Study of Colonial architecture

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Study of Colonial architecture
Department of Architecure, University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.
Department of Architecure, University of Florida
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*Andrews,Wayne. Architecture Anbition and Americans.
Cousins, F. Colon rhtecture,
Eberlein and-Tu-5E iiF- r .orqian Architecture.
Gowans, Alan. Imaces of A0ierican vT H
*Hindle, Brooke.Ti e oo0no 0 erica.
Howells, J M. Losti;amp es oq 6 n--?"-Architec tu're
*Kimball, S F. Domestic Ar tect ur He ercanColonis ..s
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Review, LVI ('S:.6), 40-66.
Millar'7-nald. Measured Drawln n of Colonial Houses.
Shurtleff, H R. Th-eto n 1,
Sloane, Eric. Reverence. o O 7
Ware, W.R. The Georgian-PTehdoa3v.
Waterman, T T. Dwellings of Colonial Am~rica
English and Eyupeaa Antecedents te Colonial Building
Barley, Maurice. The En lish Farmhouse and Cottag
-.... The House anvi Tome.
Barsfordan ry.d118 qTish Cottages
Briggs, M S. Purita~~ ...fctur .
---. -The la j "Elathers ia Enqiand anid America,
Brunski l s7tirt edR"a oIateFaRe1iNonRu lecture.
Cook, Oliver. P I V. "0'aesan arim ouses.
Evans, E E. "ThI ster amroiinr FteF 6 klife-, 1 (1955), 27-31,,
Forrester, H. The Timber-Framed House SoTUsiex."-'
Fox, Sir Cyri lT.' EePerok-esire t -T e Antuity, X:4 (Dec 1936), 448-459,
+Goetzger and Prechter. Das Bauernhaus in Bayenr,
Hewett, C A. The Developoent.of Ca ntrya Essex Study,.
+Innocent, C .7Iffe opi^ s -ns ruMction,
Jones, S R. En gTTsh Traa oes an Butr iT
---- n ing lis, 761 om-e s
--- id6 houses nhoT .
Kallbruir-, He-rarman.r "F' and Villages: the Europeaa"Phttern," Landscape
(Splrng 1957), I3-17.
Lloyd, Nathaniel. A History of the English House.
6 Oanachair, Caolme- iT ateial Ts an, VdTe Irish Traditional Building,"
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MeiscHre a-U ntEu3i et n
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--.. "Sonie PFFT o iss," Antiguity, X:4 (Dec 1936), 448-459.
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Schill i, Hermarn. Das -iar WRia rs.
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+Thiede, K. Deutsche auernhauser.
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yateriun,, T C ,:.' "r,' .i a 'eazett des 3eaux-

Wiat F R, Be., -

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Chappel I, G S. Go i rT hiitcture n iiiEont
Congdon, H W. OT1VX v&nFt Houses,
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+Crofut, F S. Guide to the History and the Historr Sites of Connecticit, 2v,
Downing, AntoT nette. Earl es o sand.
Duprey, Kenneth. 0 -Old use
Garvan, A N B. ArchItecture a Town Pann in Clonial Connecticut
Hitchcock, H R 18o .liaTndrcif.e.
Howells, J M. The Architecturai Herita-e of the Piscataqua.
Isham, ,K. Earl ercan uses an ossar o oon Architecture.
Isham and B-rown.' Connect cut houses.
+Kelly, .J F. ArchitecTtural GuidEticut.
--. ColonialMeetingHt uss of Connecticut, 2v.
* .-.. The Early Domestic Architecture of Connecticut.
Keune and.Replogle. *Two Maine Farmhouses,"S rJS :(March 1961), 38-39.
Lawrence, L M, Notes on Development of Early rch'Itecture in Massachusetts [HABS].
National Society of Colonial Dames. TId Hoiuses n the South coul o Th~oe Island.
Robinson, A G. Old New England Houses.
Whitefield, E. The our ore Massachusetts.
Zelinsky, W. "TTeTew EgandConect r Geo a Revi ew 1 LXVIII (1958),
Colonial Building in the South
Coffin and Holden. Bri. A- ch.te-tu- 7f theolialo
Roman,, H C. The Architecture of the Old South.
a--. ma nrLaini^rat a^ i Le tf Maryl and.
--. Tidewgater aryland Architecture.anUdrderes.
.+ -... Virg niga Archittre in e Ste ma teen .tiEptxy..
Johnston and Waterman. A _oA Ilu ),i
Ravenel, Beatrice St J. ArMhtA!ect hgf j n..
Waterman, T T. Maf isor.J)fl.0i1mta.
Waterman and Barrows. .Aijis8jt--he^ice i n ja9it i-A
Whiffen, Marcus. TJh a2jSJ h q antu JW&qrg.
Colonial Buldi in theMdle Colonies
*Bailey, R M. Pre-Revoluto Dutch Houses in Northern New Jerse and Southern
New York.
Benne8tT~7 Earl Architecture of Delaware.
Brunbaugh, G E. oldiTa rchtecture o' tie Penna-Germans," Penna-German Society
Proceedings, X, Part VII.
Cady, J "7Sorme' Features of Dutch Famrhouses of Ne- Jersey,"' American Architect,
II (1877), 401-402.
Dornbusch and Heyl, Pennsjvania German Barns.
Eberlern, H D). Manor .olses a& istorFfc imes of the Hudson Valley.,
---. Manor aHoutsesT i adastofr, oSilsR E Ia,=andtnten Island.
+Eberl ei a Ibba Histoc Houses and Su IITnsd oT DeTT eE
Gowans,. Alan. "Arch'!'tM ce ,En i rs eySe-SJer s torica Series, U. (1964).
Hall, E H. Phi.lyse Sa.nor Hall.
Harpster, JTRfed. 4-fZEtuiFes of Early Wiestern PensJvania.

Landis, H K. "Early Kitchen of the Penna-Germans, Peana-German Society Proceedings
XLVII, Part 2: Norristown.
Love, Paul. "Patterned Brickwork in Southern New Jersey," Proceedi -, of thi. New
Jersey Historical Soiet LXXIII:3 (July 1955), 182-7WT
Millar, Donald. "An 8th Century German House in Pennsylvania," Architecturtal Recor
LXIII:2 (Feb 1928), 161-168.
Murtagh, W J. Architecture and Town Planning: Bethelem. Pa. and other 18th Century
American- Settlements.
+Raymon eaor7ry mestic Architecture of Pennsylvania.
*Reynolds, H W. DutcFHuses in the Puson Valle before 1
..... Dutchess CountyDoorways...
Shoemaker, A L ed. 7Iefl-anias
Stotz, C M. The Early Architecture of Western Pennsylvarnia
Colonial Town n Plang and Colonial Cities
Andrews, C M. The River Towns of Connecticut.
"Boston Building OFr-nances," JSAH XX:z2 T 61), 90-93.
Cousins and Riley. Colonial ArtTiecture of Philadelphia.
Downing and Scully. he- Archtectural Ita of 1eprt, Rhode Xsland.
Eberelin and Lippincott.2Tihe ionial Home o ad pi
Garvan, A N B. Architecture and To lai Thnnecticut.
+Moore, G M. Seapor n na ._ ger e ashn A
Murtagh. W JN Arf ectureanrTS wnt Poitig: p.t...
Powell, S C. Puritan Villag: Format ion f a New and Town
Reps, J W. Ti eter owns: ty annI'oi r11 !a Maryland.
--- The Making of Urban America.
Simons and aphiam. Charleston, Sout Carol1na.
Smith, D H. "Annapolis on the Severn," Ar-ctectural MonoSraph Series (1920).
Stokes, I N P. The Iconouraph of ManhIatWtanYslaid.
Vail, R G. "The egifnnings of Manhattan' AR : C9S2 1S52), 19-22.
Warden, G B. Boston, 1689-1776.
Wertenbaker, T. e 0The' n ge of imrican Culture,.
+ ----- Norfolk: Mistoric Southern ort.
Whiffen, M A. Public Buiingsof Williamsbur.
Whitehill, Walter. Boston: a Topiogra c i-Stoy


General Works
*Andrews, C M. The Colonial Period of American History: The Settlements, 3v..
Bi dwel and Falconer. Hist-r of Ai t 'ure i or nUniTed 'taT 1607- 1 860.
*Bridenbaugh, Carl. The -COonial Graftsman.
Brown, R H. Historical Geograph of the United States.
*Bruchey, Stuart. The Rootsof canEc cw
Glassie, Henry. Pattern int the Matera oT o Ctie of the Eastern United States
Gray, L C. History of Arg.rculture inSouthern Unied t rates to T v .' 1.
Morlson, Conmager and Leuchten--beRif.T r r ow i Eant "EI(t61lic, v 1.
Nettles, C P. Roots of American CiviTTrlUzatTq '
*Notestein, W. The English ople on-theTyv -of Colonization' 1603-1630,.
Sloane, Eric. Diary of an ar1 American Bo~y.
Tunis, Edward.C-T onTa"l v1n.g.
Wright, L B, etal. The Arts in America: The Colonial Period.
Yale Chronicles ofAeica Series.
The First Settlers and the Frontier
Abernethy, T P. Three Virglnia Frontiers.
*Adams, J T. The Foundin of New Enland.
Cowan, Hel en. t s Em ra onto North America.
*Craven, W F. The SouthernColones n eventeenth Century 1607-1669.
Haller, Will1iamr. The PutaFrontier: Town PlantnT iNew PnIl
*Hanson, M L. The AtlantN grat on, 60 .
Leach, D E. The Northern Colonial Frontier.
Later Imigration and Colonial Expansion
Abernethy,. T P. oM cit.
+Brewtser, William. -Te Pennrisylvania and New York Frontier. 1720-1783.
*Crane, V W. The SoutherFrontier, tTr, "_0-_.-__
+Dunaway, W. F. hE Sciitc F isT oT Fenns v a
-... ".PennsyTvania as an arly yDistributing Center of Population," Pennsylvania
Magazine of istoy and B rhy, LV (1931), 134-169.
Grahami, IC C. Colonists from Scotlad: Emiration to North Aeri, 1707-1783.
Hanson, H L. op cf.
Higgins, R L. _xE nsion of New York with special Reference to the l8th Centu~y.
Jones, R M. The aers n the A can colonies.
Knittle, W A7E 1 Palatine Emi ration.
*Kraus, Michael7 Atlantic Civ_ zation: i th Century Orl ins.
MacLean, J.P. An iTstorircalAccount o'-ieTe- iefen '7~ cot~ Hitghlanders in
America prior tothe Peace of T7.
+Matfiews, L KThe f p N land.
+Meriwether, R T he' .Exoono uth-oarolina, 1729-1765.
Mood, Fulmer. "Studies inTtheistbry of erican Settel Areas and Frotitier Lines,"'
Agricultural History, XXVI (Jan 1952), 16-34.
Pitmani W e'T ~ ev pment of the British West Indies, 1700-1763.
Rosenberger, = T.he nni, v1aniTGermans.
Wood, Ralph, ed. T enn va a ernfans.
Yale Chronicles oT-'rica Series.

(*) available in paperback editions
{() available through Inter-Library Loan

The C'Ionies

Adams, J T. Revolutionary New EngTand, 1691-1'P76.
Andrew, M P.,T-HToinders ofary l nd.- .
*8ailyn, BernaR7. Ne Tn TI r iants in the 17th Century.
Barker, C A. Back ro~uindof Rfevo--i'tn T I ? 714arT
*Bridenbaugh, Carl T s andTI iI'TeiTeod~t1fe of the Colonial South.
*Bridenbaugh, Carl a- e-s en : .n eiTe Age of
BrunnirFTT William Penn's Ho jEKperment.
Condon, T J. N-ew- n n -sl
*Craven, W F. TE Ulin-Tes Traris ';ion. 1660-1713,
Dunaway, W F. TheH{isfor 1 n hfi Tfza.
Flick, A C. Histo-r -he-ate c Ytl--fork.
+*McCormich, R P.M e erse-fro-~CTry o to-Ttate, 1609-1789.
Merrens, H Roy. 5o1IiaT or- t- na nte Gt .
*Miller, J C. OrigTis 'tie-Wtear-T. lieoT.ui.n.r
----. Trium h o7TieeoniT IT7i 1.'
*Morison ,- .u T f olon
Morton, R L. Co11orjP-lihTv. .WI'e FTidewater FPerod, 1607-1710. II. Westward
Expansion anrTre'ue~ Revolution.
Pomfret, J E. The Prvince of East Nc Jersey.
--=-, The Prov in i NE, 3e se.
Raesly, E Trrf' of 1New Nf ier&l s.
Sirnflans, M E.TalonfFTsThoT 0oTTal663-'1763.
*Toltes, F B. M-eetf-inq'ose'Fse6 EIou uaker Merchants of Colonial
PhiladeliTa .
WertenFbaker MT.e fiiJ to Colonial VIginia.

English Georgian Architecture

Wilscn Stiles
AE 681 Nov. 24, 1975

I. English Renaissance
A. Beginnings with Henry VIII
B. Iniqo Jones

II. English Baroque
A. Sir Christopher Wren
B. Sir John Vanbrugh
C. Nicholas Hawksmoor

III. Palladian
A. Accession of George I, 171M
B. Copy books
C. Lord Burlington
1. Colen Campbell
2. William Kent
D. Giacomo Leoni

IV. Georgian Baroque
A. James Gibbs

V. Building Crafts
A. Plasterwork
B. Ironwork
C. Decorative painting
D. Details

VI. Landscape

VII. Planning
A. John Wood, I
B. John Wood, II

VIII. Reaction
A. Revivals
B. William Chambers
C. Robert Adam
D. George Dance, Jr.

Slide List

1. Longleat House, John Tynne, 1553
2. Whitehall Banqueting House, first drawing, London, Jones, 1619
3. as built
4. Queen's House, Greenwich, Jones, 1618-35
5. Covent Garden, London, Jones, 1630
6. St. Paul's Churrch, 1631
7. St. James Palace Queen's Chapel, London, Jones, 1623
8. Old St. Paul's restoration project, Jones, 1634
9. St. Paul's Cathedral, facade, London, Wren, 1675-1710
10. altar
11. nave
12. towers west facade
13. Steeples of city churches, London. Wren
14. St. Stephen Walbrook. interior dome, London Wren
15. Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford, Wren, 1664
16. Hampton Court Palace, Wren
17. third courtyard
18. Trinity College Library, quadrangle, Wren, 1676-84
19. interior
20. Chelsea Royal Hospital, Wren, 1682-89
21. Greenwich Hospital, Wren
22. Castle Howard, Vanbrugh, 171C-26
23. "
24. interior hall
25. fireplace
26. music room
27. temple steps
28. park with bridge and mausoleum
29. Blenheim Palace, plan Vanbrugh, 1705=1720
30. front view
31. west front
32. entrance
33. Seaton Delavel, courtyard view, Vanhrugh, c1725
34. garden front
35. Greenwich Hospital, west side, Vanbrugh, 1716
36. south end
37. Stowe House, rotunda, Vanbrugh
38. Clarendon Building, Oxford, Hawksmoor and Vanbrugh
39. Easton Neston, west front, Hawksmoor, 1702
40. staircase
41. dining room
42. Queen's College, hall and chapel, Oxford, Hawksmoor, c.1710
43. cupola entrance
44. Castle Howard, Mausoleum, Hawksmoor, 1725
45. St. Anne Limehouse, London, llawksmoor. 1712
46. Christ Church Spitalfields, London, Hawksmoor, 1725
47. St. George Bloomsbury, London, Hawksmoor, 1730

51 .

St. George Bloomsbury, steeple
St. Mary Woolnoth, London, Hawksmoor, 1716
Wanstead, Colen Campbell, 1715
Chiswick Villa, Burlington and Campbell, 1730
gallery on north front
Villa Capra, Vicenza, Palladio, 1550
1" plan
Mereworth Castle, Campbell, 1723
Burlington House, London, Campbell and Burlington, 1717
Houghton Hall, west front, Campbell, 1722
stone hall
white drawing room
state dining room
Chiswick, gardens
garden at rear
Holkham Hall, William Kent, 1734
marble hall
Houghton great stair hall, murals by Kent
embroidered bed chamber, ceilings by Kent
Rousham, Saloon, Kent
Clandon Park, Leoni, c.1729(grounds by Brown)
fireplace(Michael Rysbrack)
Horse Guards, London, Wm. Kent, 1742
St. Mary-le-Strand, London, Gibbs, 1714-17
St. Martins in the Fields, London, Gibbs,1724
S II II" nave
" nave details
Senate House, Cambridge, Gibbs, 1722-30
Radcliffe Camera, Oxford, Gihhs, ;737-47
Orleans House, Gibbs, 1720
Ditchley, Gibbs, 1722
Bank Hall, Gibbs, 1740
St. Martins in the Fields, ceiling details by Bagutti and Artari
Castle Howard, salon by Bagutti
Nostell Priory, state bedroom by Perritt, arch. Paine
Barnsley Park, hall
Houghton Hall, green state bedroom, Campbell
Melbourne Hall. garden arbor, Bakewell
Nostell Priory, stair hall, Paine
Easton Neston, staircase, Hawksmoor
Castle Howard,"Fall of Phaeton and the Four Elements" by Pellegrini
St. Paul's, dome interior, Thornhill
Greenwich Hospital, painted hall, Thornhill
London. Changes in building practices under Actsl707, 1709
Bath. Terrace house types in Georgian period
Kew Gardens, Chambers, 1763

100. Kew gardens, Temple of Aoelus, Chambers, 1775
101. Stourhead, Temple of the Sun, Hoare
102. garden, 1750
103. park
104. Longleat, landscape by Brown
105. St. Dunstan in the East, London, Wren, 1698
106. Strawberry Hill (Twickenham) Walpole, et al, 1749-76
107. Pompeian Revival, bed, c.1790
108. Claydon, drawing room, c.1775
109. Queen's Square, Bath, John Wood, I,c.1730
110. The Circus, Bath, Wood,I and Wood,II, 1754-65
111. general view
112. Royal Crescent, Bath, Wood,II, 1767-75
113. detail
114. Assembly Rooms, Bath, Wood,II, 1771
115. Pump Room, Bath, Wood,II, 1769
116. interior
117. Prior Park, Wood,I, 1730
118. Milton, ball room, Chambers, 1770 (furniture, Kent)
119. Somerset House, London, Chambers, 1776-86
120. Syon House, ante-room, R. Adam, 1762
121. great hall
122. Keddleston, south front, Adam, 1760-68
123. Huton Loo, Adam, 1767
124. Osterley, from northeast, Adam, 1761
125. Tapestry room
126. All Hallows, interior, London, G. Dance, Jr., 1765-71
127. Newgate Prison, London, Dance, 1769-78


Anderson, Liselotte. Baroque and Rococo Art. New York: Harry Abrams,
Inc., 1969.

Beautifully illustrated, this book covers the English Renaissance
fairly well, though particularly thorough on Wren, Jones, and the Woods.

Beard, Geoffrey. Georgian Craftsmen and Their Works. South Brunswick:
A.S. Barnes and Co., 1966.

This is an excellent history of the craftsmen and their association
with the architects and patrons, including procedures and prices.

Dutton, Ralph. Sir Christopher Wren. London: Pitkin Pictorials, Ltd., 1965.

A small but complete booklet illustrating Wren's works.

Edwards, Ralph and L. G. G. Pamsey(ed.). The Early Georgian Period 1714-
1760. London: The Connoisseur,1957.

The Late Ceorgian Period 1760-1810.

These two volumes deal with all of the arts, and are especially
good references for furniture, painting sculpture, silver, porcelain,
costume, music, and bookbindings.

Gloag, John. Georgian Grace. New york: The Macmillan Co., 1956.

It is a quite valuable source for furniture, design, and ornament.
Though not as helpfulon architecture, the section on building
technique changes is most informative.

Godfrey, Walter H. A History of Architecture in London. London: B.T.
Batsford, 1911.

Even though this book covers all phases of architecture there is
a good section on Georgian London.

The Story of Architecture in England. New York: Harper and
Brothers, 1928.

Coverage on Wren is geod, and the parts dealing with details, crafts,
and the Palladian debt.

Hughes, Quentin and Norbert Lynton. Renaissance Architecture. New York:
David mcKay Co., 1962.

This book covers most clearly and concisely, and organization is excellent.

Hussey, Christopher. Early Georgian 1715-1760. Country Life, Ltd., 1955.

Mid Georgian 1760-180f.

Late Georgian 1800-1840.

Even though the coverage in these three volumes is the most complete
they are some of the most confusing because of categorizing.

Plumb, J. H. "The Noble Houses of 18th Century England". Horizon. November
1958, volume 1. number.

Centered around the country house, the article depicts Georgian
life styles with beautiful early renderings of the landscape.

Summerson, John. Architecture in Britain 1530-1830. London: Penquin 1953.

Architecture in England Since Wren. London: British Council, 1948.

Summerson, John. Georgian London. New York: Charles Scribners and
Sons, 1946

These three works of Summerson compose probably the most
authoritative sources for Georgian architecture in England.
The architects, their works, and theories are discussed at
length, forming the best definition of Georgian architecture.

Tyrell-Green, E. Parish Church Architecture. London: Society for
Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1924.

Excellent for pre-18th century works. There are complete
listings of extant 18th century churches by Wren, Gibbs,
Vanbrugh, and Hawksmoor.

C'> tao I CI

<5'.14hA, 11-i-

r1 / '- Li *?^ ^-i-

3eorgian Architecture-- North Beth Grashof
ae 681

I. Definition of Style-- Domestic
A. c. 1700- c. Revolution, depending on area
B. Plans
1. central chimney
2. central hall, interior chimneys, kitchen ell
3. central hall, end chimneys, kitchen ell
4. central hall, with stair perpendicular
5. separate 'Great' Hall and stairhall
6. H-plan
7. symmetrically arranged outbuildings
C. Materials
1. shingles
2. clapboards
3. brick
4. stone
D. Doorways (exterior)
E. Windows (exterior) incl. Dormers
F. Chimney (exterior treatment)
G. Roof
1. gable
2. gambrel
3. hip
4. pent
5. bsllister
6. cupola
H. Misc. Exterior Details
1. belt course
2. pilasters
3. central pavillion
4. cornice
I. Interiors
1. wall surfaces
a. wood panels
b. chimney pieces
c. wall paper
d. plaster and paint
2. ceilings
3. floors
4. doorways and windows
5. stairways and balustrade
II. Public Buildings
III. Churches and Meeting Houses
IV. College Edifaces
V. Architect- Peter Harrison

Slide List:

-7- fig.

-7- fig.

-14- pl.

-7- fig.

5. -7- fig.

6. -7- fig.

70- Hooper House, Danvers, Mass.

68-.Vassal (Longfellow) House, Cambridge, Mass., 1759.

69- Hancock House, Boston, Mass., 1737.

95- model for chimneypiece of Wentworth-Gardner House, from Kent's
"From Drawings of Inigo Jones".

94- chimneypiece in Wentworth-Gardner House, Little Harbor (Portsmouth),
N.H., 1760

45- plan- Ayrault House, 1739.

-22- p. 55.

-7- fig. 39- Mt. Pleasant, Philadelphia, 1761.

-18- p. 148-9- Cortlandt House, Van Cortlandt Park, New York City, 1748-9.

-8- pl. 177- Washington's Heasquarters, Morristown, Morris Co., New Jersey.






- p .


pI .

- p .


14- plan- central chimney with kitchen ell.

46- plan- central hall with interior chimney and kitchen ell

21- plan- end chimney, central hall, kitchen ell.

47- front hall-stair hall

50- central hall with stair perpendicular.

XIV, top- Mt. Pleasant and outbuildings, Philadelphia, 1761.

60- Stenton, Germantown, Pa., 1728.

66- Rowland Robinson House, R.I., c. 1710, enlarged 1765.

170, top- Coggswell House, Essex, Mass., 1739.

70- Royall House, Medford, Mass., 1733-37, West Facade.

-7- fig. 61- Royall House, Medford, Mass., 1733-37, East Facade.

-18- pl. 14- Joseph Brown House, Providence, R.I., 1774.

-22- p. 139- Ft. Crailo, New York.

-8- p1.466- glazed brick near Allowayston, Glouchester Co., New Jersey.

-7- fig. 57- Graeme Park, Horsham, Pa., 1721-22.











26. -7- fig. 33- Cliveded, Germantown, Pa., 1763.

27. -2- fig. 438-9- Wyck, Germantown, Pa., c. 1690,1720.

28. -14- pl. 107- front door, Taylor House, Newport, R.I., 1750.

29. -7- fig. 75- Stenton, Germantown, Pa, 1728.

30. -15- Draw'g 48- doorways.

31. -9- fig. 114- Swan's Neck or Scroll pediment.

32. -2- fig. 251- doorways.

33. -2- fig. 442- Moore Hall, Chester Co., c. 1722 with later additions.

34. -17- p. 128- Lee Mansion, Marblehead, Mass., 1768.

35. -18- p. 134-5- Morris (Jumel) House, N.Y., 1765.

36. -9- pl. XIX- windows.

37. -19- fig. 106-7- Cutter-Langdon House, Portsmouth, N.H., c. 1750.

38. -20- p. 119- George Read II House, New Castle, Del.

139. -2- fig. 451. Wm. Corbit House, Odessa, Del., 1772-4.

40. -12- fig. 8- ceiling- Philipse Manor, New York, c.1682 with additions c. 1720
and c. 1745.

41. -7- fig. 63- Pickman House, Salem, Mass., 1750.

42. -8- pl. 434- near Haddonfield, Camden Co., New Jersey.

43. -2- fig. 437- Wynnestay, Philadelphia, Pa., 1689

44. -14- pl. 106- Hill House, Portsmoth, N. H., 1750.

45. -19- fig. 42-3- Sparhawk, Kittery Point, Me., c. 1740.

46. -2- fig. 443- Green Tree Inn, Germantown, Pa., 1748.

47. -20- p. 85- Corbit House, Odessa, Del., 1772-4.

48. -7- fig. 67- Shirley Place, Roxbury, Mass., after 1746.

49. -7- fig. 56- McPhedris-Warner House, Portsmouth, N.H., before 1728.

50. -16- pl. VI.- Port Royal House, Frankfort, Pa., 1762.

151. -18- p. 128-9- Apthorpe House, New York City, 1767.

52. -7- fig. 79- Graeme Park, Horsham, Pa., 1721-22.

53. -16- pl. LXI, bottom- fireplace wall, Mt. Pleasant, Philadelphia,1761.

54. -7- fig. 91- from Swan's "British Architect"- model for chimneypiece, Lee
Manson, Marblehead, Mass., 1768.

55. -17- pl. 29- chimneypiece, Lee Mansion, Marblehead, Mass., 1768.

56. -17- p. 128, bottom- Dining Room, Lee Mansion, Marblehead, Mass., 1768.

57. -16- pl. LXI, top- chimneypiece, Stenton, Germantown, Pa., 1728.

58. -15- pl. 51- Jahleel Brenton House.

59. -18- p. 150-1- chimneypiece, Cortlandt House, Van Cortlandt Park, New York
City, 1748-9.

60. -19-.fig. 38- Moffatt-Ladd House, Portsmouth, N.H., 1763.

61. -20- p. 91- Corbit House, Odessa, Del., 1772-4

62. -2- fig. 449- Cliveden, Germantown, Pa., 1763.




















* pl.

* fig


296-7- Buccleugh, New Brunswich, Middlesex Co., New Jersey.

411-12- Lindens, Danvers, Mass., 1754.

447, Mt. Pleasant, Philadelphia, 1761.

.9- reflected ceiling plan, Philipse Manor, New York, c.1682 with
additions c.1720 andc. 1745.

83- Wentworth-Gardner House, Little Harbor (Portsmouth), N.H., 1760.

413- painted floor, Lindens.

LIV Stenton, Germantown, Pa., 1728

88- Graeme Park, Horsham, Pa., 1721-22.

96- Joseph Russel House, Providence, R.I., 1772.

84- dining room, Wentworth-Gardner House.

l, 1o- Sarah Orne Jewett House, South Berwick, Me., 1774.

-16- pl. LIX, bottom- Gowen House, Mt. Airy, Pa.,

and 77. -14- pl. 218- Cabot-Lee-Kilham House, Beverly, Mass., 1773.

-7- fig. 99- stairs, Lee Mansion

-14- pl. 214- hallway in Newburyport, Mass.

-17- p. 127- stair detail, Richard Derby House, Salem, Mass., 1762.

-9- pl. XLVI-.stair detail.

-7- fig. 36- Hutchinson House, Boston, c. 1688, first Georgian house in the


Bennett, George Fletcher, Early Architecture of Delaware, (Historical- Press, Inc.,
Wilmington), 1932.
A photographic essay of the architecture along the Delaware River including
measure drawings of various details.

Chamberlain, Samuel, Open House in New England, (Stephen Daye Press, Brattleboro,
Vt.), 1937
A photographic essay on the fine Colonial Buildings of New England through
the mid-nineteenth century. An introduction gives a brief history of arch-
itectural developments.

Cousins, Frank, Riley, Phil M., The Colonial Architecture of Philadelphia, (Little,
Brown and Company, Boston), 1920.

A discussion of the architecture of Philadelphia and Germantown, primarily -16-
Georgian architecture, its building materials and individual elements such
as windows, doorways, halls and stairways, interiors, etc.

Downing, Antoinette Forrester, Early Homes of Rhode Island, (Garret and Massie,
Inc., Richmond), 1937.

As usual, Mrs Downing has compiled an excellent history of the architecture -15-
of Rhode Island. Seventeenth century architecture thru the early nineteenth
century and-Greek Revival Architecture are covered.

Eberlin, Harold Donaldson, The Manors and Historic Homes of the Hudson Valley,
(J.B. Lippincott and Company), 1924.
A History of the settlement of the Patroons and Manors. Architectural 18
descriptions, if included, are not always detailed.

Eisenhart, Luther P., Editor, Historic Philadelphia, (American Philosophical
Society, Philadelphia), 1953, issued as Volume 43, Part 1, of the Transactions
of the American Philosophical Society.
Selected Articles:

"The Independence Hall Group"- Edward M. Riley
"Christ Church, St. Peter's, and St. Paul's"- Robert W. Shoemaker
"The Pennsylvania Hospital"- Edward B. Krumbkaar

An excellent reference on Philadelphia's architectural heritage. Detaied
descriptions and histories of various buildings are contained within this

i.A.B.S., Maine Catalog, Maine State Museum, 1974.

A catalog of buildings in Maine, documented by the Historic American Buildings 17
Survey. There is also an excellent essay of the history of Maine architecture
by Denys Peter Myers.

Hitchcock, Henry-Russell, Rhode Island Architecture, (Da Capo Press, New York),

A history of Rhode Island architecture from 1640- 1939. Numerous photographs 18-
are used to supplement the text.

Howells, John Mead, Lost Examples of Colonial Architecture, (William Helburn, Inc.,
New York), 1931.
A fine collection of photographs of buildings that no longer exist or have
been so altered tomake them either unrecognizable or no longer pure. After
looking at this book, it is sad to see what we have lost.

--, The Architectural Hertiage of the Piscataqua, (Architectural Book Publishing
Company, Inc.,, N.Y.), 1937
Mr. Howells has put together an excellent collection of photographs of the
architecture of Portsmouth, N.H., Kittery, Kittery Point, Me., and surrounding
areas. Brief descriptions of each house are also given. An article titled
"Methods of Design and Construction of our Early Days" by William Lawrence
Bottomley is also included along with a good listing of "Books on Arch-
itectural and the Allied Crafts used in America prior to 1830".

Kelly, J., The Early Domestic Architecture of Connecticuit, (Dover Publications,
Inc., New York), 1924.
A detailed discussion of the Colonial architecture of Connecticuit from its
start in 1635 through the nineteenth century. Subject matter includes: roof
framing; the overhand; masonry; windows; interior woodwork, etc. Good drawings
and photographs supplement the text.

Kimball, Fiske, Domestic Architecture of the American Colonies and of the Early
Republic, (Dover Publications, Inc., New York), 1922.
A collection of a series of lectures given during February and March, 1920.
A good history of American domestic architecture through the early Republic.

de Lagerberg, Lars, New Jersey Architecture, Colonial and Federal, (Walter
Whittum, Inc., Springfield), 1956.
A pictoral and photographic essay on the Colonial and Federal architecture
of New Jersey.

e, Ronald F.,"Independence National Historical Park", Historic Preservation,
(National Trust.for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC.1, September-
October, 1966.
More of a 'tourist' type article than anything else, this presents a brief
description of the development of Independence National Historical Park.

Morrison, Hugh, Early American Architecture, (Oxford University Press, New York),
An excellent history of American architecture andd its European precedents,
of the Colonial and Georgian periods.

Peterson, Charles E., Carpenter's Hall, (American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia),
Reprinted from the TRANSACTIONS of the American Philosophical Society, this
article presents a detailed history of the Carpenter's Company and Carpenter's
Hall. Included is not only a history of the construction of the building but
also its 'life'.

Pratt, Richard and Dorothy, A Guide to Early American Homes--North, (McGraw-Hill
Book Company, Inc., New York), 1956.
Just that-- a travel guide. Some good architectural descriptions are found
among the descriptions of each house. If you plan to do some traveling in
the northern states, this would be a good book to look through before you go.

Waite, John G., The Stablization of an Eighteenth Century Plaster Ceiling at
Philipse Manor, (New York State Historic Trust, Albany), 1972.
A brief history of Philipse Manor, including measure drawings, is contained
in this publication. More important is a written and photographic essay on
the cleaning and stabilization of one of the ceilings.


,illiam 'Warner
AE 681 11/16/75

I. Introduction

A. The South
1. Agricultural economy
2. Wasteful farming practices
3. Rise of an agrarian aristocracy
4. Theatre and music
a. Charleston

B. New England and the Middle Colonies
1. Economy based on mercantilisn
2. Musical development
a. Religious and secular music
b. Moravian culture
3. The theatre
4. Literary education
a. Almanacs
b. Encyclopedias
5. Science

II. The Decorative Arts

1. Use of mezzotint
2. John Smibert and Gustavius Hesselius
3. Patroon painters
a. Robert Feke
4. Joseph Blackburn
5. John Singleton Copley
6. Ben jamin Uest
7. John Trumbull
8. Charles Willison Peale
9. Gilbert Stuart

B. Silverworks
i. Gadrooninp
2. Banding and applied ornament
3. Oriental influence
4. Rococo style
5. Neo-classic style
6. Bright cut ornamentation

C. Sculpture
1. Figureheads
2. Gravestones
a. Varied symbolism


Bessaraboff, Nicholas, Ancient European Musical Instruments; October
House Inc., 1941.

A comprehensive list and study of the musical instruments
found in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. This includes
a technical description of each instrument as well as a
brief history of it. Includes plates and illustrations
of these instruments.

Caffin, Charles H., The Story of American Fainting, Garden City Pub-
lishing Co., 1937.

Includes a general history of American painting from the
colonial era to the early 1900's, with many photographs
of paintings.

Chase, Gilbert, America's Music, Macmillan and Co., 1963

The story of America's musical development up to the pre-
sent day includes topics on Negro spirituals, Boston
classicists, etc.

Daniels, George H., Science in American Society, Alfred A. Knopf, 1971

A social history of scientific interests in the colonies,
starting with the exploration of the 1New 'Jorld and continuing
through to the 1900's. Of particular interest are the fourth
and fifth chapters which discuss the particular topics
that were of interest to the men of that tihia, such as
astronomy, medicine, astrology, and agricultural techniques.

Davidson, Ralph P., Time Bicentennial issue, 1975

The Time magazine format is presented as if it were written
on July 4, 1776. This special edition is an excellent
example of life in the colonies, rarsin" in topics fr'o.
newly published books and the latest styles of fashion to
the history of the Revolutionary War and the struggle for

Flexner, James Thomas, America's Cld Masters, Viking Press, 1939

This book tells the story of the lives of four important
painters; Benjamin West, John Coploy, Charles Peale, nrdr Gilbert

Franklin, Benjamin, Poor Richard's Almanack, Doubleday, Duran & Co. 1928

Benjamin Franklin was the first person to write for the
common man when he introduced humor into American litera-
ture. These samples of Poor Richard's Almanac, written
the pseudonym of Richard Saunders, are good examples of
Franklin's satiric, utilitarian mind. They include topics
on money, love making, and the avenues to success.

Howard, John Tasker, Our American Tiusic, Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1.965

A history of the development of music starting from the
landing of the first settlers to the present day. The
first three chapters deal with the earliest period until
1800 and include earliest composers, types of performances,
peoples' attitudes toward music, etc.

Larkin, Oliver T'., Art gnd Life in America, Rinehart and Co., 1949

The author presents an overview of artistic development
in America from 1600 through 1945. The first three chapters
deal with the period up to 1790 with an emphasis on styles
of painting and of the character of the particular

Ludwig, Allan I., Graven Ima-es- New England Storecarving and its
Symbols, Wesleyan Univ. Press, 1y66.

The author discusses the function of symbolism in Puritan
theology as an introduction to the variety of symbols and
their meanings. He then classifies each major style of
stonrcarvin;u-, includinG provincial baroque, neo-classic,
and ornamental styles.

Sloane, Eric, Diary of an Early American Boy, Doubleday and Co, 1964

The author presents in a narrative form the lives of a
typical colonial family around 1800, including illustrations
and exampl,:s of furnamur-, recreational activies, and
agricultural and mechanical tools and :iioods.

Sloane, Eric, ABC Book of Early. A'mericana, Doubleday and Co. 1963

This book goes through the alphabet citing early American
words and word combinations and their meanings with
illustrations of each example.

Taft, Lorado, The History of American Sculpture, lMacmillan and Co., 1924

The author presents a thorough development of American
sculpture with many examples contained in plates and illustra-
tions of notable works.

Wright, Louis B., Tatum, George B., McCoubrey, John W., Smith, Robert C.,
The Arts in Anrerica the Colonial, Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1966

Each author has contributed one chapter in this book on
life in colonial America. The topics include a general
overview of the way of life of the early settlers, with
contrasting views of the North and the South. Also are
chapters on the architecture of the period as well as a
history of painting, furniture, and works of silver.


1. View of early American farm, circa 1695, Diary of an Early American
Boy, D.45
2. View of the same farm ten years later, Diary of an Early American Boy,
p. 46.
3. Diagram on the making of barrels using hoop poles, Diary of an Enrly
Am'rican Boy, p. 23.
4. A turf naze, Diary of *an E.rly A erica Byi p. 39.
5. A lute player, r cient E .ro music Instrmnts, p. 123.
6. A virginal, Ancient Suroo.Mn i.usicl Intruments, p. 260.
7. A spinnet, Ancient' Europoan -usical Instrumentz, p. 232.
8. Hesselius, Portrait of Tishcohi.n, no. 83-6.
9. "Bacchus and Ariadne, no. 8525.
10. Smibert, "Bishop Berkely and family", no. 8429.
11. "Nathaniel Byfield", no. 8431.
12. "Bishop Berkely", no. 8435.
13. "Dean George Berkely", no. 8433.
14. Feke, "Self Portrait", no. 8181.
15. "Issac Royal and Family", no. 8182.
16. "Rev. James Hiscox", no. 8184.
17. "Issac Winslow", no. 8187
18. "Mrs. Ralph Inman", no. 8189.
19. "Brigadier General Samuel 'dWaldo", no. 15884.
20. Blackburn, "Issac Winslow and family", no. 13805.
21. "Mrs. Mary Deering", no. 19792.
22. "Mrs. Theodore Atkinson", no. 13807.
23. "Elizabeth and James Bowdoin", no. 13806.
24. "Theodore Atkinson", no. 13808.
25. Copley, "Jonathan Mounfort" no. 19751.
26. "Gore Children" no. 8047
2 "Ann Tyn, Smalt", no. 8050.
2. "Col. Epes Sargent", no. 8051.
29. "'rs. Sa'-iel Philips Savace", no. 8056.
30, "Mrs. Thorias Boylston", no. 8064.
31. "Issac Sr-ith", no. 8068.
^2. J0", no ."
33. "-yad of a Nepro", no. 197.5..
34. "Henry Pelham (Boy with a Squirrel)", no. 8058.
35. "Paul Revere", no. 8065.
36. "Self-portrait", no. 8071.
37. "Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Mifflin", no. 8073.
3. "Ir. and Mrs. Ralph Izard", no. 0074.
39. "7atson and the Shark", no. 8077.
40. "Galatea", no. 80'8.
41. "Death of Chatham", no. 8081.
42. Benjamin West, "Death of Wolfe", no. 8249.
43. "Penn's Treaty with the Indians", no. 8252.
44. f" "Saul and the Witch of Endor", no. 8254.
45. Trumbull, "Death of General Montgomery", no. 8225.
46. "Battle of Bunker Hill", no. 8224.
47. "Declaration of Independence", no. 8226.

48. Peale, "Family Group", no. 8289
49. "Washington at Yorktown", no. 15879.
50. "Benjamin Franklin", no. 8291.
51. Stuart, "Mrs. John Bannister and her son", no. 8265.
52. "Benjamin West", no. 19361.
53. "George Washington", no. 8273.
54. Caudle cup by Robert Sanderson, no. 44336.
55. Bowl by Kierstede, no. 44322.
56. Beaker by IanDerburg, no. 44301.
57. Standing cup and beaker by Jeremiah Dummer, no. no. 44309.
58. Candlesticks by Dummer, no. 44310.
59. Covered cup by "I. B.", no. 44321.
60. Montieth by John Coney, no. 44305.
61. Teapot by Coney, no. 44304.
62. Candlesticks, snuffer and tray by John Burt, no. 44303.
63. Sugar bowl and teapot by Joseph Richardson, no. 44335.
64. Tea Kettle and stand by Richardson, no. 44333.
65. Tea service by PuIl Revere, no. 44330.
66, Three pieces by Abraham Dubois, no. 44308.
67. Silver service by Joseph Richardson, Jr., no. 44331.
68. Punch bowl by Paul Revere, no. 44329.
69. Tankard by Benjamin Burt, no. 44302.

note: numbered slides are from slide library



Ted Bessette
AE 681

Dec. 5, 1975


I I I C -D I I I
251. Types of Georgian doorways (Philip White) _

A. Flat section of classic entablature.
B. Angular pediment.
C. Curved or segmental pediment.
D. Scroll or 'swan's neck' pediment.


I. Early Georgian
A. Details
1. Facade
2. pediments
3. windows
4. roof pitches
5. full height wall pTneling
B. Plans
1. symetrical
2. out buildings
C. Gardens
1. form-l
2. informal planting areas

II. Late Georgian
A. Details
1. segmental pediments
2. paneled dado to waist with plaster
or wallpaper above
3. pedimented windows
4. larger glass sections in windows
B., Plans


- -. EARLY ....
Before i75o
Wood houses: plain clapboards

Unbroken facade usual
Corners marked by angle quoins
No entrance portico

Front door with rectangular transom
Angular or scroll pediment over door

Windows with *many small panes \,
Plain or corniced windows
Single arched window on stair landing

Steeper roof pitches
Balustraded roof-decks uncommon
Dormers have rectangular windows

Interiors with full-height wall paneling

Several panels in chimney-breast, no
mantel shelf
Plain or scrolled step ends on stairs
Classical and baroque decorative mo-
. tives

After 1750
Wood houses: sometimes rusticated
Projecting central pavilion common
Corners often marked by giant pilasters
Small entrance portico or, in South,
two-story portico
Front door with semicircular arched
. fanlight occurs
Segmental' pediment over door also
Windows with fewer and larger panes
Pedimented windows often occur
Palladian window more popular for
stair landing
Lower roof pitches
Balustraded roof-decks common
Dormers sometimes have arched win-
Interiors with paneled dado and wall-
paper above
One large panel, elaborately framed,
over a mantel shelf
Paneled step ends on stairs
Rococo and Chinese decorative motives
also occur

Slide List:

College of William and Mary, Uren building, 1716.

1. -20076- General view.
2. -4772- General view.
3. -34761- Main facade.
4. -4868- Interior chapel.
5. -72678- Rear view.

Capitol at Williamsburg, 1701-05

6. -4835- From S.E. corner of grounds
7. -17423- General view
8. -4774- General view
9. -17332- General view
10. -4775- From N. walk showing cupola and clock above.
11. -4855- Close frontal view of facade and gate from west.
12. -5033- Coat of Arms on Old Capitol Building.
13. -17433- Conference room, 1704.
14. -17431- General courtroom, 1704.
15. -25428- House of Burgess, 1704.
16. -34755- Council Chamber.

Governor's Palace, 1706-20.

17. -31635- Exterior.
18. -25383- General view.
19. -25409- Facade.
20. -4887- South elevation.
21. -31636- Rear view from garden.
22. -4782- Ball room wing doorway, added 1751, opens on gardens.
23. -34748- Supper room, 1749-51.
24. -31643- Entrance hall.
25. -31642- Ball room interior, 1706-20.
26. -4888- Formal garden, view looking north, 1706,

Bruton Parish Church, 1711-15.

27. -31633- Exterior.
28. -4832- Exterior.
29. -4833- Gate opening from walk and Palace Green, leading
to grave-yard.
30. -4854- From church yard.
31. -17439- View toward altar with canopied chair and
Governor's pew, 1715.
32. -31634- Interior.
33. -34754- Interior.

Other buildings at Williamsburg

34. -3- p.15- Blair (wooden) house.
35. -3- p.16- Blair (brick) house, south front.
37. -3- p. 10- (top) Stratford Hall
(bottom) Capitol, west front.
38. -3- p. 17- Ludwell Paradise house, 1717.
39. -3- p. 12- President's house, nm. and Mary College
40. -3- p. 11- (top) Governor's Palace. (bottom) Wythe house.

Cupola House, Edenton, N.C., 1715.

41. -52486- Facade.
42. -52485- Plan.

Brandon, Prince George County, Virginia, 1712.


River facade.
Plot plan.
Floor plans.'
Robert Morris design for elevation.
Entrance front.
River facade.

Westover, Charles City County, Virginia. 1730,34.

-3- p. 14- South Front.
-44120- Plan.
-42653- 1st floor plan.
-44213- Front elevations.
-17345- General view.
-17661- South facade.
-42650- Entrance facade.
-20090- Entrance.
-42367- Entrance hall.
-17662- Interior stairway.

Drayton Hall, Charleston, S.C. 1738.

61. -20064- General view.
62. -32988- Plan.

Wilton-on-the-James, Virginia. 1753.

-6- p.
-6- p.
-6- p.
-6- p.
-6- p.
-6- p.
-6- p.
-6- p.
-6- p.

110- View from the Northwest.
108- Entrance facade.
109- First floor plan.
107- Plot plan.
111- Detail of the west door.and view from thm south.
114- Stairhall.
112- Main staircase.
115- Living room detail.
116- The dining room.

Carter's Grove, Williamsburg, Virginia. 1750-53.

-6- The South facade.
-17666- South facade.
-6- p. 18- General view.
-6- First and second floor plan.
-6- p. 100- The river side entrance.
-31974- Entrance hall.
-42659- Interiors.
-42376- N. side of entrance hall.
-6- Detail of the main staircase.


* .o, 4 A
'I-^'- ^ ^'^ ;
I ,?^
'-ft .,' r

257. Carved step end, Carter's GroAe, Va.





81. -17669- Stairway detail.
82. -17668- Parlor mantel.
83. -b- p. 106- The east drawing room.
84, -6- p. 104- The dining room and the west drawing room.

Mount Airy, Richmond County, Virginia. 1758-62.

85. -42649-.Garden facade.
86. -42619- Plan.
87. -42645- Entrance facade.
88. -44247- Garden facade.
89. -42617- South facade.

Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, Virginia. 1757-87.

90. -33995- West entrance facade.
91. -18785- General view of garden side with porch.
92. -33996- General view.

Gunston Hall. 1758.

93.--21799- Tand front with Palladian porch.
94. -17607- General view with garden.
95. -17608- Library,
96. -34727- Palladian room.
97. -17609- Palladian room.
98. -17607- Dining room.
99. -21801- Palladian drawing room.

Edenton, Chowan County Court House. 1767

100. -4272-i- Street facade.
101. -42724- Plan.

The Colonel John Stuart House, Charleston, S.C. 1770.

102. -6- p. 60- South facade.
103. -6- p. 57- Entrance.
104. -6- p. 56- Entrance detail.
105. -6- p. 59- Drawing room.
106. -6- p. 58- The ball room.

William Gibbs House, Charleston, S.C. 1775.

107. -42640- Entrance facade.
108. -42642- Plan.

Floor Plan comparisons:

109. -3- "
110 -3- paneled and scrolled step ends --
111. -3- "

* four and five digit numbers from slide library.


Architects Emergency Committee. Great Georgian Houses of
America. New York, 1933.

A fine collection of illustrations of hours of the 6 -
Georgian, Federal, and Greek Revival styles.

Egerlein, Huggard, American Georgian Architecture.
Pleiades Books Limited, London, 1952.

A mongraph on barious aspwcts of Georgian Architecture
and beautifully drawn illustrations.

Howells, John Meads. Lost Examples of Colonial Architecture
William Helburn Inc., New York, 1931.

Examples of buildings that did not have the good for-
tune of those at Williamsburg.

Kimbal, Fisk. Domestic Architecture of the American Col-
onies and of the Early Republic. Dover Publications
Inc,. New York, 1922.

Covers the history of American domestic architecture 3 -
through the early Republic.

Morrison, Hugh. Early American Architecture. Oxford Univ-
ersity Press, New York, 1952.

A clearly written history of American Architecture
of the colonial and Georgian period.

Pratt, Richard and Dorhty. A Guide to Early American Homes.

A guide book valuable to the traveler searching for
examples of early American Architecture,

Ramsey and Harvey. Small Georgian Houses and Their Details.

Many plates of English Architecture with drawings of 1 -
ornamental details used during the Georgian period.

William, Rotch, Wave. The Georgian Period. 1923.

Photographs and measured drawings of Colonial work
with written text.


(1) Briggs, Martin The Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers in England and America,
1620 1685. London: Oxford University Press, 1932.

The author laboriously traced the 'New World' from the old by illustrating
the architecture of Southeast England to the New England colonies by English
building practices. However, he does not emphasize the Southern colonies.

(2) Forman, Henry Chandlee The Architecture of the Old South, 1585 1850.
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1948.

The book has to be the most informative of all texts. There are excellent
illustrations on Medieval character of the Colonial style in Virginia, Maryland
and the Carolinas. The book has a very good bibliography and index which was
informative to me while gathering topic material.

(3) Kimball, Fiske Domestic Architecture of the American Colonies and of the
Early Republic. New York, 1927.

The book is a course of lectures delivered by the author. There are few
examples of seventeen century architecture in the south. However, it has a
helpful chronological chart of buildings dating from 1651 1857.

(4) Morrison, Hugh Early American Architecture. New York: Oxford University
Press, 1952.

Hugh Morrison compiles a lot of information from all the leading sources on
English colonial architecture. There is enough detail used in describing his
subject matter, without making the material boring.

(5) Waterman and Borrows Domestic Colonial Architecture of Tidewater Virginia.
New York: Scribner, 1932.

As well as being informative, Waterman and Borrows' book has very good
photographs and HABS drawings on fifteen examples of architecture found in Virginia
from 1636 1769.

(6) Waterman, Thomas Tileston The Dwellings of Colonial America. Chapel Hill:
University of North Carolina Press, 1950.

This book has a good study of the architecture in the Southern colonies. It
has more emphasis on large scale dwellings than towards the smaller ones with ex-
cellent photography of the great interiors. Included in the text is a small glos-
sary of architectural terms.


1. Garvan, Anthony N.B.; Architecture and Town Planning in Colonial
Conneticut, Yale University Press, New Haven, Conneticut, j]5 )

A discussion of New England town planning, specifically in
Conneticut. Including English medieval precedents, population
growth, development of colonial planning in Europe and America,
land division, and construction techniques.

2. Reps, J.W.; Tidewater Towns, City Planning in Colonial Virginia
and Maryland, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Williiamsburg,
Virginia, ]972.

An in depth study of the Middle Colonies from their ante-
cedents in Europe, both military and baroque styles of planning,
and the development of the baroque Dlans of Annapolis and Will-
iamsburg through their beginnings in legislation and efforts by
their planner Francis Nicholson.

3. Reps, J.W.; Town Planning in Frontier America, Princeton
University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, I969.

Contains information on all major developments in American
town planning up to the twentieth century. Including Furopean
precedents of all the major innovations of style and short analysis
of different areas of planning from the early days of English,
French, and Spanish colonization through the western expansion of
the U. S.

4. Whitehill, Walter; Boston: A Topographical History, The Belknap
Press of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., ]959.

A discourse on the founding of Boston, tracing the development
of the town and the changing of the city's topography, including
the filling in of the Back Bay area and later additions to the
streetscape by Bulfinch. Also, included are descriptions of the
structures to be found on the streets of Boston during different

1513- Juan Ponce de Leon discovered Florida.
1528- Panfilo de Narvaez explored Florida. '
1539- Hernando de Soto began exploration of the Southeast.
1564- French under Ribault established Fort Caroline on the St.
Johns River.
1565- Sept. 8, Pedro Menendez de Aviles founded St. Augustine.
Sept. 20, Spanish capture Fort Caroline.
Sept. 29, Menendez eliminated threat to Spanish ownership 0
by destroying remaining Frenchmen at Matanzas Inlet.
1567- Mission of Nombre de Dios, where the Christian faith was
1573- Spain adopted a model town plan for her American colonies.
1574- The Franciscans began missionary work among coastal Georgia
1583- Coquina stone discovered on Anastasia Island.
1586- Town sacked and burned by Sir Francis Drake.
1598- Governor Gonzalo Mendez Canzo established present city plan c.
in accord with model plan of 1573.
1606- Bishop Altamirano reported 2000 Indians converted to Christia-
1633- Franciscans expanded missions westward to Apalachee.
1668- The English pirate, Davis, raided St. Augustine.
1672- Construction began on Castillo de San Marcos.
1683- Pirates captured Matanzas Inlet watchtower but were repulsed
on their march to St. Augustine.
1686- Pirates landed at Matanzas Inlet and were defeated there.
1689- Construction of coquina houses in St.. Augustine began.
1695- Castillo de San Marcos finished.
1702- English from Carolina besieged Castillo unsuccessfully but
razed St. Augustine.
1706- Effective Spanish rule over Florida limited to St. Augustine
1728- Carolinians again raided St. Augustine.
1740- British under General James Oglethorpe besieged St. Augustine
1742- Fort Matanzas finished.
1763- Florida ceded to England by Treaty of Paris. American church
1768- Minorcan colony established at New Smyrna by Dr. A. Turnbull.
1777- Minorcans migrated to St. Augustine from New 77ryrna.
1783- The Second Treaty of Paris returned Florida to Spain.
1784- Spanish re-occupied Florida.
1791- St. Augustine residents purchased houses from the Spanish
crown at public auction.
1792- Construction began on new church (now the Cathedral).
1821- Florida ceded to the United States.


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-V 4


Texas in the Eikhteenth Centum' (1 f
sm sum
mowim 4


...and some brief notes on Latin-
American Colonial Architecture

AE 681
Fall 1975

M.M. Gonzalez

S Mar Caribe


SSon Ju."


t1o vo ilid
3ro R an


Actopon *
Acolman S.M. Texmelucan
Tepotzotl6no o / / 0ao
WIUM elt'llO I / Hueiotzlingo
Calpan. 0 *o- Cholula
C n voc 0 t0 Acalepec


//a Tonantzinla 0 100 200 300 400 500
t \\ ixa Km.
Tepozlon TIancualpic6n
T!polcingo | Jolalpon
Ti,"ot4l, Mdxico y paises de
__ __^_^__________________________________^__ ___ ---- --- ----t-,.-




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1. Avila, Spain. City wall, San Vicente Gate. Medieval arch.
2. Leon, Spain. Cathedral, exterior (13th Ctry.). Gothic arch.
3. Leon, Spain. Cathedral, main nave.
4. Leon, Spain. Cathedral, interior with rose window.
5. Seville, Spain. Cathedral, transept (1460-1575).
6. Salamanca,-Spain. Minorite Schools (Escuelas Menores),
courtyard (15th Century). Isabeline style.
7. Salamanca, Spain. Minorite Schools (Escuelas Menores),
courtyard detail.
8. Seville, Spain. Reales Alcazares. Moorish architecture.
9. Granada, Spain. The Alhambra, Patio de los Leones (14th Ctry.)
Moorish architecture.
10. Granada, Spain. Generalife, Courtyard of the Acequias.
11. Toledo, Spain. St. Martin Bridge and Gate. Mudejar style.
12. Salamanca, Spain. University facade, Plateresque style.
13. Salamanca, Spain. University facade, detail.
14. Salamanca, Spain. University facade, detail.
15. Valladolid, Spain. S. Gregorio Church, facade, Plateresque
16. Granada, Spain. Charles V Palace, facade.(1526-1568). Ita-
lianate influences.
17. Escorial, Spain. Real Monasterio del Escorial, facade (16th
Century). Style of Juan de Herrera.
18. Zaragoza, Spain. Church of El Pilar, Main Altar.
19. Salamanca, Spain. Retable of S. Esteban Church.
20. Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Cathedral, Main altar. Work
of Churriguera.
21. Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Cathedral, facade of the Obra-
dorio, Churriguresque style.




22. Oaxaca, Mexico. Church of St. Augustine, 'facade (1722)
23. Oaxaca, Mexico. Cathedral, exterior (1553)
24. Mexico City, Mexico. Cathedral, exterior (1573-1667)

25. Mexico City, Mexico. Sagrario, east facade detail (1768)
26. Mexico City, Mexico. Sagrario, east facade detail (1768)

27. Oaxaca, Mexico. Cathedral, detail of facade (1553)
28. Mexico City, Mexico. Church of Santo Domingo, detail of the

29. Cuernavaca, Mexico. Chapel of the Third Order, interior,
detail of main altar.

30. Taxco, Mexico. Cathedral, main altar (1758)

31. Antigua, Guatemala. Cathedral, detail of facade (1663-1680)

32. Antigua, Guatemala. Cathedral, detail of facade (1663-1680)

33. Cuzco, Peru. Cathedral, exterior. (1560-1654)
34. Salvador, Brazil. Church of the Third Order, detail of the
facade (1697-1703)

35. Salvador, Brazil. Church of the Third Order, detail of the
main altar.

36. Azulejo.

37. Joao Pessoa, Brazil. Church of Sao Francisco, facade (1779)

38. Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais Brazil. Church of Nossa Senhora do
Carmo, facade (1766-17805

39. Congonhas do Campo, Brazil. Church of Bom Jesus do Matosinhos,
exterior with stairway (1758...)

40. Congonhas do Campo, Brazil. Church of Bom Jesus do Matosinhos,
sculpture of a prophet, by Alejadinho.
41. San Juan, Puerto Rico. El Morro, aerial view.

42. Sancti Spiritus, Cuba. Cathedral, exterior (17th Century)
43. Havana, Cuba. Colonnade of Plaza Mayor (16th Century)

44. Havana, Cuba. Cathedral, facade (1555...)
45. San Diego, California. Mission of San Diego de Alcala,
exterior (1769)

46. San Antonio, Texas. The Alamo, facade (1756)

ADOBE Unburnt brick dried in the sun, commonly used for building
in Spain and Latin America, also in New Mexico.

ALEIJADINHO (Antonio Francisco Lisboa, 1738-1814). The greatest
Brazilian sculptor and architect. A mulatto, he worked in
the rich gold-mining province of Minas Gerais, and combi-
ned barbarically rich and contorted sculptural decoration
with the more dignified architectural forms of traditional 0
Portuguese church design. His masterpieces are Sao Fran-
cisco, Ouro Preto (1766-94), and the monumental staircase
of Bom Jesus de Matozinhos, Congonhas do Campo (1800-5).


ALFALRDA Stud, light wooden beam.

ARCADE A series of arches supported on piers or pillars; an arched,
roofed, or covered passageway.

ARGAMASAR To make mortar; to cement with mortar.

ARMADURA Framing; shell of a building; framework.

AZULEJOS Glazed pottery tiles, usually painted in bright colors,
much used on the outsides and insides of Spanish, Central
and South American buildings.

BALCON Balcony; a balustraded platform extending from the wall of
a building.

CAL Lime; lime mortar, plaster; tabby.

CHURRIGUERESQUE STYLE The lavish, over-decorated style named after
Jose Benito de Churriguera (1665-1725) and his brothers.
The term is often extended to include all the more florid,
Late Baroaue architecture in Spain and Spanish America, es-
pecially Mexico.

COQUINA Spanish for shellstone: a conglomerate composed of fragments
of marine shells.

COQUINA CHIPPINGS The detritus that results from cutting coquina
into blocks. The spalls were used as aggregate in some types
of masonry, or as fillers and spacers.

CUJE Withe; horizontal pole.

EMBARRADO Plastered roughly, often with clay or mud.

ENLUCIDO Plaster, Plastered.

HERRERA, JUAN DE (1530-1597). Spanish architect. His majestic if
sometimes rather solemn and Italianate style is best seen
at the Palace of Aranjuez (1569), and his designs for Va-
lladolid Cathedral (1585) which were only partly executed
but had enormous influence, especially in Latin America.

LADRILLO Brick; sometimes also the tile used in construction of
flat roofs.

LOGGIA A gallery or arcade open to the air on at least one side;
especially one contained within the body of a building and
serving as an open-air room.

MAMPOSTERIA Masonry; stonework generally.

ORMIGON Concrete (also HORMIGON).

PAJA Straw, thatch made of material other than palm, as reeds or
marsh grass in the coastal areas.

PLATERESQUE Literally "silversmith-like", the name is given to an
ornate architectural style popular in Spain during the 16th
Century. It is characterized by a lavish use of ornamental
motifs unrelated to the structure of the building.

PORTAL Porch, portico.

RIPIO Term used to designate masonry other than squared stonework.

TABBY A concrete composed of approximately equal parts of lime,
sand, and shell aggregate. It was used for walls, floors,
roofs, walks, fences, and benches, being poured into the
formed space and compacted.

TEJA Baked clay roof tile.



Arnade, Charles W. The Architecture of Spanish St. Augus-
tine. The Americas, Vol. XVIII, Number 2, Washington D.C.
October 1961.
A concise study of the evolution of St. Augustine and
its architecture. Includes an appendix listing pri-
vate building appraisals of 1763. A reprint of this C
study is available from the Academy of American Fran-
ciscan History, 9800 Kentsdale Drive, P.O. Box 5966,
Washington 14, D.C.

724.19 Bottineau, Yves. Living Architecture: Iberian-American
B751L Baroque. Grosset and Dunlap, New York, 1964.
An excellent work with extensive commentaries on the
political and social factors influencing the develop-
ment of architecture in Latin-America and Spain.

724.16 Byne, Arthur and Mildred Stapley. Spanish Architecture of
B994s the Sixteenth Century. G.P. PutHam's Sons, New York, 1917
Although it concentrates on the architectural achie-
vements in Spain, it gives a good background to the
work being done in America at the time. The last
two chapters analyze the political power of Phillip II
and the architectural influence of Juan de Herrera.

Castedo, Leopoldo. Historia del Arte y de la Arnuitectura
Latinoamericana. Editorial Pomaire, Barcelona, 1970.
A history of art and architecture in Latin America
from pre-Colombian times to the present. Its second
part covers the Colonial period; presenting its de-
velopments through some examples in order to support
the author's thesis of common cultural generalities.

706 Fernandez, Justino. El Retablo de los Reyes: Estetica del
M611le Arte de la Nueva Espana. Institute de Investigaciones Es-
V.4 teticas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.
F., 1959.
Using the example of the Retablo de los Reyes the
author elaborates on the aesthetic qualities to be
found in the Spanish American architecture and art
of the sixteenth century.

709.8 Kelemen, Pal. Baroque and Rococo in Latin America.
K29b MacMillan, New York, 1951.
An excellent study on the origin and evolution of art
and architecture in Colonial Latin America. Extensive
and good descriptions of examples. Profusely illustra-
ted with photographs. It has been also published in
soft cover, two volumes, by Dover Publications Inc.,
New York, 1967.

709 Kubler, George. Art and Architecture in Spain and Portugal
P384 and their American Dominions. Penguin Books, Baltimore,
V.Z17 1958.
A volume of the Pelican History of Art collection.
It covers the period from 1500 to 1800. Chapter 4
deals with Middle America: Mexico, Central America and
the Caribbean. Chapter 5 covers Spanish South America.
Chapter 6 describes the art and architecture of Portu-
gal and Brazil. This is an essential book to anyone
interested on the subject.

720.975918 Manucy, Albert. Elements of St. Augustine Architecture.
M294e The St. Augustine Historical Society, St. Augustine, Fla.

Basically this is the author's first writings on
what later on would be "The Houses of St. Augustine".

728.09759 Manucy, Albert. The Houses of St. Augustine. The St. Au-
M451h gustine Historical Society, St. Augustine, Fla., 1962.

Notes on the architecture of St. Augustine, from 1565
to 1821. This is a throughfully researched work on
the design, materials and history of it. A large bi-
bliography is added.

F691 Manucy, Albert. Tapia or Tabby. Journal of the Society
M294a of Architectural Historians, Vol. 11, pags. 32-33, Phila-
delphia, December 1952.

"24.9 Newcomb, Rexford. The Spanish Houses for America. J.B. Lip-
538s pincott Company, Philadelphia, 1927.

Good entertainment. A catalogue of houses favoring the
"Spanish look" of the 1920's in Florida and California.


k'? clOOT


rMCtt =

tHo Msouo

.'AA Drawing of a French Canadian House and a French Missouri House

Colonial Louisiana

French Building and Construction Vocabulary


Half timber; vertical posts with diagonal bracing.

Terre Entre Pouteaux

Brique Entre






Mud and Earth (with laths) used as infill
between post structure. See bousillage.

Pouteaux Brick infill between wooden vertical
post structure. In Louisiana the bricks
were so porous that a covering of stucco
was necessary to insure longevity.

Infill of mud and moss, daub, shells, animal hides,
etc. Bouzillees- clay and grass.

Stone and mortar, rubble infill between vertical
post frame; this was the most common method in
Colonial Louisiana.

Made from clays excavated at Lake Pontchartrain;
very porous, requiring stucco covering.

Burned from shells; weathered poorly when exposed.
in mortar mixture: lime, sand, water.

Portico on front of the house; or veranda surrounding
it, elevated on brick piers. The exact origin of the
Galerie is unknown; it was not a French tradition
and not used in France. probably introduced into
Louisiana from the Caribbean settlements.

House Construction Methods- New France on the Mississippi

1) Maison de Pouteaux en Terre- "House with posts in the Earth"

Palisade walls, fastened together on top; used at first for
domiciles at Biloxi and New Orleans, but only temporary;
unknown in France and Canada; probably taken from Indian
examples or Spanish shelters on the Gulf Coast.

2) Maison de Pieux en Terre- "Round Posts"

Used for out-buildings at St. Geneevieve and Fort Orleans (1724)

3) Maison de Pouteaux sur Solle- "Posts on a Sill"

Vertical frame house, vertical frame posts on a wooden sill
resting on stone foundation. This was the most common type
in early Colonial Louisiana.

4) The Raised Cottage- e.g. Acadian House

Evolved from the Maison de Pouteaux sur Solle; foundations
of brick piers were elevated to a full story, the second
story with bedrooms surrounded by veranada or "Galerie", and
the hip roof was coupled with a pitched Galerie covering.
This became the standard Louisiana House, varying according
to size and decoration as economy could afford.

5) Maison de Pierre- Stone House

Seldom used in the Mississippi area but popular in Canada,;
example in the Illinois Territory is Fort de Chartres Barracks.

6) Maison de Pieces sur Pieces- Horizontal log:House with "timbers
on timbers".

7) Maison en Boulin- Anglo-Saxon cabin of round, unhewn logs.

Source: "Early St. Genevieve and Its Architecture" by Charles
E. Peterson, The Missouri Historical Review, January
1941, Vol. xxxv, p.p. 207-232.

Slide Presentation: Colonial Mississippi

Peter F. Dessauer

1. Map of New France Settlements: Early American Architecture,
Hugh Morrison, page 254.

2. Conjectural drawing of Ft. Maurepas at Biloxi, Louisiana,
A Narrative History, Davis, page 42.

3..Aboriginal Temple and Chief's Hut, Spain and Her Rivals on the
Gulf Coast, from "Gulf Coast Architecture", Samuel Wilson, page 98.

4. New Biloxi Shelters, 1720; Louisisana Purchase, Louisiana
Landmark Society, page 10.

5. Diagram of French Norman Building Elements, Maisons de Normandie,
page 26.

6. French House Styles: 16/th and 17/th centuries; Maisons de
Normandie, page 11.

7. French Norman Farm Building- "Brique entire Pouteaux"; Maisons
de Normandie, page 53.

8. Detail- "Brique entire Pouteaux"; Maisons de Normandie, page 17

9. Mortise and Tenon details, French Norman style: Maisons de
Normandie, page 62.

10. Ink sketch of the Acadian House; Louisiana, A Guide to the
State, page 136.

11. Acadian House Museum; Louisiana Plantation Homes, Overdyke,
page 21.

12. Typical Plans for simple Acadian House; Early American Architec-
ture, Hugh Morrison, page 263.

13. Service House, Acadian Museum; Louisiana Plantation Homes,
Overdyke, page 24.

14. PLan of Mobile, 1770; The Present State of the European
Settlements on the Mississippi, Captain Philip Pittman.

15. Plan of New Orleans, 1770; The Present State of the European
Settlements on the Mississippi, Captain philip Pittman.
16. The Garconniere, Barbara Plantation, Louisiana Plantation,-
Homes, Overdyke, page 40.

17.Chouchas Plantationl736, Spain and Her Rivals on the Gulf
Coast, "Gulf Coast Architecutre", Samuel Wilson, page 104.

18. Ormond Plantation in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, New Orleans
and Its Environs, Ricciuti, plate 38.

19. Drawn Elevations of Ormond Plantationl;New Orleans-and Its
Environs, plate 112.

20. Drawn Plans of Ormomd Plantation; New Orleans and Its Environs,
Riolut i,plate 113. '

21. Parlange Plantation, Point Coupee Parish, La.; Louisiana
Plantation Homes, Overdyke, page 152.

22. Plans for Parlange, Louisiana Plantation Homes, Overdyke, page 153.

23. Live Oak Plantation, St Francisville, La;,West Feliciana Parish:
Louisiana Plantation Homes, Overdyke, page 115.

24. Roque House, Nachitoches, La.; Louisiana, A Guide to the State,
page 88.

25. Elevations and Plans of Riche Plantation, Point Coupee Parish,
La., Louisiana Plantation Homes, Overdyke, page 159.

26. Ringrose Plantation, the Lower Level Colonade: The Heritage of
Early American Houses, Drury, page 242.

27. Holy Hedges Plantantion, Natchez, Mississippi: The Heritage of
Early American Houses, Drury,page 232.

28. Elgin Plantation, Natchez, Mississippi; The Heritage of Early
Early American Houses, Drury, page 229.

29. Connelley's Tavern, Early American Architecture, Hugh Morrison,
page 266.

30. Homeplace-Keller Plantation, The Arts in America, Tatum, page 55.

31. Homeplace-Keller Plantation, Plans: Early American Architecture,
Hugh Morrison, page 265.

32. Plan Map of Kaskaskia, 1770; The Present State of the European
Settlements on the Mississippi, by Captain Philip Pittman, page viii

33. Pierre Menard House-Kaskaskia; The Heritage of Early American
Houses, Drury, page 262.

34. Jean Baptiste Vallet House, -St. Genevieve, Mo.: The Heritage of
Early American Houses, Drury, page 271.

35. St. Gemme-Amoureaux House, St. Genevieve, Mo.: photo taken
August, 1975.

36. Janis Ziegler House, St. Genevieve, Mo.; photo taken August,
37. Louis Buldoc House, restored; phototaken August 1975.

38. Buldoc House before Restoration, Frenchmen and French Ways in the
Mississippi Valley, McDermott, page 159.

39. The Creole House, Praire du Rocher; Illinois Architecture, From
Territorial Times to the Present, Koeper, page 225.

40. Fort de Chartres, reconstruction of the gate; Illinois
Architecture, From Territorial Times to the Present,Koeper,
page 222.

41. Colonel Auguste Chouteau House, St. Louis, Mo., from the
ink drawing by Clarence Hoblitzelle; Missouri's Contribution
to American Architecture, John Albury Bryan, page 16.

42. The Spanish Fort, St. Louis, photo taken circa 1850's; Missouri's
Contribution to Early American Architecture, John Albury Bryan,
page 15.

43. Daniel Boone House (1800-1810?), at Femme Osage, Mo.: Missouri's
Contribution to Early American Architecture, John Albury Bryan,
page 18.

44. The Holy Family Church (1795 reconstruction), in Cahokia, Illinois,
Illinois Architecture, From Territorial Times to the Present,
Koeper, page 23.

45. Roi-Porlier-Tank House, Green Bay, Wisconsin; The Heritage of
Early American Houses, Drury, page 266.


Davis, Edwin Adams; Louisiana, A Narrative History, Claitor's Publishing Division, 1971.

The first 15 chapters deal in depth with colonial Louisiana (18th century)
including geography, aboriginal population, European colonial policies,
economy and culture.

Drury, John; Historic ledwest Houses, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1947.

This anthology of historic homes in the Midwest includes articles on some of
the 18th century French houses: at Kaskaskia (Pierre Menard House 1802),
Cahokia Courthouse (Jean Baptiste Saucier House-1737), both in Illinois;
St. Genieveve (Jean Baptiste Valley-1785), Missouri; and in Green Bay,
Wisconsin (Tank Cottage-1776).

Drury, John; Midwest Heritage, "Old French Towns" Chapter 8, pp. 136-155, A. A. Wyn, Inc.,
New York, 1948.

Old engravings of the period illustrate this historical, ethnographic almost
geographic description of the Midwest in the 19th century. The author does
some justice to the French contribution to Mississippian urban development
with scenes of Old Cahokia, Kaskaskia, Fort de Chartres (in ruins), Praire du
Rocher, Carondelet, Saint Charles, Praire du Chien and Sault Sainte Marie.

Drury, John; Old Illinois Houses, Illinois State Historical Society, Springfield, 1949.

The first three chapters are historical and architectural analyses in brief of
the Jean Baptiste Saucier House (Courthouse) in Cahokia, the Creole House,
Prairie du Rocher and the Pierre Menard House, Kaskaskia.

Drury, John; The Heritage of Early American Houses, Coward-McCann, Inc., New York, 1969.

A history of individual houses, representing architectural styles in different
parts of the country; the following articles deal with French influence in the
Mississippi Valley:
1) Elgin Mansion 4) Pierre Menard House
2) Holly Hedges 5) Jean Baptiste Valle' House
3) Ringrose 6) Roi-Porlier-Tank Cottage

Freal, Jacques; Maisons de Normandie, Hachette Literature, Paris, France, 1973. (Written in

An inventory assembled by the author surveying remaining examples of 18th
century rural French architecture; excellent photos of construction details,
styles and techniques; an essential source for French building terminology
and historic architectural vocabulary; in the old barns and houses of
Normandy can be seen the construction traditions imported by French colonists
to new France.

Gray, Lewis Cecil; "Agriculture in the Lower Mississippi Valley and Gulf Costal Plains in
the 18th Century", pp. 60-84, History of culture in the Southern United States to 1860.

A history of French efforts to colonize the Mississippi from an economic point
of view, with explanations for the limitations and failures of agricultural
enterprises which influenced the slow growth of the colony.

134, July 5, 1928.

A brief description with photos of French colonial architecture in Canada,
sighting a few remaining important examples.

Huber, Leonard V.; Wilson, Samuel, Jr.; Baroness Pontalba's Buildings, The Friends of the
Cabildo, Inc., Jackson Square, New Orleans, Louisiana, 1964.

Family history of the Pontalba's, Patrons of building projects in New Orleans,
architects, plans, previous colonial buildings and European precedents and
design inspirations.

Huber, Leonard V.; New Orleans A Pictorial History, Crown Publishers, Inc., New York, 1971.

The first chapter, "Discovery and Development", pp. 16-37, gives a brief but
well highlighted and illustrated history of colonial New Orleans.

Koeper, Frederick; Illinois Architecture, From Territorial Times To The Present, the Univer-
sity of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1968.

Photographs and brief historical and architectural descriptions of the court-
house and church at Cahokia (founded 1699), Fort de Chartres (1753) and the
Creole House at Prairie du Rocher (1800).

Laughlin, Clarence John; Ghosts Along The Mississippi, Bonanze Books, New York, 1961.

Photographs taken by the author in the 1930's and 1940's show the often pitiful
condition of the abandoned plantations, many still retaining their elegance and
pride although in a semi-state of ruin; first published in 1948 this photographs.
and poetic essay of Louisiana plantation architecture was written to arouse sym-
pathy and public action to preserve these elegant remains of America's heritage.

Lynn, Stuart M.; New Orleans, Bonanza Books, New York, 1949.

A beautiful photo essay of New Orleans architecture including some scenes of
the Vieux Carre' and the cities remaining examples of colonial styles.

Matthews, R. C.; Joseph Pennell's Sketches Of Old New Orleans, Hope publications New Orleans,
Louisiana 70121.

Ink sketches and drawings by Joseph Pennell with random biographical account
by the author evoke the moods, scenes, and life in New Orleans savored during
the artist's years in residence.

McDermott, John Francis, Editor; Frenchmen And French Ways In The Mississippi Valley, Univer-
sity of Illinois Press, Chicago, 1969.

Handsomely illustrated collection of articles and papers by the leading authori-
ties of French colonial history in North America; includes chapters on Ste.
Genevieve, Missouri, Fort Maseac, Fort de Chartres, strategic planning, unpub-
lished memoirs and Ignace Francois Broutin.

Dermott, John Francis, Editor; The Spanish In The Miasiesippi Valley, 1762-1304, University
Of Illinois Press, Chicago, 1974.

An anthology of sixteen original essays by experts of the Spanish colonial period:
dealing mostly with political, economic and social aspects, this compilation does
mention Spanish architectural contributions in the chapter, "Almonester, Philanth-
ropist and Builder in New Orleans" by Samuel Wilson.

Horrison, Hugh; Early American Architecture, "French Colonil Architecture o' the Miesisoippi
Valley", Chapter 8, pp. 258-268, Oxford University Press, New York, 1952.

Morrison's chapter about the French Mississippi makes a full survey: New Orleans,
settlements, building types, construction, plans, and specific houses which re-
present the architectural evolution of the French Missippi style. An excellent
map of New France (Canada and the Mississippi) showinZ towns and trading posts
with their corresponding dates illustrates the expanse of the French claims on
the North American continent.

Oliver, Nola Nance; The Gulf Coast, Hastings House, New York, 1941.

A thorough photo essay concerned with remaining examples of French and Spanish
colonial architecture of Biloxi, Ocean Springs, Pointe Aux Chenes, Pascagoula
and Isle Auxoies-all on the Mississippi State Coast and many of which possibly
no longer exist since the date of publication.

Overdyke, W. Darrell; Louisiana Plantation Homes, Colonial and Ante Bellum, Architectural
Book Publishing Company, New York, 1965.

Photographic inventory of existing 18th and early 19th century plantation
homes in rural Louisiana; complete, illustrated with drawings of plans
and detailed ironwork.

leterson, Charles E.; "Early St. Geneveve and Its Architecture" pp. 207-232, The Missouri
Historical Review, January, 1941, Vol. XXXV.

An excellent description of the 18th century French settlement homes history
and architecture with accompanying photos showing the condition of the fabric
before recent restoration.

dickens, Buford; "The Architecture of Old Saint Louis", (pp. 6-9), "Colonial Period" in
The Building Art in St. Louis, by George McCue.

Buford Pickens sights the sources for our sketchy knowledge of what was the
architecture of colonial St. Louis: "View of the Valley of the Mississippi"
by Robert Baird, 1832, series of pen and ink sketches made by Clarence Hoblitzelle
of early French St. Louis architecture, and contemporary surviving examples in
Illinois (Cahokia, Kaskaskia) and in St. Genieveve, Missouri.

rukens, Buford L.; "Regional Aspects of Early Louisiana Architecture" Journal of the Society
of Architectural Historians, Vol. 7, Nos. 1-2, pp. 33-38 (January-June 1948).

A copy of this could not be found in the Florida library.

tea, John Gilmary, Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi Valley, Joseph McDonough,
Joseph McDonough, Albany, 1903.

The original narratives of Marquette, Allouez, Membre', Hennepin and Anastase Douray
and facsimiles of their early maps, letters, etc.

kith, Prazer; white Pillars, Early Life and Architecture of the Lower Mississippi Valley

Beautiful ink renderings, floor plans, and histories include several houses of the
French-Spanish colonial era: Concord at Natchez (1794), Old Schertz 1'ome in Acadia
Parish (1750's), Labatut, Parlange, Keller Plantation, Ormond Plantation; with a
final chapter on styles and details.

iaeus, G.? "Acit.' cure" 'M A irs Luca.%i.cag C" 'nihl Pr-riod, Chaile- L *rib e:' Sous,
New York, 1966.

pp. 54-53 Brief description and accompanying photo of the Courthouse at
Cahokia, Illinois and Homeplace Plantation, Hahnville, Louisiana two
examples of Mississippian French colonial architecture.

Wilson, Samuel Jr.; Colonial Fortifications and Military Architecture in the Missisippi
Va _, reprinted from The French in the Miaaissippi Valley, edited by John Francis
McDermott, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1965.

A summary of colonial fort building in the Mississippi River Valley, their
purpose as the cornerstone for new settlements; Wilson credits specific fort
to various military engineers and uses their design drqwings to illustrate
the conceptual and ideal, as well as actual, military architecture of New

Wilson, Samuel; "Gulf Coast Architecture" pp 82-130, Spain and Her Rivals, proceedings of the
Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference, edited by Ernest F. Dibble and Earle W.
Newton, The State of Florida; Department of State, Historic Pensacola Preservation Board,

An excellent collection of Documentary drawings serve to enhance the author's
discourse on the earliest French colonial structures, including the houses
and plans of New Orleans and Biloxi, forts and plantations in their vicinity,
actual renderings, elevations, plans and concepts of the first Louisiana
architects: Le Blond de La Tour, de Pauger, Broutin, Pierre Barron and
Bernard Deverges.

wilson, Samuel; "The Colonial Period 1723-1803", The Cabildo on Jackson Square, The Friends
of the Cabildo, Inc., New Orleans, Louisiana, 1970.

A history, illustrated by documents, contemporary 18th century design drawings and
conjectural sketches of New Orleans' colonial prisons, guard houses, and gov-
ernment buildings culminating at the erection of the "New Cabildo" (1795-1803),
the final capitol of the Spanish Regime in Louisiana.


Christovich, Mary Louise; Holden, Pat; Swanson, Betsy; Toledano, Roulhac; New
Orleans Architecture; Volume 11: The American Sector, Pelican Publishing
Company, Gretna, Louisiana, 1972.

This volume continues in a manner similar to that of Volume 1
in the documentation of New Orleans Architectural History.
Essays by Samuel Wilson are detailed and informative.

Coffin, Lewis A.; Polhemos, Henry M.; Klorthington, Addison F.; Small French
Buildings, Charles Scribner's sons, New York, 1926

This book is a photographic essay of the vernacolar architec-
ture of France expressed in a profusion of village and rural
architecture of a less than pretentious nature. There is
little in the descriptions to tie the photographs into a
pattern of architectural development.

Hansen, Harry; Louisiana A Guide to the State, Hastings House, Publishers,
Inc., New York, 1971.

This handbook provides a comprehensive guide to the past and
present of the state of Louisiana. In addition to a brief
but relatively complete section on the state's history there
are sketches and photographs relative to the character of
colonial Louisiana.

Lemann, Bernard; Wilson, Samuel Jr.; New Orleans Architecture; Volume 1: The
Lower Garden District, Pelican Publishing Company, Inc., Gretna, Louisiana,

This is the first of a series intended to eventually complete
a historical-architectural inventory of New Orleans pertinent
to the subject area. The Graphic supplementation is primarily
photographic but there are a number of reproductions of early
site plans, architectural drawings some of which are in color.

Pittman, Philip; The Present State of the European Settlements on the Mississipp
(Facsimile Reproduction) University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 1973.

This book is a narrative of Pittman's observations of the settle-
ments and fortifications along the Mississippi River from West
Florida to Illinois. The narrative is accompanied by a number
of maps and site plans.

Ricciuti, Italo William, New Orleans and Its Environs The Domestic Architectus
1727-1870, Bonanza Books, New York, 1938.

This book is primarily a photographic essay on the architecture
of New Orleans from 1727-1870. In addition to photographs
there are a number measured drawings. Attention is paid to
general architectural character, interiors, and detailing.

Waie-an Thomas T.; The ^D-w .ngop of Colonial Amzica,: The Univarsity of Nortl
Cat'olin Press, Chapel HillT, 1950.

This book covers the development of residential architecture
during the colonial period. Emphasis is on the Eastern
colonies. Photographs are the primary graphic supplementation.
Coverage of interiors is considerable.

Wilson, Samuel, Jr.; Bienville's New Orleans, The Friends of the Cabildo, New
Orleans, 1968.

Graphic essay on the French Colonial period of New Orleans,
intended to record the 250th Anniversary of the founding of
New Orleans. The graphic reproductions are examples of the
materials from the French archives on loan to the Louisiana
State Museum for the occasion. The descriptions and open-
ing comments by the author are very informative.

Wilson, Samuel, Jr.; New Orleans Architecture; Volume IV: The Crede Faubourgs,
Pelican Publishing Company, Inc., Gretna, Louisiana, 1974.

Continuation of the series detailed and informative.

Wilson, Samuel, Jr.; The Vieux Carre New Orleans, Its Plan, Its Growth, Its
Architecture, Bureau of Governmental Research, New Orleans, 1968.

A complete and detailed description of the development of
New Orlean's Vieux Carre up to the twentieth century sup-
plemented by a multitude of photographs, maps, site plans,
and architectural drawings, this book includes numerous
verbal characterizations of New Orleans during its develop-

BIBLIOGRAPHY Dutch Colonial Architecture in the United States

Bailey, R.M. Pre-Revolutionary Dutch Houses in Northern New
Jersey and Southern New York. New York: Dover Pu-
blications, Inc., 1968.
Includes historical background of the Hudson River
Valley and its early colonial architecture. Specific
examples and illustrations are given. Excellent re-

Boyd, John T., Jr. "Some Early Dutch Houses in New Jersey."
The Architectural Record, Vol. 36
Article I; No. 1, July 1914, pp. 31-48.
Article II; No. 2, August 1914, pp. 148-158.
Article III; No. 3, September 1914, pp. 220-230.
A series of three articles on the origin, evolution,
and details of the early Dutch houses in New Jersey.
Includes measured drawings by the author. Good des-
criptions and concise history of the historic homes.

Briggs, Martin. The Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers in England
and America, 1620 1685. London: Oxford University
Press, 1932.
Includes a chapter of the Pilgrims in Holland. Gives
some background of the people and the style of archi-
tecture at that time in Holland.

Cody, J.C. "Some Features of Dutch Farmhouses in New Jersey,"
American Architect, II, Dec. 15, 1877, pp. 401-402.
Excellent reference in its description of typical
Dutch farmhouses. Concise.

Eberlein, Harold Donaldson. The Architecture of Colonial
America. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1915.
Gives a brief history and analysis of the architecture
of Colonial America from colonial to post-colonial
periods. Includes a chapter on Dutch Colonial
Architecture of the Hudson Valley and describes many
of its characteristics.

Eberlein, Harold Donaldson. The Manors and Historic Homes
of the Hudson Valley. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott
Company, 1924.
Gives excellent background of Dutch arrival in the
Hudson Valley. Pays more attention to the political
and social aspects of the manors than to its

Eberlein, Harold Donaldson, and Hubbard, Cortlandt Van Dyke.
Historic Houses of the Hudson Valley. New York:
Architectural Book Publishing Co., Inc., 1942.
Includes social aspects and some architectural des-
criptions of the homes in the Hudson Valley. Contains
many illustrations.



Aymar II. The Dutch Colonial House. New York:
Mc Bride, Nast, and Company, 1913.
Describes the style, materials used, treatment of
the roof, doors, and windows. Also includes chapters
on interiors and the treatment of principal rooms.
Excellent reference.

Alan. Architecture in New Jersey. Princeton:
D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1964.
Describes architecture in New Jersey from earliest
beginnings to the twentieth century. Included is
background of Dutch colonial in the region.

Hall, Edward H. Philipse Manor Hall at Yonkers, N.Y.
New York: The American Scenic and Historic Pre-
servation Society, 1925.
The book goes into much detail on one particular
manor its social, political, and architectural



Charle, ed. Old Houses of Holland. London:
"The Studio" Ltd., 1913.
Holmes initially presents an overview of the archi-
tectural evolution of Dutch architecture, tracing the
change of attitudes, that from their Gothic origins
through the classical influences of the 16th and 17th
centuries. In the following sections of his study, he
surveys specific vocabulary elements providing ample
sketches and paintings for referral.

Donald. "A Quaint Dutch Survival," The Architectural
Record, Vol. 59, No. 3, March 1926, pp. 20-24.
A hisToric study of the Jean Harbronck House in New
Paltz, New York. Includes many facts on the family
background and data on additions to the house.

Reynolds, Helen Wilkinson. Dutch Houses in the Hudson Valley
before 1776. New York: William Farquar Payson, 1926.
Includes background of region and specific examples of
its architecture with illustrations. Excellent re-

Reynolds, Helen Wilkinson. Dutchess County Doorways and Other
Examples of Period-Work in Wood 1730-1830. New York:
William Farquar Payson, 1931.
Excellent illustrations and explicit historical
background on the settling and development of
Dutchess County, New York.

Rudofsky, Bernard. Streets for People. New York: Anchor
Press / Doubleday, 1969.
In his investigation of the urban scene, especially
the quality of the "old world" attitudes, Rudofsky
briefly examines the popular examples of American
urbanization with specific attention given to New
York City and the New World attitudes which paved
its development.


S.E. "Early Dutch Architecture," The American Architect,
Volume 105, No. 1985, Jan. 7, 1914, pp. 1-12.
Superb data on the architectural precedents in Holland.
The article also includes historical analysis of
Colonial decorative detail.

Yerbury, F.R., ed. Old Domestic Architecture of Holland.
London: The Architectural Press, 1924.
Yerbury chooses to weave together the various elements
of Old Holland's buildings and permits the reader to
derive a more intuitive feeling of the architecture as
opposed to undetailed analytical approach. He succeeds
with a brief overview in his introduction and an array
of highly informative plates.

"Dutch West India Company." Encyclopedia Britannica.
Volume VII, pp. 780-781.
"Holland." Encyclopedia Britannica. 1957. Volume X
"New York State." Encyclopedia Britannica. 1957. V
pp. 367-369.


, pp. 648-652.
olume XVI,

Brian Conway
At 681, Fall 75


I. Jacobean--William and Mary, 1640-1720

A. Distinctive forms
1. Jacobean
Chests book box (Bible box, desk box); Brewster-
type chairs wainscot chair; court/press cupboard;
slat-back chair; partially upholstered chair;
stretcher table.
2. William and Mary
Banister-back chair; butterfly table; cane chair;
daybed; desk-on-frame; dressing table (lowboy);
easy chair; fall-front desk; desk and bookcase
(secretary); high chest (highboy); gateleg table

B. Design
1. Jacobean
Applied bosses and spindles; geometric panels
ball.-turnings; bulbous supports of baluster forms.
2. William and Mary
Arched skirt (aprons) formed of cyma ogeee) scrolls;
feilded panels; trumpet turning, vase turning.

C. Decorative techniques
1. Jacobean
Carving, painting, turning, inlay (rare).
2. William and Mary
Inlay, japanningg, painting,turning, veneering.

D. Principle woods
1.- Jacobean
oak, pine
2. William And Mary
Walnut, maple

II. Queen Anne, 1720-1755

A. New forms
Side chair with cabriole leg and vase-shaped splat;
corner cupboards tea table with dished top; card
table with folding top.

B. Design
Cabriole leg, vase shaped splat on chairs, pad foot,
arched panel on doors, broken scroll pediment on
case pieces, hoop-back (yoke back) on chairs.

C. Decorative techniques
Carving, inlay, painting, japanning, veneering.

D. Principle woods
Walnut, mapleicherry, mahogany.

III. Chippendale 1755-1790

A. New

forms I
Block front and bomb (kettle-base) case pieces;
knee-hole chest of drawers; breakfront bookcase;
serpentine-back sofa;tripod tea table.

B. Design
Chairs havepierced splat and bowed cresting, with
cabriole leg ending in claw-and-ball foot;
Marlborough leg, about 1770;
Case pieces continue to have broken scrolled pediment,
new are cyma-scrolled paneled doors, blockfront
construction and bombed shape.
Carved shell continues an important motif, becoming
a fan in New England, where it is generally accompanied
by corkscrew finials.
New carved motif of Gothic, Chinese and rococo inspiration

C. Decorative techniques
Carving, veneering.

D. Principle woods
Mahogany, walnut, maple, cherry.

Condensed from charts in American Furniture, Helen Comstock
Viking Press, New York, 1962.


Bjerkoe, Ethal H.; The Cabinetmakers of America, Doubleday and
Company, Garden City, New York, 1957.
A history of cabinetmaking as it developed in America,
followed by a complete list with biographical sketches
of American cabinetmakers.

Boger, Louise Ade; The Complete Guide to Furniture Styles,
Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1969.
A good reference book on furniture styles though contains
relatively few illustrations.

Bridenbaugh, Carl; The Colonial Craftsman, New York University
Press, New York,1950.
A study of colonial craftsmen arranged in chapters
according to area, i.e. North, South, urban, rural.
Illustrated with line drawings depicting shops of
various crafts.

Burton, E. M.; Charlston Furniture, 1700-1825, University of
South Carolina Press, Colombia, South Carolina, 1955.
Includes sections on the styles and influences on
Charlston furniture making, prices, woods, and the

Cescinsky, Herbert; English and American Furniture, Dean-Hicks
Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1929.
A pictorial handbook of furniture made in England and
the American Colonies, some in the 16th century, but
primarily the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries.

Comstock, Helen; American Furniture, The Viking Press, New York,1962.
History of style and design characteristics from
Jacobean to early Victorian. An extensive collection of
photographs of furniture and interiors from each period
accompanied by detailed text.

Halsey, Richard T.1 The Homes of our Ancesters, Garden City
Publishing Company, Garden City, New York, 1937.
A study of the development of the decorative arts through
a detailed explanation of the rooms and furnishings in
the American Wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art
in New York.

Iverson, Marion Day; The American Chair 1630-1890, Hastings House
Publishers, New York, 1957.
A book written with the idea that the chair is the index
of furniture styles. A history of the development of
the American chair supplemented with line drawings rather
than photographs.

Katz, Laszloi The Art of Woodworking and Furniture Appreciation,
P.F.C. Publishing Company, New York, 1970.
An overview of furniture from Zgyptian times to Colonial
....,America. Chapters on woodworking related to furniture

Kettle, Russel H.; Pine Furniture of Early New England, Dover
Publications, New York, 1929.
An inventory of pine furniture arranged according to
type. Includes an appendix with fifty measured drawings
of various pieces pictured and described in the text.

Lea, Zilla Rider; The Ornamented Chair, 1700-1890, Charles E.
Tuttle Company, Rutland, Vermont, 1960.
A study of painting, stencil work, and other applied
decoration an chairs in America.

Lockwood, Luke Vincent; Colonial Furniture in America, Charles
Scribner's Sons, New York, 1926.
Two large volumes present an extensive study of furniture
up to the early 19th century. Arranged according to
furniture type, i.e. chairtable, desk, etc,

Mclanathan, Richard; The American Tradition in the Arts,
Harcourt, Brace and World Inc., New York, 1968.
A study o' American art, including architecture and
furniture, up to the 20th century. Main emphasis on
painting, only general overview of furniture development.

Nutting, Wallace; Furniture Treasury, McMillan Company, New
York, 1954.
Three volumes encompassing all periods of American
furniture. Includes sections on hardware and household
utensils. 5,000 illustrations and photographs with
descriptive text.

Ormsbee, Thomas H.; The Story of American Furniture, MacMillan
Company, New York, 1934.
A discussion of American furniture through the empire
period. Includes chapters on determining the authenticity
of a peice.

Rogers, Meric Reynold; American Interior Design, Bonanza Books,
New York, 1947.
A study of the development of interior design and
furnishings from colonial period through the Victorian period.

Singleton, Esther; The Furniture of our Forefathers,Doubleday
Company, Garden City, New York, 1916.
History of furniture development according to area
up to early 19th century.

Sironen, MBlarta K.; A History of American Furniture, The Towse
Publishing Company, New York,1936.
A general history of American furniture from colonial
to early 20th century. Use of sketches rather than
photographs. The Last third of the book is advertisements
by furniture companies who cooperated to publish
this book.


Louis B.; The Arts in America-.The Colonial Period,
Charles ScribnerOs Sons, New York 196T6.
Sections on Architecture, painting and the decorative
arts, including furniture.


1. 17th century room, Winterthur Museum,(McLanathan pg. 32).
2. Oak chest, Ipswich, Massachusetts, c.1675. (AV-30789).
3. Painted chest, Connecticut, c.1700. (AV-30793).
4. Oak chest, 1690-1700, (AV-30788).
5. Two drawer oak chest, Connecticut, late 17th century. (AV-30675)
6. Painted chest, Massachusetts, c.1735. (AV-30794).
7. Oak chest, late 17th century. (AV-30679).
8. Interior, Hart House, Ispwich, Massachusetts, 1640. (AV-21803).
.9. Press cupboard, Massachusetts, 1680-1700. (McLanathan pg.35).
10.. Court cupboard, oak, Massachusetts, 1684. (Wright pg.258).
11. Press cupboard, oak and maple, New England, 1670-1700. (AV-30785).
12. Kas, painted, Hudson Valley, 1725. (AV-30795)
0i1 Interior, Winterthur Museum, Rhode Island and Massachusetts
furniture. 1650-90. (AV-30783)
14. Wainscot chair, oak, Massachusetts, 1670-85. (Wright pg260).
15. Wainscot chairs, New Jersey and Massachusetts, late 1600's,
(Comstodk figs. 23,25).
16. Brewster-type armchair, Massachusetts, c.1650. (AV-30782).
17. Slat-back armchairs, New England and New York, c.1695. (AV-30787).
18. Slat-back arachairs,New England, c. 1691, (Comstock figs.30,31).
19. Atmchairsk William and Mary type, New York and Penn.
S17-10?,725, (AV-30791).
20. Upholstered arm chair, William and Mary type. New England,
1700-1725, (Wright pg.266).
21. Easy cnair, New England 1700-1725. (Wright pg.268).
22. Easy chairs, New England, 1700-1725, (Comstock figs.43,44).
23. Day beds, New England, 1690-1700 and 1710-1740, (Comstock 88,89).
24. Butterfly table, maple, Conn. 1690-1700. (Comspock fig.117).

25. Butterfly table, folded. (AV-30709).
26. Gate leg table, late 17th century. (AV-30678).
27. Tea table, mirror, pine, New England' 1700-25. (AV-30797).
28. Interior, Hempsted House, New London, Conn. 1678. (Comstock pg.11).
29. High chest (highboy)', New England c.1720. (Comstock figs.71,72).
30. Dressing table (lowboy), New England, 1700-1720. (Comstock 120,121).
31. Desk box (Bible box, book box), 1680-1700 (Comstock figs.14,15).
32. Desk-on-frame, New England, 1690-1710, 1710-1730. (Comstock 90,92)
33. Desk-on-frame, open, Mass. .1720, (Comstock fig.93).
34. Slope front desk (desk-on-chest) New England, c.1700. (Comstock 94,95)
35. Fall front desk, Philadelphia, 1707. (Comstock fig96).
36. Fall front desk, New york, c.1700 (AV-30796).
37. Illumination objects, late 17th century, (AV-44354).

Annotated Bibliography of Articles on
Landscape Architecture and the Allied Arts
Appearing in the APT Bulletin or Newsletter (now called Communique)

Downs, Arthur Channing, Jr. "Downing's Newburgh Villa." Bulletin
of the Association for Preservation Technology* vol. 4,
nos. 3-4 (1972), pp. 1-113.

The creative spirit of A.J. Downing is discussed in this examin-
ation of his villa on the Hudson River in Newburgh, New York. This
study relates a brief history of the property, where Downing lived his
entire life, and describes the villa's exterior, interior, remodelling
and grounds. The last section, which examines the fate of the house
after Downing's death in 1852, reflects the change in architectural
mood at mid-century. The wide range of primary and secondary sources
noted in this article provides a substantial collection of bibliograph-
ical information on Downing.

Downs, Arthur Channing, Jr. "The Introduction of the American
Water Ram, ca 1843-1850." APT Bulletin vol. 7, no. 4 (1975),
pp. 56-103.

This article examines the technology of the water ram more
closely than its impact on the landscape. The water ram, however,
did influence the development of the landscape in the mid-nineteenth
century and this article is quite useful in providing background

Harvey, Mary MacKay. "Gardens of Shelburne, Nova Scotia 1785-1820."
APT Bulletin vol. 7, no. 2 (1975), pp. 32-72.

Many of the problems involved with restoring or reconstructing
historic gardens are dealt with in this complete and systematic study
of the gardens of Nova Scotia 1785-1820. The approach and procedure
utilized in this study are outlined to serve as a guide for other his-
torical organizations faced with similar surveys. The aims of the study
are presented, followed by a general discussion of the history of Shel-
burne and the history of gardens, the types of primary and secondary
sources used to assemble a plant list, and the necessity for a consul-
tation with a botanist prior to the planting of a garden. The article
also presents an inclusive list of plants and seeds available in Shel-
burne 1785-1820.

* Henceforth referred to as the APT Bulletin

Mack, Robert C. Review of "Historical Checklist of the Pines of
North America", by Charles van Ravenswaay (Winterthur Port-
folio 7. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia,
pp. 175-215). APT Bulletin vol. 6, no. 2 (1974), p. 4.

Mr. van Ravenswaay's article, as reviewed by Mr. Mack, provides
a listing of both common and scientific names of pines discussed in
early American publications and works on wood. The historical uses
of wood and its folklore associations are included, creating a very
informative article on pines of eastern North America.

Schmidt, Richard G. "An Act for the Preservation of Apple Trees in
the Parish of Montreal." APT Bulletin vol. 7, no. 2 (1975),
pp. 11-12.

This is an interesting example of attempted pest control by
legislative decree. [This act was found in The Provincial Statutes
of Lower Canada vol. 4, (1805), p. 122.]

Stewart, John J., ed. "Historic Gardens in Canada and the United
States." APT Newsletter vol. 2, no. 3 (June 1973).

In the hope of stimulating increased recording of historic land-
scapes, Mr. Stewart formulated an initial list of information on
historic gardens pertaining to Canada and the United States. The list
is divided into three categories: 1) extant restored historic gardens
in Canada and the United States, 2) experts in landscape and garden
preservation and restoration, and 3) sources of historic plant materials
and seeds. A brief description and location or address is included with
each entry. [NB: An updated revision of this article will appear in
the June 1976 issue of Communique.]

Stewart, John and Buggey, Susan. "The Case for Commemoration of
Historic Landscapes and Gardens." APT Bulletin vol. 7, no. 2
(1975), pp. 99-123.

A brief history of landscaping in the 18th and 19th centuries in
Canada introduces this article which defines types of historic land-
scaping that should be preserved. These types are defined by employ-
ing categories established by David Streatfield in his article,
"Standards for Historic Garden Preservation and Restoration", from
Landscape Architecture vol. 59, no. 3 (April 1969). Descriptions of
surviving historic gardens in Canada exemplify each of the six cate-

Sykes, Meredith and Stewart, John. "Historic Landscape Restoration
in the United States and Canada: An Annotated Source Outline."
APT Bulletin vol. 4, nos. 3-4 (1972), pp. 114-158.

This article provides a suggested outline for classifying exist-
ing and future material on historic landscape preservation in Canada
and the United States. Synoptic descriptions are divided under five
general headings: general discussions of historic gardens, restored
and reconstructed gardens, historical references, archeology, and
seed sources. The article serves two purposes. It describes extant
material and various major sites of landscape preservation both in
Canada and the United States and it indicates the need for a system-
atic examination of techniques and methodology of landscape restora-
tion and reconstruction.

Turner, Tim. "Sod Houses in Nebraska." APT Bulletin vol. 7, no. 4
(1975), pp. 20-37.

Although this article is primarily about sod architecture, the
illustrations give an excellent picture of the landscape surrounding
houses of the period in the plains states at the turn of the century.

Wylie, E.A., ed. "Some Notes on Architecture, Interiors, and Gardens
in Quebec in 1831." APT Bulletin vol. 7, no. 2 (1975), pp. 2-8.

These excerpts from "Recollections of Canada 1831" by L.A. Alymer
in the Rapport de l'Archiviste de la Province de Quebec (1934-35,
pp. 279-318) provide an insight into the pattern of life and the
surroundings of an early Governor of Lower Canada by describing the
interiors, exteriors and gardens of his three residences in Canada.

This bibliography was compiled by Rebecca L. Keim and Laurie Hammel,
Interagency Historic Architectural Services, 1/26/76.

(Unv. of Florida FA & Arch Library)

Davey, Norman. A History of Building Materials, 691.09
Phoenix House, London, 1965 D248h

Chapter 7- "Thatching"
Chapter 5- "Building in Wood"/ diagrams and methods
of building pitched roofs.
Chapter 16- "Arches"
Chapter 17- "Vaults and Domes"
Chapter 18- "Roof Tiling"

Hodge. Trevor A., The Woodwork of Greek Roofs, 721.5
The University Press, Cambridge, H688w

The prop and lintel timber roof system of specific
Greek temples, well illustrated by drafted drawings,
restoration sections, and photographs.

Briggs. Martin S., A Short History of Building Crafts, 690.9
Oxford, at Clarendon Press. 1925. B8545

Chapter VIII- "Roof Coverings": A short but inclusive
chapter on roofing materials and history of these,
mostly in Europe, over the past 3000 years. Egyptian
tombs, Greek & Roman tiles, Byzantine domes,
Gothic slate roofs, thatch, wooden shakes, slate
and tile decoration, all well complimented by
sketches; p.p. 202-222.

Brandon, Raphael, The Open Timber Roofs of the Middle 729.35
Ages. D. Bogue. 1849. B8190

Well illustrated- drawings depict roof
construction and ceiling tracery.

Moles, Antoine, Histoire Des Charpentiers, Libraire 649.09
Grund, Paris, 1949. M719h

History of French carpentry; includes
historical constructions of roofs.

(Unv. of Florida FA & Arch Library)

Cave. Charles John Philip, Roof Bosses in Medieval 721.563
Churches. The University Press, Cambridge. 1948. C378r

Numerous examples of decorative bosses, fastners, at
vault rib intersections, exhibiting symbols, Biblical
scenes, and Heraldry in three dimensional relief.
Pugin, A., Ornamental Timber Gables, J.H. Jansen, 721.58
Publisher, 1915. P978s
Art of Roof Gables: carvings, tracery, and moldings
on the rafters, ridge beams, and pnedants of high
pitched gables, selections from Gothic half timber
houses in England and France.


Insall, Donald W.. The Care and Repair of Old Buildings, 720.28
Architectural Press, London, 1972 159c
Chapter 5: "The Repair of Old Roof Coverings"
p.p. 92-153.

Techniques for the preservation and restoration
of worn fabrics in roofs. Excallentl

Peterson, C.E., "Iron in Early American Roofs", Smithsonian
Institution Magazine of History, Fall 1968.

"Slate Roofing", Association For Preservation
Technology, vol. 2, nos. 1-2, p.77

Roofing Issue, Association for Preservation Technology,
vol. III, nos. 1-2, 1970

( Unv. of Florida FA & ARCH Library)

Tredgold, Thomas. Elementary Principles of Carpentry, 694
Rare Book Room T786e

Wilson, John Douglas, Simplified Roof Framing, McGraw- 694.2
Hill Book Co.. New York, 1948. w749s2

Wass, Alonzo, and Sanders, Gordon A., Building Construction
and Roof Framing, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood
Cliffs, N.J., 1960 695
Lloyd, Nathaniel, Building Craftsmanship in Brick
and Tile and in stone slates, at 691.4
the University Press, Cambridge, 1929. L793b

Radford, William A., Radford's Practical Barn Plans, 728.9
The Radford Architectural Company, Chicago, R129p
Illinois. 1909.

Diagrams of Barns and construction sections showing
types of roofs and practical construction of these as
well as all other aspects of the barn.

Diderot, Denis. A Diderot Pictorial Encyclopedia of 603
trades and Industries, Dover Publications, D555 v.1
Inc., New York, vol. II, 1959.
.Plates 278-281- showing 18/th century manufacture
of tiles, roof tiling, and roofer's

Plates 159-164- mining of slate

National Slate Association, Slate Roofs. Philadelphia, 695.2
Pennsylvania. 1926. N2775

The American Brass Company, Modern Sheet"Copper Practices,
Waterbury. Conn. 691.8
Revere Copper and Brass Incorperated, Copper and Common 620.18
Sense, R452r

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