accounting for almost half of the Ministry's program heads. The considerable size of this Department has been a matter of some concern; i.e., excluding Forestry and Parks, the Lands Division, the Land Survey Division and the Land Use Divi sion (which will be discussed in more detail below), the permanent staff of the remainder of the Department numbered 192 persons three years ago (Bourne, 1987). The functional responsibilities of the Department focus on extension services, plant propagation and pest management, research, veterinary and livestock services, and soil and water conservation. Some of the effectiveness of the Department in providing extension services or in promoting soil and water con servation is diminished by the fact that the Commodity Boards (Grenada Banana Coop erative Society, Grenada Cocoa Producers Association, Grenada Cooperative Nutmeg Association) have attracted a good number of the better qualified officers from the Department. Some of these Boards also have their own extension service programs for farmers (Bourne, 1987). Furthermore, Lausche (1986) identified no specific legislation in Grenada mandating soil and water conservation prac tices for agricultural production on private lands or non-forested state lands. PESTICIDES CONTROL BOARD The Pesticides Control Act of 1973, as amended with regulations on labelling and approval, established a Pesticides Control Board which formerly operated through a subcommittee, screening all applications br pesticide import. The Board was revitalized in 1987 and now comprises eight members (Chief Medical Officer, Government Chemist, agronomist, Agricultural Officer, Environ mental Health Officer, Plant Protectivn Offi cer, one farmer and a chemist) (G. Marcelle, GOG Chief Chemist, pers. comm., 1989). The Board meets once a month to review applications for new pesticidel'. It serves to advise the Ministry and Government on the use of pesticides in the country, but it is limited in its fUllctions as it employs no pesti cide inspectors and lac'(s the capacity to mon itor pesticidIt:sldues in humans or in food products. (See also Section 5.2 and Section 8.2.) FORESTRY AND PARKS Although the first Grenadian forest reserve was designated early in this century (Grand Etang Reserve Ordinance, 1906), the principal legislation in this sector is the For est, So] and Water Conservation Ordinance of 1949, with regulations, and as amended in 1984. This legislation provides authority for Government to declare forest reserves on state-owned land or protected forests on pri vate land, establishes provisions for control-234

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ling squatting on state-owned land, and autho rizes extensive t:nforcement powers for forest officers (unfortunately, the latter are not ef used due to budgetary and personnel constraints). The 1984 amendments added a broad forestry policy statement to the basic legislation, including up-to-date conservation concepts, a list of tree species to be protected on private lands, and revised penalties for of fenses (Lausche, 1986). From 1979 to 1984, during the time of the People's Revolutionary Government, forestry functions were assigned to a new statutory body called the Forestry Develop ment Corporation. A self-financing govern ment body, the Corporation's emphasis was on resource harvesting, and its specific man date was to reduce reliance on foreign wood imports, earn foreign exchange and provide employment. With the enactment of the 1984 amendment to the original Forestry, Soil and Water Conservation Ordinance, a new Forestry and Parks Department was re-estab lished within the Ministry of Agriculture. This Department, which includes the Botanical Gardens, is presently divided into three units, each headed by a Forester (Annandale, Queens Park and Grand Etang), with a separate unit for Carriacou (served by a Ranger). Another unit for National Parks and Protected Areas, including wildlife protection responsibilities, is staffed by a single Parks Of ficer who serves as head of the unit. The Forestry Department was se lected as the most appropriate administrative unit to manage the proposed National Parks and Protected Areas System. This decision, by a multi-agency committee, reflected, among other considerations, the Depart ment's legislative authority to protect forests, watersheds, fauna, flora, and soil and water resources as well as the motivation of staff to implement a protected areas management program (GOG/OAS, 1988d). However, Bourne, in 1987, found that for the most part Forestry's staff was inade quate for the proper performance of required functions. He found the Department was re lying almost entirely on short-term technical assistance staff and that while there wac; a 235 training program in place, largely at the pro counterparts were not available to benefit from the presence of visiting per sonnel. Middle-level managf:ment was identi fied as a major source of weakness. Other sources indicate that the Department has been strengthened significantly since Bourne's analysis by the return from England of two graduates in forestry management (R. Huber, OAS, pers. comm., 1989). THE LANDS DMSION AND THE LAND USE DIVISION The Directorate of Lands and Survey comprises three dt:partments within the Min istry of Agriculture: the Lands Division, the Land Use Division and the Land Survey Divi sion; as a whole, they provide administrative and technical support for the Government's land policy, while the first two also have re source management functions. The Chief Land Use Officer heads a unit concerned with land use and water conservation, and the Chief Lands Officer directs a unit which deals with the use and development of Crown Lands. Soler (1988) identified the key activi ties of the Land Use Division as: agricultural land use planning and zoning, agro-meteoro logical and hydrological studies, geological and soil survey and capability mapping, land and crop suitability studies, cadastral and other related surveys. All development appli cations relatrd to agricultural land are for warded by the PPU to the Land Use Division for evaluation, and the of the Division sits on the Land Development Control Au thority. The Lands Division exercises author ity over Government-owned land, including control over grants, sales, exchanges, and leases, with the power to attach reasonable conditions to any of these transactions. Any transfer of public land which implies a shift in use is channeled through the Division by other GOG agencies, for example, the laying oul of a subdivision by the National Housing Au Ihority on previously undeveloped or agricul tural lands. While such land transfers must ultimately be approved by Cabinet, they are

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not required to be forwarded to the PPU for technical consultations. TOURISM The former Department of Tourism (within the Ministry of External Affairs, Agri culture, Lands, Forestry, Tourism, and Legal Affairs) will cease to exist early in 1990 when the newly created Grenada Tourist Board (a statutory body created by legislation in 1988) becomes fully operational. These changes grew out of recommendations of an OAS funded task force on tourism development which had called for a streamlining of the in stitutional structure supporting tourism devel opment in Grenada (Moore, et 01., 1986). The new Board is empowered to de velop all aspects of the tourist industry, in cluding the development of tourist amenities such as (according to the enabling legislation) those related to the conservation of local flora and fauna. It may be assumed the Board will work with the National Parks Unit of the Forestry Department in the development of tourist attractions --as did its predecessor, the Department Tourism (e.g., for the develop ment of the Grand Etang Visitors Center). The propc,!)ed Parks and Protected Areas Plan (GOG/OAS, 1988d) ca11s for the Govern ment's tourism arm to focus some of its pro motion activities on protected area sites, both as recreational and educational attractions, and to help train tour guides for such areas. INDUSTRIAL DEVEWPMENT CORPORATION (IDC) The Industrial Development Corpo ration is a relatively new statutory body (created by legislation of the same title in 1985). Its principal mandate is the promotion and development of industry in Grenada (including hotel developments) by, for exam ple, the offering of concessions and invest ment incentives. The IDC's program includes development of an industrial park near Fre quente, where factory "shells" have been con structed and leased to investors. 236 IDC functions are complemented by those of the Grenada Development Bank (created in 1976 by the Agricultural and In dustrial Development Corporation Act, re named the Grenada Development Bank Act in 1980). The Bank provides technical assis tance and loans to promising national indus tries. The two bodies are linked through a common board, although the meetings of each corporation are conducted separately. This Board is not represented on the Land Devel opment Control Authority. The role of the IDC Board is advi sory, and it can only finalize decisions in spe cific areas, such as disposal of factory shells. Decisions on incentive packages are made by Cabinet, while matters with finallcial implica tions must have the prior approval of the Minister (Bourne, 1987). As pointed out above, development application procedures in Grenada have not been standardized. Specifically, the IDC may and does approve development plans and con cession packages before applications sub mitted to or approved by the Land Dt.;velop ment Control Authority. This confusion is ex acerbated by virtue of the fact there appears to be little coordination or consultation be tween the LDCA and IDC boards. GRENADA NATIONAL TRUST The National Trust Act of 1967 cre ated the Grenada National Trust, a statutory body administered by a Council and currently answerable to the Ministry of Education. This legislation empowers the Trust to protect and preserve sites of historical and cultural inter est or areas of natural importance. The Act gives the Trust authority to act in an advisory capacity, to raise funds, and to acquire prop erty. Nevertheless, Lausche (1986) points to serious deficiencies in the legislation, specifically, the little substantive authority granted to the Trust and its lack of power to make and enforce regulations for the man agement of protected areas. Nor does the Act provide for different categories of protection, management objectives relevant for each

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class, or power to prohibit and control certain klnds of activities in protected areas. Shortly after the formation of the Trust in 1967, a new Government into power which, if not actually hostile to the idea of a Trust, was decidedly unenthusiastic. While early records of the Trust no longer survive, the recollections of those who wen! a part of its formation put peak membership at between 60 and 80 persons. Of this number, no mme than about a dozen were Grenadians, the others being expatriates, primarily North Americans with winter homes in Grenada. With no Government support and little pop ular enthusiasm, the Trust soon existed only on paper (A. Hughes, Grenada journalist, pers. comm., 1989). In 1975, with prompting from the a Museum Commitlee was formed, followed by the establishment of a Museum and one later the launching of the Grenada Historical Society, created prin cipally to oversee the management and oper ation d the Museum (see also Section 12.4). More recently, the Government has sought to rehabilitate the Trust and to achieve a merger between the Trust and the Historical Society. Dne of the prim:uy motivations for renewed interest in the Trust appears to be the need to identify a suitable vehicle through which to channel donor funds for tourism To this end, USAID funds have been provided for a number of projects (e.g., rehabilitation work at Fort George, bC:lUtification of the Carenage, installation of plaques at points of interest in St. G,:orge's); these activities were carried out by the U.S. Tennessee Valley Au thority in cooperation with the Trust. A proposed merger between the Na tional Trust and the Historical Society, under discussion for over three years, was formally entered into in early 1990 when both boJjes, in joint session, elected a president and other officers under the name of the Grenada Na tional Trust and Historical Society. A modestly revitalized National Trust was named in 1989 as the executing NGD for the Grenada Country Environmental Profile project. A project office and Trust doclLnen tation/reference library were estaJ.,lished and 237 staffed. It seems clear, however, that the fu ture of the Trust is linked to the Govern ment's support of and commitment to the Trust and its objectives. This can be accom plished only if Government demonstrates a willingness to strengthen the a1Jthority of the Trust, to update its legislative mandate, to as sist in providing operational support, and most importantly --to give priority to the con cerns and goals of the National Trust. THE NATIONAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOWGY COUNCIL Another statutory body with envi ronmental responsibilities is the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), which serves as the science policy arm of the Grenada Government. The Council was es tablished in 1978 and was reorganized and given statutory power in 1982 under the Peo ple's Revolutionary Government. Board member:;hip currently includes representa tives from the Ministries of Education, Agri culture, Health, Works, and Finance as well as representatives from the Commodity Boards, from the IDC, from the Association of Profes sional Engineers, and from the medical/pharmaceutical profession (D. Pitt, NSTC, pers. comm., 1990). Under the aegis of the Council, a va riety of research programs (often donor driven) have been carried out since the estab lishment of the NSTC in the early 1980' s, in cluding aquaculture, folk medicine, beach ero sion and alte lative energy studies (Towle, et al., 1987). Closely linked to the NSTC is the Di vision of Research and Scientific Services of the Grenada National College. The College was established in July of 1988 with the fol lowing divisions: Division of Arts, Sciences and Gen eral Studies Division of Professional and Techni cal Studies Division of Adult and Continuing Education

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Division of Research and Scientific Services. The first three divisions listed above have deans; the last has a director who, at the present time, is also the Principal of the Col lege and Director of the NSTC. At some point, the College is scheduled to become a statutory body (D. Pitt, NSTC, pers. comm., 1990). In 1986, the Prime Minister specifi cally named the NSTC as the focal point for environmental concerns in the Grenada Gov ernment but did not spell out any specific re sponsibilities relative to that mandate. To date, this role has most generally been an ad visory one, although -given the broad nature of its Board membership --the Council has the capacity to provide a coordinating func tion, particularly in identifying either gaps or omissions in the environmental monitoring process in the country or, alternatively, in identifying and addressing areas of adminis lrative redundancy or overlaps among GOG agencies having environmental responsibili ties. Lausche (1986) and Bourne (1987) identify the physical planning process as the primary mechanism for inter-agency coordi nation on behalf of resource management concerns within the Grenadian Government. It seems clear, however, that, despite its pre sent relatively ill-defined mandate, the Na tional Science and Technology Council could provide a further means for more effective coordination of environmental functions within Government --a particularly critical role in a Government where such functions are diffuse and fragmented and where rele vant agencies are too often unable to act col lectively on critical environmental policy is sues. At the same time, it needs to be rec ognized that whatever expanded environmen tal role which the Council might assume in the future, it will continue to be hampered by sev eral existing constraints, i.e., the fact that the Council has no oversight responsibilities, no enforcement powers, no environmental quality control duties, and no authority to establish 238 environmental standards or monitor those standards. 12.4 THE NON-GOVERNMENTAL SECTOR IN ENVIRON MENTAL MANAGEMENT The universe of nOli-government organizations (NGOs) in Grenada has been de scribed by one observer (Pansini, 1985) as a heterogeneous one: diverse in interests and objectives, legal status, size, expertise, man agement capability, financial resources, sup port base, community influence and modes of operation. There is a long-standing tradition of NGOs in the country, especially as they have been attached to church-related or social welfare objectives. Furthermore, Grenadian NGOs, like NGOs in other small place3, are more visibly connected, for example in terms of overlapping memberships and leadership. Most NGOs in Grenada are small, with the work of these organizations carried out by volunteers with limited or no paid staff. NGO leaders are, simultaneously, policy mak ers, administrators, fund raisers, and project implementers, while the organizations they head are oft.en over-extended in terms of pro gram objectives (Towle, et 01., 1987; Pansini, 1985). On a more positive note, during a 1986-87 survey of non-government organiza tions in the Eastern Caribbean, Island Re sources Foundation found that, generally speaking, the kadership of NGOs in Grenada was excellent to superior when ranked against comparable service-related and volunteer groups in the region (Towle, et 01., 1987). However, whether the country's wenvironmentalW NGOs are equally capable of meeting this high standard remains to be seen. GRENADA HISTORICAL SOCIE1Y The Grenada Historical Society was formed in 1977, in part to ftlt a void caused by the inactivity of the National Trust (see Sec tion 12.3, Grenada National Trust). Unlike the Trust, which is a statutory body of Gov-

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ernment, the Society is chartered as a pri vately-organized, non-profit group; neverthe less, it seems to have enjoyed some support from Government throughout its history. When a museum was established ;'1 Grenada in 1976, partly at the urging of Gov ernment but with substantial support from the island's expatriate community, the need for an institutional structure to administer that facil ity became apparent. Thus, the Historical So ciety came into being. Its 14-year old museulI! is now designated the wGrenada National Mu seumW but is operated and managed by the non-governmental Society with some support from the Ministry oi Education. A proposed merger between Na tional Trust and the Historical 30ciety, under discussion for over three years, was formal ized in early 1990 when the two groups reor ganized under the name of th\! Grenada Na tional Trust and Historical Society. This newly constituted body represents the only "traditional w conservation group (excluding Carriacou. see below) which draws upon a community-derived membership base. CARRIACOU HISTORICAL SOCIElY The Carriacou Historical Society was formed in 1976 v.ith the general aims of pre serving historical artifacts related to the his tory of the island, encouraging an interest in the history of the island (by both Carriacouans and visitors); and establishing a museum. The group describes itself as a completely non governmental organization, supported by Carriacouans at home and abroad and by friends from the U.S., the U.K., and Canada. The group also maintains that it set an ambi tious agenda for itself, given the small popu lation size of the island and the fact that the organization was determined not to request Government financial support. Despite the fact that the Society's Museum was destroyed in 19..;4 (see also Sec tion 11.1), the group has persevered, and with financial assistance from members and grants from USAID and CIDA, it has re-established a Museum in a reconstructed building (the old cotton ginnery) in Hillsborough. The Carria239 cou Museum is the only museum in the Southern Caribbean that is completely self supporting and not dependent on government support. OTHER NGOS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL INTERESTS Non-government, community-based support for environmental programs in Grenada is very limited and must be extended beyond the National Trust and the Historical Society if the private sector is to exert a stronger leadership role, both in inueasing awareness about environmental issues and in providing a broader, participatory ap proach for the achievement of environmental goals. Several development-oriented NGOs have begun to integrate limited environmental issues into their programs and have the po tential to increase such concerns. These include: -The Grellada Natiollal Developmellt Foulld("ioll. With competent leader ship in place, this NDF has incorpo rated some environmental concerns into its program evaluation process. -The Grell ada Hotel Association (GHA), which also ranked high in leadership skills in a regional survey of NGOs (Towle, et 01., 1987). The Association recently republished its Handbook for members to include details on GHA activities on behalf of and positions relatcd to local env\ron mental concerns. The Agency jor Rural Trallsjonllatioll (ART), a locally-based NGO which sees itself as a catalytic agent for rural dcvelopment activities. It draws upon a variety of donor groups for support in assisting existing or emergent organizations in the coun try's rural arcas. The cooperative movement is also significant in Grenada. According to one re cent study (Finisterrc and Renard, 1987), aU successive governments since the inception of

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cooperatives in 1946 have given support for their development. Finisterre and Renard re port that 119 cooperative societies were reg istered in 1986 under the Cooperative Soci eties Ordinance of 1955, although only 37 were considered fully functional. While ccop eratives are primarily preoccupied with eco nomic issues, they also have potential for the mobilization of community-level resource management activities. This is particularly true with reference to agricultural and fISh eries cooperatives. It might be assumed, given the long tradition of NGO activity which Pansini (1985) found in Grenada and the general quality of NGO leadership described by IRF in 1987 (Towle, et 01., 1987), that there should be a larger number of local NGOs which could be brought together in a kind of private sector "environmental network." There has been some discussion of such an approach under the leadership of the Trust which, although a governmental body, is also viewed as an NGO, particularly given its current relationship with the Historical Society. For the present time, however, pri vate sector environmental leadership in Grenada is relatively weak and has not had any significant impact on the development of public policy. 12.5 EXTERNALL V-SUPPORTED ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS IN GRENADA 12.5.1 Planning, ;tf.-iC!!:-ch and Training In late 1!136 the Grenada Govern ment and the Organization of American States (OAS) signed a technical support agreement for the execution of an Integrated Develop ment Project. The project called for te .:hnical cooperation in five areas releval\t to the man agement of Grenada's natural resources: (1) development planning for ag-icultural lands; (2) management of Grand Anse Beach as a tourist development area; (3) establishment of a policy and system for national parks and 240 protected areas; (4) assistance in specific nat ural resource development and protection projects in Grenada's sister island of Carriacou; and (5) such other information, tr:llning, and planning activities as will be useful for other government agencies. The project is supported by OAS's Departml!nt of Regional Development which, until late 1989, maintained an office and full time representative in Grenada. The Organization of Eastern Caribbean States' Natural Resources Man agement Project (OECS-NRMP) was set up as a cooperative program of OECS with OAS and GTZ (the German Agency for Technical Cooperation); it was launched in the Eastern Caribbean in i986. Its overall program ob jective is to improve the capacity of OECS member countries to plan and manage natural resource management programs. To date, there have been no major OECS-NRMP project activities focused specifically on Grenada, but the island of Carriacou was the beneficiary of a recent water resources man agement project sponsored by OECS-NRMP. Grenada has also been included in regional surveys sponsored by OECS-NRMP (e.g., en vironmental legislation, self-help organiza tions) and has participated in OECS-NREP sponsored workshops. The Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI) is the agricultural research arm of CARICOM. With primary laboratories in Trinidad, CARDI also maintains representatives and a full program in each member island, including Grenada. The Windward Islands Banana Grow ers Association, known regionally as WINBAN, provi<1es assistance to the respec tive growers associations on the islands of St. Lucia, Dominica, and St. Vin cent, through coordination of shipping and marketing for banana exports and the im plementation of research activities on banana production. WINBAN operates a research center in St. Lucia, the largest agricultural re search unit in the Eastern Caribbean; activi there benefit all participating islands, in cluding Grenada.

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The Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (I1CA) is an intergov ernmental agency comprised of member states in the Americas and the Caribbean; the Institute enjoys a specialized relationship with OAS. Its mandate is to encourage, promote and support the efforts of member countries to improve agricultural development and to achieve rural well-being. In Grenada, IleA's recent programs have focused on: an agricultural sector study and policy analysis; study of low incomes and farmer response to praedial larceny; technical assist.ance in the form of an irrigation special ist; support for technology generation and transfer systems; strengthening of plant pro tection and quarantine capabilities; and sup port for farmers organizations. 12.5.2 International Donor Auistance The U.S. Agency for Illtenwtiollal De velopment (USAID) maintains an office in Grenada, and its HIAMP (High Impact Agri cultural Marketing and Production) Project also supports an on-island program. The overall aim of HIAMP is to improve the in vestment climate for agricultural (including fIsheries) enterprises in targeted countries such as Grenada, specifIcally by providing eq uity investment loans to fInance large projects and commercialization grants to support small agricultural and fISheries enterprises in tran sition to becomL'lg fully viable commercial ventures. Other resource management-related programs supported by USAID have included assistance for: a sewage system at Grand Anse Beach, the beautifIcation of and n pedestrian plaza for the Carenage in St. George's, landscaping and lighting to enhance Fort George as a attraction, renovation of the Grand Ett t1b Porest and Annandale Falls Tourism CelL\;,rs, major improvements for the island's water supply and solid waste disposal systems; an increase in the country's electrical power generating capacity, and re vitalization of the agricultural sector inchding support for the Model Farms Project and the Cocoa Rehabilitation and Development Pro ject. 241 The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has also provided substantial support for resource management programs in Grenada. The Canadians have provided funds for the extension of the St. George's Sewerage Outfall, for expansion of rural water systems, for a small community sanitation program, for a major cocoa reha bilitation project, and for the development and upgrading of natural, historical and scenic places (specifIcally Grand Etang). British aid, through the British Devel opmellt Divisioll (BOD), has primarily focused on the Models Farms project, forestry development and management programs, and infrastructure expansion for the country's water system. Additionally, a planning and design consultant was se<.:onded for two years through the United Kingdom's Overseas Development Administration to assist the Physical Planning Unit. The Government of Venezuela, through the Vellentela Illvestmellt FUlld, has made a major ccntribution in support of the ongoing Artisanal Fisheries Project. Multilateral assistance for resource management has been provided by the Euro pean Communities through its European De velopmellt FUlld (EDF), most significantly in support of the Model Farms Project. The United Natiolls Development Program (UNDP) was actively involved in planning ac tivities :.i1 Grenada in the 1970's (see Section 12.2) and more recently has provided funding lor Model Farms and to support the position of a parks manager in the Forestry Depart ment. The UN's Food and Agriculture Organizatioll (FAO) has provided assistance for agricultural programs, including Model Farms, for the Mardigras Soil and Water Conservation Project, and for forestry devel opment; while a specialized agency of the UN, the Intemational FUlld for Agricultural Devel opment (IFAD), has given significant support to the Artisanal Fisheries Project. The regional Caribbeall Development Bank has actively supported resource man agement projects in Grenada, including a major reforestation program and water pro-

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jects. With USAlD, the CDn provides funds for the Annandale Agroforestry Project. 12.6 OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT OF THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRON MENTAL MANAGEMENT The most comprehensive recent study of the institutional framework for environ mental management in Grenada was the sur vey and analysis of GOG resource manage ment agencies completed by the OAS in 1987 (Bourne, 1987). Some of the findings of the OAS consultant can be summarized as fol lows: In almost all departments of Gov ernment, the consultant identified problems of quantity and in many in stances of quality as well. Middle level management staff was of partic ular concern. Some GOG officials were pursuing training overseas, and their places were often filled by ex patriate technical assistance person nel. However, not enough attention was paid to training local persons as counterparts when such assistance was available. Coordination between the depart ments of Government is poor, and in almost all cases seems to take place exclusively at higher levels with heads of departments interacting with one another at meetings. This often means that such officials are required to make decisions with little prior op portunity to secure techn!cal input from within their departments. There was little evidence of long term planning in most departments. External loans and grants from re gional llDd international development assistance agencies accounted for al most ninety percent of the 1987 cap ital budget of Government, one indi cation of how far GOG is from being able to support self-sustaining pro grams for resource management. Others have pointed to weaknesses in the planning process and in development control procedures (see also Section 12.3). The Physical Planning Unit (PPU) and the Land Development Authority (LDCA), housed in different ministries, are primarily concerned with building control and lack the resources to carry out long-term land use planning. Review of development appli cations within Governmc::nt is often by th\: same persons who comprise the Board of the approving authority (the LDCA), while virtu ally all development activities undertaken by the public sector were not subject (until very recently) to LDCA review (it remains to be seen how effective the new Land Develop ment (Control) Act Regulations will be in regulating the development actions of GOG agencies). Several departments of Government, cutting across a number of different min istries, are involved in land use and resource management activities which carry environ mental responsibilities. But such responsi bilities are ill-defined without clear guidelines about functional relationships between agen cies, and -most importantly -show little evidence of accountat-Uity. As pc :ilted out by Lausche (1986), Freo'e.ick (198'/a), Bourne (1987), and (1988), inter-agent) coordination among these is weak with limited channels for inter sectoral cooperation, particularly important when :I!gislative authority for natural resource management ,wd environmental monitoring activities is shared by several agencies. Recommendations for structural, procedural, and legislative action or change!> are provided in this section. They serve as a guide to GOG in improving its ability to inte grate enviroruut:ntal considerations into the decision-making process and to facilitate its resource management responsibilities. (1) Improve the formal mechanisms within Government for inter-sectoral and ifller agency cooperation and coordination. Im proved coordination is perhaps the most criti cal issue ccDfrunting Grenada in the resource 242

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management sector. It is particulady impor tant because (1) the overall institutional base for environmental management in the country is weak and (2) resource management func tions are spread among several departments of Government. The proposed Environmental Impact Assessment procedures which the PPU in tends to draft in the near future (see Section 9) represent a positive step in the direction of improved inter-agency coordination. Al though the PPU now forwards development applications on an "as needed" basis to other GOG agei1cies, formal EIA requirements would force a more holistic integration of technical data and expertise, while at the same time guaranteeing more systematic input into project planning across departmental lines. GOG also needs to address and strengthen the role of the National Science and Technology Council as a vehicle of inter sectoral/inter-departmental environmental coordination. The spl'cific responsibilities of the Council need to be clearly defmed, and its capacity to establish and monitor environ mental standards needs to be explored. (2) of a National Land Use Plan. Inadequacies in the planning process have been attributed, in part, to the lack of a planning framework. Although a Physical De velopment Strategy was; with the assistance of UNDP, put forward in 1977, it was never for mally accepted by Government. It continues to be used informally as a guide by local plan ners, but as it does not carry official Govern ment approval, decisions about changes in land use and approval of new development activities tend to be based on short-term con siderations and are executed on a case-by-case basis. Furthermore, local planners maintain that the lack of an official land use plan slows the development approval process and makes more difficult the work tasks of the already busy and understaffed PPU. The Physical Planning Unit is now engaged in the process of preparing a new Physical Development Plan for the country, scheduled to be completed by early 1991. The Plan is to be put before Cabinet for reviewj if approved, such action would then lend the 243 force of law to many of the "zoning" and land utilizatiun allocations which it is anticipated the Plan will include. (3) Creation of a new Planning and Devt1lopment Authority. For at least three years there has been discussion within Gov ernment of the need to abolish the LDCA and replace it with a new Planning and Develop ment Authority (PDA), which combines plan ning and development control functions in one body responsible to a central ministry (Robinson, 1987, Frederick, 1987b). There has also been a proposal to place the Lands Division and the Land Survey Division of the Ministry of Agriculture (see Section 12.3) un der the new Authority (Robinson, 1987). These proposals reflect widespread dissatisfaction with the planning and devel opment control process as presently carried out by two related but different governmental units, the PPU and the LDCA. Centralizing these functions within one statutory body, its proponents maintain, will improve the coordi nation necessny for improved planning and land development decision-making. The pro posed PDA would have a strong forward planning mandate. For example, one proposal (Robinson, 1987) calls for the PDA to aevel,)p a Land Use Policy, a broadly-based lano use policy statement by Government, to be fol lowed by detailed development plans for areas under the greatest pressure. Several reviewers have pointed to the potential of the Physical Planning Unit to as sume an expanded role in guiding spatial development and in providing environmental leadership in Grenada (Frederick, 1987aj Bourne, 1987j Soler, 1988). Yet, such studies have also acknowledged the inability of the present staff to carry out stated functions, particularly regarding forwad planning and monitoring/enforcement tasks. The reorgani zation of planning functions within the pro posed PDA might help to increase both the size and capabilities of the Government's physical planning staff by placing it at the center of a key public sector authority. At the same time, it must be recog nized that merely centralizing and expanding planning/development control staff will not

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solve all the recognized problems. As rec ommended in Section 9, there is also a need to create an improved monitor ing/enforcement capability for land-use changes within Government. GOG should take these various pro posals under early consideration as deficien cies in the present planning and development control process have been identified by both internal and external reviewers. (4) Updating of environmental legis lation where required; harmonization and ra tionalization of all environmental law to avoid overlaps in institutional responsi bilities. The provisions of two specific envi ronmental laws need to be updated and strengthened. (1) Public Health Ordinance. In a recent review of natural resource leg islation in Grenada, Lausche (1986) points out the need for a review and up-dating of Public Health legislation, noting the difficulty of pollution control procedures under the existing law which dates to 1925 (regulations en acted in the 1950's). Not only are its provisions outdated, but its extremely low penalties would trivialize the best of efforts aimed at pollution control. (2) National Trust Act. Lauscbe (19& also points out the iII adequacy of the 1967 National Trust legislation which gives the 'i'rust little substantive authority and no express power to make and enforce regulatio;1S for the management of protected areas. These deficiencies are particularly important in a country lacking more specific pro tected areas legis.l::tjon -other than the provisions of the broadly-inter-244 preted Forest, Soil and Water Conser vation Ordinance and the more re cently enacted Fisheries Act. The Government's failure to update and amend the Grenada National Trust Act has seriously impeded the recent ini tiatives to reorganize and revitalize the 2O-year old Trust. Furthermore, as identified elsewhere in this chapter, there are areas of overlapping institutional responsibility in the resource management sectors of Government, some of which have been authorized by statute and some of which are procedural. Key among these are: development control and planning approval, development of public lands, conser vation and protection of watersheds, pollution control and maintenance of water quality. What is reqmred at this time is a more tightly dermed analysis of extant envi ronmental law and of GOG b,-;titutional responsibilities than that provided in the re cent OECS/OAS overviews (Lausche, 1986; Boume, 1987). Such an analysis needs to up date and build upon these studies by more specifically identifying those area') of (1) ex isting or potential conflict in institutional responsibilities and (2) shared or overlapping legislated or assumed authority. Recommen dations for modification of existing legislation need to be included as well as guidelines for improved coordination procedures. The ob jective is not to eliminate overlap per se but to capitalize on opportunities for shared moni toring, to identify common goals, and to pro vide better procedures for oversight and enforcement activities. The most expedient method to ac complish this task would be for GOG to ap proach an appropriate donor agency for as sistance.

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SECTION 13 SUMMARY OF POLICY ISSUES 13.1 ESTABUSHING DIRECTIONS One of the reasons for embarking on the present Environmental Prome for Grenada was to identify which emerging re source use conflicts were locally perceived as growing worse, which ones have been docu mented or labelled by the experts as threat ening, which are being dealt with, and which are not. Therefore, the previous twelve sections of this CEP report have scrutinized in some detail the current status of Grenada's natural resources and environment and the effects of recent growth and development ini tiatives on those resources, some of which are often taken for granteci as being "free goods: This fmal section seeks to highlight extant and emerging environmental problems and presents a summary of suggested resource management policy directions and recom mendations that would help shape a national framework for environmental management in Grenada. Amidst the political drama and changing social and economic agendas of the past two decades, it is not surprising that Grenada has fallen behind most of its neigh bors in the Eastern Caribbean when it comes to devising new environmental programs to deal with unprecedented growth impacts, land use pl:mning, pollution control and resource depletion. But, in another sense, Grenada has been fortunate. By virtue of its semi-isolated position at the southern end of the Lesser Antilles, it has avoided the direct impacts of the most exotic, industrial pollutants from North America. The closest it has come to flirting with expanding volumes of toxic mate rials has been the export agriculture sector where a growing dependency on chemical fer tilizers and a variety of herbicides, pesticides and fungicides has become increasingly worri some. Furthermore, the country has virtually no life-threatening groundwater pollution, no overcrowded beaches or clear-cut forest, and no major crop failures from disease in recent memory. 245 Yet all is not well. Beneath the sur face, Grenada's natural resource base has been bearing an increasingly heavy burden of expanding levels of human use, growing loads of waste materials including sewage (especially in the urban area of St. George's and the tourism area of Grand Anse), a di minishing wildlife population, and evidence of an accelerating watershed and shoreline elU sion problem which is linked, respectively, to deforestation and sand mining. Political events of the past decade have caused Grenada's growth curve to wobble a bit with sectoral ups and downs and with changes in social policy and development theory; through it all, Grenadians seemingly have maintained a relative disinterest in the environmental side of the effects of national growth. Government reportedly has tended to view developmental objectives and environmental protection as being in conflict, with the former almost al ways taking precedent. Within this frame work, the Government of Grenada appears reluctant to transh::te even the more obvious environmental warning signals into regulatory or incentive-based environmental policies. Howevr.r, ignoring emerging environmental problems and issues did not and still does not make them go away. The evidence is fairly clear --for Grenada, they are getting worse. 13.2 IDENTIFYING THE ISSUES The Grenada Country Environmental Prome has served as a "catchment" for identi fying environmental issues within the state. Most issue statements '.vhich surfaced during the writing of the Prome and which are elabo rated upon within this document constitute a national work list for which some modicum of consensus bas been established. They could also be used constructively as the guide for a nationwide environmental education program. under the best of circumstances, this Prome and its action recommendations could

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and should lead directly to the design and im plementation of a national conservation strat egy or its equivalent. At the very least, the document stands as an addendum to Grenada's development strategy and public sector investment program. What is most needed at this juncture is a policy framework and a schedule of implementation. There are two groupings of issues addressed within the ProfUe. The first is derived from the sector review and analysis which constitute the preceding chapters. For the convenience of the reader, the sector specific issues and recommendation summaries accompany each sector overview statement and are clearly identilled within each section or sub-section. The second, smaller group of issues, more national and less sectoral in scope, has been singled out and presented below in the remainder of this chapter to offer some policy direction. Although a sequence of problems is presented separately and individually, there is a risk in doing this, for no issue should be considered in isolation. There are some very important linkages, and the inter-relatedness of elements within both natural and human ecosystems constitute an important concept for the would-be Grenadian resource man ager. Solutions generally require inter disciplinary and inter-ministerial cooperation and coordination and are seldom as neat and orderly as their presentation in list form would suggest. ISSUE: GOVERNMENT FRAGMENTATION AND LINES OF RESPONSIBILIlY Grenada's fragmented approach to the administration of environmental affairs, the absence of any offtcial environment pro tagonist within Government with clear lines of authority and responsibilities, and the fman cial constraints under which various GOG re source managers must work tend to hinder implementation of effective environmental management strategies for sustainable devel opment. 246 ISSUE: DEFORESTATION Pressures to increase export cultiva tion necessitate the clearing of more and more new land which impinges upon steeper slopes highly susceptible to erosion. Small farmers are also beinr forced into more mountainous areas. Soij ",'osion and downstream siltation are the common result of such land clearing and the resultant deforestation. While ero sion has serious implications for reduced agri cultural productivity, it can also raise the risk of landslides and diminish the value of valley land by contributing to excessive flooding. Generally, land clearing for farming and fuel wood harvesting on very steep slopes or in water catchment areas and forest reserves should be eliminated. In the case of much of Grenada's forested landscape, these lands are less pro ductive than they could be. Forest land that is cleared, in some cases illegally, for shifting agriculture has seldom been reforested. This is also the case with much of the secondary forest areas targeted by landless farmers, fuel wood harvesters and charcoal burners. Reforestation planting schedules in the past have simply not kept up. JSSUE: WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND WATER SUPPLY Upper catchment and forest reserve areas are not being adequately protected against deforestation, and these important protected areas are not, unfortunately, being expanded by land acquisition to guarantee a water supply for future generations of Grena dians. Additionally, there is some evidence that the widespread application of various pesticides and herbicides in upland areas is contaminating downstream water supplies. It has proven difftcult for Government to regu late activities on private land in upland water shed areas. ISSUE: COASTAL ZONE DEGRADATION Six related problems impinge upon the quality of Grenada's coastal ecosystems. These are: (1) badly managed solid and liquid

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waste disposal facilities and practices; (2) ex cessive beach sand mining; (3) coastal erosion; (4) improper coastal engineering and con struction practices; (5) uncontrolled land based sources of mostly nutrient dischargpc; and (6) a general zoning and planning failure regarding land use along the coast. The com plexity of the problem requires the design and implementation of a national coastal zone management strategy. ISSUE: PUlJLlC INVOLVEMENT AND PARTICIPATION The challenges of environmental management and sustainable development in smaller island systems have proven to be quite amenable to the broad application of the prin ciples of planning and public in volvement. In Grenada's case, there is a need to facilitate both formal and informal in volvement of communities and private sector groups in resource management activities, en suring that their concerns arc properly taken into account. In this regard, it is especially important to pay serious attention to g.oups and whole communities which rely heavily on natural resources. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated elsewhere in the region by successful pilot projects incorpo rating user participation in resource manage ment. ISSUE: LEVEL OF ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS --INSTITUTIONS By comparison with other nearby is land areas, Grenada's indicators of environ mental concern and awareness are perhaps as much as a decade behind. There is little cov erage of environmental issues in the local press; no well organized, financially solvent environmental NGOs have come forward to take the lead on a broad agenda of environ mental concerns; environmental education programs are modest and intermittent; and among middle-level technical and professional people, it is difficult to identify the kind of critical mass for environmental leadership which has emerged on most other OECS is lands. As a result, the country has an imbal ance or skew factor regarding natural re-247 source protagonists --they are few in number, they have only relatively weak institutions with which to work, and as a result there is little national consensus about environmental goals, objectives, and desired policies. ISSUE: ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS GRASS ROOTS LEVEL Since much of the environmental damage taking place in Grenada occurs at a grass roots level, any indication of an emerg ing environmental awareness among both rural and urban populations warrants atten tion. This, of course, is a longer-term devel opmental process which is currently hindered by the absence of any clearly articulated na tional environmental policy. Community-level NGOs and self-help groups should be enlisted in the effort to build environmental consensus, which would be strengthened by greater in volvement of the public in the planning pro cess and in the defming of national and community-level development goals and projects which affect natural resources and local environments. ISSUE: AGRICULTURE Agriculture is critical to Grenada's social system and is the dominant economic sector in the economy, contributing more than 25 percent of GDP. It is the major source of foreign exchange and provides employment for about one-third of the labor force. But it is also not very productive or profitable, even for larger commercial operations. It must be recognized that at present marginal farmers tend to pay little attention to and cannot af ford to invest capital and labor in conservation practices. Therefore, the Ministry of Agri culture (probably with donor assistance) needs to work at the development of a series of low-cost, grass roots-based, demonstration programs for soil and water conservation aimed at the small, marginalized farmer group. Some incentive-driven options would be useful, perhaps even essential. A very modest, built-in monitoring effort would im prove the design, focus and impact of subseqUi!nt farm and rural area, resource conserva tion and environmental awareness initiatives.

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ISSUE: AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY ASSOCIATIONS AS VEHICLES FOR IMPROVING RURAL ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES The four commodity associations which deal with bananas, cocoa, nutmeg and minor spices (see Section 5) provide many services beyond marketing. Some of these services -like warehousing, curing, processing, pest and disease and fertilizer procurement --involve waste products and toxic materials. All four of these associations need to develop and implement both internal environmental quality control policies for staff and external environmental service programs for their respective members and farmer clients. A waste management plan would be an example of the fIrst, and a soil and enhancement program is ail exalllple of the second. Since there is some with the extension service administered by the Ministry of Agriculture, good coordination could result in reinforcement and broader geographic coverage while avoiding redundancy. Until a national environmental policy frame work is estabfu:hed, the four commodity associations should devise, adopt and seek exter nal funding for an interim or pilot program. ISSm:: LAND USE FLANNING IMPROVING ALLOCATION Grenada's prime lands must the nation's needs for food, housing, recre ation, waste disposal and mallY other human activities. And they must provide these things on a continuing basis fm: an expanding popu lation of residents and visitors if the country is to remain both ecologically and economically viable. Yet, at the same time, land allocation for Grenada's newest sector --the tourism industry and its spatial demands for specialized infrastructlJl'e and supporting aruenitie:; --introduces expanded demands as well as the potential for conflicts. Especially in a small island system like Grenada and CruTiacou, each with limited physical space, the tasks of allocating and anticipating future land use re quirements for various national purposes is aitical to orderly and efficient development. Grenada's land use planning policies, facilities, and practices are collectively inadequate 248 to the task ahead, and a significant investment is needed. Any staffmg upgrade should include both an environmental planner and a coastal zone management specialist or planner. ISSUE: SOIL CONSERVATION AND As the pressures of the market as well as inflation encourage individual land owners and tenants to produce more per acre, the land resource itself comes under pressure, carrying capacity is sometimes exceeded, and the land is intensively farmed or explo:ted to meet short-term objectives. The management inputs of both goods and services for conser vation activities needed to maintain the land and the landscape (e.g., terracing to control run-off and erosion) may simply be out of fI nancial reach. The agricultural sector has so far been the one most directly by soil degradation and erosion impacts with result ing effects on crop yields. In most of Grenada, increased use of fertilizers, pesti cides, and herbicides (for weed control) have offset declines in natural productivity, but only at considerable added costs to producers. One of the more visible conservation issues in Grenada at the present time (for example, ir, the Annandale watershed) involves soil erosion from privately owned, excessively steep hillsides which have been cleared and planted in bananas or root crops. While few measurements or even estimates of the affected hillside areas are available, circumstan tial evidence suggests the scope of the prob lem is substantial and growing. Thousands of tons of silt and sediment are being eroded in the rainy season from carelessly, often illegally, de-vegetated upland areas and carried by excessively rapid run-off. The economic consequences of this kind of erosion are significant but unquanti fIed in the absence of suitable monitoring by any Government agency. The costs of damage from the erosion process are mostly hidden and seldom discussed publicly as an officially recognized land use management problem. Perhups the most important fIrst step in the

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direction of solving some of these problems would be to design and implement a targeted resource base monitoring program that would quantify losses, not just of land and soil but also tax revenues, productivity, income, and opportunity. ISSUE: WATER CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Erosion is not the only problem linked to exce:;sive clearing of steep slopes for expanding agriculture. In combination with road building, illegal logging, squatting and fuelwood harvesting on the elevated ridges and upland slopes, areas soak up less water, and the paved and cleared areas permit more direct sheet run-off. This results in less water infiltrating the soil to un derground storage and instead produces im mediate, more rapid run-off downslope. ISSUE: ECOSYSTEM DAMAGE, REPAIR AND SUSTAINABILIlY On the basis of the evidence assem bled during the course of this profiling effort, it is reasonable to foresee a worsening prob lem in the environmental sector in Grenada not so much the catastrophic kind as the per sistent, nagging kind, cumulative, pernicious and imperiling (sometimes actually damaging) basic resources like forests, water, reefs, wildlife, or beaches. In those cases where re source misuse results in serious damage, as in the case of deforestation, groundwater pollu tion, or the gross removal of beach sand, there may be a need for an environmental repair job, sometimes called "ecological restoration." Because of past environmental indiscretions and their destabilizing effects on the land scape, development project sustainability and environmental maintenance (and repair when necessary) are equally important elements in any national economy. This point has been elevated recently as a focal point in the find ings of the Brundtland Commission (the World Commission on Environment and De velopment), which confirmed the need to seek economic solutiuns to environmental prob lems and environmentally-sustainable solu tions to economic problems. 249 13.3 STEPS TOWARD BALANCE AND SUSTAINABIUTY Essential feaLUres on which policies depend are called key inputs, vruiables, or imperatives; they are critical for future de velopment and must be addressed. Impera tives are not options from which a government may choose a policy. If any of them is disre garded, the policy will fail and, in extreme cases, some kind of national catastrophe (environmental, economic, social or political) will follow. In short, imperatives are not ne gotiable. Imperatives may be used as a yard stick by which to measure the success of pre vious policies and as a basis for comparing the merits of alternative future strategies. They are interrelated and need to be kept in bal ance with one another. In practice, over-em phasis of one may divert resources from others in the short term, but over a longer pe riod they are mutualiy reinforcing. CRITICAL FACfORS OR IMPERATIVES Six key "imperatives" have been iden tified by McHenry and Gane (1988). (1) Water: maintaining and improv ing the island's capacity to collect and store water for domestic, industrial and agricultural use, and safeguarding water quality by proper management of the watersheds and forest re sources. (2) Soil: preventing loss of soil from erosion and maintaining and improving soil fertility by managing the natural vegetation and planting trees and crops in accordance with souud land use practices. (3) Heritage: safeguarding the na tional heritage for present and future genera tions by preserving features of particular land scape value and sites of cultural, historic, sci entific or educational significance; protecting endangered or threatened species of wildlife; controlling the rate of exploitation of eco nomically useful species; preserving examples of terrestrial and marine ecosystems and maintaining the habitat of plants and animals

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in designated areas; creating national terres trial and marine parks for the public to enjoy this heritage. (4) Sustainable Production: generat ing the largest possible output of products from each sector, on a sustainable basis. This means that the growth of each sector and its effects on all other sectors must be monitored so that no sector grows at the expense of the others. Any given sector should be allowed to grow only to the point where it makes its op timal contribution to gross domestic product, foreign exchange, employment and investment opportunities, while maintaining the quantity and quality of the natural and human ecosys tem. This will allow the potential of each sector for meeting the nation's socio-eco nomic needs and aspirations to be realized over the long term. (5) Participation: widening the range of participation in all aspects of development, especially land and natural resource allocation decisions, so that all elements of the community have an opportunity to become involved in the process. Private citizens and non-government organizations should share in the costs and the work of conserving the national heritage, thereby reducing the demand on the public treasury. (6) Public Awareness: increasing awareness about the vital role of natural re sources in national socia-economic develop ment, in order for all citizens to appreciate the extent to which they depend on these re sources for their survival. OBSTACLES TO PROGRESS Effective action to sustain and de velop all natural resource sectors is seriously hampered by several major socio-economic obstacles in Grenada at the present: (1) Inadequate basis for resource management. Most historical, cultural, and natural resources cannot be effectively pro tected or managed until the land they occupy is secured. Government control through pur chase or long-term lease followed by designation as a specially managed or 250 protected area is the simplest way to achieve this. An ambitious national park system has been proposed for Grenada, including several categories of protected areas. The proposed national park system may be beyond the limits of what is practicable or affordable in Grenada at the present time. A more mod est scheme may be achievable in the short term. A phased process for development of the proposed national parks system has in fact been suggested by GOG/OAS, and various areas have been assigned priorities (set' GOG/OAS, 1988d, Tables XIV, XV and XVI). The process of safeguarding the re source base takes time but is an urgent task because attrition continues in the meantime and once non-renewable resources are thoughtlessly or deliberately destroyed, they cannot be replaced. (2) Misuse of the land in watersheds. Government ownership of land at higher ele vations in the mountainous interior of Grenada could enable most of the catchments above water supply intake points to be kept unoccupied and free of cultivation. Lower down, most land is privately owned, and there is little effective control of its use. Cultivation on precipitous slopes affects stream flow, causes serious erosion and siltation, and may endanger lives due to landslides. The use of agricultural chemicals by small farmers carries the risk of polluting water supplies. Although it raises sensitive political issues, some curtailment of owner's rights is unavoidable if these issues are to be addressed in the national interest. The consequences of continuing to disregard such problems are se rious enough to warrant immediate action for the most vulnerable areaS, either by legislative steps or by incentives to alter current land use practices. A visible forewarning of the costs of continued mismanagement of the natural landscape is apparent in Carriacou, where soil degr",dation has reached an advanced stage, and the water-retentive capacity of catchments has been destroyed by the practice of free roaming livestock grazing for a large part of each year.

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(3) Economic capability. The economies of the small island countries in the Eastern Caribbean are for the {Lost part not sufficiently devdored to take on the broad range of resource management activities which are increasingly expected of modern states. The variety of scientific and technical e:q>ertise needed to cope with the manage ment of forest resources, degraded catch ments, pollution control, wildlife and national park management, and thl! like requites a larger, better trained staff than most Eastern Caribbean countries, including Grenada, can afford t() employ or keep fully occupied. Training in a variety of specializations cannot be provided locally; overseas training is long and costly, and qualified applkants may not be available. Infrastructure can also become a problem. Improved facilities are most often built and funded by external aid agencies but then must rely on local fi nancial resources and local tec.hnical staff to support and maintain efficient systems, not always an easy task in the developing world. 13.4 LAUNCHING A PROGRAM: FIRST STEPS MOBILIZING GOVERNMENT While the iJea of government as guardian of selected environmental resources is not new, whal is new and still if) experi mental stages (in Grenada as elsewhere in the region) is the idea of trying to choreograph various ministries, government departments and even statutory bodies into a coordinated resource management system. What is also new is the rapid growth and acceptance of the world-wide, citizen based, environmental movement i:J which community groups -from labor unions to churches, civic organizations and NGOs --be gin to put pressure on governments to do something about environmental abuses in or der to protect communities from environ mental hazards and to guarantee the con servation and survival of certain environ mental amenities. 251 MOBILIZING PEOPLE The days of passive conservation for many natural resources in Grenada are fast disappearing. Any new national conservation program for Grenada for the decade of the 1990's will inevitably require expanding levels of more direct kinds of governmental inter vention. In turn, this presumes an antecedent national strategy and plan for ecosystem restoration and management. But since most environmental inter vention and all resource management involves people, as land owners, tenants, voters, con stituents and resource user groups, it follows that a national program for ensuring public participation is equally important. from around the region in this regard is com pelling. Public involvement enhances the planning process, minimizes conflict between the government regulalor and traditional re source users, enlists the cooperation of the latter and thereby reduces system :osts in the longer term. In fact, an active public participalion element is the easiest and best way to ensure both more and better information in the decision-making process. Grenada will, sooner or later, have to fmd a way to deal with this, or it will be overwhelmed by its own growth and by external forces and COlD petition from within the region. This is a classic case where open, imaginative leadership is just as important as public funding an enlightened, inde pendent sector, properly encouraged, will develop its own institutions (NGOs) and its own fum!ing and cadre of paid professionals and volunteers who" n be of great assistance to Government. Although most government leaders appreciate the value of natural resources, few take the position that institutional capacity is also a scarce and valuable resource and that optimizing its growth and use can greatly accelerate the realization of development goals and strate gtes. Enlisting people in any longer-range endeavor takes persuasion. Recruiting a team of supporters for a national environmental management strategy will require, among

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other things, a visionary kind of "persuasion one that conveys the beauty, intricacy, vitality and even the complexity of Grenada's ecosystem but does not drive people away with trivia, and controver$Y. But for all this to work, an environmental fr2.mework is needed, one that spells out mutually shared goals and objectives and the mechanisms by which public and private sector institutions can work both separately and together to wards the desired ends of maintaining a qual ity environment for this and future genera tions. RESOURCE DEVEWPMENT People, however, are the real key tn sustainable deVelopment and the maintenance 252 of a high quality ecosystem in an island like Grenada. To ensure that their enthusiasm, commitment, energies and ingenuity are har nessed, it is important to make certain that the national framework, sector plans, and in fact all aspects of environmental programming are sensitive to local priorities and resource.s. Environmental initiatives at the national if they are to be truly sustainable, must have a dimension that strengthens local communities and optimizes human resource potential at the grass roots level, the true environmental fron tier. The effort required to mount this top and bottom level strategy is clearly greater than that required to issue a few national guidelines. But the ultimate return on the in vestment of time and energy will not only be much greater, but it is the only way truly sus tainable development can be achieved in a democratic society.

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Bryden, J., 1973. Tourism and development, a case study of the Commonwealth Caribbean. Cambridge Univ. Press, London. Bullen, R., 1964. The archaeology of Grenada, West Indies. Contrib. Fla. State Museum: Soc. No. 11. Burpee, C., Morgan, J., and Dragon, A., 1986. 1985 household survey of Grenada. Research report series, lost. Soc. Res., Univ. Mich., Ann Arbor, MI. Burr, E., 1988. Architectural design guidelines for St. George's, Grenarla, W.I. Prepared for GOG by TV A/USAID with the assistance of the Grenada National Trust. Cable, M., 1987. Report on the statistical reporting methods of the Ministry of Agriculture and a system of data collection, St. George's, Grenada. AID/lAC, Washington, DC. Cambers, G., 1984. Beach erosion study at Grand Anse, Grenada: Coastal dynamics. Report prepared for OAS and the World Bank. Cambers, G., 1985a. Erosion of coasts and beaches in the Caribbean :slands: an overview of coastal zone management in six Eastern Caribbean islands. Prepared under contract for UNESCO Regional Office Science and Technology for Latin America and the Caribbean. Cambers, G., 1985b. Grenada coastal monitoring prograw field manual. Dept. Reg. Dev., OAS, Washington, DC Cambers, G., 1985c. Report on the establishment of a coastal monitoring program in Grenada. Dept. Reg. Dev., OAS, Washington, DC. Cambers, G., 1986a. Comparison beach proftles between September 1984 and August 1985. OAS, Washington, DC. Cambers, G., 1986b. Grenada coastal monitoring program, August 1985 to August 1986. OAS, Washington, DC. Cambers, G., 1986c. Grenada coastal monitoring program: Progress report. March 1986. OAS, Washington, DC. Cambers, G., 1986d. Grenada coastal monitoring program: Progress report. July 1986. OAS, Washington, DC. Cambers, G., 1986e. Rationale for a building development setback policy at Grand Anse, Grenada. OAS, Dept. Reg. Dev., Washington, DC. Cambers, G., 1986f. The effects of sand mining at Palmiste Bay between September 1984 and August 1985. OAS, Washington, DC. Cambers, G., 1987a. Coastal zone management programs in Barbados and Grenada. Proc. Coastal Zone '87, :1384-1394. Cambers, G., 1987b. Rt;;port on the establishment of a coastal monitoring program in Grenada. Dept. Reg. Dev., OAS, Washington, DC. Cambers, G., An evaluation of Grenada coastal monitoring program: January 1987 to June 1988. OAS, Washington, DC. 2S6

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CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION The Caribbean Conservation Association (CCA) Is a regional, non-governmental, non-profit organization dedicated to promoting policies and practices which contribute to the conservation, protection and wise use of natural and cultural resources In order to enhance the quality of life for present and future generations. In fulfilling Its mission, the Association establishes partnerships with organizations and groups which share common obJectives; It focuses attention on activities designed to anticipate and prevent, rather than react and cure. Established In 1967, CCA's membership comprises Governments (currently 19), non-governmental organizations, and non-Caribbean Institutions, as well as Assoclatl,3 (Individual), Sponsoring and Student members. CCA's activities span five major program areau: {1) the formulation and promotion of environmental policies and strategies; (2) Information collection and dissemination services; (3) promotion of public awareness through environmental education activi ties; (4) research about, support for, and Implementation of natural management projects to foster sustainable development; and (5) Rsslstance for cultural patrimony programs. CCA's support Is derived from Caribbean Governments, membership contributions, International donor agencies, private corporations and concerned Individuals. It Is managed by a Board of DI rectors, while Its day-to-day act/'/hles are supervised by a Secretariat comprising a small core of dedicated staff. For more Info matlon, write: Caribbean Conservation Association, Savannah Lodge, The Garrison, St. Mlchdel, Barbados. Telephone: (809) 426-9635/5373; Fax: (809) 429-8483. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION The Island Foundation (IRF) Is a non-governmental, non-profit research and technical assistance organization dedicated to the Improvement of resource management In offshore oceanic Islands. Established In 1970, Its programs focus on providing workable deve!opment strategies appropriate for small Island resource utilization through the application of ecological principles and systems management approaches that preserve the special qualities of Island life. Key program Implementation areas Include coastal and marine resource utilization, land use plan ning, environmental Impact assessment, national park and tourlem planning, cultural resource development, and resource sector policy studies. In 1986 the Foundation launched a program of assistance to non-governmental organizations In the Eastern Caribbean designed to Improve the capabilities of such groups to provide private sector leadership fOi achlovlng environmental goals In the region. Foundation funding Is derived from private foundations, government agencies, International organizations, and through donations and contributions. IRF publishes research and technical re ports and maintains a publications office for distribution of these documents. Its reference libraries In the Virgin Islands and Washington, D.C. are widely recognized as a unique collection of over 10,000 documents on Insular and reSOllrce management, with a primary emphasis on the Caribbean. The Foundation Is In the U.S. Virgin Islands, with a branch office In Washington, D.C. and a program office In Antigua. For additional Information, write: Island Resources Founda tion, Roo Hook Center Box 33, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands 00802. Telephone: (809) 775-6225; Fax: (809) 779-2022.