Market development alternatives for selected tropical fruits grown in south Florida

Material Information

Market development alternatives for selected tropical fruits grown in south Florida
Series Title:
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 110
Degner, R. L.
Moss, S. D.
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Florida Agricultural Marketing Resource Center
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida


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Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 110:156-160. 1997.


lorida Agricultural Market Research Center

U nivevity of Florida, IFAS
Gainesville, FL 32611-0240

Abstract. Telephone surveys of tropical fruit growers and ship-
pers in south Florida and of major food retailers and specialty
produce wholesalers nationwide were conducted to determine
S'. sales trends, and market ....' -' strategies
for 11 : ,- ."* selected :, Florida : Fruit Growers
of South : Inc., on the basis of their commercial poten-
tial. T : .: were mangos, carambola, lychee, papa-
ya, mamey sapote, -. .' bananas, longan, guava, passion
fruit, atemoya, and sugar apples. The grower-shipper survey
revealed no major changes in the of most fruits in
the wake of Hurricane Andrew although modest increases
were ;:: :' for lychees, and :. :. Mangos,
papayas, and carambolas were found to be widely available at
wholesale and retail levels, and sales trends were
the remaining fruits had varying degrees of
at wholesale and retail levels. Some fruits, such as
mamey sapote, atemoya, and sugar apples had very limited
"t -:.- I. :' *:*.- west of the Mississippi River because
of .:` `: restrictions. Retail and wholesale produce
buyers .: agreed that the greatest .... to in-
creased sales of tropical fruit from :. : were (1) lack of con-
sumer and awareness, (2) high prices relative to
.: of fruit, and supply problems, such as limited or
inconsistent .:. and short production seasons. This pa-
.. ; analyzes marketing .mi :" ',..,' made by the trade and
makes specific recommendations for improved marketing..,
grams for south Florida's tropical fruit growers and shippers.

The Florida ..'. Market Research Center at the
University of Florida recently conducted a comprehensive
study of the U.S. market for 11 selected tropical fruits grown
in south Florida. The fruits (selected by the Board of Direc-
tors of Florida Tropical Fruit Growers of South Florida, Inc.,
on the basis of their commercial: ... were car-
arbola, lychee, mamey sapote, specialty bananas,
longan, guava, fruit, atemoya, and sugar apples. The
basic objective of this study was to improve the efficiency of
the: ;:. system for tropical fruits produced in south
Florida and to formulate viable market development strate-
gies for these fruits.
This paper a of the overall study and
;, market.' recommendations for the south
Florida tropical fruit industry. The recommendations are
based upon telephone surveys of fruit growers, spe-
cialty produce wholesalers, and as as anal-
yses of U.S. data and literature to
specialty produce marketing.

Journal Series No. N-01 t04. The
authors extend their appreciation to John Reynolds and Dave Mulkey for
their review of the manuscript and to Kin Box for her editorial assistance.


Materials and Methods

Three telephone surveys were conducted to ascertain the
current marketing environment for the selected tropical fruits
and to trade recommendations for market '
mcnt. The first survey i fruit growers and ship-
in south Florida. The second focused on buyers
of" chain supermarkets in 30 U.S. markets
containing the largest numbers of Asian and Hispanic con-
sumers, while the third survey input from
produce wholesalers located the United States.
of the extreme diversity of production in
south Florida, input from a complete enumeration of fruit
growers was -- in lieu of on a,
sample. A total of 295 fruit growers and shippers were identi-
fied through Extension Service client lists, the
membership roster of T .' Fruit Growers of South Flori-
da, Inc., and grove owners who on the rolls of the
Dade / Tax Assessor's office. A total of' growers and
shippers were subsequently interviewed.
Major chain supermarkets, the top 25 grocery dis-
areas of the United States with the largest numbers
of Asian and consumers, were identified by analyz-
ing market share data for chain supermarkets in

gressive Grocer, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 1990). There
was considerable overlap in the top 25 Asian and top 25 His-
panic markets; thus, a total of 30 markets were analyzed
(Mazak and Markets with large numbers of
Asian and .' residents were targeted because many
shippers had experienced favorable sales in areas with these
ethnic A total of 75 firms, more than
I retail outlets in major I of
the United States .. data on sales trends and made rec-
ommendations for the -' of tropical fruits
from South Florida. the 30 grocery re-
gions were initially selected because of the high concentra-
tAions of Asian an residents, it should be noted th at
these regions are among the most densely *' in the
United States. In addition to the estimated 7.0 million Asians
and 7 million the also contained
149.0 million whites and 22.9 million blacks in 1990, account-
for :' 73 percent of the total U.S.
(U.S. Dept. of Commerce,
The produce wholesaler survey was based
in The Bluebook, a produce trade directory
S). ." 200 firms were
identified as and were con-
tacted by Usable data were obtained from 145
firms. All of the specialty wholesalers interviewed were locat-
ed in the same 30 food .... : as the retail
chains described above.

Results and Discussion

The Grower Survey. Prior to Hurricane Andrew in August
1992, about 40 different species of fruits were 1 in

Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc 110:

Tuesday, August 14, 2007.max

South 20 of them on a commercial scale. Official tree
inventories of major tropical tree indicate that Dade
County accounts for almost 95 percent of total (Flor-
ida Statistics Service, 1996). It is estimated that Dade
County accounts for virtually all of the state's commercial -
duction of the lesser-known, minor tropical fruits (J. Crane/
C. University of Florida, communication).
Hurricane An drew, there were more than I acres
of tropical in Dade County, but there were only
about acres by the end of a 35 reduction
(Degner et al,, ). Groves of avocados, Persian and
mangos were hit hard by the storm. Acreages of
avocados, imnes, and were 57, and 36 be-
low levels, the hurri-
cane, there was speculation that some land formerly
devoted to avocados, limes, and mangos would be to
other fruit crops. The grower survey revealed some
shifts to lychees, guavas, and a other
fruits, but the of the shifts, in absolute terms,
were relatively small. For example, the grower survey indicat-
ed that lychee and longan acreage had increased by approxi-
mately 100 acres each between and Because of
strong market demand for these and other fruits with in-
creased acreage, it appeared unlikely that these increases
would require redirection of marketing activities to
low grower
The grower survey .. not find any 7 pre- to
post-hurricane changes in the of fruit marketed
various market channels that could have impacted
the existing market structure and affected market develop-
ment strategies. The survey found that the tropical fruit in-
dustry in south Florida--with the exception of .c...
avocados, and mangos-is i. by growers with relatively
small acreages. Even many growers of the 11 selected
fruits are integrated into '', and
their relatively small size and lack of market dom-
inance results in a market structure that is likely to foster in-
tense price competition. This is also an environment in which
S.arket .. activities ate inefficient or
Another of the grower survey was that none of the
selected fruits was marketed farmers' cooperatives.
there to be little grower interest in a mar-
keting cooperatives; only two percent of those interviewed ex-
pressed the need for such an Also, very small
of most found to be marketed
directly to consumers despite growers' proximity to one of
the state's most .. and ethnically diverse ...
areas. For eight of the 11 selected fruits, direct marketing ac-
counted for less than 4 percent of total
The The chain sur-
vey data on the .... of various fruits, sales suc-
cess, to greater sales, and retailers' preferred
promotional activities and materials. Sales success was rated
by buyers as "excellent," "fair," or "poor." ". and papa-
yas were in all chains and all stores, while carambolas
were carried by 71 of 75 firms, 97, of all
stores. Sales of these fruits was also rated favor-
ably by most produce buyers, with more than percent of
the buyers sales as excellent or fair.
Passion bananas, and hvchees were
available on a regular (or \ basis in about one-half to
two-thirds of all stores, but sales ratings were

on the fruit, about 60 to 80 percent of the retailers
rated sales as poor. Atemoyas, name longans, and
sugar apples were available in less than one-third of
the chain stores. Sales '. were also relatively grim, with
two-thirds or more < the retailers them as
Chain-store .' buyers identified four basic impedi-
ments to sales volume of the 11 targeted fruits. These
obstacles were (1) lack of consumer knowledge and aware-
ness, mentioned by 40 to 70 percent of the buyers
on the fruit, (2) relatively high prices, mentioned by
15 to 20 percent, and (3) such as limited or
and short, seasons, cited by 3
to 20 C'omnlaints about quality, the fourth
obstacle to greater sales, were minimal for most of the 11
fruits. IHowever, there were .1 made about blemishes
and bruises almost every fruit. The greatest number of
quality complaints were made about bananas, with
11 of the buyers complaining that they ar-
rived bruised or overripe.
Most comments about mangos had to do with vari-
etal with most chain buyers a
ence for blush varieties because of sales or "eye" appeal. A few
buyers expressed a particular dislike for yellow or green-
skinned mangos, but several recognized that Asian customers
were more likely to have a for bette
for green-skinned varieties. One 111would bei to
promote yellow and green varieties to the trade as premium
S "Asian mangos." A similar product differentiation has
already been achieved with (and usually high-
Asian pears.
use of various promotional methods for tropical
fruit was also explored. About 20 percent of the re-
r used no activities of any type for tropi-
cal fruit, other than basic '" : Not
these firms also "fair or, for all
of the 11 selected fruits. other stores, rhe
S' used, and generally the highest rated promo-
tional methods were ads, in-store demonstrations,
price specials, special recipe 1and t
involving '. kinds of fruit.
When asked to evaluate an array of methods and materials
for their perceived effectiveness in tropical fruit,
price cards, posters, in-store demonstrations, and
were recommended by 62, 57, and 49 percent of the firms,
S There was slightly more support for these pro-
motional methods among smaller chains. to buy-
ers, posters are usually incorporated into theme
* i where many fruits are : Brochures and ad
slicks were recommended by about 21 and 14 respec-
tively, but tended to be preferred by' chains. About one-
fourth of the retailers recommended that the Florida tropical
fruit industry develop a .. kit containing a variety
of point-of-sale items. Such kits are utilized by many agricul-
tural < groups and other consumer product mar-
keters. They usually contain price cards, ', pads, posters,
and ad slicks. Several retailers also recommended that Florida
develop generic tropical fruit promotions that could be used
for types of '' this could ex-
tend the life of some materials, it could also. a
S rider" .. if retailers were to use Florida materials
to promote fruit from other or countries.
Retailers also recommended the use of mass such as
television, radio, and magazine ads, to promote tropical fruit

Proc. Fla. State flort. Sc. 110: 1997.

Tuesday, August 14, 2007.max

and educate consumers. ,given the limited funds
available to the Florida tropical fruit industry, paid advertis-
ing directed at consumers is not a viable option. Food public-
ity methods, such as feature stories in food pages
and magazines and : appearances by industry
tatives on television cooking shows, were also recommended.
Several retailers targeting the food service industry
as a means of and tropical fruits to
Several retailers admitted being somewhat
with some of the more exotic fruits, and some edu-
cational at the retail trade. Results of the re-
tailer survey confirmed the unfamiliarity of many buyers with
sugar apples, longans, mamrey sapotes, atemoyas, and lychees.
at trade shows sponsored by such as
the Produce Association and United Fresh Fruit
and "' Association could serve to educate retailers, es-
when shows coincide with the availability of fresh
For fruit with very short seasonal ,. it might be
more effective to educate .- by .them with
packs of fruit along with an availability calendar, han-
information, and point-of-sale materials.
The Produce Wholesaler Survey. Survey data from
145 produce wholesalers the United
States showed an almost universal availability of mangos arnd
papayas. Carambolas were available from about 60 percent of
the wholesalers east of the Mississippi River but from un-
der 40 in the western region. Lychees, and
passion fruit were available from nearly one-half of the whole-
salers in the eastern but availability was considerably
lower in the west. Similarly, mamey atemoyas, longa-
ns, and sugar apples were handled by 23, 21, 15, and 10 per-
cent of the eastern firms, in the west,
availability was only about one-fourth to one-half as great.
The limited availability of many of the exotic tropical
fruits in western states is undoubtedly caused by phytosanitary
restrictions designed to keep the Caribbean Fruit Fly (Anas-
trepha out of Arizona, ( and Texas (Arizo-
na Dept. of.' I California of Agr., 1996; Texas
1996; P. Hornby, Florida Dept. and Con-
sumer Div. of Plant Inspection, *' communi-
cation). For some fruits, phytosanitary restrictions require a
total ban; others require extended cold treatment or hot wa-
ter treatment, which can adversely affect ....... : '. ba-
nanas from Florida are not affected by phytosanitary
restrictions because bananas are not a host to the (
Fruit Fly. However, based wholesale buyers' current
purchasing patterns, from Mexico, Central
America, and South America will likely keep Florida from
Larger market shares in distant western
and eastern U.S. markets.
In I produce wholesalers reported that
sales trends for the previous two-vear period were positive.
For nine of the 11 selected fruits, more than 90 percent of the
wholesalers reported either stable or -- sales trends.
For the two fruits, more than 85 percent noted sta-
ble or increasing sales. every one of the 11 fruits, the per-
of wholesalers who reported upward trends in sales
were considerably greater than the of those who
declining sales.
Produce wholesalers also for ..
he sales of each of the 11 sIlected tropical Increasted
was the most C mentioned market devel-

Strategy for eight of the 11 tropical fruits. Increased
promotion was recommended by 32 to 80 percent of the buy-
ers, on the fruit; however, improved qual-
ity was cited most for awn mangos and
passion fruit. Increased promotion and improved quality
were recommended by equal numbers of wholesalers as pre-
ferred means of increasing sales of.' -own papayas.
( *' problems such as erratic availability
and short seasonal availability were also mentioned as viable
for many of the This was particularly true for ly-
chees and longans; one-third of the
produce wholesalers o of supply-related problems.
most of the 11 fruits, about 10 to 20 percent of the whole-
salers suggested that lower would stimulate increased
consumer awareness and Some suggested that
fruitss were less than a good value for consumers when
compared to many other types of fruit. While a "lower price"
strategy would most likely stimulate consumer trial and great-
er current .. reflect and
demand conditions. One strategy to develop an improved val-
ue image in the trade would be for the Florida fruit
industry to anticipate and monitor periods of heavy supplies
that are likely to result in lower peak supply
could be to the trade. Ideally, such would
result in features along with that would
encourage consumers to try the fruits while
F.O.B. prices at acceptable levels for and shippers.

Conclusions and Recommendations

This study the fruit industry in south
and the system for tropical fruits the
United States indicates that there is much potential for :
da's tropical fruit growers and but there are many
<" as. :. Many growers, i ... .. wholesal-
ers, and i recognized the need for more aggressive ed-
ucational and promotional as as improvements
in product quality and availability; however, few offered sug-
gestions as to how such could be achieved.
Analyses of the responses from the three surveys de-
scribed above, in conjunction with other studies, suggest a
course of action that consists of three major (1)
organized marketing, (2) pr and and
(3) market activities. Although Florida growers
and do not necessarily have to be .'"in or-
der to engage in (2) and (3), by oth-
er commodity groups that organized
marketing can such activities (Forker and
1993; Abel et al., ).
*. .' r 1. of the relatively large numn-
bers of small-scale who market many of the
tropical fruits examined by this study, it is recommended that
growers and shippers who have insufficient volume to
or branded- i on their own
consider forces with other growers and
in joint or" "' marketing activities. There are nurner-
ous kinds of legal marketing rang-
S from informal partnerships and voluntary trade
associations to structured and regulated marketing or-
ders and cooperatives. While forces with other grow-
ers and shippers can facilitate more aggressive and effective
market program s fb sharing costs, the biggest
can be greater efficiency and a

Proc. Fla. State Hort.

110: 1997.

Tuesday, August 14, 2007.max

market power. By controlling a larger of available
and reducing the number of small competitors, large
private firms or may become more efficient in
and :I : and can sometimes avoid unnecessary
and damaging Additionally,' forces
with other growers and can also- and en-
force quality standards that can provide the trade and con-
surners with the assurance of a consistently .-
product. is critical in situations where
consumers have little or no experience with a product; a first-
time purchaser of an tropical fruit is very un-
likely to become a repeat .... mar-
keting can also buyers with larger or more '
supplies, the frustration of erratic or limited
S large have more le-
verage in market ....
Product Availability and Q One of the most '
complaints voiced by wholesalers, and to a
lesser by retailers, involved tropical fruit
i.e., erratic or short production seasons. Obviously,
some problems cited by the trade are difficult to solve
because of natural forces and the' cycles of the
Lychees,' atemoyas, and sugar apples are
and adversely affected by short marketing seasons, ranging
from a few weeks to several months. Only bananas
and have year-round availability in south Florida.
New cultivars, cultural practices, or
should be developed in order to extend the availability of
fruit in the .' '
this study's surveys of the trade re-
vealed relatively few about practi-
cally every type of fruit received some. .' papayas
and mangos in ': received about varietal
characteristics. All of the fruits could benefit from
improved cultivars, but even excellent cultivars cannot over-
come problems caused by suboptimum harvest (par-
ticularly harvest of immature fruit) or practices. In
addition to' and packing for fruit
quality and retailer can also be 'by
ing greater attention to packaging and Alternative
materials, such as .. master containers or
flats clear plastic or tub may
extend shelf life, prevent fruit damage, and add value for re-
tailers. Such packages can reduce labor at the
retail level, showcase the fruit, and also '- a surface on
which to information labels or stickers. Such labels can
list brand names, uses, instructions, nutritional in-
formation, etc. Further, UPCs (uniform product
codes) or PLU (price '.. n ) numbers should be included,
if on retail packs or on individual fruit as
ate. marketer of currently utilizes
PLU stickers and labels that include country of origin, a brief
product and i1-rm1Q ationl, utr-l'
tion facts, a free offer, a consumer guarantee, an
number, and an e-mail address. Another t '
wholesaler includes short recipes on containers (Carder,
Market Development Activities. :1 market devel-
activities are recommended without regard to how
they are financed, i.e., by large or small, firms or by or-
cooperators. Some are obviously beyond the finan-
cial reach of firms, but others can be utilized by virtually
any in the south Florida tropical industry.

Educational Programs and Materials Directed to the Produce

Many buyers of wholesale and retail firms could
benefit by more about the tropical fruits included in
this study,'.' most were familiar with mangos, papayas,
and carambolas, there was evidence that buyers''
of some fruits was limited. Increasing buyers'
Florida's tropical fCuil will product into more stores and
provide exposure to more consumers. The activities
below are recommended to reach wholesale and retail pro-
duce buyers and mer ...
1. Trade shows. Industry trade shows reach top-echelon
executives. a booth at national shows
1, Association or United Fresh Fruit & Veg-
etable Association) may be feasible, ..' by .
S with one or more Florida commodity groups or the
Florida Department of and Consumer Services.
2. Product Provide potential buyers with product
Sif "How does it eat?" is a common question
in the produce business; '' is and a great way
to educate. Provide samples at trade shows to reach
I and wholesalers.- .eted ,' directly
to key buyers have been used to good advantage by successful
S I wholesalers (Carder, 1994). can be
delivered via courier or sales/
3. Fruit calendars. Fasy-to-read availability
calendars remind buyers of ; .... '- .. If on
i* stock in four colors with photos of the this
of item will be posted in buyers' offices or
warehouses and can be relatively Fnds permnit-
ting, fruit calendars can also be .... as
of paid advertising in trade *
4. rec-
.:e humidities. sug-
gestions, and estimates of shelf life-are essential,
even to trade Many are not fully aware of the
requirements of exotic
5. Tie-ins. Tie-ins or cr, ideas, can stimu-
late' .' sales and improve for retailers. Tie-
ins also ',. ',. educate consumers as to uses for trop-
ical fruits.
6. Consumer Provide buyers with
that consumers expect, such as techniques, typical
uses, ,, methods and recipes. These materials may
be in the form of ready-to-use point-of-sale mate-
rials that can be to consumers, or they may be in-
cluded in concise instructions to produce handlers that stress
"what your customers need to know about ...." The brochure
"Tastes of the Tropics" is an excellent means of communicat-
ing basic information to the trade and to consumers (Florida
Dept. of and Consumer : 1993).
7. '." co Itess. ... ... ', to tropical
fruit by contests with prizes and recogni-
tion for winners. :' this method is '- it is also
8 Place informational ads in
trade journals, particularly those that are produce-oriented
such as The Packerand The Produce News. can make
potential buyers aware of fruit availability and identities of
shippers and their sales staff.
9. Trade As a shipper, make your presence
known by getting listed in trade such as The Blue

Proc. State Hort. Soc. 110:

Tuesday, August 14, 2007.max

Book and The Red Book, and membership of organi-
zations such as the United Fresh Fruit and Associa-
tion and the Produce Marketing Association.
10.. /ax, ore-mail. Remind past customers of sea-
sonal availability of fruit by direct mail, fax, or e-mail. Alert
them to the' of the season and to '" peak
S Most chain stores need at least two or three
weeks' notice to include items in their merchandising plans.
Avoid the use of faxes to firms that are not customers;
many business resent faxes that tie up
their machines and increase their costs. The same
is true for e-mail. The practice of unsolicited e-mail,
commonly called is an aggravation for many
people. if e-mail is used, mte .' customer should. be giv-
en the to be removed from the e-mail distribu-
tion list at once, or the e-mail communication may do more
harm than good to the sender's
11. Promotional kit. Develop a pro-
motional kit containing commonly used materials, such as
cards, talkers, nutritional brochures, post-
ers, ad etc. Be sure to I ." on all materials.
Videotapes. Provide wholesalers and retailers with a
video that incorporates basic product information
and the .. '.. suggestions described above. The vid-
eotape "Tropical Fruit" is but detail is
needed on some types ( (Florida Dept. ( and -
surner Services, 1997).

S:. ... Programs and Promotional
Materials Directed to Consumers

There are many kinds of materials that can be used at re-
tail stores and other venues to educate consumers and to stim-
ulate sales. In retail stores, a combination of materials and
methods works best. Several activities are recommend-
ed if resources are available.
1. In-store demonstrations. In-store "demos" are particularly
effective in getting customers to try and buy new food prod-
ucts. Customers a pr and usually
get verbal and written information about the product as
demonstrations are very effective, but also quite cost-
2. materials. Price cards, posters, die-cuts, bro-
chures, recipes, and '- are ways to get the at-
tention of ." and consumers. materials
(good stock, full-color) items are most / to be used by re-
tailers. Price cards should be 7" x 11" or smaller. Poster size is
not critical; they can be 24" x 36" and will likely be used in a
i die-cuts arefre-
S in creating larger Bi-fold or bro-
chures can convey a lot of information, but them
can be problematic. on standard x stock and in
pads, are usually welcomed by retailers. '. cards can also
contain information on storage, and nutritional
Informational brochures are sometimes devel-

by wholesalers and retailers in-house; such firms wel-
come factual information from and shippers.
Videotapes should also contain information on ripening,
uses, and nutrition. However, recipes, unless ex-
tremely simple, should be left to a printed format in the inter-
est of brevity and convenience.
3. A tropical r website. The Internet is a rapidly .
communication ... ;...... The .. ... ofpersonal com-
ptiers in offices and homes makes this an way to
communicate with consumers, many of them highly educated
and affluent. A home can be for as little as
'' 00. Monthly server fees and maintenance costs for a modest
site average about 00, but these fees depend on the com-
plexity of the .' ', and the number of hits (site
visitors). A web site could contain color of trop-
ical fruits, basic on sources (individual Florida
shippers), j and recipes. De-
on the design of the site, visitors can also or-
ders for fruit or request additional information.
In conclusion, the market recom-
mendations focus on traditional, commercial mar-
S channels. Small-scale of tropical fruits may
want to consider other marketing channels, particularly di-
rect marketing to consumers via the Internet, cooperative
ventures with established f fruit shippers, or direct sales at
"green markets," or farmers' markets. While
may ' sales levels for small firms, larger
firms will most likely have to face the ,.. of the tradi-
tional commercial market.

Literature Cited

Abel, Daft, Earley and Ward International. 1995. A market study for export-
ing Hawaii's tropical and specialty fruits to Canada. Alexandria, VA.
Arizona Dept. of Agr.. Plant Services Div. 8 May 1995. Summaries of exten-

( 12 Dec. 1996. California plant quarantine manual.
Carder, D. 1994 .. Two firms rise to the top The Packer Vol.
Cl, No. 30.
R.L., S. M. Moss and S. K. Mack. 1995. Dade County agricultural
acreage estimates, pre- and post Hurricane Andrew. Fla. 4gr. Market Res.
Ctr Sta 95-1.
Florida Agr. Statistics Service. 11 Dec. 1996. fruit: Acres and trees.
Orlando, FL.
Florida of Agr. and Consumer Services. 1993. Tastes of the
Tallahassee, FL.
Florida Dept. of Agr. and Consumer Services, 1997. Tropical fruit. Videotape.
Forker. O. D. and R. W. Ward. 1993. ( The economics
and measurement of generic programs. Lexington Books (McMillan,
Inc.). New York.
Mazak, L. and L. 1994. Market -- fo se
elected tropical fruits. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Produce Co. 1995. The blue book. Carol Stream, II.,
Grocer. 1993. 1994 marketing guidebook. Trade Dimensions.
Stamfbrd, CT.
Texas Dept. ofAgr. 1996. Caribbean Fruit Fly Texas Administra-
tive Code, sec. 5.121-5.125. Texas Secretary of State.
U.S. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Div. 1990. Cen-
sus of population. Release PPL-41.

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