Citation
Report of the Isthmian canal commission, 1899-1901 /

Material Information

Title:
Report of the Isthmian canal commission, 1899-1901 / Rear Admiral John G. Walker, United States navy, president
Series Title:
57th Cong., 1st sess. Senate, Doc. 54
Creator:
Isthmian Canal Commission (U.S.)
Walker, John Grimes, 1835-1907
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publisher:
Govt. Print. Off.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
2 v in 1. : plates, maps, diagrs. ; 24 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Panama Canal (Panama) ( lcsh )
Nicaragua Canal (Nicaragua) ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not protected by copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
05853862 ( OCLC )
04001205 ( LCCN )
25327676 ( ALEPH )
Classification:
TC773 .U5 1901 ( lcc )

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57TH CONGRESS,
1st Session.


SENATE.


DOCUMENT


OF THE


IS'


CA AL


899


-1


COMMISSION,


901.


REAR-AMIRAL JOHN


WALKER,


UNITED STATES NAVY,
President.


HON.
:Mn.


ALFRFED


SAMUEL PASCO.


GEORGE S. MORISON.


LAuT. CoT. OSWALD


ERNST,


NOBLE,


Co. PETER C. HAINS,
Corpa of Engineers, U. S. Army.


Corp.o af.&gin.rs, U & Army.


WILLIAM


H. BURR,


C. E.


L WI
LEWIS


HAUI~E,


PROB. EMORY


R. JOHNSON.


LlMT, COMMANDER SIDNEY


A. STAUNTON,


UNmTED STATES NAVY,
Seoreary.


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Th !T


To ke ongres of the
I fransmit herewith


United States:


report,


with appendices


in thr pe


parts, of


the isTthm ian Canal Commission


established under section 4 of the river


and harbor act, approved March 3, 1899, of its investigations made in


pursuance of section 3 of said act.


THEODORE ROOSEVELT.


WHmT


HOUSE,


December4,1901.


DEPARTMENT


Oommi


OF STATE,


Washington, November 30, 1901.
I have the honor to transmit the Report of the Isthmian Canal
ssion, with appendices in three parts, all in duplicate, accompa-


day


by one set


been


maps, profiles,


delivered


this


and


Department


illustrations,
by Rear-A


which
Ldmiral


have this


John


Walker, president of the Commission.
I am, sir, your obedient servant,


JOHN


The PREDwNT.


HAY.


W





H







*A N NA: A AN A l

*: .:.* *' yI'



': i .* 1 *ifiCONTfl~ TEN 1^TS.--/^l, '
.. : .**: i m E-k E * .J (I I *k.* *:.;.:4


ctions of act approved March 3, 189
Co. m ss n - .. -.... .............
Letter of appointment and instructions
Organization of the Commission by con
Chapters:
1. Introduction..................
2. Ittory of interoceanic projects
3. Dimensions and unit prices ..--
4. Other possible routes --.----..
5. Panama route..............._.
6. Naaragua route ... -. -.. --. .. ..-


), authorizing the appointment of the


af a a- ar a -*MI a -k a a5 *
to commissioners
mllttees.. .......


and communications


wa -w- a - w-w-- a -
o a a a a ai .a.a -
o- as W- ---J--f-. .--


a - a a a --
. . . . 1 -*- I->*- *


a a e a a w a -: a a a aHa a a -- at 0* - -< B
- r .a - - *. a a a a a- a a a- *- - . . .a
as e a --...... .......a.e a... .


- a a a


- -. --- a a --


Earthquakes, volcanoes, climate, health..... - -
Rights, privileges, and franchises ..........
Industrial and commercial value of canal -.
Military value .-. -.- -.-.. . -..... ..... ... ....
Cost of maintenance and operation --..-- -..... ..
Conclusions -.. - -..- ------ ----.


5 a a i 0 -i -- 1-- .--.----- --. -
- a a a 0 a a a a a a-a- a.--. a


. -m. -
- a a -


9
11
12

13
20
63
69
80
104
167
172
243
252
255
257


APPENDICES.


A. Study of locks for Nicaragua and Panama routes, by Mr. S. H. Woodard.
B. Historical notes relative to the Universal Interoceanic Canal Company, 1880-
1894, prior to the organization of the new company.
0. List of documents furnished to the Commission by the New Panama Canal
Company.
D. Report on the hydrography of the Panama canal route, by Mr. A. P. Davis,
chief hydrographer.
E. Waste weir dimensions and discharges for Lake Bohio.
F. Description of alternative location for canal between Gatun and Bohio.
G. Discussion of the time required for transit through an Isthmian canal by the
two routes.
H. Discharge of the cantlized San Juan liver.
I. Report of hydrographic investigations in Nicaragua, by Mr. A. P. Davis, chief
hydrographer.
7. Surveys from the Upper San Juan to the Indio River, by Mr. A. B. Nichols,
division glr.i n


Treaty


between ~e agua and the United States, 1867, Dickenson-Ayon.
j & :- .. i- *-****** a a. .k & ^ -. --


. *<*





CONTENTS.


R. Contract between Nicaragua and the Nicaragua Canal Association.
S. Act of Congress incorporating tfe Maritime Canal Company of Nicaragua.


T. Contract


between


Nicaragua and


Eyre and


Oragin, representing the Inter-


oceanic Canal Company.
Contract between Nicaragua and the Atlas Steamship Company.


Treaty between the United States and Costa Rica, July,
Treaty between Spain and Costa Rica, May, 1860.


1851.


X. Treaty between Costa Rica and Nicaragua, June, 1869.
Y. List of treaties made by Costa Rica with other countries.
Z. Contract between Costa Rica and Nicaragua Canal Association.


Protocol of agreement between the


United States and Costa Rica, December,


1900.


Treaty


between


United States and New Granada,


concluded December,


1846.


Treaties between France and New Granada, 1856, and France and Colombia,


1892.


Treaty between Spain and-Colombia, 1881.
List of treaties made by New Granada, or Colombia, with other countries.
Amended contract between Colombia and the Panama Railroad Company.


Contract between


Colombia and Interoceanic Canal


Association,


March 20,


1878.


(Wyse concession.)


HH.


Additional contract modifying that of May 20,


II. Contract granting extension
April 4, 1893.


to the Panama (


1878, December 10, 1890.
Canal Company in liquidation,


Contract granting further extension
pany, April 25, 1900.


of time to the New Panama Canal Com-


KK. Memorandum showing legal status of the New Panama Canal


Company


with


laws, decrees of court, and charter.
LL. Treaty negotiated by Mr. Hise between the United States and Nicaragua, June,
1849.


MM.


Contract between Nicaragua and the American Atlantic and Pacific Ship Canal


Company
Report on
Johnson.


August 27


1849.


industrial and


commercial


value of


canal


, by


Prof.


Emory


PLATES.


General map of the Central American isthmus, from
tura Bay, showing all the canal routes investigated.
an inch.


Tehuantepec to Buenaven-
Scale -nr, 40 miles to


2. General map of the Isthmus of Darien, from Panama to Atrato River, Republic


of Colombia, showing water courses and mountain ranges.


Scale 1z fl, 5


miles to an inch.
3. Map, Mandinga Harbor to mouth of Rio Chepo, Republic of Colombia, showing


proposed San Blas Canal route.


Scale zTUW.


4. Profile of possible canal route from Mandinga Harbor, Gulf of San Bias, to Bay




CONTENTS.


9. Panoramic view of
to Rio Mandinga
No. 1.


the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, from Rio Mangle
, Gulf of San Bias. Taken from point near Point San Blas.


10. Panoramic view of the Atlantic cbast of the Isthmus of Darien, from Batones
Cay to Rio Ibl Uaken from a point near Puyadas Cays. No. 2.
11. Panoramic view of the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Itarien, from Batones OCy
to Rio Diablo. Taken from sloop going toward Ratones Cay. No. 8.
12. Panoramic view of the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, from Piedras
Cays to Rio Play.. Taken from a point near Ratones Osay. No. 4.
1, "oramicr iew of the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, from Rio Tres
Boas to Rio Pitgandi. Taken from a point near Limones Cays. No. 5.
14 Panoramic view of the At]antic cost of the Isthmus of Darien, frpm Caledonia


Hilsto Rio (rande. Taken from a point near mouth of Bio Tres Bas.
No. &
15. Panorami view of the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, from Cape Tibu-
ron to Piedras Cays. Taken from points near Isla Pajaros and Isla Pinos.
No. 7.
16. Panoramic view of the Atlantic coast of the Isthmu of Darien, from Caledonia
Mountain to Sassardi Gap. Taken froma a point in front of Sassardi. No. 8.
17. Panoramic view of the Atlantic coast of the isthmus of Darien, showing the
Caledonia Gap. Taken from a point near Mla d'Oro. No. 9.
18. Panoramic view of the Atlantic coast of the Isthus of Darien, from Cape Tiburon
to Pt. Escoces. Taken from sloop off Pt. Cateto. No. 10.
19. Panoramic view of the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, from Tutumate
SRiver t Pt. Tiburon. Taken from point near Piton Island. No. 11.
20. Panoramic view of the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, from the Atrato


Flat to Piton Island. Taken from
21. General map of Panama route. Seal
S22. Profile of Panama route. Horizonta
28. Sheet of sections. Scale -n.
a. Colon Harbor.
b. Swamp silt.
c. Firm earth.
d. Lake Bohio. Drowned Chan
e. Culebra.
24. Plan of Bohio Locks. Scale 4, 4O'
25. Pedro Miguel and Mirafores Locks.


sloop off Point Choco. No.
le ry-A .
1 scale rl, vertical scale


nel.

to an inch.
Scale i, 80' to an inch.


21 &hio Dan
2. igante Sp
! _a No. 1.
44~ ~ap No: 2

~Et heet
30. Sheet
81. Sheet


8cales Ihy Ih,
illway. Scales 1-, 1.
General Map of Nicaragua Route. Scale n.
C anal ine and geeral topography through the
4 sheets.
1, Carriben Sea to Boca San Carlos.
2. Boca San Carlos to Lake Nicaraga.
3, an Carlos to Las Lajas.


canal region, scale


12.


in





CONTENTS.


Sheet 5.


Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet


Profile of N
Profile
Profile
Profile
Profile
Profile
Eight maps
Puerto


53. San JuanE
54. Greytow
55. Greytow
56. Greytow
57. Greytow
58. Greytow
59. Greytow
60. One sheet of
Two profiles


Rio San Francisco to Caflo
Conchuda cut-off and dam
La Lucha to Agua Fresea.
Agua Fresca to Santa Cruz


Machado.
sites.

cut-off.


9. Isla Sombrero de Cuero to Isla Grande.
0. Rio Chico to San Francisco cut-off.
1. Rio Medio Quesa to Lake Nicaragua.
2. Lake Nicaragua to Caflo Guachipilin.
3. Carlo Guachipilin to Pacific Ocean.
icaragua Route. Horizontal scale -s, vertical scale 7, in 5 sheets.
1. Caribbean Sea to Conchuda.


Conchuda to Lake
Profilenf canal on
Lake Nicaragua.
Lake Nicaragua to
Greytown Harbor,


Nicaragua.
adopted4 lines near Rio Sabalos, etc.

Pacific Ocean.
scale T1-.


Boca del Rio San Juan de Nicaragua, 1809.
Sde Nicaragua, by Geo. Peacock, 1832.
n Harbor, by Commander Nolloth, 1850.
n Harbor, by John Richards, 1853.
n Harbor, by John Scott, 1856.
n Harbor, by P. C. F. West, 1865.
n Harbor, by Lieut. Jas. M. Miller, 1872.
n Harbor, by officers of U1. S. S. Newport, 1898.
canal cross sections, scale TT.
of route from Upper San Juan River, near Machuca, to Indio.


61. 1. Machuca-Negro Line.
62. 2. La Cruz del Norte Line.
63. Map No. 4. Showing borings in Lake Nicaragua, scale zj .
64. Lock No. 1, scale 51.
65. Locks Nos. 2, 3, and 4, scale .
66. Locks Nos. 5, 6, 7, and 8, scale m.
67. Waste ways, Eastern Division, scale T1'W
68. Conchuda waste way, scale 1.
69. Conchuda Dam, scale TW.
70. Map of Central America and neighboring countries, showing location of volca-
noes, active and extinct. Scale mIoo, 100 miles to an inch.
71. Map of Panama Route, showing zones of mean annual rainfall, scale -Amw.


Map of
Map of
Map of
Map of
wind
Map of


Nicaragua, showing rainfall areas, 18{
Nicaragua, showing rainfall areas, 19(
the World, on Mercator projection, s]
Western Hemisphere, on Polyconic p
areas, etc.
Central Chile, showing resources and


)0. Scale -z, 8 miles to 1 inch.
)0. Same scale as 72.
showing routes for steam and sail.
rejection, showing routes, currents,

industries, on two sheets.


-a_








*


A ACT Makting appropriations for the construction, repair, and preservation of certain public
works on rivers and harbors, and for other purposes.
Be it fnaed by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America
in ClOgrea- assembled, That * *
S. 3. That the President of the United States of America be, and he is hereby,
authorized and empowered to make full and complete investigation of the Isthmus
of Panama with a view to the construction of a canal by the United States across the
same to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans; that the President is authorized to
make investigation of any and all practicable routes for a canal across said Isthmus
of Panama, and particularly to investigate the two routes known respectively as
the Nicaraguan route and the Panama route, with a view to determining the most
.practicable and feasible route for such canal, together with the proximate and prob-
able cost of constructing a canal at each of two or more of said routes; and the Presi-
dent is further authorized to investigate and ascertain what rights, privileges, and
franchises, if any, may be held and owned by any corporations, associations, or indi-


viduals, and what work, if any,


has been done


by such corporations, associations, or


individuals in the construction of a canal at either or any of said routes, and particu-
larly at the so-called Nicaraguan and Panama routes, respectively; and likewise to
ascertain the cost of purchasing all of the rights, privileges, and franchises held and
owned by any such corporations, associations, and individuals in any and all of such
routes, particularly the said Nicaraguan route and the said Panama route; and like-
wise to ascertain the probable or proximate cost of constructing a suitable harbor at
each of the termini of said canal, with the probable annual cost of maintenance of
said harbors, respectively; and generally the President is authorized to make such
full and complete investigation as to determine the most feasible and practicable
route across said isthmus for a canal, together with the cost of constructing the same
and placing the same under the control, management, and ownership of the United
States.
SMc. 4. To enable the President to make the investigations and ascertainments
helrein provided for, he is hereby authorized to employ in said service any of the
| gegineers of the United States Army at his discretion, and likewise to employ any
n i vil life, at his discretion, and any other persons necessary to make such
investigation, and to fix the compensation of any and all of such engineers and other

SEC. 5. For the purpose of defraying the expenses necessary to be incurred in
making the investigations herein provided foi, there is hereby appropriated, out of
*iii'"'w . .. ^ i-..... -: a ::- .** *













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Rear-Admiral Jo G. WALKER, U
Xew er of the Interoceanio C
section 3and 4 of/the ac
1899.
Sm: The Congress of the United
and the President, on the 3d of
making appropriations for the cons
of certain public works on riversan
the third, fourth, and sixth sections


DEPARTMENT OF
Washington,
. S. N., retired,
anal Commiasion
t of Congrees apj


States passed
March, 1899,
traction, ,epa
d harbors, and
of which rea<


I

1


STATE,
June 10, 1899.


appointed under
proved March 3,


at its recent session,
approved, "An act
r, and preservation
for other purposes,"
. as follows:


SBc. 3. That the President of the United States of America be, and he is hereby,
authorized and empowered to make full and complete investigation of the Isthmus
of Panama with a view to the construction of a canal by the United States across the
same to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans; that the President is authorized to
make investigation of any and all practicable routes for a canal across said Isthmus
of Panama, and particularly to investigate the two routes known, respectively, as the
Nicaraguan route and the Panama route, with a view to determining the most prac-
ticable and feasible route for such canal, together with the proximate and probable
cost of constructing a canal at each of two or more of said routes; and the Presi-
dent is further authorized to investigate and ascertain what rights, privileges, and
franchtes, if any, may be held and owned by any corporations, associations, or indi-
viduals, and what work, if any, has been done by such corporations, associations, or
individuals in the construction of a canal at either or any of said routes, and particu-
larly at the so-called Nicaraguan and Panama routes, respectively; and likewise to
ascertain the cost of purchasing all of the rights, privileges, and franchises held and
owned by any such corporations, associations, and individuals in any and all of such
routes particularly the said Nicaraguan route and the said Panama route, and likewise
to certain the probable or proximate cost of constructing a suitable harbor at each
of the termini of said capial, with the probable annual cost of maintenance of said
harbors, respectively. And generally the President is authorized to make such full
and complete investigation as to determine the most feasible and practicable route
- said isthmus for a canal, together with the cost of constructing the same and
placing the same under the control, management, and ownership of the United States.
Sue. 4. To enable the President 4.make the investigations and ascertainments
nnt4An &tp tav Lv Lwwtt an4.rny/ *kfa a- nl's n o ani'aoi n


il





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


$OMIISSION.


provided for


You will be guided in the execution of the trust


thus confided to you by the provisions of


the act of Congress which I


have quoted above, and your eminence in your profession is a sufficient


guaranty of


energy and ability which


President is


sure you


will bring to the accomplishment of this task.


At the same time your


duties will not be


inquiry should


limited by the


suggest itself


terms


you


the act, but


in the


course of


if any line of
your work as


being of


interest or benefit, I am confident you will not fail to give it


whatever attention it may seem to deserve.


The President trusts that


the Commission will


fulfill


important duties


confided


them in


such a


manner that when their


report


is prepared it will embrace all


the elements required for his own guidance and for the final action of


Congress


upon


subject


location


and


construction


interoceanic canal.


I am


, sir,


with great respect,


your obedient servant,
JOHN


HAY.


ORGANIZATION


COMMISSION


BY COMMITTEES,


THE


PRESIDENT


BEING


OFFICIO


A MEMBER OF EACH


COMMITTEE.


For the investigation of the Nicaragua route:
Mr. Noble.
Mr. Burr.
Colonel Hains.
For the investigation of the Panama route:
Mr. Burr.
Mr. Morison.
Lieutenant-Colonel Ernst.
For the investigation of other possible routes:
Mr. Morison.
Mr. Noble.
Colonel Hains.


For the investigation of the industrial,


commercial, and military value of an inter-


oceanic canal:
Mr. Johnson.
Mr. Haupt.
Mr. Pasco.
For the investigation of rights, privileges, and franchises:
Mr. Pascoe.
Lieutenant-Colonel Ernst.




9
9
~ 4


DEPARTrMENT OF STATE,
ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION,


Wsington, D.


L, ffNovember


16, 1901.


The lNnrsia or Tfn UNITED STATES.
Sin: he thmian canal Commission having completed the investi-
gations with which it was charged under the act of Congress approved


1899,


through


and


your


the Secretary


instructions


State


letter


thereunder,


of June


communicated


10, 1899,


honor to submit the following report


CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION.


Organsatlon of Comm s-
BISon.


The


Commission


Washington,


as president, on


was organized


with Rear-Admiral John (G.


15th day


June


city of
Walker


, 1899,


and


at a subsequent meeting, held on the 6th day of July, Lieut. Commander


Sidney


A. Staunton, of


the United States Navy,


was chosen as secre-


tary.


Law.


It at once entered


as a guide


sections o


upon
f the


duties, taking


act of


Congress


entitled


"An act making appropriations for the construction, repair,


and preservation of


certain


public works on


rivers and harbors, and


for other purposes," approved March 3, 1899, under which its members


were


Jatructi OWL


appointed, and also the instructions commu-


nicated to


them


by'the


Secretary of


State


letter of June 10, 1899.


T investigations


and


ascertainments


provided


itolved many diterent


lines of inquiry, and in order to promote the


progress of


C-Itt- ,


work


and procure


best


results


among several committees, each of
ake the lead in examinig the par


was


which


divided


was


ticular subject





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


OOflLtSSIOI~.


Subjects of InveStigation.

separate committee,


The


following


subjects


investigation


were


then determined upon, and each was referred to a
to be designated accordingly:


The Nicaragua route.
The Panama route.
Other possible routes.


The


industrial


commercial


and


military value


an interoceanic


canal.


Rights,


privileges, and franchises.


The president of


Commission was


made ex


officio a member of


each of these committees.


The two canal


routes to which the attention of the Commission was


Appointment
engineers.


chief


specially


directed


and Panama, and


for each,


by the
a chief


law were
engineer


to make his headquarters i


in Nicaragua
was appointed
n the country


and take the general control of
upon each line.


the field operations to


be inaugurated


After


considering


results


surveys


made


in the past, it was


judged best to limit


the explorations in the


search for


other


possible


routes


that


part


Colombia


known


as Darien,


extending


from


Panama to the Atrato River, and a third chief engineer was appointed
to direct the field work there.


Employment of
ants and laborers.


assist-


Competent assistants,


whose education and train-


ing had fitted them for the special work to be done,
were assigned to service under the chief engineers,


and laborers, boatmen, and
their services were required.


in Nicaragua,
5 in Panama,


other workmen were


employed


wherever


In all 20 working parties were organized


with 159 engineers and other assistants and 455 laborers;


with 20 engineers and


other


assistants


.and 41


laborers;


and 6 in Darien,


with 54 engineers and other assistants and 112 laborers,


making a


total force


about 850, the number varying from time


time according to the requirements of


the work.


Directions for the work.


The chief engineers were


these


working


parties,


directed,


with the aid


examine


geog-


raphy,


topography, hydrology, and other physical features of the dif-


ferent countries and to make a special study of the routes in Nicaragua


and Panama.


The


schemes


already


wa


planned


were


thoroughly





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


This


study


involved


examinations


terminal


harbors


and


approaches and the locations selected for dams, locks, and other aux-
iliary works; a series of bings to determine the nature of the sub-


surface material at the t for


locks and dams


and along the canal


lines, and a
flow, and of


continue of the


the lake


fluctuations


observations


in Nicaragua.
I 1 ap y


rainfall


and


stream


Attention was also


to be given to the suppy of rock, timber, and other materials in each


country available for purposes of


construction and maintenance.


The results of these examinations and observations and the data and
Material obtained were sent from time to time to the headquarters of
the Commission at Washington, where they were arranged and entered


upon the pints and


profiles


of the


canals, under the direction of the
t


committees, for examination and considerate
lusions and making their recommendations.


Visit to Paris.


ion in reaching their con-


On the 9th of August, 1899, the Commission left


New


York for Paris, where the New Panama Canal


ompaIny opened to its members its records, maps, plans, and profiles,


and the results of the surveys


made


and


data


collected by it and


the old Panama Canal


general, Mr. L.


Company.


Choron, the


chief


Mr. Maurice Hutin, the director-
engineer, and other officers of the


company


received


commissioners


with


great courtesy


and


were


ready at all times to assist them in making a study of this route in all


aspects.


special


meeting


Comit


Technique


was


also


called to give the commissioners such oral explanations as they might
desire, some of its members coming from distant parts of Europe for


the purpose.


Other
auoe


vMta


while


While in Europe the Commission also visited and


examined the Kiel


Sea


Canal


Canal in


Germany, the


North


Holland, and the Manchester Canal


and Liverpool


docks


England and


returned


New


York on the


29th of September.


Central


South America.


accordance


with


plan


investigation


determined upon, a visit was afterwards made by
the Commissioners to Central and South America.


The purposes of this visit


were


make


a personal inspection of the


entire canal lines in Nicaragua and Panama, examine the work already
done by the parties in the field, give instructions as to its continuance,
i i- - - I- n a I S




REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


left there, they passed over the canal


line


from


the mouth of the San


Juan


deemed


Brito


on the


suitable


Pacific


dams,


, stopping


locks,


and


locations


other auxiliary


selected


works, and at


other points


where


a careful


examination


was


desirable, and making


detours from the main line when necessary


. From Brito they returned


to the lake and


proceeded


Managua,


several interviews with President Zelaya,


capital,


with


where


they


reference


had
con-


Managua.


struction of a navigable canal through Nicaraguan


territory by the


United


States.


They


were cor-


dially welcomed by the President,


and he expressed himself favorably


with
from


reference to the proposed maritime communication.


Managua


Corinto


and


there


took


a steamer


They went
r Panama,


where they arrived on the 3d of March.


disturbed condition


* Panama.


dered


inadvisable


tempt to meet the President at Bogota,


State


Colombia


Commission
Department,


ren-
Sat-


request of this Commission, communicated with the Colombian author"


ties through the United States minister there and asked


that a


repre-


sentative


the Government be appointed to meet the commissioners


when they reached the country and


assistance relative to their


mission


give
as he


them


such


information


and


conveniently could.


cordance with this request Mr. J


Ford,


the consulting engineer of


was


Republic
assigned


technical


this


matters connected with the Panama Canal,


duty


met


them in this official capacity on


their arrival


Panama, courteously expressed


an entire willingness


to aid them in their investigations, and accompanied them from day to


day upon their visits to different points upon the canal


line


and


else-


where during their stay upon the isthmus.
Fifteen days were spent in the department of Panama, during which


an investigation of the route from


done


Nicaragua.


The


work


sea to


was


sea was


made


greatly facilitated


as had
by the


been
local


officers of the New Panama Canal Company,


who placed two houses in


Colon at


the service of


commissioners, furnished


a special


train


each day tc
permitted


)


take


them from


point


to


them to use their maps and


point
plans,


as the work
informed t


progressed,
iem as to the


work then going on,


accompanied them in their inspection of the line,


and


exhibited


them the


plant and


materials


purchased


by the old


- -


a k U *f a




REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


isthmus of the New


superintendent


Panama Canal Company, and to Col.


Panama


Railroad


Company,


R. Shaler,
courteous


attentions.


Visit of Mr. Morlson to
Darien.


wth full


the 16th of March


party on


twin the progress ofl
aUthority to give instructions


Mr. George S.
S. S. &orpton


the explorations


asto


Morison
to ascer-


Darien,


the continuance of


work according
The S eorpha.! ** '


to the conditions which he might find


the camps of
S~~ion had


upon


reaching


the different working parties.


been assigned


The


by the Navy Depart-


eu: hta aid in the search for other possible routes in Darien, and was


cpxwn~j4ed
~avy, wt1~o


Lieut.


Commander


Nathan


rendered valuable assistance


Sargent,


United


in the explorations


States


made


;section, and met the responsibilities which rested upon him eredita-
and successfully.


From Colon


tints Rita.


went


Sac Jose.


the majority of


in Costa


traip yas placed at


Rica.


their disposal


the commissioners


Here


a special


to convey them


to ap Jo the capi$l. During the yeek that the'
they conferred freely with President Iglesias upon


19p orpic canal and


far as


necessary, mi


case


t~e


the United


territory


States


should


v spent in this city
the subject of an
the Republic, as
desire to use the


4jip&~gpa


rqute.


ea1projet and
a$ cnpls hed.


The


Present


expres~4


manifested


tie hope


that


a deep
would


interest
be succe


in the
Sssfully


absence of Mr.


William L. Merry, envoy extraordinary and


mitistv" lepipotentiary, accredited to
e3:* *3 !,,a *3 *M ?'*k ** iJp l b i~ A U tU lfly*(^ d L/ to


Nicaragua as well as to


Costa


jca, the Commissian was greatly aided in accomplishing ths purposes
of its visits at San Jos6 by Mr. Rufus A. Lane, secretary of legation and


chnrg 6d'*gres, and at
States consul. The me


Managua by Mr. Chester


Donaldson, United


nbers of the Commission are also indebted to


these


gentlemen
,S *


many


personal


courtesies


which


were highly


*nmm and wnmtprties.

~e%4$ngto cu


After
mlSsion


e projects,


returning to the United


took


consideration


States, the Cornm-


certain


ques-


Ssraction, which had to be determined before
preparing the plans, and making the calcula-


ftic lon0 ,1 aofimono"C #nrv ^-barnnnn ^/iv~f 1 nvrlr/^b ofy r~0r~b T^0YnIfL anvti i4+a nnr-wl.





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


a canal can be completed;


also


cost


excavating


and


removing


vast quantities of earth and rock,


at different depths and under differ-


ent conditions,


by using


the most satisfactory methods and the latest


improvements and inventions in machinery


. The conclusions reached


were used in making the subsequent plans, computations, and estimates.


Other questions consid-
ered.


Besides


these questions


a preliminary char-


acter, which related to the engineering features of


the canals


there were others which had to be con-


sidered.


Among them were the treaty relations which the Republics,


within whose


boundaries these canal


routes are situated


hold


toward


the United States and other powers;


the grants and


concessions made


Sby them to corporations, associations, and individuals, and the cost of


purchasing those still in force;


the industrial and military value of an


interoceanic


canal;


cost


operation


and


maintenance


each


route;


also the


liability of


seismic and other


disturbances in the isth-


mian country and their


probable effect


upon a canal and


its auxiliary


works when completed and in operation.
A second visit was


Visit


of Mr. Noble to


Nicaragua.


made


Nicaragua


Alfred Noble to make some special


inspect


the work


parties


Mr.


examinations,


in the


field, and


give them such further information as he deemed proper.


York February


He left New


16, 1901, and returned March 26.


The different working parties were disbanded as they finished


their


work


laborers


were at


once


discharged


and


engineers


and


other assistants were


them


have


since


brought


been


back


employed


to the United


office


States,


work


where some
Washington


under the direction of


the Commission.


The field work was not cornm-


pleted till June,
from Nicaragua.


1901,


when the last detachment of


assistants returned


The results


Results.


final


conclusions of


these


investigations


and


the


the Commission are embraced


in different chapters of this report.


In order that these chapters may


not be


incumbered with matter which is useful


mainly for


reference,


verification


, and special study, many of the papers, documents, treaties,


concessions, grants, special reports, and


Appendixes.


text


attached


discussions mentioned


as appendixes


and


in the
appro-


privately designated so that easy reference may be





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


been done


and it is submitted


in connection


with


this report, accom-


panied by appropriate charts and diagrams.


Map., etc.

Charts of


sketches


and


The report


is also accompanied


by maps of


canal routes and the countries where they are loa-


the t atharbors,plans and
W- M KKKK h aS^K ^1 Kl^t harbors, :tK H*


views taken at different


points al


profiles of the projects,
ong and in the vicinity


of the canal lines
adescription anm
iM^ ^ ^."O ** .' K


t. of


uists, when
and Pacific oce:


n diagrams and other representations for purpose
explanation.
A chapter has also been included, giving ais-
tory of the early efforts to find a waterway to th


the transit routes used and established across the American


no strait could be found there connecting the Atlantic
ins, and of the different plans for establishing an arti-


fc al maritime communication.
tqji explorations and resea


riches


* past


have


developed


prjects which now exist, and it is believed that this account will add


the value and


completeness of the report and


be in


harmony with


thepurposes ofth investigation.
%* ii
KK 'liN ^^If ^^ ^M T"^** *^ r^ T^""^'*'^ ^ " ^'*" ^ ^^""1 TP "^ T~f^- --B^^^ T^ ^f:-^ T
il : '


N'* < : :
K ^ K.
*:/< *
!M
: /<


t
m< ~<


S*'






A


a


CHAPTER


HISTORY


INTEROCEANIC


PROJECTS AND


COMMUNICATIONS.


During the fifteenth century the


subject of


a maritime communica-


tion with the countries and people in the far East engaged the earnest


attention


many enterprising


thoughtful


men in the European


States bordering upon


Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean


in the belief
lands would
tions which


and expectation that a more direct


result


had


greatly increasing


for many


centuries


route to those distant


interchange


contributed


produc-


to the wealth of


Western


nations,


notwithstanding


difficulties


and


disadvantages


under which commercial intercourse had been maintained.


During


this


period


the art


navigation was


largely and


contin-


uously developed, the mariner's compass was evolved from the electric


needle


properties


which


had


long been known, rough instru-


ments were devised for ascertaining


and


determining the


position


vessels upon the great deep,


and the mariner began to venture beyond


sight


familiar


landmarks;


Portuguese


resolutely


pushed


forward their exploration


southward along and


near the west side of


Africa, new capes and


headlands


and


river mouths were passed, and


island


and groups of


islands distant from the coast


line were


discov-


ered


, some by those who were driven from their course, others by the


more


daring who


steered


from


land and


risked


a while the


dangers of the open sea.


The diffusion of


the geographic knowledge


thus gained and


the constant improvement in nautical appliances and


charts


inspired


increased


confidence


communication and its ultimate


in the


theory


discovery, and, in


Tof
the


the maritime
latter part of


century,


brave


navigators


and


seamen


voluntarily entered


upon


long voyages, through


untried


seas, in search of


new pathways, east-


ward and westward,


to India


China


and


the spice


islands


under the


patronage of enlightened monarchs,


who, in addition to their desire to


0Al0c0l 4-h0 .nnirnrnirnril ;nv+nro,4fa r# +'hair na rnnln1


a nil arnontnil





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


returned t
which this


Egypt,


Mediterranean.


otherbarlftoyages


rest is


But


the evidence


upon


scarcely more than tradi-


iat and they left no peranent impressions and were followed by no


practical


results.


But if there was a sea route to India eastward


it was surely in this


Potuguese exploratons
along the African est,


direction, and


their


the Portuguese had been persistent


efforts


explorations


discover


along


1486


thew


west coast of Afr


tended


to abo ut


twentieth


degree of


south


latitude.


In ca
In 1487


&n expedition was


sent out


John II, under the


tholemew Dis, to continue the explorations until


command of


southern


Bar-
point


of the continent should


be reached.


Near Cape


Voltas, on the south-


lbank


of Orange


River,


met


tempestuous


weather


and


was


driven far below the cape of which he was in search without seeing it.


When he regained the land he advanced easterly as far as


named Santa Cruz, near Algoa Bay,


a point


where he raised a stone cross, as


had


been


done at


other


points


along


Ii


that he claimed the country for his king.


he coast, in pro
The cape was


of of the fact
not seen till


he sailed homeward, and in memory of the trying circumstances under


which


had


gone


on the outward


vdyage


named


Cape of Good Hope di.s-
covered.


Stormy Cape,


that
Notwithstanding the


1


gateway to
it should 1
general re]j


)ut
th


King John
SEast was


be called


icing


i, in


full


belief
1 dJ
d i^


now open,


the Cape of


over the


Goo


4
5I


successful


tade by Dias, this hope was not realized till eleven years later.


that


directed
I Hope.
voyage
Vari-


ous causes delayed the sending out of another expedition, but at length


Pint


voyage


aro nd


Africa to India,


Vasco de


Gama


results


cable,


sailed with four vessels


already


proceed


obtained
3 eastern


and,


to follow


practi-
TWCH^IV


countries.


left Lisbon July 8, 1497, passed safely around the southernmost point
of Africa, crossed the Indian Ocean, touching at various points on his
way, and on the 17th of May, 1498, sighted the high land on the coast


of Indi.


Three days later he anchored his fleet before Calicut on the


Malibar coast.
SAugust or


After ar
September,


i eventful
1499, and


hn a and magnificent displays.


voyage
was re


Two of


~ceivi


returned
ed with


his vessels


Portugal


A


i distinguished
and more than


half of'his men


had been


lost,


but the


great


problem


opening a


uS


(
t





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


were


everywhere


lucrative


commerce


triumphant;
e with India,


her ships
China, and


opened
Lthe S


and


maintained a


pice Islands.


This


commerce stimulated her home industries and brought vast wealth


Kingdom, and


nearly half


a century she


enjoyed


wonderful


prosperity and power and held a foremost place among the nations of
SEurope.


Columbus.


But before the discovery of the eastern commu-
nication had been completed the studies of Colum-


bus had convinced him that the same countries could be more speedily


reached by sailing westward.


He had no


correct idea


size of


the world nor of the distance from Europe to the Asiatic coast and the


neighboring islands,


but supposed that it was several


thousand


miles


less than it afterwards proved to be.


He reached this conclusion from


the delineations upon


based upon


the rude


actual geographic


maps of
knowledge


the world


then


when it was


i in existence,
available, and


when it was wanting upon hearsay and imagination and conjecture.


When he embarked


, under the auspices


of Ferdinand and


Isabella,


at Palos on the 3d day of August,


1492


, upon the voyage which resulted


in the discovery of America, it was with the confident expectation that


a favorable
World or to


result
some


wouirid carry


island


him


to the


eastern


shores


in those regions which might


of the Old


lie across


track of his vessels.


He was therefore not disappointed when he dis-


covered island after island


but not the mainland, and


be believed that


by sailing


beyond


these


continent could


be found.


When


upon


his second voyage he passed along the southern coast of Cuba,


in 1494,


he announced that it was some part of the Old World far remote from


Europe,


and his


officers and


crew joined in certifying their


belief in


this opinion.


When he felt obliged to turn back,


he still believed that


if he could continue his voyage in the same direction some port would


the end


be reached whence he


could


communicate with


the Grand


Khan of Tartary, to whom Ferdinand had


given him letters.


On his


third voyage,
the Orinoco.
of the Asiatic


in 1498


, he discovered South America, near the delta of


He named it Tierra Firma and regarded it as another part


continent.


When he left


Spain in 1502,


on his


fourth


and


last voyage,


intention


was


still


farther westward


and


endeavor to find a strait that would lead to India.


He would thus com-


plete his great discovery and demonstrate the correctness of the theo-


A
I





REPORT


OF THE


18TH)! IAN


OANAL


COMMISSION.


were in the eastern part of the Old World and never fully realized the
extent and grandeur of his achievements.


The success of


Other expedltonr west-
ward for discovery.


z~> Thlr&>
prise am
additionala


Fe


i
I


Brazil, but
coast and
countries c


adventure.
discoveries,
.X XXXX XX X X K ^f


no strait wa


began
not


other


vied


rtpugal
Each


northward'
Is found


to be realize


belon


ci


these voyages aroused the activ-


nations
with


England,


Spain


this


returned


and southward,


0o


opened


France,


field


with


from


a way


these newly found islands and
n/ *


continent,


that


a new


and


enter-


world had been discovered.
w o l h a |:: :! K.* /1' .'* **>-


Balboa dl(
Darien
Darien I


covers the Pa-


known as Ca


view


was


Nunfez de
still del


confirmatory


afforded


Balboa, then


Oro.


The


proof in


support of this


September, 1513, by


governor of


Indians


had


XTasco


a province in


told him


gre t sea


beyond


expedition and


mountains, and


in search of


determined


He crossed


organize an


from Santa Maria de


la Antigua, the capital of his province, a city founded in 1509 or 1510,
near the Atrato River, to a point near Caledonia Bay, where Aca was
afterwards built thence he proceeded with a considerable force of
iards and Indians across the divide, and on the 25th day of the


Rot reached a high ridge above


gulf which


he named San Mi-


gael Advancing beyond his companions to a favorable elevation, he


athe first European


behold


the great ocean to the south,


which


aled the South Sea, from the direction in whi
The march was continued to the coast, and four days


Lch


he viewed


later he entered


the ^a d with great ceremony claimed
fEor"his royal master, the King of Spain.


by the right of


discovery


Before the news of thisgreat achievement reached the King, Balbba


had been superseded as.governor, through the efforts of
dey Pdro Arias do Avila, better known as Pedrarias.


boa hears from


-


- -- ~ a a -


"Ut,


L~m


diaus of sold southward. IU UI[ w iz ne ruUSWt
country to the south, abou
metals and he had planned the construction of
new sea, confident of his ability to discover this
8ettma ter of its eatth. The accomplishment


This


isthmus of


Lding


a fleet to navigate the
country and make him-
of these results twenty


Ii


expedition


which
d that
Easte


reports


Labrador to
thi Asiatice
^r :w'^- Tif *III --T'-''!'*w ^" x


Strong


bitter disappoin tment to him, for the Indians


enemies,


ras a
had


a rich


precious





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


Southern Sea and


captain-general


these


distinction


were to


enjoyed under the supervision


Pedrarias as


superior.


following


year


to enter upon the long


the adelantado obtained the consent


desired


voyage


and


established


governor
his head-


quarters on the north side of


point,


Caledonia


where he laid out the town of


Bay,


Acla.


The


former


expedition


starting
required


ships on the opposite side of the isthmus and he


undertook their


con-


struction.


Suitable trees were abundant only on the Atlantic side,


ceived the project of preparing all his materials


Transports material for
ships across Isthmus.


ing them
of Indian


point


over


mountain


to be put together


one


streams


there
range


mn


and he con-
I transport-


on the


at some
flowing


backs


navigable
into the


waters
called


South


Rio


Savana,


Sea.


las Balsas,


though


The


place


or River of
authorities


selected


was


on a river,


then


the Rafts, probably the same as


agreed.


Thousands


Indians were brought together from all directions, materials for


four


brigantines were prepared


and the


work


was


carried


forward


under


merciless


taskmasters,


Spaniards


and


negroes.


When


builders


began to put the timbers


worm-eaten


together, many


them


, and a new lot had to be prepared;


were


then a


found


tempest


arose,


and the deluging rains swept away the materials and buried them with


mud


in the swamps and


low grounds.


Balboa with unshaken


resolu-


tion sent out


the woodcutters again


and dispatched


parties for


fresh


supplies


provisions, and others to forage on the natives


satisfy


the immediate wants of


his force.


For


Toll and suffering of In*
dians.


months


customer


over


mountain


Indians


, through


heights,


continued


swamps,


ill fed


their


across


under


unac-


streams,


a tropical


sun, and if made desperate by their hardships and sufferings any tried
to escape bloodhounds were put on their tracks.


Bishop


Quevado


Transit of Isthmus.


testified
wretches


before


perished


Spanish


court


this work,


that


while


buy poor
Las Casas


says the deaths were nearer 2,000 in number.


But


undertaking was


accomplished, the


four


brigantines,


in separate


pieces,


were carried


from sea


to sea, put


together on the Balsas, and


Balboa selected


Isla Rica, the largest of


the Pearl


lands


as his ren-


S





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


Meanwh


e the search


a westward


waterway to the eastern side


continent


been


continued,


after


many


fruitless


Voyage of Magellan.


voyage of


Vasco


efforts


existence


Ferdinand Magellan
Gama around the


was


finally


demonstrated


twenty years after the famous


Cape of


Good Hope to India,


and the result was accomplished, as in the case of the eastern passage,


by sailing around


southern


point


continent


and


not by a


tmi connecting the two oceans farther north.


fa was a Portuguese


navigator in


service


Charles


fe successor of Ferdinand upon the Spanish throne.


He set sail from


Siar de lT
SI eoswer strait.


e vered


the


Barrameda


on the


20th


ships, reached the i
southerly along the


strait


which


still


bears


of September,


mouth
coast


name,


1519,


the La Plata,


Patagonia,
which sepa


with five


saiThd


and


rates


dis-
the


Wand of Terra del Fuego from the mainland.
belonged to a southern continent, and this


He supposed this island
view prevailed until 1616,


when


two


Dutch


navigators,


Van


Schoutiten


and


Maire,


found


the passage around Cape Horn.


Magellan successfully worked his way


though the strait and on the 28th of November, 1520, found the great


Be beyond,


which


he named the Pacific Ocean, on account of the fine


weather which he experienced there.
untinrinus and his provisions ran short,


His crews were discouraged and
. but with undaunted resolution


lie continued


his voyage


toward


the Asiatic coast, making additional


cveries on his way, until he reached the Philippine Islands.


There,


ot the island of Matan, near Zebu, he lost his life in an encounter with


tives on the 27th of April, 1521.


One vessel had been wrecked


on dhe eastern coast of Patagonia, another deserted the expedition and
sied homewrd after the western opening of the strait had been dis-
catredbut before its passage, add a third became unseaworthy and was
," '' t^: -/ . t i t .1'J i 1e-^ ^"


burned at the Moluccas.


The two remaining separated after the death of


Allan. The Ttnridi sailed for Panama and the Victory returned
omewa*rd around the Cape of Good Hope and reached San Lucar, the
pt fromwhichthe epeditionhad started three years before, on the 6th
tser, 1522, under the command of John Sebastian del CJano,
tiavibg on board only 18 of the 265- persons who had embarked with


Magellan. Espin
rhtun0onA tIn Sf0in


OS1t~
Ruo


captain


i7oart lqlp*r


the Trnidawd, and three
ini $. P~nr^tf~iA~icc iragaap1


of


men


rP~no unu.o





REPORT


TSHE


ISTHMIAN


OANAL


COflISSION.


the wishes of


those who sought a direct way thither by the discovery


a connecting strait along the coast line of the new continent.


Though all previous attempts had been baffled


the belief in the exist-


ence of such a strait was not entirely abandoned, and efforts to discover
it were still prosecuted, but they were mainly confined to the isthmian


section


, from Mexico to Darien,


where it had been developed that the


two oceans were least widely separated.


After Charles V


came to the throne of


Spain in


Charles V Is Interested In
discovery of interoceanic
communication.


1516


he took great


the South Sea and


interest


the discovery o


exploration of
f a connecting


strait.


He charged the governors of his American


provinces to have the entire coast line thoroughly examined and every


bay and river


mouth that offered a


possible solution of


problem


was entered and explored.


In 1523 the Emperor wrote from Valladolid


to Cortes to make careful search for the passage which would connect


the eastern and western shores of the New


thirds


route from Cadiz to Cathay.


World and shorten by two-


Gortes


, in replying, assured


him that his wishes would


diligently carried


out, and


that he had


great hopes of


King of
lord of


success, adding that such a discovery "would render the


Spain master of so many kingdoms that he might call himself
the world."


It was in accordance with this


G611 Gonzales sent to Pa-
cifle.


coast


necting with


Gonzales


Avila


succeed Balboa,
South Sea for the


Atlantic.


was


sent


policy that Gil


from


Spain


with instructions to search


western


opening of


had authority to


a strait


use the vessels


along


con-
that


Balboa had constructed, but Pedrarias refused to deliver them to him,


and in order to carry


royal


commands


took to pieces the


two caravels in which he and his followers crossed


Transports his vessels in
pieces across Isthmus.


ocean,


transported


along the route


used


them


across


isthmus


by Balboa, and rebuilt them


at the Balsas on the Pacific side.


These were lost, and he constructed


others with which he sailed northward along the toast from the Bay of


Panama


in January, 1522, until they were


found to


unseaworthy.


They were repaired and
Fonseca, but Gil Gonza]


n- */ jS ah i- j


1 LI


men


exploration was


les proceeded


and


discover


by land wi
ed Lake


continued to the Bay of


th 4 horses and
Nicaragua, which


*3*r**wr~I *en.a 1' *rnr. U .1


1kJ.-





REPORT


OF THE


1STHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


covered only a few leagues from


it was within the limits of


Pacific.


jurisdiction


Pedrarias


and at


once


claimed that
undertook its


Granada founded on
Lake Nicaragua.


conquest.
the shore


He established a city at Granada,


ake,
was


subjection.


and
at


reduced
first ri


near


the Indians
reported that


there


was


an opening


from


lake


South


Sea, but a


care-


ful examinat
a -connecting


ion of


the


channel.


surrounding
Among the


country failed


early


settlers


to
was


develop
Capt.


Such
Diego


Wiaeluica'u


expedition


Machuca,


who


1529,


undertook


a thorough


from Lake Nicaragua down exploration of Lake Nicaragua and its eastern out-
Sa Ju o at let. A felucca and brigantine were constructed on
its shores and were placed under his command with 200 men and some
ns. i land force kept within reach of his flotilla and he entered
^-.- -- rc e~k n Totrf/ e a s~ir oiK Qi n alC'kt3c"~iiif ir e ~n


t D Deaguadero
Rapids In the San Juan.


River,
sage.


now the


San


He found


Juan,


and attempted


pas-


navigation difficult in places


because of the rapids, and those in one part of the


river still


bear


his name.


Overcoming all difficulties, he reached the


Atlanftic, but was uncertain as to the locality,


and kept along the coast


with his vessels in a southeasterly direction till he reached the Spanish
settlement at Nombre de Dios. At a later period sea vessels passed
regularly up and down the river, making voyages between Granada


San pain, Cuba and Soith America.
a a as 1637, according to Thoma


This commerce was maintained


Is


Gage,


an English


monk,


who


tilted Nicaragua in
Spass ing the rapids.


that


year, but there were delays and difficulties


while efforts were being made to find
the two oceans which washed the shore


a maritime channel between


s of


Spanish provinces in


thenew world,theimportance of a
the isthmus by


tia.


and the


-ft


across


permanent communication across


land


after the discovery by


that a line of posts be est
Jan was carried out by his successor.


was


overlooked.


Soon


Balboa, Ferdinand ordered


abolished from sea to sea,
Ada was first selected


cit terminus, nt
to the east, and in


was


afterwards


1510 Nombre de


determined


that


Dios was founded and


port was Were est blished.
Sthe site of old Panama


After an examination of the


was


fixed


upon


as a


atius ble


place to establish a city upon the western side of the isthmus. A set-





REPORT


THE


ISTEMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


removed from their beds to make the passage over the mountains less


difficult.


The


way wa


only wide enough for


s paved,
riders a


and


according


nd beasts of


some


accounts was


burden, but Peter Martyr


says


that


Bello was


two carts
made the


could


pass


another


upon it.


In 1597 Porto


eastern port of entry instead of Nombre de Dios.


had


fresh w


was


a better
ater the


more


denounced
Spaniards.


harbor


was


year round,


healthy than
in memorial


easier of


was


Nombre


access,


nearer


Dios,


Spanish


was well


to Panama, an


which


supplied with
d the location


had frequently been


court as "the sepulher of


In 1534, or soon after that date,


a route by water for boats and light-


draft vessels was established from Nombre de Dios along the coast and


Chagres


obstruction


which


Cruces.


had


This


interfered


was
with


accomplished by
the navigation of


removing


river,


but the use of the paved way was not discontinued.
The value of this interoceanic communication increased every year.


After the conquest of


Pizarro vast quarititie


gold and


silver were


Commerce


across


lsth.-


mus.


brought from the mines


Peru


ried across the isthmus on the


king


Panama, car-
horses, kept


for that purpose, and transported from the eastern
terminus of the paved way in royal galleons to Spain.


As the Spanish colonies


and


provinces


increased


in population the


commerce and travel across the isthmus grew in importance.


At cer-


Fairs


at Cartagena,


Nombre de Dlos, and Porto
Bello.


tain times when


vessels were due from Spain fairs


were held at Cartagena and


later at


Porto


Bello,


Nombre de Dios, and


which were


attended


by the


merchants of the Spanish Main and


countries


bordering upon the


Pacific.
products


Caravan


from Panama crossed to the Atlantic terminus with


disposed


these


fairs.


With


proceeds


such


manufactured articles as were needed by the colonists and settlers were


purchased
recrossing


from


Spanish


isthmus,


ships


many


and


them


distributed


going


Peru


Panama


and


after


Central


America,
market.


where the abundance of gold assured


a ready and profitable


Prosperity of Panama.


The


commerce of the isthmus increased


century and


Panama


(


became a place of


luring
great


mercantile importance,


with a profitable


trade


extending to the Spice


w





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHIIIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


Another


early


transits


across


isthnmian


country


was


TehuAutepee.


Tehuantepec.


Charles


When


to search for


Cortes


was


instructed


the desired strait


he pro-


ceeded with his usual energy to carry out the wishes of the


Emperor


He had obtained from Montezuma in 1520 a description of the country
t te soqth, witha drawing of the guIf coast representing the bays and


rivers.


TJe indications at the month of the Coatzacoalcos appearing


favorable, he had it examined and, though


no .strait


was


discovered,


the isthmus presented advantages


for transit which he found service-


Cortes sent expeditions
In search of strait.


able in his subsequent operations.


When


had


completed the conquest of Mexico he sent out ves-
sels to explore the coast in all directions, along the


raon


aswe
the


l l


as the Gulf of


Moluccas, hoping


Mexico, and in


establish


1527


a direct


he sent an expedi-


trade


with


those


regions.
dance of


The forests of Tarifa, on the Atlantic slope,
timber suitable for shipbuilding, and it was


supplied abun-
transported to


each coast to be used in both seas.


With


timber


from this source he


copstrcted vessels on the coast near Tehuantepec


ip e Pacifc, the other
Me"ico reos the isthmus.
jlCO ..ip*M JAGII


materials


being


carried


The most important


expeditions
the Gulf of


result of


the coast-


wis explorations was the discovery of the Gulf of California and the


adjacent peninsula, but neither along the


whwe


upon


shore of


Pacific side did any channel


open


this gulf
a passage


nor else-


4tiantic.


But though


Gortes


failed


find


the strait, the course he


mred, up the Coatzacoaloos, across the dividing ridge, and down the


Traudt route.
4K K


Pacific slope to Tehuante


route of


communication


pec, became an important
between the Atlantic and


Pa9Wc,


A port and extensive works were established at the western


terminus, and a profitable trade was


opened


and


maintained with the


Spanish


provinces on the Pacific and with the countries and islands in
ro nce


and ar eastern part of Asia on the one side and with the Atlantic
ports and Spain on the other.


'Te


**
importance o
of tjze etatofs


f a


maritime


connection


to discover a natural


and


channel


discouraging


between


two


mt~ -~


Oceans suggested to many minds the idea of a ship..


S-!-f-^ .. ..a..al and the successful transits at the different
points mentioned and the relatively short distance across the isthmus





UE19OkT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


OANAL


COMMISSION


and that they ascertain the best and most convenient means of effecting
a communication between the navigable waters of


Survey
Panama.


ernor,
cable.


of Isthmus


met


Pascual


and


that


forming a


Andagoya,


river and


ocean and


in the execution of


reported


that such


no king, however powerful


junction of


the two


seas or


the difficulties


such a project.


a work


was


he might be,
furnishing I


The gov-
impracti-


was capable
ie means of


carrying out such an undertaking.
Charles abdicated the throne of Spain in 1555 and was succeeded by


Policy of Philip II.


his son


, Philip II, who reigned till 1598.


new monarch the policy of


Under the


kingdom changed,


the search for the strait was abandoned


number of ports through


which the gold


and


silver from


the mines of


his American


provincea<


flowed to Spain was


limited


, and the project


a ship


canal


between


two oceans, across the


cuted.


field


While


these


commerce


new
and


American
possessions


furnished


peninsula,
opened a


was no longer prose-


Constantly


inexhaustible


widening


supply


precious


tion


throu


why


seek for


continent


int


or construct
) the ocean


t


a maritime


communica-


beyond for other explora-


tions in the hope of new discoveries


Here was actual fruition.


Why


waste


effort


and


time


and


where all was uncertainty ?


money
Besides,


regions


still


more


remote,


an opening through the isthmus


would afford


rival


nation


favorable opportunities


to visit


the shores


of the


new


possessions,


gain


information


as to


their


resources


and


advantages,
also urged


and invite aggression and conquest in case of war.


that the opening of


a canal


through the


It was


isthmus would be


in opposition to the will of the Almighty,


who had placed this barrier


in the way of navigation between the two oceans, and they who should


attempt to remove


Atrato.


pleasure.


The


it would incur


Atrato


region


the Divine dis-


offered


-favorable


conditions


for a


transit


, particularly for the commerce between Peru


and the


Spanish main.


Some of


the south and near the Pacific coast,


tributaries take their rise far to
but the policy of Philip prevented


the establishment of a channel of communication there


, and the naviga-


tion of the river was forbidden under penalty of death.


This policy adopted by


his death.


The


subject


Philip II continued


a maritime


for two


connection


wa


centuries after
s an attractive





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


Paterson' colony at New
Caledonla.


The most notable


tion of


polie f
ttempt of William Patersoh
cLgdltJLU Vmpt ~liXluBL


two
Ring


event


oceans which


Philip


establish


was


a Scotch


relating to


the connec-


occurred while this


maintained


was the


colony in Darien.


In 1695 the Scotch Parliament passed an act authorizing the formation


Pt a company to
received the royal


trad from Scotland to Africa and the Indies. It
sanction June 26, 1695, and William III issued let-


ters patent to carry out the terms of the act


The company organized


une- a in
under this ath ity is generally known as the Darien Company, and in
July, 1808, it sent out an expedition from Edinburgh with three ships


and two tenders, having


1,200 men on board,


with the intention of set-


fling on the American isthmus.


of this scheme. He
t *Den section while
fTrom a knowledge of


William Paterson was the originator


had become acquainted with the advantages of the


enga


ged as a merchant in the
movements and exploits 4


West


Indies, and


)f the buccaneers.


The vessels arrived safely at Darien and anchored in a bay which they


called Caledonia


Bay, a


name


it still


retains.


The


colonists


entered


into friendly relations with the


Indians and bought lands from them.


They named the country Caledonia and established a settlement, which


they


called


harbora


New


\vhich


Edinburgh,


still


bears


on a small


name


peninsula,


which


Port Escoces.


formed


fort


was


built or the protection of the settlement,


which they named New St.


Andrews, and a channel was


cut across the


peninsula, so


that the sea


might encompass the city and fort.
SWhile no attempt was made to construct a canal or to open a commu-
tion with the South Sea, the patent under which the company was
organized authorized colonies to be planted in Asia, Africa, or America,
and Paterson's plan contemplated the ultimate establishment of settle-
mets and ports on both oceans, so as to open commercial connections


with all parts of the wild.


One of the first acts of the colonial gov-


rscsPturo'. pleas tor In-
beossanic communscatio.m

of religion. The


ernmient was to declare


freedom of


trade to those


of all nations who might be concerned with them,


anid full and


success


this


free liberty of


first


conscience in matters


colony would


have


been


fol-


.Ipwed
transi


by efforts
t route wou


to establ
ld then


ish


others on the


Pacific side,


have been opened, but


with which a


the colonists became


dIscouiirapd .


P. aRInnlv nf


*n-rvilionna


tofloAo


aont


* E.


nAth




REPORT


OF THE


ISTHUIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


tunes,


Spain


protested


that


territory


was


being invaded,


and a


military force was


sent


drive


them


from


the country.


The


few


survivors at


length capitulated


and after the loss of


more than 2,000


lives and


the expenditure of


vast


sums of


money the company aban-


doned


the promising scheme which


Paterson


planned


and


mau-


gurated.
During this period


communication


between


the two seas was main-


trained at


locations


already


mentioned.


Panama declined


importance much of


business was


transferred


Nicaragua.


The


Transit routes.


shortest
Darien


distance
section.


from


The


ocean


general


to ocean was in the


course marked


Balboa was followed by the buccaneers in some of


against the Spanish settlements and


their incursions


posts in the seventeenth century.


Captain Sharp crossed here when he made his successful attack in 1680


upon


Villa


Maria on the


Tuyra


River,


no continuous transit was


Indians hostile to Span-
lards.


ever


maintained


, probably


and persistent hostility of


Spaniards.
they were warring against their


They


special


aided


because


the
the


Indians toward


buccaneers


erce
the


because


enemies and not because they


wanted white men to enter their borders.


The Indians in this section


were
tions


never


ubdued,


though


forts


strongholds


mission


were from time to time established on Caledonia Bay and at other


points on the Atlantic side and


on the
t


rivers emptying


into


the Gulf


of San Miguel.


They had secret passes through the mountains, caves


in which their canoes could


safely concealed,


trails


from


their vil-


lages by which they could pass freely from point to point,


and a system


of signals
approach
successful


by which


their


raids


they


enemies;


upon


could


with


Spanish


give


these


notice


movements


advantages


they


often


settlements, slaughtered


and


made


gar-


, and destroyed their works.
Under the administration


Arlza's road In Darien.


a determined


effort


who


became


was made


governor
bring the


Indians


Andres de
province ii


under


Ariza,
1774,


subjection


to the Spanish.
of the isthmus


Military posts were again


Puerto


Principi


on the


established


Savana


River,


on both sides


was


fortified


garrisoned, and


a train


the mouth of the La Paz


was


thence


the Chucunaque,


which was afterwards known as Ariza'


near
road.


-U


1 ii A ii S .1 lii UU


-^Uhk aw


11


risons





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


Spaniards became satisfied that their supremacy yielded them no advan-


ta~es


commensurate


with


cost,


and


1790


Spaniards abandon their
military posts.


entered into
ether areed
they aeed


*hdraw from the country.


a treaty with the


abandon


their


Indiana, by which


military posts


and


haminaston of Tehuan-
w e^-..ji ~ -kcWL^ro tt^uk.K


through the American


Toward the


latter part


tere was a revival


maritime


sthmu


the eighteenth century


interest


communication
s. Some pieces


in the subject of


between


anciei


the two oceans
nt bronze can-


ndn in the castle of San Juan d'Ulloa, at
acc identi ally discovered in 171 to havq


Vera Cruz, in


been


cast


Mexico,


were


in Manila, in the


Philipphe Islands.


It seemed improbable that


they had


been


trans-


ptiher by water around either co
dial intercourse with the islands had been
uehantepec. The subject was investiga


ntinent, as the only commer-


through the Pacific


ted and it


was


port


satisfactorily


p oved
isthmus


records and traditions among the


that


cannot


n had


inhabitants of


been t sported from Tehuantepec to


the mouth of the Cosatzacoaleos by the route established in the days of


Corte. .


This transit had


long been abandoned, but the remembrance


of it former


importance


had


been


preserved,


though


lapse


of theu


the


difficulties


and


obstructions attending


passage


had


been forgottoxi.


The


viceroy


Mexico,


hope


that


it would


aord a favorable location for a canal, determined to have the country


examined, so as to ascertain


opening a maritime communication


topography and


between


engineers, Augustin-Cramer and Miguel del


the practicability of
two oceans, and two


Corral,


were directed to


survey the isthmus and report the result of their investigations.


They


made


an exploration


Coatzacoalcos


and found that its source


was not near Tehuantepec, as they had


Report of Cramer.


been


any river have a channel


Instead


a river


flowing


communication


i1'11


suppose; nor ala
into each ocean.


they


found


range of mountains of considerable height between


the headwaters of


th streams emptying into opposite seas.


In one place


they reported


and that
was pract


form


mountains formed a groun p
a valley existed, through wi
i/g7 w


Ei
>1


rather


than a continuous chain,


which a canal


small


dimensions


cable connecting two rivers on opposite slopes, which would


a continuous communication across the isthmus.


r


t





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMLAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


mountains intervened between


lakes


and


the ocean which, in


opinion, made their connection impracticable.


Notwithstanding


this


under the patronage of


report, a
the Crown


company


was


afterwards


project,


formed


and


route selected was from Lake Nicaragua along the Sanoa River to the


Gulf of Nicoya.


The royal fleet in the Pacific was directed to aid this


by further surveys,


no further progress was


project was


made


never


construction of


commenced and
an interoceanic


communication.
When Galisteo'


party set out. in


1779


they were


accompanied


in a


private


capacity


British


agents


Belize,


and


territory


claimed in the name of the Mosquito Indians.


After their return they


made favorable


declared that


representation


country they had visited, and


the canal project was entirely feasible.


This manifesta-


tion


interest


subject


was


followed


by an


invasion


of Nicaragua


by British forces.


from Jamaica.


country early in 1780, after Spain had declared war


against Great


under


Admiral


Britain.


command


Horatio


Nelson


The invading expedition,


of Captain
, then a post


Poison,
captain,


was in


charge of


naval


operations.


Nelson


, in his dispatches,


states the


general


purpose


expedition


as follows


"In


order


give


facility to the great object of government I intend to possess the Lake


of Nicaragua,


which for the present may be looked upon as the inland


Gibraltar of


Spanish America.


commands the only water pass


between
to insure


oceans, its situation must ever render it a principal post


passage to the


Southern Ocean


, and by" our possession of


Spanish America is divided in two.


Plan of campaign.


The plan of the campaign was to enter the mouth


the San Juan River,


capture Fort San Juan, at


Castillo


Viejo,


take possession of


all other


fortified


positions


on the


river and lakes


, occupy the cities of Granada


and


Leon


, then push on


Realejo,


by the seizure of


which they would complete their control


province


and


lines


communication


between


two


oceans.


The


attacking party went up the San Juan in boats and met with no


resistance till a small island


named Sah Bartolom6


an outpost


of the


enemy


, was reached.


This was soon captured,


and


two days later Fort


work


undertake the


Invasion





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


son's ship,


the Hinchinbrook, 200 in number, 87


fell sick in one night,


only 10 were living soon after the return of the expedition to Jamaica,
d Nelson himself was in such an enfeebled condition that his life was


saved only by carefuld nursing.


Tr of 118 etwen
England and Spain.


This terminated the effort to weaken the Spanish


power
1788,


Central America, and


which


terminated


war,


the t
Great


reaty of
Britain


reij q ished whatever territorial


rights


may have claimed there.


While the privilege of cutting wood


for dyeing was


granted


to Eng-


fish settlers, it was only to


exercised


in a part


Honduras with


certain specified


boundaries,


within which


the woodcutters, then


dis-


perused through the country


months.


The British


were


agreed


required
demolish


retire within


their


eighteen


fortifications within


this district and to instruct


their


settlers


build


no new


ones, and


they recognized and declared Spain'


rights of sovereignty.


Owing to


delays


in the


retirement


the woodcutters


within


agreed limits by the time


specified, new complications


arose


between


the two powers and the negotiations which followed resulted in another


Tresty of 1786.


treaty which was


By the


signed at London in July


1786.


new convention the district allotted to the


w clutters was enlarged and their privileges were increased, but they


were not t6 establish any


plantation of


sugar, coffee,


cocoa, or other


like article, or any manufacture


by means of


mills or other machines


except sawmills for preparing their timber for use.


The reason given


for this restriction was that "all the lands in question being indispu-
tably acknowledged to belong of right to the Crown of Spain, no settle-


ment of that


kind


or the


population


which


would


follow


could


allowed."


In another article all the restrictions specified in the treaty


of 1783


for the entire preservation of the


right of the Spanish sover-


eighty over the country were confirmed.


Another article


related


the Mosquito country, in which England had exercised a protectorate


over the Indians and had assisted them


in resisting the authority of


Spain.


Spain


w~s


pledged,


motives


humanity,


exercise any severity against the Mosquitos on account of their former
connection with the English, and his Britannic Majesty agreed to pro-


hibit


his subjects


from


furnishing


arms


or military


supplies


indians,


**





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


quito flag


there


, and changed


its name


from


San


Juan to Greytown.


Treaty


between


Great


Britain and Guatemala of
1859 as to Belize.


In 1859 a treaty was made


between Great


Britain


and Guatemala by which the title of the former to
the settlements made in and near the Bay of Hon-


duras,


known


as Belize,


was


recognized


and


boundaries


were


Treaty


between


Great


Britain and Nicaragua of


defined.
Britain an


In 1860 a treaty was made between Great


Nicaragua


by which the


protectorate


1860


as to Mosquito


dians.


over


Mosquitos was to cease in three months,


territory occupied


them


was


under


the sovereignty of


Nicaragua,


no farther south than


river


its boundaries were


Rama, and


defined, extending


Greytown was declared a


free port.


But the Indians were to have the right of self-government,


and
and


Nicaragua was


pledged


interfere with


to respect


them


, provided


their customs and


they were not


regulations
inconsistent


with the sovereign rights of the Republic.


It was also


provided


that


Nicaragua


$5,000


should


annually to


promote


years,
their


pay


improvement


Mosquito


and


authorities


provide


for the


maintenance of the government they were to establish


for themselves


within their district.


another


article


it was


declared


the con-


Mosquito Indians incor-


porated Into


Republic of


Nicaragua In 1894.


tracing parties that


strued


so as


any time


in the


the treaty was not to be con-


prevent
future


Mosquito


from agreeing


Indians


to absolute


incorporation


into


Republic


Nicaragua,


on the


same


footing


and


subject


to the


same


laws


as other


citizens.


This


solution


of a


long-existing


cause


irritation


disturbance


was


reached


November, 1894,


when a convention of the tribes assembled under the


direction of their chief and agreed that their territory should
a department of the Republic.


become


close of


eighteenth


century


Spain


Situation at the close of
the-18th century.


kept


the two ocean


intercourse


continued


entire
Apart


with


maintain


isthmian
; the old
western


country, bi
transits had


ports


sovereignty


fallen


over


Cordilleras still
into disuse and


American


provinces


was maintained almost entirely by way of Cape Horn and the Cape of


Good


Hope;


the chief exception being at


Tehuantepec,


where a com-


munication across the isthmus had once more been opened.





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


a single


mountain


, plain,


or cit
or city


from


Granada


Mexico


which


the elevation above the sea was known.


It was even a matter of doubt


whether an uninterrupted chain of mountains existed in the provinces
of Veragua and Nicaragua.


The


pub


intere


cations


Humboldt were


commercial


extensively


nations


read


world in


this


revived
subject.


The Spanish Cortes was aroused to action and in April, 1814, passed a


formal


decree


for the


construction


a canal


through the peninsula


f6r vessels of the largest


size and provided for the formation of a corn-


pany to undertake the enterprise,


but it


no results


and Spain's


J "I.*
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:r 1 K ii ** I ^I'l'Ji^ I'l I ^ff41^
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*j^k *^fcii iK:
"ffW ^^y w


to obtain


glory of


opening


this great highway for


the commerce of the world


terminated in 1823,


when the last


O tl andSl south American provinces succeeded in establishing their
dependence.


Republic
formed.


of ColombIa


The


States


New


Ecuador united


Colombia,


with


Granada


1819


Simon


, Venezuela,


and


forming the Republic


Bolivar


President.


This continued


1831, when they


separated


into


three independent


republics.


Formation


Republic


of Federal


oft".


United


1823


Nicaragua,


Gautemala,


and


Costo


San
Rica


Salvador,
, having


Honduras,
successfully


America.s
Americs.


Central


resisted the efforts of Iturbide to extend the power


Mexico


over


them,


established


the


Federal


Republic of the United'Provinces of Central America.


The governmental changes wrought by these


successful revolutions


and the
revival


formation of


interest


these


new


confederations


interoceanic


were


communication.


followed


Aaron


Palmer, of New


York


and his associates


made


proposal


the new


Republic of


Central America with a view to the construction of


such


a work,


which were favorably


taken Don Antonio


regarded.


Jos4 Canfaz, the envoy


But before any action was
extraordinary representing


the Republic at


the Government of
dteased a letter


Washington,


was


instructed


the United States to the subject.


Mr.


Clay, then


Secretary of


the attention of
He accordingly


State


on the


day


February,


1825,


assuring


him


that


nothing


would


more


Republic
America m


of Cenira


oaken


proposi-


grateful


to "the Republic of the Centre of Amer-


ica" than the cooperation of the American


A'


A


I


people


- -- - - - * fl flfltfltfl** .-ht ~fl fl~ fl .flflfl.fl U fl~ %% t.n . n~ nar~ a. -




- -~ ~ *4 --


REPORT


OF THE


ISTEMIAK


CANAL


COMMISSION.


he was prepared to do what he


represented


could on


the part
business.


Mr.


Republic he
Clay made a


Response


of Secretary


favorable response to this communication, assuring
the minister that the importance of uniting the two


seas


canal


navigation


was


fully


realized and


that


President


had determined to instruct the charge d'affaires of


United


States to investigate with


greatest care


facilities


which
firmed


Nicaragua


offered.


preference which


He added


was


that


believed


this
this


investigation


route


con-


would be necessary to consult Congress as to the nature and extent of


the cooperation which


should


be given


toward the completion of


work.


Instructions to minister.


addressed
informed


Mr.


that


The


given


Williams,
President


.1 /


however,


letter


in which


was
was


put in possession of such


information upon


the subject


as would


serve


to guide


judg-


ment of the constituted authorities of the United States in determining


their interests and duties in regard


to it.


The matter was afterwards


referred


to in


the official correspondence with the Department,


but it


does not appear that the desired information was ever furnished.


Congress of Panama.


When it was proposed to hold a congress of dif-


ferent


nations at


Panama


1826, and President


Adams


appointed


commissioners to represent the United


States,


they were advised in their letter of instructions that a cut or canal for


purpose


navigation somewhere through the


isthmus that connects


the two Americas, to unite the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, would form
a proper subject of consideration at the congress when it should assem-
ble. The opinion was also expressed that, if the work should ever be


executed


, the benefits of it ought


exclusively appropriated


to any one


nation


should


extended


parts of


globe


upon the payment of just compensation or reasonable tolls.


But


without


waiting


governmental


action


on the


part


United States


, the Republic of


Central America


, on the 16th of June,


1826


decreed


that proposals should


received


for the right to con-


struct an interoceanic canal


, accepted


terms offered


Aaron


Palmer and his associates and entered into a contract with them.


The


arrangement


possessed, it


proposed
until Fe1


instructions
ruarv. 1826


were not,
when a


;he charge
desired to


d'affaires,


bl




REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


with interest at the rate of 10 per cent per annum, and for seven years


after such reimbursement the company of


construction was to receive


half of
repairs


the ni
being


proceeds of


deducted.


The


the canal, the expense of


navigation


and


passage


canal was to be common to all friendly and neutral nations,


exclusive


privilege.


Report


145,


The contract can


House


be seen


Representatives,


collection and


through the
without any
)v reference


Congress,


full


Thirtieth


second session, pages 362-367.


Mr. Palmer next


attempted


organize


a company


undertake


the construction of a canal under this contract, to be called the Central


American and


United States Atlantic and


Pacific


Central


American


and


United States Atlantic and
Pacific Canal Company. *


Canal Company, with a capital stock of $5,000,000.


With


this
thla


purpose


in view, in


October,


1826, he


assigned the contract


in trust to De


Witt Clinton


and four others, to be held by them until an act of incorporation could


obtained


for the


proposed


company.


December


went


London, furnished with


letters of


introduction to the American min-


ister


other


influential


persons, issued


a prospectus, and


for ten


months endeavored to secure the aid of capitalists there in disposing of


the stock, but was


unsuccessful and the contract was never executed.


The


Central


American Republic


afterwards


entered


into


negotia-


Contract with a Nether-
lands Company.


tions with


construction


basis


a company in


a canal across


an agreement


was


Netherlands
s Nicaragua,


adopted


byt


for the
and a
he two


Houses


Congress


September and


December, 1830.


When


Administration


at Washington


heard


that


such


a contract had been


made or was about


made, Mr. Edward


Livingston, then Secre-


tary of


State, directed


United


States


minister


Guatemala


ascertain the facts and to signify to the


Government


that the United


States would


consider


themselves as entitled to the same advantages,


in passing through the canal


or using the terminals, as were accorded


to other nations.


The effort, however, ended in failure


and the proj-


ect was abandoned.


After this failure the Congress of the Republic of Central America
again turned to the United States and offered to grant to the Govern-


ment the right


to construct a canal.


response


further negotiatIons of
Central American Repub-


to this action the Senate, on March 3,1835, passed


.~. , 4 -U





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


OANAL


COMMISSION.


President


Jackson


acted


upon


this


resolution


sending


Mr.


Charles


Biddle


visit


Nicaragua and


Panama,


with instructions


examine


different


routes


communication


Mr. Riddle sent to Cen-
tral America and Colom-
bia.


that


had


been


railroad, making


route


contemplated,


whether by canal or


such observations


would


enable


and


him


inquiries
procure


copious and accurate information in regard to the practicability of the


different


projects,


and


procure


such


public


documents


as were


obtainable


relating


different plans, and


copies of


all laws and


contracts made


ence
and


and entered


construction


estimates of


cost of


into


such


any of the


by the two Governments with refer-


a communication, and any surveys


projects


that could


procured.


But the mission led to no satisfactory results, and on January 9, 1837,


a message wa
dient at that


s


sent


Senate


the effect


that it was


not expe-


time to enter into negotiations with foreign governments


with reference to a transisthmian connection.


January, 1838, Aaron


Memorial of Aaron Clark
to Congress urging action
with reference to canal.


York,


and


a few


other


Clark, mayor of


influential


citizens


New
pre-


sented the subject to the House of Representatives


in a memorial,


tance of


a navigable waterway


urging


between


he great
Atlantic


national


impor-


Pacific, and


recommending that negotiations be opened with New Granada and Cen-
tral America and the great powers of Europe for the purpose of enter-


ing into a general agreemei
as a preliminary step, that


for the


competent


promotion
engineers


of this object, and,


sent to the


sth-


mlan


country to


make


explorations


and


surveys, so as


determine


the most eligible route and the cost of constructing such a work.


This memorial was. referred to the


Committee on Roads and Canals


and


IMIr,


to an


interesting


Mercer


import of Committee on
Soads and Canals, 1839.


March


third
322.


valuable
2, 1839, in


session, and


The


value


report,


which was


the Twenty-fifth
designated as H.


a canal was


but no action was recommended


presented
Congress,
E Report


fully recognized,
, except to request


President


Oliben


or continue


negotiations with


foreign


nations


according to the terms of the former Senate resolution and in harmony


with


wishes


memorialists.


The


resolution favoring


this


action was at once adopted.





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMTAN


CANAL


COMiWISSION.


considered by Congress,


efforts


were


being


made to


obtain


con-


Examination of routes.
from time to time
from time to time


cessions from


States through whose territory


the canal routes extended, examinations were made
to determine the feasibility and cost of the differ-


at projects.


In 1824 the


Mexican Government and


the State


Tehuantepec by Orbegso
at ar1w ,


of Vera Cruz each appointed a commission to make


a reconnaissance of


isthmus of


Tehuantepep,


former


under


supervision


Juan


Orbegoso, the


latter


under Tadeo Ortiz.


* Their reports contain much valuable information


relating to the geography, topography,


productions, and resources of


the country.


But their examination


demonstrated that great difficul-


ties opposed the construction of a navigable canal through the isthmus,
and they reported that the only available expedient to be adopted was
a rriage road from the navigable waters of the Coatzacoalcos River
to the lagoons on the south coast. This they considered both easy and


advantageous.


The report of Orbegoso is found in House Report 322,


Twenty-fifth Congress, third session.


A survey of


Nicaragua


route was


made


earagus, by John Balyur.Mr.


E lish company in


1826


rohn Baily,
to explore


who


had


been


the country and


sent


negotiate for a


cbdoession.


Failing in his main purpose, he had


remained in Central


America, and


in 1837 was employed


by President


Morazin


deter-


mine Ahe


best


location for


a canal.


The


route


that


favored was


from San Juan, now Greytown, to Lake Nicaragua, across the lake to
the Lajas, and thence to San Juan del Sur on the Pacific.


The harbor of Greytown presented


"as many conveniences as would


be required;"


it could "be entered


all seasons


and in


all weathers


without


water, and


risk:"


there


furnished
ras no da


good


anchorage in


nger within it.


5 fathom


San Juan del Sur offered


similar advantages as a


Pacific


terminus,


with a depth of


10 fathoms.


He proposed to
reuk require the


tha


San Juan


removal


through


the rocks at


entire


length.


This


rapids, the closing


the~ orado so as to divert its waters through the channel of the San


Juan to Greytown Harbor, and the deepening of
Jc lg


this part of


the San


He stated


that


four principal


rapids were within a space of


-# -


w





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


OOMMISSIOn.


above the


level of


Pacific at low water at San


Juan


Sur, and


he accepted the conclusions


reached by others


that


Pacific at low


water


was


the mouth of


6 feet


6 inches


lower than


the Lajas was 28,408 yards


Atlantic.


in length


line


summit


from
level


was 487 feet above the lake, and the canal was to be navigable for ships


of 1,200 tons burden,


with a depth of 18 feet of water.


ing the line in a few places it could be shortened 2,000


Lajas could be made available for 5,460 yards.


By straighten-
yards and the


He proposed an alter


native plan which would reduce the summit level to 122 feet above the
lake, and the connection of two of his stations by a tunnel 3,833 yards
long. He pointed out the difficulties of the work, and in case it should


not be regarded as an advisable project


suggested the consideration of


a route through the Tipitapa and Lake Managua to the port of Realejo,


but could not speak of the feasibility of


it had not been surveyed.


this route with confidence


had, however, traveled over the coun-


try between Lake Managua and the ocean,


regarded


it as worthy


of examination.


Panama, by J.


A. Lloyd.


In November, 1827, Mr. J
commission from President


. A. Lloyd received a
Bolivar to survey the


Isthmus of Panama, in order to ascertain the most eligible line of com-


munication across it


whether


by road or canal.


At this time neither


the relative height of the two oceans nor the


height


mountain


range between them had been accurately determined,


and the geographic


features of the


isthmus were


seasons in exploring


Panama


Bruja, a


imperfectly understood.


country and


place


on the


carried I
Chagres


line


He spent two
f levels from


River about


miles


above its mouth.


He reported that the mean


height of


Pacific at


Panama was 3.52 feet higher than that of the Atlantic at Chagres.


recommended a new line


across


isthmus


instead


those


from Porto Bello and Chagres by Cruces to Panama,


beginning at the


Bay of


Limon


, thence to the Chagres by a canal and up the river to a


favorable situation on the south bank of the Trinidad River, and thence


by a railroad to Panama or Chorrera, the


latter


being


minus, but the former being preferable as a better port,


the nearer ter-
and the capital


of the State


where its


trade was


already centered.


He made no ree-


ommendation in favor of a canal, but said that if


a time should arrive


when a project of a water communication across the isthmus might be





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


torial boundaries it was located


Thi


Republic, in 1838, granted to a


Makes grant to a French


a Pauama.-


Fren ruat many
construction of n


a concession,


nacadamized


authorizing


the


roads, railroads, or


anise aross the isthmus with the Pacific terminus


The company spent several years in making explorations


and communicated the results to the


French Government through M.


Salomon


, the leading spirit in the enterprise,


in the hope of secur-


that a depression in the


passage only 11.28
the sea at Panama.


ingits aid in constructing the proposed work.
Reut of exploratIons :.:*T *


Results of explorations
of Panama route.
the average level of


These results presented


mountain range offered a


meters,


about 37


feet,


above


The representations were of


character so surprising that it was


decided


to send an


officer to the


spot to study the subject, and in September, 1843, M. Guizot, minister


foreign affairs,
investigate the


instructed Napoleon Garella to


question


the junction


proceed to


both


seas


Panama
cutting


through


isthmus, and


report


means


effecting


obstacles to be overcome, and the cost of such an enterprise.


Examimned by Garella.


favored


a canal


as the only means


cornm-


munication adequate to the demands of commerce,


and, as the
hi labors 1


representative of


this object.


a great commercial


nation


He preferred to establish


directed


the Atlantic ter-


minus at the


Bay of


Limon rather than at the mouth of the Chagres,


following the recommendation


made by


Lloyd;


a connection with the


river was to be made somewhat below t
low depression, making a sea level canal


he mouth of the Gatun.


practicable within


The


a reason-


able


limit of


cost, could


not be found, and he


proposed


to cross the


but he also estimated for a cut through the ridge instead


The bottom of the tunnel


the ocean;


99 meters, nearly 325 feet, below the summit, and the level


a tunnel.


the


water 48


meters, nearly


158 feet, above


the ocean at


extreme


high tide on the Pacifc at Panama.


The summit level was to be reached


by 18 Lacks on


the Atlantic


slope and 16 on the Pacific,


with a guard


lookat each extremity to protect the entrance.


The supply of water


was:to be


furn ished


by two


lateral


canals


from


the Chagres.


The


Patio terminAs wasto be in the small


bay of


Vaca de


Monte, about


the project in an attractive way, and it was stated


divide through a tunnel 5,350 meters,


a little more than 3imiles, long,


was to be 41 meters, about 134j feet, above





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISBSION.


sels of 1,200 tons burden, 198} feet long, with extreme breadth of beam


45 feet and


a maximum


draft when


loaded of


feet, giving a


depth of 23 feet.


Garella'


report


found


House


Report


, Twenty-fifth Con-


gress, third session.


It disappointed


expectations


that


had been


raised


by the


projectors


no further


steps were


taken


matter


and the concession was forfeited.


Increased Importance of
maritime communication.


About the middle of the century a succession of


great events vastly increased


maritime


connection


between


the
the


importance of a


two


oceans


the United States.


line


west


The dispute with Great Britain,


Rocky


Mountains,


was


settled


as to the boundary
bv the Buchanan-


Packenham treaty in


1846


and


in August,


1848


an act


Congress


was passed under which Oregon became an organized Territory


. The


war with Mexico was


commenced


the Guadalupe-Hidalgo treaty,


early in


1846


and


which closed it in 1848


by the terms of
. California was


ceded to the United States.


Before the treaty had


been


ratified gold


was discovered there


and


a few months many thousands


from the


eastern part of the country were seeking a way to the mining regions.


To avoid the hardships and delays of


the journey across the plains or


the voyage around the


continent,


lines of


steamers and


packets were


established from


New


York to Chagres and San


Juan del Norte and


from


Panama


Francisco, some of


latter


touching


Pacific


ports


Nicaragua.


For


a while


those


traveling


these


routes had to make


arrangements for crossing the isthmus


after their


arrival


there,


were


often


subjected


serious


personal


incon-


veniences and suffering as well as to exorbitant charges.
The requirements of travel and commerce demanded better methods
of transportation between the Eastern States and the Pacific coast, but


there
these


were


other


sections


reasons


into


closer


a more


public


communication.


character


The


bringing


establishment


and


maintenance of


army posts and


naval


stations


newly acquired


and settled regions in the Far West, the extension of mail facilities to
the inhabitants, and the discharge of other governmental functions, all


required


a connection


in the


shortest


time


and at the least distance


that was possible and practicable.


wnas n manifest that


The importance of this connection


the Government was aroused to action before all





REPORT


BesoltuUous relating to


nteroceanic
tionis come
g"reS.


communica-


before


OF THE


The


ISTHMIAN


increased


communication


N
Congress.


CANAL


importance
brought the


joint


COMMISSION.


int~roceanic


subject
was ii


resolution


also


atrodu


before
Loed in


the House of Representatives during the Thirtieth


Congress, authorizing the survey of


certain routes for a canal or rail-


Referred to select corn-.


alMs..


road


between


two oceans


which


with


other


papers of a like character was referred to a select


committee of which Mr. John A. Rockwell was made chairman.


eort ockwell co-
mitte..


uked


the


The committee did
what extent, if any,


should be


importance o


rendered


a communication


not
the


feel
aid <


these
from


prepared


to say to


Government


projects, but recog-


ocean


ocean, and


presented such


information as was available


in relation


pal routes to which public attention had been directed.


to the princi-
The superior


hnportance of


a ship canal was


recognized, but it was suggested that


until one could be constructed a railroad would be valuable for earlier
use and as an auxiliary to a canal.
The passage of the joint resolution was recommended with an amend'


maten authorizing surveys from some point on the Gulf


Mexico to


the Pacific Ocean


, in addition to the surveys


resolution.
eI report of this committee was


provided for in the


joint


made to the House February 20,


1849, in the second session of this Congress, and is numbered 145.


lemoral of projectors of
Panama railroad.


same


John


session


L. Stephens, and


William


Henry Chaunc


Aspinwall,
y, who, as


will appear a little farther on, had undertaken the
ucounsructrn of the Panania railroad, presented a memorial, asking that
the Secretary of the Navy be empowered to enter into a contract with


them


transportation


over their


road,


when


completed, for a


periodof twentyyears, of naval and army supplies, troops, munitions


of war, the United States mails,


and public agents or officials, at a rate


not eiceeding the amount then specified by law to be paid for the trans-
'"~~Lv rpol onf condi- bF.


portation of the mails alone
Hell'?^fV'OTkTil~ /n


from


txon kat they commence within


New


one


York toc


year, and


SLiverpool, on condi-
complete within three


years their
referred in t
Affairs. and


proposed rofa
he House of


a report


was


across


Representatives
made recommi


isthmus.


The


memorial


was


the Committee on Naval


ending that


they be


granted





REPORT


THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


Advantages of Nicaragua
route.


The advantages


an interoceanic


which


cana


this
I bee


country offered


n


known for centu-


ries,


negotiation


and


a treaty with


desire


Nicaragua


secu
Mr.


re them
Elija I


ise


, charge


d'affaires of the United States, in June,


Hlise treaty.


term


Republic


1849.


undertook to confer upon


the United States


, or a company


its citizens


, the exclusive right to


construct


through


territory


canals


, turnpikes,


railways,


or any


other kind of


roads, so as to


open


a passage


communication


land or water, or both, for the transit and passage of ships or vehicles,


or both


between


Caribbean


Pacific


Ocean.


The


terms of the treaty were most liberal, and in return the United States


was to aid and protect Nicaragua in all defensive wars,


Navy and


available


means


and


resources


both


the Army and
countries to be


used


,if necessary


to defend


the territories of


the latter or to recover


such as might have been seized or occupied by force.


sented
United


to these terms


States


because it was desired


in resisting


policy


which


to secure


Great


Nicaragua con-
the aid of the


Britain


was


then


pursuing


Central America,


with the apparent intention of securing


permanent


control of


lower waters of


the San Juan


under a


claim


already mentioned,


that the boundarie


of the Mosquito district


extended


to and


included the mouth of


that river,


where at this time


the Mosquito flag was maintained under


British protection.


Hise succeeded by Squier.


tration at Washington.


Mr.


Hise


had exceeded his authority in making


this treaty and it was not approved by the Adinins-


He was afterwards recalled and was succeeded


Squier,


who negotiated another


treaty upon the subject


Contract
Atlantic and


of American,
Pacific Ship


a contract


Atlantic


for
the


facilitating
Pacific, by


transit


means


from
a ship


Canal Company with Nic-
aragua.


canal or railroad


Atlantic


in the interest of


Pacific


Ship


Canal


the American,


Company,


corn-


posed of Cornelius


Vanderbilt


, Joseph L.


White


Nathaniel H


Wolfe,


and their associates.


These


two


treaties were


never


ratified,


they were


subjects


Clayton-Bulwer treaty.


conference and discussion during the


negotiations


which led to the Clayton-Bulwer treaty of July


1850.


By this


it was agreed,


4-
amon~r
%


other


things,


that


two con-





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISBIOIL


This provision was understood to be in
f I JB l : ~m. /S'iH : f


for which


WjmrS W oKrset withu
bus Compey.


August, 1849.


cquier


the interest of


had


obtained


the company


a contract


By its terms the State had granted


period


eighty-five


years,


p mounted from


the completion and opening


of the work to public use,


the


exclusive


right


and


privilege


excavating


ship


canal


VOSMOI


izes, from


Grey Town, or


any other feasible point


the Atlantic,
Tamorinda,


San


means


River,


and


lhe port
Juan d<


San


Li~ke


Juan


Managua,


Realejo,


Sur, or


River,
or any


Gulf


any


other


Lake
other


Amapala


point


Nicaragua,


waters


or Fonseca,


on the


the
its


within


Pacific,
Tipitapa
jurisdic-


tion.


The contract also


cdnstruet rail


or carriage


gave to the


roads


and


company the
bridges, and


exclusive


to establish


right


steam-


boats and other vessels on the rivers and lakes as accessories to and in


furtherance of


execution


the canal


project.


And


the con-


struction of the canal or any part of


it should


be found to be imprac-


ticable, then
some other


company was


communication


authorized


between


to establi


a railroad


two oceans within


time


limited and subject to the same terms and conditions.


Canal confany incorpo-
rated In Nicaragua.


Subsequently in


incorporated
prevent any


March


, 1850, the company was


Republic


embarrassments


Nicaragua to
development


and prosecution of its enterprise.


I new arrangement was
the contract relating to


made
steam


August,


navigation


1851


, by which the part


upon the waters


State was separated from that relating to the canal.


This was desired


by the co many so


as to establish


a transit route


across the


isthmus


connecting with steamship lines at the terminal


ports.


It was accom-


polished


Organization of


a new


Acces-


sory Transit Company.


charter, authorizing the
company with the same


organization
membership,


another


but distinct


and separate, to be known as the Accessory Tran-


sit Company,


with


understanding,


however,


that


neither


party was


relieved


from


performance of


obligations imposed by the former contract and charter.


Transit route established
by accessory company.


The


year,


accessory


availed


company,


itself


of the


during t]
privileges


following


new


contract and established a transportation line from





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHM1AtI~T


CANAL


GOEXISSIOK


was finally terminated by the disturbed conditions which resulted from


the expeditions of

Central Amer can Transit
Company.


Walker into Central America.


At a later date the


transit route was reopened for a short


time under


a new charter in the name of the Central American
Transit Company.


The American Atlantic


Pacific Ship Canal Company


also


took


preliminary steps for the accomplishmentof the larger matters involved


in its contract.


Though there had been before this time many explora-


tions


, reconnoissances, and examinations


this


country with a view


to the location and excavation of a ship canal, it does


not appear that


any thorough


and


complete survey


had


ever


been attempted, and if


any had ever been


made there


was


no record


existence


or of


any


basis


even


roughest estimate of


the cost of such a work


upon any of the proposed lines through Nicaragua.


mined that there should be a careful


instrumental


to ocean and that a line of location should


It was now deter-
survey from ocean


be determined upon.


cot


Colonel Chllds appointed
to survey canal route.


Orville


Childs, of Philadelphia,


as chief engineer


take


charge


was appointed


this


work


August,


The results of thi


in connection


1850, and he completed it in March, 1852.


survey are given in another chapter of this report,


with the engineering features of the Nicaragua route.
At the request of the company the report of the


Report ul
Colonel Abert


bmltted


and Lieu-


tenant-Colonel Turnbull.


survey and
Fillmore to


location


was


submitted


Abert and


President


Lieut.


Col.


Turnbull


United


States topographical


engineers,


for their inspection and opinion,


and on the 20th of March, 1852, they


reported that the plan proposed by Colonel Childs was practicable,
recommended some changes and modifications.


In view of the joint agreement to protect such a


c*~,nal


entered


into


by the United


States


and


Great


Britain


it was


deemed


advisable


invite the British Government to submit the Childs report to engineers


well-known


skill


and


experience,


and


Submitte
engineers


British


by request


American minister.


request of Abbott Lawrence, the American minis-


Lord


Malmesbury


Edward Aldrich, of


- James


Walker,


eminent


civil


designated


the royal


engineer,


Lieut.


engineers,
make th4


and


Col.
Mr.


desired


examination.


I




REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


increase of


the depth to 20 feet,


of the locks to 300 feet.


the breadth to 50 feet, and the length


These dimensions thev said


would render the


navigation more


increased


expense


efficient
e would


for the


general


unimportant


purpose
when


trade


compared


, and
with


advantages.
Value of Chllds report.


the constru
vef hi r ZUC
KK uson s
K^ K ne K K


action of
1o hasb


Nothing


further


Atlantic and Pacific
a maritime canal, b


ever


since


been


was
Ship


done
Canal


American


Company toward


ut the value of the Childs sur-


recognized, and


reached by him have served as a


basis for the


results


and


operations


~uanra
flJ$3.s, Rat


otract of companies
ononpert rm -


No pr
tion of


ogress having been
the canal, it was claim]


made in the construe-
med by the President


of Nicaragua that the undertaking had been aban-


doned


and


that the company had


failed


make


he annual payments due under its contract, and the decree was made


on the


18th


tracts made


day of
with lt


February, 1856, revoking and annulling the con-


he ship


canal


company and


accessory


transit


o pany. and all the privileges contained
incoporation, and dissolving and abolish
r decreed that all the company pro
S 1" "" '1 1- 1 -


qf anch amount as might


h


therein, and
inr the comn


C


rt. t1r~L.


also the act of


ipames.


It was


perty be seized to secure the


oe ane me t otew


be ascertained


board appointed
cBmpany denied


to make a thorough examination


the right


Government


affairs.


to annul the con-


and withdraw the charter, and various attempts were made from


an3 rea
p 0K KK:;t-:KKK K 'K


time to settle their differences, but .the decrees were


firmed and no work was ever done
whih Colonel Childs had prepared.
"Cornel G


After the Nicaraguan (
to American Atlantic and
*rican


governmentt


by the


had declared


Pacific Ship Canal


renewed


company upon the

the concession to


Company terminated,


Ii naed


of
thai


noncompliance


it was


with


still entitled


terms,


to the


and


while


company


privileges it contained, Nica-


.ragua and Costa Rica united, in ME
Mon to elix .Belly, a citizen of Fra
dmoft f -the San iuan, by way of


A


iy, 1858, in granting a like conces.
nce, to construct a canal from the
the river and Lake Nicaragua, to


This concession was to be executed by a company which he


was B oOrg
fip tfr pjf.


ranize. The neutrality of the canal was to be maintained by
nnwsr" in arnnnv with the nolier of the Clayton-Bulwer


P4


*J


'* *'**


l


i





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


OANAL


COMMISSION.


these


powers to exercise a permanent armed


intervention would


give


serious


cause of


dissatisfaction to all


others.


But


no effort was


made to carry the obnoxious clause into effect, for the company failed


to execute its project


concession was


annulled.


In October,.


1868, the two Republics entered into a contract with Michel Chevalier,


another citizen of France


, with the same purpose in view.


They also


entered into a treaty with one another in'the following year, in support


of the contract, which is presented more fully in the chapter on


privileges,
trained in


"Rights,


and franchises," and some articles from the treaty are con-


Appendix


This effort


secure


the construction


canal also failed, and the contract was forfeited.


Before


treaty


with


New


Granada


already


New Granada makes con-
tractwith French Company
for railroad at Panama.


referr
May,


ed


had


been


ratified,


1847, had granted to the


that


Republic,


Panama Company,


an association


Frenchmen


represented


one


Mateo Kline


, the exclusive privilege of building a railroad between the


two oceans across


isthmus


ninety-nine


years,


counted


from the day of the completion and opening of the road to public use.
The company failed to carry out this contract and it was declared for-
feited.


New contract with Amer-
ican Company.


Subsequently, in December, 1848,


ment transferred the privileges


tract


with some


modifications


of the
which


Kl


wil


Govern-
ine con-
l appear


in another chapter of this report,


to Aspinwall, Stephens,


and Chaun-


cey,


who,


with their associates, organized the


Panama Railroad com-
pleted In 1855.


pany,


which


road


Panama
was c


Railroad Corn-


constructed


and


opened to public use early in 1855 from Aspminwall,


or Colon


to Panama


a distance of 47*


miles.


But this railroad


, valuable and useful as it promised to be, was only


a forward movement.


remained.


The barrier was more easily passed,


but it still


The desire for a maritime canal was increased rather


than


New examinations of dif-
ferent canal routes.


abated, and further examinations and surveys were


diligently prosecuted at different


isthmian


advantages and possibilities of


country


different


ascertain


routes


locations


and
and


develop
schemes


that


had been from time to time proposed.
The Government and people of the United State


, Great Britain, and


!~'




REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


There were traditions and reports of
in the mountain range and of passage


CANAL COMMIT

the existence of


es


for canoes used by the Indians


Swished


*to er fi :om sea


to sea.


So when the difficulties


of the Nicaragua and Panama canal
Survey and the survey for t
and:survey


erected


transit,


to this


r1e


routes were made known by the


he


"n in the hone of
yo n X ...j AK -


A


railroad,
finding


public attention was


a shorter


and


easier


where a sea-level canal might be excavated.


Three general


lines were examined-the San


Blas,


Caledonia Bay,


and


the


Atrato.


They


derived


their


names


in each


case


from


Atlantic
courses


terminus, 1
d different


there


were


rivers, and, in


variations


case


E each, following the
Atrato, reaching the


Pafci at different


points from the Gulf


San Miguel to the mouth


of 'the San Juan at Chirambira Bay, more than 300 miles farther south.


These examinations were


made in some cases at


unit."


Saes Govern-


meant aids in the examina-
tios.


the expense of


private individuals and companies,


Government


was


sometimes


extended through


the Navy Department, and par-


ties of


officers and men


from the United


States vessels


on the coasts


of the isthmus explored the country to determine whether any practi-


cable and


desirable canal


routes existed there.


The country was also


visited by other exploring parties from Great Britain and France.


General results.


Some


stated and


the result
considered


:s of these


another


examinations are


chapter


of this


report.


It is sufficient to say here that they added greatly to the topo-


graphic and
expectations


geographic


of those who


be found where a canal


knowledge


had


could


these


anticipated
be construe


that
d at


regions


and


that


an easy route would
comparatively little


cost were not realized, though


some of


the reports were so favorable


as to


encourage


further


investigation.


Accounts


some


these


expeditions are


made


to be found


ii'


Secretary of the


Sthe r
Navy


report on the
bv Lieut. I.


isthmus of Darien,
G. Strain in 1854,


published during the Thirty-third Congress, second session,
du.... r ing.. ^ *^^^^* secon sess n,


SDoeo .No. 1, and irk the report of Lieut. John T.
th reor of


States


Navy,


published


during


Forty-seventh


Sullivan,
Congress,


5 Senate
United
second


Sion, a House Ex. Doe. No. 107.


Bea. rnaeq i export of
resmaults of examinations In
n -.


In March, 1866, a resolution was adopted by the


Senate, requesting


Secretary of


Navy to


srow. 51

low depressions


Is


t




REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


OANAL COMMISSBBION.


the resolution was understood to be to obtain a basis for a continu-


ance of


the examination of


the routes not already sufficiently known,


without any useless expenditure of money upon schemes already found
to be infeasible and unpromising.


Report of Admiral Davis.


In response to the resolution, Secretary Welles,


inm the


following


July,


transmitted


report


Rear-Admiral Charles


Davis


which was


printed as Senate Execu-


tive


Document


during the


first


session


Thirty-ninth


Congress.


It was


accompanied with a


general


map of the American


isthmus and maps and profiles of


different


routes


included in the


investigations made under the resolution.


The report enumerates


country


19 canal and 7 road projects in


extending from Tehuantepec to the Atrato.


the isthmian


It excludes from


further consideration


projects


Tehuantepec


and


Honduras


possessing


little


merit


as practicable canal


lines.


With reference to


the eight routes in Nicaragua, Admiral Davis says:


"It may be safely asserted that


no enterprise,


presenting such for-


midable


difficulties,


will


ever


undertaken


with


even


our


present


knowledge


American


isthmuses.


Still


likely to


entered upon while such strong and well-founded hopes are entertained


by the promoters of


finding elsewhere


union of


a very much


easier


Atlantic


and


, cheaper, and


Pacific


more


oceans of


practicable


route for a canal in every way suited


to the present demands of


corn-


merce and navigation."
In speaking of the project of connecting the Upper Atrato with the


San Juan


, he says:


"The examination of the headwaters of the Atrato, of the interven-


watershed, and


the headwaters of the San


Juan


satisfactorily


proved that nature forbid


us altogether to entertain an idea of a union


of the two oceans in this direction."
He gives a general description of the other lines in Panama, Darien,
and the Atrato valley, and favors further examinations for the reason


that


, according to his statement,


"there does not exist in the libraries


of the world the means of determining,


even approximately, the most


practicable


route


a ship canal


across


isthmus."


further


says,


"The


Isthmus of Darien has not


been


satisfactorily explored,"


and afterwards adds


"It i


to the Isthmus of Darien that we are first


S1..I. .- ...it .^ .r .P it.----------------.-----------l.~ .. -.--. ----- 1 I





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


as Chief of the Bureau of Navigation,


was authorized


to


send opt expeditions for this purpose.


organize and
In March,


Cosress authorlzeN fur-


her explo


able in


c a1 a


rations.


1872,


a further


it
explorations & &in
formatibin hearing the
.cross the 4merican contir
:* ym e*: ::*:. J^.a n A ~
tero ^B---^--/: -^fi^


resolution


of a commission


waS


adopted


to study the results


From other reliable sources all avail-
racticability of the construction of a


tent.


The President appointed on this


and Cbmmodore
ti~ 1teNafy.
Th &lrrmtxiissioners
Ait been made before


Inte roceani Canal Commission


reys, Chief of
P. Patterson,
Daniel Ammen


considered
their app


Engineers,


Gen.


Hum-


United States Army;


Superintendent of the Coast Sur-
, Chief of the Bureau of Naviga-


results


ointmentt


investigations which


and those still


min progress,


aid under their directions further explorations and examinations were


made


isthmian


country


wherever


they


regarded


additional


information as necessary to enable them
the law.


to carry out


the purposes of


~*ummtspos.


Capt. R.


. Shufeldt,


United States Navy, hadlin


been placed in charge of an expedition to Tehuan-


tpee in the fall of 1870; he reached the Atlantic terminus of the route
aly in November and completed his examination in the latter part of


following April.


level


and


transit


line was


run from


Salina


Crus, on the Pacific, to thedividing ridge at Tarifa, and was continued
b there to the junction of the Upper Coatzacoalcos, or Corte River,
with the Blaneo.


Te iant of sufficient force and


the season


of the


year prevented


the running of the line from Tarifa to the Atlantic, but the party had
the results of former surveys for railroad purposes and careful obser-


vations


frequent


made


journey


those employed


along


route,


expedition,


them


during


in reaching


their
their


inclusion.


The


canal


line,


which was recommended in


the report of the expe-


edition commenced


at the head


navigation in the Coatzacoalcos,


the island of Tacamichipa, th
utfizifig it whenever desirable,


ence


through


valley


rive,


to the dividing ridge at Tarifa, thence


descending through Tarifa Pass, probably by the valley of the Chicapa,





REPORT


Captain


THE


Shufeldt entered


ISTHMIAN


upon


OANAL COMMISSION.

work, maintaining that "with


the advantages of


modern


science


a canal


can be built anywhere, in-


evolving only the question of


expense, provided water can be found to


But


when


reported


result


survey,


and


con-


sidered the difficulties and expense of executing the plan, he expressed


the opinion


that it "can only be deemed


practicable to


extent of


its political and commercial necessity, measured by the progress of the


age."


The


report was


printed as Senate Executive Document No. 6,


in the second session of the Forty-second Congress.


Nicaragua.


examine


April


mand


was


Commander


Navy,


he Nicaragua
in attempting


then


assumed


was


route


Crosman


placed


1872


in charge


but was


effect a landing
v Commander


United


States


of an expedition to
drowned on the 12th


Greytown.


Chester


The


Hatfield,


cornm-


United


States Navy,


the officer next in rank,


who began a survey on the west


side


Lake


season.


Nicaragua,


and


October, 1872, he


continued


was


work


relieved


until


Commander


e rainy
Edward


Lull,


Lull survey.


United


reorganized


States Nai
November,


the expedition


and


a survey


was
the


entire route from Greytown to Brito was completed during the follow-


mg year.
engineer.


Mr.


Menocal served in this expedition as chief


An account of


this survey will


appear in another


civil


chapter


this


report.


It follow


the Childs


route


, except


that on the west


side of


the lake it crosses the divide


farther to the north and follows


the valley of


the Medio to the lake


, making a shorter line,


but requir-


ing deeper cutting at the divide.
The Hatfield and Lull report was printed as Senate Executive Docu-


ment No. 57


in the first session of


the Forty-third Congress.


McFarland report.


The


Interoceanic


Canal


Commission


had


also


before them a report on the Nicaragua route made


by Maj.


Walter McFarland, Corps of Engineers,


United States Army,


who


was


detailed


examinations.


War


went


over


passes in March, 1874, and


including a rough estimate of


Department to aid
ae country through


made a favorable


the cost of


report


canal 26


in making
which the


upon


feet


these
canal
route,


deep at $140,


000,000.


The


report


was


printed


Senate


Executive


Document


No. 46, in the second sessionrof


the Fifty-second Congress.




REPORT


TUE


ISTHMIAN
*^ ^ **


CANAL


COMMISSION.


from the Bay of Limon to


the Chagres, ascending


nte Obispo to the divide and descending the P
ofte Rio Grande o thle Bay of Panama.
eal of the Pana"a ailroad, and the plan of
oK KKe ta ak Xra aria. XX K K^ ^ T^B


valley and


pacificc


atope


that


by the


It follows the pa-


construction,


with


e variations, has ben adopted in most of the subseque.
The report was printed as Senate Executive Document No.


at surveys.
75, in the


third session of the Forty-fifth Congress, and the project is more fully
described in another chapter of this report.


The


Interoceanic


Canal


Commission


had


before


surveys


which


had


Darien and


been


made


the Atrato


various


Valley and


routes


further exami-


nations


were


made


parts of


these


regions


Captain


Lull


and


Saul ad MNFarlfnd.


Major McFarland, the results of which are printed


the volumes


already referred


to, in connection


with their reports upon the Panama and Nicaragua routes.


Prior


Seifridge.


this,


Commander


Selfridge,


United States Navy, was engaged for many months


in 1870-1873 in exploring this part of the isthmian country.


He was


first
1870,


placed


command


an expedition


junior officers of


by Secre
Navy and


t


ary Robeson in
others from the


Coast Survey and a number of skilled assistants, besides a large guard


of marines,


and


was


directed


make a


survey


isthmus


Darien to ascertain the point at which to cut a canal from the Atlantic


to the


Pacific Ocean.


Two vessels were placed


under


immediate


command


and


Pacific side.
was sent out


a third
A similar


was


detailed


undei


cooperate
Sthe same


with


him


on the
officers


to continue the work in the following year, and under a


later order
April, 1873.
of 1870 and


from


Navy Department


1871, and was


in command of


work was


due of


completed


vessels on the


Atlantic side.


The


parties


working


under


these


orders


made


tentative


surveys


from San Blas Bay t- the


headwaters of the Chepo, from


Caledonia


Day to the


Morfi, and from the same vicinity on the eastern coast to


the Scubti across the divide; also the Depuydt route and that of
Cocarica and Tuyra rivers.


The repot of these surveyswas printed as House Mis.
a* .&' /.


: tk~ 4L~ .~Anfl itt a "Un,.4~r. nn nnw. ii inn Cd


Darien,


with a corps of


expedition


principal


Commander Lull assisted in the work of the expeditions


Doc. No. 113





REPORT


THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMXISBION.


lake and


through


Grande to


construction and


offers fewer difficult
points of view than


the valleys of
Brito, on the


maintenance of
ies from engine
any one of the


Medio


Pacific


and


the Rio


coast, possesses, both


a canal, greater
ering, commercial


other routes


advantages and
, and economic
n to be practi-


cable by surveys sufficient in detail to enable a judgment to be formed
of their respective merits."


This


report was


not transmitted to


Congress till April,


1879,


when


it was called for by a resolution of the Senate.


ate Ex. Doc. No.


It was printed as Sen-


15 in the first session of the Forty-sixth Congress.


While


Interoceanic


Canal


Commission was examining into the


merits of


the different canal routes a provisional company was organ-


ized


France for the purpose of


inaugurating a scheme for the con-


nection


the Atlantic


and


Pacific


oceans


a navigable


waterway


Colombia grants conces-
sion to L. N. B. Wyse.


across
Wyse,
visited


American


as the


isthmus.


Lieut.


representative of this organization,


the Republic of


Colombia


to examine the


isthmian section there and, if practicable,


to negotiate a favorable con-


cession as


a basis for


their plans.


May, 1876, he


entered


into a


contract


with


Colombian


Government


which


was


afterwards


May, 1878, modified


and


extended so as to give to the promoters the


exclusive privilege, for ninety-nine years,


of constructing and operat-


a canal


across


territory


Republic,


between


two


oceans,


without any restrictive stipulations of any kind, provided that


the company of


rims


in which


privileges
which the


execution selected a route


Panama


amicable


new


canal


Railroad


arrangement


company


could


Company


must


occupy


in that part of


already
made


with


territory


the isth-
exclusive


under
which


these privileges existed.


Under this


latter contract


general route of the proposed


canal


was


determined by an
others. t<


international
be assembled


congress of


later


engineers and


than


1881.


International


Scientific


Congress at Paris In 1879.


accordance with


Scientific


this


Congress"


provision an


was


assembled


"International


Paris


May, 1879,


and


a decision was reached


that. the best


line for a man-


time canal across the American isthmus was from the Gulf of


Limon


the Bay of


Panama.


account of


this


congress will


appear





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


ing features of the different plans upon which they have operated, will
appear in another chapter of this report.
The report of the Interoceanic Canal Commission was generally
accepted with reference & te feasibility of the proposed cani routes
in te Tehuantepec, arien, and Atrato regions, and no further sur-
*_ --s -A -J : *- -
___ -N :A'-'. ':** rI* / t'I . 1 ti 2 A I.-y HA


e ra made under the authority of the United


assue solet Yk astr
XRR tot *Iap raiway.,


Stat e.


But


endeavored


when


Mr.


carry


James


out his


Eads, in


project


1881,


a s


railwy, he :


recogidsed the advantages of the Tehuantepec transit for


his paes and obtained a charter
authorizin him to use this route.


from the Government of


His plan


Mexico


for transporting vessels


Srom


oc~sn


to ocean


had


many advocates,


who


believed


that such a


communi ':r:l:cato i


was entirely practicable, and


could


be constructed at


lss cost than


a maritime


canal


by any of the


routes that


have been


consideredd.


The


plan


was


brought


before


Congress


in an effort


secure


governmental aid, but without


success, and


since the death of


Mt Eads in


1887, no


further


efforts


have


been


made


carry


project into executi'
NiCaragua Menocal sur-
vey.-
4a^.


The Nicaragua route was again surveyed in 1885,


under an krder of the


Mr.


Menocal.


Secretary of


report


Navy,


recom-


wended a plan which is stated in the chapter of this report on the Nica-
ragua route.
The report of this survey was pri t d as Senate Ex. Doe. No. 99 in
th irat session.of the Forty-nminth Congress.


frost ziengetatl with
Ile awagu Ia 1884.


In December, 1884, a treaty had been negotiated
between the United States and Nicaragua, author-
izing the construction of a canal by the former over


the territory of the latter, to be owned by the two contracting parties.


It is more
appears a

It rhbiL


particularly referred to in another


SAppendix


December,


188&


still pending in the Senate,


part of
I, while


this report and


treaty was


it was withdrawn from


further consideration by the Chief Executive,


who


perpetual alli
of the territory


stated as a reason for his action that it proposed a


since with Nicaragua and the
nce.,


yof


that


State, contrary to


protection of
the declared


the integrity
policy of the


:**




REPORT


OF THE


ISTHML4i~T


CANAL


COMMISSION.


A company of execution was organized,


under the name of The Marl-


Maritime Canal Company.


time
and


Canal
operate


Company


canal under


Nicaragua, to


construct


these contracts, and it


was


incorporated by Congress in February, 1889.


The


features


project adopted


by this company, the work


accomplished,


subsequent


organized in connection with it,


failure
and the


construction


action of


company


the Government of


Nicaragua


in declaring its contract


forfeited


terminated


because


lack


fulfillment


most


essential


clauses are


stated


another chapter of this report.


Propositions to aid the company were


before Congress for several


years,


through an arrangement by which


the Government


was


become a stockholder and


an indorser of the


company's
was passed


bonds, and


by the


a bill for


Senate


accomplishment of


January, 1895,


failed


this purpose
n the House


Representatives.


Another


, retaining


company


organiza-


tion, but eliminating the private or individual stockholders,


was passed


by the Senate in January, 1899,
by the House before the close of


but no


final


action


was taken upon it


the Congress.


While


the former


bill was


pending in the House


an amendment to


the sundry civil appropriation


was adopted


in the Senate


for the


purpose


ascertaining


feasibility, permanence, and


cost of


construction


and


Nicaragua Canal Board.


completion


canal


contemplated route.


neers


was


provided


President-one from the Corps of


for,


Engineeers of


through
A board


Nicaragua


three


engi-


'e appointed by the
the Army, one from


the e
tions


engineers or
to be made


Navy, and


by the


one


Secretary of


from
State


civil


Under


regular


with the approval of


President,


this


board


was


to visit


and


personally inspect


route,


examine and consider the plan


, profiles, sections, prisms, and specifi-


cations for


various


parts, and


report to the President.


In case it


should


be ascertained that any


deviation from the


general


ine of


proposed


route was desirable


the board was directed so to state in its


findings and conclusions.


The bil
2.1895.


l


was


passed with


this amendment and


The President appointed Lieut.


was approved March


William Ludlow, Corps


Engineers,


United


States


United


States


Navy, and


Army;


Alfred


Civil Engineer


Noble


civil


engineer, to


Endicott,
constitute


*k;~ knn'..r1


; ~I' nn ~ A no4 n'rtn e~A n a +k~ T%414nn ~n nno ('Is no1


*Et jk A4 *r5b ** N




pH:'hhIIIIIIwmi;0~III~I!:n A 55 r AA1:A 4 'S V


REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


fixed in the law, and with the limited means appropriated for the
hment of its work, to make a full and thorough examination
ite route and obtain the nece ssary data for the formation of a final


project of
that there


a canal, and in the report a recommendation was


be further


explorations


and


+observations


included


so as to collect


Sthe information


and


data


regarded as essential


to the comprehension


fundamental


features


canal


problem,


which


should


decide the final location and cost of the work.


In aceordanee


with


the views


board, there was


included


the sundry civil appropriation
^ rr I


act,


which was approved June 4, 1897,


an appropriktion to continue the


surveys and examinations in Nicara-


gua, authorized by the former act, under which the Ludlow Board had


been appointed.


By this


latter


President was empowered


icaraguas Canal Conmmls-
aton.


appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the


Senate, a


commission


to consist


one


engineer


from the Corps of Engineers of the United States
Army, one officer of the Navy, from the active or retired list, and one


engineer from civil life.


This Commission was to have all the powers


and duties conferred


upon


the former


board and was to report


upon


the proper route for a canal in Nicaragua and


the feasibility and cost


of the


work,


with


view


making


complete


plans for


con-


struction of such a canal as was contemplated.


Pursuant to


this


authority, the


President


appointed Rear-Admiral


John G.
Engineer


Walker,
*s. United


United
SStates


States
Army


Navy,
.and


Col. Peter C.
Prof. Lewis


Hains,
M. Ha


r


Corps of
rot. civil


I


eng neer, to


constitute


the Commission,


which was designated


as the


Nicaragua Canal Commission,
dent. The Commission perfo
its report to the President Ms


II
N,


Admiral Walker being named as presi-
med the duties assigned to it and made
v 9. 1899; it includes the results of the


/


latest investigations made of
the present Commission. A


this


route


prior


limited number of


a the appointment of
copies of this report,


including an atlas which was


under the


direction


of the


prepared


accompany it,


present Commission


was


printed


information


but it has not yet been published as a Congressional document.
This brings the history of the transits of the American isthmus and


of the efforts to discover or construct a


navigable waterway from the


Atlanti to the


Pacific


to the close of


nineteenth century.


Four


hnndtfT~rfd wnrla bauMmrnTnAa;


a4 -*~ f -tr~r~M


Trr/h'nn ~ki -wr 1r-t-riFi





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


Nor has any line of


transportation by land or sea been developed in


either hemisphere that has furnished the advantages expected from the
desired waterway.
The passages to the Orient around the Cape of Good Hope, through


the Strait of


Magellan and around Cape


desire for a direct line of


Horn


have


not satisfied


communication eastward or westward.


the
The


passage north of the American continent, discovered in 1851, and that


north of


Asia, first made in 1879,


were valuable only as contributions


geographic
ice seldom


knowledge,


permits


for they are


a continuous


through
voyage.


arctic regions where


Line


transconti-


nental


railroad


connecting Atlantic


and


Pacific ports have facilitated


travel and commercial


intercourse


they have


not filled


place


of a ship canal.
upon a new line,


The reopening of the ancient communication, mainly
between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean


oceanic


completion
connection


Suez


westward


Canal


less


1869


made


importance


inter


people


Europe,
demand


little


that


American


effect on the American continent.


isthmus


opened


navigation


The


from


is each year becoming more imperative.


The extension of


our


territory


Philippines


include


made


this


Le Hawaiian
connection


Islands


most


and


desirable


afterwards


for the


proper


exercise of governmental functions wherever they are to be discharged.


The preparatory work has


been


practically


completed.


nations and surveys, made under the authority of


the Uni


The exam-
ted States.


have


furnished


accurate


knowledge


geography,


topography,


and other physical features of


the isthmian country


and dispelled the


exaggerations


and fictions which were


brought


back many years


ago


from


some


sections


by credulous


travelers and


unreliable


explorers.


The comparative


merits of


the different routes are better understood


than ever before


, and those involving engineering difficulties and cost


disproportionate to their value have been eliminated.


The two remaining


routes-the Nicaragua


carefully studied by the present Commission,


and Panama-have been
and this report will con-


tain a statement of


advantages


and disadvantages of


each and


approximate estimate of their costs,
mission as to which, in view of all


and also the judgment of the Cornm-


facts, is


more


practicable


and feasible route.




REPORT


OF THE


permit the occupation of


ISTHMIAN


their


territory


CAN

y b


AL


COMMISSION.


Another power for these
&


puposea; but their great desire to see the two oceans thus connected
ad their willingness to promote such an enterprise has, it is believed,


modified their views and policy to such an extent


o enter into negotiations with


that they are ready


the treaty-making power for the ocou-


nation oi
provided


their
they


territory
receive s


United


atisfactory


States


assurance


for
that


canal
their


purposes,
rights of


sovereignty will be retspcited.


When


these


international


questions are definitely


settled and Con-


gress has enacted the necessary legislation, the removal of the barrier


between thew two oceans and the opening of the


long-desired maritime


passageto the ships and navies of the world can be accomplished.
UaiOa~y Lli S~~a UU iaiVt~oU-itIA WUAU OfliUU ai~^U~A~lli~AC4













CHAPTER

DIMENSIONS AND


III.

UNIT PRICES.


In fixing the dimensions of the canal, it is necessary to consider care-


fully the dimensions


of. the


ships which will


the prevailing as


as the


developments


large,


exceptional


of the


types- of


near future.
work will


he present day,
If the dimension


augmented


and


probable


are too


unnecessarily


small


, the canal will not fulfill its intended purpose.


The


greater


part of


ships of moderate size.


the world'


Lloyd'
ad"


s commerce
Register for


by sea is


1900-1901


carried on by


contains the


names and


dimension


of 16.264


steam


vessels of


Dimensions of ships now
In use.


all kinds, of which about 8,900 are more than 200


feet long on the keel.


This number may be taken


as approximately the number of cargo


vessels.


Only


seagoing


ships have as great a beam as 50 feet,


and only about 800 would require


a lock more than 400 feet


employed


fast


mainly on the


passenger ships


long.
North


adapted


Until


Atlantic


any


recently the larger ships were


route
other


and


trade.


largest were


The


of large freight ships with more or less passenger accommodations has


Recent Increase In ship
dimensions.


now become a marked feature of


of ship


were


building.


the development


In the years 1897 to 1900 there


in service on


North


Atlantic


route


several ships of thi,
beam, and drawing,


type,


about


feet long over all, 63 to 65 feet


when fully loaded, 30 to 32 feet.


These were fol-


lowed by the


White Star ship Celtic, recently built, said to be 698 feet


8 inches long over


ships of


all, and


feet 4- inches beam.
Being introduced, 1


On other routes
> largest now in


use being the


White Star ships of the Afric


class, built for the British


colonial service via the Cape of


Good Hope,


which are


about 550 feet


long


between


perpendiculars,


64 feet


beam


and


have a


load draft of


- -- a -w a


well


the cost of the


adopted


building


similar dimensions




REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


routes and for freight
lai
Dethi of ranal.


- r-------------- -


^"gmenswon1
nage woul
ho longer


which can be quickly


ge ship is


handled at the p t he


more economy


ical carrier
,11arrmr ^b AJI


gives


These hip an importance in determining canal
much greater than their relative number or aggregate ton-


d indicate.
exceptional


ship drawing 32j


feet in salt water,


draw nearly 1 foot more in fresh
lane13aAyJ ot

which is


water,


s Id requires for *f~ vigation not less


than 35 feet of


water in the


canal.
nels.


SThis dep h is


therefore fixed as the minimum


in all the chan-


fixng


the width of


into account the
J~ Ull^4VI.JIl lthe


locks and


prism


fast passenger ships


it is not


North


necessary to
Atlantic r


take
uites.


Such a Crade is not likely to develop through


the Isthmus.


. Limiting


inq iry to


freight


or combined


freight


and passenger ships like


Sommeai ships.
I:Bea ot commercial ships.


those mentioned, it will be noted that the maximum


beam


73 to 76


feet is found


in very few ships;


excepting these,


a numerous


the greatest is


011158.


canIal


63 to65 feet,


were


which


intended


is found in
commercial


quite
uses


only, it might be questioned whether
the extreme beam of 75 feet or more,
tIe extreme4 be am1.^" tt


dimensions should


be fixed


with the added cost of construe-


n and minor disadvantages, but the imperative requirement that the
caqa shall afford a passage for the largest war ships makes it necessary
a 1 1a1l


Beam of war ships.
ke those o fl


to provide for a beam


canaiderably greater.


The


broadest ships building for the United States Navy


WYrgiia class which
W/ (g nifw caKS V-~U~


have a beam of


76 feet and 2-


The broadest battle ship afloat is the Italian ship Regina Mfar-


g*jW vreeintly launched, which has a beam of 78.2 feet. While the
incrae t in bean of war ships has for some years been less rapid than


withId of ioes.


that of commercial ships, it is unmistakable.


For


convenience inm operating the locks the width should


e or 3 feet greater than the beam of the ship.
ole fixed at 84 feet with a view to provide for
I team of shq t
i** beam. ... *, g *


The width is there-
some further increase


of war are shorter than commercial ships of


like


of lock


Pfor any war


chamber


now afloat or building.


600 feet would be suf-
In order to make the


canal practicable for the largest existing commercial ships, and alsoto
provide considerable increase in size, the only additional expense
.ro .efo a cnse..e mrase -n *ze,


L




REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


had originally a bottom width of


22 meters (72 feet 2 inches).


It had


meters


(209


been
make


intended,


this


between


feet


widtl


when
a44


the work was


meters


(144


projected,


feet


inches)


the Bitter Lakes and the Mediterranean,
inches) between the Bitter Lakes and the


Red Sea,


but the resources of


the company proved insufficient to carry


the work


on this plan.


The width


finally adopted proved incmoon-


veniently small,


and it has since been increased to about 115 feet.


the same time the depth has been increased from 26 feet 3 inches to 27


feet 10 inches.


The ratio of


present width to depth is about 4:1.


the Manchester Canal the depth is 26 feet,


but i


to be increased to 28


feet.


When this is done the bottom width


will be about 114 feet, and


ratio


width


depth will also be about 4:1.


The Amsterdam


Canal


is at present 36 meters (118


feet 1 inch) wide at the bottom and


meters


feet


inches) deep,


giving


a ratio of


width to depth


4:2.


These


Bottom width


dimensions


of prism


to be increased to 50 meters (164 feet)


width and 9.8 meters (32 feet 2 inches) depth,


a ratio


The


bottom


width


with
feet,


which has been adopted by the Commission for the


canal sections


Isthmian routes, gives a ratio of


width to depth


which


slightly


greater than


Suez,


Manchester, and


Amsterdam canals
Canal will give.


Prism dimensions of Klel
Canal.


ratio of


, and considerably less than the enlarged Amsterdam


Mention should be made of the Kiel Canal, which
has the bottom width first given to the Suez Canal,


72 feet


width to depth of


, and has a depth of 29.5 feet, giving a
This has not been taken into account


in the preceding


comparison, for


reason


that the width is clearly


shown
Suez.


insufficient


The Kiel Canal was


commercial


built


purposes


experience at


primarily for an outlet to the North


Sea for the German
warships rather than
commercial ships of


vessels


passing


navy, and is adapted for the possible transfer of


for
large


the
SIZ(


convenience of


traverse


about


e


in 1899 was


commercial ones.


The
tons,


Few


average tonnage of


which


may be


cornm-


pared


with


average


nearly 4,000


tons


ships


passing


through the Suez Canal during the same year.


Prism In soft earth and


The side


Si'


lopes


the isthmian


t .* I


SJ


- -n -t-- ~. - 4- .- ~ fl 4- -t fl~ fl I *~ 4--


canal
_~. L


sections
.a l- ^W A3


Prism dimensions of for-
eign canals.


Sof


adopted.


4:3,




!~K.


REPORT


such lerme,
wou d inter


OF THE


the berme


sect


ISTHM


being


bottom


[IAN CANAL
such width t


canal


COl


hat
the


EMISSION. 65

the extended slopes


foot of


vertical


pita


In several p1e a slope of


1 on 1 is used, as


the Culebra


0bi on account of the perliart nature of the material, and in places


on the Nicaragua route where


rock is underlaid by clay


material is liable to disintegrate in water, as in


Where the


Culebra


Cut, or


where the rook ia shattered or deficient in hardness, as in many places
on the Nicaragua route, retaining walls are provided, taking the place
of the vertical sides of rock cuts.


Channels in open water.


greater.


Where


channels


excavated


inm open


water


and the sides will be submerged, the width is made


In Panama Bay the bottom width is to be 200 feet, with side


slopes of 1 on 3, but at


mean tide the width 35


feet


below water will


be 260 feet and at high tide 320 feet.


In the San Juan River the exca-


vated channel will be 250 feet wide at bottom with side slopes of


1, and


in Lake


Nicaragua 300


feet with side slopes of


1 on


2 .in


1 on
firm


clay and 1 on 6 in overlying mud.


In the artificial harbors at


Colon


and Greytown it will


be 500


feet with


turning


places 800


The entrance to Brito Harbor will also be 500 feet wide


bor itself, on account of its restricted length,


feet wide.
t the har-


will be 800 feet wide.


The channel widths above given are for straight sections.


On curves


of less than 12,000 feet radius, in channels less than 500 feet wide, the


Widening on curves.


width is increased at the rate of 1 foot for each 200


feet


reduction of radius, the widening on a curve


6,000


feet radius


being


feet.


This


is an arbitrary allowance.


It is the same as the allowance in Kiel Canal for a radius of 5,000 feet;


less than in


the Kiel


Canal


radii


under


5,000


feet


and


more for


radii over 5.000 feet.


Description of locks.
the side walls.


As already started, the


locks are to


have a clear


length of 740 feet and a width of 84 feet between
The depth over the head wall and over the miter sills


at the lower end of the locks,


which fix


the available depth for ships,


is to be 35 feet, the same as in the prism of the canal.


The miter sills


at the head of the


locks are


placed 1 foot


lower, the slightly greater


safety thus afforded for these sills being secured by merely exchanging


1 foot in


height of


gate


1 foot


height


of miter


sill wall and


without appreciable cost.


In order to give


the required clear length,


U, U -. ~U -. a -. I


__...:__ -_


m





REPORT


Guard gates.


OF THE


with


ordinary


ISTHMIAN


least


CANAL


COMMISSIO.


possible delay, guard


miter form


are placed


gates of the


both


ends of


every lock


or flight of locks, those at


the foot opening downstream.


When repairs to the lock are needed, these gates can be closed and the


lock


pumped


cofferdams


or the


immediately,
uncertainties


thus


avoiding


delay


attending


caisson


building


gates.


This provision


the St.
strated
walls.


is not usual,


Marys Falls canals,


there.


These


and its


gates


Ls been adopted for all the locks of
utility has been frequently demon-


supported


by extensions tf


lock


The extreme length of the masonry is 1,031.5 feet for a single


lock and 1,829.5 for a flight of two locks.
While these locks provide for the passage of the largest ships antici-


pated in the


near future


it is realized


that


the larger part of the sea


traffic of the present day is carried on by much smaller ships.


Smaller


locks


than those


adopted


could be operated


more quickly


and would
part of th
width of 1I


ships. It is
introduction


effect a material


traffic and
Stocks can


practicable,


aggregate


reduce


saving


amount of


time


water


reduced without


however


intermediate


gates,


, to provide


whereby


greater


consumed.


excluding


horter


two


smaller


lock


The


t large
by the


chambers


can be obtained and some of the advantages secured of having a small


lock


small


ships.


By the


arrangement


shown


in the


plans


whole chamber


can


used


intermediate


gates


remaining open;


by using these gates in connection with the


ber is provided having


a clear length of


upper lock gates, a cham-
feet, and by using them


in connection with the lower lock gate


, a chamber is provided having


a clear
in use.


length of 400 feet,


With


two


sufficient for most of


the freight ships now


locks combined in a flight, only one of the smaller


chambers


in each


lock


is available, the


intermediate


gates


being


placed that either the full length of the 400-foot chamber can be used.


may be found


expedient


in construction to


make the length of


reduced chamber 450 feet.
All the locks on both routes will have rock foun-


Foundations of locks on


rock.


dations.


The


rock


varies


greatly


soft and partially disintegrated.


from


hard


The poorest will


carry safely the


imposed


load,


but will


permit slow seepage for con-


siderable


distances, and will


offer


little


resistance


abrasion.


The





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


~<~


notable example, the great mass of masonry being concrete, granite
being used only for quoins, copings, and exposed angles, and brick
Spurned to the point of incipient vitrification for facing the walls above


low water and for culvert linings. The moi
Isthmus is particularly favorable for concrete.
Ifl~t elcks of e'reat


CuIfl~ IlMap.


water in the culverts will


st,


est


warm

lift t


reach


climate of the


velocity


50 to 60 feet per


second, which woul severely test any masonry, even of the best brick


o ut t e.o


Even in locks of the smaller


lifts some kind of protee-


t for the surfaces of the culverts will


probably be necessary.


a bsis for estimates a lining of cast iron of a minimum thickness of 1


W~iS


provided


where


extreme


head


water


culverts


eceods 800 feet and a lining of vitrified brick for smaller heads.


Lock gates.


The gates are designed of


miter form.


They are based


steel of the ordinary
on actual designs of


gates


nearly


equal


dimensions


prepared


under


direction


the United States Board of Engineers on Deep


Waterways.


Designing the


looks


the varying


height


of rock


at each


of the


slk sites has been taken into account.


The details of the studies con-


SceriMng the stability of


the walls, as well as of


loss of water


age, etc., are given in Appendix A. .
n order to facilitate the movement of ships into the locks, as well as


*Alrad nl.


f ong


afford


a safe


place


awaiting lockage, a


provided on


one


side of


ships


vertical


approach


walupl
wall


canal at each end of


while
1,200
every


xlo or l ht.
Unit prices have been fixed by agreement of all the members of th%


alt pces.


Commission, on


ferences


opinion


principle that, wl
or circumstances


atever
may c


dif-


~xist,


they are not enough to interfere with


a fair and


close comparison of


th different route.


These prices are as follows:


Removal of hard rock, per cubic yard -
Reoval of soft rock, per cubic yard - -


Removal of earth


Removal of


Removal of rock,


- --
----


, not handled by dredge, per cubic yard


dredgable material, per cubic yard


under water, per cubic yard -


Embankments and back filling.


ner cubic vard_


- - - -


4.75
. 60


- i





REPORT


OF THE


ISTUXIAX


CANAL


COMMISSION.


Brick in culvert lining, per cubic yard


$15.00


metal


locks,


exclusive of


machinery and' culvert


linings, per pound ----..
All metal in sluices, per pound.- -


- a a - - -
- - -- - - -


S- j- -
- -


.075
.075


Cast iron in culvert lining


Allowance for each


per pound


lock chamber


----- - .04


50, 000. 00


Additional allowance


for each group of locks


for power


100,000.00


plant - - - --. .- - - -


, per M. B.


Sheet piling in spillways, per M. B. M .. -
Bearing piles in spillways, per linear foot .


100. 00
75.00


-- ---------- .50


Average


price


pneumatic


work for the


Bohio


Dam,


below elevation


-30,


per cubic yard.


Caisson work for the Conchuda Dam, in place, per cubic
yard -... ..


29.50


20.00


Single-track railroad, complete,


with


switches,


stations,


and rolling stock,


per mile of


main line --


75,000. 00


It has been determined to add 20 per cent to the estimates of the cost
of construction to cover expenses that will be incurred for engineering,


*
Contingencies, etc.


police, sanitation, and general contingencies.


prices


based


efficient


organization


The
and


thorough


equipment,


with


understanding


that


while


work


be vigorously handled


unnecessary


and


plant will


duplication


large,


it would


machinery


it will


be so


The


driven


cost


be distributed


over


as to call for
te equipment
a very large


work.


for operating machin-


Price of timber in locks


would












CHAPTER


Iv.


OTEER POSSIBLE ROUTES.


The


American


isthmus,


most extensive


General description
American Hmius.


longitude and


meaning, is about 1,400 miles long, extending from


seventy-seventh


from


It embraces that portion of


eighth to eighteenth


ninety-fifth


parallel


the Republic of Colombia


which


meridian
latitude.
lies west


of the Atrato River in South America, the whole of


the five republics


which are grouped together as Central America, and so much of Mex-


ico as lies east of Tehuantepec.
is from southeast to northwest.


The general direction of the isthmus


For the eastern


miles


the width


this


barely 30


miles


isthmus


miles


near


is comparatively
to a maximum of
boundary between


small,


varying from a minimum of


miles.


It then widens to


Nicaragua and Honduras, narrows


to about


miles


opposite the Bay of


Honduras,


widen


again into


great


peninsula


of Yucatan, and


finally narrows


120 miles at


Tehuantepec.


glance


a map


indicates


that


only


possible


routes for an interoceanic canal must be at Tehuantepec,


Honduras, or within


at the Bay of


the eastern 600 miles.


Telluitepgec route.


as convenience


sibility from


approach


United States ports on both


ad ace
sides


~es -


the continent are concerned, Tehuantepec is
Practically the whole length of the isthmus


by far the


eliminated


best


on


location.
the dis-


tance


Pacific


ports,


and


while


distance


from


New


York


practically the
the mouth of


sam
the


e


ports


Mississippi


on the Atlantic side of the isthmus,


River is


only


about half


as far


from


Tehuantepec


as from


the


Atrato.


For


these


reasons


Tehuantepec


was selected by Capt. James B. Eads as


location


for


a ship


rail-


way across the isthmus.


If a ship railway is to be built it is probably


the best location.


The duties


this Commission


, however, are


con-


fined


finding


a route


a canal


between


the two oceans.


The







70 R

$200,000,00
estimate.


EI

)0,


UT


while


OF THE

e the c


ISTHMLILN


anal


would


CANAL C.

probably


OMMISSIOS.


least


this


Attractiveas the Tehuantepec route is from its geographical


location, it must be discarded as impracticable for a canal.


Bay of Honduras.
as Tehuantepec


be 400 miles


The next point is at the head of the Bay of Hon-
duras. This location would be nearly as accessible


on the Atlantic side, but


farther


from


north


Pacific


the Pacific
ports. The


terminus would
passage of the


isthmus here by a canal, or even by a


railroad


moderate grades, is


out of the question;
from consideration.


it is a


mountain region which


must


be dismissed


There remains the 600-mile stretch at the east-


Narrow eastern portion of
isthmus.


ern end of the isthmus,


within the limits of which


several routes have


been


proposed.


At the west-


limit


this


stretch


Lake


Nicaragua.


The


features of


Nicaragua route are thoroughly considered


in another chapter of this


report,


and nothing more need be said of it


agua to the promontory which


terminates in


here. From Lake Nicar-
Mariato Point and Cape


Mala, and which forms the western boundary of the Gulf of


Panama,


the isthmus, though


narrow, is


traversed


by a high


range


moun-


tains


, which prohibits its consideration as a location for a canal.


Gulf of Panama measures about 120 miles


headlands


known


as Cape


Mala


and


from
Pifias


The


east to west between


Point,


which practi-


cally form


southern


limit


about


miles


from


a line


necting


limit


these


two


points
closely


sweeps around this gulf on


tion


a half


circle;


northern


with


a curve


narrowest


extremity


100-fathom


which forms a


part


The


curve.


rough
whole


southern


The isthmus
approxima-
isthmus lies


north of the center of the Gulf of Panama.


The Atrato River
north latitude, flow


, rising near the fifth degree of
s northward about 300 miles at


a comparatively short distance from the Pacific and parallel to it,


thus


forming what


resembles an extension of


the Isthmus


southward;


the eastern


boundary of


this extension is not


the ocean.


The Atrato


is a silt-bearing


river


having


a considerable


fall,


and


itself


adapted


use of


ocean-going


craft,


without


large expenditures


for improvement and maintenance.


With the exception of Nicaragua


and Tehuantepec, all the routes which have been proposed for an isth-
a|n 4- 1 .. 1 I t4 T. 1 A


double


corresponds


Atrato River.




REPORT OF

tion. The old city c


THE


18THMIAN


Panama


was


CANAL


founded


COMMISSION.


1517


The


Spanish


crossing was by a paved
Poto hello, on the AtlI


road


i tic


from


side,


Nombre de
Panama,


Dios, and later from


n the Pacific.


Porto


Bolio Harbor was discovered and named by Columbus in 1502 and the
twn of Porto Bello was founded min 1584, The Panama Railroad was
ilt tny years ago ndur this ancient crossing, and its location is prae-


tialyidenticial with that selected for a canal.


Panama


route


is treated in full detail in another chapter of this report, nothing further
need besaid of it here.


&boat 70 miles.


The distance from the mouth of the Atrato River
to tide water on the Pacific at the nearest point is
Anything like a direct passage is entirely out of the


qaestin, mad it is manifestly impossible to find a canal


mouth of the Atrato to the


Pacific which will


less


line
than


from the
100 miles


long, if the improvements on the Atrato are considered a


part of


canal; the lines which have been suggested for this purpose


are


gen-


rally much longer.


While it is not impossible that a practicable line


p which to construct a canal can


Atrato


found with


Valley, the necessary length of the line,


terminus


together with the diffi-


eulties which would attend


a terminus


bearing river, are enough to show that in use
eithethe Panama or the Nicaragua location.


mouth of
it would b


a large


silt-


inferior


Limits of field work.


the search for other possible routes the field


work of this Commission


has been confined to the


regionlying


between


Panama


route


and


Atrato


River,


geiuding the routes which would utilize this


river.


Throughout the


prtiiof the Isthmus thus explored the continental divide, which else-
where lies near the Pacific, lies close to the Atlantic coast, and there are


intermediate valleys separated from the Pacific coast by ranges of


less


importance.


The


Chepo River


enters the


Gulf


of Panama 30


miles


at of the oty of Panama, coming from the east and draining a valley


nearly TO70 miles long.
.. *' / a


On the easterly side of the Gulf of Panama lies


*e~ Gultt


water


of San Miguel,


halfway


across


which is an excellent harbor, carrying


Isthmus.


The


Savana


River


enters


tide
this


gult from the north and the Tayra River from the southeast, while the


Chucunaque,


heading near the


Chepo and flowing


southeasterly, is


tributary of the Tuyra.


The continental divide on this section of the


to+)imuic ;a fhnro4!nra #b0 A;~AA0 b0f~~0~ 4-ka P Imnon Qnn on r.nn4h~


I





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


San Bias route.


The San Blas route was explored under the direc-


tion of


Mr. Frederick M.


Kelley in 1857, and was


subsequently examined by the United States Darien expedition, under


command


Commander


Thomas


Oliver


Selfridge,


United


States


Pacific,
Mamoni


Navy,


was


rivers


1870.


carried


The


with


across


Kelley


level


and


summit


examination,


transit


starting
ie Chepo


from


the


and


a point on the Carti, following


the valleys


these


streams.


The


Self ridge


surveys, starting


from


the Atlantic side were carried with level and


transit up the Mandinga


River, across


divide


while


divide, and up


barometrical


Nercalagua


reconnaissances


were


River
made


nearly to the
LI the Carti


River overlapping the Kelley survey.


This is the narrowest place on


the isthmus, it being less


than 31


miles from


shore


line


share line


and only
water in
as good
San Bias


about


two-thirds


the Chepo
as that at


River.
Panama


this


distance from


Furthermore,


while


Mandinga


at the northern end of the route


Pacific
Harbor,


Atlantic to tide
harbor is quite
in the Gulf of


is all that could be desired.


The


difficulty


line


in the


height


summit


to cross


which tunnel


from


8 to


10 miles in length were proposed.


Caledonia route.


The Caledonia route has the distinction of being


location


where


isthmus was


first


crossed


white


men.


1513


Balboa


from Caledonia Bay and crossed by


started


with


a tiresome


band


march


>f followers
San Miguel


Bav
~ *


Nearly


two


hundred


years


later,


chose this location for his Scotch colony of


in 1698


New


yjrifl.


Edinburgh,


Paterson
which by


occupying
trade of t


line


Pacific


transit across


and


East.


isthmus was


The


bay,


which


control


would


northern terminus of the canal, is still known as Caledonia Bay


the promontory at the southern end of the bay


while


near where he founded


his town,
have long


is called


since


Point


Escoces.


disappeared


All vestige


it would


Paterson'


work


hard to find any spot in


America


where there


fewer signs of


the work of


white man.


Caledonia Bay is a beautiful body


of water separated from the Car-


ibbean Sea by a series of coral keys and furnishing fairly good anchor


ages at both


ends,


though


the intermediate


portion


is shallow


route for a canal in this location would be from Caledonia Bay


. The
to San


Miguel
1 *1


Bay. As
1


a s U A.4 n t. - ~ ~. n


seen


S


from


I S


sea,


Caledonia


St


gap


is a very
i t A


- ~ -~ -. - ~ ~ ~ na t a t t r. a r~ rt ~ #t A'.





REPORT I

eiwedition in 1870.
e summit on this
'rtde only 2 miles
ffe northern tribu
whose examination


OF THE

It was


ISTHEIAN


claimed


line was not
wide a level
arv of the


was


more


G


CANAL


than 150


plain extended
lulf of San Mi


gue


continued completely


height of
SI 'r


that from a


Savana River,


Mr.


across


Gisborne,


the isthmus,


reaffirmed


this


claim.


Strain'


examination and


subsequent ones


ailedto find any suokrcondition.


mM. trae~d.


All the examinations of which there is sufficient


information


give


them


any


authentic


value


were made on the


method of
llaw the'


this way.


principle


examination
use of better


The claim


made


following


when


> streams.
tinie and


results can


some of


While


this


means do not


obtained


these routes, especially


in the


neighborhood


Caledonia


Bay,


were


such


that


substantiated


they would


better than any others.


It became necessary either to


fid these locations or to disprove their existence.


The proof derived


from


negative


examinations


character;


the several


not


valleys


be conclusive


must


until


always I
s shown


every
traced


stream


been


continuously,


explored.


positive


proof


however,


would


divide


substituted


could


nega-


tire proof.-


The Commission therefore organized a force for the pur-


pose


tracing the


at first proposed to


divid
trace


e


and


determining


continuity.


this divide continuously from


was


Chagres


Atrato.


This


been


done,


divide


been


traced from


Chagres


San


Bias


and


enough


beyond


cover all routes that


have been


suggested


this


location.


ban traced in both directions from Caledonia Bay far enough to cover


locations


which


have


range has been examined from


been


suggested


the coast


there.


The


continuously from


mountain
San Bias


to te Atrato.


The results of these surveys and this examination are


emh ied


the maps and


sketches


which


accompany


this


report.


WMhile they have not been absolutely complete, they have proved con-
ively that no low summit exists within the limits by which a canal


c would approach either


San


Bias


Bay


or Caledonia


Bay.


Any


canal terminating at either of these harbors will involve the construe-


tion of a tunneL.


There is a bare


possibility that


some


low summit


may exist


in the portion of


the range which was onlv examined from


COMMISSION.


that the


feet and


is permissible
ones, conclusive


that





REPORT


THE


113F1!ItMIAN


OANAL


this elevation was determined by actual leveling


was then followed down


COM MISSI o.

. The Chagres River


to the Panama Railroad, thus connecting this


survey with the Panama route.


The ridge has
latitude 8 45' NI


been continuously traced
., longitude 77C 38' W., t


from


o the


Carreto


summit,


Sassardi summit, lati-


tude


58'N


., longitude 77


vicinity of Caledonia Bay.


S52' W., covering the entire divide in the
The lowest summit within this limit is the


Caledonia gap,


elevations


with


an elevation


respectively


observed within these limits.


, 740,


681 feet.


827,


994,


Five other gaps,


1,098


feet,


with
were


' All of these elevations were determined


by actual leveling.


Observations from the sea


Between .the limit of


these


two


actual


s


there is a distance of 81 miles in an air line


urveys
where


the divide has not been traced.


There


also a distance of


about


mile


from the Carreto summit southeast to the Atrato where no actual


surveys


have


been


made.


Through


these


distances


divide


been carefully reconnoitered from the sea, the elevations of the higher


peaks being ascertained as well


as those


visible gaps, and


distances


being


determined


observation


made


with two sextants.


While
results


summit


this


method


such


existing


as to


within


examination


show that


these


is not


there


limits;


absolutely conclusive, the


is no probability of


this


improbability


any low
further


increased by the general character of the watershed of the country


Examination from Pacific


All this summit examination was made from the


side.


Atlantic


side.


addition


this, a


survey


was


made up the Chucunaque and the Chucurti rivers which was not quite


connected with the


threatening


been


supplied


work


attitude


from


done


from


ie Indians.
Selfridge


Atlantic


The


gap


survey


side, owing to
2 or 3 miles


1870.


These


surveys


were extended up the


Lara rivers


Tuyra and Aputi rivers and up the


, besides running a survey from the mouth of


Savana and


Lara


an easterly course to the Chucunaque.


The exploration


of other


possible


routes,


while


entirely com-


plete,


have


shown


that


is practicable


follow the divide in this


section of


the isthmus and that this is the method of


is applicable to the isthmus.


The good health of the field


exploring which


parties has


~' -~ - 4. ,. n


L*US''AtFS I (I*1* I *ISLI ~ *hJ ItS US.. aSItLa *Ai.ISI#S*


1 u avnantnfnionllr ii n bha lhrr






appear tL


REPORT

o exist.


OF THE


The


ISTEMIAN


surveys, however


N' AL


have


COMMISSION.


shown


that there


possible tunnel location on the San Bias route and at least three on the
Caledonia route. Each of these four locations, though involving a
tuneT, provides for a sea-level canal.


Stannel.


With a view to
v^aii^ iew


a canal


tunnel


determine the approximate cost


a section of


tunnel was worked


out and this section is shown


depth of 35 feet, for a width of 10
th water line, ad r a height of


fig. 1.


This section


0 feet at the bottom


provides for a
. of 117 feet on


115 feet from the water surface to


the iatmadosof


the lining.


The estimate is made on


basis of


entire tunnel


being lined with


concrete


5 feet


thick.


The quantities


and estimated cost of a single foot of this tunnel are as. follows:


676.2 cubic yards excavation


at $5.


$3,381


8&7 cubic yards concrete, at $10


Total -, _.-. -


. .. .. 887


4, 268


This corresponds to $22,535,040 per mile. In the estimates the tun-
nel has been assumed to cost $22,500,000 per mile.


Tunnel tide level, San Bias


The


location


which


seems


promise


best


such a canal is shown


in pl. 3 accompanying


this


we-
Oiirti,


The line starting from


passes


through


a tunnel


Mandinga Harbor follows up the Rio


miles


long,


and


descends


by the


va lley of the Chorrah to the Chepo.


Open excavations are maintained


both


sides of the


tunnel


a maximum depth


400 feet.


The


total length of


the line of canal is 37 miles, and


the length from tide-


water to tidewater 21 miles.


There has been no actual examination of


the valleyy of the Chorrah


because of


revolution existing


time


the attempt


was


made.


A profile of


this


location


is shown


4, and


following


such a canal


isa


rough


absence of


estimate


any means of


possible


cost of


classification the soft-


rock


price


been adopted as a fair average for all dry excavation


ouLnide of the tunnel.


166,000,000 cubic yards excavation, at 80 cents
9 ,O00,00 cubic yards dredging, at 20 cents ___
hearing


$132


,800, 000


7,800,000


500,000


4.2 miles tunnel, at $22 500 000


Tide ock ....-


- - -- - - - - -- - -


94,500,000
4,000,000
4 Tip / \r


pl.




REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAIT


CANAL


COMMISSION.


the divide, all of


them


striking the


same


point on the


Savana


River


near the mouth of the Lara, the approaches on the Atlantic side being


through the


three valleys of


the Caledonia, the Aglaseniqua, and


Sassardi.


The distance from Caledonia Bay to the mouth of the Lara


varies from 32 miles by the Sassardi route to 36 miles by the Caledonia


route.


The


Sassardi


route


has not, however,


been explored through


its whole


length, and it is quite


possible that an actual


survey would


make


it as


long


as the Caledonia


route.


Each


line would


require a


tunnel.


Sassardi


route


is tken,


length


this


tunnel,


assuming open cuts to be used to a depth of 400 feet at each end,would


be about 1.6 miles.


On either of the


other two


.the


tunnel would


about 2 miles


longer,


while


approaches


on the


south


side


would


be much heavier.
Caledonia Bay


range


feet


is virtually
or more.


tideless.


This


San


heavy


tide


Miguel


causes


Bay


a tidal


currents


Savana River strong enough to be a serious menace to navigation, and


it would be necessary to build a tide


lock


and


dam near the mouth of


the Savana.


The distance from the mouth of the Lara to the tide lock


about


miles


upper


portion


which


in a narrow


river


which would


require


enlargement


a canal.


This makes the total


length of


canal navigation


from Caledonia Bay to the


tide lock about


50 miles.
The locations of these three canal routes are given in plate 5 accom-


paying this report. Ap1
in plate 6, and from these


proximate profiles of each location are given


the following estimates of


the possible cost


of such canals have been


made.


The more extended


the character


examination of


material which


the country gives


been


an indication


used in making a rough


classification into hard rock and earth.

Sa&sardi location.


80,000,000 cubic yards hard rock,


$1.15


-

137,000,000 cubic yards earth, at 45 cents
9,000,000 cubic yards dredging, at 20 cents


61,650,000
1,800,000


4,000,000 cubic yards submerged rock,
Clearig .- - .. .. - - -


1.6 miles tunnel
*U All~l.^ /UL11H3


at $22,500,000


at $4.75


19,000,
1,000,


36, 000,000





REPORT


OF THE


IBTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


Aglaseniqua location.


66,000,000 cubic yards hard rock, at $1.15.. --.....--.
....100,Q0000 cubic yards earth, at 45 cents --.-- ----
9,000 000 cubic yards drdging, at 20 cents --- --
4,000,000 cubic yards submerged rock, at $4.75 --.....-- .- --


3.6 miles tunnel, at $22,500,000
Tide lock and dam .. __. ___
40 miles railroad, at $75,000 ..(


Total - -- -- - -


20 per cent engineering, contingencies, etc.


$75, 900,000
49, 500, 000
1,800,000
19,000,000
1,000,000
81,000,000
5,000,000
3,000,000


- 236,200,000
- 47,240,000


Total


283,440,000


CaOedonia location.


77,000,000 cubic yards hard rock, at $1.15 -
129,000,000 cubic yards earth, at 45 cents -
9,000,000 cubic yards dredging, at 20 cents


---- -- -- a
- - - - - -


4,000,000 cubic yards submerged rock, at $4.75
hearing -- -_ -. .. ... - - - -
4 miles tunnel, at $22,500,000_ ._ .-- ----
Tide lock and dam ....---... --. ---


44 miles railroad, at $75,000_


TJotal ----


20 per cent engineering, contingencies, etc


- - n a -. -
- - - -


Total - ..- -- - ...


$88,550,000
58,050,000
1,800,000
19,000,000
1,000,000
90,000,000
5,000,000
3,300,000

266,700,000
53,340,000

320,040,000


These estimates are made


without


the careful examination which is


necessary


accurate


figures.


These esmatesmnimum regarded as minimum estimates;
atstat .


rial has


been


assumed


They


may


favorable


tunnels and


mate-


favorable


materitil


excavation


body of the canal;


fact, these esti-


mates represent the


best possible


results


which


can be looked for on


either of the four locations.


If borings either on the divide or in the


mu





"T 5 REPORT O

would be the curves.


F THE


IBTEMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


The tunnels would be as absolute restrictions on


depth and width as the locks of Nicaragua or Panama.


*
Harbors the only advan-
tage over Panama.


A tide-level canal at Panama would be without a


tunnel.
canals


The
would


only
have


advantage


over


which any of these


tide-level


canal


Panama would be in the superiority of their Atlantic harbors, Mandinga


Harbor


San Bias


Bay


and


Caledonia


Bay, both


being very


much


superior to the harbor at Colon.


The advantage of the harbors would


not be enough to overcome the disadvantage of the tunnel.


Darlen routes within lim-
Its of Panama concession.


work


would


The


only


either of


would


reason


these locations in


that


untrammeled


the
by


constructing


preference to


territory is


vested


entirely


rights


a canal


Panama


wild


and


occupation.


This advantage is more apparent


plications


involved


obtaining


than real.


right


Many of tl
o complete


legal


cornm-


Panama


Canal would interfere equally with the construction of


a canal at San


Bias or Caledonia.


The


Wyse concession, under which all the French


operations


Panama


have


been


conducted,


confers


the


exclusive


privilege


for excavation


and


construction


a maritime canal


across


the territory of
Pacific oceans; E
ous Atrato lines


Republic of Colombia


possible routes east of


between


the Atlantic and


Panama, including the vari-


, come within the limits of the Republic of


Colombia.


The contract of 1867, under which the Panama Railroad now holds its
concession, gives to that company the exclusive right of isthmian tran-


sit west of


a line connecting Cape Tiburon on the Atlantic with Point


Garachine on the


Pacific;


the San Blas and the Caledonia routes


both


fall west of this line.


of these places un
the Wyse and the ]
Maps and other drawings.


No canal can therefore be constructed at either


less some arrangement is


made with the


holders of


Panama Railroad concessions.
The results of the surveys made under the direc-


tion


Commission


this


portion


isthmus have been embodied in a series of maps and other plans which


accompany


this report.


They


embrace a general


map


covering


entire isthmus and the Gulf of Panama, pl.


2; two maps on a larger scale


covering, respectively, the San Bias, pls. 3 and 4, and the Caledonia and


San Miguel regions,


two maps on same scale as the last showing


the coast and elevation observed from the sea, pls.


7 and 8,


besides 12


;


I
i

I





REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.


C
ft


Fig.1.












CHAPTER


THE PANAMA ROUTE.


The natural attraction


the Panama route lie


in the combination


of a very narrow isthmus with a low summit.


mus is less than 36 miles
San Blas, the narrowest p


300 feet above


tide water


The width of


in a straight line, only 5 miles
lace, while the original summi
, which, though, higher than


more


the isth
than at


t was less than
the Nicaragua


summit


is less than


half


height of


any other


summit which has


General description.


miles


near the


been investigated.


isthmus


Pacific


side, and


Furthermore


is limited
e Chagres


to a


,the high portion


width


about


River affords access by


canoe navigation from


When


steamship


lines


steamers discharged


their


the Atlantic to within


California
passengers


were


16 miles


first


opened


mouth


the Pacific.
the Atlantic


Chagres,


whence they were conveyed up that river in canoes to Las Cruces and


thence


overland


Panama,


where


they took


Pacific


steamer.


When the Panama Railroad was


built


the early fifties, its Atlantic


terminus was fixed at the Bay of Limon,


7 miles


east of


the mouth of


the Chagres.


The road followed the valley of the Chagres to Obispo,


a few miles below


Las Cruces


and thence


crossed through


the lowest


gap


Panama.


This


location


is almost


identical


with


that


subse-


quently adopted for the canal.


(See pl. 21.)


The


terminus
terminus.


isthmus
railroad


being


here


runs


or canal


about


nearly


from


miles


The Atlantic port


east


and


northwest


farther


Colon


and


At Colon the mean tidal range is about 1 foot


west, but
) southeast


east


than


the Pacific port


at Panama


a course
e Pacific
Atlantic
Panama.
is about


20 feet.
demands <


The harbors are not of the first class.


A


a limited


commerce


Colon would be necessary


Colon


Harbor is that


it is


heretofore.


They have served the


Some


if the canal should be buil


exposed


northerss."


improvements at
t. The defect of
When these are


1 W 1 5 9 a a IPWSM &




REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIA N


CANAL


COMMISSION.


a bottom width


60 to


feet.


The


ocks were


450 feet between miter sills and width 65 feet. He
level at 124 feet above tide level and proposed to use


have


fixed


a length
summit


locks on each


side.
dam


To supply the


built


summit


across


level water was


Chagres River at a


impounded


ite not far


by a


from the


one


subsequently


selected by the new French company at Albajuela,


om which


a feeder of complicated


character


would


lead


to tli


canal.


He estimated the cost of this canal at $94,511,360.


In the year 1876 an association entitled
du Canal Interoceanique" was organize


" Societe Civile Internationale


d


in Paris,


with Gen. Etienne


Tirr as president, to


make surveys and


explorations for


a ship canal


aItoas theisthmus of Panama.


LatL.: N. B.


An expedition under


Wyse, an officer of the


French


navy,


the direction of
was sent to the


The Wyse concession.


Isthmus.


In May, 1878, Lieutenant


Wyse.in the


name of the association obtained a concession from


the Colombian Government, commonly known as the


'V3


In May, 1879, an international congress, composed of


rse concession.
135 delegates


from various nations, including the United States,


Great


Britain


and


Germany, but the majority of whom were French, was convened in Paris
nadr the auspices of Ferdinand de Lesseps to consider the question of
Iu.I- iyl erJ~~^UlJ SUlJwi.U JtCitli J UJt~Uo i\ U CfAlI


best location


and


plan


for a canal


across


the American isthmus.


After.a session of two weeks, the congress decided that the canal should


be located


on the


The old company.
the 6tiinized


iaie
Lesaps


Panama
without


route, and


locks.


should


be at


Immediately


sea level and


after


adjourn-


ment of the congress, the Panama Canal Company


under


Universelle d
as president.


a general


Canal


law of


France with


Interoc4anique,"


purchased


Wyse


with


title "Corn-


Ferdinand


concession


from


firt-named company, paying therefore 10,000,000 francs.


to float the stock of this company in August, 1879,


An attempt


failed, but a second


attmpty made in


December,


w Red t 600000 shares of


1880,


was


fully


500 francs each.


successful.


The


It was all sold.


issue
The


next two years were devoted to surveys and examinations and prelim-


inary


work


upon


inaugurated in


asea a-veli


feet,


canal


canal.


Early
having


involving


Operations


part of 18
a depth o
excawation


83.


upon


The


29.5


a large


plan


feet


estimated


scale


adopted


and


Wi


bottom


157,000,000


were
is for
width
cubic





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


valley


Culebra


a small


and


Panama Bay


thence


tributary,


cuts


descends


through tl
the valley


continental


of the


Its total length from 30 feet depth


divide


Grande
Atlantic


feet


depth


in the Pacific is about 47 miles.


Its location is such as


to give easy curvature everywhere.


To secure


this, it was


necessary


select


a point


crossing the divide where the height was some-


what greater than that of


the lowest pass.


The


maximum


height


the center line in the Culebra cut is about 333 feet above the sea.


control the floods of the Chagres,


various schemes were proposed, the


most


prominent


being


construction


a dam


Gamboa


impound the


water


upper


river


and


excavation


inde-


pendent channel


the sea.


The dam was afterwards decided to be


impracticable,


and


problem


remained


unsolved.


The


cost


was


estimated by de Lesseps in 1


880 at $127,600,000, and the time required


eight
1887.


years.
The


Work under this plan continued until the latter part


fact


had


that


time


become


evident


which


had


time


been


evident


well


informed,


that


canal
time


could


and


money


completed


then


available.


level with


provisional


resources of


change


plan


was


accordingly


made,


under which


final


completion


level


was


deferred


a future time, and


the opening


a canal


navigation


was


hastened


by the


introduction


locks.


This


being considered


a temporary expedient, the


summit


level was


supplied with water from the Chagres River by pumps.


this plan was pushed with vigor until 1889,


Work under


when the company becom-


ing bankrupt it was dissolved


by a judgment of


the Tribunal Civil de


Seine


dated


February


4, 1889


and


a liquidator was appointed by


that court to take charge of its affairs.


In the appointment of
view the completion of


the liquidator the court kept


canal


and


it authorized


prominently in


him


to cede to a


new association all or part of the assets, to make or ratify agreements


Liquidation.


with


contractors


continuation


which


works


for
and


their object
to borrow


money for that purpose.


The


liquidator


reduced


the force gradually


and finally suspended the works May


1889.


He then proceeded to


satisfy himself that the canal project was feasible, a question about which


the failure of the company had caused grave doubts.


He appointed a




REPORT


OF THE


IBTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


would probably suffice


finishing


canal


It estimated the cost


completion at $112,500,000 for the works,


which it


thought should


be increased to $174,600,000


tration


financing.


(900,000,000


found


much


francs) to
difficulty


include


adminis-


estimating


value of the work done and of


the plant,


but gave as a rough approx-


imation


one-half


estimated


cost


completing


canal,


$87,300,000


(450,000,000


francs).


It called


this


an "intuitive


esti-


mate.
ments
for it.


More weight has been attached to this estimate in recent doom-


the New Panama Canal


Company


than


authors


claimed


The
Wyse


time


within


concesslon


which


having nearly


canal was
r expired,


Completed
liquidator


under the
sought and


obtained from the Colombian


Government an extension of ten years.


The law of Colombia


granting this
1~~~~~~ L Jll Ul


extension


dated December 26,


1890.
upon


edition


It provided


the canal


having


that a new


resumed


been


on or


company should


before


fulfilled, a second


be formed and


February 28, 1898.


extension


was


work


This con-
sought and


obtained April 4, 1893.


It provided that the term of ten years granted


by the extension of 1890 should


begin


run


later than October


31, 1894.


By an agreement dated April 26,


1900, the


time


was


still


further extended to October 31, 1910.


The validity of


the last exten-


sion has been called in question.


Full copies of the concession and its


various extensions will be found in Appendices GOG,
*


HH, II, JJ.


The liquidator found himself laboring under special legal difficulties,
from which he obtained relief by the special law of the French Chainm-


br, dated July
the organization


with a ce
hundred
cash, and


capital


S


1893.


of a
tock


thousand


new
of


shares


(See Appendix


T


company


650,000
had b


50,000 shares were


ba Government


on the


shares


een


given


compliance


of te concession, dated December


(K.)
20th,
S100


finally
October


francs


subscribed


as full-paid stock to


with
26.


the
1890.


terms
Thus


eaci
paid


secured
, 1894,
o. Six
for in


the Colom-
Sextension


cash


capital


of the company was 60;,000 000 francs, or $11,640,000, a


sum deemed


sufficient for the


connected


with


prosecution


persons,


provisional
:he failure


and


made


conviction


t difficult


operations contemplated.


company,
Lesseps an


The scandals


which
I other


to secure even that amount.


had


prominent
Suits had


* .. S I


3





84

those to


REPORT 01

be obtained


F THE


mTnm ~x


CANAL


COMMISSION.


was to


be subscribed


*
by~


the liquidator.


The stock was subscribed as follows,


viZ :


Eifel -


Credit Lyonnais
Societe Generale


a 10, 000, 000


Credit Industriel et Commercial
Administrators of the old compal


Artigue,


--V------ --------------
[I - - -- - -. . -


Sonderegger & Co


Baratoux, Letellier & Co --


Jacob heirs -.-.


Couvreux, Hersent & Co -----------
Various persons to the number of sixty,


4,000,000
4,000,000
2,000,000
7,885,000
2,200,000
2,200,000
750,000


500,000


who had profited


by syndicates created by the old company


Hugo Oberndorffer -
Public subscription -
The liquidator -


Total
fourth


- - - -- a -- - - -. - - -- -
- - - a - - -- - - a -- -- - -


3, 285,700
3,800,000
3,484,300


_ - - - --- -- a--- - -. ,- --- - J O15, 895 000


----------------------a- -a ------- 60,000,000


report of


liquidator to


court, dated


November


1895


, pages 8, 9, and 13.


The old company and the liquidator had raised


and bonds the sum of $246,706,431.68.


this money had a face value of


The securities


$435,559,332.80.


stock


issued to raise


The number of per-


sons


holding them


is estimated at-over


200,000.'1


There


have


been


Expenditure and results.


isthmus an


enormous


excavated


There had been


quantity of


about


purchased
machinery


72,000,000


and
and


cubic


yards.


transported to the


other


estimated cost of $29,000,000.
Railroad-about 68,500 of th<


Nearly all of the stock of the Panama


70,000


shares existing-also


had


been


purchased at a cost of about $18,094,000.


A general statement of the


receipts


and


expenditures


and


further


details


history of


enterprise down to the formation


new company, furnished


Maurice


Hutin,


director-general


New


Panama


Canal


Company,


will be found in Appendix B.


The new company.


The new company took
.erty immediately after its


possession of
organization


prop-
1894-


by public subscription,


Francs.


by the sale of


plant, at an




REPORT


OF THE


ISTIIMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


tribute to the enterprise if completed under any plan.


By the middle


of 1895 a force of about 2,000 men had
has progressed continuously since that


been


collected, and


time with a


force


the work


reported as


varying


between


1,900


3,600


men.


According


annual


reports of


the company, the amount of


material


taken out was about


485,000


cubic


1,200,000 i
cubic yards
$7,000,000,


yards


1898
n all.


and


1895


about


915,000
1,210,000


1896,
1899,


1,225,000
or about


The amount expended to June 30, 1899, wa


1897,


5,000,000


about


besides about $1,284,000 advanced to the Panama Railroad


Company for building a pier at La Boca.


The company'


pany and


charter


liquidator of


provided


a special


r the appointment by the cornm-
engineering commission of five


members to report upon the work done and upon the conclusions to be
drawn therefrom, this report to be rendered when the amounts expended


by the


new company


should


have


reached about one-half its capital.


The


report


was


inst


stockholders was then to be


Ie public and
ohe .o Afinally


a special


meeting


determine whether


of the
or not


the canal should be


this


report


completed and to provide ways and means.


and


special


meeting


arrived


1898.


The
the


meantime the


company


had


called


to its aid


a technical


committee


composed of


fourteen engineers,


European


and


American


some


them among the


most eminent


their profession.


After a study of


data


available


tions


cons


and of
dered


such 'additional sthrveys and


necessary


made,


this


examina-


committee


rendered an elaborate report dated November 16, 1898.


It was repro-


duced in Senate document No. 188, Fifty-sixth Congress, first session,


pages 43-88.


This report was referred to the above-mentioned statu-


tory commission of five,
to ry o ss4:^T *"^^^^-^^^*^h^^^ m n^^^B^ ^"^ Bf'^^* ^HW: t1^


which


reported


in 1899 that the canal could


be built according to that project within the limits of time and money
estimated. The 'special meeting of stockholders was called inmmedi-


4


dtely after the


regular annual


meeting


December 30, 1899.


Itis


understood that the liquidator


who is one of the largest stockholders,


refused to take part in it, and that no conclusions were


reached


asto


the expediency of


completing the canal or as to


providing ways


and


means.


The engineering questions had been solved to the satisfaction


of the company, but the


financial questions had


been made extremely


difficult


, if not insoluble,


by the appearance of the United States Gov


- l g -- a


a a a -


. _/__ ^A-*. A__s - - -- - -_ _ -- -. .- -- I ] | | r11


n .


M


*





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


level to have its bottom 68 feet above


the sea and to be supplied with


water by a feeder leading from an artificial reservoir to be constructed


at Alhajueala, in the Upper


Chagres


Valley;


the asceAit on the Pacific


side to be


likewise


by four


locks, of which


two


middle


ones


combined in a flight.


The canal is to have a depth of


29.5 feet and a


bottom


width


about


feet


with


an increased


width in


certain


specified parts.
Sthe old company


Its general location
. The dimensions of


is the


the lock


same as that adopted


chambers are 738 feet


in length, 82 feet in width,


and 32 feet 10 inches in depth in the clear;


lifts


to vary from


feet to


feet,


according


location


and


stage of water.


The cost was estimated at $101,850,000 for the works,


which does not include administration or financing.


While this is the


plan recommended by the French engineers, they worked out in detail


a second plan,


which is an extension or modification of the foregoing,


which


they


seemed


prefer


itself,


but which


they feared would


require more time to execute.


The limits of


their concession and the


heavy cost of


financing


consideration of time.


them


Under


this


attach very


second


plan


great weight


upper


level


the
was


omitted


, the cut through


the continental


divide


being deepened


until


bottom was 32 feet above the sea


Lake


Bohio was made


the sum-


level


and was fed


directly by the Chagres;


one flight of locks on


the Atlantic side and one lock on the Pacific were omitted;


the feeder


from Alhajuela was omitted,


the dam


that


place was retained.


The estimated


cost


completing


the canal


under this


plan was


much
work


greater than that for the other,


done


several


years


under


being about $105,500,000.


first


plan


would


equally


available under the second plan,


and the company contemplates revert-


to the second


plan


the experience of the first


few years shows


that time will


permit.


In both plans the dam at Bohio converted


river between that point and Obispo into a lake of such dimensions as


not to be seriously affected
diversion channels were to
from this lake to the sea.


by the partial
be constructed


floods admitted to
on both sides of


With a carefully designed system of


while


the canal


luices


and controlling work


the violence of the floods was to be checked


impounding the water both above the Alhajuela dam and Lake Bohio,
so as to keep the flow below the Bohio dam within the capacity of the
two diversion channels.





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


the Isthmus is now much more complete than is usual before the inaug


duration


an engineering


enterprise


in a new


country.


The


canal


company spared no trouble or expense in laying


mission.


The


most


important


maps,


drawings, and


t all before the Cornm-


documents were


lithographed or printed and systematically arranged for the use of the


Commission, copies


being


furnished


for each


member.


Ninny


other


documents were supplied


n manuscript.


many of them elaborate studies,


In all some 340 documents,


were furnished.


A list of them will


found: i


Appendix
A:dix


These


supplied


essentially


data


required for the prepa ration of
infonmatidn was desired as to t


dam at ohio must


h


be built, and


plans and esl
e foundation


timates, though


upon


as to the area of


which


the Chagres


further


great
River


d ai X e basin.
part of this Co
this, in vestigation
levels,. measuremr


graphic
sonal o


This additional information was obtained by the field
missiono. It was necessary also for the purpose of


ito
ients


observations


observation


verify
of di


French


stances,


made by


enable


this


data.


borings,


Independent


soundings,


and


its own parties, supplemented


Commission


state


that


lines


hydro-
by per-
he data


furnished by the canal company are essentially correct.
The circumstances under which the Commission


Plan forth United States
differs from that for a com-
mercial corporation.


approaches the study of a plan for the canal differ
from those of the French engineers in two impor-


tant particulars.


The question of the time required


fr completion is of less vital importance, since a new concession from
the Colombian Government must be obtained in any event, and since the
cost of financing would be much diminished if the United States should


Provide


funds, that question would


which is otherwise


preferable.


not be decisive against a plan


In a plan prepared for a government


seeking the permanent development of its
receive its returns in an indirect way and


possessions, and content to


at a future


time, the canal


must


have


dimensions which will


permit


passage


largest


ships now afloat or likely to be constructed. For a time such ships
may be exceptional and the canal revenue derived from them may be
small. A lnian oreoared for a commercial corporation investing capi-


& I-


t a -


from


which


immediate


direct


revenue


desired


would


probably exclude such exceptional


hips,


and the dimensions given the


canal-at


least in the


beginnin--would


ti-inn


fnrrn~r


t'tJ A ti .J&S t~AAtJ LA S LA t*~a ~ a ~ aas ~- a


v ~A





REPORT


OF THE


ISTUMJIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


its course.


flows


through


a mountainous


country, in


which


average annual rainfall is about 130 inches.


A maximum rainfall has


been


observed


over


6 inches


twelve


hours.


discharge at


Bohio varies


from


a minimum


about


350 cubic feet to a possible


maximum


136,000


cubic


feet


second.


The


excessive rainfall


and the precipitous


character.


slopes


On December 1


of the valley give to the river a torrential
, 1890, it rose at Gamboa 23 feet in sixteen


Hours,


discharge,


which


was about


9,000 cubic feet per seepnd at


the beginning of the rise, increasing in the same time to


six or seven


times that volume.
definite record, bu


This i


the most violent change of which there is


t similar changes


somewhat less violence are not


uncommon.


The admission of a stream of this character to the canal


would


create


conditions


intolerable


navigation


unless


sufficient


section of prism be provided


reduce the current to an unobjection-


able velocity.


Sea-level plan rejected.


a sea-level


canal itself


canal


must be made of


constructed,


either


such dimensions that


maximum floods, modified to some extent by a reservoir in the Upper


Chagres, could


pass down its


channel without


injury


channels must be provided to carry off these floods.


, or independent
As the canal lies


in the, lowest


part of


valley,


construction


such


channels


would be a matter of serious difficulty


, and the simplest solution would


be to make


the canal


prism


large


enough


to take


discharge


itself.
canal,


This would have the advantage,


in which


navigation


under


also


ordinary


, of furnishing a very large


circumstances


would


exceptionally easy


It would


involve a cross


section


from


Obispo to


the Atlantic, having an


water line
quantity c


area of


least 15,000 square


, which would give a bottom width of


excavation


required


such


feet below the


about 400 feet.


a canal


been


computed, and is found to be about 266,228,000 cubic yards.


The


roughly
The cost


of such a canal


flores


, including a dam at Alhajuela and


, near the Pacific end, is estimated at not less than


a tide lock at Mira-


$240,000,000.


construction


would


probably


take


least


twenty


years.


This


Commission concurs with the various French commissions which have


preceded it since


the failure of the old company in


rejecting


the sea-


level


plan.


While such


a plan would be


physically practicable,


and


might be adopted if no other solution


were available, the difficulties of





REPORT


Tilt


ISTUMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


of about 8,000 tons each, an annual traffic of about 10,000,000 ton


be accommodated,


the opening of the canal.


which is greater than


the amount to be expected at


Ten lockages will require


35,127,960


cubic


feet


day,


or 406


cubic


feet


second,


assuming


that


four


these lockages are for the full-


ize lock and


x of them for the reduced


size,


using


assumed


intermediate


inches


gates.
month.


proposed hereafter is 38.5 square miles,


The


The
or 1


loss


from


area


evaporation


lake


to be


,073,318,400 square feet.


The


loss


from


evaporation


over


area


536.659.21)1)


cubic


feet


in a month


or 207


cubic


feet


per second.


The loss from leakage at


the lock gates


s estimated


250 cubic feet


per second.


To this has


been added 200 cubic feet per second for power and other contingencies.
Adding these amounts together, the total amount required to opea


the canal


for a traffic of


10,000,000


tons


annum


found


1,063, or, in round numbers, 1,070, cubic feet persecond.


The average


annual


discharge of


the Ch gres is


far in excess of this,


being


about


8,200 cubic feet per second, but there is a well-defined dry season when


the daily discharge is often less.


A deficiency during the months of Feb-


ruary, March, and April is tobe apprehended and must be provided for,


tough it does not always occur.


For use during these months some of


the surplus waters of the other months must be stored.


The minimum


*average
that for


discharge at


March,


1891


Bohio for any
when it was (


month covered


cubic


feet per


by the


records is


second, or 470


cubic feet less than the amount


required.


water enough be stored


upply this deficiency


supposing


it to exist


continuously for three


months, provision will
any that hs ever been


made


against a


known or is


state of


C


likely to occur.


ffairs
A


worse than
deficiency of


470 cubic feet per second for ninety days gives an aggregate deficiency
of 3,654,T70,000 cubic feet, for which storage room must be provided.
In a lake having an area of 38.5 square miles it corresponds to a depth
of Z4 feet.


Flood discharge of the
Chaares.


The greatest flood which has occurred since the


occupation


road


known


November


height


18, 1879.


which


(which


greatest


isthmus


covers
which


measurement


reached


Bohio


a period


ever


"'La
iss


the P
of fifty


occurred


made


tated


anama


Rail-


years), and


was


that


volume, but


upon


authority
aLj


S.- -


- a, us~ t. 5' . a U nfl C a a U


I





ItnpotttT


THE


ISItffMIAN


CANAL


COIWMISSIOII.


nad been flowing at


the later dates


as in


1879


it would


have reached


the same


height.


Inasmuch


as the


size


waterway


was


much


increased subsequently to 1879 by the excavations of the old company,


this assumption gives a result which is certainly not too low.


In this,


as in all other cases of doubt, the assumptions have been made such as


to err on the safe side
there are records are


if at all.


The


those of 1885,


other


greatest


floods


which


with a height at Bohio 33.8 feet;


1888 with height 34.


height


feet.


7 feet;


The


1890
Stwo


with
were


height 32.1 feet, and 1893 with


measured, the


maximum


dis-


charge in 1890 being 74,998 cubic feet per second,


and in 1893


48,975


cubic feet.


Thus


exceeds 75,000 cubic


appears
feet neD


that


second


floods
are of


in which


rare occurrence


discharge
e. If the


works be


so designed


that such


a flood


would


produce


no currents


which


would


interfere


with


navigation,


and


that a


flood


140,000


cubic feet per second,


while it might temporarily


suspend navigation,


would not


injure


structure


canal


, ample provision will be


made for the flood control of the Chagres.


No location


suitable for a


dam


exists


on the


Chagres


River below


Bohio, and


while


this


location


is not


without


difficulties


great


advantage


that about


3 miles


southwest


dam, near


head of


Lake Bohlo.


gres,


the Rio Gigante,


a tributary


there exists an excellent site for


Cha-


a spillway,


by which the discharge from the lake can be kept well away from the


dam and accessory works,


and may be


made


extremely large without


inconvenience


either


canal


itself


or to the country below the


lake.


The height of


this spillway would regulate the height and area


the lake.


After careful consideration of the requirements for flood


control and for


of the effect


storage


upon


against deficiency in the


the amount


excavation


dry season


required


, and also
the canal


through


continental


divide


Commission


decided


this


fixed
38.5
3.5 i


height


weir


square


2.000


miles,
weir f


feet
feet


above
long.


mean


The


1,073,318,400


ormula,


tide


and


area of


square


computed


make the spillway a


lake


feet.


that


this


Using


with a


height is
coefficient


depth


feet over its crest the weir will discharge 78,260 cubic feet per second.


reaching


elevation


area of


lake


will be


enlarged


Thnnft 4-2 FnnarA milps


will


imnound


over


oo0o00.000 cubic


. \





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


velocity of
not exceed


will


cause


currents


feet
lake


second.


narrowest


Floods


may


to rise above elevation


part


occur,


lake


however


would
which


From the data avail-


able it is not possible to compute with precision the exact height which
a flood may hereafter attain, but the extreme possible effect of a flood
discharging 140,000 cubic feet per second for a prolonged period would


be to raise the water over the


spillway to 92.5 feet.


All great floods


are of short duration


, and such a flood is absolutely without precedent,


beng as imprb as any other convulsion of


nature.


The crest of


the dam ha however, been placed at 100 and the top of the- lock walls
and gates atQ 4 to make them entirely safe from overflow by even such


flood,


the


ill effect


of which


would


limited


temporary


obstmction of


navigation


by swi(t currents in


the lake, where the velocity might
extreme conditions the lake might


reach


narrowest


5 feet per second.


be lowered


for operating the canal during the dry months.


part of
Under


to 82 to provide water
The excavations will


be so, adjusted as to "ive a depth of 35 feet at that level.
This provision for the storage of water for use in the


Feature Increase of water
supply.


dry season is


ample for a traffic of 10,000,000 tons per annum


in vessels


the size


now in


common


use.


will be equally ample for a much larger tonnage


if, as seems probable,


size of vessels continues to


increase.


For


example, the number of vessels which passed


was 3,441, against 3,389 in 1890, whi
1,99 ,238, against 9,74 ,129 in 1890.


le the gross


SSuez Canal in 1900
tonnage in 1900 was


The number of vessels


in 1900


was


less


than


1898,


while


total


tonnage


was


greater.


~The


anna


flow


of the


Chagres and


topography


country


favorable however, to a very large increase of


found desirable in the future
Alhajuela with a capacity for


e.


reservoir


storing


the supply


can


that be


constructed


an additional volume of water


four times that now provided for daily consumption.


MIppossi ot overtow.


~The


overflow


Lake


Bohio


... . through -the Gigante spillway int
Swamp thence through natural and artificial channels


River


below (atun, and


thence


through


that river


will


V
Lb


discharge


Pena


Blanca


to the Chagres
the sea, being


kept out of the canal in the lowlands by levees where necessary.


The canal, as thus


projected; may be


described


S -WT*S*. U~** ** *~I-n* U EUS~ES.SES -.


m.. m -- n ml i-- --DEE





REPORT


THI~1


ISTHMIAN


dAr{kt


COMMISSION.


Entrance and harbor at
Colon.


harbor.


increased


Near


to 800


to a point 2.39 miles


For
shore


ie apex
feet for


bout a mile


line,


forming
Le second


a length of


from deep water in


this wide channel


a narrow


curve


the bay.


inside


well-protected


bottom


feet, to provide


width


a turning


basin.


The estimated cost of this entrance and harbor is $8,057,707,


of which $1,936,991 is for work outside the jetty.
maintenance is estimated at $30,000.


From the inner end of


the harbor the


The annual cost of


bottom width of


the canal is


150 feet, the side slopes of 1 on 3 being retained for 1.86 miles through


the swamp, after which
earth
Colon to Bohlo.
of :


they are reduced to the standard


used in firm


h, and are kept at that standard for a distance


~2.56


miles


farther


Bohio


locks.


The


length of this level measured from the inner end of the harbor is 14.42


miles.


Its estimated cost is $11,099,839, including $151,347 for levees


to exclude flood waters and $299,000 for the lower approach, 1,200 feet
long, to the lock.


At Bohio is located a double flight of locks,


having a total lift vary-


from


feet at


the minimum


level of


lake to


90 feet at the


maximum,


Bohlo locks.


41 to 45 to each lock


locks are
company.


, the normal lift being 85 feet.


on the
They


location adopted


shown


on P


by the
1. 24


These
French


and


type adopted for


both


Nicaragua and


Panama canals


and


described


double


elsewhere i
locks, four


this


lock


report.
chambers


The estimated cost of this flight


in all,


$11,567,275, including


excavation.


Above


locks


Bohio dam and


the canal


known


as Lake


enters the


Bohio.


artificial


For


lake formed


the first 7


miles


by the
it is a


broad


, deep


body


of water, affording


room for


anchorage, as well as


Lake Bohlo.


navigation.


are necessary.


Beyond


this


some


light excavations


At the upper end the channel will


be enlarged


given


to provide for


a minimum


section


the flood


discharge of


42,000 square


feet.


the Chagres, being
The length of the


channel


Lake


Bohio


12.68


miles


from


locks


point


where the canal leaves the Chagres.


The section extends ninety-three


hundredths


a mile


farther,


point


where


enters


through the divide.


The estimated


cost of


this section is


$2,952,154,


I





REPORT


OF THE


IBTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


The


Pedro


summit cut


Miguel


locks.


7.91
The


miles


long


highest


from


point


the Obispo


about


5 miles


gates to the


from


Obispo gates, where the bottom of the canal at the axis is 286 feet below
IP" .*|^:r- : iir a it^.A ^ it 1 nm i.fy n


Calebra cat.


cte


natural


famous


surface


Culebra


cut,


ground.


though


i-il's


name


often


been applied only to the mile of heaviest work. There is a little
very hard rock atheastern end of this section, and the western two


miles are


ordinary


materials.


The


remainder


consists


a hard


in" dated clay,


with some


softer material at the top and some strata


and dikes of hard


rock.


fixing


the price it has been rated as soft


r0ok but it must be given slop s equivalent to those
W behn estimated on the basis of a bottom wi


with~5 sildopes of 1 on 1.


While the cut


earth.


dth


would probably nz


This
f leet,
be fin-


sed with this uniform


lope, this furnishes as correct a basis of esti-


mate


HiS CHili


now


be arrived


The


entire


cut will


'lined with


Sasonrty walls,


finishing


elevation


2 feet


above


high


water,


these walls having nearly vertical faces and furnishing benches 38 feet
wide on either side of the casual, on one of which the Panama Railroad


will be laid,
the other.


while it is probable that a service track will


be placed on


Much


~has


been


said about


instability


Culebra cut;


oint of


fact,


there


a clay


upper


portion


deep cut


which lows readily, when saturated,


Thoroughly


drained;


probably


but which will give


nine-tenths


little


material


trouble
would


naturally be classed as hard clay of stable character;
natu/


somewhat, apd the surface might rex


it would weather


re some repairing with concrete


h ~bad p oeps, a


practice common in deep cuttings


in Europe.


This


clay disintegrates rapidly i7 water, and for this reason the canal prism


should be confined between masonry walls.


With the provision made


broad


benches o


each side, on which any slight slides would


rested, it is bel ved that no trouble will
Mihated cost of the 02 miles of heavy wor
7 entire .91 miles bkt een the Obispo gates
locis, $4,414,460, including the upper appro


experienced.


The


k is $41,940,480, and of


and the


ach


Pedro Miguel


these


locks.


*d probably take dight years to excavate this section of the canal.


The iimout of


excavation in thi sectioni is 43,237,200 cubic yards.


The concentfatik of


so 1ak tn i1iount of


excavation


in so small a





REPORT


OF THE


ISTHMIAN


CANAL


COMMISSION.


vation.


cost


been


estimated at 80 cents per cubic yard;


bad


management might easily increase this to a dollar, and it is not impos-


sible


that


with


a carefully


considered


equipment


cost


might be


reduced to 60 cents.


The


Pedro


Miguel


Pedro Miguel locks.


locks


locks
feet.


(see


pl. 25)


aggregate


will
lift


similar to


varying


front


the
i 54


Bohio


There is an excellent rock foundation here.


The


estimated


cost


these


locks


, including


adjacent


dam,


$9,081,321.


Pedro Miguel level.


A level 1.33


miles long extends from the Pedro


Miguel locks to the last lock, which is at Miraflores.


The normal elevation of the surface of the water is 28.


cost of this section is $1,192,286


The estimated


including $388,880 for lock approaches


at each end.


Mirafiores lock.


Miraflores


end
lock


this


(see


level
25),


will
with


from 18 feet at high tide to 38 feet at mean low tide.


rock foundation for this lock.


located


a lift varying
There is a good


A spillway will be required to regulate


the height of


this level.


The estimated cost of


this lock and spillway


is $5,781,401.
For 4.12 miles beyond the Miraflores lock the canal extends through


a low
sional


swamp
rock is


country


found


through


here


which


Rio Grande runs.


Occa-


, but the material is generally very soft and


Pacific maritime section.


the canal has been estimated for a bottom width of


feet with


slopes


on 3.


This brings the


canal to a point known as La B a where the Panama Railroad Cornm-
pany has constructed a large an substantial wharf. A dredged chan-


nel 200


feet wide with


slopes


on 3 will


extend


from this point


4.41


miles


this dredged


6-fathom


channel


line in Panama Bay


through


flats which


The first 2 miles of
bare at low water,


where
cost of


there is a considerable


this


section


from


amount of


submerged


rock.


The total


lock to deep water is estimated at $12,-


427,971,


which


$1,464,513


for work


outside of


Boca.


The


cost of


maintenance of


this


channel


included in that


the canal.


No separate estimate for maintaining a harbor at Panama is submitted,
because it is a natural roadstead, not requiring expenditure.


S*.. a


The Bohio dam is the most


sin-un n-nt


important structure




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3,15-7: R^/-x

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57th Congress, ) SENATP1 j Document 1st Session. \ I No. 54. REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION, 1899-1901. Rear-Admiral JOHN G. WALKER, United States Navy, President. Hon. SAMUEL PASCO. ALFRED NOBLE, C. E. Mr. GEORGE S. MORISON. Col. PETER C. HAINS, Lieut. Col. OSWALD H. ERNST, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army. Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army. WILLIAM H. BURR, C. E. LEWIS M. HAUPT, C. E. Prof. EMORY R. JOHNSON. Lieut. Commander SIDNEY A. STAUNTON, United States Navy, Secretary. WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 1901. S D— 57-1— Vol 7-

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3Qk

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To the Congress of the United States: I transmit herewith the report, with appendices in three parts, of the Isthmian Canal Commission, established under section 4 of the river and harbor act, approved March 3, 1899, of its investigations made in pursuance of section 3 of said act. Theodore Roosevelt. White House, December %,, 1901. Department of State, Washington, November 30, 1901. Sir: I have the honor to transmit the Report of the Isthmian Canal Commission, with appendices in three parts, all in duplicate, accompanied by one set of maps, profiles, and illustrations, which have this day been delivered at this Department by Rear-Admiral John G. Walker, president of the Commission. I am, sir, your obedient servant, John Hay. The President. 3 62.C9?

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CONTENTS. Sections of act approved March 3, 1899, authorizing the appointment of the Commission 9 Letter of appointment and instructions to commissioners 11 Organization of the Commission hy committees 12 Chapters: 1. Introduction 13 2. History of interoceanic projects and communications 20 3. Dimensions and unit prices 63 4. Other possible routes 69 5. Panama route 80 6. Nicaragua route 104 7. Earthquakes, volcanoes, climate, health 167 8. Rights, privileges, and franchises 172 9. Industrial and commercial value of canal 243 10. Military value 252 11. Cost of maintenance and operation 255 12. Conclusions 257 APPENDICES. A. Study of locks for Nicaragua and Panama routes, by Mr. S. H. Woodard. B. Historical notes relative to the Universal Interoceanic Canal Company, 18801894, prior to the organization of the new company. C. List of documents furnished to the Commission by the New Panama Canal Company. D. Report on the hydrography of the Panama canal route, by Mr. A. P. Davis, chief hydrographer. E. Waste weir dimensions and discharges for Lake Bohio. F. Description of alternative location for canal between Gatun and Bohio. G. Discussion of the time required for transit through an Isthmian canal by the two routes. H. Discharge of the canalized San Juan River. I. Report of hydrographic investigations in Nicaragua, by Mr. A. P. Davis, chief hydrographer. J. Surveys from the Upper San Juan to the Indio River, by Mr. A. B. Nichols, division engineer. K. Treaty between Nicaragua and the United States, 1867, DickensonAyon. L. Treaty negotiated between the United States and Nicaragua, December, 1884, Frelinghuysen-Zavala. M. Treaty between Great Britain and Nicaragua, relative to the Mosquito Indians and the rights and claims of British subjects, February 11, 1860. N. Treaty between Nicaragua and Great Britain, January 28, 1860. O. Treaty between Nicaragua and France, April 11, 1859. P. List of treaties made or negotiated by Nicaragua with other countries. Q. Treaty between the United States and Great Britain, April 19, 1850, ClaytonBulwer. 5

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6 CONTENTS. R. Contract between Nicaragua and the Nicaragua Canal Association. S. Act of Congress incorporating the Maritime Canal Company of Nicaragua. T. Contract between Nicaragua and Eyre and Cragin, representing the Interoceanic Canal Company. U. Contract between Nicaragua and the Atlas Steamship Company. V. Treaty between the United States and Costa Rica, July, 1851. W. Treaty between Spain and Costa Rica, May, 1860. X. Treaty between Costa Rica and Nicaragua, June, 1869. Y. List of treaties made by Costa Rica with other countries. Z. Contract between Costa Rica and Nicaragua Canal Association. AA. Protocol of agreement between the United States and Costa Rica, December, 1900. BB. Treaty between the United States and New Granada, concluded December, 1846. CC. Treaties between France and New Granada, 1856, and France and Colombia, 1892. DD. Treaty between Spain and Colombia, 1881. EE. List of treaties made by New Granada, or Colombia, with other countries. FF. Amended contract between Colombia and the Panama Railroad Company. GG. Contract between Colombia and Interoceanic Canal Association, March 20, 1878. (Wyse concession.) HH. Additional contract modifying that of May 20, 1878, December 10, 1890. II. Contract granting extension to the Panama Canal Company in liquidation, April 4, 1893. JJ. Contract granting further extension of time to the New Panama Canal Company, April 25, 1900. KK. Memorandum showing legal status of the New Panama Canal Company, with laws, decrees of court, and charter. LL. Treaty negotiated by Mr. Hise between the United States and Nicaragua, June, 1849. MM. Contract between Nicaragua and the American Atlantic and Pacific Ship Canal Company, August 27, 1849. NN. Report on industrial and commercial value of canal, by Prof. Emory R. Johnson. PLATES. 1. General map of the Central American isthmus, from Tehuantepec to Buenaventura Bay, showing all the canal routes investigated. Scale ^sTsirwt 40 miles to an inch. 2. General map of the Isthmus of Darien, from Panama to Atrato River, Republic of Colombia, showing water courses and mountain ranges. Scale sTrcWtb 5 miles to an inch. 3. Map, Mandinga Harbor to mouth of Rio Chepo, Republic of Colombia, showing proposed San Bias Canal route. Scale ^Ivs4. Profile of possible canal route from Mandinga Harbor, Gulf of San Bias, to Bay of Panama. Horizontal scale s^ffff> vertical scale 2Vij5. Map, Caledonia Bay to Rio Sabana, Republic of Colombia, showing topography to the divide and drainage. Scale gff& V o. 6. Profile of possible canal routes from Caledonia Bay to San Miguel Bay. Horizontal scale si^tftj, vertical scale j S Vtf7. Map, Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, from San Bias to Caledonia Bay, Republic of Colombia, showing elevations observed from sea. Scale 55^5. 8. Map, Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, from Carreto Bay to the Atrato Valley, Republic of Colombia, showing elevations observed from sea. Scale ssfonf.

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CONTENTS. 7 9. Panoramic view of the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, from Rio Mangle to Rio Mandinga, Gulf of San Bias. Taken from point near Point San Bias. No. 1. 10. Panoramic view of the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, from Ratones Cay to Rio Diablo. Taken from a point near Puyadas Cays. No. 2. 11. Panoramic view of the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, from Ratones Cay to Rio Diablo. Taken from sloop going toward Ratones Cay. No. 3. 12. Panoramic view of the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, from Piedras Cays to Rio Playa. Taken from a point near Ratones Cay. No. 4. 13. Panoramic view of the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, from Rio Tres Bocas to Rio Pitgandi. Taken from a point near Limones Cays. No. 5. 14. Panoramic view of the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, from Caledonia Hills to Rio Grande. Taken from a point near mouth of Rio Tres Bocas. No. 6. 15. Panoramic view of the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, from Cape Tiburon to Piedras Cays. Taken from points near Isla Pajaros and Isla Pinos. No. 7. 16. Panoramic view of the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, from Caledonia Mountain to Sassardi Gap. Taken from a point in front of Sassardi. No. 8. 17. Panoramic view of the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, showing the Caledonia Gap. Taken from a point near Isla d'Oro. No. 9. 18. Panoramic view of the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, from Cape Tiburon to Pt. Escoces. Taken from sloop off Pt. Carreto. No. 10. 19 Panoramic view of the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, from Tutumate River to Pt. Tiburon. Taken from point near Piton Island. No. 11. 20. Panoramic view of the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Darien, from the Atrato Flat to Piton Island. Taken from sloop off Point Choco. No. 12. 21. General map of Panama route. Scale rffsW^ 22. Profile of Panama route. Horizontal scale tqtststhsj vertical scale ttj 1 ^23. Sheet of sections. Scale tsWa. Colon Harbor. b. Swamp silt. c. Firm earth. d. Lake Bohio. Drowned Channel. e. Culebra. 24. Plan of Bohio Locks. Scale jfa, 40 7 to an inch. 25. Pedro Miguel and Miraflores Locks. Scale ^ 5 SO 7 to an inch. 26. Bohio Dam. Scales 7 oW> :nnn>> *iv 27. Gigante Spillway. Scales ^V ?h>28. Map No. 1. General Map of Nicaragua Route. Scale r^WirMap No. 2. Canal line and general topography through the canal region, scale sihrn, in 4 sheets. 29. Sheet 1. Carribean Sea to Boca San Carlos. 30. Sheet 2. Boca San Carlos to Lake Nicaragua. 31. Sheet 3. Fort San Carlos to Las Lajas. 32. Sheet 4. Lake Nicaragua to the Pacific Ocean. Map No. 3. Canal line, borings, service railroad, and detail topography, scale t?2tmx> m 14 sheets, and 1 index sheet, scale xirooff33. Index sheet. 34. Sheet 1. Grey town to San Juanillo. 35. Sheet la. Rio Indio to Rio Misterioso. 36. Sheet 2. Rio San Juanillo to Rio Negro. 37. Sheet 3. Rio Negro to Serapiqui Hills. 38. Sheet 4. Lock 2 to Rio San Francisco-

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8 CONTENTS. 39. Sheet 5. Rio San Francisco to Cafio Machado. 40. Sheet 6. Conchuda cut-off and dam sites. 41. Sheet 7. La Lucha to Agua Fresca. 42. Sheet 8. Agua Fresca to Santa Cruz cut-off. 43. Sheet 9. Isla Sombrero de Cuero to Isla Grande. 44. Sheet 10. Rio Chico to San Francisco cut-off. 45. Sheet 11. Rio Medio Queso to Lake Nicaragua. 46. Sheet 12. Lake Nicaragua to Cafio Guachipilin. 47. Sheet 13. Cafio Guachipilin to Pacific Ocean. Profile of Nicaragua Route. Horizontal scale u^w, vertical scale jh^, in 5 sheets. 48. Profile 1. Caribbean Sea to Conchuda. 49. Profile 2. Conchuda to Lake Nicaragua. 49a. Profile 2a. Profile of canal on adopted lines near Rio Sabalos, etc. 50. Profile 3. Lake Nicaragua. 51. Profile 4. Lake Nicaragua to Pacific Ocean. Eight maps of Greytown Harbor, scale t^to52. Puerto y Boca del Rio San Juan de Nicaragua, 1809. 53. San Juan de Nicaragua, by Geo. Peacock, 1832. 54. Greytown Harbor, by Commander Nolloth, 1850. 55. Greytown Harbor, by John Richards, 1853. 56. Greytown Harbor, by John Scott, 1856. 57. Greytown Harbor, by P. C. F. West, 1865. 58. Greytown Harbor, by Lieut. Jas. M. Miller, 1872. 59. Greytown Harbor, by officers of U. S. S. Newport, 1898. 60. One sheet of canal cross sections, scale ^j^. Two profiles of route from Upper San Juan River, near Machuca, to Indio. 61. 1. Machuca-Negro Line. 62. 2. La Cruz del Norte Line. 63. Map No. 4. Showing borings in Lake Nicaragua, scale ^sros64. Lock No. 1, scale i \ JS 65. Locks Nos. 2, 3, and 4, scale ^ T 66. Locks Nos. 5, 6, 7, and 8, scale -g\-$. 67. Waste ways, Eastern Division, scale T2 Vtf68. Conchuda waste way, scale yaW 69. Conchuda Dam, scale T2 Vo70. Map of Central America and neighboring countries, showing location of volcanoes, active and extinct. Scale sT3STyiny> 100 miles to an inch. 71. Map of Panama Route, showing zones of mean annual rainfall, scale TTTtnnre72. Map of Nicaragua, showing rainfall areas, 1890. Scale zszjs-uj 8 miles to 1 inch. 73. Map of Nicaragua, showing rainfall areas, 1900. Same scale as 72. 74. Map of the World, on Mercator projection, showing routes for steam and sail. 75. Map of Western Hemisphere, on Polyconic projection, showing routes, currents, wind areas, etc. Map of Central Chile, showing resources and industries, on two sheets. 76. Sheet 1. 77. Sheet 2. 78. Map of Northwestern South America, showing resources and industries. 79. Map of Japan, showing resources and industries. 80. Map of China, showing resources and industries. 81. Map of Eastern Australia, showing resources and industries. 82. Map of New Zealand, showing resources and industries. 83. Map of the Philippine Islands, showing resources and industries. 84. Map of Central America, showing resources and industries. 85. Map of Mexico, showing resources and industries. 86. Map of Transportation Divides.

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AN ACT Making appropriations for the construction, repair, and preservation of certain public works on rivers and harbors, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Untied States of America in Congress assembled, That * Sec. 3. That the President of the United States of America he, and he is herehy, authorized and empowered to make full and complete investigation of the Isthmus of Panama with a view to the construction of a canal by the United States across the same to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans; that the President is authorized to make investigation of any and all practicable routes for a canal across said Isthmus of Panama, and particularly to investigate the two routes known respectively as the Nicaraguan route and the Panama route, with a view to determining the most practicable and feasible route for such canal, together with the proximate and probable cost of constructing a canal at each of two or more of said routes; and the President is further authorized to investigate and ascertain what rights, privileges, and franchises, if any, may be held and owned by any corporations, associations, or individuals, and what work, if any, has been done by such corporations, associations, or individuals in the construction of a canal at either or any of said routes, and particularly at the so-called Nicaraguan and Panama routes, respectively; and likewise to ascertain the cost of purchasing all of the rights, privileges, and franchises held and owned by any such corporations, associations, and individuals in any and all of such routes, particularly the said Nicaraguan route and the said Panama route; and likewise to ascertain the probable or proximate cost of constructing a suitable harbor at each of the termini of said canal, with the probable annual cost of maintenance of said harbors, respectively; and generally the President is authorized to make such full and complete investigation as to determine the most feasible and practicable route across said isthmus for a canal, together with the cost of constructing the same and placing the same under the control, management, and ownership of the United States. Sec. 4. To enable the President to make the investigations and ascertainments herein provided for, he is hereby authorized to employ in said service any of the engineers of the United States Army at his discretion, and likewise to employ any engineers in civil life, at his discretion, and any other persons necessary to make such investigation, and to fix the compensation of any and all of such engineers and other persons. Sec 5. For the purpose of defraying the expenses necessary to be incurred in making the investigations herein provided for, there is hereby appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the sum of one million dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary, to be disbursed by order of the President. Sec 6. That the President is hereby requested to report to Congress the results of such investigations, together with his recommendations in the premises. * * -H* Approved, March 3, 1899.

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Department of State, Washington., June 10, 1899. Rear-Admiral John G. Walker, U. S. N., retired, Member of the Interoceanic Canal Commission appointed tinder sections 3 and If. of the act of Congress approved March 3, 1899. Sir: The Congress of the United States passed at its recent session, and the President, on the 3d of March, 1899, approved, "An act making appropriations for the construction, repair, and preservation of certain public works on rivers and harbors, and for other purposes," the third, fourth, and sixth sections of which read as follows: Sec. 3. That the President of the United States of America be, and he is hereby, authorized and empowered to make full and complete investigation of the Isthmus of Panama with a view to the construction of a canal by the United States across the same to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans; that the President is authorized to make investigation of any and all practicable routes for a canal across said Isthmus of Panama, and particularly to investigate the two routes known, respectively, as the Nicaraguan route and the Panama route, with a view to determining the most practicable and feasible route for such canal, together with the proximate and probable cost of constructing a canal at each of two or more of said routes; and the President is further authorized to investigate and ascertain what rights, privileges, and franchises, if any, may be held and owned by any corporations, associations, or individuals, and what work, if any, has been done by such corporations, associations, or individuals in the construction of a canal at either or any of said routes, and particularly at the so-called Nicaraguan and Panama routes, respectively; and likewise to ascertain the cost of purchasing all of the rights, privileges, and franchises held and owned by any such corporations, associations, and individuals in any and all of such routes, particularly the said Nicaraguan route and the said Panama route, and likewise to ascertain the probable or proximate cost of constructing a suitable harbor at each of the termini of said canal, with the probable annual cost of maintenance of said harbors, respectively. And generally the President is authorized to make such full and complete investigation as to determine the most feasible and practicable route across said isthmus for a canal, together with the cost of constructing the same and placing the same under the control, management, and ownership of the United States. Sec. 4. To enable the President to make the investigations and ascertainments herein provided for, he is hereby authorized to employ in said service any of the engineers of the United States Army at his discretion, and likewise to employ any engineers in civil life, at his discretion, and any other persons necessary to make such investigation, and to fix the compensation of any and all such engineers and other persons. Sec. 6. That the President is hereby requested to report to Congress the results of such investigations, together with his recommendations in the premises. The President, in pursuance of the provisions of this act, has appointed you one of the members of the Isthmian Canal Commission 11

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12 EEPOET OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. provided for in it. You will be guided in the execution of the trust thus confided to you by the provisions of the act of Congress which I have quoted above, and your eminence in your profession is a sufficient guaranty of the energy and ability which the President is sure you will bring to the accomplishment of this task. At the same time your duties will not be limited by the terms of the act, but if any line of inquiry should suggest itself to you in the course of your work as being of interest or benefit, I am confident } T ou will not fail to give it whatever attention it may seem to deserve. The President trusts that the Commission will fulfill the important duties confided to them in such a manner that when their report is prepared it will embrace all the elements required for his own guidance and for the final action of Congress upon the subject of the location and construction of the interoceanic canal. I am, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant, John Hay. ORGANIZATION OF COMMISSION BY COMMITTEES, THE PRESIDENT BEING EX OFFICIO A MEMBER OF EACH COMMITTEE. For the investigation of the Nicaragua route: Mr. Noble. Mr. Burr. Colonel Hains. For the investigation of the Panama route: Mr. Burr. Mr. Morison. Lieutenant-Colonel Ernst. For the investigation of other possible routes: Mr. Morison. Mr. Noble. Colonel Hains. For the investigation of the industrial, commercial, and military value of an interoceanic canal: Mr. Johnson. Mr. Haupt. Mr. Pasco. For the investigation of rights, privileges, and franchises: Mr. Pascoe. Lieutenant-Colonel Ernst. Mr Johnson.

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Department of State, Isthmian Canal Commission, Washington, D. C, November 16, 1901. The President of the United States. Sir: The Isthmian Canal Commission having completed the investigations with which it was charged under the act of Congress approved March 3, 1899, and your instructions thereunder, communicated through the Secretary of State by letter of June 10, 1899, has the honor to submit the following report: Chapter I. INTRODUCTION. Organization of Com mis slon. The Commission was organized in the city of Washington, with Rear-Admiral John G. Walker as president, on the 15th day of June, 1899, and at a subsequent meeting, held on the 6th day of July, Lieut. Commander Sidney A. Staunton, of the United States Navy, was chosen as secretary. It at once entered upon its duties, taking as a guide the sections of the act of Congress entitled "An act making appropriations for the construction, repair, and preservation of certain public works on rivers and harbors, and for other purposes," approved March 3, 1899, under which its members were appointed, and also the instructions commuInstructlons. 1A .,. nicated to them by the Secretary ot State in his letter of June 10, 1899. The investigations and ascertainments provided for in the law involved many different lines of inquiry, and in order to promote the progress of the work and procure the best results it was divided among several committees, each of which was to Committees. 7 take the lead in examining the particular subject intrusted to it; but before entering upon its special work each committee was to prepare an outline of its plan of investigation and submit it to the Commission for amendment or approval. The acts and conclusions of these committees were to be reported to the Commission, subject to modification and amendment before approval and adoption, so that the final results and determinations represent not only the views and opinions of the several committees, but of the entire Commission. 13

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14 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. The following subjects of investigation were Subjects of Investigation. . f 3 then determined upon, and each was referred to a separate committee, to be designated accordingly : The Nicaragua route. The Panama route. Other possible routes. The industrial, commercial, and military value of an interoceanic canal. Rights, privileges, and franchises. The president of the Commission was made ex officio a member of each of these committees. The two canal routes to which the attention of the Commission was specially directed by the law were in Nicaragua Appointment of chief j t j l • j • • j. i engineers. anc anama ) an d a chief engineer was appointed for each, to make his headquarters in the country and take the general control of the field operations to be inaugurated upon each line. After considering the results of surveys made in the past, it was judged best to limit the explorations in the search for other possible routes to that part of Colombia known as Darien, extending from Panama to the Atrato River, and a third chief engineer was appointed to direct the field work there. Competent assistants, whose education and trainan^sTn^^borerL aSSlSt m £ had fitted them f or the special work to be done, were assigned to service under the chief engineers, and laborers, boatmen, and other workmen were emploj^ed wherever their services were required. In all 20 working parties were organized in Nicaragua, with 159 engineers and other assistants and 155 laborers; 5 in Panama, with 20 engineers and other assistants and 11 laborers; and 6 in Darien, with 51 engineers and other assistants and 112 laborers, making a total force of about 850, the number varying from time to time according to the requirements of the work. The chief engineers were directed, with the aid Directions for the work. . ; of these working parties, to examine the geography, topography, hydrology, and other physical features of the different countries and to make a special study of the routes in Nicaragua and Panama. The schemes already planned were to be thoroughly tested and further surveys were to be made, in order to vary the line and select better locations wherever the conditions were found to be unsatisfactory. A complete project was to be prepared for each route and the center line of a canal was to be marked upon the ground where it had not already been done. The cost of a canal in each country, according to these projects, could then be closely approximated, the advantages of each be compared, and an intelligent conclusion be reached as to which of the two routes is the more desirable from an engineering standpoint.

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 15 This study involved examinations of the terminal harbors and approaches and the locations selected for dams, locks, and other auxiliary works ; a series of borings to determine the nature of the subsurface material at the sites for locks and dams and along the canal lines, and a continuance of the observations of rainfall and stream flow, and of the lake fluctuations in Nicaragua. Attention was also to be given to the supply of rock, timber, and other materials in each country available for purposes of construction and maintenance. The results of these examinations and observations and the data and material obtained were sent from time to time to the headquarters of the Commission at Washington, where they were arranged and entered upon the plats and profiles of the canals, under the direction of the committees, for examination and consideration in reaching their conclusions and making their recommendations. On the 9th of August, 1899, the Commission left New York for Paris, where the New Panama Canal Company opened to its members its records, maps, plans, and profiles, and the results of the surveys made and the data collected by it and the old Panama Canal Company. Mr. Maurice Hutin, the directorgeneral, Mr. L. Choron, the chief engineer, and other officers of the company received the commissioners with great courtesy and were ready at all times to assist them in making a study of this route in all its aspects. A special meeting of the Comite Technique was also called to give the commissioners such oral explanations as they might desire, some of its members coming from distant parts of "Europe for the purpose. While in Europe the Commission also visited and EaTpe' Tl8ltS WMle ,n examined the Kiel Canal in Germany, the North Sea Canal in Holland, and the Manchester Canal and Liverpool docks in England and returned to New York on the 29th of September. In accordance with the plan of investigation sorth t Am^rica! ntral ^ determined upon, a visit was afterwards made by the Commissioners to Central and South America. The purposes of this visit were to make a personal inspection of the entire canal lines in Nicaragua and Panama, examine the work already done by the parties in the field, give instructions as to its continuance, familiarize themselves with the local surroundings and physical features of the sections in which these routes are located, and gather such information as would promote the object for which the Commission was organized. They left New York on the 6th of January, 1900, for Greytown, Nicaragua. After spending a week in inspecting the harbor, the coast line near the eastern terminus of the canal, the work commenced by the Maritime Canal Company of Nicaragua, and the dredges, railroad plant, and other property it had

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16 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. left there, they passed over the canal line from the mouth of the San Juan to Brito on the Pacific, stopping at the locations selected or deemed suitable for dams, locks, and other auxiliary works, and at other points where a careful examination was desirable, and making detours from the main line when necessary. From Brito they returned to the lake and proceeded to Managua, the capital, where they had several interviews with President Zela} r a, with reference to the construction of a navigable canal through Niearaguan territory by the United States. They were cordially welcomed by the President, and he expressed himself favorably with reference to the proposed maritime communication. They went from Managua to Corinto, and there took a steamer for Panama, where they arrived on the 3d of March. As the disturbed conditions in Colombia renPanama. . / ^ l dered it inadvisable for the Commission to attempt to meet the President at Bogota, the State Department, at the request of this Commission, communicated with the Colombian authorities through the United States minister there and asked that a representative of the Government be appointed to meet the commissioners when they reached the country and give them such information and assistance relative to their mission as he conveniently could. In accordance with this request Mr. J. T. Ford, the consulting engineer of the Republic in technical matters connected with the Panama Canal, was assigned to this duty. He met them in this official capacity on their arrival at Panama, courteousl} r expressed an entire willingness to aid them in their investigations, and accompanied them from day to day upon their visits to different points upon the canal line and elsewhere during their stay upon the isthmus. Fifteen days were spent in the department of Panama, during which an investigation of the route from sea to sea was made, as had been done in Nicaragua. The work was greatly facilitated by the local officers of the New Panama Canal Company, who placed two houses in Colon at the service of the commissioners, furnished a special train each day to take them from point to point as the work progressed, permitted them to use their maps and plans, informed them as to the work then going on, accompanied them in their inspection of the line, and exhibited to them the plant and materials purchased by the old canal company for construction purposes, much of which was stored in sheds and warehouses at different points on the isthmus. During this period the commissioners went over the entire line of the* canal from Colon to Panama, and examined the sites for the differentiauxiliary works. This included a trip to the upper waters of the Chagres, in the Alhajuela region, and they returned in boats, so as to have an opportunity of seeing the river. The Commission is indebted to Mr. Louis Royer, director on the

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 17 isthmus of the New Panama Canal Company, and to Col. J. R. Shaler, superintendent of the Panama Railroad Company, for courteous attentions. On the 16th of March Mr. George S. Morison Visit of Mr. Morison to ir-i.ii. j.u tt o o o • DarlolK left the party on the U. S. b. Scorpion to ascertain the progress of the explorations in Darien, with full authority to give instructions as to the continuance of the work according to the conditions which he might find upon reaching the camps of the different working parties. The The Scorpion. i i • i , -Tt -tv scorpion had been assigned by the Navy Department to aid in the search for other possible routes in Darien, and was commanded h\ Lieut. Commander Nathan Sargent, United States Navy, who rendered valuable assistance in the explorations made in that section, and met the responsibilities which rested upon him creditably and successfully. From Colon the majority of the commissioners Costa tilca. went to Limon, in Costa Rica. Here a special San Jose. . train was placed at their disposal to convey them to San Jose, the capital. During the week that they spent in this city they conferred freety with President Iglesias upon the subject of an interoceanic canal and the use of the territory of the Republic, as far as necessary, in case the United States should desire to use the Nicaragua route. The President manifested a deep interest in the canal project and expressed the hope that it would be successfully accomplished. In the absence of Mr. William L. Merry, envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary, accredited to Nicaragua as well as to Costa Rica, the Commission was greatly aided in accomplishing the purposes of its visits at San Jose b}^ Mr. Ruf us A. Lane, secretary of legation and charge d'affaires, and at Managua by Mr. Chester Donaldson, United States consul. The members of the Commission are also indebted to these gentlemen for many personal courtesies which were highly appreciated. After returning to the United States, the ComDlraenslons and unit prices. mission took up for consideration certain questions relating to canal construction, which had to be determined before completing the projects, preparing the plans, and making the calculations and estimates for the principal work at each route and its auxiliaries. The most important of these were the dimensions of such a canal as was contemplated, its locks and other works, the best method of constructing the dams and the materials to be used, and the unit prices of work and materials. The settlement of these questions required a knowledge not only of vessels then in use but of those which were being constructed and planned, so as to form a correct judgment as to what the shipping interests will demand by the time S D— 57-1— Vol 7 2

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18 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. a canal can be completed; also the cost of excavating and removing vast quantities of earth and rock, at different depths and under different conditions, by using the most satisfactory methods and the latest improvements and inventions in machinery. The conclusions reached were used in making the subsequent plans, computations, and estimates. Besides these questions of a preliminary charered '" qUeS 10nS CM1S a ter, which related to the engineering features of the canals, there were others which had to be considered. Among them were the treaty relations which the Republics, within whose boundaries these canal routes are situated, hold toward the United States and other powers; the grants and concessions made by them to corporations, associations, and individuals, and the cost of purchasing those still in force; the industrial and military value of an interoceanic canal; the cost of operation and maintenance at each route; also the liability of seismic and other disturbances in the isthmian country and their probable effect upon a canal and its auxiliaiy works when completed and in operation. A second visit was made to Nicaragua by Mr. su-arag™. *"" N M * Alfred Noble to make some special examinations, inspect the work of the parties in the field, and give them such further information as he deemed proper. He left New York February 16, 1901, and returned March 26. The different working parties were disbanded as they finished their work, the laborers were at once discharged, and the engineers and other assistants were brought back to the United States, where some of them have since been employed in office work in Washington under the direction of the Commission. The field work was not completed till June, 1901, when the last detachment of assistants returned from Nicaragua. The results of all these investigations and the final conclusions of the Commission are embraced in different chapters of this report. In order that these chapters may not be incumbered with matter which is useful mainly for reference, verification, and special study, many of the papers, documents, treaties, concessions, grants, special reports, and discussions mentioned in the text are attached as appendixes and are appropriately designated so that eas} T reference may be made to them when their examination is desired. , . In order to present a fuller view of the indusSpcrlal report on Indusr trial and commercial value trial and commercial value of an isthmian canal than could be conveniently done within the limits of the report of the Commission, Prof. Emory R. Johnson, a member of the Commission, whose previous studies had qualified him to deal with these questions, was requested to make a thorough investigation of this subject and present the results in a special report. This has

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REPORT OB" THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 19 been done, and it i.s submitted in connection with this report, accompanied by appropriate charts and diagrams. The report is also accompanied by maps of the canal routes and the countries where they are located, charts of the terminal harbors, plans and profiles of the projects, sketches and views taken at different points along and in the vicinity of the canal lines, and diagrams and other representations for purposes of description and explanation. A chapter has also been included, giving a history of the early efforts to find a waterway to the Orient, of the transit routes used and established across the American isthmus, when no strait could be found there connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and of the different plans for establishing an artificial maritime communication. The explorations and researches of the past have developed the projects which now exist, and it is believed that this account will add to the value and completeness of the report and be in harmony with the purposes of the investigation.

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Chapter II. HISTORY OF INTEROCEANIC PROJECTS AND COMMUNICATIONS. During the fifteenth century the subject of a maritime communication with the countries and people in the far East engaged the earnest attention of many enterprising and thoughtful men in the European States bordering upon the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean in the belief and expectation that a more direct route to those distant lands would result in greatly increasing the interchange of productions which had for many centuries contributed to the wealth of the Western nations, notwithstanding the difficulties and disadvantages under which commercial intercourse had been maintained. During this period the art of navigation was largely and continuously developed, the mariner's compass was evolved from the electric needle, the properties of which had long been known, rough instruments were devised for ascertaining and determining the position of vessels upon the great deep, and the mariner began to venture beyond the sight of familiar landmarks; the Portuguese resolutely pushed forward their explorations southward along and near the west side of Africa, new capes and headlands and river mouths were passed, and islands and groups of islands distant from the coast line were discovered, some by those who were driven from their course, others by the more daring who steered from the land and risked for a while the dangers of the open sea. The diffusion of the geographic knowledge thus gained and the constant improvement in nautical appliances and charts inspired increased confidence in the theory of the maritime communication and its ultimate discovery, and, in the latter part of the century, brave navigators and seamen voluntarily entered upon long vo} 7 ages, through untried seas, in search of new pathways, eastward and westward, to India, China, and the spice islands, under the patronage of enlightened monarchs, who, in addition to their desire to advance the commercial interests of their people, hoped and expected that new possessions, abounding in wealth, would be added to their dominions. It is claimed that Africa had been circumnavigated and was known to be a great peninsula many centuries before the Christian era. Herodotus states that Pharaoh Necho, who reigned in Egypt from 016 to 600 B. C. sent out an expedition from the Red Early voyages. J , Sea to explore its coast, which passed around the continent, sailed through the Straits of Gibraltar, and in the third year 20

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 21 returned to Egypt by the Mediterranean. But the evidence upon which this and other early voyages rest is scarcely more than traditional and they left no permanent impressions and were followed by no practical results. But if there was a sea route to India eastward it was surely in this direction, and the Portuguese had been persistent JSS^SS^ST in theil \ efforts to discover it. By 1486 their explorations along the west coast of Africa had extended to about the twentieth degree of south latitude. In 1487 an expedition was sent out by John II, under the command of Bartholemew Dias, to continue the explorations until the southern point of the continent should be reached. Near Cape Voltas, on the southern bank of Orange River, he met tempestuous weather and was driven far below the cape of which he was in search without seeing it. When he regained the land he advanced easterly as far as a point he named Santa Cruz, near Algoa Bay, where he raised a stone cross, as had been done at other points along the coast, in proof of the fact that he claimed the country for his king. The cape was not seen till he sailed homeward, and in memory of the trying circumstances under which he had gone by it on the outward voyage he named it the Stormy Cape, but King John, in full belief that Cape of (lood Hope (lis,i .-, -17, -,. -, coye J. ed the gateway to the East was now open, directed that it should be called the Cape of Good Hope. Notwithstanding the general rejoicing over the successful voyage nade by Dias, this hope was not realized till eleven years later. Various causes delayed the sending out of another expedition, but at length Vasco de Gama sailed with four vessels to follow Atrill to incmT At0Um U P ^ e resu lt s already obtained and, if practicable, to proceed to the eastern countries. He left Lisbon July 8, 1497, passed safely around the southernmost point of Africa, crossed the Indian Ocean, touching at various points on his way, and on the 17th of May, 1498, sighted the high land on the coast of India. Three days later he anchored his fleet before Calicut on the Malibar coast. After an eventful voyage he returned to Portugal in August or September, 1499, and was received with distinguished honors and magnificent displays. Two of his vessels and more than half of his men had been lost, but the great problem of opening a maritime communication with the eastern countries had been solved and the most sanguine expectations that had been indulged in were more than realized. Portugal improved the opportunities which this Results of maritime com, j. ., ,... munication with orient. g reat discovery opened; other expeditions were sent by this new route to the Orient; every sea was entered and every coast explored; she planted her colonies and trading stations wherever desirable locations were found; her arms

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22 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. were everywhere triumphant; her ship* opened and maintained a lucrative commerce with India, China, and the Spice Islands. This commerce stimulated her home industries and brought vast wealth to the Kingdom, and for nearly half a century she enjoyed wonderful prosperity and power and held a foremost place among the nations of Europe. But before the discovery of the eastern communication had been completed the studies of Columbus had convinced him that the same countries could be more speedily reached by sailing westward. He had no correct idea of the size of the world nor of the distance from Europe to the Asiatic coast and the neighboring islands, but supposed that it was several thousand miles less than it afterwards proved to be. He reached this conclusion from the delineations upon the rude maps of the world then in existence, based upon actual geographic knowledge when it was available, and when it was wanting upon hearsay and imagination and conjecture. When he embarked, under the auspices of Ferdinand and Isabella, at Palos on the 3d day of August, 1492, upon the voyage which resulted in the discovery of America, it was with the confident expectation that a favorable result would carry him to the eastern shores of the Old World or to some island in those regions which might lie across the track of his vessels. He was therefore not disappointed when he discovered island after island but not the mainland, and be believed that by sailing beyond these the continent could be found. When upon his second voyage he passed along the southern coast of Cuba, in 1494, he announced that it was some part of the Old World far remote from Europe, and his officers and crew joined in certifying their belief in this opinion. When he felt obliged to turn back, he still believed that if he could continue his voyage in the same direction some port would in the end be reached whence he could communicate with the Grand Khan of Tartary, to whom Ferdinand had given him letters. On his third voyage, in 1498, he discovered South America, near the delta of the Orinoco. He named it Tierra Firma and regarded it as another part of the Asiatic continent. When he left Spain in 1502, on his fourth and last voyage, his intention was to go still farther westward and endeavor to find a strait that would lead to India. He would thus complete his great discovery and demonstrate the correctness of the theories upon which his expeditions had been undertaken. He reached Honduras and followed the coast line to Darien, but long-continued and severe storms, the hostile attitude of the Indians, and the discouragement of his followers interfered with his plans and progress, and with sorrow and regret he turned toward Hispaniola with his shattered ships before he had accomplished the long-hoped-for result, in which, however, his faith had not abated. When he died, on the 26th day of May, 1506, he was still fully satisfied that his discoveries

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 23 were in the eastern part of the Old World and never fully realized the extent and grandeur of his achievements. The success of these voyages aroused the activOther expeditions west x ji •• j t^ 1 i m j ward tor discovery. ]t y oi other nations, and England, b ranee, and Portugal vied with Spain in this field of enterprise and adventure. Each expedition returned with reports of additional discoveries, northward and southward, from Labrador to Brazil, but no strait was found which opened a wa} r to the Asiatic coast, and it began to be realized that these newly found islands and countries did not belong to the Eastern continent, but that a new world had been discovered. Strong confirmatory proof in support of this Balboa discovers the Pa• j* j i • o i -< k-i r. 1 tr clfl( view was afforded in September, 1513, by Vasco Nunez de Balboa, then governor of a province in Darien known as Castilla del Oro. The Indians had told him of a great sea beyond the mountains, and he determined to organize an expedition and go in search of it. He crossed from Santa Maria de la Antigua, the capital of his province, a city founded in 1509 or 1510, near the Atrato River, to a point near Caledonia Bay, where Acla was afterwards built; thence he proceeded with a considerable force of Spaniards and Indians across the divide, and on the 25th day of the month reached a high ridge above the gulf which he named San Miguel. Advancing beyond his companions to a favorable elevation, he was the first European to behold the great ocean to the south, which he called the South Sea, from the direction in which he viewed it. The march was continued to the coast, and four days later he entered the sea and with great ceremony claimed it by the right of discovery for his royal master, the King of Spain. Before the news of this great achievement reached the King, Balboa had been superseded as .governor, through the efforts of his enemies, by Pedro Arias de Avila, better known as Pedrarias. This was a bitter disappointment to him, for the Indians had Balboa hears from Inj. i i u • i_ iij.i-.li ji • l. dians of gold southward. told him when he crossed the isthmus of a rich country to the south, abounding in the precious metals, and he had planned the construction of a fleet to navigate the new sea, confident of his abilit} 7 to discover this country and make himself master of its wealth. The accomplishment of these results twenty years later by Pizarro, who was with Balboa upon his famous expedition, shows that his plans and expectations were not unreasonable. When Ferdinand received the report that a great Plans expedition southi ii• ,i iiii ward for gold. sea > beyond his possessions in the new world, had been added to his empire he desired to recognize the importance of the event by bestowing suitable honors upon the discoverer, but was not willing to restore him to the governorship. The reward came in 1515, when Balboa was appointed adelantado of the

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24 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. Southern Sea and captain-general, but these distinction were to be enjoyed under the supervision of Pedrarias as his superior. In the following year the adelantado obtained the consent of the governor to enter upon the long desired voyage and he established his headquarters on the north side of Caledonia Bay, at his former starting point, where he laid out the town of Acla. The expedition required ships on the opposite side of the isthmus and he undertook their construction. Suitable trees were abundant only on the Atlantic side, and he conceived the project of preparing all his materials there and transporting them over the mountain range on the backs -ESSSE? "" "* !>>. '<> b <= P"t together at some navigable point on one of the streams flowing into the waters of the South Sea. The place selected was on a river, then called Rio de las Balsas, or River of the Rafts, probably the same as the Savana, though the authorities are not agreed. Thousands of Indians were brought together from all directions, materials for four brigantines were prepared, and the work was carried forward under merciless taskmasters, Spaniards and negroes. When the builders began to put the timbers together, many of them were found to be worm-eaten, and a new lot had to be prepared; then a tempest arose, and the deluging rains swept away the materials and buried them with mud in the swamps and low grounds. Balboa with unshaken resolution sent out the woodcutters again, and dispatched parties for fresh supplies of provisions, and others to forage on the natives to satisfy the immediate wants of his force. For months the Indians continued their unac^toii and suffering of mcustomed toilj through swamps, across streams, over mountain heights, ill fed, under a tropical sun, and if made desperate by their hardships and sufferings any tried to escape bloodhounds were put on their tracks. Bishop Quevado testified before the Spanish court that 500 poor wretches perished in this work, while Las Casas Transit of Isthmus. 111 n, Ann • i_ T"> i. says the deaths were nearer 2,000 in number. But the undertaking was accomplished, the four brigantines, in separate pieces, were carried from sea to sea, put together on the Balsas, and Balboa selected Isla Rica, the largest of the Pearl Islands, as his rendezvous, and frequent journeys were made thither from Acla in connection with the arrangements for the expedition. A short trip was made to the eastward and the little fleet returned to Isla Rica ready for the southern voyage; but before he set out Balboa was summoned by Pedrarias to Acla, charged with treasonable Execution of Balboa. ^ ., ,. „ , conduct, and, after the form ot a trial, was condemned and beheaded in the latter part of 1517. Thus closed the. career of the brave and unfortunate man who first marked out a line of transit across the isthmus and demonstrated its practicability.

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 25 Meanwhile the search for a westward waterway t<> the eastern side of the old continent had been continued, and after many fruitless efforts its existence was finally demonstrated by Voyage of Magellan. ^ b erdinand Magellan, twenty years alter the famous voyage of Vasco de Gama around the Cape of Good Hope to India, and the result was accomplished, as in the case of the eastern passage, by sailing around the southern point of the continent and not by a strait connecting the two oceans farther north. Magellan was a Portuguese navigator in the service of Charles V, the successor of Ferdinand upon the Spanish throne. He set sail from San Lucar de Barrameda on the 20th of September, 1519, with five ships, reached the mouth of the La Plata, sailed Discovers strait. i i i -r. -it southerly along the coast of Patagonia, and discovered the strait which still bears his name, which separates the island of Terra del Fuego from the mainland. He supposed this island belonged to a southern continent, and this view prevailed until 1616, when two Dutch navigators, Van Schouten and Le Maire, found the passage around Cape Horn. Magellan successfully worked his way through the strait and on the 28th of November, 1520, found the great sea beyond, which he named the Pacific Ocean, on account of the fine weather which he experienced there. His crews were discouraged and mutinous and his provisions ran short, but with undaunted resolution he continued his voyage toward the Asiatic coast, making additional discoveries on his way, until he reached the Philippine Islands. There, on the island of Matan, near Zebu, he lost his life in an encounter with the natives on the 27th of April, 1521. One vessel had been wrecked on the eastern coast of Patagonia, another deserted the expedition and sailed homeward after the western opening of the strait had been discovered but before its passage, arid a third became unseaworthy and was burned at the Moluccas. The two remaining separated after the death of Magellan. The Trinidad sailed for Panama and the Victory returned homeward around the Cape of Good Hope and reached San Lucar, the port from which the expedition had started three years before, on the 6th of September, 1522, under the command of John Sebastian del Cano, having on board only 18 of the 265 persons who had embarked with Magellan. Espinosa, captain of the Trinidad, and three of his men returned to Spain five years later in a Portuguese vessel. The voyage to Panama had been abandoned in consequence of continued storms, and the Trinidad returned to the Moluccas and was seized by the Portuguese. It finally reached Ternate, a small island of this group, where it went ashore in a squall and went to pieces. For the first time a continuous voyage had been made World oircumnavierated. .. around toe world, and a new maritime route had been found to the $x£ etisie'-ri countries aid islands in both directions, but this western passage did not reduce the" dhs'tsnce nor satisfy

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26 REPOKT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. the wishes of those who sought a direct way thither by the discovery of a connecting strait along the coast line of the new continent. Though all previous attempts had been baffled, the belief in the existence of such a strait was not entirely abandoned, and efforts to discover it were still prosecuted, but they were mainly confined to the isthmian section, from Mexico to Darien, where it had been developed that the two oceans were least widely separated. After Charles V came to the throne of Spain in thanes t is interested in 151 g he too k g reat interest in the exploration of discovery of interoceanic irijiniji-i<• communication. the South Sea and the discovery ot a connecting strait. He charged the governors of his American provinces to have the entire coast line thoroughly examined and every bay and river mouth that offered a possible solution of the problem was entered and explored. In 1523 the Emperor wrote from Valladolid to Cortes to make careful search for the passage which would connect the eastern and western shores of the New World and shorten by twothirds the route from Cadiz to Cathay. Cortes, in replying, assured him that his wishes would be diligently carried out, and that he had great hopes of success, adding that such a discovery "would render the King of Spain master of so many kingdoms that he might call himself lord of the world." It was in accordance with this policy that Gil ^Gll Gonzales sent to FaGonzales de Ayila wag sent Qut f rom Spain to succeed Balboa, with instructions to search along the coast of the South Sea for the western opening of a strait connecting with the Atlantic. He had authority to use the vessels that Balboa had constructed, but Pedrarias refused to deliver them to him, and in order to carry out the royal commands he took to pieces the two caravels in which he and his followers crossed tZZSZSZT* the ocean, transported them across the isthmus along the route used by Balboa, and rebuilt them at the Balsas on the Pacific side. These were lost, and he constructed others with which he sailed northward along the coast from the Bay of Panama in January, 1522, until they were found to be unseaworthy. They were repaired and the exploration was continued to the Bay of Fonseca, but Gil Gonzales proceeded by land with 4 horses and 100 men and discovered Lake Nicaragua, which he ^Discovers Lake Mcar^ ^^ Nicara()j & cMef whom he met ftt or near the present site of Rivas and from whom he at first received kind treatment. He found the country rich in gold, and took formal possession of it for his sovereign. Afterwards, encountering serious opposition from the Indians, he retreated to the coast and was so fortunate as to meet tjbe. vessels on their return voyage after an unsuccessful search for the strait, When they reached Panama the news soon spread that a great inland sea had been dis-

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 27 covered only a few leagues from the Pacific. Pcdrarias claimed that it was within the limits of his jurisdiction and at once undertook its conquest. He established a city at Granada, near Ufc^icuwra^ 11 '" t ne shore f the lake, and reduced the Indians to subjection. It was at first reported that there was an opening from the lake to the South Sea, but a careful examination of the surroundingcountry failed to develop such a connecting channel. Among the early settlers was Capt. Diego Machaca-s expedition Machuca, who, in 1529, undertook a thorough from Lake Mraniurua down exploration of Lake Nicaragua and its eastern outlet. A felucca and brigantine were constructed on its shores and were placed under his command with 200 men and some canoes. His land force kept within reach of his flotilla and he entered the Desaguadero River, now the San Juan, and attempted its passage. He found the navigation difficult in places Rapids in the San Juan. & fe because of the rapids, and those in one part of the river still bear his name. Overcoming all difficulties, he reached the Atlantic, but was uncertain as to the locality, and kept along the coast with his vessels in a southeasterly direction till he reached the Spanish settlement at Nombre de Dios. At a later period sea vessels passed regularly up and down the river, making voyages between Granada and Spain, Cuba and South America. This commerce was maintained as late as 1637, according to Thomas Gage, an English monk, who visited Nicaragua in that year, but there were delays and difficulties in passing the rapids. While efforts were being made to find a maritime channel between the two oceans which washed the shores of the Spanish provinces in the new world, the importance of a permanent communication across the isthmus by land was not overlooked. Soon isthmus. P Stb a r0SS a ^er the discovery by Balboa, Ferdinand ordered that a line of posts be established from sea to sea, and the plan was carried out by his successor. Acla was first selected as the Atlantic terminus, but it was afterwards determined that it was too far to the east, and in 1519 Nombre de Dios was founded and the Atlantic port was there established. After an examination of the Pacific coast, the site of old Panama was fixed upon as a suitable place to establish a city upon the western side of the isthmus. A settlement was commenced there in August, 1517, and Panama founded. 1 in September, 1521, it was made a city by royal decree, with special privileges and a coat of arms. It became the Pacific terminus of the line of posts, and a road was at once constructed between the two cities, crossing the Construction of road r^-i ^ rnl -, ,, across isthmus. Cnagres at Cruces. This road was cut through the forests, the trees often being used to make the swamps passable; bridges were laid across the streams, and rocks were

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28 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. removed from their beds to make the passage over the mountains less difficult. The way was paved, and according to some accounts was onl}wide enough for riders and beasts of burden, but Peter Martyr says that two carts could pass one another upon it. In 1597 Porto Bello was made the eastern port of entry instead of Nombre de Dios. It had a better harbor, was easier of access, was well supplied with fresh water the year round, was nearer to Panama, and the location was more healthy than Nombre de Dios, which had frequently been denounced in memorials to the Spanish court as the sepulcher of Spaniards.* 1 In 1534, or soon after that date, a route by water for boats and lightdraft vessels was established from Nombre de Dios along the coast and up the Chagres to Cruces. This was accomplished by removing obstructions which had interfered with the navigation of the river, but the use of the paved way was not discontinued. The value of this interoceanic communication increased every year. After the conquest of Pizarro vast quantities of gold and silver were brought from the mines of Peru to Panama, carmus mil,erCe lCr0SS S rie ^ across the isthmus on the king's horses, kept for that purpose, and transported from the eastern terminus of the paved way in royal galleons to Spain. As the Spanish colonies and provinces increased in population the commerce and travel across the isthmus grew in importance. At cerFairs at Cartagena tain t mies when vessels were due from Spain fairs Nombre de Dios, and Porto were held at Cartagena and Nombre de Dios, and later at Porto Bello, which were attended by the merchants of the Spanish Main and the countries bordering upon the Pacific. Caravans from Panama crossed to the Atlantic terminus with products to be disposed of at these fairs. With the proceeds such manufactured articles as were needed by the colonists and settlers were purchased from the Spanish ships and distributed at Panama after recrossing the isthmus, many of them going to Peru and Central America, where the abundance of gold assured a ready and profitable market. The commerce of the isthmus increased during Prosperity of Panama. the century and Panama became a place of great mercantile importance, with a profitable trade extending to the Spice Islands and the Asiatic coast. It was at the height of its prosperity in 1585, and was called with good reason the tollgate between western Europe and eastern Asia. Meanwhile the commerce, whose tolls only brought such benefits to Panama, enriched Spain, and her people were generously rewarded for the aid given by Ferdinand and Isabella in the effort to open a direct route westward to Cathay, notwithstanding the disadvantages of the isthmian transit.

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 29 Another of the early transits across the isthmian country was at Tehuantepcc. When Cortes was instructed by Ti'huantepcc ^ Charles V to search tor the desired strait he proceeded with his usual energy to carry out the wishes of the Emperor. He had obtained from Montezuma in 1520 a description of the country to the south, with a drawing of the gulf coast representing the bays and rivers. The indications at the mouth of the Coatzacoalcos appearing favorable, he had it examined and, though no strait was discovered, the isthmus presented advantages for transit which he found serviceable in his subsequent operations. When he had in search oT'tniir " S completed the conquest of Mexico he sent out vessels to explore the coast in all directions, along the Pacific as well as the Gulf of Mexico, and in 1527 he sent an expedition to the Moluccas, hoping to establish a direct trade with those regions. The forests of Tarifa, on the Atlantic slope, supplied abundance of timber suitable for shipbuilding, and it was transported to each coast to be used in both seas. With timber from this source he constructed vessels on the coast near Tehuantepec for his expeditions in the Pacific, the other materials being carried from the Gulf of Mexico across the isthmus. The most important result of the coastwise explorations was the discovery of the Gulf of California and the adjacent peninsula, but neither along the shore of this gulf nor elsewhere upon the Pacific side did any channel open a passage to the Atlantic. But though Cortes failed to find the strait, the course he marked, up the Coatzacoalcos, across the dividing ridge, and down the Pacific slope to Tehuantepec, became an important route of communication between the Atlantic and Pacific. A port and extensive works were established at the western terminus, and a profitable trade was opened and maintained with the Spanish provinces on the Pacific and with the countries and islands in and near the eastern part of Asia on the one side and with the Atlantic ports and Spain on the other. The importance of a maritime connection and the discouraging results of the efforts to discover a natural channel between the two oceans suggested to many minds_the idea of a ship canal, and the successful transits at the different points mentioned and the relatively short distance across the isthmus at each caused them to be regarded at an early period as favorable locations for canal routes. Tehuantepec, Nicaragua, Panama, and Darien each had its advocates. According to one authority Charles V directed that the isthmus of Panama be surveyed with this purpose in view as early as 1520. In February, 1534, a royal decree was confirmed directing that the space between the Chagres and the Pacific be examined by experienced men

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30 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION and that they ascertain the best and most convenient means of effecting a communication between the navigable waters of Survey of Isthmus of ^ r[ d th ocean Rnd the difficulties to be Panama. met in the execution of such a project. The governor, Pascual Andagoya, reported that such a work was impracticable, and that no king, however powerful he might be, was capable of forming a junction of the two seas or of furnishing the means of carrying out such an undertaking. Charles abdicated the throne of Spain in 1555 and was succeeded by his son, Philip II, who reigned till 1598. Under the Policy of Philip II. i.i v £ a l i • j u A new monarch the policy ot the kingdom changed, the search for the strait was abandoned, the number of ports through which the gold and silver from the mines of his American provinces flowed to Spain was limited, and the project of a ship canal between the two oceans, across the American peninsula, was no longer prosecuted. While these new possessions opened a constantly widening field for commerce and furnished an inexhaustible supply of the precious metals, why seek for or construct a maritime communication through the continent into the ocean beyond for other explorations in the hope of new discoveries? Here was actual fruition. Why waste effort and time and money in regions still more remote, where all was uncertainty? Besides, an opening through the isthmus would afford rival nations favorable opportunities to visit the shores of the new possessions, gain information as to their resources and advantages, and invite aggression and conquest in case of war. It was also urged that the opening of a canal through the isthmus would be in opposition to the will of the Almighty, who had placed this barrier in the way of navigation between the two oceans, and they who should attempt to remove it would incur the Divine displeasure. The Atrato region offered favorable conditions for a transit, particularly for the commerce between Peru and the Spanish main. Some of its tributaries take their rise far to the south and near the Pacific coast, but the policy of Philip prevented the establishment of a channel of communication there, and the navigation of the river was forbidden under penalty of death. This policy adopted by Philip II continued for two centuries after his death. The subject of a maritime connection was an attractive one and was often discussed. In connection with it explorations were made from time to time and much geographic and topographic information relating to the Spanish provinces in the isthmian country was collected, but it was not published to the world, and if any scientific data valuable for canal purposes were obtained they were not available when the subject was revived in the nineteenth century and the question of the feasibility of the different projects began to receive serious consideration.

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 31 The most notable event relating to the connecPaterson's colony at New • j> ,i > u • u 1 1 -i ii • Caledonia. tion * ™ie two oceans which occurred while this policy of King Philip was maintained was the attempt of William Paterson to establish a Scotch colony in Darien. In 1695 the Scotch Parliament passed an act authorizing the formation of a company to trade from Scotland to Africa and the Indies. It received the royal sanction June 26, 1695, and William III issued letters patent to carry out the terms of the act. The company organized under this authority is generally known as the Darien Company, and in July, 1698, it sent out an expedition from Edinburgh with three ships and two tenders, having 1,200 men on board, with the intention of settling on the American isthmus. William Paterson was the originator of this scheme. He had become acquainted with the advantages of the Darien section while engaged as a merchant in the West Indies, and from a knowledge of the movements and exploits of the buccaneers. The vessels arrived safely at Darien and anchored in a bay which they called Caledonia Bay, a name it still retains. The colonists entered into friendly relations with the Indians and bought lands from them. They named the country Caledonia and established a settlement, which they called New Edinburgh, on a small peninsula, which formed a harbor, which still bears the name of Port Escoces. A fort was built for the protection of the settlement, which they named New St. Andrews, and a channel was cut across the peninsula, so that the sea might encompass the city and fort. While no attempt was made to construct a canal or to open a communication with the South Sea, the patent under which the company was organized authorized colonies to be planted in Asia, Africa, or America, and Paterson's plan contemplated the ultimate establishment of settlements and ports on both oceans, so as to open commercial connections with all parts of the world. One of the first acts of the colonial government was to declare freedom of trade to those Paterson's plans for In<• n ,• i • i i .,, ,, teroceanic communication. ot a11 nations who might be concerned with them, and full and free liberty of conscience in matters of religion. The success of this first colony would have been followed by efforts to establish others on the Pacific side, with which a transit route would then have been opened, but the colonists became discouraged, the supply of provisions failed, a vessel sent out with fresh stores foundered off Cartagena, the unhealthf ulness of the climate filled their hospitals and graveyard, and in less than eight c ... . . months the survivors abandoned the settlement, Settlement abandoned. and only a small remnant lived to return to Scotland. Other vessels were sent out with more emigrants before these disasters were known, others followed them a few months later, and fresh attempts were made to establish a permanent colony, but with no better results. In addition to their other troubles and misfor-

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32 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. tunes, Spain protested that her territory was being invaded, and a military force was sent to drive them from the country. The few survivors at length capitulated, and after the loss of more than 2,000 lives and the expenditure of vast sums of money the company abandoned the promising scheme which Paterson had planned and inaugurated. During this period communication between the two seas was maintained at the locations already mentioned. As Panama declined in importance much of its business was transferred to Nicaragua. The shortest distance from ocean to ocean was in the Xrnusit routes Darien section. The general course marked out by Balboa was followed by the buccaneers in some of their incursions against the Spanish settlements and posts in the seventeenth century. Captain Sharp crossed here when he made his successful attack in 1680 upon Villa Maria on the Tu} 7 ra River, but no continuous transit was ever maintained, probably because of the fierce jndia„ s hostile to Spa.,and persistent hostility of the Indians toward the Spaniards. They aided the buccaneers because they were warring against their special enemies and not because they wanted white men to enter their borders. The Indians in this section were never subdued, though forts and strongholds and mission stations were from time to time established on Caledonia Bay and at other points on the Atlantic side and on the rivers emptying into the Gulf of San Miguel. They had secret passes through the mountains, caves in which their canoes could be safely concealed, trails from their villages by which they could pass f reel} 7 from point to point, and a system of signals by which the} 7 could give notice of the movements and approach of their enemies; with these advantages they often made successful raids upon the Spanish settlements, slaughtered the garrisons, and destroyed their works. Under the administration of Andres de Ariza, Ariza's road In Darien. __, who became governor of the province in 1774, a determined effort was made to bring the Indians under subjection to the Spanish. Military posts were again established on both sides of the isthmus; Puerto Principi, on the Savana River, was fortified and garrisoned, and a trail was cut thence to the Chucunaque, near the mouth of the La Paz, which was afterwards known as Ariza's road. It was deemed best to connect these posts on the Atlantic and Pacific by a military road, and with this purpose in view a reconnaissance was made from Caledonia Bay across the divide to the terminus of Ariza's road, under the direction of Manuel Milla de Santa Ella, who found that it was practicable. But the Indians objected to the occupation of their country for this purpose and threatened resistance. Their opposition was so serious that the plan was abandoned, and no regular communication between the two coasts was ever accomplished. The

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 33 Spaniards became satisfied that their supremacy yielded them no advantages commensurate with its cost, and in 1790 Spaniards .bandon their d to ^. with th India j which nillllnry posts. •> J they agreed to abandon their military posts and withdraw from the country. Toward the latter part of the eighteenth century Examination or t,.„.:„,. there was a revival of interest in the subject of a tepee route. J maritime communication between the two oceans through the American isthmus. Some pieces of ancient bronze cannon in the castle of San Juan d'Ulloa, at Vera Cruz, in Mexico, were accidentally discovered in 1771 to have been cast in Manila, in the Philippine Islands. It seemed improbable that they had been transported thither by water around either continent, as the only commercial intercourse with the islands had been through the Pacific port of Tehuantepec The subject was investigated and it was satisfactorily proved by old records and traditions among the inhabitants of the isthmus that the cannon had been transported from Tehuantepec to the mouth of the Coatzacoalcos by the route established in the days of Cortez. This transit had long been abandoned, but the remembrance of its former importance had been preserved, though in the lapse of time the difficulties and obstructions attending the passage had been forgotton. The viceroy of Mexico, in the hope that it would afford a favorable location for a canal, determined to have the country examined, so as to ascertain its topography and the practicability of opening a maritime communication between the two oceans, and two engineers, Augustin-Cramer and Miguel del Corral, were directed to survey the isthmus and report the result of their investigations. They made an exploration up the Coatzacoalcos and found that its source was not near Tehuantepec, as they had been led to suppose; nor did any river have a channel flowing into each ocean. Instead of a river communication they found a range of mountains of considerable height between the headwaters of the streams emptying into opposite seas. In one place they reported that the mountains formed a group rather than a continuous chain, and that a valleyexisted, through which a canal of small dimensions was practicable, connecting two rivers on opposite slopes, which would form a continuous communication across the isthmus. Charles III was then upon the throne of Spain and had interested himself in the work that had been undertaken at Tehuantepec. Not satisfied with its results, he authorized an investigation to be made in Nicaragua to determine the practicability of connecting the lakes with the Pacific. The work was undertaken by Manuel Galisteo in 1779, and a report was made in 1781 full of discourageExamination of Nlcarat •, i % .i_ t i xtgua route i.y (jaiisteo. ment. In it he stated that Lake Nicaragua was 134 feet higher than the Pacific, and that high S D— 57-1— Vol 7 3

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34 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. mountains intervened between the lakes and the ocean which, in his opinion, made their connection impracticable. Notwithstanding 1 this report, a company was afterwards formed under the patronage of the Crown to undertake the project, and the route selected was from Lake Nicaragua along the Sanoa River to the Gulf of Nicoya. The royal fleet in the Pacific was directed to aid this work by further surveys, but the project was never commenced and no further progress was made in the construction of an interoceanic communication. When Galisteo's party set out. in 1779 they were accompanied in a private capacity b}^ the British agents at Belize, and the territory claimed in the name of the Mosquito Indians. After their return they made favorable representations of the countiy they had visited, and declared that the canal project was entirely feasible. This manifestation of interest in the subject was followed by an invasion of the country early in 1780, after Spain had declared war Invasion of Mcaravuii • f~\ t> *x • tm • J* i'. m by British forces. against Great Britain. 1 he invading expedition, under the command of Captain Poison, set out from Jamaica. Admiral Horatio Nelson, then a post captain, was in charge of the naval operations. Nelson, in his dispatches, states the general purpose of the expedition as follows: "In order to give facility to the great object of government I intend to possess the Lake of Nicaragua, which for the present may be looked upon as the inland Gibraltar of Spanish America. As it commands the only water pass between the oceans, its situation must ever render it a principal post to insure passage to the Southern Ocean, and by* our possession of it Spanish America is divided in two." The plan of the campaign was to enter the mouth I'lini nl' rampaiirn. *• r of the San Juan River, capture hort San Juan, at Castillo Viejo, take possession of all other fortified positions on the river and lakes, occupy the cities of Granada and Leon, then push on to Realejo, by the seizure of which they would complete their control of the province and the lines of communication between the two oceans. The attacking party went up the San Juan in boats and met with no resistance till a small island, named San Bartolome, an outpost of the enemy, was reached. This was soon captured, and two days later Fort San Juan at Castillo Viejo was besieged. After a Capture of Castillo Ylelo. -, , .. , L stubborn resistance, protracted lor ten days, the fort was surrendered and the garrison was allowed to march out with the honors of war. The invading force had little protection from the constant rains, their numbers were daily reduced by deadly fevers and other prostrating diseases, their situation became distressing, longer stay was useless and would have been fatal to the few survivors, and reluctantly the expedition was abandoned. Of the crew of Nel-

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 35 son's ship, the Sinchmbrook, 200 in number, 87 fell sick in one night, only 10 were living soon after the return of the expedition to Jamaica, and Nelson himself was in such an enfeebled condition that his life was saved only by careful nursing. This terminated the effort to weaken the Spanish K2::;Sr ,W Power in Central America, and in the treaty of 1783, which terminated the war, Great Britain relinquished whatever territorial rights she may have claimed there. While the privilege of cutting wood for dyeing was granted to English settlers, it was only to be exercised in a part of Honduras with certain specified boundaries, within which the woodcutters, then dispersed through the country, were required to retire within eighteen months. The British agreed to demolish their fortifications within this district and to instruct their settlers to build no new ones, and they recognized and declared Spain's rights of sovereignty. Owing to delays in the retirement of the woodcutters within the agreed limits by the time specified, new complications arose between the two powers and the negotiations which followed resulted in another treaty which was signed at London in July, 1786. Treaty of 1786. / • i i• n n i By the new convention the district allotted to the woodcutters was enlarged and their privileges were increased, but they were not to establish any plantation of sugar, coffee, cocoa, or other like article, or any manufacture by means of mills or other machines except sawmills for preparing their timber for use. The reason given for this restriction was that "all the lands in question being indisputably acknowledged to belong of right to the Crown of Spain, no settlement of that kind or the population which would follow could be allowed." In another article all the restrictions specified in the treat} 7 ^ of 1783 for the entire preservation of the right of the Spanish sovereignty over the country were confirmed. Another article related to the Mosquito country, in which England had exercised a protectorate over the Indians and had assisted them in resisting the authority of Spain. In it Spain was pledged, by motives of humanity, not to exercise any severity against the Mosquitos on account of their former connection with the English, and his Britannic Majesty agreed to prohibit his subjects from furnishing arms or military supplies to the Indians. These treaty obligations were disregarded by Great Britain as no longer binding after the Spanish provinces acquired their independence. The protectorate over the Mosquito Indians was revived and new territorial rights were set up in Central America. Nicaragua claimed sovereignty over the Mosquitos and resisted what she regarded as the encroachment of the British. The latter claimed, on behalf of the Indians, that their territory extended to the San Juan, and in 1848 took possession of the port at the mouth of the river, raised the Mos-

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36 REPOET OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. quito flag there, and changed its name from San Juan to Greytown. Treaty between Great In 1859 a treaty was made between Great Britain Britain and Guatemala of and Guatemala bv which the title of the former to 1859 as to Belize. the settlements made in and near the Bay of Honduras, known as Belize, was recognized and the boundaries were defined. In 1860 a treaty was made between Great Treaty between Great . ., 1 • 1 1 Britain and Nicaragua of Britain and Micaragua by which the protectorate 1860 as to Mosquito inover t h e Mosquitos was to cease in three months, the territory occupied by them was to be under the sovereignty of Nicaragua, its boundaries were defined, extending no farther south than the river Rama, and Greytown was declared a free port. But the Indians were to have the right of self-government, and Nicaragua was pledged to respect their customs and regulations and not to interfere with them, provided they were not inconsistent with the sovereign rights of the Republic. It was also provided that Nicaragua should, for ten years, pay to the Mosquito authorities $5,000 annually to promote their improvement and provide for the maintenance of the government they were to establish for themselves within their district. In another article it was declared by the conMosquito Indians incortracting parties that the treaty was not to be conporated into Republic of i .1 tt t jNicaragua in 1894. strued so as to prevent the Mosquito Indians at any time in the future from agreeing to absolute incorporation into the Republic of Nicaragua, on the same footing and subject to the same laws as other citizens. This solution of a long-existing cause of irritation and disturbance was reached in November, 1894, when a convention of the tribes assembled under the direction of their chief and agreed that their territory should become a department of the Republic. At the close of the eighteenth century Spain tht'Sttcentur 1 ?. 6010860 continued to maintain her sovereignty over the entire isthmian country, but the Cordilleras still kept the two oceans apart; the old transits had fallen into disuse and her intercourse with the western ports of her American provinces was maintained almost entirely by way of Cape Horn and the Cape of Good Hope; the chief exception being at Tehuantepcc, where a communication across the isthmus had once more been opened. No actual progress in the way of establishing a maritime communication from the Atlantic to the Pacific had been made during the three hundred years of Spanish occupation. Baron Von von Humboldt's staten ulu boldt, who visited New Spain about this time III (Til. r and took a great interest in this subject, deplored the lack of accurate knowledge of the physical features of the isthmian country. After making his investigations he said that there was not

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 37 a single mountain, plain, or city from Granada to Mexico of which the elevation above the sea was known. It was even a matter of doubt whether an uninterrupted chain of mountains existed in the provinces of Veragua and Nicaragua. The publications of Humboldt were extensively read and revived the interest of the commercial nations of the world in this subject. The Spanish Cortes was aroused to action and in April, 1*14, passed a formal decree for the construction of a canal through the peninsula for vessels of the largest size and provided for the formation of a company to undertake the enterprise, but it led to no results and Spain's opportunities to obtain the glory of opening this great highwa} 7 for the commerce of the world terminated in 1823, when the last of her Central and South American provinces succeeded in establishing their n dependence. The States of New Granada, Venezuela, and f"ZT ie f t l0n "' la Ecuador united in 1811) in forming the Republic of Colombia, w T ith Simon Bolivar as President. This continued till 1831, when they separated into three independent republics. In 1823 Gautemala, San Salvador, Honduras, Formation of Federal _. Republic of the united Nicaragua, and Costo Rica, having successfully provinces <,< central res j s t e d the efforts of Iturbide to extend the power America. , .. n ~_ of Mexico over them, established the federal Republic of the United Provinces of Central America. The governmental changes wrought by these successful revolutions and the formation of these new confederations were followed by a revival of interest in the interoceanic communication. Aaron H. Palmer, of New York, and his associates made proposals to the new Republic of Central America with a view to the construction of such a work, which were favorably regarded. But before any action was taken Don Antonio Jose Canaz, the envoy extraordinary representing the Republic at Washington, was instructed to call the attention of the Government of the United States to the subject. He accordingly addressed a letter to Mr. Clay, then Secretary of State, on the 8th day of February, 1825, assuring him that nothing would be more grateful to "the Republic of the Centre of AmerRepubiic of central j ca than the cooperation of the American people America makes proposi. i c • • tions to United states. in the construction of a canal of communication through Nicaragua, so that they might share, not only in the merit of the enterprise, but also in the great advantages which it would produce. He stated that a company of respectable American merchants was read}^ to undertake the work as soon as it could be arranged by a treaty between the two governments, and that if a diplomatic agent were appointed and instructed upon the matter,

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38 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. he was prepared to do what he could on the part of the Republic he represented in the arrangement of the business. Mr. Clay made a favorable response to this communication, assuring Response of Secretary ... . . ciay. the minister that the importance of uniting the two seas by canal navigation was fully realized and that the President had determined to instruct the charge d'affaires of the United States to investigate with the greatest care the facilities which Nicaragua offered. He added that, if this investigation continued the preference which it was believed this route possessed, it would be necessary to consult Congress as to the nature and extent of the cooperation which should be given toward the completion of the work. The proposed instructions were not, however, Instructions to minister. given until February, 1826, when a letter was addressed to Mr. Williams, the charge d'affaires, in which he was informed that the President desired to be put in possession of such full information upon the subject as would serve to guide the judgment of the constituted authorities of the United States in determining their interests and duties in regard to it. The matter was afterwards referred to in the official correspondence with the Department, but it does not appear that the desired information was ever furnished. When it was proposed to hold a congress of difCouirress of Panama. • -rt • i ferent nations at Panama in 182b, and President Adams had appointed commissioners to represent the United States, they were advised in their letter of instructions that a cut or canal for purposes of navigation somewhere through the isthmus that connects the two Americas, to unite the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, would form a proper subject of consideration at the congress when it should assemble. The opinion was also expressed that, if the work should ever be executed, the benefits of it ought not to be exclusively appropriated to any one nation, but should be extended to all parts of the globe upon the payment of just compensation or reasonable tolls. But without waiting for governmental action on the part of the United States, the Republic of Central America, on the 16th of June, 1826, decreed that proposals should be received for the right to construct an interoceanic canal, accepted the terms offered by Aaron H. Palmer and his associates and entered into a contract with them. The canal was to be for the navigation of vessels of the central America makes largest burden and was to be commenced twelve contract for construction of canai. months after the signing of the contract, or sooner if possible, but in case of insurmountable difficulty, the time for beginning was to be extended for not more than six months. The contract was to remain in force as long as might be necessary foi the reimbursement of the capital invested in the construction of the canal and the fortifications for its defense, together

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 39 with interest at tho rate of 10 per cont per annum, and for seven years after such reimbursement the company of construction was to receive half of the net proceeds of the canal, the expense of collection and repairs being deducted. The navigation and passage through the canal was to be common to all friendly and neutral nations, without any exclusive privilege. The contract can be seen in full by reference to Report No. 145, House of Representatives, Thirtieth Congress, second session, pages 362-367. Mr. Palmer next attempted to organize a company to undertake the construction of a canal under this contract, to be called the Central American and United States Atlantic and Pacific central American and Canal Company, with a capital stock of $5,000,000. United States Atlantic and TTT ... . ~ , \ „ Pacific canai company. With this purpose in view, in October, 182b, he assigned the contract in trust to De Witt Clinton and four others, to be held by them until an act of incorporation could be obtained for the proposed company. In December he went to London, furnished with letters of introduction to the American minister and other influential persons, issued a prospectus, and for ten months endeavored to secure the aid of capitalists there in disposing of tho stock, but was unsuccessful and the contract was never executed. The Central American Republic afterwards entered into negotiations with a company in the Netherlands for the iand"co a m P rny h ***"*' construction of a canal across Nicaragua, and a basis for an agreement was adopted by the two Houses of Congress in September and December, 1830. When the Administration at Washington heard that such a contract had been made or was about to be made, Mr. Edward Livingston, then Secretary of State, directed the United States minister at Guatemala to ascertain the facts and to signify to the Government that the United States would consider themselves as entitled to the same advantages, in passing through the canal or using the terminals, as were accorded to other nations. The effort, however, ended in failure and the project was abandoned. After this failure the Congress of the Republic of Central America again turned to the United States and offered to grant to the Government the right to construct a canal. In response Further negotiations of to ^g act i n the Senate, on March 3, 1835, passed Central American Kepub. • x lies with united states. a resolution requesting the President to consider the expediency of opening negotiations with other nations, particularly with the republics of Central America and New Granada, for the purpose of protecting by suitable treaty stipulations such individuals or companies as might undertake to unite the At 1 and Pacific oceans by the construction of a ship canal across ' ican isthmus and of securing forever to all nations th right of navigating it on the payment of reasoD"'

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40 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. President Jackson acted upon this resolution by sending Mr. Charles Biddle to visit Nicaragua and Panama, with instructions to examine the different routes of communication Mr. Biddie sent to Centhat had been contemplated, whether by canal or tral America and Colom.. ,, ,. .. bla railroad, making such observations and inquiries on his route as would enable him to procure copious and accurate information in regard to the practicability of the different projects, and to procure such public documents as were obtainable relating to the different plans, and copies of all laws and contracts made and entered into by the two Governments with reference to the construction of such a communication, and an} r surveys and estimates of cost of any of the projects that could be procured. But the mission led to no satisfactory results, and on January 9, 1837, a message was sent to the Senate to the effect that it was not expedient at that time to enter into negotiations with foreign governments with reference to a transisthmian connection. In January, 1838, Aaron Clark, mayor of New Memorial of Aaron ciark York, and a few other influential citizens prewith reference to canai. sented the subject to the House of Representatives in a memorial, urging the great national importance of a navigable waterway between the Atlantic and Pacific, and recommending that negotiations be opened with New Granada and Central America and the great powers of Europe for the purpose of entering into a general agreement for the promotion of this object, and, as a preliminaiy step, that competent engineers be sent to the sthmian country to make explorations and surveys, so as to determine the most eligible route and the cost of constructing such a work. This memorial was referred to the Committee on Roads and Canals and led to an interesting and valuable report, which was presented by Mr. C. F. Mercer March 2, 1839, in the Twenty -fifth Congress, third session, and is designated as H. R. Report ,.ri™£;." 322. The value of a canal was fully recognized, but no action was recommended, except to request the President to open or continue negotiations with foreign nations according to the terms of the former Senate resolution and in harmony with the wishes of the memorialists. The resolution favoring this action was at once adopted. President Van Buren sent another agent, Mr. John L. Stephens, to the isthmus. He recommended the Nicaragua Mr. Stephens sent as rou te as the most desirable, and estimated the cost agent to Isthmian connof & ^^ ^^ ^ ^^^ ]mt did not think the time was favorable for undertaking such a -^e of the unsettled and revolutionary condition of the 4 these memorials and resolutions were being

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 41 considered by Congress, and efforts were being made to obtain concessions from the States through whose territory Examination of routes. V ^ the canal routes extended, examinations were made from time to time to determine the feasibility and cost of the different projects. In 1824 the Mexican Government and the State TehuantepeebyOrbesoKo G f Vera Cruz each appointed a commission to make a reconnaissance of the isthmus of Tehuantepec, the former under the supervision of Juan de Orbegoso, the latter under Tadeo Ortiz. Their reports contain much valuable information relating to the geography, topography, productions, and resources of the country. But their examinations demonstrated that great difficulties opposed the construction of a navigable canal through the isthmus, and they reported that the only available expedient to be adopted was a carriage road from the navigable waters of the Coatzacoalcos River to the lagoons on the south coast. This they considered both easy and advantageous. The report of Orbegoso is found in House Report 322, Twenty-fifth Congress, third session. A survey of the Nicaragua route was made by Nicaragua, by John Bally. Ml J onn Ba jl y? who ha( J been sent Qut by afl English company in 1826 to explore the country and negotiate for a concession. Failing in his main purpose, he had remained in Central America, and in 1837 was employed by President Morazin to determine the best location for a canal. The route that he favored was from San Juan, now Greytown, to Lake Nicaragua, across the lake to the Lajas, and thence to San Juan del Sur on the Pacific. The harbor of Greytown presented "as many conveniences as would be required;" it could "be entered at all seasons and in all weathers without risk;" it furnished good anchorage in 4 or 5 fathoms of water, and there was no danger within it. San Juan del Sur offered similar advantages as a Pacific terminus, with a depth of 10 fathoms. He proposed to use the San Juan through its entire length. This would require the removal of the rocks at the rapids, the closing of the Colorado so as to divert its waters through the channel of the San Juan to Greytown Harbor, and the deepening of this part of the San Juan. He stated that the four principal rapids were within a space of 12 miles, and were formed by a transverse elevation of rocks, rising in sharp and broken masses above the water when low, but leaving a channel on either side sufficient for the passage of boats, with a depth of from 3 to 6 fathoms. The river was then navigated by piraguas, or large flat-bottom boats of 5 to 8 tons burden, with crews of ten or twelve men, whose chief labor was at the rapids, which, however, were passed without serious hazard. From a series of levels along his line, taken in 1838, he reported that the lake was 128 feet 3 inches

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42 REPORT OF' THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. above the level of the Pacific at low water at San Juan del Sur, and he accepted the conclusions reached by others that the Pacific at low water was 6 feet 6 inches lower than the Atlantic. His line from the mouth of the Lajas was 28,408 yards in length, the summit level was4s7 feet above the lake, and the canal was to be navigable for ships of 1,200 tons burden, with a depth of 18 feet of water. By straightening the line in a few places it could be shortened 2,000 yards and the Lajas could be made available for 5,400 yards. He proposed an alternative plan which would reduce the summit level to 122 feet above the lake, and the connection of two of his stations by a tunnel 3,833 yards long. He pointed out the difficulties of the work, and in case it should not be regarded as an advisable project suggested the consideration of a route through the Tipitapa and Lake Managua to the port of Realejo, but could not speak of the feasibility of this route with confidence, as it had not been surveyed. He had, however, traveled over the country between Lake Managua and the ocean, and regarded it as worthy of examination. In November, 1827, Mr. J. A. Llovd received a Panama, bj J. A. Lloyd. . J commission from President Bolivar to survey the Isthmus of Panama, in order to ascertain the most eligible line of communication across it, whether by road or canal. At this time neither the relative height of the two oceans nor the height of the mountain range between them had been accurately determined, and the geographic features of the isthmus were imperfectly understood. He spent two seasons in exploring the country and carried his line of levels from Panama to La Bruja, a place on the Chagres River about 12 miles above its mouth. He reported that the mean height of the Pacific at Panama was 3.52 feet higher than that of the Atlantic at Chagres. He recommended a new line across the isthmus, instead of those in use from Porto Bello and Chagres by Cruces to Panama, beginning at the Bay of Limon, thence to the Chagres by a canal and up the river to a favorable situation on the south bank of the Trinidad River, and thence by a railroad to Panama or Chorrera, the latter being tin 1 nearer terminus, but the former being preferable as a better port, and the capital of the State, where its trade was already centered, lie made no recommendation in favor of a canal, but said that if a time should arrive when a project of a water communication across the isthmus might be entertained, the River Trinidad would probably offer the most favorable route. For some distance 1 he found it both broad and deep, and its banks well suited for wharves, especially in the neighborhood of the place designated as suitable for railroad communication. After the Republic of Colombia was divided, in BdaraLbiiBtaedinissi/" November, 1831, the control of the Panama route belonged to New Granada, within whose terri-

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 43 torial boundaries it was located. Th,is Republic, in L838, granted to a French company a concession, authorizingthe (onr,mny! frantt0aFn ' h construction of macadamized roads, railroads, or canals across the isthmus with the Pacific terminus at Panama. The company spent several years in makingexplorations and communicated the results to the French Government through M. M. Salomon, the leading spirit in the enterprise, in the hope of securing its aid in constructing the proposed work. These results presented the project in an attractive way, and it was stated o B p^.™ate! 0ratl0,,S thtlt Jl depression in the mountain range ottered a passage only 11.28 meters, about 37 feet, above the average level of the sea at Panama. The representations were of a character so surprising that it was decided to send an officer to the spot to study the subject, and in September, 1813, M. Guizot, minister of foreign affairs, instructed Napoleon Garella to proceed to Panama to investigate the question of the junction of both seas by cutting through the isthmus, and to report the means of effecting it, the obstacles to be overcome, and the cost of such an enterprise. He favored a canal as the only means of comExamlned by Garella. t c munication adequate to the demands or commerce, and, as the representative of a great commercial nation, directed all his labors to this object. He preferred to establish the Atlantic terminus at the Bay of Limon rather than at the mouth of the Chagres, following the recommendation made by Lloyd; a connection with the river was to be made somewhat below the mouth of the Gatun. The low depression, making a sea level canal practicable within a reasonable limit of cost, could not be found, and he proposed to cross the divide through a tunnel 5,350 meters, a little more than 3^ miles, long, but he also estimated for a cut through the ridge instead of a tunnel. The bottom of the tunnel was to be 41 meters, about 134^ feet, above the ocean; 99 meters, nearly 325 feet, below the summit, and the level of the water 48 meters, nearly 158 feet, above the ocean at extreme high tide on the Pacific at Panama. The summit level was to be reached by 18 locks on the Atlantic slope and 16 on the Pacific, with a guard lock at each extremity to protect the entrance. The supply of water was to be furnished by two lateral canals from the Chagres. The Pacific terminus was to be in the small bay of Vaca de Monte, about 12 miles southwest of Panama. The estimate of cost was 130,000,000 francs, about $25,000,000, if the summit level was established by means of a tunnel. By establishing the summit level by means of a trench of a maximum depth of 84 meters, about 275 feet, the bottom of which would be 15 meters, nearly 50 feet above that of the tunnel, the cost would be increased to 149,000,000 francs, or about $28,000,000. These estimates were made for a canal that would accommodate ves-

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44 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. sels of 1,200 tons burden, 198|feet long, with extreme breadth of beam of 45i feet and a maximum draft when loaded of 21i feet, giving a depth of 23 feet. Garella's report is found in House Report 322, Twenty-fifth Congress, third session. It disappointed the expectations that had been raised by the projectors; no further steps were taken in the matter and the concession was forfeited. About the middle of the century a succession of Increased importance of 1 • 1 u •_ a £ maritime communication. £ reat events vastly increased the importance of a maritime connection between the two oceans to the United States. The dispute with Great Britain, as to the boundary line west of the Rocky Mountains, was settled by the BuchananPackenham treaty in 1846, and in August, 1848, an act of Congress was passed under which Oregon became an organized Territory. The war with Mexico was commenced early in 1846, and by the terms of the Guadalupe-Hidalgo treaty, which closed it in 1848, California was ceded to the United States. Before the treaty had been ratified gold was discovered there, and in a few months many thousands from the eastern part of the country were seeking awa} T to the mining regions. To avoid the hardships and delays of the journey across the plains or the voyage around the continent, lines of steamers and packets were established from New York to Chagres and San Juan del Norte and from Panama to San Francisco, some of the latter touching at the Pacific ports in Nicaragua. For a while those traveling by these routes had to make arrangements for crossing the isthmus after their arrival there, and were often subjected to serious personal inconveniences and suffering as well as to exorbitant charges. The requirements of travel and commerce demanded better methods of transportation between the Eastern States and the Pacific coast, but there were other reasons of a more public character for bringing these sections into closer communication. The establishment and maintenance of army posts and naval stations in the newly acquired and settled regions in the Far West, the extension of mail facilities to the inhabitants, and the discharge of other governmental functions, all required a connection in the shortest time and at the least distance that was possible and practicable. The importance of this connection was so manifest that the Government was aroused to action before all the enumerated causes had come into operation, and negotiations were entered into with the Republic of New Granada to secure a right of transit across the Isthmus of Panama. This was Ne? a lr;n a ir W,th ^ted by a treaty concluded in December, 1846, though the ratifications were not exchanged until June, 1848. A copy of it is attached to this report, marked "'Appendix BB."

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 45 The increased importance of an interoceanic Resolutions relating to nteroceanic conununiciicommunication brought the subject also before tions come before conCongress. A joint resolution was introduced in the House of Representatives during the Thirtieth Congress, authorizing the survey of certain routes for a canal or railReferred to select coml oa d between the two oceans, which with other mittee. papers of a like character was referred to a select committee of which Mr. John A. Rockwell was made chairman. The committee did not feel prepared to say to JieportofRoclnvelleon,. what ^^ [f ^ ^ ^ q{ ^ Government should be rendered to these projects, but recognized the importance of a communication from ocean to ocean, and presented such information as was available in relation to the principal routes to which public attention had been directed. The superior importance of a ship canal was recognized, but it was suggested that until one could be constructed a railroad would be valuable for earlier use and as an auxiliary to a canal. The passage of the joint resolution was recommended with an amendment, authorizing surveys from some point on the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean, in addition to the surveys provided for in the joint resolution. The report of this committee was made to the House February 20, 1849, in the second session of this Congress, and is numbered 145. At the same session, William H. Aspinwall, Pa^l^rliiroT 60 80 John L Stephens, and Henry Chauncey, who, as will appear a little farther on, had undertaken the construction of the Panama railroad, presented a memorial, asking that the Secretary of the Navy be empowered to enter into a contract with them for the transportation over their road, when completed, for a period of twenty years, of naval and army supplies, troops, munitions of war, the United States mails, and public agents or officials, at a rate not exceeding the amount then specified by law to be paid for the transportation of the mails alone from New York to Liverpool, on condition that they commence within one year, and complete within three years their proposed road across the isthmus. The memorial was referred in the House of Representatives to the Committee on Naval Affairs, and a report was made recommending that they be granted $250,000 a year to aid in building the road. No action was taken upon this report, but annual appropriations were made for carrying the mails across the isthmus after the road was completed. Soon after the convention with New Granada with^icaraTua.^ ** y had been ratified and proclaimed, efforts were made to negotiate a treaty with Nicaragua, so as to obtain favorable transit rights through that country for the Government and citizens of the United States.

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46 REPOKT OB THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. Advantages of Nicaragua The advantages which this country offered for an interoceanic canal had been known for centuries, and the desire to secure them led to the negotiation of a treaty with Nicaragua by Mr. Elijah Hise, charge d'affaires of the United States, in June, 1849. By Hise treaty. its terms the Republic undertook to confer upon the United States, or a company of its citizens, the exclusive right to construct through its territory canals, turnpikes, railways, or any other kind of roads, so as to open a passage and communication by land or water, or both, for the transit and passage of ships or vehicles, or both, between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The terms of the treaty were most liberal, and in return the United States was to aid and protect Nicaragua in all defensive wars, the Army and Navy and all available means and resources of both countries to be used, if necessary, to defend the territories of the latter or to recover such as might have been seized or occupied lyy force. Nicaragua consented to these terms because it was desired to secure the aid of the United States, in resisting the policy which Great Britain was then pursuing in Central America, with the apparent intention of securing the permanent control of the lower waters of the San Juan, under a claim already mentioned, that the boundaries of the Mosquito district extended to and included the mouth of that river, where at this time the Mosquito flag was maintained under British protection. Mr. Hise had exceeded his authority in making Hise succeeded by Squier. . this treaty and it was not approved by the Administration at Washington. He was afterwards recalled and was succeeded by Mr. E. G. Squier, who negotiated another treaty upon the subject and a contract for facilitating the transit from Contract of American, . n . Atlantic and Pacific ship the Atlantic to the Pacific, by means ot a ship Canal Company with Nic cana i or ra il roa d, in the interest of the American, Atlantic and Pacific Ship Canal Company, composed of Cornelius Vanderbilt, Joseph L. White, Nathaniel H. Wolfe, and their associates. These two treaties were never ratified, but they were subjects of conference and discussion during the negotiations ClaytonBulwer treaty. . T which led to the Claytonbulwer treaty ot Jul}' 5, 1S50. By this it was agreed, among other things, that the two contracting parties would support and encourage such persons or company as might first commence a ship canal through Nicaragua with the necessary capital and with the consent of the local authorities and on principles in accord with tin 1 spirit and intention of the convention. And if any such person or company had already entered into a contract for the construction of such a canal, with the State through which the same was to pass, it was agreed that such person or company should have a priority of claim, if the parties to the treaty had no just cause of objection to such contract.

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 47 This provision was understood to be in the interest of the company for which Mr. Squier had obtained a contract in Terms of control mtt A t lg49 By its terms thc State had granted ( 11 ii l Company. & J to it, for a period of eighty-five years, to be counted from the completion and opening of the work to public use, the exclusive right and privilege of excavating a ship canal for vessels of all sizes, from Grey Town, or any other feasible point on the Atlantic, to the port of Realejo, Gulf of Amapala or Fonseca, Tamorinda, San Juan del Sur, or any other point on the Pacific, b} r means of the San Juan River, Lake Nicaragua, the Tipitapa River, and Lake Managua, or any other waters within its jurisdiction. The contract also gave to the company the exclusive right to construct rail or carriage roads and bridgesand to establish steamboats and other vessels on the rivers and lakes as accessories to and in furtherance of the execution of the canal project. And if the construction of the canal or any part of it should be found to be impracticable, then the company was authorized to establish a railroad or some other communication between the two oceans within the time limited and subject to the same terms and conditions. Subsequently in March, 1850, the compan}^ was r ; .^h,^!r^,r' ,,r incorporated by the Republic of Nicaragua to prevent any embarrassments in the development and prosecution of its enterprise. A new arrangement was made in August, 1851, by which the part of the contract relating to steam navigation upon the waters of the State was separated from that relating to the canal. This was desired by the company so as to establish a transit route across the isthmus connecting with steamship lines at the terminal ports. It was accomplished by a new charter, authorizing the organization of another company with the same membership, but distinct S o^ r TMn R ftconi pai. A y! CeS and separate, to be known as the Accessory Transit Company, with the understanding, however, that neither party was to be relieved from the performance of the obligations imposed ))y the former contract and charter. The accessory company, during the following Transit route established -i i •. -ip
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48 REPOKT OE' THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. was finally terminated by the disturbed conditions which resulted from the expeditions of Walker into Central America. At a later date the transit route was reopened for a short time under company er can raus a new charter in the name of the Central American Transit Company. The American Atlantic and Pacific Ship Canal Company also took. preliminary steps for the accomplishment of the larger matters involved in its contract. Though there had been before this time man}^ explorations, reconnoissances, and examinations of this country with a view to the location and excavation of a ship canal, it does not appear that any thorough and complete survey had ever been attempted, and if any had ever been made there was no record of its existence, or of any basis for even the roughest estimate of the cost of such a work upon any of the proposed lines through Nicaragua. It was now determined that there should be a careful instrumental surve} T from ocean to ocean and that a line of location should be determined upon. Col. Orville W. Childs, of Philadelphia, was appointed Colonel Chillis appointed j. . ,-, . to survey ,-anai route. :ls cmef engineer to take charge of this work in August, 1850, and he completed it in March, 1852. The results of this survey are given in another chapter of this report, in connection with the engineering features of the Nicaragua route. At the request of the company the report of the Report submitted to iSlirvey am i location was submitted by President Colonel Abert and Lieu—,.„ /iitti it/-ii tenant-Colonel Turnbull. 1 llllUOre to Col. J. J. Abeit and LlCUt. Col. V\ Turnbull, United States topographical engineers, for their inspection and opinion, and on the 20th of March, 1852, they reported that the plan proposed by Colonel Childs was practicable, but recommended some changes and modifications. In view of the joint agreement to protect such a canal entered into by the United States and Great Britain, it was deemed advisable to invite the British Government to submit the Childs report to engineers of well-known skill and experience, and at the submitted to itritisi. request of Abbott Lawrence, the American minisengineers by request of American minister. ter, .Lord Malmesbury designated Lieut. Col. Edward Aldrich, of the royal engineers, and Mr. James Walker, an eminent civil engineer, to make the desired examination. They submitted their report on the L6th day of July, 1852, in which they expressed the opinion that the Childs project (1( ..^""' ,u was practicable and would not be attended with engineering difficulties beyond what might be naturally expected in a work of such magnitude; that the survey had every appearance of accuracy; that the details had been worked out with great care, and that Colonel Childs had impressed them with a conviction of perfect fairness and candor. They, however, favored an

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 49 increase of the depth to 20 feet, the breadth to 50 feet, and the length of the locks to 300 feet. These dimensions they said would render the navigation more efficient for the general purposes of trade, and the increased expense would be unimportant when compared with the advantages. Nothing further was done by the American Atlantic and Pacific Ship Canal Company toward the construction of a maritime canal, but the value of the Childs survey and report has ever since been recognized, and the results and conclusions reached by him have served as a basis for the operations of his successors. No progress having been made in the eonstruccontracts of companies ^ l0n f t ne cana l, it was claimed by the President am ." of Nicaragua that the undertaking had been abandoned and that the company had failed to make the annual payments due under its contract, and the decree was made on the 18th day of February, 1856, revoking and annulling the contracts made with the ship canal company and the accessory transit company and all the privileges contained therein, and also the act of incorporation, and dissolving and abolishing the companies. It was further decreed that all the company property be seized to secure the payment of such amount as might be due the State, to be ascertained by a board appointed to make a thorough examination of its affairs. The company denied the right of the Government to annul the contract and withdraw the charter, and various attempts were made from time to time to settle their differences, but the decrees were renewed and reaffirmed and no work was ever done by the company upon the project which Colonel Childs had prepared. After the Nicaraguan Government had declared the concession to the American Atlantic and Pacific Ship Canal Company terminated, because of noncompliance with its terms, and while the company claimed that it was still entitled to the privileges it contained, Nicaragua and Costa Rica united, in May, 1858, in granting a like concession to Felix Belly, a citizen of France, to construct a canal from the mouth of the San Juan, by way of the river and Lake Nicaragua, to the Pacific. This concession was to be executed by a company which he was to organize. The neutrality of the canal was to be maintained by the great powers, in harmony with the policy of the Clayton-Bulwer treaty, and the privilege was to continue for ninety-nine years. Another article of the contract provided that the French Government should have the right to keep two ships of war stationed in Lake Nicaragua for the entire duration of the works. Mr. Cass, then Secretary of State, declared this arrangement obnoxious, and added that the equality and security of these interoceanic routes constitute a great portion of their value to the world, and that an exclusive right in one of 6 D— 57-1— Vol 7 4

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50 REPOKT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. these powers to exercise a permanent armed intervention would give serious cause of dissatisfaction to all the others. But no effort was made to carry the obnoxious clause into effect, for the company failed to execute its project and the concession was annulled. In October, 1868, the two Republics entered into a contract with Michel Chevalier, another citizen of France, with the same purpose in view. They also entered into a treaty with one another in' the following year, in support of the contract, which is presented more fully in the chapter on "Rights, privileges, and franchises," and some articles from the treaty are contained in Appendix X. This effort to secure the construction of a canal also failed, and the contract was forfeited. Before the treaty with New Granada already New Granada makes conreferred to had been ratified, that Republic, in tract with French Company 7 L for railroad at Panama. May, 181*, had granted to the Panama Company, an association of Frenchmen represented by one Mateo Kline, the exclusive privilege of building a railroad between the two oceans across the isthmus for ninety-nine years, to be counted from the day of the completion and opening of the road to public use. The company failed to cany out this contract and it was declared forfeited. Subsequently, in December, 1848, the GovernNew contract with Amerj_> i i.u • i £ ii. 17-1 ican company. ment transferred the privileges of the Kline contract, with some modifications which will appear in another chapter of this report, to Aspinwall, Stephens, and Chauncey, who, with their associates, organized the Panama Railroad Company, by which the road was constructed and Panama Kallroad com-i, ii • -icr*js a • 11 pieted in 1855. opened to public use early in 185o from Aspinwall, or Colon, to Panama, a distance of 17f miles. But this railroad, valuable and useful as it promised to be, was only a forward movement. The barrier was more easily passed, but it still remained. The desire for a maritime canal was increased rather than abated, and further examinations and surveys were ferelVcrr' ro'ut"r f,nf diligently prosecuted at different locations in the isthmian country to ascertain and develop the advantages and possibilities of the different routes and schemes that had been from time to time proposed. The Government and people of the United States. Great Britain, and France were the most active in these explorations. They were confined for a time mainly to the Darien country, between Panama and the Atrato River. It was known that there were good harbors in this section in both oceans, and in several places the distance across the isthmus was comparatively short, but only the native Indians were acquainted with the interior. The early Spanish settlers had often crossed the country, and the buccaneers had frequently penetrated it successfully in their incursions.

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 51 There were traditions and reports of the existence of low depressions in the mountain range and of passages for canoes used by the Indians when they wished to cross from sea to sea. So when the difficulties of the Nicaragua and Panama canal routes were made known by the Childs survey and the survey for the railroad, public attention was directed to this region in the hope of finding a shorter and easier transit, where a sea-level canal might be excavated. Three general lines were examined — the San Bias, Caledonia Ba}% and the Atrato. The}' derived their names in each case from the Atlantic terminus, but there were variations of each, following the courses of different rivers, and, in case of the Atrato, reaching the Pacific at different points from the Gulf of San Miguel to the mouth of the San Juan at Chirambira Bay, more than 300 miles farther south. These examinations were made in some cases at unit
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52 KEPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. of the resolution was understood to be to obtain a basis for a continuance of the examination of the routes not already sufficiently known, without any useless expenditure of money upon schemes already found to be infeasible and unpromising. In response to the resolution, Secretary Welles, Report of Admiral Davis. .7 ,, T ... i in the following July, transmitted a report of RearAdmiral Charles H. Davis, which was printed as Senate Executive Document No. 62, during the first session of the Thirty-ninth Congress. It was accompanied with a general map of the American isthmus and maps and profiles of the different routes included in the investigations made under the resolution. The report enumerates 19 canal and 7 road projects in the isthmian country, extending from Tehuantepec to the Atrato. It excludes from further consideration the projects in Tehuantepec and Honduras as possessing little merit as practicable canal lines. With reference to the eight routes in Nicaragua, Admiral Davis says: "It may be safely asserted that no enterprise, presenting such formidable difficulties, will ever be undertaken with even our present knowledge of the American isthmuses. Still less is it likely to be entered upon while such strong and well-founded hopes are entertained by the promoters of the union of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans of finding elsewhere a very much easier, cheaper, and more practicable route for a canal in every way suited to the present demands of commerce and navigation." In speaking of the project of connecting the Upper Atrato with the San Juan, he says: The examination of the headwaters of the Atrato, of the intervening watershed, and of the headwaters of the San Juan satisfactorily proved that nature forbids us altogether to entertain an idea of a union of the two oceans in this direction." He gives a general description of the other lines in Panama, Darien, and the Atrato valley, and favors further examinations for the reason that, according to his statement, "there does not exist in the libraries of the world the means of determining, even approximately, the most practicable route for a ship canal across the isthmus." He further says, "The Isthmus of Darien has not been satisfactorily explored," and afterwards adds, "It is to the Isthmus of Darien that we are first to look for the solution of the great problem of an interoceanic canal." In 1869 General Grant became President and in President (irant calls attention to subject of inhis first message to Congress commended an Amerteroceanie .anai m his j ( ;in ( ana i on American soil, to the American first message. , people. Congress promptly responded to this sentiment by adopting a joint resolution providing for further explorations of the isthmus by officers of the Navy, and Admiral Ammen,

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 53 as Chief of the Bureau of Navigation, was authorized to organize and send out expeditions for this purpose. In March. congress authorizes fur1872 Jt further resolution was adopted for the her explorations. appointment of a commission to study the results of the explorations and to obtain from other reliable sources all available information regarding the practicability of the construction of a canal across the American continent. The President appointed on this Interoceanic Canal Commission Gen. A. A. HumApp.ointn.ent of 21 phreys, Chief of Engineers, United States Army; oceaulcl'anaKomnilssioii. f ^J ^ o J C. P. Patterson, Superintendent of the Coast Survey, and Commodore Daniel Ammen, Chief of the Bureau of Navigation of the Navy. The commissioners considered the results of investigations which had been made before their appointment and those still in progress, and under their directions further explorations and examinations were made in the isthmian country wherever they regarded additional information as necessaiy to enable them to carry out the purposes of the law. Capt. R. W. Shufeldt, United States Navy, had been placed in charge of an expedition to Tehuantepec in the fall of 1870; he reached the Atlantic terminus of the route early in November and completed his examination in the latter part of the following April. A level and transit line was run from Salina Cruz, on the Pacific, to the dividing ridge at Tarifa, and was continued from there to the junction of the Upper Coatzacoalcos, or Corte River, with the Blanco. The want of sufficient force and the season of the year prevented the running of the line from Tarifa to the Atlantic, but the party had the results of former surveys for railroad purposes and careful observations made by those employed in the expedition, during their frequent journeys along the route, to aid them in reaching their conclusions. The canal line, which was recommended in the report of the expedition, commenced at the head of navigation in the Coatzacoalcos, at the island of Tacamichipa, thence through the valley of the river, utilizing it whenever desirable, to the dividing ridge at Tarifa, thence descending through Tarifa Pass, probably by the valle} 7 of the Chicapa, to the harbors of Salina Cruz, the Pacific terminus. The proposed canal was to be 144 miles long, and would require the improvement of the navigable part of the Coatzacoalcos for about 35 miles. The summit level was 754.4 feet high; this could be reduced to 732 feet; to cross it would require about 140 locks. The harbors at each terminus would have to be improved. The water supply could only be furnished from the Upper Coatzacoalcos, or Corte, near its junction with the Blanco, through a feeder, about 27 miles long, to the canal at Tarifa.

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54 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. Captain Shufeldt entered upon his work, maintaining that "with the advantages of modern science a canal can be built anywhere, involving only the question of expense, provided water can be found to fill it." But when he reported the result of his survey, and considered the difficulties and expense of executing the plan, he expressed the opinion that it can only be deemed practicable to the extent of its political and commercial necessity, measured by the progress of the age." The report was printed as Senate Executive Document No. 6, in the second session of the Forty-second Congress. Commander A. F. Crosman, United States Navy, was placed in charge of an expedition to examine the Nicaragua route in 1872, but was drowned on the 12th of April in attempting to effect a landing at Greytown. The command was then assumed by Commander Chester Hatfield, United States Navy, the officer next in rank, who began a survey on the west side of Lake Nicaragua, and continued the work until the rainy season. In October, 1872, he was relieved by Commander Edward P. Lull, United States Navy; the expedition was reorganized in November, and a survey of the entire route from Gre} 7 town to Brito was completed during the following year. Mr. A. G. Menocal served in this expedition as chief civil engineer. An account of this survey will appear in another chapter of this report. It follows the Childs route, except that on the west side of the lake it crosses the divide farther to the north and follows the valley of the Medio to the lake, making a shorter line, but requiring deeper cutting at the divide. The Hatfield and Lull report was printed as Senate Executive Document No. 57, in the first session of the Forty-third Congress. The Interoceanic Canal Commission had also McFarland report. before them a report on the Nicaragua route made by Maj. Walter McFarland, Corps of Engineers, United States Army, who was detailed by the War Department to aid in making these examinations. He went over the country through which the canal passes in March, 1874, and made a favorable report upon the route, including a rough estimate of the cost of canal 26 feet deep at $140,000,000. The report was printed as Senate Executive Document No. 46, in the second session of the Fifty-second Congress. In the absence of any accurate information of the Panama route along the line of the railroad, obtained with reference to the construction of a canal, the Commission deemed it best to have it examined, and the Secretary of the Navy assigned Capt. Edward P. Lull to this work, with MenoVaZ ma C Mr. A. G. Menocal as his principal assistant. They made a careful instrumental examination of the isthmus in 1875 and reported in favor of a line 41.7 miles long

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 55 from the Bay of Limon to the Chagres, ascending its valley and that of the Obispo to the divide and descending the Pacific slope by the valley of the Rio Grande to the Hay of Panama. It follows the general line of the Panama Railroad, and the plan of construction, with some variations, has been adopted in most of the subsequent surveys. The report was printed as Senate Executive Document No. 75, in the third session of the Forty-fifth Congress, and the project is more fully described in another chapter of this report. The Interoceanic Canal Commission had before it the surveys which had been made of the various routes in Diiricn. Darien and the Atrato Valley and further examinations were made of parts of these regions b}^ Captain Lull and Major McFarland, the results of which are printed in the volumes already referred to, in connection with their reports upon the Panama and Nicaragua routes. Prior tb this, Commander T. O. Self ridge, United States Navy, was engaged for many months in 1870-1873 in exploring this part of the isthmian country. He was first placed in command of an expedition by Secretary Robeson in 1870, with a corps of junior officers of the Navy and others from the Coast Survey and a number of skilled assistants, besides a large guard of marines, and was directed to make a survey of the isthmus of Darien to ascertain the point at which to cut a canal from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. Two vessels were placed under his immediate command and a third was detailed to cooperate with him on the Pacific side. A similar expedition under the same principal officers was sent out to continue the work in the following year, and under a later order from the Navy Department the work was completed in April, 1873. Commander Lull assisted in the work of the expeditions of 1870 and 1871, and was in command of one of the vessels on the Atlantic side. The parties working under these orders made tentative surveys from San Bias Bay to the headwaters of the Chepo, from Caledonia Bay to the Morti, and from the same vicinity on the eastern coast to the Sucubti across the divide; also the Depuydt route and that of the Cocarica and Tuyra rivers. The report of these surveys was printed as House Mis. Doc. No. 113 in the third session of the Fort}^-second Congress. '"After a long, careful, and minute study of the several surveys of the various routes across the continent," the Interoceanic Canal Commission, in February, 1876, unanimously reported as follows: That the route known as the Nicaragua route,' jniEr beginning on the Atlantic side at or near Grey Town; running by canal to the San Juan River; thence * to * Lake Nicaragua; from thence across

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56 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. the lake and through the valleys of the Rio del Medio and the Rio Grande to * Brito, on the Pacific coast, possesses, both for the construction and maintenance of a canal, greater advantages and offers fewer difficulties from engineering, commercial, and economic points of view than an} T one of the other routes shown to be practicable by surveys sufficient in detail to enable a judgment to be formed of their respective merits." This report was not transmitted to Congress till April, 1879, when it was called for by a resolution of the Senate. It was printed as Senate Ex. Doc. No. 15 in the first session of the Forty-sixth Congress. While the Interoceanic Canal Commission was examining into the merits of the different canal routes a provisional company was organized in France for the purpose of inaugurating a scheme for the connection of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans by a navigable waterway across the American isthmus. Lieut. L. N. B. Colombia grants eoncestit ,i ,• £ ,1 • ,. sion to l. x. b. wyse. Wyse, as the representative of this organization, visited the Republic of Colombia to examine the isthmian section there and, if practicable, to negotiate a favorable concession as a basis for their plans. In May, 1876, he entered into a contract with the Colombian Government, which was afterwards, in May, 1878, modified and extended so as to give to the promoters the exclusive privilege, for ninety-nine y ears, of constructing and operating a canal across the territory of the Republic, between the two oceans, without any restrictive stipulations of any kind, provided that if the company of execution selected a route in that part of the isthmus in which the Panama Railroad Company already had exclusive privileges an amicable arrangement must be made with it under which the new canal company could occupy the territory in which these privileges existed. Under this latter contract the general route of the proposed canal was to be determined by an international congress of engineers and others, to be assembled not later than 1881. In International Scientific j •,] 1 • • • iL r ,• i Confess at Parish. is79. accordance with this provision an International Scientific Congress was assembled at Paris in May, 1879, and a decision was reached that the best line for a maritime canal across the American isthmus was from the Gulf of Limon to the Bay of Panama. An account of this congress will appear in another chapter of this report. This concession was transferred to La Compagnic Transfer of concession itui/t i t i. J T>~ t„ Panama cana. co„, P any. Universelle dn ( unul Lnteroceamque de Panama, better known in the United States as the Panama Canal Company, which was organized early in 1881 to construct a sealevel canal by the proposed route. The history of this company and of the New Panama Canal Company, which undertook the work after it failed and went into liquidation, and a description of the engineer-

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 57 ing features of the different plans upon which they have operated, will appear in another chapter of this report. The report of the Interoceanic Canal Commission was generally accepted with reference to the feasibility of the proposed canal routes in the Tehuantepec, Darien, and Atrato regions, and no further surveys were made under the authority of the United JSESSST States. But when Mr. James B.Eads, in 1881, endeavored to carry out his project for a ship railway, he recognized the advantages of the Tehuantepec transit for his purposes and obtained a charter from the Government of Mexico authorizing him to use this route. His plan for transporting vessels from ocean to ocean had many advocates, who believed that such a communication was entirely practicable, and could be constructed at less cost than a maritime canal by any of the routes that have been considered. The plan was brought before Congress in an effort to secure governmental aid, but without success, and since the death of Mr. Eads, in 1887, no further efforts have been made to carry the project into execution. The Nicaragua route was again surveyed in 1885, ^Nicaragua Menocal sur^^ ^ ^^^ Qf ^ g ecretary of ^ Nayy? by Mr. A. G. Menocal. In his report he recommended a plan which is stated in the chapter of this report on the Nicaragua route. + + The report of this survey was printed as Senate Ex. Doc. No. 99 in the first session of the Forty-ninth Congress. In December, 1884, a treaty had been negotiated Treaty negotiated iti, between the United States and Nicaragua, authorMcarasua in 1884. ~ izing the construction of a canal by the former over the territory of the latter, to be owned by the two contracting parties. It is more particularly referred to in another part of this report and appears as Appendix L. In December, 1885, while the treaty was still pending in the Senate, it was withdrawn from further consideration by the Chief Executive, who stated as a reason for his action that it proposed a perpetual alliance with Nicaragua and the protection of the integrity of the territoiy of that State, contrary to the declared policy of the United States. In April, 1887, Nicaragua granted a concession sion'TMenocarlnnsso" to Mr. A. G. Menocal and others, authorizing the elates. construction "hi a ship canal from Gre} r Town to Brito, and as the proposed canal would affect the territory of Costa Rica also the promoters found it necessary to secure a like concession from that Republic, which costa e BieT CeSSl n fr n was accomplished in August, 1888. These contracts appear as appendices, marked "R" and "" Z."

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58 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. A company of execution was organized, under the name of The Maritime Canal Company of Nicaragua, to construct Maritime Canal Company. ^ operate a can!l l un der these Contracts, and it was incorporated by Congress in February, 1889. The features of the project adopted by this company, the work it accomplished, the subsequent failure of the construction company organized in connection with it, and the action of the Government of Nicaragua in declaring its contract forfeited and terminated because of the lack of fulfillment of its most essential clauses are stated in another chapter of this report. Propositions to aid the company were before Congress for several years, through an arrangement by which the Government was to become a stockholder and an indorser of the company's bonds, and a bill for the accomplishment of this purpose was passed by the Senate in January, 1895, but failed in the House of Representatives. Another bill, retaining the company organization, but eliminating the private or individual stockholders, was passed by the Senate in January, 1899, but no final action was taken upon it by the House before the close of the Congress. While the former bill was pending in the House an amendment to the sundry civil appropriation bill was adopted in the Senate for the purpose of ascertaining the feasibilit} T permanence, and cost of the construction and completion of the canal through Nicaragua by the contemplated route. A board of three engiMcaraifiia Canal Board. . neers was provided tor, to be appointed by the President — one from the Corps of Engineeers of the Army, one from the engineers of the Navy, and one from civil life. Under regulations to be made by the Secretary of State,* with the approval of the President, this board was to visit and personally inspect the route, examine and consider the plans, profiles, sections, prisms, and specifications for its various parts, and report to the President. In case it should be ascertained that any deviation from the general line of the proposed route was desirable, the board was directed so to state in its findings and conclusions. The bill was passed with this amendment and was approved March 2, 1895. The President appointed Lieut. Col. William Ludlow, Corps of Engineers, United States Army; Civil Engineer M. T. Endicott, United States Navy, and Alfred Noble, civil engineer, to constitute this board, which was designated as the Nicaragua Canal Board. The appointments were made April 25, and the members of the board proceeded early in the following month to Nicaragua and, after their examinations there, completed their work in time to make their report by the 1st of November, as required by law. This report was printed during the first session of the Fifty-fourth Congress as House Doc. No. 279. The Nicaragua Canal Board found it impracticable within the time

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REPORT OK THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 59 fixed in the law, and with the limited means appropriated for the accomplishment of its work, to make a full and thorough examination of the route and obtain the necessary data for the formation of a final project of a canal, and in the report a recommendation was included that there be further explorations and observations, so as to collect the information and data regarded as essential to the comprehension of the fundamental features of the canal problem, which should decide the final location and cost of the work. In accordance with the views of the board, there was included in the sundry civil appropriation act, which was approved June 4, 1897, an appropriation to continue the surveys and examinations in Nicaragua, authorized by the former act, under which the Ludlow Board had been appointed. By this latter act the President was empowered to appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Nicaragua Canal Comnilso x. • • n glon Senate, a commission to consist of one engineer from the Corps of Engineers of the United States Army, one officer of the Navy, from the active or retired list, and one engineer from civil life. This Commission was to have all the powers and duties conferred upon the former board and was to report upon the proper route for a canal in Nicaragua and the feasibility and cost of the work, with the view of making complete plans for the construction of such a canal as was contemplated. Pursuant to this authority, the President appointed RearAdmiral John G. Walker, United States Navy, Col. Peter C. Hains, Corps of Engineers, United States Army, and Prof. Lewis M. Haupt, civil engineer, to constitute the Commission, which was designated as the Nicaragua Canal Commission, Admiral Walker being named as president. The Commission performed the duties assigned to it and made its report to the President May 9, 1899; it includes the results of the latest investigations made of this route prior to the appointment of the present Commission. A limited number of copies of this report, including an atlas which was prepared to accompany it, was printed under the direction of the present Commission for its information, but it has not yet been published as a Congressional document. This brings the history of the transits of the American isthmus and of the efforts to discover or construct a navigable waterway from the Atlantic to the Pacific to the close of the nineteenth century. Four hundred years have passed since Columbus sailed westward, hopeful and confident that his voyage would be continued without interruption to the Asiatic coast. He reached the shores of Panama and Darien, where the waters of the two oceans are less than half a degree of latitude apart, and no progress has been made since his day in accomplishing his original purpose. The search for the strait was soon given up and the narrow neck of land which hindered his progress, fortified by the Cordilleras, has ever since obstructed the advance of navigation in that direction.

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60 REPOET OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. Nor has any line of transportation by land or sea been developed in either hemisphere that has furnished the advantages expected from the desired waterway. The passages to the Orient around the Cape of Good Hope, through the Strait of Magellan and around Cape Horn have not satisfied the desire for a direct line of communication eastward or westward. The passage north of the American continent, discovered in 1851, and that north of Asia, first made in 1879, were valuable onl} 7 as contributions to geographic knowledge, for they are through arctic regions where the ice seldom permits a continuous voyage. Lines of transcontinental railroad connecting Atlantic and Pacific ports have facilitated travel and commercial intercourse, but the} 7 have not filled the place of a ship canal. The reopening of the ancient communication, mainly upon a new line, between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean by the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 has made the interoceanic connection westward of less importance to the people of Europe, but it has had little effect on the American continent. The demand that the American isthmus be opened to navigation from sea to sea is each } r ear becoming more imperative. The extension of our territory to include the Hawaiian Islands and afterwards the Philippines has made this connection most desirable for the proper exercise of governmental functions wherever they are to be discharged. The preparatory work has been practically completed. The examinations and surveys, made under the authority of the United States, have furnished accurate knowledge of the geography, topography, and other physical features of the isthmian country, nnd dispelled the exaggerations and fictions which were brought back many years ago from some sections by credulous travelers and unreliable explorers. The comparative merits of the different routes are better understood than ever before, and those involving engineering difficulties and cost disproportionate to their value have been eliminated. The two remaining routes — the Nicaragua and Panama — have been carefully studied by the present Commission, and this report will contain a statement of the advantages and disadvantages of each and an approximate estimate of their costs, and also the judgment of the Commission as to which, in view of all the facts, is the more practicable and feasible route. Time has also developed that the only well-grounded hope of accomplishing the desired result is through the power and resources of a great nation. The republics, through whose territory they extend, seem to be now impressed with this belief. They have made many contracts with individuals and companies for the construction and operation of canals, and the general result has been failure, followed by forfeiture and annulment. These contracts usually contain provisions forbidding their transfer to foreign Governments, indicating an unwillingness to

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 61 permit the occupation of their territory by another power for the.se purposes; but their great desire to see the two oceans thus connected and their willingness to promote such an enterprise has, it is believed, modified their views and policy to such an extent that they are ready to enter into negotiations with the treaty-making power for the occupation of their territoiy by the United States for canal purposes, provided they receive satisfactory assurance that their rights of sovereignty will be respected. When these international questions are definitely settled and Congress has enacted the necessary legislation, the removal of the barrier between the two oceans and the opening of the long-desired maritime passage to the ships and navies of the world can be accomplished.

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Chapter III. DIMENSIONS AND UNIT PRICES. In fixing the dimensions of the canal, it is neeessaiy to consider carefully the dimensions of the ships which will use it; the prevailing as well as the exceptional types of the present day, and the probable developments of the near future. If the dimensions adopted are too large, the cost of the work will be augmented Unnecessarily; if too small, the canal will not fulfill its intended purpose. The greater part of the world's commerce by sea is carried on by ships of moderate size. Lloyd's Register for 1900-1901 contains the names and dimensions of 16,264 steam vessels of Dimension of ships no W al j kinds, of which about 8,900 are more than 200 In use. feet long on the keel. This number may be taken as approximately the number of cargo vessels. Only 421 seagoing ships have as great a beam as 50 feet, and only about 800 would require a lock more than 400 feet long. Until recently the larger ships were employed mainty on the North Atlantic route, and the largest were fast passenger ships not adapted to any other trade. The building of large freight ships with more or less passenger accommodations has now become a marked feature of the development dimenrfU'! 6 ™ 86 '" ^ of shi P building. In the years 1897 to 1900 there were put in service on the North Atlantic route several ships of this type, about 600 feet long over all, 63 to 65 feet beam, and drawing, when fully loaded, 30 to 32 feet. These were followed by the White Star ship Celtic, recently built, said to be 698 feet 8 inches long over all, and 75 feet 4£ inches beam. On other routes ships of similar dimensions arc being introduced, the largest now in use being the White Star ships of the Afric class, built for the British colonial service via the Cape of Good Hope, which are about 550 feet long between perpendiculars, 64 feet beam, and have a load draft of 32£ feet, and the Cape mail steamship Saxon, built for the Union Company, which is 585 feet 6 inches long over all, and 64 feet beam. The ships now building at New London for the Great Northern Railway Company are particularly noteworthy, being designed for the transpacific trade; they arc to be 630 feet long and 73 feet beam. They will be in the same class as the Celtic. The steady growth in ships' dimensions, the introduction of large ships on so many different routes, and the undoubted fact that for long 62

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 63 routes and for freight which can be quickly handled at the ports, the large ship is the more economical carrier, gives Depth (if ninal. i • • • . these ships an importance in determiningcanal dimensions much greater than their relative number or aggregate tonnage would indicate. A ship drawing 32£ feet in salt water, which is no longer exceptional, will draw nearly 1 foot more in fresh water, and requires for safe navigation not less than 35 feet of water in the canal. This depth is therefore fixed as the minimum in all the channels. In fixing the width of locks and prism it is not necessary to take into account the fast passenger ships of the North Atlantic routes. Such a trade is not likely to develop through the Isthmus. Limiting the inquiry to freight or combined freight and passenger ships like those mentioned, it will be noted that the maximum Beam of commercial ships. .. ... beam of 73 to Co feet is found in veiy tew ships; excepting these, the greatest is 63 to 65 feet, which is found in quite a numerous class. If the canal were intended for commercial uses only, it might be questioned whether dimensions should be fixed for the extreme beam of 75 feet or more, with the added cost of construction and minor disadvantages, but the imperative requirement that the canal shall afford a passage for the largest war ships makes it necessary to provide for a beam considerably greater. The Beam of war ships. L ~ T broadest ships building for the United States .Navy are those of the Virginia class which have a beam of 76 feet and 2£ inches. The broadest battle ship afloat is the Italian ship Regina Margherita, recently launched, which has a beam of 78.2 feet. While the increase in beam of war ships has for some years been less rapid than that of commercial ships, it is unmistakable. For Width of locks. . .ill i -Tii ii convenience in operating the locks the width should be 2 or 3 feet greater than the beam of the ship. The width is therefore fixed at 84 feet with a view to provide for some further increase in beam of ships. The largest ships of war are shorter than commercial ships of like beam, and a clear length of lock chamber of 600 feet would be sufficient for any war ship now afloat or building. In order to make the canal practicable for the largest existing commercial ships, and also to provide for a considerable increase in size, the only additional expense to be incurred in the building of the canal, after providing for warship requirements, is to increase the length of the Length of lock chambers. ^ n • • locks. This added cost is so small in comparison with the advantage gained that it is unquestionably judicious to incur it, and the length is therefore fixed at 740 feet in the clear. The width of the canal has been fixed after carecana™ 6180118 Pr Sm ^ consideration Q f the dimensions adopted and experience gained elsewhere. The Suez Canal

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64 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. had originally a bottom width of 22 meters (72 feet 2 inches). It had been intended, when the work was projected, to Prism dimensions of fori i • •jji < a. m i \ £ i • i_ \ t'Un cauais. make this width 44 meters (144 feet 4 inches) between the Bitter Lakes and the Mediterranean, and 64 meters (209 feet 11 inches) between the Bitter Lakes and the Red Sea, but the resources of the company proved insufficient to carry out the work on this plan. The width finally adopted proved inconveniently small, and it has since been increased to about 115 feet. At the same time the depth has been increased from 26 feet 3 inches to 27 feet 10 inches. The ratio of present width to depth is about 4:1. In the Manchester Canal the depth is 26 feet, but is to be increased to 28 feet. When this is done the bottom width will be about 114 feet, and the ratio of width to depth will also be about 4:1. The Amsterdam Canal is at present 36 meters (118 feet 1 inch) wide at the bottom and 8.5 meters (27 feet 10 inches) deep, givinga ratio of width to depth of 4:2. These dimensions are to be increased to 50 meters (164 feet) width and 9.8 meters (32 feet 2 inches) depth, with adopted? ** *" tl nx ^ or 5:1. The bottom width of 150 feet, which has been adopted by the Commission for the canal sections of the Isthmian routes, gives a ratio of width to depth of 4:3, which is slightly greater than at the Suez, Manchester, and Amsterdam canals, and considerably less than the enlarged Amsterdam Canal will give. Mention should be made of the Kiel Canal, which Canai! m nas the tt m width first given to the Suez Canal, viz, 72 feet, and has a depth of 29.5 feet, giving a ratio of width to depth of 2.5. This has not been taken into account in the preceding comparison, for the reason that the width is clearly shown to be insufficient for commercial purposes by experience at Suez. The Kiel Canal was built primarily for an outlet to the North Sea for the German navy, and is adapted for the possible transfer of warships rather than for the convenience of commercial ones. Few commercial ships of large size traverse it. The average tonnage of the vessels passing in 1899 was about 100 tons, which may be compared with the average of nearly 4,000 tons for the ships passing through the Suez Canal during the same }^ear. The side slopes of the isthmian canal sections Prism In soft earth and •,] ,\ • 1 t £l l\ j Han(1 vary with the materials. In sort earth or sand they arc taken 1 on 3 below water and 1 on 2 above water; in firm earth, 2 on 3 below a berme 10 feet wide 6 feet under water and 1 on 1 above such berme. The 1 on 1 Prism In firm earth. slopes are to be protected by paving from the berme to 6 feet above water. In rock the sides are vertical from the bottom to a berme 5 feet above water, with slopes Prism In rock. l ol 4 on 1 in hard rock and 2 on 1 in sort rock above

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 65 such berme, the berme being of such width that the extended slopes would intersect the bottom of the canal at the foot of the vertical sides. In several places a slope of 1 on 1 is used, as in the Culebra Cut, on account of the peculiar nature of the material, and in places on the Nicaragua route where rock is underlaid by clay. Where the material is liable to disintegrate in water, as in the Culebra Cut, or where the rock is shattered or deficient in hardness, as in many places on the Nicaragua route, retaining walls are provided, taking the place of the vertical sides of rock cuts. Where channels are excavated in open water Channels In open water. , and the sides will be submerged, the width is made greater. In Panama Bay the bottom width is to be 200 feet, with side slopes of 1 on 3, but at mean tide the width 35 feet below water will be 260 feet and at high tide 320 feet. In the San Juan River the excavated channel will be 250 feet wide at bottom with side slopes of 1 on 1, and in Lake Nicaragua 300 feet with side slopes of 1 on 2. in firm clay and 1 on 6 in overlying mud. In the artificial harbors at Colon and Greytown it will be 500 feet with turning places 800 feet wide. The entrance to Brito Harbor will also be 500 feet wide, but the harbor itself, on account of its restricted length, will be 800 feet wide. The channel widths above given are for straight sections. On curves of less than 12,000 feet radius, in channels less than 500 feet wide, the width is increased at the rate of 1 foot for each 200 Widening on curves. feet reduction ot radius, the widening on a curve of 6,000 feet radius being 30 feet. This is an arbitrary allowance. It is the same as the allowance in Kiel Canal for a radius of 5,000 feet; less than in the Kiel Canal for radii under 5,000 feet and more for radii over 5, 000 feet. As already stated, the locks are to have a clear Description of locks. length ot 740 feet and a width or 84 feet between the side walls. The depth over the head wall and over the miter sills at the lower end of the locks, which fix the available depth for ships, is to be 35 feet, the same as in the prism of the canal. The miter sills at the head of the locks are placed 1 foot lower, the slightly greater safety thus afforded for these sills being secured by merely exchanging 1 foot in height of gate for 1 foot in height of miter sill wall and without appreciable cost. In order to give the required clear length, all single locks and the upper locks of combined systems are to be made 788 feet long from quoin to quoin. The lower locks of combined systems will be 793 feet from quoin to quoin, the greater length being due to the greater thickness of the cross wall at the middle gates. Twin locks are provided in every case. This Twin locks provided. . . will insure uninterrupted navigation if one lock at any locality is closed for repairs. To facilitate making these repairs S D— 57-1— Vol 7 5

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66 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. with the least possible delay, guard crates of the Guard gates. l J + if *k A ordinary miter form are placed at both ends of every lock or flight of locks, those at the foot opening downstream. "When repairs to the lock are needed, these gates can be closed and the lock pumped out immediately, thus avoiding the dela} T of building cofferdams or the uncertainties attending the use of caisson gates. This provision is not usual, but has been adopted for all the locks of the St. Marys Falls canals, and its utility has been frequently demonstrated there. These gates are supported by extensions of the lock walls. The extreme length of the masonry is 1,031.5 feet for a single lock and 1,829.5 for a flight of two locks. While these locks provide for the passage of the largest ships anticipated in the near future, it is realized that the larger part of the sea traffic of the present day is carried on by much smaller ships. Smaller locks than those adopted could be operated more quickly and would effect a material aggregate saving of time to the greater part of the traffic and reduce the amount of water consumed. The width of the locks can not be reduced without excluding the large ships. It is practicable, however, to provide a shorter lock by the introduction of intermediate gates, whereby two smaller chambers can be obtained and some of the advantages secured of having a small lock for small ships. By the arrangement shown in the plans the whole chamber can be used, the intermediate gates remaining open; by using these gates in connection with the upper lock gates, a chamber is provided having a clear length of 292 feet, and by using them in connection with the lower lock gates, a chamber is provided having a clear length of 400 feet, sufficient for most of the freight ships now in use. With two locks combined in a flight, only one of the smaller chambers in each lock is available, the intermediate gates being so placed that either the full length of the 100-foot chamber can be used. It ma} 7 be found expedient in construction to make the length of the reduced chamber 150 feet. All the locks on both routes will have rock founFoundatlons of locks on i • m i • ji_ 1 i a rocfe dations. I he rock varies greatly from hard to soft and partially disintegrated. The poorest will carry safely the imposed load, but will permit slow seepage for considerable distances, and will offer little resistance to abrasion. The floors of the locks are protected by inverts of concrete, the thickness being greater in soft rock. In the vicinity of the lock gates the floor is of sufficient thickness to sustain the full hydrostatic head. The walls are also to be of concrete throughout, walls to be of concrete. . . ... ,. except the quoins, the tops of the miter-sill walls, and exposed angles at the inlets and outlets of the culverts. The use of concrete for the construction of locks is of comparatively recent ntroduction. The locks of the Manchester Canal are perhaps the most

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 67 notable example, the great mass of masonry being concrete, granite being used only for quoins, copings, and exposed angles, and brick burned to the point of incipient vitrification for facing the walls above low water and for culvert linings. The moist, warm climate of the Isthmus is particularly favorable for concrete. In the locks of greatest lift the velocity of Culvert llnlnsrs. • i .,1 water in the culverts will reach 50 to 60 feet per second, which would severely test any masonry, even of the best brick or cut stone. Even in locks of the smaller lifts some kind of protection for the surfaces of the culverts will probably be necessary. As a basis for estimates a lining of cast iron of a minimum thickness of 1 inch is provided where the extreme head of water in the culverts exceeds 30 feet and a lining of vitrified brick for smaller heads. The gates are designed of steel of the ordinary miter form. They are based on actual designs of gates of nearly equal dimensions prepared under the direction of the United States Board of Engineers on Deep Waterways. In designing the locks the varying height of rock at each of the lock sites has been taken into account. The details of the studies concerning the stability of the walls, as well as of the loss of water by leakage, etc., are given in Appendix A. In order to facilitate the movement of ships into the locks, as well as Approach walls. ^o a ff 01 'd a safe place for ships to tie up while awaiting lockage, a vertical approach wall 1,200 feet long is provided on one side of the canal at each end of every lock or flight. Unit prices have been fixed by agreement of all the members of the Unit prices. Commission, on the principle that, whatever differences of opinion or circumstances may exist, they are not enough to interfere with a fair and close comparison of the different routes. These prices are as follows: Removal of hard rock, per cubic yard $1.15 Removal of soft rock, per cubic yard .80 Remov*al of earth, not handled by dredge, per cubic yard 45 Removal of dredgable material, per cubic yard .20 Removal of rock, under water, per cubic yard 4. 75 Embankments and back filling, per cubic yard .60 Rock in jetty construction, per cubic yard 2. 50 Stone pitching, including necessary backing, per square yard 2. 00 Clearing and grubbing, in swamp sections of Nicaragua, per acre 200. 00 Other clearing and grubbing, on both routes, per acre . 100. 00 Concrete, in place, per cubic } T ard 8. 00 Finished granite, per cubic yard 60. 00

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68 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. Brick in culvert lining, per cubic } T ard $15. 00 All metal in locks, exclusive of machinery and culvert linings, per pound 075 All metal in sluices, per pound 075 Cast iron in culvert lining, per pound .04 Allowance for each lock chamber for operating machinery 50, 000. 00 Additional allowance for each group of locks for power plant 100, 000. 00 Price of timber in locks, per M. B. M 100. 00 Sheet piling in spillways, per M. B. M 75. 00 Bearing piles in spillways, per linear foot .50 Average price of pneumatic work for the Bohio Dam, below elevation —30, per cubic yard 29. 50 Caisson work for the Conchuda Dam, in place, per cubic yard 20. 00 Single-track railroad, complete, with switches, stations, and rolling stock, per mile of main line 75, 000. 00 It has been determined to add 20 per cent to the estimates of the cost of construction to cover expenses that will be incurred for engineering, police, sanitation, and general contingencies. The Contingencies, et. r I rr> • . prices are based on emcient organization and thorough equipment, with the understanding that while the work would be vigorously handled it would not be so driven as to call for unnecessary duplication of machinery. The cost of the equipment and plant will be large, but it will be distributed over a very large work.

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Chapter IV. OTHER POSSIBLE ROUTES. The American isthmus, in the most extensive General description meaning, i.s about 1,400 miles long, extendingfrom American Isthmus. fe ' /• i tthe seventy-seventh to the ninety -fifth meridian of longitude and from the eighth to eighteenth parallel of latitude. It embraces that portion of the Republic of Colombia which lies west of the Atrato River in South America, the whole of the five republics which are grouped together as Central America, and so much of Mexico as lies east of Tehuantepec. The general direction of the isthmus is from southeast to northwest. For the eastern 600 miles the width of this isthmus is comparatively small, varying from a minimum of barely 30 miles to a maximum of 120 miles. It then widens to 300 miles near the boundary between Nicaragua and Honduras, narrows to about 120 miles opposite the Bay of Honduras, widens again into the great peninsula of Yucatan, and finally narrows to 120 miles at Tehutntepec. A glance at a map indicates that the only possible routes for an interoceanic canal must be at Tehuantepec, at the Bay of Honduras, or within the eastern 600 miles. So far as convenience of approach and accesTehuantepec route. . sibihty from United States ports on both sides of the continent are concerned, Tehuantepec is by far the best location. Practically the whole length of the isthmus is eliminated on the distance to Pacific ports, and while the distance from New York is practically the same to all ports on the Atlantic side of the isthmus, the mouth of the Mississippi River is only about half as far from Tehuantepec as from the Atrato. For these reasons Tehuantepec was selected by Capt. James B. Eads as the location for a ship railway across the isthmus. If a ship railway is to be built it is probably the best location. The duties of this Commission, however, are confined to finding a route for a canal between the two oceans. The Tehuantepec summit is in the neighborhood of 700 feet above tide water. It is, moreover, a broad summit which can not be materially lowered b} r an}' excavation of practicable dimensions. It is doubtful whether a water supply can be found for a summit level. It would require 20 locks of an average lift of nearly 35 feet on each side of the summit. The cost of these locks alone, on the basis of the estimates considered in another chapter of this report, would be about 69

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70 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. $200,000,000, while the canal would probably at least double this estimate. Attractive as the Tehuantepec route is from its geographical location, it must be discarded as impracticable for a canal. The next point is at the head of the Bay of HonBay of Honduras. ./, ,. llu J ., auras. 1 his location would be nearly as accessible as Tehuantepec on the Atlantic side, but the Pacific terminus would be 400 miles farther from north Pacific ports. The passage of the isthmus here b} T a canal, or even by a railroad of moderate grades, is out of the question; it is a mountain region which must be dismissed from consideration. There remains the 600-mile stretch at the castisuuuu < s 7 easter,,p0rtl0,,0f ern end of the isthmus, within the limits of which several routes have been proposed. At the western limit of this stretch lies Lake Nicaragua. The features of the Nicaragua route are thoroughly considered in another chapter of this report, and nothing more need be said of it here. From Lake Nicaragua to the promontory Avhich terminates in Mariato Point and Cape Mala, and which forms the western boundary of the Gulf of Panama, the isthmus, though narrow, is traversed by a high range of mountains, which prohibits its consideration as a location for a canal. The Gulf of Panama measures about 120 miles from east to west between the headlands known as Cape Mala and Pinas Point, which practically form its southern limit, and about 100 miles from a line connecting these two points to its northern extremity. The southern limit corresponds closely with the 100-fathom curve. The isthmus sweeps around this gulf on a curve which forms a rough approximation to a half circle; the narrowest part of the whole isthmus lies north of the center of the Gulf of Panama. The Atrato River, rising near the fifth degree of Atrato River. f & north latitude, flows northward about 300 miles at a comparatively short distance from the Pacific and parallel to it, thus forming what resembles an extension of the Isthmus southward; but the eastern boundary of this extension is not the ocean. The Atrato is a silt-bearing river having a considerable fall, and not in itself adapted to the use of ocean-going craft, without large expenditures for improvement and maintenance. "With the exception of Nicaragua and Tehuantepec, all the routes which have been proposed for an isthmian canal terminate in the Gulf of Panama or on the South American coast south of that gulf, the latter using the Atrato for their Atlantic approach. Three routes which terminate on the Gulf of Routes termlnatinu: on t-> i i . n j • uuir
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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 71 tion. The old citj 7 of Panama was founded in 1517. The Spanish crossing was by a paved road from Nombrc dc Dios, and later from Porto Bello, on the Atlantic side, to Panama, on the Pacific. Porto Bello Harbor was discovered and named by Columbus in 1502, and the town of Porto Bello was founded in 1584/ The Panama Railroad was built fifty years ago near this ancient crossing, and its location is practically identical with that selected for a canal. As the Panama route is treated in full detail in another chapter of this report, nothing further need be said of it here. The distance from the mouth of the Atrato River Atrato routes. _^ to tide water on the Pacific at the nearest point is about 70 miles. Anything like a direct passage is entirely out of the question, and it is manifestly impossible to find a canal line from the mouth of the Atrato to the Pacific which will be less than 100 miles long, if the improvements on the Atrato are considered a part of the canal; the lines which have been suggested for this purpose are generally much longer. While it is not impossible that a practicable line on which to construct a canal can be found with its terminus in the Atrato Valley, the necessary length of the line, together with the difficulties which would attend a terminus at the mouth of a large siltbearing river, are enough to show that in use it would be inferior to either the Panama or the Nicaragua location. In the search for other possible routes the field Limits of field work. . , n work of this Commission has been confined to the region lying between the Panama route and the Atrato River, not including the routes which would utilize this river. Throughout the portion of the Isthmus thus explored the continental divide, which elsewhere lies near the Pacific, lies close to the Atlantic coast, and there are intermediate valleys separated from the Pacific coast by ranges of less importance. The Chepo River enters the Gulf of Panama 30 miles east of the city of Panama, coming from the east and draining a valley nearly 70 miles long. On the easterly side of the Gulf of Panama lies the Gulf of San Miguel, which is an excellent harbor, carrying tide water halfway across the Isthmus. The Savana River enters this gulf from the north and the Tuyra River from the southeast, while the Chucunaque, heading near the Chepo and flowing southeaster^, is a tributary of the Tuyra. The continental divide on this section of the Isthmus is therefore the divide between the Caribbean Sea on the northeast and the Chepo, the Chucunaque, and the Tuyra rivers successively on the southwest. The divide at the head of the Chepo and the Chucunaque rivers connects the continental divide with the chains of hills which separate those rivers from the Pacific. The general situation is fully shown in pi. 2, accompanying this report. Within these limits two routes, each of them presenting possibilities of several varieties of location, have long been suggested. One of these is known as the San Bias route and the other as the Caledonia route.

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72 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. The San Bias route was explored under the direcSan Bias route. *„ tion ot Mr. Frederick M. Keller in 1857, and was subsequently examined by the United States Darien expedition, under the command of Commander Thomas Oliver Self ridge, jr.. United States Navy, in 1870. The Kelley examination, starting from the Pacific, was carried with level and transit up the Chepo and the Mamoni rivers across the summit to a point on the Carti, following the valleys of these streams. The Selfridge surveys, starting from the Atlantic side were carried with level and transit up the Mandinga Kiver, across the divide, and up the Nercalagua River nearl} T to the divide, while barometrical reconnaissances were made up the Carti River overlapping the Kelley surve} 7 This is the narrowest place on the isthmus, it being less than 31 miles from shore line to shore line and only about two-thirds of this distance from the Atlantic to tide water in the Chepo River. Furthermore, the Pacific harbor is quite as good as that at Panama, while Mandinga Harbor, in the Gulf of San Bias, at the northern end of the route, is all that could be desired. The difficulty of the line lies in the height of the summit, to cross which tunnels from 8 to 10 miles in length were proposed. The Caledonia route has the distinction of being Caledonia route. . the location where the isthmus was first crossed by white men. In 1513 Balboa started with his band of followers from Caledonia Bay and crossed by a tiresome march to San Miguel Bay. Nearly two hundred years later, in 1698, William Paterson chose this location for his Scotch colony of New Edinburgh, which by occupying the line of transit across the isthmus was to control the trade of the Pacific and the East. The bay, which would be the northern terminus of the canal, is still known as Caledonia Bay, while the promontory at the southern end of the bay, near where he founded his town, is called Point Escoces. All vestiges of Paterson's work have long since disappeared and it would be hard to find any spot in America where there are fewer signs of the work of the white man. Caledonia Bay is a beautiful body of water separated from the Caribbean Sea by a series of coral keys and furnishing fairly good anchorages at both ends, though the intermediate portion is shallow. The route for a canal in this location would be from Caledonia Bay to San Miguel Bay. As seen from the sea, the Caledonia gap is a very marked depression in the mountains and the summit is less than 1 miles from the bay. It looks much lower than it really is and (he first impression made is that it is an ideal location for a transisthniian line. This route was advocated as early as 1850 by Dr. Edward Cullen, of Dublin. It was explored in 1852 by an English engineer. Mr. Lionel Gisborne, and it was subsequently examined by Lieut. Isaac Gr. Strain. U. S. N.. in L854. Reconnaissances were subsequently made by others, the most important being by the United States Darien

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 73 expedition in 1870. It was claimed by Dr. Cullen that the height of the summit on this line was not more than 150 feet and that from a ridge onty 2 miles wide a level plain extended to the Savana River, the northern tributary of the Gulf of San Miguel. Mr. Gisborne, whose examination was not continued completely across the isthmus, reaffirmed this claim. Strain's examination and all subsequent ones failed to rind any such condition. All the examinations of which there is sufficient information to give them any authentic value were made on the principle of following up streams. While this method of examination is permissible when time and means do not allow the use of better ones, conclusive results can not be obtained in this way. The claims made for some of these routes, especially in the neighborhood Caledonia Bay, were such that if substantiated they would be better than any others. It became necessary either to find these locations or to disprove their existence. The proof derived from the examinations of the several valleys must always be of negative character; it can not be conclusive until it is shown that every stream has been explored. If, however, the divide could be traced continuously, positive proof would be substituted for negative proof. The Commission therefore organized a force for the purpose of tracing the divide and determining its continuity. It was at first proposed to trace this divide continuously from the Chagres to the Atrato. This has not been done, but the divide has been traced from the Chagres to San Bias and far enough beyond to cover all routes that have been suggested for this location. It has been traced in both directions from Caledonia Bay far enough to cover all the locations which have been suggested there. The mountain range has been examined from the coast continuously from San Bias to the Atrato. The results of these surveys and this examination are embodied in the maps and sketches which accompany this report. While they have not been absolutel} r complete, they have proved conclusively that no low summit exists within the limits by which a canal line would approach either San Bias Bay or Caledonia Bay. Any canal terminating at either of these harbors will involve the construction of a tunnel. There is a bare possibility that some low summit may exist in the portion of the range which was only examined from the sea, but the general topography of the country indicates that this is extremely improbable, while the appearance of the range shows that if any such low summit can by any possibility exist, it must be approached by valleys of such crooked and restricted character that it would almost certainly be impracticable for a canal. The divide has been traced continuously from latitude 9 19' N., longitude 78 59' W., westward to the headwaters of the Chagres River. The lowest summit found within these limits was 956 feet:

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74 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. this elevation was determined by actual leveling. The Chagres River was then followed down to the Panama Railroad, thus connecting this survey with the Panama route. The ridge has been continuously traced from the Carreto summit, latitude 8 15' N., longitude 77 38' W., to the Sassardi summit, latitude 8 58' N., longitude 77 52' W., covering the entire divide in the vicinity of Caledonia Bay. The lowest summit within this limit is the Caledonia gap, with an elevation of 681 feet. Five other gaps, with elevations respectively of 815, 710, 827, 991, and 1,098 feet, were observed within these limits. All of these elevations were determined by actual leveling. Between -the limit of these two actual surveys Observations from the sea , ^ there is a distance of 81 miles in an air line where the divide has not been traced. There is also a distance of about 60 miles from the Carreto summit southeast to the Atrato where no actual surveys have been made. Through these distances the divide has been carefully reconnoitered from the sea, the elevations of the higher peaks being ascertained as well as those of the visible gaps, and the distances being determined by observation made with two sextants. While this method of examination is not absolutely conclusive, the results are such as to show that there is no probability of any low summit existing within these limits; this improbability is further increased by the general character of the watershed of the country. Examination from Pacific All this summit examination was made from the 8lde Atlantic side. In addition to this, a survey was made up the Chucunaque and the Chucurti rivers which was not quite connected with the work done from the Atlantic side, owing to the threatening attitude of the Indians. The gap of 2 or 3 miles has been supplied from the Selfridge survey of 1870. These surveys were extended up the Tuyra and Aputi rivers and up the Savana and Lara rivers, besides running a surve} T from the mouth of the Lara in an easterly course to the Chucunaque. The explorations of other possible routes, while not entirely complete, have shown that it is practicable to follow the divide in this section of the isthmus and that this is the method of exploring which is applicable to the isthmus. The good health of the field parties has shown that this country is not one which is exceptionally unhealthy to explore. The result of these examinations and surveys No canal uitliout a tunnel. ....... shows that there is no probability ot the existence of any practicable canal location between Panama and the mouth of the Atrato River except by the adoption of a tunnel line. The objections to a tunnel on a canal arc so great that a tunnel location should not be adopted unless there are manifest advantages of sufficient weight to overcome these objections. No such advantages

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 7r > appear to exist. The .surveys, however, have shown that there is a possible tunnel location on the San Bias route and at least three on the Caledonia route. Each of these four locations, though involving a tunnel, provides for a sea-level canal. With a view to determine the approximate cost of a canal tunnel a section of tunnel was worked out, and this section is shown in tig. 1. This section provides for a depth of 35 feet, for a width of 100 feet at the bottom, of 117 feet on the water line, and for a height of 115 feet from the water surface to the intrados of the lining. The estimate is made on the basis of the entire tunnel being lined with concrete 5 feet thick. The quantities and estimated cost of a single foot of this tunnel are as follows: 670.2 cubic yards excavation, at $5 _ $3,381 88.7 cubic yards concrete, at $10 887 Total 1,208 This corresponds to $22,535,040 per mile. In the estimates the tunnel has been assumed to cost $22,500,000 per mile. Tunnel tide level, San Bias The location which seems to promise best for Canal such a canal is shown in pi. 3 aecompairying this report. The line starting from Mandinga Harbor follows up the Rio Carti, passes through a tunnel 1.5 miles long, and descends by the valle} r of the Chorrah to the Chepo. Open excavations are maintained on both sides of the tunnel to a maximum depth of 100 feet. The total length of the line of canal is 37 miles, and the length from tidewater to tidewater 21 miles. There has been no actual examination of the .valley of the Chorrah because of the revolution existing at the time the attempt was made. A profile of this location is shown in pi. 1, and the following is a rough estimate of the possible cost of such a canal. In the absence of an}^ means of classification the softrock price has been adopted as a fair average for all dry excavation outside of the tunnel. 160,000,000 cubic yards excavation, at 80 cents $132, 800, 000 39,000,000 cubic yards dredging, at 20 cents 7, 800, 000 Clearing 500, 000 4.2 miles tunnel, at $22,500,000 94, 500, 000 Tide lock 4, 000, 000 25 miles railroad, at $75,000 1, 875, 000 Total 241,475,000 20 per cent engineering, contingencies, etc. 48, 295, 000 Total 289,770,000 ., , , .... The distance from Caledonia Bav to tide water 1'aleaonla tunnel tidelevel canals, on the Savana River is about 30 miles in a straight line. Studies have been made of three lines across

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76 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. the divide, all of them striking the same point on the Savana River near the mouth of the Lara, the approaches on the Atlantic side being through the three valleys of the Caledonia, the Aglaseniqua, and the Sassardi. The distance from Caledonia Bay to the mouth of the Lara varies from 32 miles b} r the Sassardi route to 36 miles by the Caledonia route. The Sassardi route has not, however, been explored through its whole length, and it is quite possible that an actual survey would make it as long as the Caledonia route. Each line would require a tunnel. If the Sassardi route is taken, the length of this tunnel, assuming open cuts to be used to a depth of 400 feet at each end, would betibout 1.6 miles. On either of the other two the tunnel would be about 2 miles longer, while the approaches on the south side would be much heavier. Caledonia Bay is virtually tideless. San Miguel Bay has a tidal range of 20 feet or more. This heavy tide causes currents in the Savana River strong enough to be a serious menace to navigation, and it would be necessary to build a tide lock and dam near the mouth of the Savana. The distance from the mouth of the Lara to the tide lock is about 11 miles, the upper portion of which is in a narrow river which would require enlargement for a canal. This makes the total length of canal navigation from Caledonia Bay to the tide lock about 50 miles. The locations of these three canal routes are given in plate 5 accompanying this report. Approximate profiles of each location are given in plate 6, and from these the following estimates of the possible cost of such canals have been made. The more extended examination of the country gives an indication of the character of material which has been used in making a rough classification into hard rock and earth. Sassardi location. 80,000,000 cubic yards hard rock, at $1.15 $92, 000, 000 137,000,000 cubic yards earth, at 15 cents 61, 650, 000 9,000,000 cubic yards dredging, at 20 cents 1, 800, 000 4,000,000 cubic yards submerged rock, at $1.75 19, 000, 000 Clearing 1,000,000 1.6 miles tunnel, at $22,500,000 36, 000, 000 Tide lock and dam 5, 000, 000 10 miles railroad, at $75,000 3, 000, 000 Total 219,150,000 20 per cent engineering, contingencies, etc 43, 890, 000 Total 263, 310, 000

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EEPOBT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 77 Aglaseniqua location. 66,000,000 cubic yards hard rock, at $1.15 $75, 900, 000 1 K.000,000 cubic yards earth, at 45 cents 49, 500, 000 9,000,000 cubic yards dredging, at 20 cents 1, 800, 000 4,000,000 cubic yards submerged rock, at $4.75 19, 000, 000 Clearing 1,000,000 3.6 miles tunnel, at $22,500,000 81, 000, 000 Tide lock and dam 5,000,000 40 miles railroad, at $75,000 3, 000, 000 Total 236,200,000 20 per cent engineering, contingencies, etc 47, 240, 000 Total 283,440,000 Caledonia location. 77,000,000 cubic yards hard rock, at $1. 15 $88, 550, 000 129,000,000 cubic yards earth, at 45 cents 58, 050, 000 9,000,000 cubic yards dredging, at 20 cents 1, 800, 000 4,000,000 cubic yards submerged rock, at $4.75 19, 000, 000 Clearing 1,000,000 4 miles tunnel, at $22,500,000 90,000,000 Tide lock and dam 5,000,000 44 miles railroad, at $75,000 3, 300, 000 Total 266,700,000 20 per cent engineering, contingencies, etc 53, 340, 000 Total 320,040,000 These estimates are made without the careful examination which is necessary for accurate figures. They may be e S umir imate8minimUm regarded as minimum estimates; favorable material has been assumed for tunnels and favorable material for excavation in the body of the canal; in fact, these estimates represent the best possible results which can be looked for on either of the four locations. If borings either on the divide or in the low country south of the divide should show unfavorable material, these estimates must be increased. It is even possible that material might be found in the tunnel sections which would render tunnel construction virtually impracticable and compel the adoption of open cuts of enormous depth. All these estimates are made on the basis of a tide-level canal. The only restriction on the length of a ship passing through such a canal

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78 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. would be the curves. The tunnels would be as absolute restrictions on depth and width as the locks of Nicaragua or Panama. A tide-level canal at Panama would be without a Harbors the only advan, i mi 1 j . u* u £ j.i_ tage oyer Panama. tunnel. The only advantage which an}' of these canals would have over the tide-level canal at Panama would be in the superiority of their Atlantic harbors, Mandinga Harbor in San Bias Bay and Caledonia Bay, both being very much superior to the harbor at Colon. The advantage of the harbors would not be enough to overcome the disadvantage of the tunnel. The only reason for constructing a canal on its D of r il™rco^? s ?ion m either of these locations in preference to Panama would be that the territory is entirety wild and the work would be untrammeled by vested rights of occupation. This advantage is more apparent than real. Many of the legal complications involved in obtaining the right to complete the Panama Canal would interfere equally with the construction of a canal at San Bias or Caledonia. The Wyse concession, under w T hich all the French operations at Panama have been conducted, confers the exclusive privilege for excavation and construction of a maritime canal across the territory of the Republic of Colombia between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans; all possible routes east of Panama, including the various Atrato lines, come within the limits of the Republic of Colombia. The contract of 1867, under which the Panama Railroad now holds its concession, gives to that company the exclusive right of isthmian transit west of a line connecting Cape Tiburon on the Atlantic with Point Garachine on the Pacific; the San Bias and the Caledonia routes both fall west of this line. No canal can therefore be constructed at either of these places unless some arrangement is made with the holders of the Wyse and the Panama Railroad concessions. The results of the surveys made under the direcMaps and other drawings. • • -i • .£ -i tion or the Commission on this portion or the isthmus have been embodied in a series of maps and other plans which accompany this report. The}' embrace a general map covering the entire isthmus and the Gulf of Panama, pi. 2; two maps on a larger scale covering, respectively, the San Bias, pis. 3 and 4, and the Caledonia and San Miguel regions, pi. 5; two maps on same scale as the last showing the coast and elevation observed from the sea, pis. 7 and S, besides 12 panoramic sketches taken from the sea, pis. 9 to 20, and profiles of the routes already mentioned, pis. 4 and 6. The thanks of the Commission are due to the ^Thanks for u.s.s.scorNavy Depar t m ent, which detailed the steamer Scorpion for service on the Atlantic side of the isthmus during these surveys, and especially to her commander, Lieut. Commander Nathan Sargent, her executive officer, Lieut. Roger Welles, and her other officers. The presence of this vessel rendered practicable a task which otherwise might have been impossible of execution.

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 79 Fig.l.

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Chapter V. THE PANAMA ROUTE. The natural attractions of the Panama route lie in the combination of a very narrow isthmus with a low summit. The width of the isth mus is less than 36 miles in a straight line, only 5 miles more than at San Bias, the narrowest place, while the original summit was less than 300 feet above tide water, which, though higher than the Nicaragua summit, is less than half the height of any other summit which has been investigated. Furthermore, the high portion General description. V • of the isthmus is limited to a width ot about 6 miles near the Pacific side, and the Chagres River affords access by canoe navigation from the Atlantic to within 16 miles of the Pacific. When steamship lines to California were first opened the Atlantic steamers discharged their passengers at the mouth of the Chagres, whence they were conveyed up that river in canoes to Las Cruces and thence overland to Panama, where they took the Pacific steamer. When the Panama Railroad was built, in the early fifties, its Atlantic terminus was fixed at the Bay of Limon, 7 miles east of the mouth of the Chagres. The road followed the valley of the Chagres to Obispo, a few miles below Las Cruces, and thence crossed through the lowest gap to Panama. This location is almost identical with that subsequently adopted for the canal. (See pi. 21.) The isthmus here runs nearly east and west, but the course of the railroad or canal is from northwest to southeast, the Pacific terminus being about 22 miles farther east than the Atlantic terminus. The Atlantic port is Colon, and the Pacific port Panama. At Colon the mean tidal range is about 1 foot; at Panama it is about 20 feet. The harbors are not of the first class. The} r have served the demands of a limited commerce heretofore. Some improvements at Colon would be necessary if the canal should be built. The defect of Colon Harbor is that it is exposed to "northers." When these are severe, ships are now compelled to go to sea. This may occur once or more each year. Panama Harbor is a roadstead behind islands at the head of a great bay or gulf. For the terminus of a canal it is sufficient, as the stay of vessels is expected to be short. The Panama route was surveyed by Commander E. P. Lull, United States Navy, in 1875. He recommended a canal Lull survey, 1876. . , J , „ with locks and with a location generally above the overflow bottom of the Chagres. It was to have a depth of 26 feet and 80

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 8l a bottom width of 60 to 72 feet. The locks were to have a length 450 feet between miter .sills and width 65 feet. He fixed his summit level at 124 feet above tide level and proposed to use 12 locks on each side. To supply the summit level water was to be impounded by a dam to be built across the Chagres River at a site not far from the one subsequently selected by the new French company at Alhajuela, from which a feeder of complicated character would lead it to the canal. He estimated the cost of this canal at $94,511,360. In the year 1876 an association entitled Societe Civile Internationale du Canal Interoceanique" was organized in Paris, with Gen. Etienne Tiirr as president, to make surveys and explorations for a ship canal across the Isthmus of Panama. An expedition under the direction of Lieut. L. N. B. Wyse, an officer of the French navy, was sent to the Isthmus. In May, 1878, Lieutenant Wyse in the The Wyse concession. . name or the association obtained a concession from the Colombian Government, commonly known as the Wyse concession. In May, 1879, an international congress, composed of 135 delegates from various nations, including the United States, Great Britain, and Germany, but the majority of whom were French, was convened in Paris under the auspices of Ferdinand de Lesseps to consider the question of the best location and plan for a canal across the American isthmus. After. a session of two weeks, the congress decided that the canal should be located on the Panama route, and should be at the sea level and without locks. Immediately after the adiournThe old company. " ment or the congress, the Panama Canal Company was organized under a general law of France with the title "Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interoceanique," with Ferdinand de Lesseps as president. It purchased the Wyse concession from the first-named company, paying therefor 10,000,000 francs. An attempt to float the stock of this company in August, 1879, failed, but a second attempt, made in December, 1880, was fully successful. The issue was fixed at 600,000 shares of 500 francs each. It was all sold. The next two years were devoted to surveys and examinations and preliminary work upon the canal. Operations upon a large scale were inaugurated in the early part of 1883. The plan adopted was for a sea-level canal having a depth of 29. 5 feet and bottom width of 72 feet, involving excavation estimated at 157,000,000 cubic yards. The terminus on the Atlantic side was fixed by the anchorage at Colon and that on the Pacific side by the anchorage at Panama. Leaving Colon the canal passes through low ground by a direct line for a distance of 6 miles to Gatun, where it intersects the valley of the Chagres River, passes up that valley a distance of 21 miles to Obispo, where it leaves the Chagres and, following the S D— 57-1— Vol 7 6

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82 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. valley of a small tributary, cuts through the continental divide at Culebra and thence descends by the valley of the Rio Grande to Panama Bay. Its total length from 30 feet depth in the Atlantic to 30 feet depth in the Pacific is about 47 miles. Its location is such as to give easy curvature everywhere. To secure this, it was necessary to select a point for crossing the divide where the height was somewhat greater than that of the lowest pass. The maximum height on the center line in the Culebra cut is about 333 feet above the sea. To control the floods of the Chagres, various schemes were proposed, the most prominent being the construction of a dam at Gamboa to impound the water of the upper river and the excavation of independent channels to the sea. The dam was afterwards decided to be impracticable, and the problem remained unsolved. The cost was estimated by de Lesseps in 1880 at $127,600,000, and the time required at eight years. Work under this plan continued until the latter part of 1887. The fact had by that time become evident to all, which had for a long time been evident to the well informed, that the canal could not be completed at the sea level with the resources of time and money then available. A provisional change of plan was accordingly made, under which the final completion at the sea level was to be deferred to a future time, and the opening of a canal to navigation was to be hastened by the introduction of locks. This being considered a temporary expedient, the summit level was to be supplied with water from the Chagres River by pumps. Work under this plan was pushed with vigor until 1889, when the company becoming bankrupt it was dissolved by a judgment of the Tribunal Civil de la Seine, dated February 4, 1889, and a liquidator was appointed by that court to take charge of its affairs. In the appointment of the liquidator the court kept prominently in view the completion of the canal, and it authorized him to cede to a new association all or part of the assets, to make or ratify agreements with the contractors which had for their object Liquidation. .... the continuation of the works, and to borrow money for that purpose. The liquidator reduced the force gradually and finally suspended the works May 15, 1889. He then proceeded to satisfy himself that the canal project was feasible, a question about which the failure of the company had caused grave doubts. He appointed a "commission d'etudes," composed of French and foreign engineers, 11 in number, having at their head Inspector-General Guillemain, director of the Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, which, after a study of the entire subject and visiting the isthmus, rendered a report May 5, 1
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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 83 would probably suffice for finishing the canal. It estimated the cost of completion at $112,500,000 for the works, which it thought should be increased to $174,600,000 (900,000,000 francs) to include administration and financing. It found much difficulty in estimating the value of the work done and of the plant, but gave as a rough approximation one-half the estimated cost of completing the canal, or $87,300,000 (450,000,000 francs). It called this an "intuitive estimate." More weight has been attached to this estimate in recent documents by the New Panama Canal Company than its authors claimed for it. The time within which the canal was to be completed under the Wyse concession having nearly expired, the liquidator sought and obtained from the Colombian Government an extension of ten years. The law of Colombia granting this extension is dated December 26, 1890. It provided that a new company should be formed and work upon the canal resumed on or before February 28, 1893. This condition not having been fulfilled, a second extension was sought and obtained April 4, 1893. It provided that the term of ten years granted by the extension of 1890 should begin to run not later than October 31, 1894. By an agreement dated April 26, 1900, the time was still further extended to October 31, 1910. The validity of the last extension has been called in question. Full copies of the concession and its various extensions will be found in Appendices GG, HH, II, JJ. The liquidator found himself laboring under special legal difficulties, from which he obtained relief by the special law of the French Chambers, dated Juty 1, 1893. (See Appendix KK.) He finally secured the organization of a new company on the 20th, of October, 1894, with a capital stock of 650,000 shares of 100 francs each. Six hundred thousand shares had been subscribed to be paid for in cash, and 50,000 shares were given as full-paid stock to the Colombian Government in compliance with the terms of the extension of the concession, dated December 26, 1890. Thus the cash capital of the company was 60,000,000 francs, or $11,640,000, a sum deemed sufficient for the provisional operations contemplated. The scandals connected with the failure of the old company, which had led to the prosecution and conviction of De Lesseps and other prominent persons, had made it difficult to secure even that amount. Suits had been brought against certain loan associations, administrators, contractors, and others who were supposed to have unduly profited by the extravagant management of the old company. A series of compromises were made with t^ese persons, by which it was agreed that they should subscribe for stock in the new company on condition that the suits should be dropped. Whatever amount remained to make up the 60,000,000 francs, after deducting the sums thus obtained and

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84 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. those to be obtained by public subscription, was to be subscribed by the liquidator. The stock was subscribed as follows, viz : Francs. Ei ffel 10, 000, 000 Credit Lyonnais 4, 000, 000 Societe Generale 4, 000, 000 Credit Industriel et Commercial 2, 000, 000 Administrators of the old company 7, 885, 000 Artigue, Sonderegger & Co 2, 200, 000 Baratoux, Letellier & Co 2,200,000 Jacob heirs 750, 000 Couvreux, Hersent & Co 500, 000 Various persons to the number of sixty, who had profited by S} T ndicates created b} 7 the old company 3, 285, 700 Hugo Oberndorffer 3, 800, 000 Public subscription 3, 484, 300 The liquidator 15, 895, 000 Total 60, 000, 000 See fourth report of the liquidator to the court, dated November 26, 1895, pages 8, 9, and 13. The old company and the liquidator had raised by the sale of stock and bonds the sum of $246,706,431.68. The securities issued to raise this money had a face value of $435,559,332.80. The number of persons holding them is estimated at over 200,000/ There have been excavated in all about 72,000,000 cubic yards. There had been purchased and transported to the isthmus an enormous quantity of machinery and other plant, at an estimated cost of $29,000,000. Nearly all of the stock of the Panama Railroad — about 68,500 of the 70,000 shares existing — also had been purchased at a cost of about $18,094,000. A general statement of the receipts and expenditures and further details of the history of the enterprise down to the formation of the new company, furnished by M. Maurice Hutin, director-general New Panama Canal Company, will be found in Appendix B. The new company took possession of the propThc new company. . . '„ z. n erty immediately after its organization in 1894— except the Panama Railroad shares, which are held in trust for its benefit — and proceeded to make a new study of the entire subject of the canal in its engineering and commercial aspects. It undertook to finish the canal, if after the completion of these studies that should be found expedient. It resumed the work of excavation, with a force large enough to comply with its concession, on a part of the line, the Emperador and Culebra cuts, where such excavation was sure to conSee second report of the liquidator to the court, dated November 12, 1891.

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 85 tribute to the enterprise if completed under any plan. By the middle of 1895 a force of about 2,000 men had been collected, and the work has progressed continuously since that time with a force reported as varying between 1,900 and 3,600 men. According to the annual reports of the compan} 7 the amount of material taken out was about 485,000 cubic yards in 1895, 915,000 in 1896, 1,225,000 in 1897, 1,200,000 in 1898, and about 1,210,000 in 1899, or about 5,000,000 cubic yards in all. The amount expended to June 30, 1899, was about $7,000,000, besides about $1,284,000 advanced to the Panama Railroad Company for building a pier at La Boca. The company's charter provided for the appointment by the company and the liquidator of a special engineering commission of five members to report upon the work done and upon the conclusions to be drawn therefrom, this report to be rendered when the amounts expended by the new company should have reached about one-half its capital. The report was to be made public and a special meeting of the stockholders was then to be held to finalty determine whether or not the canal should be completed and to provide ways and means. The time for this report and special meeting arrived in 1898. In the meantime the company had called to its aid a technical committee composed of fourteen engineers, European and American, some of them among the most eminent in their profession. After a stud}^ of all the data available and of such additional surveys and examinations as it had considered necessary to be made, this committee rendered an elaborate report dated November 16, 1898. It was reproduced in Senate document No. 188, Fifty -sixth Congress, first session, pages 43-83. This report was referred to the above-mentioned statutory commission of five, which reported in 1899 that the canal could be built according to that project within the limits of time and money estimated. The special meeting of stockholders was called immediately after the regular annual meeting of December 30, 1899. It is understood that the liquidator, who is one of the largest stockholders, refused to take part in it, and that no conclusions were reached as to the expediency of completing the canal or as to providing ways and means. The engineering questions had been solved to the satisfaction of the company, but the financial questions had been made extremely difficult, if not insoluble, by the appearance of the United States Government in the field as a probable builder of an isthmian canal. The company is conducting its operations in the same provisional way as in the last five years and has not }^et appealed to the public for capital. The plan adopted by the company involves two >ew company's plan. J i levels above the sea-level — one of them an artificial lake to be created by a dam at Bohio, to be reached from the Atlantic side by a flight of two locks, and the other, the summit level, to be reached by another flight of two locks from the preceding; the summit

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86 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. level to have its bottom 68 feet above the .sea and to be supplied with water by a feeder leading from an artificial reservoir to be constructed at Alhajueala, in the Upper Chagres Valley; the ascent on the Pacific side to be likewise by four locks, of which the two middle ones are combined in a flight. The canal is to have a depth of 29.5 feet and a bottom width of about 98 feet, with an increased width in certain specified parts. Its general location is the same as that adopted by the old company. The dimensions of the lock chambers are 738 feet in length, 82 feet in width, and 32 feet 10 inches in depth in the clear; the lifts to vary from 26 feet to 33 feet, according to location and stage of water. The cost was estimated at $101,850,000 for the works, which does not include administration or financing. While this is the plan recommended by the French engineers, they worked out in detail a second plan, which is an extension or modification of the foregoing, which they seemed to prefer in itself, but which they feared would require more time to execute. The limits of their concession and the heavy cost of financing led them to attach very great weight to the consideration of time. Under this second plan the upper level was omitted, the cut through the continental divide being deepened until its bottom was 32 feet above the sea; Lake Bohio was made the summit level and was fed directly by the Chagres; one flight of locks on the Atlantic side and one lock on the Pacific were omitted; the feeder from Alhajuela was omitted, but the dam at that place was retained. The estimated cost of completing the canal under this plan was not much greater than that for the other, being about $105,500,000. All work done for several years under the first plan would be equally available under the second plan, and the company contemplates reverting to the second plan if the experience of the first few years shows that time will permit. In both plans the dam at Bohio converted the river between that point and Obispo into a lake of such dimensions as not to be seriously affected by the partial floods admitted to it, while diversion channels were to be constructed on both sides of the canal from this lake to the sea. With a carefully designed system of sluices and controlling works the violence of the floods was to be checked by impounding the water both above the Alhajuela dam and Lake Bohio, so as to keep the flow below the Bohio dam within the capacity of the two diversion channels. The old Panama Canal Company began its work Physical data available. . . , without adequate knowledge of the physical conditions at the Isthmus. It inaugurated at an early day some of the surveys and examinations required to supply the deficiency, and some of these it maintained as long as it continued to exist. Additional surveys were made by the liquidator, and very extended additional surveys and observations have been made by the new company. The information relating to the topography, hydrography, and geology of

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REPOBT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 87 the Isthmus is now much more complete than is usual before the inauguration of an engineering enterprise in a new country. The canal couipain' spared no trouble or expense in laying it all before the Commission. The most important maps, drawings, and documents were lithographed or printed and systematically arranged for the use of the Commission, copies being furnished for each member. Many other documents were supplied in manuscript. In all some 340 documents, many of them elaborate studies, were furnished. A list of them will be found in Appendix C. These supplied essentially all the data required for the preparation of plans and estimates, though further information was desired as to the foundation upon which the great dam at Bohio must be built, and as to the area of the Chagres River drainage basin. This additional information was obtained by the field parties of this Commission. It was necessary also for the purpose of this investigation to verify the French data. Independent lines of levels, measurements of distances, borings, soundings, and hydrographic observations made by its own parties, supplemented by personal observation, enable this Commission to state that the data furnished by the canal company are essentially correct. The circumstances under which the Commission pian for the United states appr oaches the study of a plan for the canal differ differs from that for a com„ 1 n i • merciai corporation. from those of the h rench engineers in two important particulars. The question of the time required for completion is of less vital importance, since a new concession from the Colombian Government must be obtained in any event, and since the cost of financing would be much diminished if the United States should provide the funds, that question would not be decisive against a plan which is otherwise preferable. In a plan prepared for a government seeking the permanent development of its possessions, and content to receive its returns in an indirect wa}^ and at a future time, the canal must have dimensions which will permit the passage of the largest ships now afloat or likely to be constructed. For a time such ships may be exceptional and the canal revenue derived from them may be small. A plan prepared for a commercial corporation investing capital from which an immediate and direct revenue is desired would probably exclude such exceptional ships, and the dimensions given the canal — at least in the beginning— would be less than in the former case. One of the greatest natural difficulties to be JSSST """ at raI encountered in the construction of a ship canal on the Panama route lies in the control of the Chagres River. That stream is about 145 miles long and has a drainage area above Bohio of about 875 square miles. Above Obispo it is in general a clearwater stream flowing over a bed of coarse gravel; but sand, clay, and silt in moderate quantities appear in the lower portions of

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88 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. its course. It flows through a mountainous country, in which the average annual rainfall is about 130 inches. A maximum rainfall has been observed of over 6 inches in twelve hours. Its discharge at Bohio varies from a minimum of about 350 cubic feet to a possible maximum of 136,000 cubic feet per second. The excessive rainfall and the precipitous slopes of the valley give to the river a torrential character. On December 1, 1890, it rose at Gamboa 23 feet in sixteen hours, its discharge, which was about 9,000 cubic feet per second at the beginning of the rise, increasing in the same time to six or seven times that volume. This is the most violent change of which there is definite record, but similar changes of somewhat less violence are not uncommon. The admission of a stream of this character to the canal would create conditions intolerable to navigation unless sufficient section of prism be provided to reduce the current to an unobjectionable velocity. If a sea-level canal be constructed, either the canal itself must be made of such dimensions that maximum floods, modified to some extent by a reservoir in the Upper Chagres, could pass down its channel without injury, or independent channels must be provided to carry off these floods. As the canal lies in the .lowest part of the valley, the construction of such channels would be a matter of serious difficulty, and the simplest solution would be to make the canal prism large enough to take the full discharge itself. This would have the advantage, also, of furnishing a very large canal, in which navigation under ordinary circumstances would be exceptionally easy. It would involve a cross section from Obispo to the Atlantic, having an area of at least 15,000 square feet below the water line, which would give a bottom width of about 100 feet. The quantity of excavation required for such a canal has been roughly computed, and is found to be about 266,228,000 cubic yards. The cost of such a canal, including a dam at Alhajuela and a tide lock at Miraflores, near the Pacific end, is estimated at not less than $210,000,000. Its construction would probably take at least twenty years. This Commission concurs with the various French commissions which have preceded it since the failure of the old company in rejecting the sealevel plan. While such a plan would be physically practicable, and might be adopted if no other solution were available, the difficulties of all kinds, and especially those of time and cost, would be so great that a canal with a summit level reached by locks is to be preferred. In the case of a canal with locks the problem of w m!' t i!Kks. UPPly ' r ,a al controlling the floods is very much simplified, but a new one is introduced — that of supplying the summit level with water. The quantity of water required for the operation of the canal will vary with the amount of traffic and the size of the vessels carrying it. Assuming lo lockages per day for vessels

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 89 of about 3,000 tons each, an annual traffic of about 1.0,000,000 tons will be accommodated, which is greater than the amount to be expected at the opening of the canal. Ten lockages will require 35,127,960 cubic feet per day, or 406 cubic feet per second, assuming that four of these lockages are for the full-size lock and six of them for the reduced size, using the intermediate gates. The loss from evaporation is assumed to be 6 inches per month. The area of the lake to be proposed hereafter is 38.5 square miles, or 1,073,318,400 square feet. The loss from evaporation over this area is 536,659,200 cubic feet in a month, or 207 cubic feet per second. The loss from leakage at the lock gates is estimated at 250 cubic feet per second. To this has been added 200 cubic feet per second for power and other contingencies. Adding these amounts together, the total amount required to operate the canal for a traffic of 10,000,000 tons per annum is found to be 1,063, or, in round numbers, 1,070, cubic feet per second. The average annual discharge of the Chagres is far in excess of this, being about 3,200 cubic feet per second, but there is a well-defined dry season when the daily discharge is often less. A deficiency during the months of February, March, and April is to be apprehended and must be provided for, though it does not always occur. For use during these months some of the surplus waters of the other months must be stored. The minimum average discharge at Bohio for any month covered by the records is that for March, 1891, when it was 600 cubic feet per second, or 470 cubic feet less than the amount required. If water enough be stored to supply this deficiency, supposing it to exist continuously for three months, provision will be made against a state of affairs worse than any that has ever been known or is likely to occur. A deficiency of 470 cubic feet per second for ninety days gives an aggregate deficiency of 3,654,720,000 cubic feet, for which storage room must be provided. In a lake having an area of 38.5 square miles it corresponds to a depth of 3.4 feet. The greatest flood which has occurred since the Flood discharge of the • j. ,i , ji -r> t m cha!?res occupation of the isthmus by the Panama Kailroad (which covers a period of fift} T years), and so far as known the greatest which ever occurred, was that of November 18, 1879. No measurement was made of its volume, but the height which it reached at Bohio is stated upon the authority of Mr. Sosa, a Colombian engineer, to have been 39.3 feet above low water. A comparison of this height with that reached by floods of which the volume was measured (see Appendix D) leads to the conclusion that the maximum discharge at Bohio at the highest point of the flood in 1879 might have been as much as 136,000 cubic feet per second. In reaching this conclusion one of the assumptions is that there was no change in the size of the waterway between 1879 and the dates of the later floods, and that if the same quantity of water

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90 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. nad been flowing at the later dates as in 1879, it would have reached the same height. Inasmuch as the size of the waterway was much increased subsequently to 1879 b}^ the excavations of the old company, this assumption gives a result which is certainly not too low. In this, as in all other cases of doubt, the assumptions have been made such as to err on the safe side, if at all. The other greatest floods of which there are records are those of 1885, with a height at Bohio 33.8 feet; 1888 with height 31.7 feet; 1890 with height 32.1 feet, and 1893 with height 28.5 feet. The last two were measured, the maximum discharge in 1890 being 71,998 cubic feet per second, and in 1893, 18,975 cubic feet. Thus it appears that the floods in which the discharge exceeds 75,000 cubic feet per second are of rare occurrence. If the works be so designed that such a flood would produce no currents which would interfere with navigation, and that a flood of 110,000 cubic feet per second, while it might temporarily suspend navigation, would not injure the structure of the canal, ample provision will be made for the flood control of the Chagres. No location suitable for a dam exists on the Chagres River below Bohio, and while this location is not without difficulties it has the great advantage that about 3 miles southwest of the dam, near the head of the Rio Gig-ante, a tributary of the Chagres, there exists an excellent site for a spillway, by which the discharge from the lake can be kept well away from the dam and accessory works, and may be made extremely large without inconvenience either to the canal itself or to the country below the lake. The height of this spillway would regulate the height and area of the lake. After careful consideration of the requirements for flood control and for storage against deficiency in the diy season, and also of the effect upon the amount of excavation required for the canal through the continental divide, the Commission has decided to fix this height at 85 feet above mean tide, and to make the spillway a fixed weir 2,000 feet long. The area of the lake at this height is 38.5 square miles, or 1,073,318,100 square feet. Using coefficient 3.5 in the weir formula, it is computed that with a depth of 5 feet over its crest the weir will discharge 78,260 cubic feet per second. In reaching elevation 90 the area of the lake will be enlarged to about 13 square miles and it will impound over 5,680,000,000 cubic feet of water. The quantity of water discharged over the weir while the lake is rising from elevation 85 to elevation 90, assuming circumstances of flow similar to those observed in the flood of 1893, is computed to be about 1,000,000,000 cubic feet. (See Appendix E.) The total quantity of water impounded and discharged before the lake will rise above elevation 90 is therefore nearly 10,000,000,000 cubic feet. It provides for unimpeded navigation during all floods not exceeding 75,000 cubic feet per second, The

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 91 velocity of the currents in the narrowest part of the lake would not exceed 2 feet per second. Floods may occur, however, which will cause the lake to rise above elevation 90. From the data available it is not possible to compute with precision the exact height which a flood ma} T hereafter attain, but the extreme possible effect of a flood discharging 140,000 cubic feet per second for a prolonged period would be to raise the water over the spillway to 92.5 feet. All great floods are of short duration, and such a flood is absolutely without precedent, being as improbable as any other convulsion of nature. The crest of the dam has, however, been placed at 100 and the top of the lock walls and gates at 94, to make them entirely safe from overflow by even such a flood, the ill effect of which would be limited to the temporary obstruction of navigation by swift currents in the narrowest part of the lake, where the velocity might reach 5 feet per second. Under extreme conditions the lake might be lowered to 82 to provide water for operating the canal during the dry months. The excavations will be so adjusted as to give a depth of 35 feet at that level. This provision for the storage of water for use in the dry season is ample for a traffic of 10,000,000 tons per annum Future increase of water • 1 <• ,1 • T gu in vessels of the size now in common use. It will be equally ample for a much larger tonnage if, as seems probable, the size of vessels continues to increase. For example, the number of vessels which passed the Suez Canal in 1900 was 3,441, against 3,389 in 1890, while the gross tonnage in 1900 was 13,699,238, against 9,749,129 in 1890. The number of vessels in 1900 was less than in 1898, while the total tonnage was greater. The annual flow of the Chagres and the topography of the country are favorable, however, to a very large increase of the supply, if that be found desirable in the future. A reservoir can be constructed at Alhajuela with a capacity for storing an additional volume of water four times that now provided for daily consumption. The overflow of Lake Bohio will discharge Disposal of overflow. . *->i through the (Jigante spillway into rena Blanca Swamp, thence through natural and artificial channels to the Chagres River below Gatun, and thence through that river to the sea, being kept out of the canal in the lowlands by levees where necessary. The canal, as thus projected, may be described Detailed description. „ „ , as follows (see pis. 21, 22, 23): Beginning at the 6 fathom line in Limon Bay, a channel 500 feet wide at bottom, and with side slopes 1 on 3, is excavated, curving gently to the left upon a radius of 6,560 feet, until it reaches a point just inside the jetty constructed by the old Panama Canal Company. Here it changes direction to the right upon a curve of 3,280 feet radius, and is then conducted upon a straight line for a distance of 2,000 feet

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92 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. Entrance and harbor at to a point 2.39 miles from deep water in the bay. For about a mile this wide channel is inside the Colon. shore line, forminga narrow but well-protected harbor. Near the apex of the second curve the bottom width is increased to 800 feet for a length of 800 feet, to provide a turning basin. The estimated cost of this entrance and harbor is $8,057,707, of which $1,936,991 is for work outside the jettj T The annual cost of maintenance is estimated at $30,000. From the inner end of the harbor the bottom width of the canal is 150 feet, the side slopes of 1 on 3 being retained for 1.86 miles through the swamp, after which they are reduced to the standard used in firm earth, and are kept at that standard for a distance of 12.56 miles farther to the Bohio locks. The length of this level measured from the inner end of the harbor is 14.42 miles. Its estimated cost is $11,099,839, including $151,347 for levees to exclude flood waters and $299,000 for the lower approach, 1,200 feet long, to the lock. At Bohio is located a double flight of locks, having a total lift varying from 82 feet at the minimum level of the lake to 90 feet at the maximum, 41 to 45 to each lock, the normal lift being 85 feet. These locks are on the location adopted bv the French Bohio locks. to company, lhey are shown on PI. 24 and are of the type adopted for both the Nicaragua and Panama canals and described elsewhere in this report. The estimated cost of this flight of double locks, four lock chambers in all, is $11,567,275, including excavation. Above the locks the canal enters the artificial lake formed by the Bohio dam and known as Lake Bohio. For the first 7 miles it is a broad, deep body of water, affording room for anchorage, as well as navigation. Beyond this some li^ht excavations Lake Bohio. te J & are necessary. At the upper end the channel will be enlarged to provide for the flood discharge of the Chagres, being given a minimum section of 42,000 square feet. The length of the channel in Lake Bohio is 12.68 miles from the locks to the point where the canal leaves the Chagres. The section extends ninety-three hundredths of a mile farther, to the point where it enters the cut through the divide. The estimated cost of this section is $2,952,154, including $434,400 for the upper approach to the Bohio locks. Near the entrance to the summit cut will be placed a pair of gates 100 feet wide, so that if it should become necessary to draw off the water from the summit cut the level of Lake Bohio would not be affected. These gates will be at the site of a lock proposed by Obispo Kuard sates. ._ 5_ • j the h rench company near Obispo, with a foundation on hard rock. The estimated cost of these gates, including masonry and excavation, is $21*5,434.

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 93 The summit cut is 7.91 miles long from the Obispo gates to the Pedro Miguel locks. The highest point is about 5 miles from the Obispo gates, where the bottom of the canal at the axis is 286 feet below the natural surface of the ground. This is the Culebra cut. famous Lulebra cut, though the name has often been applied only to the mile of heaviest work. There is a little very hard rock at the eastern end of this section, and the western two miles are in ordinary materials. The remainder consists of a hard indurated clay, with some softer material at the top and some strata and dikes of hard rock. In fixing the price it has been rated as soft rock, but it must be given slopes equivalent to those in earth. This cut has been estimated on the basis of a bottom width of 150 feet, with side slopes of 1 on 1. While the cut would probably not be finished with this uniform slope, this furnishes as correct a basis of estimate as can now be arrived at. The entire cut will be lined with masonry walls, finishing at elevation 92, 2 feet above high water, these walls having nearly vertical faces and furnishing benches 38 feet wide on either side of the canal, on one of which the Panama Railroad will be laid, while it is probable that a service track will be placed on the other. Much has been said about the instability of the Culebra cut; in point of fact, there is a clay in the upper portion of the deep cut which flows readily when saturated, but which will give little trouble if thorough!} 7 drained; probably nine-tenths of the material would naturally be classed as hard clay of stable character; it would weather somewhat, and the surface might require some repairing with concrete in bad places, a practice common in deep cuttings in Europe. This cla} 7 disintegrates rapidly in water, and for this reason the canal prism should be confined between masonry walls. With the provision made for broad benches on each side, on which any slight slides would be arrested, it is believed that no trouble will be experienced. The estimated cost of the 6.02 miles of heavy work is $41,940,180, and of the entire 7.91 miles between the Obispo gates and the Pedro Miguel locks, $44,414,460, including the upper approach to these locks. It would probably take eight years to excavate this section of the canal. The amount of excavation in this section is 43,237,200 cubic yards. The concentration of so large an amount of excavation in so small a space is without precedent. The engineer will recognize at once that thorough organization and tools specially adapted to the work are here required. Fortunately there is ample ground on which to deposit the spoil both north and south of the divide. The method of conducting the work in general principles and in detail should be thoroughly worked out before actual execution is begun. No work has ever been undertaken on which the highest class of practical engineering talent could produce so great economies as in this great concentrated exca-

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94 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. vation. Its cost has been estimated at 80 cents per cubic yard; bad management might easily increase this to a dollar, and it is not impossible that with a carefully considered equipment the cost might be reduced to 60 cents. The Pedro Miguel locks (see pi. 25) will be similar to the Bohio locks, the aggregate lift varying from 54 to 62 feet. There is an excellent rock foundation here. The estimated cost of these locks, including an adjacent dam, is $9,081,321. A level 1.33 miles long extends from the Pedro Pedro Mlstuel level. Miguel locks to the last lock, which is at Miraflores. The normal elevation of the surface of the water is 28. The estimated cost of this section is $1,192,286 including $388,880 for lock approaches at each end. At the end of this level will be located the Miraflores look. Miraflores lock (see pi. 25), with a hit varying from 18 feet at high tide to 38 feet at mean low tide. There is a good rock foundation for this lock. A spillway will be required to regulate the height of this level. The estimated cost of this lock and spillway is $5,781,401. For 4.12 miles beyond the Miraflores lock the canal extends through a low swamp country through which the Rio Grande runs. Occasional rock is found here, but the material is generally very soft and the canal has been estimated for a bottom width of Pacific maritime section. ... 150 feet with slopes ot 1 on 3. I his brings the canal to a point known as La Boca where the Panama Railroad Company has constructed a large and substantial wharf. A dredged channel 200 feet wide with slopes of 1 on 3 will extend from this point 4.41 miles to the 6-fathom line in Panama Bay. The first 2 miles of this dredged channel are through flats which are bare at low water, where there is a considerable amount of submerged rock. The total cost of this section from the lock to deep water is estimated at $12,427,971, of which $1,464,513 is for work outside of La Boca. The cost of maintenance of this channel is included in that of the canal. No separate estimate for maintaining a harbor at Panama is submitted, because it is a natural roadstead, not requiring expenditure. The Bohio dam is the most important structure ItolllO (I.I III. IT 1 • e •
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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 95 the central part of the valley they did not go down to rock. In this case the Commission decided to do more than verify the data furnished to it, and caused a large number (86) additional borings to be made. With the exception of seven, which were abandoned before completion on account of accidents to the apparatus or unusual difficulties of soil, all of these borings reached rock. They show a variety of materials — hard clay, soft clay, sand, gravel, and some mixtures of sand, clay and gravel in varying proportions. These materials are found in beds of varying shape and thickness, not distributed with uniformity and not arranged according to any general law from which can be deduced the character of the soil at points other than those actually examined. In every section constructed from the borings,, strata of greater or less dimensions are found, which are permeable by water. How far these extend and whether or not they communicate with the surface of the ground above the site of the dam are, points about which information can not be obtained in advance with certaintyIf a dam be built with permeable strata under it there will probably be leakage, but what the amount of this will be is a question about which there is room for much difference of opinion. It would seem probable to many that the leakage will not be sufficient to endanger the water supply, and that an earthen dam is therefore feasible,, but it is evident that here is a danger to be avoided if possible. A masonry dam founded throughout upon the rock, or an earth dam with a masonry core going down everywhere to rock, would close the valley completely and would leave no question open as to its future efficiency. In its preliminary report the Commission based! its estimates on a masonry dam. The examinations of the ground had not at that time been completed. So far as they had progressed they showed a site where a masonry dam seemed the most suitable, but it was subsequently found that the depth to rock upon that site was at least 143 feet below sea level at the deepest part. It was considered best to avoid, if possible, so great a depth of foundation. A site was found a few hundred feet farther downstream where the length of the dam would be considerably greater than at the former site, but the greatest depth to rock revealed by the borings was only 128 feet below sea level. The line runs from a point near the railroad station at Bohio, on the east side of the river, straight across to the rocky hill on the west side. (See pi. 26.) On the east side the rock is at the surface practically from the water in the river to the end of the dam. On the west side the bank above low water is composed either of pure clay or of clay mixed with sand, while below low water are found irregular beds of sand and sandy clay. The physical features of the location admit of the construction of an earth embankment with a heavy masonry core carried down to bed rock throughout the length of the structure. For reasons of economy that type of dam is preferable to one wholly of masonry upon the new site, and is now adopted.

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96 REPOKT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. It is proposed to sink the foundation of the core wall by the pneumatic process at all points where the foundation bed is lower than about 30 feet below mean sea level. This requires the pneumatic process to be used through a length of 1,314 feet, of which about 310 feet is at the maximum depth of 128 feet below the sea level. Where the foundation bed is above elevation — 30, cofferdams are to be used. This involves the use of cofferdams through a length of 324 feet, the foundation at sea level being extended 78 feet at the easterty end and 246 feet at the westerly end of the pneumatic work. The cofferdams extend to a height 8 feet above sea level. Above elevation 8 all operations would be carried on by the ordinal*}' methods of dry work. The width of the dam at the" top is 20 feet, and its total length is 2,546 feet. The elevation of the top is 100 feet above mean sea level, affording a superelevation of the dam of 8 feet above the highest possible water in the lake and 10 feet above the usual high water. Its total height above the lowest part of the foundation is 228 feet. The earth faces of the dam are designed to have mean slopes of one vertical to three horizontal, and to be broken by three terraces, each 6 feet wide. It is necessary to pave only the upstream face, but it is probable that both faces would be heavily riprapped with the rock spoil from the lock excavation near the westerly end. The masonry core is 30 feet thick at and below elevation — 30. From that level it tapers to a thickness of 8 feet at top. Material for the heavy fill required is found in the immediate neighborhood. The local conditions are such that not less than seveneighths of the work could be completed without interfering with the natural How of the Chagres. When it becomes necessaiy for the completion of the dam to divert the river, the unfinished Gigante spillway and, later on, the finished locks at Bohio may be employed as diversion channels. A temporary dam would be required to turn the water through these? outlets at suitable stages. This temporary dam may be placed either at the site of the permanent dam and tinall}' be buried in it, or at some suitable point higher upstream. The cost of the Bohio dam is estimated at $6,309,640. This estimate is higher than any which has hitherto been made for this dam. It is possible that before actual construction a better locution can be found and the cost reduced. A dam on the French location, with masoniy core carried to rock, would contain less than half the material in the dam for which estimates have been made, but for a length of 170 feet the foundation would be deeper than anywhere on the adopted location, the maximum being 146 feet below mean tide. The Gigante spillway, which is a structure of considerable magnitude, is very simple. There is a good rock foundation at or above tide level for the entire length of this spillway. It will consist of a dam entirely of concrete with a crest at elevation 85, terminating in an apron at elevation 65, with a

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 97 solid foundation below this level, the apron being everywhere below the present surface of the ground. The foundation, below elevation 65, will be put in first and before the flow of water through the present river at the site of the Bohio dam is checked. Plans for this spillway are shown on plate 27. The estimated cost, including the channel ways immediately above and below it, is $1,209,419. The water after passing over the spillway will flow across country about a mile to the Pena Blanca swamp. The elevation of the surface of this swamp is now 22.3, so that the water will have a fall of 62.7 feet in this mile. The swamp is separated from the line of the canal by a ridge, of which the lowest part is at elevation 33. It can be filled to elevation 31 without inconvenience to the canal. Its outlet will be placed at elevation 11. Its area at that level is 0.447 square mile and at elevation 31 it is 1.186 square miles. Its storage capacity between those two levels is 455,000,000 cubic feet. From the Pena Blanca the water will be disPeua Blanca outlet. ,• i ,, ,-
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98 REPOKT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. tion 7. Its length measured on the bottom is 6,955 feet, and the maximum depth of cuttingis 25 feet, much of it rock. With a head of 11 feet it can discharge 140,000 cubic feet per second at a velocity of about 9.55 miles per hour. Its cost is estimated at $1,929,982. The canal in the low region above and below Gatum must be protected from overflow by levees, their total length aggregating about 5.1 miles. The height to which these levees should be carried can not be determined with accuracy from the present data, and must be tixed from observations of floods hereafter. As in all other cases of doubt." a height has been adopted which will err, if at all, upon the safe side. For the purpose of estimate the height has been placed at elevation 25. The width on top is 13 feet and the side slopes 1 on 2. It is probable, however, that the levees will be used as spoil banks for the material dredged from the canal, and that their dimensions, except as to height, will much exceed those here given. From Gatum the overflow from Lake Bohio and all tributaries below the lake on the west side of the canal will find its way to the sea through the Chagres River, which the canal here leaves. The onlv tributary on the east side for which Uatun diversion. .. . _. any special provision need be made is the Gatun. A diversion channel intended to take a portion of the water of the Chagres was constructed by the old company along the east side of the canal to Boca Grande back of Colon. It cuts across the Gatun near the town of the same name, and while no longer required for the Chagres, it is available as a new channel for the Gatun. It was designed to carry a discharge of 17,600 cubic feet per second, which is much in excess of the maximum discharge of the Gatun. Some work must be done on it, especially at the crossing of the Panama Railroad, where the piers for a new bridge have been built. The cost of putting this channel into service is estimated at $100,000. From Bohio to the Obispo gates the Panama Railroad must be rebuilt for 15.5 miles on a new location, with a bridge across the Chagres below Gamboa. An estimate made from 8io P n. nama Ba,lr ad dlTCr approximate profiles indicates that the cost of this diversion will not exceed $75,000 a mile, or $1,162,500. From the Obispo gates the railroad will be carried for 6 miles on the bench formed by the retaining wall on the east side of the Culebra Cut, these 6 miles being estimated to cost $10,000 a mile, which includes only track laying, ties, and ballasting. Beyond this will be a mile of light work estimated at $25,000, while the main track will have to be raised for 2 miles farthei at a cost of $20,000. Combining these figures, the total cost of the diversion of the Panama Railroad becomes $1,267,500.

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 99 Suming up the several figures already given, the total estimated cost of completing the Panama Canal is as follows: Total estimated cost. Miles. Cost. Colon entrance and harbor Harbor to Bohio locks, including levees Bohio locks, including excavation Lake Bohio Obispo gates < lulebra section Pedro Miguel locks, including excavation and dam Pedro Miguel level Mirarlores locks, including excavation and spillway. Pacific level Bohio dam Gigante spillway Pefla Blanca outlet Chagres diversion Gat un diversion Panama Railroad diversion 2.39 14. 42 .35 13.61 7.91 .35 1.33 .20 8.53 18, 057, 707 11,099,839 11,567,275 2, 952, 154 295, 434 44,414,460 9,081,321 1, 192, 286 5,781,401 12, 427, 971 6, 369, 640 1,209,419 2, 448, 076 1, 929, 982 100, 000 1,267,500 Total. 49.09 Engineering, police, sanitation, and general contingencies, 20 per cent Aggregate 120, 194, 465 24,038,893 144, 233, 358 The total amount of excavation is 94,863,703 cubic yards, exclusive of excavation for the Bohio dam, and the Gigante spillway. The location of the canal is, in general, the same as that proposed by the French company. Its total length, from 36 feet deep in the Atlantic to 36 feet deep in the Pacific, is 49.09 miles. The distance from the inner end of the harbor enlargement at Colon to the shore end of the ba}^ channel at La Boca is 42.3 miles, of which 11 miles is the broad channel of Lake Bohio. The alignment is exceptionally good, the sharpest curve having a radius of 6,232 feet, except one at the entrance to Colon Harbor, which has a radius of 3,280 feet, but where the bottom width is from 500 to 800 feet. The total curvature in the entire length of the canal is 771 39', distributed as follows: Length ami curvature. Number of curves. Length. Radius. Total curvature. 1 Miles. 0.88 .48 4.22 11.61 2.44 1.67 .73 .82 Feet. 19, 629 13, 123 11,483 9,842 8, 202 6, 562 6,234 3,281 o / 14 17 1 11 04 4.. 111 32 15 355 50 4... 90 20 2 77 00 1 35 45 1 75 51 Total • 22.85 771 39 Alternative location. An examination has been made of a different location on a more direct line between Gatun and Bohio by which the distance will be shortened 1.25 miles. As this line shows no material saving in cost from that described in this report, it

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100 REPOKT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. has been thought best, for purposes of estimate, to adhere to the French location. A description of this line will be found in Appendix F. The time required to pass through the canal Time of transit. i • -n • after completion will vary with the size of the vessel and with the number of other vessels. For the purpose of comparison the time has been carefully computed for a ship 400 feet long, 50 feet beam, and 21.5 feet draft, or what may be called an averagesized ship. The open sea speed is taken at 12. 5 statute miles, or about 11 knots, per hour. The reduced speed in various parts of the canal and the delays caused by lockages and by passing other vessels have been obtained from observation of the practical working of the Sault Ste. Marie and the Manchester canals. They are as follows: In canal sections having a bottom width 150 feet, speed on tangents 8 miles per hour, on curves 7 miles per hour; in Panama Bay channel, speed 9 miles per hour; in Lake Bohio, speed on tangents 10 miles per hour, on curves 9 miles per hour; in harbors and harbor entrances, speed on tangents 10 miles per hour, on curves 8-^ miles per hour; all statute miles. The delay caused by lockages is 3 hours and 58 minutes, unci that caused by meeting other vessels L hour and 14 minutes. From these data the time of transit through the canal is computed to be 11 hours and 1-1 minutes. A full discussion of this subject will be found in Appendix G. The plan recommended by the Commission is, in its general outlines, the same as the second plan of the French engineers, the one preferred by them, except for the time required for construction. The principal difference is in the height given to the Bohio dam and the important consequences which result therefrom. A marked feature of the Commission's plan is its simplicity. The increase in the depth and area of Lake Bohio renders it possible to receive the full Hood discharge of the Chagres directly into it without impeding navigation and at the same time to take full advantage of favorable topoiuIkkIoi" "nian! m ^rttphital features of the country in the subsequent discharge of the surplus waters. The Alhajuela dam becomes unnecessary for (food control, and its construction may be deferred until additional storage capacity is required as the result of a large increase in the traffic of the canal in the future. The outlet of Lake Bohio becomes a single fixed weir instead of two weirs with regulating gates and with two separate channels to the sea. A great reduction also results in the amount of excavation required to cut through the continental divide. There is a material reduction of cost. The quantities given in the foregoing estimate are based upon the present condition of the Isthmus, utilizing the excavations already made where they are useful. The new company has excavated about 5,000,000 cubic yards, which, added to the 72,000,000 cubic yards exca-

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 101 vated prior to its organization, make a total of 77,000,000 cubic yards excavated by the two companies. Much of it is of vai u of excavation ilue because of the various changes of plan. ready done. For example, sites for locks have been excavated and then abandoned; the spoil banks on the Atlantic maritime section frequently come within the limits of the canal prism now projected and must be rehandled. The amount of work done which will be of value under the plan recommended by the Commission has been carefully computed for the main canal line, and is found to be 36,689,965 cubic yards. The amount of excavation which can be utilized in the Chagres diversion is 210,873 cubic yards and in the (latum diversion 2,685,494 cubic yards. Adding these together the total quantity of excavation which will be of value in the new plan is 39,586,332 cubicyards. A temporary diversion of the Panama Railroad has been made at the Culebra cut which also must be considered. Using the same classification of materials and thesame unit prices as in the other estimates, with the 20 per cent added for contingencies, the value of the work done is found to be: Canal excavation $21,020,386 Chagres diversion 178, 186 Gatun diversion 1, 396, 456 Railroad diversion (4 miles) 300,000 22,895,028 Contingencies. 20 per cent 4, 579, 005 Aggregate 27, 474, 033 There is on hand an immense amount of plant, consisting of locomotives, excavators, dredges, cars, rails, and Plant on haud. t & machines, implements, tools, spare parts, and supplies of various kinds, besides buildings used for offices, quarters, storehouses, hospitals, and miscellaneous purposes, and some 30,000 acres of land. The inventory furnished to the Commission includes many thousands of items, classified as follows: 1. Lands not built on. 2. Buildings, 2.431 in number, divided among 47 subclassifications. 3. Furniture and stable outfit, with 17 subclassifications. 4. Floating plant and spare parts, with 24 subclassifications. 5. Rolling plant and spare parts, with 17 subclassifications. 6. Plant, stationary and semistationary, and spare parts, with 25 subclassifications. 7. Small material and spare parts, with 4 subclassifications. S. Surgical and medical outfit. 9. Medical stores. 10. Office supplies, stationery • 11. Miscellaneous supplier, with 740 subclassifications.

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102 REPOET OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. As a general rule, this property shows signs of attention, and the evidence seems satisfactory that it has been well cared for since the liquidator took charge of it in 1889. It would manifestly be imprudent, however, to fix a value upon any imporYalue of plant. . tant machine which has been idle that length of time without first actually testing it at work, however neatly painted and sheltered it may now be. Much of the property is ill adapted to American methods, and all of it is now from thirteen to twenty years old, during which period the improvements in this class of machinery have been such that contractors would generally find it to their advantageto buy entirely new machinery of modern pattern rather than attempt to use this of an older class, even if given to them free and in good order. The locomotives, rails, and cars may be of some service, but their value is doubtful; the locomotives are much lighter than is desirable for economical service, the rails are of a pattern ill fitted to rough use, and the ears have narrow-tread wheels. The cars are probably the best part of the whole outfit. It has seemed to the Commission that in acquiring the Panama Canal the United States should not buy this plant as a whole, and that no special allowance should be made for it in estimating the total value of the property. Its owners may realize something by the salt 1 of portions of it to contractors if the latter find that they can use it to advantage. This valuation is all that the Commission can put upon the plant: it has already appeared in the estimates, since the unit prices have been fixed upon the condition that contractors furnish their own plant, The same is true of the great majority of the Value of buildings. • buildings, including all barracks, storehouses, shops, stables, and miscellaneous buildings, and excepting only the hospitals and principal administration buildings. The latter would be the subject of special negotiation. They have appeared in the estimates under the head of contingencies; no special allowance is made for them here. The concession is of no value to the I'nited laLT ' '" cession *"" States, since a new one must be obtained from the Colombian Government in any event. It is the same with the lands, title to which is dependent upon the completion of the canal, and is still to be earned. The existence of the Panama Railroad is, however, a very important factor, as it supplies a service railroad for the entire length of the canal. On the basis of $75,000 a mile, this railValue of Panama Itallroatl. , , ,.>.,,,. road would be worth $3,500,000, which is half the face value of its capital stock. In view of its good condition and its valuable termini, it should, not be estimated for purposes of canal construction at less than ^vSOU/JOO, the par value of the 68,500 shares

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 103 of its stock held by the canal company. The exceptional gauge — 5 feet — somewhat reduces its value, as it adds to the cost of rolling stock. The maps, drawings, and records are unusually Value of maps and records. complete, and their value is great, though not capable of accurate estimate. In the judgment of the Commission, a fair allowance for these would be $2,000,000. T , ,. „ Summing up the foregoing items, the total value Total value of the Panama fe 1 & & ) s, drawings, and records ... 2, 000, 000 Total „ 36. 324, 033 to which add 10 per cent to cover omissions, making the total valuation of the Panama Canal $40,000,000.

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Attractive features. Chapter VI. THE NICARAGUA ROUTE. The Nicaragua route attracted the attention of explorers in the early days of interoceanic canal discussion, and was regarded by many as a most favorable one. Water communication by means of a large river and lake from the Atlantic to within a short distance of the Pacific accentuates the natural advantages of this route and at the same time tends to exaggerate them and to obscure the attendant difficulties. Lake Nicaragua is about 103 miles long. It lias Lake Nicaragua. . -., .-, j a maximum width or about 45 miles and an area of about 3,000 square miles. It is fairly regular in outline, with its longer axis nearly parallel to the Pacific coast, which in this vicinity has a northwesterly direction. It resembles Lake Erie somewhat in shape, but has only about one-third the area of the latter. Notwithstanding the fact that the existence of this lake had long been known, it appears that the first instrumental survey was made by the Nicaragua Canal Commission in 1898. It was then found that the bottom of the lake is above sea level over the greater part of its area, a comparatively small depression being below that level. The maximum depth is about 200 feet, and is found just south of the island of Ometepe, which has an elevation of 5,000 feet. About 18 miles to the northwest of Lake NicaLake Managua. ragua. and on the prolongation, ot its axis, lies Lake Managua, extending a distance of 37 miles toward the Gulf of Fonseca, a large natural harbor opening to the Pacific Ocean. The drainage of Lake Managua is through the river Tipitapa, which, however, is frequently without water in the dry seasons. This lake is <>.'> miles from the Gulf of Fonseca. A somewhat shorter route from Lake Managua to the Pacific crosses I he plain of Leon to the bay of Corinto, a distance of about 35 miles in an air line. The surface of Lake Nicaragua is generally a >irar;S!" ns * '' a k little more than LOO feet above sea level, [ts extreme fluctuation is not definitely known. Its annual fluctuation varies with the annual rainfall and the discharge of the streams that empty into it. These are small, and in the dry season they discharge very Little. Mr. Menocal in his report for L885 states that the lake was as high as 1 L0.63 feet above mean sea Unci at the end mi

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 105 of the wet season of L878. This is perhaps founded on the observations of the residents of Granada, who are reported to have seen the water of the lake up to the top of the steamboat wharf at that place. This may be regarded as an approximate determination of highest lake level. The data for fixingthe minimum level of the lake are equally uncertain; but it is stated on the authority of what are believed to be competent witnesses that it has been as low as 97 or less. These extremes have only been reached at long intervals. The fluctuations in the last three years, during which time regular observations have been taken, have amounted to only 6.09 feet. The drainage basin of the lake is in great part mountainous. This is particularly the ease on the east side, where it is separated (except in the immediate vicinity of its outlet) from the district draining into the Atlantic by a mountain range. There is reason to Characteristics of drainfe j. that his formerly the continental aire basin. fe divide. At the present time the divide is between the lake and the Pacific. Until the surveys of Colonel Childs, made in 1850-1852, the lowest passes known across this divide were supposed to be those from Lake Managua to the Gulf of Fonseca and the Baj r of Corinto, and canal lines from the lakes to the Pacific were projected to those points. Colonel Childs developed a far better route, crossing the divide at an elevation of only 153 feet above mean tide and following the valley of a small stream ealled the Rio Grande to the Pacific at Brito. The entire region between the lakes and the Pacific is now well enough known to establish beyond doubt that this is the lowest erossing of the divide, and is in every respect the best canal route. The San Juan River, through which the lake discharges at Fort San Carlos, follows a tortuous course in a southeasterly direction and empties through several mouths into the Caribbean Sea near Grevtown. The distance from the lake outlet to The San Juan River. . . „ the mouth of the river is about 80 miles in an air line, but about 120 miles following the windings of the river, the greater portion of the valley drained being on the right bank, where the divide, a lofty mountain range, is about 50 miles distant. On the left bank the divide is only 10 to 20 miles from the river, and the crest is much lower. The Indio, which empties into the Caribbean Sea some 6 miles northwest of Grevtown, runs generally parallel to the San Juan, the headwaters of some of its tributaries being only about 15 to 20 miles distant from that river. The principal tributaries of the San Juan on the 3 ^n^ntnZ^ n left bank are the Melchora, Sabalos, Santa Cruz, Bartola, Machuca, Danta, and San Francisco, but none of them are of great size. The most important in their relation to the canal project are the Danta and San Francisco. They are in a region of heavy rainfall, hut it is impossible to measure their greatest

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106 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. flood discharges because they overflow their banks and intercommunicate, and also because backwater from the San Juan extends for a considerable distance up their valleys. The soil in their beds and banks is of a soft, alluvial character, generally free from grit, and contains quantities of decayed or decaying vegetation. When drained it stands well on steep slopes, as is shown by the banks, which are often vertical. At a short distance from the banks, where the drainage is imperfect, the material is very soft to a great depth. Their drainage basins are covered with a dense tropical growth which protects the soil, so that water finds its way into the streams with comparatively little solid matter in suspension. The Sabalos, while not a large stream, attains considerable size at times. Gaugings taken b\ T this Commission show that the discharge often reaches as much as 2,000 cubic feet per second. The maximum measured was on September -I'd. 1899, when it reached 12,000 cubic feet per second. The minimum discharge is as low as 23 cubic feet per second. The Santa Cruz is of similar character, while the Melchora, Bartola, and Machuca are much smaller streams. On the right bank are the Frio, the Poco Sol, the San Carlos, and the Se'rapiqui, besides several smaller streams. The Frio is treated as a river discharging into the lake. Its mouth, however, is close alongside the outlet of the San Juan. It is a river of some importance when in flood, though it is small in the dry season. A discharge of nearly 12,000 cubic feet per second was observed by the Nicaragua Canal Commission. The Poco Sol is a much smaller stream. There is little known of its watershed, though the maps show its source in the mountainous region of Costa Rica. The river has been gauged and its discharge determined in a series of 18 gaugings extending over a period of one year, viz, from October, 1899, to the latter part of September, 1900. On April 20, 1900, the discharge was only 34 cubic feet per second. On July 15, 1900, the discharge was 2,651 cubic feet per second; this was the maximum observed. No appreciable amount of sediment has been brought into the San Juan by li^rTr^tl^.^" anv oi tnese tributaries during the continuance of the surveys extending over tin 1 last four years, and there is no indication in tin 1 San Juan itself that any of its tributaries above the San Carlos contributes an amount of sediment that is appreciable in connection with the maintenance of a navigable channel. The largest and most important tributary of the San Juan is the San Carlos. It rises in the mountains of Costa Rica, flows northeasterly and empties into the San Juan about 57 miles (measured along the windings of the river) from the lake. Ltisawide, swift stream, having a drainage area of about L,500 square miles, as determined from the best maps available. This esti-

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 107 mate may be too great or too small, as the region has never been surveyed. The discharge varies within wide limits. It is known to have been as low as 3,000 cubic feet pev second, and as high as 66,820 cubic feet per second. The estimated possible maximum is 100,000 cubic feet per second. Its banks as far as they have been explored are of clay and withstand well the action of the river current. It is proper to remark, however, that information on the physics of this river is mainly limited to what is obtainable near its mouth. The bed of the river in the lower part is sand which is easily put in motion. It is supposed that the sources of this sand are the volcanoes in the Costa Rican mountains. That found in the delta of the San Juan River is similar in character. The floods of this stream are of great violence and frequency. The Serapiqui is a river of similar character to Seraplqui Klver. * . the San Carlos, but it is not so large. It is a sandbearing stream and adds a large quota of this material to the main river. Its measured discharge varies from about 3,000 cubic feet to about 26,000 cubic feet per second. Its maximum is doubtless much greater. There is another river still farther to the eastward called the Negro, which, according to the maps, drains a large area of Costa Rican territory, and discharges into the Colorado outlet of the San Juan. Very little is known of the characteristics of this stream and no effort was made to secure any information, as it does not affect the question before the Commission. The fall of the San Juan River from the lake to Fall in San Juan Klver. . the sea is about 100 feet. About one-halt of this occurs above the mouth of the San Carlos, and is mainly concentrated at several rapids. At each of the principal rapids the lied of the river is rock. The most important of these is at Castillo. The fall in the river is here 6 feet in a distance of little more than one-third of a mile. The existing navigation of the river is very much obstructed here and boats can only pass when the river is high. Ordinarily freight and passengers are carried around the rapids on a tramway. Between the Machuca Rapids and the mouth of the San Carlos the river is deep and the current moderate. In low stages it is almost imperceptible. When the San Carlos is in flood the San Juan current may even set upstream. This part of the river is called the Agua Muerte (dead water). The bottom of the channel in places is below the sea level. The amount of sediment delivered to the river by its upper tributaries has evidently been no greater than its waters have been able to transport, notwithstanding the moderate current. Below the moutn of the San Carlos the fall is quite uniformly distributed.

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108 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. The following table gives approximately the fall in feet for the various reaches of the Sun Juan River from the lake to the sea. with the lake at elevation 104: Slopes in various reaches of San Juan. Reach. Distance in miles. Fall in feet. 27. 16 5.4 1.70 7.3 7. 98 1.2 .38 6.0 11.17 24.5 .95 4.0 15.37 1.0 33.02 30.0 5. 28 4.0 18.65 20.6 121.66 104. From the lake to head of Toro Rapids In Toro Rapids From foot of Toro Rapids to head of Castillo Rapids In Castil lo Rapids From foot of Castillo Rapids to head of Maehuca Rapids In Maehuca Rapids From foot of Maehuca Rapids to mouth of the San Carlos (Agua Muerte) From mouth of San Carlos to head of the San Juanillo From head of San Juanillo to the head of the Colorado From head of Colorado to sea (via Lower Sau Juau) Total, from lake to sea The slopes above given are approximate only, and result from the lake being at elevation 104 and the river under normal conditions. They will vary with the stage of the lake and with the rainfall in the drainage basin of the river. The bed of the Upper San Juan (and by this is Bed of I'pper San Juan. _. T 7. . meant the San Juan from the lake to the mouth of the San Carlos River) consists chiefly of silt, clay, or rock. The river banks general!}' resist the erosive action of the currents, even where the velocities are great. This is due in a measure to the protection afforded by growing vegetation, which reaches to the water's edge and sometimes extends below it. but mainly to the cohesive character of the material. Below the mouth of the San Carlos the bed of the San Juan consists mostly of sand, which forms shifting bars. Freshets in the rivers of the United States are San Juan In freshets. • i t • • > 1 usually characterized by quantities of logs ana other drift floating on the surface. As a rule fallen timber in the San Juan River remains where it falls, or at least is not moved any great distance, as the most of it is too heavy to float. This is an important fact in connection with the construction of the canal. Where the line passes through old swamps, doubtless considerable heavy timber will be encountered below the surface of the ground. About 8 miles below the mouth of the SeraSan Juanillo Hirer. ... T .,. piqui the oan Juanillo branches off, following a tortuous course until it again joins the Lower San Juan, a short distance southeast of Grey Town. The indications point to this strean as having been in remote times an important outlet of the main river. A short distance below the mouth of the SeraCoastal plain. piqui the San Juan River enters the coastal plain. a region of swamps, bayous, and lagoons. About 20 miles from the

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KEPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 109 sea it divides into two outlet branches — the Lower Sun Juan, which discharges through Harbor Head Lagoon near Grey Town, and the Colorado, which discharges directly into the Caribbean Sea, about 15 miles to the southward. The latter is the principal outlet and may be enlarging at the expense of the Lower San Juan, although as long ago as 1851 the gaugings made by Colonel Childs showed that the Colorado was carrying nearly four-fifths of the total amount at a mean stage. Each of these outlets is subdivided and the entire system intercommunicates. , There are indications of a general subsidence of subsidence. a the Atlantic coast in this region. The former rocky bed of the San Juan appears to have been depressed. At Machuca Rapids rock appears near the water surface. At the dam site adopted by this Commission at Conchuda the distance from the low T water surface to the lowest point in the rock cross section is about 80 feet. At the dam site suggested by the Nicaragua Canal Commission the distance is about 110 feet. At Tambor Grande, 18 miles farther downstream, it is not less than 140 feet, and is doubtless considerably more in the lowest depression. From the mouth of the San Carlos down is a deep rock} T trough, which is tilled with sand. Some sand has also been carried a short distance above the San Carlos by floods from that stream when the San Juan was low. In the coastal plain, which consists mainly of swamps, vegetable matter intermixed with silt is found to a considerable depth, but within 5 or 6 miles of the coast sand is found extending to a great depth under a light covering of mud. Along the Atlantic coast in the vicinity of Grey Town and for some distance inland the rainfall is the greatest known on the continent. There is no detinite dry season. Rain may be expected almost any day in the year. On the other hand, the entire drainage basin of Lake Nicaragua lies in a region having a well-detined dry season. The annual rainfall near Grey Town sometimes amounts to nearly 300 inches. The average is probably 260 to 270 inches, while at Bluefields, 75 miles to the north, and at Port Limon, 70 miles to the southeast, it is less than half as much. There is a perceptible diminution in the annual Rainfall. rainfall as one proceeds westward to the lake. The total for the year 1899, at Grey Town was 2S5. 93 inches, while that for the same period at Ochoa was 177.91 inches, and at Fort San Carlos 77.20 inches. For the year 1900 the annual rainfalls were for Grey Town, 266.10 inches, for Ochoa, 158.83 inches, and for Fort San Carlos, 89.34 inches. The heaviest observed rainfall in a short period was that at Silico station on Lake Silico, November 4, 1899, when 10.5 inches fell in six hours, an average of If inches per hour. On the same date a fall of 12.48 inches in twenty-four hours was observed at Grey Town. A rainfall of 4 inches or more in one day

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110 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN" CANAL COMMISSION. is not a rare occurrence in that vicinity. In the drainage basin of Lake Nicaragua the average annual rainfall is about 65 inches. The trade winds blow almost constantly, but Minds. , they are not strong enough to sensibly aftect canal navigation. At rare intervals violent northers occur, which are felt to a less degree in the interior. It is not believed that the winds would seriously interfere with canal navigation at any time. It can be readily understood that the Nicaragua route, affording water transportation from the Atlantic to within a few miles of the Pacific, was very attractive when navigation was carried on by means of small ships. It became a favorite transisthmian route immediately after the discovery of gold in California. Passengers arriving by sea at the port of Grev Town, at that time an excellent Transit route. harbor, were transported by steamboats to the west shore of the lake; whence the Pacific was reached by a short stage line, which terminated at the port of San Juan del Sur. This was a busy traffic route for some years. Successive projects for interoceanic communication have had to provide for the increasing dimensions of ships, and as channel dimensions have thus been enlarged the difficulties of providing for a safe navigation have become greater. The serious difficulties, however, are nearly all found between Machuca Rapids and the Caribbean. The region of practicable canal routes is limited to the north side of the San Juan River, by the existence of the San Carlos and Serapiqui rivers on the south side. Financially it would be ranlfrltos! ,,ra, n, il U impracticable to divert these streams,* and it would be equally impracticable to take them into the canal. Hence all the surveys and examinations for a canal route have been confined to the north side of the river. The topography of the country in the vicinity of the route adopted is generally rough. The hills as a rule do not attain a great height, but they are usually steep and bunched together, with areas of swamp or low flats about them. The surface is covered with a dense growth of tropical vegetation which renders exploration Topography. or surveys extremely difficult and expensive. There are few places where a transit line can be run 50 feet without cutting out a line of sight. This difficulty accounts for the paucity of existing topographical information, notwithstanding the fact that the country has long been known and studied for a canal route. From Grey Town to Castillo the boundary between the republics of Costa Rica and Nicaragua follows the right bank of the San Juan River. Thence to the lake, the boundary is a line Boundary. .. on the right bank, generally about 2 miles from the river. Both shores from Castillo to the lake are therefore m Nicaraguan territory. When the level of the water of the river is

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. Ill raised by the construction of the proposed dam at Conchuda, sonic of the lands in Costa Rican territory will he submerged, although the canal line from Castillo westward to the Pacific will lie wholly in X iearaguan territory. While many propositions more or less indefinite had previously been made for a canal across the isthmus in Nicaragua, the first actual survey made and definite project proposed were those Chilils's project. Is.VJ. ^ .... ,, . of Col. (J. \\ Childs, a civil engineer of high, standing, in 1850-52. The survey made by him was for a private corporation known as "The American Atlantic and Pacific Ship Canal Company." His project has been the basis for all subsequent ones, and the route followed by him does not differ greatly from that which is now recommended by this Commission. He reached the conclusion that a ship canal through Nicaragua from the Atlantic to the Pacific could not be considered practicable upon any other route than that through the valley of the San Juan to Lake Nicaragua, and from that lake either southwesterly upon a line through some A'allev extending across the dividing ridge, or northwesterly up the river Tipitapa to Lake Managua, thence through the valle}' extending from the head of that lake to some feasible point for a connection with the Pacific. In view of the greater length of a canal by the latter route, the greater amount of lockage, and uncertainty of obtaining a full supply of water upon the higher summit, it was deemed best to begin by exploring the country lying directly between the west side of Lake Nicaragua and the Pacific. He then examined different routes from Lake coionei e ('hihis. mine< Nicaragua to the Pacific, beginning with that via the Sapoa and terminating in Salinas Bay. The conclusion was reached that the line leading from the lake at the mouth of the River Las Lajas up the eastern slope of the divide and down the valley of the Rio Grande on the western slope to the Pacific at Brito presented more favorable conditions than any other between Lake Nicaragua and the Pacific, and was superior to anj T route b} T way of Lake Managua. He thus disposed of the routes terminating at the Gulf of Fonseca, Port Realejo, and Tamorinda River. The divide on this line was crossed at an elevation of about 46 feet above the level of the lake. The plan adopted made the lake the summit level; its surface was to be maintained at about 108 feet above sea level by means of a dam 1,050 feet long and 16.21 feet high at Castillo Rapids, and another on the west side at Buen Retiro, about 10 miles west of the lake. The latter dam was to be 290 feet long and 33 feet high. The summit level made by these dams, as given by Colonel Childs in his report, was to be 103.43 miles. It would have been longer, as the distance across the lake was underestimated. The fall from high lake to low tide on the Atlantic side was to be 108.73 feet

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112 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. and on the Pacific .side 111. 17 feet. On the eastern side the summit was to be reached by 12 locks of 8 feet lift each, 1 of 6.5, and 1 of 6.23 feet; on the western side by 13 locks of 8 feet each and 1 of 7. IT feet. The water in the canal was to have a depth of 17 feel and a bottom width of 50 feet. In earth, the side slopes were to be I on '2 for a height of 9 feet from the bottom, then a berme of > feet followed by a slope of 1 on 1^, paved with stone. In rock the bottom width was to he the same, but for a height of !> feet above slopes. 6 ™ 0n tn< bottom each side had a slope of 1 on H; from there to a height of 15 feet above the water in the canal the slope w T as to be 21 on 1. At this level there was a berme 9 feet wide for towing purposes, and from the back of this berme the side slope was 4 on 1 until earth was reached, when the slope was changed to 1 on 1-J. A passing place was to be made at the head of each lock and at least one in every mile of length of the canal. At these passing places the bottom width of the canal in earth was to be increased to 90 feet, and in rock to L05 feet. The bottom width of that portion of the canal occupying tiie Rio Las Lajas was to be 1(H) feet; at all of the cuts through bars in the river the width at bottom was to be 150 feet. The locks were to be 60 by 250 feet, with 17 feet depth of water on their miter sills. Slack water navigation was to be made in the San Juan from the lake to about one-half mile below the mouth of the Serapiqui River by a series of 7 dams. These were to be passed by moans of locks on short canals. Below this point the canal left the river on the north side and was to be excavated for a distance of 28.50 miles to 17 feet depth of water in the harbor of Grey Town. The line crossed the Rio San Jaunillo about three-fourths of a mile from its junction with the San Juan. The San Juanillo was to be diverted to the north. The project included the formation of a harbor at Brito and the improvement and enlargement of the one at Grej Length ami cost of the -,, ,. , ,. • • v , cana] I own by jetties and by excavation. A lighthouse was provided for at each harbor. Grey Town, at the time of the examination made by Colonel Childs, was connected with the sea by a channel 24 feetdeep and L,300 feet wide. In the lake the channel from near Fort San Carlos to near Boccas (Solentiname) Islands, which w T as to be 150 feet wide, was to be protected by a row of piles driven on each side. On the western side, near the mouth of the Las Lajas, the cut in the lake wits to be protected by a pier constructed on either side and extended to deep water. The total length of the route was given as follows: Miles. From the 17-foot curve in the Pacifictodam at Buen Retiro 8.809 From dam at Buen Retiro to Lake Nicaragua i.77'.> Total western division 18.588

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 113 Miles. Across Lake Nicaragua (now known to be 70.51 miles) 56.500 From Lake Nicaragua to dam near Castillo 37, 151 From dam near Castillo to dam near Serapiqui 53, 874 From San Juan River to 17-foot curve in Caribbean Sea 28,280 Total eastern division 119.305 Total 194.393 Summit level: West of lake 9.779 Lake 56.500 East of lake 37.151 Total 103.430 The total cost of the canal was estimated at $31,538,319.55, which included 15 per cent for contingencies, and the work was to be completed within six years from the time of breaking ground. The contract between Nicaragua and the cornDepth of cauai not as required that the canal should be large enough great as contract required. 1 .' 1 to accommodate vessels of all sizes, and Colonel Chi Ids had been instructed by the company to make surveys and estimates for a work of such dimensions as would comply with this requirement. He recognized that the dimensions proposed would not meet it. His reasons for limiting the depth to 17 feet were that the ratio of increase of the expense of a deeper canal would be very great, and that the construction of a canal of the dimensions required for vessels of the largest size would be an injudicious application of means that the company would scarcely favor or the interests of commerce require. He stated also that no vessels were plying between the Atlantic States and the eastern coast of the Pacific with a draft as great as 17 feet, and that of 261 steam vessels, mostly English, as given in Murray's Treatise on Marine Engines and Steam Vessels, only 15 drew over 17 feet, 21 drew 17 feet, and 225 less than 17 feet each at the load line. He had therefore made his plans and estimates with due consideration of the disparity in cost and general utility of a canal of larger dimensions. At the request of the company this report of the survey and location was submitted by President Fillmore to Col. Report referred to J Colonel Abert and Major J. J. Abeit and MilJ. W. Tumbull, Corps Ot Turi,b 111 Topographical Engineers, for their inspection and opinion, and on the 20th of March, 1852, they reported that the plan proposed by Colonel Childs was practicable, but they expressed the opinion that the jetties at Grey Town Harbor and one or both at Brito S D— 57-1— Vol 7— 8

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114 REPOKT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. could be dispensed with; also the pile work in the lake near Fort San Carlos; and that one row of guide piles about 100 feet apart to mark the channel from there to Boccas (Solentiname) Islands would be sufficient. It was also recommended that additional surveys be made between the San Juan River and Gre} 7 Town Harbor to determine whether a more direct line could be found. These modifications, it was suggested, would materially diminish the cost of the canal, also the time in passing it. Colonel Childs subsequently proposed a project for a canal 12 feet deep with a smaller prism and smaller locks. Nothing further was done by either the AmeriLnU's project, 1873. fe J can Atlantic and Facinc Snip Canal Company or anyone else looking to the construction of this canal for about twenty years, when an expedition was fitted out by the United States Government, under the charge of Commander A. F. Grossman, U. S. N., for the purpose of surveying an interoceanic canal Expedition under Com, rpi j-j.-i 1 ji rr tx t j. mander Grossman, i.s.n. route The expedition sailed from Key West, and arrived off Grey Town on April 7, 1872. On April 12, while attempting to make a landing at Grey Town, the boat containing Commander Grossman capsized, and he with a number of his party was drowned. The command of the expedition then devolved upon Commander Hatfield, U. S. N., who proceeded with the surveying parties to Lake Nicaragua and began operations on the west side of the lake, securing some valuable information respecting the routes between the lake and the Pacific. His investigations showed that Colonel Childs's survey of the western portion of his line was correct. Commander Hatfield's party made reconnoissances, with the object of finding another line by which the route could be shortened and the Rio Grande avoided, the upper part of the valley of the latter being practically a gorge and liable to give trouble in time of flood. The parties under the charge of Commander Parties under CommanT t .^ it • i ,1 • <• ,. i *, der iiatfleid. Hatfield, with the exception of a tew men, left to do some hydrographic work in the lake, for which the calmer weather of the rainy season is more favorable, were withdrawn from the Isthmus in .July. In November of the same year an expedition was fitted out under the command Lull succeeds Hatfield. of Commander L. 1 Lull, u. S. N., who arrived off Grey Town December, 1872. and took up the work begun by Commander Hatfield. Commander Lull made an examination of a Dumber of routes between the lake and the Pacific, and finally adopted the one known as the Medio route. From the Pacific Ocean to a place called Las Serdas, near the outlet of the Rio Grande gorge, the line is practically the same as that adopted by Colonel Childs. From thence it swings to the northward on a radius of 2,200 feet, following the valley of a West Division. *f ~ small stream then called the Chocolata (called Gua-

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 115 chipilin on recent maps) for a short distance, and crosses the divide into the valley of the Medio, which it follows to the lake. The total length of the line from Brito to the lake was 16.33 miles, being about a mile and a half shorter than the Childs route. The summit of the divide was 134 feet above the level of the lake, or about 241 feet above sea level, giving a maximum depth of cutting of lt50 feet. There were to be 11 locks in this section, including a tide lock at Brito, to admit ships at any stage of the tide. The tide lock was to have a lift of 9 feet, the others of 10.31 feet each. The brook Chocolata, which the route crossed, was to be taken into the canal, but the Tola, as well as several smaller streams, was to be passed under the canal by means of culverts to the Rio Grande. The waters of the latter stream were conducted to the Pacific on the south side of the canal, diversion channels being provided where necessary. By this departure from the Childs route the Rio Grande was excluded from the canal, a feature then deemed important. A small harbor at Brito was to be formed by the construction of a breakwater extending easterty from Brito Head and a short jetty from the beach on the opposite side of the entrance. The mouth of the river was to be utilized for harbor purposes, and the diversion of the stream to the eastward of the entrance was provided for. The harbor as designed was well protected. From the lake eastward it was proposed to canalize the San Juan River by the construction of dams and locks and short sections of canal at Castillo, Balas, and Machuca Rapids, and at a place about 2 miles below the mouth of the San Carlos. All the dams were to be comparatively low, and the waters of the river Eastern division. "L were to be discharged over them. It was estimated that the fall at the first three dams would be 10.28 feet each. The fall over dam No. 4 was expected to be 23.87 feet. The lake was to be held at a minimum of 107 above sea level, but no provision was made for holding it close to that level against a rise, except that which was afforded by the discharge through the river; and no effort whatever was made to provide for the deficiencies of the diT season, when the lake would naturally fall below 107 from evaporation. The danger of taking the San Carlos into Lake Nicaragua. i • the canalized part of the river above dam No. 4 seems to have been fully realized by Commander Lull, for we find that he proposed to divert the waters of the San Carlos by a cut-off and discharge them into the San Juan below the dam, but it is evident that the difficulties of this work were not fully appreciated. From near the mouth of the San Carlos to Grey Town the canal was to be carried 'in excavation a distance of 41.9 miles. The least radius of curvature was 2,500 feet. The line was to follow the general course of the main river bank, cutting off bends wherever the conformation

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116 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. of the ground would permit, until the head of the San Juanillo was reached. From there to Grey Town Harbor it was canal from near San carneai .j v a straight course. Seven locks, in addition los Hirer to (irey Town. J fe to those abreast of the dams, were proposed, making ten in all. The last two locks were to be placed together and sea level reached just before the canal entered the Silico Lagoon. From there to Grey Town it was expected to dredge a channel, embankments not being thought necessary. The seven locks were to have each a lift of 10.87 feet. The depth throughout the canal was to be 26 Dimensions. < • feet and the locks were to be 400 feet long by 75 feet wide. A number of the streams which are crossed Irv the canal were to be passed under it by means of culverts. The bottom width of the canal varied from 50 feet in the deep earth cuttings to 60 feet in the rock cuttings and 72 feet in the shallow cuttings. The harbor that existed at the time the Childs project was made had since been inclosed by the sand spit, which had moved westerly until it united with the mainland, converting the harbor into a lagoon. It therefore became necessary to construct a harbor at this entrance. All communication was to be cut off between the harbor and the San Juan River, so as to cause the entire waters of the San Juan to be discharged by the Colorado branch, but the San Juanillo was to be discharged into the harbor and a jett}^ extending from the shore to 35 feet of water was to be built. A channel into the harbor was to be dredged under the lee of this breakwater, which had a direction of NNW. The total estimated cost of this project, allowing 25 per cent for contingencies, was $65,722,137. From 1873 to 1881, a period of eleven years, no surveys were made by the Government or by individuals in this connection. In 1884 the Frelinghuysen-Zavala treaty was negotiated with Nicaragua, giving to the United States the right to build a canal across the isthmus from ocean to ocean within the territory of that Republic, following the most available route. Another survey was then ordered. This expedition was under the command of Mr. A. G. Menocal, Venocal surrey. rT v , i ,, civil engineer, U. S. JN., wno had been the principal assistant to Commander Lull in 1872 and LN73. The object of this survey appears to have been chief!}' to determine the advisability of any changes in the route for shortening the canal and diminishing the cost. As a result of Mr. MenocaTs work a new projMenocal nrojeet, 1885. .... ,, \, ect was submitted m a report to the Secretary oi the Navy November, 1885, in which very radical changes were made in the Lull project. On the west side, between the lake and the Pacific, the changes were confined to that part of the route between Las Serdas and the lake. Instead of following the valley of the Medio from the

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 117 lake across the divide to the valley of the Rio Grande, lie adopted the Las Lajas route, several miles to the southward, whieh was the one originally surveyed by Colonel Childs. This made it necessary either to receive the waters of the upper Rio Grande into the canal or to divert them to Lake Nicaragua through a new channel, the Rio Grande gorge being too narrow to take the canal and river separately. The maximum discharge of this stream was estimated by Colonel ,, Childs at 5,070 cubic feet per second, but it was Changes In Lull project ^ # 7 on west side suggested by thought by Mr. Menocal that it might sometimes, M nocaK for short periods, be as great as 10,000 cubic feet per second. He thought the taking of so large an amount of water into the canal would be dangerous to navigation and the stability of the work; hence he sought to find some method of diverting it. This he found could be done by building a dam across the river several thousand feet from the canal and excavating an artificial channel through the ridge which separated the valle} r of the Grande from that of the Juan Davila, a branch of the Las Lajas. The proposed channel was to have a width of 75 feet at the bottom, to be 15 feet deep, with proper slopes, and a fall of 2.53 feet per mile. The length from the dam to the Juan Davila was 3.88 miles. The waters of the Rio Grande being thus diverted, the valley of that river was practically diy as far as the Tola, and this enabled a better alignment to be made. The Tola was to be passed under the canal by means of a culvert, as in Lull's project. The sailing line across the lake was changed back to the old route, which started from the mouth of the Las Lajas instead of from that of the Medio. On the section from the lake eastward radical changes were introduced which rendered the project for this section entirely unlike any that had jet been suggested. Instead of a succession of comparatively low dams as far down as the San Carlos, a single dam was proposed at Ochoa, about 3£ miles below the mouth of that river. This dam was to create slackwater navigation in the river, raising the like to 110. It practically converted the river from the lake to the dam into an arm of the lake. It was expected that a slope of 4 feet from Fort San Carlos to the dam, which was provided for, would discharge the surplus waters from the lake and the drainage of the river basin. The Ochoa dam was to be built of concrete masonry, with a large amount of loose stone on the upstream side and an apron on a pile and grillage foundation on the lower side to prevent undermining. The entire surplus waters of the San Juan River were to be discharged over the crest of the dam. No borings had been made to determine the nature of the foundations, but it was supposed from the outcropping bowlders on the side hills and on the banks, that rock underlaid the gravel and sandy bottom at no great depth.

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118 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. It was supposed that the hills south of the San Juan formed a continuous range which would hold up the sumit level on that side. It was discovered some }^ears later by the Maritime Canal Company that this was not the case, but that embankments of the *San Juan? S U considerable magnitude would be required between the hills. The project now being considered did not contemplate such embankments, and no estimate was made for them. Starting from a point a short distance above the dam on the north side of the river, the canal was to be carried in excavation through the broken country at the headwaters of the Danta, crossing the latter stream into the valley of the San Francisco, which it also crossed and followed to its confluence with the Chanchos ; it then ascended the latter and a tributary thereof to the divide which separates this drainage system from that of the Deseado, a tributary of the San Juanillo. After crossing the divide the line entered the eastward™" 1 l0a *" va ^ e J f the Deseado, which it followed to the coastal plain, whence it took a direct course to Gre} 7 Town lagoon. The summit level was to be maintained across the Danta, San Francisco and Chanchos, and through the "east divide by a small embankment not far from the Ochoa dam and a large one 6,500 feet long and 51 feet high across the vallej 7 of the San Francisco below the mouth of the Chanchos. The subsequent surveys of the Maritime Canal Company showed that a large number of embankments was necessary. The ""divide cut" was an important feature in Divide cut. this project. It was stated to be a little less than 3 miles long and was nearly all in curvature. Mr. Menocal states that the elevation of the divide between the eastern and western flowing waters was 280 feet, but it being impossible to locate the canal so as to follow the turns of the valley, the line would cut several spurs where the excavation was still deeper. The maximum cutting would have been about 350 feet. The saving in distance from the Pacific to the Atlantic over the Lull route is stated in Mr. Menocal's report to be 10.96 miles. The project contemplated a depth of 28 feet, increased in places to 30. The summit level was to be reached by three locks on the east side and four on the west. The locks proposed were to have a uniform length of 650 feet between the gates and a least width of 65 feet. Locks 1, 2, and 3 on the east side had lifts of 26, 27, and 53 feet, respectively. The locks on the west side, counting from the lake to llllkthe sea, had lifts as follows: 26.4 feet for the first, 29.7 feet each for the second and third, and for the last, being a tide lock, the lift was to vary between 24.2 and 33.18 feet, depending upon the state of the tide. The lock with 53 feet lift was proposed to be

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 119 cut out of solid rock on the eastern slope of the divide, concrete to be used only to the extent required to fill cavities, to give proper dimensions to the various parts and a surface to the blasted rock. All the other locks were to be built of concrete, and all were to have a heavy timber lining in the chambers and bays extending from the tops of the walls to 15 feet below low-water level. A narrow-gauge railroad was to be built from Grey Town to the dam across the San Juan River and another between the lake and Brito. The total estimated cost was $64,036,197. This included 25 per cent for contingencies, but nothing for surveys, hospitals, shops, management, and other necessary expenses in addition to the construction contingencies proper. The Frelinghu} T senZavala treatv was withdrawn pan^?iroje.-tri8 l 8 ). (0n '' from the United States Senate by the President before ratification, and became inoperative. But a concession, known as the Menocal concession, was granted by Nicaragua to the Nicagagua Canal Association, in 1887, to construct a canal connecting the two oceans. A similar concession was granted by Costa Rica in 1888. The Maritime Canal Compan} gil 1Ziltl " f COm P an v ' ^ Nicaragua, was organized under the terms of these concessions in February, 1889, and a charter was granted by Congress to enable the company to execute the work. (See act approved February 20, 1889.) The project of the canal company was essentially sam^MeToears! 1 ** the same as that of Menocal, of 1885, modified in respect to the summit level. This was to be extended on the west side to within 3£ miles of Brito \>y the construction of a dam across the Rio Grande at La Flor. Surveys had shown that a continuous ridge, with a single break at the crossing of the San Francisco from the north end of the Ochoa dam to the "east divide," did not exist, and that in addition to the embankment or dam across that stream, a great San Francisco embanki i i rrn nH utllm number were necessary m other places. 1 he supposed ridge proved to be a series of hills of greater or less height, with saddles or low valleys between them. The total number of embankments, great and small, required between the Ochoa dam and the divide, as stated in the report on final location in 1889, was 67, having a total crest length of about 6 miles. Most of them were small, but four of them were very large, and their construction constituted a most difficult engineering problem on account of the great depth and the soft and yielding nature of the soil at the sites. It was also found that the ridge from the south end of the dam was not continuous to the hills in Costa Rica, and that a number of embankments to connect these hills would be required. The total number was

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120 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 21, with an aggregate length of 5,540 feet on their crests. These embankments were to be entirely of clay. This embankment line was not only shorter than the San Francisco line, but the construction of the dams in the saddles of the ridge presented no special engineering difficulties. It was proposed to build a waste weir in the ridge about 2f miles from the Ochoa dam, having its crest at 106 feet above mean sea level, to discharge the flood waters of the San n ,e2. (arl S en, ank Carlos into the valley of Curena Creek, which empties into the San Juan below the Ochoa dam. Embankments or dams were also required east of the divide in the valley of the Deseado, one of which was to be 70 feet high and 1,050 feet long. Weirs and sluices were provided in the San Francisco and Deseado valleys for the control of floods. Some of the largest of the embankments or dams on the San Francisco line were first designed as rock tills backed with earth, their crests to be 107 Other embankments. . 1 -. , feet above mean sea level, and the top and outer slopes so shaped and paved with large stones as to admit the free flow of water over their surfaces. These were to be, in fact, so many waste weirs for the discharge of the surplus waters from the summit level. The Ochoa dam, which was originally to be of masonry with a timber apron, was modified to a rock fill backed with earth. The crest of the dam was fixed at 105 feet above mean sea level. Its width across the top was to be 25 feet. As the water of the San Juan was to be held at 106 in the vicinity of the dam, a constant discharge due to a head of 1 foot over the dam was expected. This, however, would not have been the case, for the lake would have fallen to 106 or lower in the dry season and the level at the dam could not have sallTuaT^o"^^ been maintained. It was estimated that the discharge over the crest of the dam might sometimes reach 42,500 cubic feet per second, and the combined discharges with the lake at 111 over the dams, weirs, and through sluices were estimated at a maximum of 147,800 cubic feet per second. The dam was to be built of rock taken from the east divide cut and deposited by means of cables stretched across the river. On the upstream side of the rock pile thus formed clay was to be deposited to render it watertight. On the west side of the lake the summit level was La Flordam. . . to be continued through the west divide and down the valley of the Rio Grande to a point called La Flor, about 3£ miles from the Pacific, where the valley narrowed to about 1,600 feet. At this place the valley was to be closed and the summit level maintained by a large dam. For several miles above this site the valley is about a mile or more wide, and a large, deep basin would thus be formed into

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 121 which the floods of the Rip Grande, Tola, and other (smaller streams would be received, it was hold that the creation of this large pool would render unnecessary the proposed diversion of the Upper Rio Grande into Lake Nicaragua, and thus save about $1,500,000, which the proposed diversion would cost. It was at first intended to build the La Flor dam as a rock till backed with earth, in the same manner as proposed for the Ochoa dam, but finding the underlying strata of earth unsatisfactory, the plan was changed to an earthen dam with a masonry core extending down to rock. A waste weir 300 feet long was to be provided cast of the dam to discharge the surplus waters into the bed of the Rio Grande. With the adoption of a dam at La Flor, the location of the locks was fixed near its western end, the combined lift of two being 85 feet. A third, which would be the tide lock, was to be located a short distance from the harbor and have a variable lift according to the stage of the tide of from 21 to 29 feet. The total cost of the canal was estimated at Cost. $65,000,000, inclusive of 25 per cent for contingencies, but exclusive of interest, commissions, and other charges not coming under the cognizance of the engineers, and on the basis that the work would be prosecuted with vigor along the whole line and without intermission. In the early part of the year, 1899, the project was submitted to a board of consulting engineers for examination, report, etc. This board made a report on May 9 of that year, giving Report of Board of Con,i • • ,i L j> ,i • j. ,. • i i suiting Engineers. the opinion that from the information furnished by the maps, profiles, borings, samples, and statements of the chief engineer and other employees, the project was "unquestionably feasible." The board stated, however, that there was a possible hazard in respect to the San Francisco and other basins that they might not prove sufficiently retentive, owing either to the leakage around the ends or under the bases of the dams and embankments from concealed permeable strata beneath the natural surface. They deemed "this a remote danger, since both the surface and subterranean formations, as far as revealed by the borings and by the reports of observations of reliable men familiar with the locality, are favorable.' 1 The estimate of cost as determined by this board, inclusive of 20 per cent for contingencies, was $87,799,570. On March 2, 1895, Congress passed an act proMcaragua Canal Board, • j • £ ,i , .. -i i> 1896> viding tor the appointment of a board of engineers to make a survey and examination for the purpose of ascertaining the feasibility, permanence, and cost of the construction and completion of the Nicaragua Canal by the route contemplated and provided for by an act which passed the Senate January

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122 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 28, 1895, entitled "An set to incorporate the Maritime Canal Company of Nicaragua, approved February 20. 1889." Report of Nicaragua ^he repor t G f this Board was published in House Canal Board and estimate ,-*• r> of cost, Doc. No. 279, h lfty -fourth Congress, first session. It was stated therein that more specific information was necessary before a satisfactory final estimate of the company's project could be prepared, and recommended additional examinations and surveys. The Board submitted a tentative approximate estimate based on the company's plans and data amounting to about $133,000,000. On June 4, 1897, Congress passed an act for the MeL^u^iS!! appointment of the Nicaragua Canal Commission to "continue the surveys and examinations authorized by the act approved March 2, 1895. * into the proper route, feasibility, and cost of construction of the Nicaragua Canal, with a view of making complete plans of Act March 2, 1895. b . , the entire work of construction of such canal as therein provided." The results of the surveys and examinations of the Nicaragua Canal Commission are contained in the report to the President of the United States, May 9, 1899. As the project of the Nicaragua Canal CommisvLTvLmLu>r TSl?UA sion i& ; essentially the same as that of the existing Isthmian Canal Commission, with slight modifications, and as a description of the latter is given in full, a brief description of the former is all that seems necessary. The route adopted by the Nicaragua Canal Commission was practically that suggested by Colonel Childs, in 1852, but his project was modified in some important respects and greatly enlarged. The project provided for a canal with a depth of 30 feet, a bottom width of 150 feet, and with locks 665 feet long between quoins, and 80 feet wide. A single high dam across the San Juan, above the mouth of the San Carlos River, was provided for, and the canal carried thence on the left bank of the San Juan River to the Caribbean Sea. Provision was made for the regulation of the lake level, a subject which no prior project had adequately dealt with. The Nicaragua Canal Commission determined Safety of prime Impor,-, • i £ ,1 .. j i • tance. that in a work ot the magnitude and importance of a canal connecting the two oceans, and of the disastrous consequences that would result from a failure to maintain its integrity after it was once opened, it was of far more importance that it should be safe than that it should be cheap. Plans that seemed to the Commission to possess advantages in certain respects, but were coupled with dangerous engineering works, were rejected for other plans reasonably free from risk. The short and comparatively straight cut across the country from the neighborhood of Ochoa and the exten-

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 123 sion of the summit level neatly to the Atlantic were attractive features of the Menocal project, but necessitated dealing with some hazardous problems. The safer alternative of terminating the summit level at the San Juan River dam and then following the left bank of the San Juan was chosen. The large embankments across the Danta, the San Francisco, and at other places would have proved not only far more expensive than was anticipated, but hazardous to maintain. The adoption of the longer line with lower level does not eliminate all the difficult constructions, for some will be found in any project for a canal across the American isthmus, but it reduces their number and brings them within the limits of safety. The Commission thought also that the proposed rock till dam across the San Juan River involved such serious risks in construction and maintenance that this form of structure should be avoided. This course seemed the more imperative from the greiurnder eltim ateJ! ,a fact that the discharge of the San Juan River had always been very much underestimated. Gaugings at Ochoa made by the Nicaragua Canal Commission in November, 1898, gave 104,928 cubic feet per second as the discharge on that day, and at the time the San Carlos was only discharging 32,265 cubic feet per second, whereas it is now estimated that the latter stream alone may discharge as much as 100,000 cubic feet per second. A possible discharge of 200,000 cubic feet per second at Ochoa might reasonably be anticipated when both rivers were in high flood at the same time. The construction of a high dam at Ochoa, or at any point below the junction of the San Carlos, was regarded as a work of such difficulty that a search was instituted for a site higher up the river, suitable for a masonry structure. Such a site was found about 3 miles above the mouth of the San Carlos. The first borings, which were few in number, indicated hard rock at a maximum depth of Dam at Boca San Cari -4 • i i i v j. j.i_ i os# about li feet below sea level, but the more extensive system made subsequently by the Isthmian Canal Commission disclosed a very irregular bottom with a maximum depression 16 feet lower. Nevertheless, the site of the dam was far more favorable than the one at Ochoa, as the floods of the San Carlos could do it no harm. The La Flor dam was a large and difficult work, on account of the unsatisfactoiy foundations. The western end of the summit level was brought so near the sea that the space available for locks was much restricted. The ridge near the north abutment rises abruptly to a height of 300 feet and over, which would have necessitated the location of the locks on the side of a steep hill. Near the south abutment the ground was also unfavorable. The project of the Nicaragua Canal Commission did not call for locks in duplicate, but the desirability of

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124 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. so locating 1 them that an additional lock could bo added in case of future demands was not lost sight of. It would p,™;;:,!^:;^" have been very expensive to build locks in duplicate on either side of the La Flor dam. On the other hand, there were no serious engineering difficulties in the way of constructing a canal in excavation from the lake to the sea. and the slight advantage of the Tola basin as against a canal pure and simple did not, in the opinion of the Commission, compensate for the extra risks. The project of this Commission follows the gentSSSS^SS!''^ eral route of that Prosed by the Nicaragua Canal Commission, but the depth of water in the canal has been increased, the locks duplicated and enlarged, and a new and better site for a dam in the San Juan found. The project is as follows : Beginning at the 6-fathom curve the entrance to the canal will lie between two jetties running nearly north and south, Grey Town Harbor and J & J entrance. about If miles northeast of brey town and passing close to the most westerly bend of the lower San Juan, near its entrance to Harbor Head Lagoon. The entrance to the harbor is to be 500 feet wide and not less than 35 feet deep at low water. At the shore end of the jetties the line swings to the right on a curve of 4,175 feet radius and then passes into a tangent across the existing Grey Town Lagoon. For a distance of 2,500 feet from the inner end of this curve the w T idth is continued at 500 feet. It is then widened to 800 feet for a further distance of 1,000 feet, in order to furnish a turning basin. It is then gradually reduced to 150 feet, the regular width of canal at the bottom. This width is reached 2.15 miles from the 6-fathom curve in the Caribbean. The head of the east jetty is to extend to this curve and is the zero point to which distances along the canal are referred. The harbor thus formed is well protected. The estimated cost of the entrance and harbor is $2,198,860. From the harbor the line runs in a southwesterly Lock Mo™ l r0 ™ lir0r direction, crossing the San Juanillo to the low, swampy ground along the Rio Misterioso. At a distance of 7.56 miles from the entrance the line swings to the left on a curve of 11,459 feet radius, and then follows a straight line in a direction a little west of south through the first lock, which is located 9.59 miles from the entrance. From Grey Town to the Misterioso the line passes Swamp section. . . through a region covered in places with coarse swamp grass or silico palms, in other places heavily timbered. The surface is but little above sea level. The soil is generally mud to a depth of 3 or 1 feet, underlaid with sand or sandy silt to below the grade of canal bottom. The borings made in this section extend from 50 to 112 feet below sea level without reaching other material.

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 125 From the first crossing of the Misterioso to lock No. 1 thecanal line traverses a country in which low hills are interspersed in the coastal plain, and skirts the northwestern edge of the mass of bills about Silico Lake. The hills are heavily timbered, Material in other places. 1 • t but between them the around is flat and swampy, the surface being composed of soft mud mixed with decaying vegetable matter, which in places extends to a depth of 30 feet or more. This material is generally underlaid with firm clay. After the first crossing of the Misterioso the line follows the general course of that stream for several miles, the swampy surface being from 5 to 10 feet above tide. Lock No. 1 is located in a hill on the southwest side of the stream, and will have a lift of 36i feet above mean low tide. This lock, as well as all others, will be in duplicate and founded on rock. The swamps communicate freely with the San Juan River through the San Juanillo and other streams, and the flood level rises at lock No. 1 to about 1 1 feet above sea level. It is proposed to exclude flood water from the canal on this section. This will require embankments on both sides. They are to have a minimum top width of 15 feet, with side slopes of 1 on 3. The crest of the embankments will be 5 feet above the highest flood levels. These dimensions apply to all sections of the canal where embankments are required. On the south side the embankment will be formed of spoil from the canal prism from Grey Town to the Misterioso, where it connects with the Silico hills, the remaining distance to lock No. 1 requiring only one short embankment across a small stream. On the north side the embankment will be formed in the Embankments. e~nrr\ • same way from Grey Town to the crossing of the San Juanillo. From this point to lock No. 1 the embankment line follows first the right bank of the San Juanillo to a point about 1 mile above the mouth of the Deseado and then crosses a region of low hills and swamps to the canal line. This embankment line is circuitous, and a better one may possibly be found; but it is perfectly practicable and the construction will not be difficult or costly. The canal embankment will cut off the San JuanDiversion of San .Juanillo. .... lllo. lhe latter has another connection with the Caribbean Sea through the Benard Lagoon and the Indio, but the route is long and it is deemed better to provide a shorter one. A diversion is therefore to be made by a channel dredged from a point on the San Juanillo about five-eighths mile north of the canal crossing to the excavation made by the Maritime Canal Compan}^ and through this to Grey Town Lagoon. The length of the channel to be dredged is about 1^ miles. The length of this section is 7.44 miles. For a distance of 6.20 miles the side slopes of the canal prism will be 1 on 3. For the remaining distance the material is generally firm and the cross section will be that provided for firm earth.

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126 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. The estimated cost of this section, including approach wall to lock No. 1. embankments, mid diversions of the lower San Juan and San Juanillo, is $5,056,747; lock No. 1, including excavation, fc5,7iy.686. From lock No. 1 the line continues in the gensectio. .from Lock No. i j direction of the Misterioso for about 2 miles. to Lock No. 2. It then crosses the Pescado, which drains a swampy region to the southward, and enters the region drained directly into the San Juanillo. It crosses this stream about 2 miles from the place where the San Juanillo leaves the San Juan, and then traverses about a mile of swamps and low hills, passing into the valley of the Rio Negro, a tributary of the San Juanillo, behind the hills at Punta Petaca, where it is about 1 mile distant from the San Juan. It then continues in the valley of the Rio Negro, crossing it about a mile east of the Negro hills in which lock No. 2 is located. There are two curves on this section, each of 8,594 feet radius. The section is generally swampy, but in the Rio Negro Valley the line cuts through some hills. The canal surface in this section is to be maintained at a minimum elevation of 36 feet above mean tide. The flood levels immediately above lock No. 1 appear to be about 31 feet above the same reference and immediately below lock No. 2 about 43 feet above it. The region communicates freely with the San Juan during high water in the latter, whence most of the flood water comes, and also receives considerable drainage from the mass of hills north of the line. The embankments have not only to maintain the canal level, but are also required to exclude floods from the San Juan on the upper portion of the section. On the north side of the canal hills form the greater part of the line of protection, although a few swamps have to be crossed by embankments. On the south side the Silico hills protect the level for several miles, but to the westward of them are long stretches of swamp with soft bottom where embankments are required. These embankments constitute one of the difficulties of this section. The estimates provide for the removal of the soft material for a width of 30 feet at bottom to make the embankments safe when built. They are located in most places so far from the canal line that the material excavated would not be available even if suitable, which it seldom is. They will be formed from clay borrowed from the hills. The swamp level near lock No. 1 is at about elevation 16, and at lock No. 2 about elevation 38. Almost the entire area within the embankment lines (some 12 or 13 square miles) will be below the level of water in the canal. The total drainage tributary to the section is probablv about 25 square miles. A waste Waste way anil lock. way is required which will be located at or near the Silico hills where the flood level in the San Juan is below the canal level. It is to be a simple overflow weir with crest at elevation 36,

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 127 the minimum canal level, and to have a length of 600 feet, which will prevent the canal level rising above elevation 37.5. The assumed maximum rainfall is 12 inches in twelve hours, all reaching the pool within twenty-four hours. No site with rock foundations has been found for this waste way. It will be built in the clay hills. Loek No. 2 will have a hard rock foundation. The lift will be 18^ feet, from elevation 36 to elevation 54.5. The length of this section is 10.96 miles. A part is through swamps, requiring side slopes of 1 on 3. In the remaining portion the cross section is reduced to the standard adopted for firm Length and cost. . . earth, lhe estimated cost of this section, including approach walls to locks, embankments, and waste ways, is $6,296,632; lock No. 2, including excavation, $4,050,270. The general direction of the line in this section is a little north ot west. It leaves the Rio Negro Valley near lock No. 2, and passes behind the Serapiqui hills, which were formerly Section from lock >'o. "2 1 x i ] -xi il i • 1 to lock No. 3. supposed to be connected with the high range to the northward. At this point the line is more than a mile from the San Juan. A short distance farther west the route crosses the Tamborcito ridge, after which at short intervals it crosses the Tambor Grande and San Francisco ridges. A line located around the ends of these ridges near the river would have inadmissibly sharp curvature, and would be liable to injury during river floods. If carried across them far from the river the cuttings would be very heavy. The line projected by this Commission is at a safe distance from the river, and although involving heavy work, avoids the much heavier work that a location farther from the river would require. The deepest cut on the center line of the canal is 297 feet, in the Tamborcito ridge. Riprap protection against river floods will be Protection against floods j • ,1 i ,1 •..,. in San Juan. required in the swamp levels ot those localities where the line approaches close to the river. After crossing the San Francisco River the line follows a westerly direction to the Danta, which it first crosses about 2 miles from the San Francisco. It then follows the valley of the Danta, which it crosses several times, to lock No. 3. This portion of the line passes through a swampy region with occasional low hills. The cut in the Tamborcito ridge is the deepest Tamborcito cut. L on the route, and will consist largely of hard, basaltic rock. It is, however, onty about 3,000 feet from the foot of the ridge on the east side to the foot on the west, and the crest is narrow. There are eight curves on this section of the turves. l i_ l canal, ot which one has a radius of 4,911 feet, four of 5,730 feet, one of 6,876 feet, one of 8,594 feet, and one of 11,459 feet.

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128 EEPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. Since the line was laid out borings have shown that deep sand exists under a part of that portion of it lying between the Tambor Grande and the San Francisco, its upper surface being near the canal bottom. It is probably a former bed of the San Juan River. Beeent examinations. Recent surveys and borings have shown that this material can be avoided by a location farther inland, but as it has not been practicable to take new borings across the ridges on the new lines, the estimates are made on the line that is laid down, and include an allowance for puddling the bottom of the canal where needed. A small amount of permeable material is also shown b} T the borings in a hill crossed by the canal line near the Florida Lagoon, and the estimates provide for puddling at this localit}\ The surface of the swamp near lock No. 2 has an elevation of about 38 feet above sea level, and gradually rises to elevation 45 in the Florida Lagoon, near lock No. 3. The line intercepts the drainage from about 75 square miles lying to the northward, and crosses the Guasimo, San Geronimo, Tambor Grande, San Francisco, and Danta, as well as a number of small creeks. The beds of the larger streams are from 15 to 20 feet below swamp level. The swamp bottoms are of clay silt, which may settle under the embankments, but should not offer serious difficulties to good construction. The level of the canal is to be maintained at the minimum elevation of 51.5 feet, submerging all the swamps. The flood levels appear to be about 53 feet at the Serapiqui and 56 feet in the San Francisco region, the latter being 1£ feet above the minimum stage in the canal. In order to diminish the currents through the narrow connecting channels, Drainage. h .. & • . three waste ways are provided, one in the Serapiqui Hills, 500 feet long, one of the same length in the west flank of Tamborcito, and one of 1,000 feet near the Danta. With these waste ways it is estimated that the water in the canal will never rise more than 2£ feet above the normal stage. The wasteways are designed to be plain overWasteways. J • i i i now weirs built oi concrete, with the crests at elevation 54.5, the minimum canal level. At rare intervals the crest of the Danta wasteway may be submerged by the San Juan Hoods, but the amount of water taken into the canal over it will be so small that no trouble is apprehended. The borings made at the site of the Danta wasteway show unfavorable material For foundations, involving an additional expense for safe construction, for which provision has been made in the estimates. Lock No. 3. which terminates this section, is located on a rock foundation, having a lift of bsl feet, viz. from elevation 54.5 to elevation 73 at minimum canal level. The length of this section is 1(1.75 miles, and the Length and cost. .... in i 1 estimated cost, including approach walls, embankments and wasteways, is $19,330,654; lock No. 3, including excavation, $3,832,745.

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' REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 129 Westward from lock No. 3 the lino follows down Section from lock No. S ,1 n t? i i • < i -.i • i to lock No. 4. lll( valley of hmbankmont ( rock to witlim about 1,700 feet of its mouth, and then crosses some hills and the Machado to lock No. 4. There arc Curves ami drainage. two curves on the section having radii of 11,459 feet each. The excavation will be mainly in firm earth with standard slopes to correspond. Some rock will be found near the site of 'lock No. 4, and soft mud in crossingthe valley of the Machado. The drainage area tributary to this section has not boon well determined, but is taken at about 9 square miles, about 1 square mile of which will be submerged. It is proposed to control the surface of the pool, between elevations of 73 and TO feet, by a weir 300 feet long, located in a hill a short distance east of the Machado. Two embankments will be needed between the Embankments. eanal and the ban Juan Kiver, one across knibankment Creek, the other across the Machado, where the crest will be about 31 foot above the bottom of the stream and about 24 feet above the swamp level. The borings show the surface material in this swamp to be soft, and some of it will have to be excavated, so that the embankment may rest on firm material. Lock No. 4 is located in a hill immediately west of the Machado. It is proposed to control the surface of the summit level of the canal between the elevations of 104 and 110 feet, hence this lock is designed to have a variable lift, the maximum being 37 feet and the minimum 31 feet. The length of this section is 2.77 miles. The Length and cost. ..... estimated cost, including approach walls, embank ments, and waste wa} T is $4,310,580; lock No. 4, including excavation, $5,655,871. Westward of lock No. 4 the line passes through Section from lock No. 4 l 1 -n • 1 1 to the san Juan Kiver. a rough, hilly region where deep cutting is encountered. About three-fourths of a mile west of the lock the depth to the bottom of the canal on the center line is 218 feet below the surface. The borings show a stratum of cla} 7 10 feet thick, from elevation 65 to elevation 55, the top being about 4 feet below the bottom of the excavation. About 1 mile farther westward is another cut 170 feet deep on the center line, with a clay stratum 10 feet thick, the upper surface being at elevation 89. In the latter case the clay stratum is in the wetted prism of the canal. In both cases there is rock overlying the. clay. It is supposed that the rock „ , is a volcanic overflow. Where the clay shows in Special slopes. ^ the wetted prism, slopes of one on one are provided for both rock and clay. „.. The section forms a part of the summit level, Summit level. 1 7 and has two curves, each of 5,730 feet radius. The point where it enters the San Juan Kiver is 46.17 miles by the S D— 57-1— Vol 7 9

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130 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. canal line from the 6-fathom curve in the Caribbean Sea. The upper end of this section i.s 3.3 miles by the river from the dam site at Conchuda. This dam will maintain the summit level, regulated by wasteways at the dam and in the hills a short distance southwest on the Costa Rica side. The dam, wasteways, and system of regulation are fully described elsewhere. The length of this section is 5.30 miles. The estimated cost, including approach wall to lock, is Length anil cost. 18,579,431. San Juan River section. This section embraces that portion of the river from the poiut where the canal enters it above the dam to Lake Nicaragua. As already stated, the San Juan River above the mouth of the San Carlos is practically free from sediment, and in this respect is well adapted for slack-water navigation. It is very crooked, however, the curves being so sharp in places that the natural channel, even if deep enough, would be difficult for large ships to navigate. Cut-offs have been located in such places, improving the course of the channel and reducing the sailing distance. These improvements leave 54 per cent of the total distance from the dam to the lake in curvature. Except in a few cases the radius exceeds 5,000 feet, but in the section between the Machuca and Castillo Rapids the limit was reduced to 1,015 feet. In the present project the Curvature and cost. x curves are of larger radius than in any previous one. They could be improved, but the cost would be increased. It has been the governing motive to preserve a judicious balance between curvature and cost. In this section there are four curves of 1,015 feet radius, one of 4,297, two of 1,911, three of 5,289, six of 5,730, two of 5,927, four of 6,876, one of 8,385, five of 11,159, and one of 17,189. The bottom of the excavated channel is established at elevation 69, giving a depth of 35 feet when the lake is at 101, its lowest stage. From the dam to the Machuca Rapids the general direction of the channel is northwesterly. The dam raises the water so as to permit a material straightening of the line on this part of the section with but little excavation. At the Patricia Rapids (in the fiftycurves. -1X1 1 • ninth mile) the bed of the river rises above the grade of the channel bottom, and excavation is required thence to deep water in the lake. The necessary straightening of the channel past the Machuca and Diamante Rapids, which are nearly continuous, and the Pilares Rapids immediately above them, requires two small cutI'rliiclunl cut-offs. l i • i oil's and slight widenings ai two other places. There is also a cut-off between the Patricia Rapids and the mouth of the Rio Bartola. At several places between the Bartola and Castillo, points of bends are cut off to reduce curvature. The line passes

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 181 through two small cut-offs between ( lastillo and the mouth of the Santa Cruz. At the first, a short distance west of Castillo, the borings show thai considerable rock will have to be excavated. At the second there is comparatively little, The Santa Cruz cut-off, a short distance above the mouth of the Santa Cruz River, saves nearly 1 miles of distance. The line then crosses Sombrero de Cuero Island and enters the Toro Rapids. There will be a large amount of rock excavation underwater between Castillo and the head of the Toro Rapids. The line then follows the river, impinging slightly on the banks in several places, bisects Isla Grande, and one-half mile above the latter enters the Palo de Arco cut-off, which effects a saving of 1.36 miles. It then follows the river, cutting* off one small point just above the Rio Palo de Arco to the mouth of the Rio Medio Queso, where it enters the San Francisco cut-off. This is the longest cut-off on the route, and saves If miles. Beyond this the line continues in the river to the lsla del Padre, and then cuts across the marsh on the right bank of the river. It again enters the river nearly opposite Fort San Carlos, after passing which it enters the lake. Opposite Fort San Carlos there is some rock to be excavated. The bottom width of the channel in the river and in the shorter cut-offs is tixed at 250 feet on tangents, but increased on the curves according to the rule given elsewhere, The longer cut-offs have the standard canal width of 150 feet at the bottom on tangents, w*ith corresponding widenings on curves. In the vicinity of Rio Sabalos, Isla Grande, and Fort San Carlos, it was found, after the line described above had been laid down, that a material reduction in the estimated cost of the canal could be made by slight changes in alignment at these places. These changes in alignment have been adopted by the Commission, and are indicated on plates 30, 31, 12, 13, 1-1, 15, and 63 by broken lines, and on profile, plate 49a. The estimates are based on the new alignment. The changes are as follows: First, that near Rio Sabalos begins in the Santa Cruz cut-off at mile 69.41, follows a westerly course, cutting off a small portion of Isla Sombrero de Cuero, and passes through Toro Rapids a little north of the line first adopted. It then crosses the latter, passes through the point of land opposite the mouth of Rio Sabalos, crosses the San Juan into Sabalos cut-off, and rejoins the line first adapted to mile 75.61. The second, near Isla Grande, begins near the middle of the long curve east of Isla Grande, mile 79.72, continues on a curve following approximate^ the old channel north of the island, and joins the line first adopted at mile 82.51. The third begins about If miles below Fort San Carlos, mile 93.94, follows close to, but north of, the line first adopted, crosses the latter at mile 91.85, and enters the lake about 400 feet to the southward of the first line.

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132 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. These changes add 479 feet to the total distance from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and change slightly the curvature given in a preceding paragraph. The total length of the river section on the Length and cost. it adopted alignment is 49.64 miles, and the estimated cost is $23,155,670. The line enters the lake on a curve of 11,459 Lake Nicaragua section. feet radius, and then continues on a tangent, passing southward of the Balsillas Islands and northward of the Solentiname group. Near the latter it crosses a submerged channel, where for a short distance no excavation will be required, and, passing around a short curve in deep water, enters a second tangent, where some excavation is required for a distance of 10.77 miles. This tangent continues to the vicinity of the mouth of the Las Lajas on the west side of the lake. The lake bottom on the sailing line lies below the grade of the canal bottom for a distance of 41.78 miles; the remainder, 28.73 miles, will require excavation. On approaching the mouth of the Las Lajas, the line swings to the westward in deep water to the long tangent at the east end of the western division of the Dredged channel in lake. canal, lhe bottom from .bort ban Carlos to deep water in the lake consists of soft mud 6 to 17 feet deep, underlaid by hard clay and sand. The mud is so soft in places that it is difficult to determine its surface. The steamboat navigating the lake pushes its way through several feet of it when the lake is low. This material will take a flat slope, and after a channel is excavated through it there will be some expense for maintenance. On the west side the excavation in the lake comChannel on west side of -, er -i j: l i~ tj. *ii • i. lake> mences 1.52 miles from the shore. It will consist chiefly of rock, and, as it is submerged, is estimated at the price for rock excavation under water. The material excavated from the west side of the lake can be wasted where it will form jetties for the protection of this entrance. The bottom width of the channel in excavation in the lake, both on the east and west sides, will be 300 feet. The total length of the lake division is 70.51 miles, and the estimated cost is $7,877,611. The entrance to the canal from Lake Nicaragua ^ Lake Nicaragua to lock g ^^ ^^ ^ ^.^ Qf ^ ^^ of ^ r[q Las Lajas. The line extends in a southwesterly direction, following first the Las Lajas, which it crosses four times in a distance of H miles, then following the general course of a small tributary, called the Gruiscoyol, to the continental divide. The surface of the ground from the lake rises gradually until the divide is reached at elevation 153, a distance of about 5 miles from the lake shore. The highest point on this section is a small projecting hill

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 133 three-fourths of a mile east of the divide, at elevation 156 on the center line. From the divide the line follows the valley of the Espinal to the Rio Grande, and then continues in the valley of the latter to the Pacific. From the mouth of the Espinal to Lock No. 5 the valley of the Rio Grande is narrow and crooked, with hills on either side rising to elevations of 150 feet and upward. Here the line passes through several spurs, with rather deep but short cuts. The most important feature of this section is the cut through the west divide. Its maximum depth on the center line of the canal is 87 feet; for a distance of about 3 miles the average cut is about 75 feet. The rock is of all degrees of hardness from partially disintegrated sandstone to hard trap. Lock No. 5 is located in a hill on the north side of the Rio Grande at Buen Retiro, and will have an excellent rock foundation. On the southside of the lock a small dam will be required across the river to the adjacent hills to maintain the summit level. This dam is designed to be of earth with a masonry core wall extending to rock. The lock will have a variable lift from 22£ to 28i feet, depending on the height of the lake. The section contains four curves with radii of 17,189, 5,730, 5,209, and 5,056 feet, respectively. Three of these are between the divide and the lock. The estimates provide for diverting the Las Lajas into the lake and for receiving basins at the points where the waters canal!* 1 8 en n of the Rio Grande and the Chocolata enter the canal. These consist simply of enlargements of the river channels sufficient to pass the estimated maximum floods with velocities that will not interfere with navigation. At the head of each receiving basin there will be an overflow weir to act as a sand catcher. Other small streams that are crossed will be taken into the canal, but they will be relatively unimportant, and are provided for in the estimates only in the item of contingencies. A ferry will be needed for the highway traffic between Rivas and San Juan del Sur. The canal prism will be almost wholly in rock, and will have a bottom width of 150 feet, with vertical sides. The length of this section is 9.09 miles. The Length and cost. , estimated cost, including approach wall to lock, diversion of the Las Lajas, and receiving basins for the Rio Grande and Chocolata, is $19,765,957; lock No. 5, including excavation, $4,913,512; dam near Buen Retiro, $125,591. The valley or gorge of the Rio Grande graduLock No. 5 to lock No. 6. , S . ally widens in this section, opening into the socalled Tola Basin. The soil of the Rio Grande Valley is a light, sandy loam, readily acted upon by currents. The grade of the canal is established so low that the prism will be almost wholly in exca-

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134 EEPOKT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. vation, and the embankments will not be heavy and can easily be protected. This .section contains a single curve of 4,i>X v 2 feet radius. A by-pass in lock No. 5 will provide water for this level. A small wasteway will discharge surplus waters into the Rio Grande. The excavation will consist mainly of sandstone much disintegrated near the surface, but less so farther down. Lock No. 6 is located in a small hill on the south side of the Rio Grande about one-half mile above the mouth of the Rio Tola. The foundation is on rock. The lift is 28i feet. The length of this section is 2.04 miles. The Length and cost. .-,-,. estimated cost, including approach walls and wasteway, is $3,259,283; lock No. 6, including excavation, $4,368,667. In this section the line crosses the bed of the Lock No. (i to lock No. 7. Rio Grande several times, and short embankments 20 to 30 feet in height will be required; elsewhere the embankments will be unimportant, the grade line being low, as in the preceding section. This section contains a single short curve of 5,056 feet radius. The excavation will be mostly in sandy earth, except in the vicinity of the lock sites. While the excavation is sandy, it contains enough earthy material to form water-tight embankments. A new channel will have to be provided for the Rio Grande for New channel for Bio i ,1 ,• j rrn • -n • j_i Grande needed. nearly the entire distance. lhis will receive the drainage from the north side of the valley, including that of the Tola. On the south side the drainage will be received into the abandoned bed of the Rio Grande, and thence discharged into the canal. A wasteway located near the upper end of the section will discharge surplus water from the canal into the new channel of the river. Lock No. 7 is located in a hill at the site forLoek. ini t merly proposed tor the south abutment ot the La Flor dam. The lift will be 2S-, feet. The prism of the canal will be mostly in sandy silt with side slopes of 1 on 3. The length of this section is 1.83 miles. The Length and cost. 1 .... estimated cost, including wasteway, river diversion, embankments, and approach walls, is $2,485,890; lock No. 7, including excavation, $4,709,502. The conditions in this section are almost exactly Lock No. 7 to lock No. 8. • the same as in the preceding one. the material consists chiefly of light sand mixed with loam, which can be dredged by machines taken through lock No. 8 after the latter is built. It contains two short curves of 5,730 feet radius. A lock* W Way m sn) ;i" wasteway is located near the upper end of the section where the canal is entirely in excavation. It will not have a rock foundation, and will be merely a depressed section of canal bank with protected surface.

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KKl'OKT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION". 135 Length and cost. Lock No. 8, which connects with tide water, is located in a projecting spur, and will have a rock foundation. Its lift will vary with the tide from 2sl feet at mean low water to 20£ feet at mean high water. The length of this section is 2.43 miles, and the estimated cost, including approach walls, river diversion, embankments, and waste way, is ^1,1)05,076; lock No. 8, including excavation, 14,920,899. This includes a short section of the canal proper Lock No. 8 to the Pacific. ,._ , „ ., *. r „ and an artificial harbor at Brito. A description or this harbor is given elsewhere. The excavation in this section consists mostly of sand. Some rock will be encountered near the lock site. The entrance to the harbor will be straight and have a width of 500 feet on the bottom. The length of this section to the 6-fathom curve in the Pacific is 1.15 miles. The prism, except near the lock, will have side slopes of 1 on 3. The estimated cost is as follows: Lock No. 8 to Brito Harbor, including approach wall to lock $553,470 Brito Harbor and entrance, including jetty 1, 509, 470 The total distance from Lake Nicaragua to the 6-fathom curve in the Pacific is 17.34 miles. The following table shows the amount and length of curvature for the entire line: Number Radius. Length. Total degrees of of curves. curve. Feel. Miles. O 1 ii 2 17, 1*9 1 53 26 51 10 8 11. 159 6.80 179 31 50 4 8, 9 1 4.31 151 10 50 1 v .... 1.43 51 41 30 2 7,81 1 1.90 73 28 30 1 7. 759 1.73 67 16 50 5 c; -7.; 4.64 204 34 40 2 5, 927 2.40 122 41 20 lii 11.08 584 47 40 2 5, 289 2.27 129 45 50 1 5,209 1.15 66 38 30 2 5,056 1.22 73 17 40 1 1,982 .82 49 49 00 3 4,911 75 169 36 00 1 4,297 .63 44 19 50 1 4,175 .81 58 20 40 4 4,045 3.82 285 25 40 56 49.29 2,339 50 30 There are two curves of 11,459 feet radius Slaving a combined length of 1.89 miles and a combined angle of 49 58' 50" located in deep water in Lake Nicaragua, which for obvious reasons are not included in the above table. As there is no natural harbor at either end of the proposed canal artificial harbors will have to be constructed. This lack of harbor facilities will be seriously felt on the east side in the early stages Harbors. Lack of harlior facilities.

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136 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. of the work, as the difficulties and expense of landingmaterial before the harbor can be constructed are great. A fine harbor once existed at Grey Town, with Grey Town Harbor. • 1 • about 30 feet of water at the anchorage and in the entrance. This was not such as is often found at the outlet of a large river like the San Juan, where the current scours an entrance, but rather a bight or protected area formed on the lee side of a sand spit which was itself built by the action of the waves and sea currents acting under conditions which favored such formation. Destruction or Grey To W „ A study of the various maps of Grey Town from Harbor caused by moving the earliest to the latest reveals, it is believed, the processes by which natural forces acting on the movable sands composing the delta of the San Juan River have formed successively in ages past harbors which were afterwards converted into lagoons or lakes. The process seems still to be going on, and Grey Town lagoon is the latest development. Ibo, Barco, Sucio, and Shepherds lagoons were probably formed in the same way and by the same agencies. There is a large area of low flat country lying to the eastward of a north and south line through the westerly end of Grey Town Lagoon, which, except for a fringe of the coast and the variRegion unexplored. r . ous outlets of the river, is practically unexplored. What there is in this region can not be stated with certainty, but it is probable that there are other lagoons similar to those just enumerated, or to the Parada and Agua Dulce, which connect with the Colorado branch of the river. The sand composing the delta of the San Juan is volcanic, like that now brought down by the San Carlos and Serapiqui, which take their rise in the mountains of Costa Rica. This sand sa^Tuan Kivt! *™ bein g deposited in f ront of the mouth of the river would form, if it were not acted on by other agencies, a bar approximating more or less the form of a crescent. The winds and waves of the sea, however, tend to give it an irregular shape, depending on the direction from which they come, while the currents of the river tend to cut out the channels. As the sand deposit increases the bar rises until finally the outlet of the river is in part cut off, and then it cuts out other channels. The San Juan River has no less than three outlets at the present time and perhaps has had more. Each outlet carries its load of sediment, and each has doubtless been an active agent in building up the existing delta. This delta forms a low area projecting into the sea from the general coast line between the Indio and the Tortuquero, some miles south of the Colorado. There are some old maps of Grey Town Harbor, which have appeared in publications from time to time, that afford data of more or less value in studying the operations of nature that converted this once

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REPORT OF THE L.STHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 137 excellent harbor into a lagoon. The absence of definite common points and uncertainties as to compass bearing, however, render it impossible to make accurate comparison of the maps of earlier date, but they contain much information tending to throw light on the subject under consideration. The oldest of these maps is that bearingthe title "Puerto y Boca del Rio de San Juan de Nicaragua," and is published in Sullivan's "Problem of interoceanic communication by way of the American Isthmus." It is not known what value attaches to this map. The onty authority for it is given in a note. The name of the .surveyor is not given, and it seems to have been a sketch rather than a chart from an instrumental survey. The map has no date, but the note referred to would indicate that it was about 1809. The soundings would seem to be fairly correct so far as they go, but they are few in number and cover only a limited area at the anchorage and the mouth of the San Juan. There are no offshore soundings shown. This map shows a sand spit that had formed to the northeast of Grey Town, connecting with the mainland and extending westerly, covering an area of deep water which was thus protected from the sea. The westerly end is bent in toward the shore, giving a good anchorage with deep water under its lee. The depth of water in the protected area is somewhat greater than is shown on later maps, and this tends to verify it, as a greater depth would naturally be expected at first. The westerly point of the spit was at that time almost due north of the mouth of the river. The next map in order of date is that derived from the Peacock survey, which was made in 1832 by G. Peacock, master of H. B. M. ship Hyacintli. This map having been made by an officer of the British navy, may be presumed to be reasonably accurate. Besides the soundings in the harbor, it shows soundings off the coast a distance of 2 nautical miles and more. This map, as published in the work of Felipe Molina, entitled "Bosquejo de la Republica de Costa Rica," and republished in other works, shows accretions to Map of 1832. ... the spit during the period from 1832 to 1848. It is not known on what data these indicated accretions are founded; neither is it certain whether the soundings in the harbor are those of 1832 or later. One would naturally suppose that they belong to the earlier date, but those inside the spit would seem to indicate the contrary. This map was used by a committee of the National Academy of Sciences in making a report, in 1806, on the restoration of Grey Town Harbor, and as that committee was composed of the most eminent men in their respective professions, it is believed that the map can be taken as essentially correct. Subsequent to 1848 frequent surveys were made by officers of the British navy and published by the British hydrographic office. The accretions to the sand spit indicated on the map of 1832 are probably

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138 EEPOKT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. founded on similar data. It is not a matter of vital importance, however, whether this be so or not, for a study of the subsequent surveys without reference to these leads to the same conclusions. If they be correct, they enable the progress of the sand movement to be traced from an earlier date than otherwise could be done. These early surveys were made with a view to giving information ureat Britain r iir s to mariners as to the depth of the water at the en trance to and within the harbor of Grey town and the protection afforded at the anchorage. They do not contain all the information desirable in studying the problem of the restoration of the harbor, but they show unmistakably how the harbor was originally formed and subsequently destroyed. From the mouth of the Indio southward a distance of about 3i miles, the shore line now has a direction nearly south-southeast. It then bends to the eastward and follows this course for a farther distance of about 4 miles, when it curves gradually toward the south, and after passing the Tauro outlet it follows a nearly straight course for a distance of more than 40 miles. If a Trend of coast. . straight line be drawn from a point a little north of the mouth of the Indio to the mouth of the Tortuquero, about 27 miles south of the Colorado, it would pass through the western edge of the Ibo Lagoon. It is probable that this was once the general trend of the coast. The area to the eastward is low and sandy, and has in all probability been formed from the more recent deposits from the San Juan River. The various outlets of this river lie to the eastward of Greytown Lagoon and all arc sediment bearing. The quantity of material carried depends in a great measure on the amount of water being discharged. When the river is swollen the currents Outlets of San Juan. <. • are swift and the amount of material is great. When the river is in its normal condition the amount is not so great, though it is seldom small. This sediment being deposited from the various outlets of the river firsl builds up a bar or shoal; as the accretions continue, some is pushed out to sea, some driven shoreward, and some to the right or left, according to the direction of the prevailing winds Sedimentary deposits. . and waves. Ihe material m suspension may be wafted far out to sea, but the sand which is moved along the bottom. and not held in suspension, is deposited near the outlet. When the accretions are sufficient to raise the shoal above sea level the waxes drive it up still higher and the wind carries some of it still farther inland. In this way the sandy deposit widens out and in time is covered by a vegetable growth that protects it. In a moist, warm climate like that at Greytown, the silt or loam mixed with the sand, and that derived from decaying vegetable matter, will, in the course of a few years, support the growth of a forest.

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REPOBT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL commission. 139 The const line directly in front of Greytown has now nearly an east and west direction; the waves produced by the northeast trade winds break diagonally on the shore. Even when the wind is from the north the breakers come from an easterly direction. The longest fetch of the sea is nearly due east. The breakers are persistent for the greater part of the year, and as they roll in on J'l,,.,ff,.,-tof,vavoa ( -on ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^.^ quantit j eg of s md and drive it westward on a zigzag course that is plainly visible to an observer on the shore. This westerly movement of the sand first formed a spit or hook, behind which was an area of comparatively still water. This area is the incipient harbor found on pi. 52. It is there shown as comparatively small, but the spit rising above the level of the sea acts like a breakwater and gives good anchorage behind it. PL 54 shows a steady movement of the sand spit westward and a gradual shoaling of the harbor up to and including the year 1848. The shoalingin the harbor is due doubtless to the lighter deposits from the San Juan that have been carried down the stream in suspension and deposited where the water has become comparatively quiet and to the light sand that is blown into the harbor by the winds. The later charts show the progressive movement of the sand HoTement of Band spit. . • spit until tliat of 1865 which shows that the entrance was completely closed. It has remained practically closed ever since. On one occasion an opening was made by cutting a ditch across the spit to release the pent up waters of the river which had risen so as to flood the town. When the jetty was constructed by the Maritime Canal Company in 1891, an opening having a depth of about 7 feet formed to the leeward of the jetty by natural forces. In both cases the opening was only temporary. The outlet by way of Harbor Head is the shorter one and comparatively little water from the river in its normal stages finds its way to the Greytown Lagoon, but when it is in flood, water comes into the lagoon by way of all the small channels connecting with the river. At such time the amount of water may be sufficient to maintain a small but temporary outlet. The surveys made in 1898 and 1900 show that the shore line at a point about 1 mile eastward of the jetty built by the Maritime Canal Company has been eroded to the extent of 1,200 feet from January, 1898, to July, 1900. During the same period the shore line about 1,200 feet west of the jetty receded 700 feet. There was no erosion in close vicinity to the old jetty. The erosion on the east and west sides, however, would seem to indicate that the normal supply of sand from the eastward had been reduced, or perhaps temporarily cut off, or that a change had taken place in the direction of the prevailing wind and waves. A change in the direction of the waves that impinge

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140 EEPOET OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. on the coast, or a diminution or increase of the sand supply, will modify the existing conditions and may tempoErosion or accretion derar Q y pro duce abnormal results. The resultant pendent on direction of waves ami sand supply. movement, however, ot the sand between the angle west of the old jetty and Harbor Head is westward and has been for years. This is attested by a comparison of the maps. What it is eastward of Harbor Head is more a matter of conjecture, as few of the maps cover that region. The Commission, when it was in Nicaragua, inspected the mouth of the Colorado River and the beach at a point about 4 miles to the northward. At the latter place there was no evidence of recent erosion or accretion. The shore seemed to be fairly permanent. A heavy growth of timber extended almost to high water, but the usual evidence of recent erosion, such as stumps or trees standing out in shoal water, was lacking. There was a house not far from the shore which was occupied, and the occupants, who had been living there several years, stated that the seashore had not changed materially since they had been there. At the time of the visit the wind came from about east-northeast and the waves broke nearly normal to the shore. One of the marked results shown by a compariReeutrant angle. ...... ,. son ot the charts is the hi ling ot the reentrant angle of the shore west of the old jetty. This doubtless comes in greater part from the eastward, but there are also some indications that a part comes from the northward and ma} r possibly be contributed by the Indio. An examination of the chart of 1832 shows that a considerable reentrant angle once existed in the vicinity of the entrance to the canal of the Maritime Canal Company. The later surveys show that this has tilled out several hundred feet. From a comparison of the chart of 1832 with the Apparent recession of „ • ,1 .1 j. 8-fathom curve. more recent surveys, it appears that the distance from the shore line to the 8-fathom curve, measured from a point near the site of the buildings of the Maritime Canal Company, has changed considerably. In 1832 the distance was about 13,000 feet, while now it is only about 9,000 feet. This indicates that the contour must have moved in or the shore line moved out, or that the change was due in a measure to both. It is known that the shore line in the neighborhood [referred to has moved out, but it hardly seems possible that it could have moved out 4,000 feet; a part of the difference in distance may be accounted for by errors of sounding. The old charts do not record fractional parts of fathoms beyond the 6-fathom curve. There has been an apparent recession of the Apparent recession ot n ,\ L ,1 ji x ,, o-fathom curve. 6-fathom curve also, but the dinerence between the relative distances of the shore line and that curve are not so great. The sand that forms the beach extends gradually to

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 141 about the 7-fathom curve, beyond which soundings show mud. There is an easterly current in front of Grey Town out in the deep water, while that close to the shore is westerly; but enough is not known of the velocity of the outer current on which to base an expression of opinion as to its effects on the bottom. The seaward advance of the shore line is confirmed by the existence at the present time of wrecks now visible nearly buried in the sand; one near the Maritime Company's hospital, one about 1,800 feet northwest, and one near the headquarter buildings. While, therefore, we may not be in possession of all the facts touching the formation and subsequent destruction of Grey Town Harbor, sufficient is known to indicate unmistakably that the harbor was first formed by the westerly drift of sand which formed of H ^r tOP eSterl,drift the spit or hook shown on the ma P s as Punta Arena or Punta Castillo, and that by the gradual extension of this spit westward the harbor was shut in from the sea and thereby destroyed. If, then, the westerly drift of sand can be stopped by interposing some obstacle, such as a jetty extending into the sea, there need be no difficulty in keeping open a channel on the lee side of it by dredging. This method of improving the entrances to harbors is one in common use, and is applied notably to the Mediterranean entrance of the Suez Canal, which is a similar case in many respects to that under consideration. The feasibility, moreover, of constructing a harbor at Grey Town has been practically demonstrated by the work done by the Maritime Canal Company. About 1,000 linear feet of jetty was constructed by that company at a place a short distance west of the location proposed by this Commission, and where the conditions of sand movement are identical. This was quickly followed by the scouring out of a channel on the lee side to a depth of about 7 feet. This channel was made through the sand spit which converted Grey Town Harbor into a lagoon. The channel was increased in depth to 12 or 14 feet by dredging. No difficulty would have been experiConstructlon of harbor *? , ,.,, n • feasible. enced in deepening this channel still more and in maintaining the increased depth by the further extension of the jetty seaward aided by dredging and the possible construction of another jetty on the west side. The harbor which this Commission proposes at Grey Town will have a length of 2,500 feet and a width of 500 feet, widened at the inner end to 800 feet in order to provide a turning basin. The depth throughout the harbor and entrance will be 35 feet. The entrance will be located about one mile east of the old jetty of the Maritime Canal Company. A jetty is proposed on the east side of the entrance, having a direction a little west of north. It is to be built of loose stone of irregular shape and size, resting on a suitable

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142 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. foundation, the hearting of the jetty to be composed of small stone intermixed with large so as to form a compact mass, and this to be covered bj T stone not less than 10 to 15 tons in weight irregularly deposited to break the force of the waves. It is confidently expected that the partial construction of the east jetty will be followed by the scouring out of a channel of moderate depth on the lee side of it, as was the case when the Maritime Canal Company's jetty was constructed; but as it is not expected that the depth will be sufficient for navigation, dredging will be required to obtain the desired depth. The east jetty should be extended to the 6-fathom curve. It is believed that a second jetty will be necessary on the west side to catch the sand that may at certain times come from the westward. It will be shorter than the one on the east side and its cost is included in the estimates. The jetties are to be built not less than 6 feet above high water with a width on top of 20 feet, and, for purposes of estimate, side slopes of 1 on 2 and 2 on 3 have been assumed. After a navigable entrance has been made, dredging will be required for its maintenance, and probably some extension of the jetties may in time be needed. The cost of maintenance is not susceptible of accurate determination, as it is impossible to predict how much sand will accumulate on the east side of the jetty or pass around it into the dredged channel. Some have estimated the total sand drift along the shore at 750,000 cubic yards per annum, but reliable data for an estimate are not available. It is believed that this westward drift is diminishing and may in time become quite small. A dredge could be worked on the east side of the jetty to remove the sand that will accumulate there, but much time would be lost on account of the Maintenance of harbor. . . rough seas. A better method of operation would be that practiced at the Mediterranean entrance of the Suez Canal, where the shore end of the jetty is kept low for some distance out, so that the sand is washed over it by the waves and is easily removed by a dredge working in the comparatively quiet water under its lee. The conditions in the two cases are very similar. The jetty is given a direction a little west of north, the purpose being to provide an area in which this sand may be allowed to accumulate. It is estimated thai about two years will be is^t of'naierl 1 t0 S, ,Ur< required to make the necessary preparations and to construct an entrance and working harbor at Gre} r Town having a depth of 18 feet, which is regarded as the least that would afford reasonable facilities for the landing of material needed to construct the canal. The prompt construction of this entrance is therefore of the utmost importance. The estimated cost of constructing a harbor, Coal of construeUon and hj { { fc ft < f ,,„, j( t| [g $ 2 ,198,860, maintenance. ' ' and this sum is included in the total estimated cost

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EEPOET OF THE ISTHMIAN CaNA t COMMISSION. 143 of the canal as given. The cost of maintenance is estimated at $100,000 annually, which includes everything needful to maintain a depth of 35 feet in the harbor and entrance. The Rio Grande empties into the Pacific Ocean llrlto Harbor. L at Brito, close under the rocky headland of that name. At low water in the dry season there is about 3 feet depth at the entrance, but as the tide rises and falls from or Rio ttrande*. ** m0Uth ^ to 10 ^ eet tne depth is much increased at the high stage. The entrance to the canal will be through a low sandy beach and a harbor excavated in a swamp extending a considerable distance inland. Little is known of the physical changes that have taken place on this part of the coast, but the indications are that it is much more permanent in character than the coast near the eastern How harbor can be con, T) ., TT j ,. ... strilH(>(1 entrance. Brito Head forms a projecting jetty on the northerly side. Much of the coast in this vicinity is of a rocky character, sand being found in the indentations. As the Rio Grande and other rivers which discharge into the Pacific along this part of the coast drain only limited areas, the amount of sediment brought down by them is insignificant. Another favorable feature is that the winds blow offshore almost invariably. The waves break normally on the beach and have little tendency to drive the sand along the coast in either direction. The depth of water offshore increases rapidly, the 10-fathom curve being found at about 2,200 feet from low-water mark. The entrance to the harbor will be 500 feet wide, protected by a single jetty on the southeasterly side. The harbor itself will be 2,200 feet long and 800 feet wide. From the easterly end of the harbor this widtli is narrowed gradually to the approach to lock No. 8. The jetty will have a southwesterly direction and will reach the 6-fathom curve at a distance of 1,200 feet from the shore line. The difficulties of landing material on this side in the early stages of the work before a harbor can be constructed are less than at Grey Town. The sea is comparatively smooth most of the time. Material for construction purposes could be landed on a pier reaching to deep water, similar to those on the coast of California, or a temporary entrance to the Rio Grande could be made within a short time and at comparatively little cost. The estimated cost of the harbor, including the Cost of construction and -. . . , , maintenance. entrance and protecting ]etty, as stated elsewhere, is $1,509,470. The annual cost of maintenance is estimated at $50,000. The summit level of the canal is the surface of Regulation of level of ,\ ,, . ,. n Lake .Nicaragua. tne wat er in the lake. A dam across the ban Juan River at Conchuda, 52.9 miles from the lake, extends the summit level to that point. In other words, if a dam be

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144 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. built at the Conchuda site an arm of the lake will reach to it, carrying the lake level during a period of no discharge to the same point. The canal will leave this arm of the lake at a point 8.3 miles up stream from the dam. These arc the general conditions iem n n8 ie Pr " which must be preserved, and the problem of the regulation of the lake level involves the control of the latter within such limits, more or less exact, as will never permit the navigable depth of the summit level to be anywhere less than 35 feet on the one hand, nor permit the lake to rise materially beyond a determinate elevation on the other. This regulation can be accomplished by the construction of dams across the Rio Grande west of the lake and across the San Juan on the east side, both being designed with suitable waste ways for the discharge of surplus water, or all the surplus water ma}' be wasted through the San Juan. As wasteweirs at or near the Conchuda dam may be given sufficient capacity to discharge all the wastage, and as the latter may readily be discharged through the lower San Juan, the entire regulation works are designed to be located at or in the immediate vicinity of the Conchuda dam. Obviously, after any given dry season has begun, Maximum and minimum w j tn jj^g fafc e sur f ace no higher than the maximum elevations not precisely de. terminable. permitted elevation, only the remaining surplus run-off, if there be an}', will be allowed to escape over the dam or wasteway, the lake acting as a reservoir of sufficient capacity to hold available at least all the water that may be needed for navigation until the beginning of the next season. On the other hand, the wet season must be utilized in restoring the depleted lake, but if the amount of rainfall during that season is more than sufficient to raise the lake surface above the desired maximum level, the surplus inflow must be allowed to waste with sufficient rapidity to prevent the lake rising high enough to produce serious inconvenience or damage. The precise minimum elevation of the surface of the depleted lake, and the maximum height to which the water in the lake may be allowed to rise, may not be determinable, but it is not difficult to prescribe such a control of the lake surface by available means as to fix those limits near enough for the certain and safe operation of the canal or for the preservation of the usual industrial operations about the shores of the lake. The storing of a sufficient supply to meet the demands of dry seasons is a simple matter of computation of reservoir capacity, and can readily be prescribed. The determination of the maximum elevation of the water surface to be permitted in the lake involves J^ 15 CBpacM of the discharging capacity of the canalized San Juan River from Fort San Carlos to the Conchuda dam after it has become practically an arm of the lake. The iirst part of

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 145 the problem will, therefore, consist of the determination of the discharging capacity of the San Juan River for 52.88 miles of its length from the lake to the Conchuda dam, corresponding to various elevations of the lake surface. The total available length of the wasteweir or dam must be such as to give the maximum discharge with a head on the crest of the weir that shall not in general trench upon the navigable depth of 35 feet in the summit level of the canal. The minimum elevation of that summit level has been tixed at 104 feet above the sea level. It will be necessary, therefore, so to proportion ftie regulating facilities at the dam as to attain the maximum discharge of the canalized river with an elevation of water surface at the same point of 104 feet. Evidently the maximum discharge will be required when heavy rainfalls cause the lake to be at or near its maximum elevation; or it may be desirable to determine the discharge of the canalized river with the lake surface at almost any elevation between the minimum and the maximum, while the elevation of the water surface at the dam has its minimum value of 104 feet. It ma}' therefore be necessary to know not onlv the discharge of the lake at an} 7 elevation Discharge of lake at any ^^ ^ eleyation of 8ur f ace at the dam above given stage. J the minimum, but also what will be of greater practical consequence — the discharge of the lake at an} 7 given stage with prescribed elevations of the water surface at the dam. This part of the investigation has been made by finding the continuous slopes of water surface from the lake to the dam, corresponding to discharges of 20,000, 30.000, 40,000, 50,000, 60,000, and 70,000 cubic feet per second for each elevation of the lake slopes of canalized river 8ur f ace 104, 106, 108, 110, and 112. These slopes corresponding to various •/• t tt ,• i • discharges. are shown in fig. 3 of Appendix H. After having determined these slopes, the curves shown on the right-hand side of tig. 3 will give the varying discharges for a given elevation of lake surface and corresponding to different elevations of the water surface at the Conchuda dam. The curves shown in rig. 4 of Appendix H are then at once so drawn as to exhibit the discharge for a given elevation of water surface at the dam with any elevation of the lake surface. These results afford all the information regarding the discharge of the canalized river required for the complete treatment of the regulation of the lake surface. Obviously, at the end of the dry season the gates at the dam will always be found closed, and there will be no water escaping from the lake except by evaporation and to supply the needs for canal uses. It is equally evident that the gates will also remain closed, so as to permit no wastage during the early part of the wet season, starting from its beginning. As the wet season proceeds, the S D— 57-1— Vol 7 10

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146 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. surface of the lake will rise toward and generally quite to its maximum elevation, and then the operation of wasting over Regulation of gates. .'.,-, r™ • the weirs will commence, lhe time of beginning of this wastage will depend upon the amount and distribution of the rainfall during the wet period. Indeed, no wastage whatever would be permitted duringsuch a low water wet season as that of 1890. The rainfall from the entire drainage basin would be impounded in the lake, and it would then fall short of restoring the depletion resulting from evaporation and requirements of the canal. On the other hand, during such a wet season as that of 1897, wastage would begin at an early date. In general it may be said that neither the rate nor the law of the rise of water surface in the lake ran be predicted. There may be years when no wastage will be permitted, but generally considerable wastage will be necessary in order to prevent the lake risingabove the permissible stage. An examination of the rainfall statistics and diagrams furnished in the report of Mr. Arthur P. Davis, hydrographer to the Commission, and found in Appendix I. shows, as would be anticipated, that even a high monthly rainfall in the early part of the wet season falling on parched ground will have a comparatively small effect upon the elevation of the lake surface. The same amount of Jreclpltatlonlnwetseaprecipitiltion> on the othor h;lm j, falling later in the wet season, when the 1 ground is saturated, has a much more marked effect upon the elevation of the lake surface, both in rapidity and amount. A careful study of the results of Mr. Davis's observations shows thai the maximum rate of rise of the lake during the three years. L898 (<> 1900. inclusive, is 19.5 inches in twenty-two days. This took place between the 2d and 21th of October, in the year 1900. The total amount of rainfall at Granada in October of that year was 16.7 inches. The total rise of the lake for the entire month of October was practically 21 inches. In the month of June. L897, a year of maximum rainfall, the precipitation at Granada was 31 inches. Unfortunately, no observations on lake elevation were made during the latter year, and hence the corresponding movements of the lake surface can not be given. It is most important to observe, in connection with this matter of lake regulation, that the effect of a heavy rainfall is not felt immediately, except for that portion of the precipitation which falls directly upon tin 1 lake surface. While no precise statement can be made as to the time which elapses between the beginning of a month's heavy rainfall and the resulting material effect upon the elevation of lake surface, due to run-off, it would appear from the consideration of the data available to the Commission that from two to three weeks may be taken for that purpose. This is an imimme
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REPOltT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 147 to three weeks in advance of a considerable rise in the elevation of the lake surface This period may consequently be utilized for the maximum discharge over the waste weir, if deemed advisable, in anticipation of the ultimate effects of a heavy rainfall. During the early portion of a wet season, therefore, while the gates are closed, the lake will he permitted to rise until it reaches nearly its maximum surface elevation. As an illustration, this may occur during the month of August or September. The rainfall records show that generally there may be expected a relatively heavy October rainfalls. "i l rainfall during the month ot October, lhat month would be approached, then, with the lake surface elevation at perhaps 109. 5, .leaving 0.5 foot margin below the desired maximum of 110. If but a small rainfall should occur during October and November, the waste gates might remain closed, impounding, if necessary, all the precipitation, and thus reaching a full lake. If, on the other hand, October should prove to yield a heavy rainfall, as is frequent, the maximum rate of wastage could be at once afforded at the beginning of the month, or as near that time as might be deemed advisable. The discussion of this part of the general problem of lake regulation must necessarily be involved in some doubt until more data concerning concurrent heav}^ rainfalls and variations of the elevation of the lake surface are available. With the exception of the year 1897, the year 1900 afforded the greatest total annual rainfall during the fifteen years from the beginning of 1886 to the end of 1900. Fortunately, during the latter year observations of the lake level were Satisfactory control. taken, as well as rainfall records at Oranada and other points. Furthermore, there was a rather heav} T rainfall, 16.7 inches, during the month of October, with more precipitation than usual during the four months preceding October. From October 2, 1900, to October 24, a period of twenty-two days, the elevation of the lake increased from 105.7 to 107.32 feet, giving an actual rise of the lake surface of 1.62 feet. This was a net rise in excess of the evaporation and outflow through the San Juan River. According to Mr. Davis's observations at Fort San Carlos, as shown in his rating table in Appendix I, the discharge out of the lake at Fort San Carlos on the first day mentioned was 21,815 cubic feet per second, and on the latter date, October 24, 29,555 cubic feet per second, giving an average discharge per second out from the lake during the twenty-two days under consideration of25,685 cubic feet per second; or, again, a total outflow for the twent}-two days of 48,822,048,000 cubic feet. The total area of the lake surface is 82,938,240,000 square feet. This latter area multiplied by 1.62 feet gives a total storage in the lake, during the period under consideration, of 134,359,948,800 cubic feet, which, added to the above determined outflow, gives a total of 183,181,996,800 cubic feet as the total supply to the lake during the twenty-two day period

PAGE 154

148 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. in excess of evaporation. While this total quantity of water would be flowinginto the lake, were the dam and waste way in operation at Conchuda in connection with the canalized river, a maximum wastage could be afforded of about 61,600 cubic feet per second, that being the average discharge over the waste way for the lake surface elevation at 109.75, with the water surface at the dam at 104. That rate of waste for twenty-two days would give a total outflow of 117,089,280,000 cubic feet. The difference between this amount of outflow and the total amount of supply, in excess of evaporation given above, is 66,092,716,800 cubic feet, which, divided by the area of the lake in square feet, as stated above, will give 0.797 foot. In other words, under the conditions named, in spite of the maximum outflow over the waste weir, the surface of the lake would rise practically 0.8 foot, or 9.6 inches; or, finally, 3.6 inches over the maximum elevation 110 feet desired. This result may be considered essentially a satisfactory control or regulation of the lake surface. During the first thirty da}^s of the same month of October, 1900, the surface of the lake actually rose 1.96 feet, which, for the purposes of this computation, will be taken as 2 feet. The results will, therefore, be slightly in error on the safe side. The rating table already used for the discharge of the San Juan River at Fort San Carlos shows that the average discharge during that month of October was 25,200 cubic feet per second. Hence, during that month, except the last day, the total outflow through the river was 65. 318, 400,000 cubic feet. To this must be added the number of cubic feet in the volume of the area of the lake surface, multiplied by 2, since the increase in elevation was 2 feet. As the lake area in square feet is 82,938,240,000, the total volume of outflow through the river, added to the actual storage in the lake, all in excess of evaporation, will be 231,194,880,000 cubic feet. It will be essentially correct to take the discharge of the canalized river, available for relieving this supply to the lake, as that which exists with the lake surface at 110, and the surface of the water at the dam at 104. That discharge is 63,200 cubic feet per second, or a total of 163,814,400,000 cubic feet. This last volume of wasteage, deducted from the sum of the thirty days' outflow of the natural river added to the 2 feet of storage, gives a volume remaining in the lake in its regulated condition of 67,380,480,000 cubic feet, which, divided by the area of the lake surface in square feet, gives a net rise of 0.813 foot, or practically 10 inches; or, finally, a lake surface 4 inches above the maximum limit desired. This also may be considered a satisfactory regulation of the lake. Any small excess of net storage in the lake at the end of October above that which might be deemed desirable, either in the two preceding or other cases, could be quickly run out after the end of the month by making use of the maximum discharge of the canalized river for a short time only.

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REPORT OF THE [STHMIAN < ANAL COMMISSION. 149 The preceding results obviously can not be considered finally conclusive as to what may happen in regulating the lake in the manner desired, for the reason that a larger monthly ruinliSSSSS fal1 <* th fc corresponding to 16.7 inches at fluently extended. Granada may occur in October of any year, or in any other month following preceding rainy months which have left the ground in a saturated condition. Concurrent rainfall and lake stage records are not sufficiently extended to afford a demonstrative treatment of this part of the question. The largest monthly rainfall by far recorded at Granada is 31 inches for the month of June, 1897, the wettest year in all the rainfall records available for the lake basin. It has alreadv been Maximum rainfall antic, i -i i • < n „ ipated. observed that a heavy rainfall so soon following the dry season will in general produce a less variation in the elevation of the lake surface than if that monthly amount should fall at a time approaching the end of the wet season, as in the month of October. Since, however, that amount of rain has fallen in one month, it should be taken as a possible precipitation for the month of October. In that case, if the ground were saturated to the same extent as at the beginning of October of 1897, a comparison may be made with the 1897 conditions in order to determine what would happen under such phenomenally great precipitation. It might be inferred at first sight that the amount of inflow from the basin to the lake under such conditions would be proportionate to the total monthly precipitation. Although this is not far wrong, it is not quite correct. A certain minimum amount of rainfall, possibly li inches per month, would be held by the earth and would produce no inflow at all. Again, in such a tropical country as that of Nicaragua, there is a sensible evaporation from the earth's surface during a month, although its amount is unknown. If this latter quantity be neglected, and if 1£ inches be deducted from the monthly rainfall, in order to determine a suitable ratio for the inflow, that amount should be deducted from the 16.7 for October, 1900, leaving 15.2, and from the 31 inches of 1900, leaving 29.5 inches. The latter divided by the former will yield a ratio by which the total inflow into the lake for 1897 should be multiplied, in order to obtain the inflow which would have resulted from 31 inches of rainfall at Granada for the month of October, 1897, under the assumed conditions. This ratio is 29.5-^15.2 = 1.94. It has been shown that the total supply to the Rise due to maximum i i • ,. i . i ,, rainfa i U lake in excess of evaporation during the month of October, 1900, was 231,194,800,000 cubic feet. In addition to this, the evaporation from the surface of the lake for that month may be taken at 5 inches in depth. The amount of discharge through the San Juan River in its natural condition has also been shown to be 65,318,400,000 cubic feet, which is equivalent to a depth of

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150 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 0.788 foot over the lake surface. The elements of the total supply for October, 1900, are therefore as follows: Evaporation 5" = 0. 41667 feet Rise of lake surface 21" = 2 feet Discharge of natural river 9. 156" = 0. 788 feet Total supply 3. 20167 feet Less the rainfall on lake surface : 16. 7" = 1. 39167 feet Totalinflow 1.813 feet This depth of 1.813 feet is to be multiplied by 1.91 to obtain the corresponding depth of total inflow (includingthat to be evaporated) for the assumed October; and to that result must be added the 31 inches of precipitation which would fall directly on the lake surface. Finally, from the quantity thus derived must be subtracted 5 inches or 0.41667 feet for evaporation. The statement will, therefore, stand as follows: Feet. 1.813X1.91=3.51722 Rainfall on lake surface —2. 58333 Total supply 6.10055 Less evaporation 11667 Total rise of lake, all water impounded 5. 68388 Discharge of canalized river for thirty days at the rate of 68,000 cubic feet per second reduced to uniform depth over lake surface = 2. 125 Actual rise of surface in thirty days =3. 559 The average rate of discharge of the canalized river is taken at 68,000 cubic feet per second, as that corresponds closely to the mean stage of the lake during the assumed October. The thirty-day rise of 3.559 feet, added to 109.5, would give an elevation of lake surface of practically 113 feet. In reality, the lake would not rise so high, since such an elevation would give a small increase to its surface area, and the available minimum cross-section of the canalized river would be somewhat greater than assumed. Yet, under such conditions, the surface of the lake might rise above the elevation of 11:4. If this were liable to happen frequently, it could not be considered satisfactory lake regulation. No such October precipitation, however, has yet been observed, and it may be said that the existing records do not afford a basis of expectation for such a rise in the lake as often as once in fifteen years. It is even possible that such

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 151 a rise may inner occur. If such an extraordinary precipitation .should occur in October, it docs not necessarily follow that the lake surface would reach an elevation much over 110, for the reason that it might be materially below L09.5 at the beginning of ttie month. The possibility of such a phenomenal rise in the lake surface as that just considered at long intervals of years is indicated by the rainfall record at Masaya in the year 1SST. In fig. 15 of Appendix I it is shown that in October, 1887, there was a rainfall of 23.56 inches following preceding months of sufficient precipitation to leave the soil in a saturated condition. Mr. Davis shows by a comparison of records for Masaya and Granada that the rainfall at Granada may be one-fifth to one-fourth more than that at Masaya. Hence it may be assumed that if there was a precipitation of 23.56 inches at Masaya in the month of October there may have been 22^ per cent more than that amount, i. e., 28.86 inches, at Granada at the same time. The increase of elevation or lake surface for that amount of rainfall at Granada may be compared directly with the increase of elevation of lake surface for the same month at the same place for the year 1900, which has already been considered, when the monthly precipitation was 16.7 inches. Subtracting, for the reasons already stated, 1^ inches from both 16.7 and 28.S6 and dividing the latter result by the former the ratio of 1.8 will be found. The total inflow following a thirty-day rainfall of 16.7 inches in October, 1900, was equal to a depth of 1.813 feet over the entire lake surface, as was shown in the preceding computations. A statement applicable to the present case and similar to that already given will therefore be as follows: Feet. 1.813X1.8 = 3.2631 Rainfall on lake surface, 28. 86 inches =2. 405 5. 6684 Less evaporat ion of 5 inches .4167 2517 Less discharge of canalized river at a mean rate of 68,000 cubic feet per second during thirty days, reduced to the uniform depth over lake surface of 2. 125 Actual rise of lake surface 3. 127 If the above rise of 3.127 feet be added to the assumed elevation of lake surface, on October 1, of 109.5, there will be found an elevation of 112.63 feet. As a matter of fact, for the reasons already stated, the lake surface would probably not reach 112 feet in elevation, but the results of both these latter computations show that, since the month of October must be approached by a nearly full lake, there is a possibility at long intervals of probably more than fifteen years of reaching a high lake surface elevation between 111 and 112. As the

PAGE 158

152 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. thirty-day discharge of the canalized river, at an elevation of about 111, is but little less than 180,000,000,000 cubic feet, it is further seen that the elevation of .the lake surface under these phenomenal conditions would remain above 110 for possibly a little more than one month. The preceding results are based essentially on Results based on assumption that rainfaii in basin the assumption that the raintall on the entire lake is proportioned to that at b asm j s m direct proportion to that at Granada, while in fact the average rainfall over the whole basin should be used. There are not sufficient data of observation to establish such a relation, and the assumption is provisional only. It leads to the best method of procedure available, but the conclusions reached may obviously need modification in either direction as the rainfall record and observations of the lake elevations are extended. It is a generally recognized feature of rainfall conditions that an extremely high local precipitation for a short period, as one month, in any large basin, is almost invariably considerably higher than the simultaneous average for the entire basin; and there is reason to suppose that this is particularly true of the watershed of Lake Nicaragua. The use of the rainfall record for one point, or possibly two, instead of the average for the whole basin, is liable to lead to conclusions extreme or possibly erratic in character. It is believed in this case that this unavoidable feature of treatment has created conditions too severe, and hence the resulting estimated extreme lake elevations are probably too high. It is not believed to be necessary to include in the estimates of cost any items covering additional regulating facilities of such magnitude as to meet these phenomenal conditions. It is not probable that such facilities will ever be needed. The preceding considerations indicate the salient features of the contemplated control of the greatest lake elevations in seasons of maximum precipitation. At the other extreme there must be considered such provisions as are necessary to meet the requirements of the dryest years on record. Of all the observations at the Salient features. present time available, those which show the lowest annual rainfall belong to the year 1890, and are found in the Masaya record in Appendix I. That year was immediately preceded and followed by years of at least the average precipitation, the records showing 78.78 inches for 1889, 20.52 inches for 1890, and 49.98 inches for 1891. It will be obvious, therefore, that the two dry seasons, with the exceedingly low rainfall between, make the nineteen months from November, 1889, to June, 1891, a period of unusually small precipitation, the lowest indeed so far known, it may be assumed that the lake would be full at the end of the wet season immediately preceding such a dry period of nineteen months. The elevation of that full lake

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 153 has been taken by Mr. Davis in Appendix 1 at 110.2, which is essentially what it should be. It then becomes necessary to know what should be the movement of the lake surface during the period in question. Evidently the sluices at the wasteway would remain closed and no outflow of the lake would be permitted during the first dry season, or from November until the succeeding May. Indeed the sluices would be closed during the succeedingwet season, as there would not be sufficient rainfall to restore fully the depletion already accomplished. In considering the movement of the lake surface from the end of May it is necessary to keep in view the concurrent rainfall. The record available is for Masa}^a, hence it is necessary to compare the rainfall record at that place for some years, covering observations on the variation of lake-surface elevations with that for 1890. Observations for 1809 and 1900 are available for the purpose, but as shown in Appendix I those for the latter year are preferable. The observed precipitations for the months of 1900 are compared directly with those for the same months of 1890, and the variations of lake surface produced by the corresponding rainfalls for the latter year are made protional to those of the former year, which were actually observed. As indicated by Mr. Davis, this method is not free Method of discussion not , i ,1 j. . „ tree from error from error, but these errors to some extent compensate each other, and there is no reason to believe that they are great enough seriously to militate against the conclusions reached. The portion A K, of the line in fig. 6, of Appendix H, shows the result of these operations. Starting from elevation 110.2 at H on the 1st day of November, a full lake is assumed to be maintained, as would be the case, up to the 1st of December, when the wet season closes, and consequently the sluices at the wasteway are also closed. Evaporation and consumption of 1,000 cubic feet per second for the use of the canal operate to deplete the lake until on the 1st day of June the point A is reached, at elevation 107.03. At that point the dry -wet season, so to call it, begins. The sluices at the wasteway still remain closed and the consumption of water in the canal continues, as well as evaporation from the lake surface. The small rainfall only partially restores this depletion, so that at the end of November the water surface in the lake has fallen to K, at an elevation of 106.9. No further supply is available until the beginning of the next wet season. The sluices are therefore kept closed and the lake surface at the end of the second dry season, on the 1st day of June, has fallen to the point L, at an elevation of 104. In other words, in spite of all storage of available water during the nineteen months, evaporation from the lake and the use of the canal have run the elevation of the lake surface down from 110.2 to 104, representing the net depletion of 6.2 feet in depth of lake water. At the point L the supph T from the next wet season would be available to relieve the situation and cause the lake surface to rise.

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15-i REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. These computations show that the net available storage in the lake must be 6.2 feet, if the requirements for evaporation and navigation for two dry seasons and an intermediate dry-wet season are to be met. The line H A K L is a minimum line of lake surface elevations, below which it should never fall at the dates indicated. In no dry season following an ordinary rainy season should it fall below H A, because there would then be a shortage, and possibly a serious one, if a dry-wet season should follow it. Nor should the lake surface, under any circumstances whatever, fall below the line K L for the dry months indicated, for in that event at the end of the dry season there would not be the desired navigable depth in the summit level. The complete consideration of the effect of years of low rainfall on the regulation of the lake requires an examination into their possible frequency so far as existing data will permit. The entire record for fifteen years, from 1886 to 1900, at Granada and Masaya, shows but one year, 1890, with insufficient precipitation during the rainy season to fill the lake and restore the amount evaporated. Had the proposed regulating works been in existence there would have been a full lake on the 1st of every December, except for 1890, of the fifteen-year period. So far as the existing records indicate, therefore, there is no reason to expect the continued depletion of the water supply to an elevation below 101 by a succession of low rainfall years, each with an insufficient precipitation to fill the lake during the wet season. As has already been indicated in connection with the discussion of months of maixmum rainfall, it is not possible to predict elevations of the lake surface during the early months of the rainy season, such as June and September. Knowing the discharging capacity of the canalized river, it is quite simple, after knowing the rainfall record of a season, so to layout a programme of wasteway discharge as to' control the lake surface in any desired manner within a considerable range of limits. It is quite another matter, however, to predict what lake elevation must be reached on a given date within those months in advance of the rainfall. Indeed it is not possible to make such a prediction as will agree with a season's development. It has been shown, however, within what limits the elevations of lake surface may be controlled for certain maximum monthly precipitations and for what less monthly rainfalls closer approximations to the desired maximum elevation of 110 may be reached. Although a definite line showing the elevations of lake surface for a specified period may be drawn for a given season of known supply to the hike, like H A K L of fig. 6 of Appendix H for the nineteen low water months, such a line can not be continuously drawn for an ordinary year. The portion H A may be prescribed, and perhaps Not possible to predict •elevation of lake.

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 155 A. O, but the part O P Q M, shown as a broken line, can not be laid down for the reason that it will depend entirely upon the record of rainfall which is not completely known until the season is past. It can only be stated that the line of lake surface elevations for the wet season will probably be similar in general character to O P Q M, tig. 6 of Appendix II, M being at the elevation of 110.2, which is shown as a broken line on account of the uncertainty attached to its location. Ordinarily the line for the succeeding dry season would be M S, which is the same as H A. Certain general principles of control procedure may be set forth in view of the results of the preceding computations. In general, it may be stated that at the end of the dry season, on the 1st day of June, the elevation of lake surface will be at 107.3, or at about that elevation. The sluices at the wasteway having been closed during the dry season are still maintained in that condition, so that during the tirst part of the wet season all supply to the lake will be impounded. If there be a phenomenally heavy rainfall, as in June, 1897, it will be necessary, as soon as the amount of precipitation is realized, to open the sluices to their full capacity. Even under such circumstances the rise which would take place in the lake surface is shown by the line A D, in fig. 6 of Appendix H, and thev would Principles of control. & .-, ,*" have to remain open until the 1st of August in order to bring the elevation of the lake surface down to 110, as shown at B, the maximum elevation of lake surface at D having been 110.6. From that time on the manipulation of the sluices would necessarily depend upon the subsequent rainfall, the effort being to keep the lake level at, or a little below, 110 until October. Instead of the phenomenal rainfall of June, 1897, should there be a moderate or ordinary precipitation, the sluices at the waterwa} 7 might be maintained closed for a number of weeks, or until some date in August or September, depending upon the amount of rainfall, it being in this case as in all others the effort during „this period of the year to keep the lake surface elevation as near to 110 as practicable, or possibly a little below it. The rainfall records show that ordinarily the rainfau. m0 **** mon th of October may be expected to be one of comparatively heavy precipitation, and there would seldom be years when it would not be necessary to discharge considerable water over the waste ways during that month. In the years of specially heavy rainfall, or possibly in others of ordinary rainfall, it would be necessary to open the sluices to their full capacity for the entire month, or a little longer. The month of October is practically the last opportunity of the wet season to secure a full lake, and that should certainly be attained, even if the effort to do it should run the lake somewhat above the maximum

PAGE 162

150) REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. desired limit of 110 feet, so that on the 1st of December a full lake would exist as a necessary preparation for the succeeding dry season. While, therefore, no detailed instructions can be Instructions for resula, j> n -.• ,1 v. • <. ,1 -, • tion set forth regarding the condition or the sluices at the waste wa} T on specified dates, the general lines of their operations should be as stated below, viz: 1. A full lake with surface probabby a little above 110 on December 1. 2. Waste-way sluices closed at least from about December 1 to some date in the early portion of the succeeding rainy season, or throughout that season if it be one of unusually low precipitation. 3. A variable opening of waste-way sluices, if necessary, during the intermediate portion of the rainy season, so as to maintain the lakesurface elevation but little, if any, below 110 at the beginning of October. 4. The operation of waste-wa} 7 sluices during October and November so as to reach the 1st of December with a full lake, or lake elevation probably a little above 110. The mean velocities in the minimum sections of the canalized river corresponding to the greatest discharges required in the regulation of the lake are as follows: Elevation of lake. Elevation of water at dam. 103 feet. 104 feet. 110 feet. 111 feci. 112 feet. Ft. per sec. Mi.perhr. FLperse.c. MLperhr. 4.16 j 2.8 3.9 2.7 4.51 j 3.1 4.2 4.85 3.3 4.5 2.9 3.1 The discharge of the river corresponding to the Velocities. velocity or 2.7 miles per hour is 53, 21 Hi cubic tect per second; while that corresponding to 3.3 miles per hour is 77,000 cubic feet per second. These estimated high velocities will occur but rarely, and they will not sensibly inconvenience navigation. In reality they are too high, for the reason that while the overflow at the minimum river section materially increases the areas of those sections, it has been neglected in this discussion. It is probable that at some periods of heavy rainfall when the lake is at or near its maximum elevation, the Sabalos and other smaller rivers tributary to the San Juan between Fort San Carlos and the Conchuda dam may be discharging at their greatest capacity also under the influence of heavy rainfalls on their respective drainage areas. It is even possible that the concurrent flood inflow of these streams may reach as high as 50,000 cubic feet per Effort of tributaries of g^ d ^ ff fc f ^ ^ discnargeg San Juan. te on the elevation of the lake surface has been ignored for two reasons. In the first place, their points of discharge are mostly

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 157 far removed from the lake and Largely below the steepest portion of the river slope. Hence their effect upon the lake elevation would not be great even if these tributary flood discharges continued for a considerable period of time. In the second place, these tributary flood discharges continue for a short time only; in fact, in nearly or quite all eases for less than twenty-four hours. Under such circumstances they can have no material influence upon the maximum elevations reached by the lake. The drainage areas from which they flow are all small and the total flood volume contributed by tliem for short periods of a few hours only is insignificant when compared with the volume required to raise to any sensible extent the surface of the lake. Again, in all the preceding computations the volume of water required for the uses of the canal has been ignored. Should this volume be equal to a rate of consumption of 1.0(H) cubic feet per second, a depth of only 0.4 inch per month would be required to supply it, and that is an amount too small for consideration in connection with the question of lake control. The regulation will be effected by wastewa3 T s at wLteTOy." am ""* the east end of the summit level, 'it being necessary to have control of the discharge, a movable dam of some form is essential. The form adopted consists of vertically moving gates of the Stonev type, each giving an Sfcmey gates. , „ \ opening of 30 feet in the crest of the wasteway. The discharge through the upper section of the canalized San Juan will be 63,000 cubic feet per second, with the lake at 110 and the pool immediately above the dam at 104. This will be reached nearly every year, but. as before shown, the lakes may rise, in exceptional circumstances, possibly to 112, increasing the discharge of the river to 76,000 cubic feet per second, with the water at the dam at 104. To produce such a discharge from the lake the rainfall would have to be extremely heavy over the entire basin draining into it. There would probably be a simultaneous heavy rainfall over the San Juan basin from the lake to the dam, most of which would reach the river below the constricted section which limits the discharging capacity from the lake, and would increase considerably the required discharging capacity of the waterway. This structure is feet'per'J^old!' 000 "*" therefore designed to discharge 100,000 cubic feet per second, with the water in the pool immediately above it at 104. It is deemed judicious to limit the depth of water on the crest, under normal conditions, to 7 feet, fixing the crest of the wasteway at elevation 97. With a high lake and heav} T rainfall in the district near the dam the pool might, for a short time, rise a little above 104. The discharge of 100,000 cubic feet per second, with Depth on crest, 7 feet. l i feet on the crest, requires a weir 1,590 feet long.

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158 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION This is provided by placing on the dam 21 sluice gates, each of 30 feet opening, and 32 similar ones at a site about 2,500 feet from the dam in Costa Rica. The latter structure is designated "Conchuda Plan. wasteway" on the map. Its sluices will be placed on a concrete structure, which will have a foundation on hard rock. Small ravines head near the site on both sides, and will require enlargement to permit the water to reach the wasteway and flow away from it with moderate velocities. The plan of the wasteway and approaches is shown on pi. Q8. The most important structure on the route is the Conchuda dam. Before deciding on its location a large number of borings were made to ascertain the depth to suitable hard rock for the foundation, both at the Conchuda site and at the one near Boca San Carlos suggested by the Nicaragua Canal Commission. At the latter site the greatest depth to hard rock is 120 feet below the surface of the river at low stage. At the Conchuda site the greatest depth to hard rock is 82 feet, which is very important, because the foundations will probably have to be placed by the compressed-air process, and the depth is well within that at which the foundations of many bridge piers have been built by the same method. A plan of the Conchuda dam is shown on pi. 69. The portion of the dam across the river and the swamp on the Costa Rica side, for a total distance of 731 feet, will consist, below low water, of caissons placed close together with the joints between them scaled. Upon the platform thus made the part above low water will be built as a continuous monolithic structure and will support the sluices already mentioned. From each end of this portion the dam will be built for a further distance of 100 feet into the hillsides in open excavations and with cross section designed to sustain the full head of water. Core walls extend 100 feet farther on the Costa Rica side and 210 feet on the Nicaragua side. The total length of the dam. including core walls. will be 1,271 feet. The foundation is on hard rock for the entire length. ]n its preliminary report this Commission estimated the time for completing the entire work on the Nicaragua route at about ten years. This was based on the expectation that two years would be required for preparatory work and eight years to construct the dam at Boca San Carlos, which would be begun only after a temporary harbor at Grey Town was constructed and other work done. A more favorable site for the dam having been found at Conchuda, its construction is no longer the controlling feature. It is estimated that this dam can be built in four years.

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 159 The estimated cost of the dam and auxiliary Cosfc wasteway is as follows: Dam at Conchuda, including sluices and machinery $4,017,650 Auxiliary wasteway, including sluices, machinery, and approach channels 2 f 045, 322 Total for dam and wasteway 6, 062, 972 The wasteways for the disposal of floods in the VYastewnys for reiriila1 1 1 1 £ ^.1 1 /^i •_•. tion of levels in pools. several levels or pools ot the canal (the summit level excepted) are simple overfall weirs, with the crests at the elevation of lowest water surface in the pool. The areas of the watersheds which drain into the several Overflow weirs. pools, and the areas permanently submerged, are for the eastern division approximately as follows: Level. Area to be submerged. Total area of watershed. Lock No. 1 to lock No. 2 Sq. miles. 13. 1 7.5 1.1 Sq. miles. 24 'i Lock No. 2 to loci No. 3 7;; i Lock No. 3 to lock No. 4 9 3 The areas for the division west of the lake, while not accurately determined, are known to be small. The eastern division is the region of heaviest rainfall. The ground is generally saturated, the slopes steep, and the basins small in area, so that the run-off is rapid and its ratio to rainfall unusually large. The greatest observed rainfall in twenty-four hours, as already stated, occurred at Grey Town in November, 1899, and amounted to 12.48 inches, of which 8 inches fell in six hours. During the same storm at Lake Silico 10.50 inches fell in six hours. The wasteways provide for a rainfall of 12 inches in twelve hours, the total amount falling on the areas not submerged reaching the pool within twenty-four hours. „ , The embankments are given a freeboard of 5 feet Freeboard. a above the level to which the assumed floods would rise, increased where the floods in the San Juan rise above the flood levels in the canal. The data concerning the flood levels of the San Juan are necessarily not exact. These assumed rainfalls and run-offs are greater than are likely to occur; but if they should be exceeded the works would not be endangered. If, for example, there should be a continuous rainfall of 1 inch per hour, extending indefinitely, the freeboard would be reduced in the lower end of the pool between lock No. 1 and lock No. 2 to 3.5 feet. Such a rainfall continued for twenty-four hours is without

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160 REPOKT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. precedent on this continent, so far as known. Plans of wasteways for the eastern division are shown on pi. 67. A small wasteway is provided in each of the levels between the summit level and the Pacific. Each of these is to be 100 feet in length. In the level between lock No. 5 and lock No. 6 the wasteway and channel lending therefrom will consist simply of a cut through sound rock to the Rio Grande, the bed being at the minimum canal level at the canal bank, and sloping thence toward the river. The wasteway in the level between lock No. t> and lock No. 7 is Wasteways on Pacific i • -i t i 1 1 glde to be similar in every way. In the next level toward the Pacific, which ends at the tide lock, there is no site for a wastewa} r with a rock foundation, but the water in the canal will be 12 or 15 feet below the surface of the valley at the upper end of the level, and but little below it at the lower end. It is proposed here to form a wasteway by excavating a channel in the earth from the canal to the river and to pave this for a distance of about 500 feet from the canal. The amount of water to be discharged here is small, and as the canal will be below valley level, a break in the canal bank will be impossible. Some of the rock which will be found in the Retaining walls. . n cuts is much disintegrated. Kock from which no core, or only small pieces, can be obtained by the diamond drill is classified in the estimates as soft rock. The rock thus classified is usually very soft on top, gradually becoming harder farther down and passing into the material classified as hard rock, where cores nearly continuous are obtained. For the purpose of making the estimate, it is assumed that the soft rock for half its depth will require lacing with a retaining wall. The top of the wall, 5 feet above the water surface in the canal, will be 5 feet wide. The face will be vertical. The back will also be vertical for 10 feet from the top and below that point will have a batter of 2 on 1. The project now presented is based upon a careMtematlve surveys. x J A . tul and detailed examination ot the physical conditions of the entire route. The line has been marked out on the ground, improvements have been made in location, and the subsurface materials have been explored by means of borings, many of which have been made with diamond drills. Samples of all materials have been obtained, and the classification is based on a careful study of* them. The completeness of the system of borings Examinations and borings. .... ., will be evident on an examination of the maps and profiles. The alternative dam sites at Boca San Carlos and Conchuda have received special attention. At each place three lines of borings, LOO feet apart, were made from bluff to bluff, the borings generally being LOO feet apart on each line, reduced to 50 feet where marked depressions in the rock surface had been revealed or indicated by the earlier borings.

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EEPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 161 With these data at hand, it is believed the difficulties of the route are fully disclosed. Should construction be decided on, doubtless minor improvements in location could be made, particularly in the section between the Conchuda dam and Grey Town where, on account of the dense vegetation, one can see but a short distance from any point. A few explorations of considerable magnitude were made to avoid special difficulties on this section. The first one to be made was to ascertain whether there existed a practicable route Route from I'pper San _ Jum to headwaters of the from the valley of the ban Juan to that 01 the Indl Indio. For years vague but persistent rumors of the existence of a low pass in the divide between the headwaters of the Machuca River and the Indio have been current. These reports were made chiefly by rubber hunters, the pioneers of this region, and considerable credence was given to them by many persons. If such a pass could be found, and the canal tea into another valley, avoiding the difficulties of the Lower San Juan, the change would be of great importance. A dam across the San Juan River at Machuca Rapids could be built more quickly, and would cost much less than at Conchuda or any other point below Machuca; but a canal in the San Juan Valle} 7 between Conchuda and Machuca would be very expensive on account of the hilly character of the country. Under the direction of this Commission a search Explorations. for such a route, extending over several months, was made by a well-equipped party. Surveys were made up the Bartola and Machuca rivers, with a view of utilizing the Machuca site for the San Juan River dam. The survey was carried up the Bartola to a point 638 feet above sea level without reaching the summit, and the route being manifestly impracticable, the survey was stopped. A survey was also made up the Machuca River, connecting with a survey of the Indio and its tributary, the Negro. The divide is 544 feet above sea level, and it would require a summit cut 24i miles long and 475 feet deep at the maximum to carry Lake Nicaragua level across it. The cost of this work alone would be greater than that of the entire canal fiom Machuca to the sea by the adopted route. It was decided also to examine the La Cruz del Norte, which discharges into the San Juan between Machuca Rapids and Conchuda. If this route had proved practicable, the Conchuda dam would still be required. The survey was carried over the divide to the Salvador, a branch of the Negro. The summit was 469 feet above sea level, and a summit cut 15£ miles long would have to be made. The cost of the canal by this route would be much greater than by the one adopted. In the district between the San Francisco hills and lock No. 2 borings along the center line of the canal revealed two sand deposits — one west of Tambor Grande ridge, extending about a mile along the canal line, with sand a little below the grade of canal bottom, and the other east S D— 57-1— Vol 7 11

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162 EEPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. of Tamborcito ridge, where the prism of the canal would be partly in sand. Borings were made to ascertain the limits route.* deP SUS n C3nal of the sand deposits, as well as surveys for a location farther inland. It was ascertained that such a location, avoiding the sand deposits, was practicable, but the cost of the canal would be greater than by the adopted route. A survey was also made of a line which leaves the adopted one 15i miles from the Caribbean, passes through Lake Silico, and continues to Grey Town. The line would be more direct, and the existing navigation from Grey Town to Lake Silico, which could easily be improved, and the narrow-gauge railroad recently built from Lake Silico to the San Juan River might be useful in the earlier period of construction. Lock No. 1 was located in the hills on the west side of Lake Silico, and the site was bored. The surface material, which was clay, was over the greater part underlaid by rock. This proved to be a volcanic overflow, underlaid by mud and sand. At the upper end of the lock site the lock foundation would have been in the sand. A good lock site having been found on the adopted line, the one through Lake Silico was abandoned. It is still possible that a better location may be found in this vicinity. As already stated, the movement of the sand along the coast, which at Grey Town seems to be at the maximum, decreases as the mouth of the Indio is approached. This stream doubtless brings down some sand and silt during floods. The amount is unknown, but is probably small. Immediatel} T north of its mouth a forest growth, fringing the ocean front, indicates that the shore line is not now being subjected to much change. In view of the small sand movement in the neighborhood of the mouth of the Indio and the apparent stability of the shore line there, it was thought advisable to locate an Indio route. . T . alternative route from iock JNo. 1 to a harbor site at that place. The line was a continuation of the tangent through lock No. 1 to a point near the sea, Avhere it curved slightly to the harbor and entered the sea on another tangent. It crosses the San Juanillo and Deseado near their junction. These streams would be diverted through a channel northwest of and practically parallel to the canal line and at a safe distance from it, and discharged into the sea to the northward of the harbor. This alternative route is of about the same length as the adopted one to Grey Town, but has a little less curvature. The fore shore of the coast is flatter thaD in the vicinity of Grey Town, requiring longer jetties to secure a harbor. The jetties should converge seaward to give a large area outside the shore line in which the force of the waves may expend themselves, as at Ymuiden. The first cost of this alter-

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 163 native route, both for excavation and harbor jetties, would be greater than that of the adopted one. There is reason to believe, however, that the cost of maintaining the harbor would be less, and possibly the saving in this respect would be sufficient to warrant the greater expenditure for construction. The harbor site at Grey Town, on the other hand, has one important advantage, that a harbor for light-draft vessels can be formed in less time. Protection to the entrance to such a harbor would be afforded by the east jetty before its construction was far advanced. An entrance with about 18 feet of water, opening into Grey Town lagoon, would be of great value for the landing of materials to be used in the construction of the railroad and canal. Moreover, an entrance at Gre} T Town would make it practicable to transfer materials to the river steamers, which in the earlier stages of the work would be of considerable value. The Commission estimates that such a harbor could be opened at Grey Town in about two years. A working harbor could also be constructed at the Indio site, but as the entrance there opens more directly seaward, both jetties would have to be commenced and built farther out to give adequate protection and would require considerable more time. Since the formation of the working harbor is preliminary to the beginning of canal construction proper, this additional period required at the Indio site would delay by a like mount the opening of the canal itself. The data concerning the Indio route are not so well ascertained as those relating to the adopted route terminating at Grey Town, but its advantage in respect to maintenance of the harbor can hardly be doubted. The Commission believes, however, that it is practicable to maintain a harbor at Grey Town which will be fully as serviceable in every way, and regards its advantages as a working harbor as of such importance that its estimates are based on that location. Mean sea levels of the Pacific at Brito and of the Atlantic at Grey Town were determined by the Nicaragua Canal Commission in 1898 and 1899 by a series of tide observations at each place and b}?a line of precise levels from Grey Town to Lake Nicaragua, and from Lake Nicaragua to Brito. The levels across the lake were transferred by water level in the lake, a series of observations extending over a period of twent3'-nine days being taken for this purpose. As thus determined, mean sea level in the Caribbean Sea at Grey Town was apparently 0.99 of a foot above that at Brito in the Pacific, but during this period the Pacific Ocean at Panama, as determined by the tide tables of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, was one foot below the normal. Assuming this to be true at Brito, and there seems to be no reason for doubting it, the mean level of the two oceans would be the same. Gopd sand for construction purposes can be had in large quantities in the bed of the lower San Juan, as well as on the seashores. There

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164 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. Railroad. are ample quantities of good stone for rubble and concrete. Cement is not now manufactured in Nicaragua, and it will probably be necessaiy to import it. There are now in Nicaragua small dams, cisterns, indigo vats, and other constructions built of concrete, which are quite old and in excellent state of preservation. Concrete ought to last indefinitely in the mild climate of Central America. There is an ample supply of stone on both sides of the lake suitable for jetty construction. A railroad for construction purposes will be necessary, and provision has been made for building one from Grey Town to the mouth of the Sabalos River, and from the west shore of the lake to Brito. The intervening space can be traversed by boats, the river between Fort San Carlos and the Sabalos being deep enough to accommodate, without improvement, such vessels as can reach the deep water of the lake from the San Juan. It is possible that the portion of the railroad between the Conchuda dam and Sabalos might be dispensed with, as the work between those points is almost entirety in the river, but it was thought best to provide convenient communication between the two oceans, as a transfer of material and men from the east to the west side of the lake, or from the west to the east side, might become important. The portion of the river between the dam and Sabalos is navigable only for small steamers. The railroad has been located on the south side of the canal, with the grade not exceeding 0.5 per cent. It is to be of standard gauge, supplied with sidings, stations, and water tanks, and fully equipped with the necessary rolling stock. The estimate is made on the basis of $75,000 per mile for the railroad completed and ready for operation. Summing up the various items, the total estimated cost of constructing the Nicaragua Canal is as follows: Miles. Cost. Grey Town Harbor and entrance Section from Grey Town Harbor to lock No. 1, including approach wall to lock.. Diversion of Lower San Juan Diversion of San Juanillo Lock No. 1, including excavation Section from lock No. 1 to lock No. 2, including approach walls, embankments, and waste way Lock No. 2, including excavation Section from lock No. 2 to lock No. 3, including approach walls, embankments, and wasteway Lock No. 3, including excavation Section from lock No. 3 to lock No. 4, including approach walls, embankments, and waste wa y Lock No. 4, including excavation Section from lock No. 4 to San Juan River, including approach wall and em bankits Conchuda dam, Including sluices and machinery Auxiliary wasteway, including sluices, machinery, and approach channels San Juan River section Lake Nicaragua section Lake Nicaragua to lock 5, including approach wall to lock and receiving basins for the Rio Grande and Chocolata Diversion of the Las Laj as Lock 5, including excavation Dam near Huen Retiro Section from lock No. 6 to lock No. 6, including approach walls and wasteway .. Lock 6, including excavation 2.15 7.44 .20 10.96 .20 16.76 .20 2.77 .20 6.30 49.64 70.51 9.09 2.04 .20 $2, 198, 860 4, 899, 887 40,100 116,760 5, 719, 686 6, 296, 632 4,050,270 19,330,654 3, 832, 745 4, 310, 580 5, 655, 871 8, 579, 431 4,017,650 2,045,322 23, 155, 670 7,877,611 19, 566, 675 199, 382 4, 913, 512 125, 591 3,259,283 4,368,667

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 165 Miles. Cost. Section from lock No. 6 to lock No. 7, including approach walls, embankments, ami wasteway 1. 83 Diversion of Rio Grande Lock No. 7, including excavation Section from lock No. 7 to lock No. 8, including approach walls, embankments, and wasteway Diversion of Rio Grande Lock No. 8, including excavation Section from lock No. 8 to Brito Harbor, including approach wall Brito Harbor and entrance, including jetty Railroad, including branch line to Conehuda dam site, at 875,000 per mile Total Engineering, police, sanitation, and general contingencies, 20 per cent Aggregate 2.43 .20 .23 .92 82, 309, 710 176, 180 4,709,502 1,787,498 117,580 4, 920, 899 553, 476 1,509,470 7,575,000 183.66 158,220,052 31,644,010 189,864,062 An estimate has been made of the time required to pass through the canal by ships of several t} r pes, the details of which are given in Appendix G. The estimated time is thirty hours for a ship of average size, 400 feet long, 50 feet beam, and 24.5 feet draft, and thirtyseven and six-tenths hours for a ship 650 feet long, 70 feet beam, and 32 feet draft, which corresponds closely with the largest ships afloat. The following is a brief summary of the work ££££££££ that has been done by the corporation known as the Maritime Canal Company of Nicaragua in the construction of a canal on the Nicaragua route: The annual reports of the Maritime Canal Company for the year 1889 and subsequent thereto, made in pursuance of the requirements of the act of Congress incorporating the company, show that actual work of construction was begun October 8, 1889, and was suspended some time in 1893. During this period of over three } T ears comparatively little work was accomplished. In 1893 the Nicaragua Canal Construction Company, with which a contract was made by the Maritime Canal Company for construction, suspended payments and work ceased. The reports of the company show that during this period a telegraph line was built from Grey Town to Castillo, where it connected with the lines belonging to the Nicaraguan Government. Other telegraph and telephone lines were established to connect headquarters with some of the camps or stations. A single-track standard-guage railroad was built, 11^ miles in length, from Grey Town to a point between the sites of the first two locks, and is reported to have been equipped with 4 locomotives, 50 cars, and other requisites. Much of this railroad was built across a swamp, requiring timber cribbing, on which a temporary track was laid, and the permanent embankment was formed of sand hauled by trains from the canal spoil banks near Grey Town. A number of buildings, workshops, quarters, hospitals, and storehouses were also constructed. In all, 39 buildings, having a floor space of 75,902 square feet, sheds, water tanks, and other smaller structures are reported as having been constructed, in addition to wharves equipped for unloading heavy freight.

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166 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. A jett}" or pier was constructed for securingan entrance into Grey Town Lagoon from the sea. It was built 42 feet wide, of creosoted piles and timber, and filled with brush, stone, and concrete blocks. It extended about 937 feet into the sea. The pier was intended to intercept the westward drift of the beach sand and cause an opening to be formed into the lagoon, which it did. The current soon deepened it to about 7 feet, permitting the dredges which Imd been purchased by the canal company to be floated in. Afterwards the entrance was still further deepened by dredging to a depth reported as about 15 feet. The channel has since been closed by sand, the jetty is much decayed, and some of it washed into the sea. The company brought to Grey Town six dredges which had previously worked on the Panama Canal. In the reports to the Secretary of the Interior it is stated that seven were purchased. One was said to have been lost at sea between Colon and Grey Town. Besides the dredging done in the sea entrance to the lagoon, some was done to provide anchorage and access to the company's buildings and shops and also on the canal proper. This latter work was done b} 7 an elevator dredge, making a single cut for a distance inland of about 4,350 feet, with a width of 167 feet and depth of 16i feet. This was followed by another cut of about 3,000 feet in length, the width of the double cut being 279 feet. There has been no apparent deterioration in this excavated portion of the canal. The canal company's reports state that important work had been done on the Machuca Rapids and quantities of rock removed from the bed of the San Juan at that point. The canal line was reported cleared of timber for a distance of 20 miles from the Atlantic coast. The company also reported that 8 miles of the route of the canal on the west side of the lake was cleared of timber and undergrowth and that the line of the railroad which was to extend from the lake to the Pacific was caref ully surveyed and located. Nearly all the property of the Maritime Canal Company, including dredges, boats, tugs, etc., has gone to ruin, except the railroad and the 4,350 feet of partially constructed canal. The buildings now standing are in bad condition. Some of them in 1897 were capable of being repaired and were used by the employees of the Nicaragua Canal Commission and later by the employees of the Isthmian Canal Commission. Practically none of the property would have any value to-day in the construction of the canal, except, possibly, the canal excavation made from Grey Town Lagoon inland, and this would be of value only as part of a channel for the diversion of the San Juanillo River. It is now understood that the failure of the Maritime Canal Company to complete the canal within the time required by the concession has worked the forfeiture of the latter, and that all the property of the company in Nicaragua has been taken possession of by the Nicaraguan Government.

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CHAPTER VII. EARTHQUAKES, VOLCANOES, CLIMATE, HEALTH. So much has been written upon the liability of Earthquakes. ... . an isthmian canal to injury or destruction by earthquakes, that a brief discussion of the subject seems desirable. The cause of earthquakes is not well understood, Obscurity of subject. • -> , • but amid the obscurity surrounding the subject there are a few salient facts which seem to be generally accepted. The first is that the geographical distribution of volcanoes corresponds with the areas most subject to earthquakes. One of the most celebrated and destructive earthquakes known to history — that of Lisbon in 1755 — occurred far from any volcano; S u!, 1 ""lfea 1 r ir' i rk f ,0S< and so with that of New Madrid, Mo., in 1812, and that of Charleston, S. C, in 1886; but the general statement is correct, that they are more frequent in volcanic countries than elsewhere, though there is probably no part of the earth's surface which is entirely exempt from these disturbances. It does not follow that volcanoes and earthquakes bear to each other the relation of cause and effect, but it is highly probable that they represent different manifestations of the same subterranean forces. 1 The doctrine that volcanoes are safety valves Yolcanoes safety Yalves. 1 • 1 t • • i i • i ,. which diminish the violence of earthquakes in their vicinity is accepted by such writers as Baron von Humboldt, Sir Charles Lyell, Prof. Charles Daubeny, and J. Le Conte. 2 In general terms, then, the region of volcanoes is the region of earthquakes, but the immediate vicinity of the volcanoes is not necessarily the most dangerous part of the region. The location of the principal volcanoes in the can"c region. m P art ^ the world where lies the isthmus is shown on plate 70. From a glance at this map it is evident that the entire isthmus between North and South America is a volcanic region. Humboldt thus speaks of it : The grandest example of a continental volcanic chain is offered by the great rampart of ^'Earthquakes," by John Milne. D. Appleton & Co., N. Y., 1899. 2 Humboldt's "Cosmos," Sabine's translation, eighth edition, Vol. I, p. 202; "Principles of Geology," by Sir Charles Lyell, first American edition, Vol. I, p. 32; "Volcanoes," by Charles Daubeny, second edition, p. 691; "Elements of Geology," by J. Le Conte, fourth edition, p. 105. 167

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168 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. the Andes extending from the southern part of Chile to the northwest coast of America." 1 No portion of it is exempt from earthquakes. The record of those which have occurred is meager, being as a rule confined to those severe enough to inflict damage upon buildings or otherwise attract general attention. The most complete catalogue to which the Commission has had access is that Records available. • -n -i i-r.ii prepared by Mr. p. de Montessus de Ballore, published in 1888. It covers the entire period from the time of the Spanish conquest to the year 1886. No very important earthquake has occurred upon either the Nicaragua or Panama lines since the latter date. The record for points upon the line of the Nicaragua Canal shows 14 earthquakes. Two of these were felt at Grey Town, which has been supposed b} T some writers to be exempt. The only one which is reported to have caused serious injury was that of 1844 — Rivas was almost destroyed, and great damage was done at Earthquakes on KlcaraQ T()wn Riyas y 4 m[} ^ from ^ ^^ ^ gua liue. and is the only town of consequence in that part of Nicaragua. It has had a continuous existence since a period antedating the conquest, when it was known as Nicarao. It was subsequently known as Nicaragua. For Panama the records show 28 earthquakes. Of these, 12 occurred in the three years 1882, 1883, and 1884, which illustrates the incompleteness of the record as a whole. The only one that could be called destructive was that of 1621, which destroyed nearly all the houses in Panama. The next most severe was that of Sep^Earthqnakes on Panama ^^ ^ jgg^ During fchi g earthquake a part of the front of the cathedral in Panama was thrown down and the headquarters building of the canal company was cracked; the railroad had its track and roadbed in places thrown out of line, and the masonry of three or four bridges and culverts was damaged; at Las Cruces the church was thrown down; at Colon some lives were lost and crevasses were opened, and the Jamaica telegraph cable was broken. It is evident that this list is not complete enough to justify a comparison between the Nicaragua and Panama routes as to either the number of earthquakes or their severity. They t w N onne ff 8 e renCebetWee,,t!,e are on precisely the same footing historically as the} 7 are geographically. In neither case is there recorded any great disasters such as have occurred in neighboring countries. The earthquake of Caracas to the eastward in 1812, and 1 Cosmos, Vol. I, p. 228. J Tremblemente de Terre et Eruptions. Volcaniques au Centre-Amerique, by F. de Montessus de Ballore, p. 61. Societe des Sciences Naturelles de Saone-et-Loire, Dijon, 1888.

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 169 that of Jamaica to the northward in 1092, are well known as among the most destructive in history. To the northwestward the town of San Salvador has been ruined ten times and that of Guatemala seven times. To the southward, the earthquake of Riobamba, in the province of Quito, in 1779, was one of the most terrible phenomena in the history of the globe. 1 With the exception of the injury to Panama in 1621 and to Rivas in 1844, the worst that has ever happened at the isthmus upon either line was to throw down or crack a few walls; and even in those cases it is to be remembered that comparatively few of the houses were substantially built. The internal disturbance which results in an earthquake is transmitted to any given point of the earth's surface in the form of an elastic wave of compression, and its effects may be of infinite variety, depending upon the varying elasticity of the different media through which it passes, and their shape, as well as the eaX.Tkes! aCtl
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170 BEPOKT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. It is possible and even probable that the more accurately fitting portions of the canal, such as the lock gates, may at times be distorted by earth quakes, and some inconvenience may result Injury to be expected. ,. , therefrom, that contingency may be classed with the accidental collision of ships with the gates, and is to be provided for in the same way, by duplicate gates. It is possible also that a fissure might open which would drain the canal, and if it remained open, might destroy it. This possibility should not be erected by the fancy into a threatenDangcr from a fissure. _. . . mg danger. It a timorous imagination is to be the guide, no great work can be undertaken anywhere. This risk may be classed with that of a great conflagration in a city like that of Chicago in 1871, or Boston in 1872. It is the opinion of the Commission that such danger as exists from earthquakes is essentially the same for both the Nicaragua and Panama routes, and that in neither case is it sufficient to prevent the construction of the canal. The climate of the Isthmian Canal regions is Climate. generally damp and enervating, lhe temperature is not extreme, rarety rising as high as 95 or falling below 70, but the excessive humidity greatly restricts the capacity for physical exertion. The lowlands near the coast have long been known as insalubrious, and the seaports are subject to fevers. Perhaps the greatest difficulty to be encountered in the construction of the canal will be the procurement of an adequate force of laborers and the preservation of their health and efficiency. In this respect the Panama route has a lugubrious history from which the Nicaragua route is free. The notorious mortality which attended the construction of the Panama Railroad and later the operations of the Panama Canal Company has taught a Kxperien,-, at Panama j fa j fa jj, fc })Q forgotten for that and Nicaragua. route. Among the white employees of this Commission sent to Nicaragua there were fewer cases of sickness than there would probably have been among the same number of men employed in some parts of the United States. Among those sent to Panama the proportion of sick was greater. On the Nicaragua line during the operations of the Maritime Canal Company the health of the force was reported to be good. These operations, however, were of a preliminary character, employing but a limited number of men. It is probable that when ten or twenty thousand men are assembled and the rank soil is being turned up over a widely developed line of works the experience will be different. There are some slight differences of climate. In Nicaragua the trade winds are more regular than at Panama, tempering the heat and removing miasma more effectively; but, on the other hand, the rainfall

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 171 is greater at Nicaragua, at least for the east side, and the resulting humidity is greater. Both are covered with the rank vegetation peculiar to the Tropics, and swamps abound in both. The lessons taught at Panama should be heeded for Nicaragua also. It is stated bv Mr. Bunau-Varilla, at one time Lessons from Panama. . chief engineer of the old Panama Canal Company, that out of one hundred individuals sent to the Isthmus not more than twenty, as an average, could remain there, and even these lost a part of their value. The negro alone could perform manual labor; the white man must supervise and direct. After costly and fatal experiments with other races the company ceased sending to the Isthmus as laborers any but native Colombians and negroes from the British Antilles, particularly Jamaica. The Panama Railroad Company grants to its white employees from the United States two months' leave of absence each year, with transportation to their homes. Careful selection, including physical examination, of persons sent to the Isthmus, a well-organized hospital service, an efficient sanitary supervision of camps and barracks, a rigid q narration™" heaitL. r preser antine service, a liberal water supply and sewerage system, with the authority and the police force necessary to enforce the rules, and regular leaves of absence to white emplo}'ees, are among the requirements for a successful prosecution of the work, and will probably be found necessary at either place*.

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Chapter VIII. BIGHTS, PRIVILEGES, AND FRANCHISES, The act of Congress under which the CommistoinTesu^uon. laWa8 s on was appointed and the instructions of the Chief Executive thereunder require a full and complete investigation of the Isthmus of Panama with a view to determining the most feasible and practicable route across said Isthmus for a canal, together with the cost of constructing and placing the same under the control, management, and ownership of the United States. The right to own and manage the canal when constructed can not be exercised without control of the territory through which its line actually passes and that immediately contiguous thereto and the ports or harbors at either end, also that occupied by the auxiliary works; and in order that the duties of the Commission may be clearly understood, it is important to consider and determine how far it was contemplated by the law-making power that this control should extend. The proposition before Congress up 1 which this legislation was based was that the United States should, in a governmental capacity, construct, maintain, and operate a navigable waterway through the territory of foreign states. This can not be done under the laws of nations without their consent, and no treaties then existed or have since been concluded giving such consent. Treaties have been heretofore made by the United States and by the Governments through whose territory the different canal routes mentioned in the law extend relating to this subject of an interoceanic communication, and in all of them these States have expressly reserved the right of sovereignty and it has been respected by our Government. Thev have made a like reservation in all the contracts made with corporations, associations, and individuals granting privileges to enable them to construct a canal by these different routes. The organic laws that the people of these different States have made for themselves give no authority to relinquish sovereignty over any part of their territory to a foreign power for this or any other purpose. If the government and people were willing to make such changes in them as would authorize the cession of any part of their territory, these changes could be effected only after long delays, that would seriously hinder and delay the inauguration of this great undertaking. 172

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 173 It must also be remembered that this subject of constructing a maritime canal had been before Congress many times before the law under consideration was enacted, and that no proposition to obtain the entire and absolute control that sovereignty gives was ever adopted by either House. If a departure from the line of action which had been followed up to that time was intended, it would doubtless have been clearly expressed. The acquisition of the territory to be occupied Sovereign^ or united and the extension over it of the sovereignty of states over canal route . a J not requisite. the United States, desirable and advantageous as it might be, is not essential to the success of such a project as the statute contemplates. The Republics owning the proposed routes are all friendly to an interoceanic communication, and there are no constitutional or other legal obstructions in the way of an agreement, in harmony with existing treaty obligations between any of them and the United States, authorizing the latter to enter its territory and excavate a canal there with such additional authority as may be necessary to make and enforce police and quarantine regulations, establish and collect tolls and other proper charges, and protect the canal and those engaged in its construction and operation and the persons and property using and passing through it when completed, such powers and privileges to be exercised subject to the sovereignty of the Republics in which the property is situated. In order to exercise these rights and perform quired! 0ry ™" these functions the United States will require the control of a strip of territory from sea to sea, including the canal and auxiliary works, with sufficient space at each terminus for all port and harbor accommodations, including offices, warehouses, residences for officials and workmen, docks, light-houses, and quarantine stations. Within this area those charged with the direction of the canal project during the period of construction, and with the management and operation of the work and its auxiliaries after completion, should have power to protect the entire line from intrusion by evil-disposed persons, prevent smuggling, regulate the kinds of business that ordinarily require control, and enforce police, sanitary, and other appropriate rules and regulations, as well as contracts relating to the construction and operation of the canal. ... M The strip should be of sufficient width to preBreadth of strip. r i vent wrongdoers from easily withdrawing beyond the limits of police jurisdiction and thus avoid arrest and escape punishment. It should be not less than 10 miles in width; that is, 5 miles on each side of the center line of the canal throughout its entire length and including its terminal harbors. ifrights, privileges, and An y rights, privileges, and franchises still in franchises exist, they force which may have been granted by the States should be removed. .i ., .. owning the territory to corporations, associa-

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174 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. tions, or individuals at any of these canal routes are in the wa} T of negotiations to secure the desired privileges and powers, and the Commission is charged with the duty of ascertaining what rights of this nature exist and upon what terms they can be purchased and removed. Such rights, privileges, and franchises depend Treaties to be examined. . , -. largely upon the international relations and obligations which exist between the Governments whose territory is to be occupied and the United States and other Governments claiming an interest in the subject of an interoceanic communication; so this investigation property begins with an examination of the treaties between these different Governments in order to ascertain upon what basis such grants and concessions have rested, and also to determine whether any definite policy has been developed by the negotiations which have resulted in these conventions with reference to opening a communication for the commerce of the world across the American isthmus and its future control and ownership. If airy other obstacles exist in the way of obtaining the necessary authority to occupy and use the territory required, such an investigation will develop them, and this is the first step toward their removal. The treaties relating to the Nicaragua route will arS™Ie! at,ngt KJC fir st be considered, and these include not only those concluded with the Republic of Nicaragua, but also those in which the Republic of Costa Rica was one of the contracting parties, as the geographical situation requires the consent of both these Governments before a canal can be constructed on this route, for though but little of the territory of the latter will be used in any of the proposed plans, much of it will be affected therein'. Whatever doubt may have existed upon this estedh. th's^oute! '" point was removed by the award made by President Cleveland on the 22d day of March, 1888, in the arbitration for the settlement of the differences which had arisen between the two Republics as to their respective boundary rights, in which it was expressly determined that in cases where the construction of an interoceanic canal across Nicaragua will involve an injury to the natural rights of Costa Rica, her consent to its construction is necessary, and she may demand compensation for the concessions she is asked to make. On the 21st day of June, 1867, a treaty was Treaty between Dnited negotiated between the United States and the States and Nicaragua, 18G7. Republic or Nicaragua for the purpose or maintaining and improving the friendly relations then existing between them, of promoting the commerce of their citizens, and, last and chiefly, of making some mutual arrangement with respect to a communication between the two oceans by the river San Juan and

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 175 cither or both the lakes of Nicaragua and Managua, or by any other route through the territories of Nicaragua. The two Republics agreed upon a reciprocal freedom of commerce, opened their ports, rivers, and harbors to the ships and cargoes of each other, and assured to the merchants and traders of each nation, respectively, complete protection and security to their commerce, subject always to the laws of the two countries. The respective ships of war and post-office packets of each Government were granted the same liberty to enter the ports of the other, anchor and refit there, as the war ships and packets of other nations enjoyed. And generally they declared their intention to treat each other on the footing of the most favored nations and any favor, privilege, or immunity in matters of commerce and navigation already granted, or that might thereaftei be granted, to the citizens or subjects of any other State was extended on equal terms to the citizens or subjects of the other contracting part} 7 The Republic of Nicaragua also granted to the United States and to their citizens and property the right of transit between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans through its territory on any route of communication, natural or artificial, by land or water, then existing or to be thereafter constructed under the authority of Nicaragua, the same to be used on equal terms by both Republics and their citizens, Nicaragua, however, reserving its sovereignty over the same. The United States agreed to protect all such routes of communication and to guarantee their neutrality and innocent use; also to influence other nations, as far as possible, to guarantee such neutrality and protection. Liberty was granted to the United States, on giving notice to the authorities of Nicaragua, to carry troops and munitions of war from one free port to the other to be established at each extremity of the line of communication between the two oceans without charges or tolls for their transportation, provided such troops and munitions were not to be employed against Central American nations friendly to Nicaragua. Nicaragua agreed to employ military forces when necessary for the security and protection of persons and property passing over any such route of communication. But upon failure to do so authority was given to the United States, in certain specified contingencies, to employ such force, but onty for the purpose of protection, the force to be immediately withdrawn when the necessity should cease. Nicaragua agreed to protect and preserve the rights and privileges, with reference to the establishment of an interoceanic communication, granted to the United States by this treaty in any grants or contracts thereafter entered into by the Government. And the assurance of protection to such routes, given by the United States, was declared

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176 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. inoperative, so far as prior grants were concerned, unless their holders should agree to observe the concessions granted by the treaty as fully as if they had been embraced in the original grants or contracts. This treaty was ratified in June, 1868, and was to remain in force for fifteen years thereafter, or longer, unless one of the parties should give notice to the other of its intention to terminate it at least twelve months before the expiration of that time. If such notice were not given, it could at any time thereafter be terminated, in twelve months, in the same way. The Government of Nicaragua exercised this privilege on the 27th of September last, and the notice was received by the Secretary of State on the 24th day of October, so that in twelve months from that date the treat} 7 will be abrogated. It is thoroughly understood that this action has been taken in a friendly spirit and with a desire to remove all obstructions in the way of a new treaty, in harmony with the cordial relations of friendship which happily exist between the two Governments. A copy of this treaty is attached to this report marked Appendix K. Subsequently, on the 1st day of December, 1884, another treaty was negotiated between the United States and treat JNicaragua. It is generally known as the rrelinghuysen-Zavala treaty and its purpose was to provide for the construction of a navigable canal across the territory of Nicaragua by the United States, to be owned by the two contracting Republics. It provided for a perpetual alliance between the United States and Nicaragua, and the former agreed to protect the integrity of the territory of the latter and disavowed any intention to seek in any wa} T to impair its independent sovereignty. The canal was to be constructed by the United States upon the most available route from ocean to ocean and was to be commenced within two years from the ratification of the treaty and completed within ten years, or as soon thereafter as circumstances would permit. It was to be large enough to accommodate vessels of the greatest size in use and when completed was to be managed by a board of six directors; three of these were to be appointed by Nicaragua, the other three, including the chairman, were to be appointed by the President of the United States, and the chairman was to have a casting vote, in addition to his vote as a member of the board, whenever the members were equally divided. Costa Rica was not a party to this arrangement and the treaty included no provision for the protection of any rights that Republic might have upon or near the line of the canal. Nicaragua permitted the free use of its territory, so far as might be necessary, for the construction, maintenance, and operation of the

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN (ANAL COMMISSION. 177 canal, and granted valuable concessions and privileges in aid of the enterprise, but all the money needed for the construction was to be furnished by the United States. A strip of territory 2$ miles in width, the center line to coincide with the center line of the canal, and a strip of the same width around the south end of the lake and along the river, where used a part of the canal, were t'> be set apart for the work. This was to be owned by the contracting parlies, but Nicaragua was to exercise civil jurisdiction within it, and was to provide a police system to keep the peace and prevent smuggling into her territory; the cost of this service was to be a charge upon the revenues of the canal. The net earnings of the work when in operation were to be divided quarterly between the tw T o contracting parties, one-third to belong to Nicaragua, two-thirds to the United States. The United States agreed also to advance to Nicaragua $4,000,000, to be repaid with 3 per cent interest from its share of the dividends or from the general revenues of the Republic, as might be most convenient, but the repayment was not to be exacted till ten years after the opening of the canal to commerce. If the terms of the treaty were not compatible with other treaties made by the Republic with other Governments, Nicaragua agreed to terminate such incompatible treaties without unnecessary delay. Each party agreed not to dispose or suffer itself to be deprived of its interest in the canal property without the consent of the other manifested by legislative enactment. This treaty was submitted to the Senate and was there rejected, but a motion was made to reconsider the rejection, and Congress adjourned before final action was taken upon this motion. At the beginning of the next Congress and before any further action had been taken the treaty was withdrawn by President Cleveland for the reason, given in his message of December, 1885, that the engagement to form a perpetual alliance with Nicaragua and protect the territorial integrity of that State was inconsistent with the declared policy of the United States. A copy of this treaty is attached to this report, marked Appendix L. Prior to these treaties with the United States Treaty between Nicaragua Nicaragua, on the 11th day of February, 1860, and Ureal Britain, FebruT • •" ary, 1SG0. entered into a treaty with Great Britain very similar in its terms to the first-named treaty with the United States. It, however, gave either party the right to terminate it after the expiration of twenty years, upon giving due notice to the other, and Nicaragua exercised this right by giving such notice on the 7th day of May, 1887, in response to which Great Britain announced Terminated. tnat the treat y would expire on the 11th day of June, 1888. S D— 57-1— Vol 7 12

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178 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. A copy of this treaty is attached to this report, marked Appendix M. Another treaty had been made by these powers Treat, i.ehvcen Nicaragua w ith one another on the 28th day of January. and Great Britain, January, < ___ . . i860. 1860, which is still in force. In one or its articles Nicaragua agreed to declare the port of Grey Town a free port under its own sovereignty. It was agreed that no dues or charges should be imposed upon vessels using this port other than such as should be sufficient for the maintenance and safety of navigation and providing the expense of police, and no charges or duties were to be levied upon goods in transit through this port from sea to sea. A copy of this treaty is attached to this report, marked Appendix X. A treaty was also made by Nicaragua with an?Fr?n b ce!78T9 MCara?Uil France on the 11th day of April, 1850, and it was confirmed early in the following year. It extended to France the right of transit across the territory of the Republic by all natural or artificial routes on land or sea then existing or thereafter constructed, to be used and enjoyed in the same manner and on equal terms by both of the contracting parties and their citizens and subjects. France consented to extend protection to all such routes of communication, to guarantee .their neutrality and inoffensive use. and to use whatever influence the Government might have with other nations to persuade them also to guarantee this neutrality and protection. It contains a like agreement on the part of Nicaragua to employ military force when necessary for the security and protection of persons and property passing over any such route of communication, and to permit the other contracting party to employ its own military force for such protection under certain circumstances to that found in the treaties alread} T referred to with the United States and Gnat Britain. A copy of this treaty is attached to this report, marked Appendix O. After this treaty had been in force for twenty years, either party was by its terms authorized, by giving twelve months' notice to the other, to terminate its provisions relating to commerce and navigation; but if such action were taken, the articles concerning the relations of peace and amity were to remain binding on the two powers. Nicaragua gave such notice on the 9th day of May, 1897, and France accepted the action in the following year. Other treaties were made by Nicaragua with Other treaties made liy o • • -, otn\ 'xl t> i • • -io~o *aI it l Nicaragua. opain in 18o0, with Belgium in 18;>S, with Italy in 18(58, two with Costa Rica in L869, and one with Germany in 1896. Some of these mention the canal project and grant the privilege of transit, and the contracting parties generally treat with each other on the footing of the most favored nations. They all aid in ascertaining the views which the commercial nations

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN (ANAL COMMISSION. 179 and people of the world have hold, and .still hold, with reference to the establishment of an interoceanic waterway, and the policy that should be maintained in its management. A list of these treaties made by Nicaragua, and the publication in which each can be found, is attached to this report, marked "Appendix P." ciayton-Buhver treaty. rhe Clayton-Bulwer treaty, made between Great Britain and the United States on the 19th day of June, 1S50, also has an important bearingupon this subject, although neither Nicaragua nor Costa Rica was a party to it; for in its preamble it is stated that it was entered into for the purpose of setting 'forth and fixing the views and intentions of the two contracting parties with reference to any means of communication between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, by the way of the river San Juan 'and either or both of the lakes of Nicaragua and Managua to the Pacific Ocean. In this treaty the two Governments declared that neither would ever obtain or maintain for itself any exclusive control over the proposed communication by canal; that neither would ever erect or maintain any fortifications commanding the same or in the vicinity thereof, or occupy, fortify, or exercise any dominion over Nicaragua, Costa Rica, or any part of Central America; and that neither would use any alliance or influence it might possess with any state or government through whose territory the said canal might pass for the purpose of acquiring for the citizens or subjects of the one any rights or advantages in regard to commerce or navigation through the said canal which should not be offered on the same terms to the citizens or subjects of the other. In case of war between the contracting parties, it was agreed that the vessels of each country should be exempt from blockade or capture by either of the belligerents while traversing the canal or near either of its ends. The contracting parties further engaged to protect the canal when completed and guarantee its neutrality, so that it might be forever open and free and the capital invested in it be secure; and they agreed to invite every State to enter into similar stipulations, so that all might share in the honor and advantage of having contributed to a work of such general interest and importance. They also declared that they entered into this convention not only to accomplish a particular object, but also to establish a general prin ciple, and agreed that they would, by further treaty stipulations, extend their protection to any other practicable communications across the isthmus, whether by canal or railway, particularly to the interoceanic communications by the way of Tehauntepec or Panama. A copy of this treaty is attached to this report, marked "Appendix Q." LF

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180 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. A subsequent treaty was negotiated between the Treaty between cmted contracting parties at Washington on the 5th day States and Great Britain of _. ™ „ ^ ,. ,.„ February 6, 1900. of February, 190 v 0, tor the purpose or modifying the Clayton-Bulwer treaty, which was amended by the Senate before ratification, but the amendments were not accepted by Great Britain. An examination of all these treaties shows that i.Jero!eau h eanl re,,Ce * Nicaragua has for a longperiod favored the establishment of a communication for commerce and travel and governmental operations through its territory between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, with a free port at each extremity, and that the contracting Governments are in harmony upon the following points with reference to the construction and operation of any such route through Nicaraguan territory, if a maritime canal is there located. These points of agreement indicate a well-defined policy with reference to this subject, which is acceptable to the nations and people of the world that have manifested an interest in an interoceanic communication. 1. The recognition of the right of sovereignty of Nicaragua over the territor}^ of the Republic to be occupied in making and maintaining the proposed communication between the two oceans. 2. The right of transit by this route and its innocent use to be enjoyed upon equal terms by other governments, their citizens and subjects. 3. The neutrality of the route guarantied by the contracting parties, with an agreement to use their influence to induce other nations to make a like guaranty. 4. Military force to be supplied by Nicaragua when needed for the security and protection of the canal and auxiliary works, the officers and workmen engaged in its construction and operation, and the vessels passing through it, with their officers, crews, passengers, and cargoes. 5. If Nicaragua fails at any time to employ a force adequate for this purpose, other contracting parties may furnish such force with the consent of Nicaragua, and, in exceptional cases of imminent danger, without such consent. 6. Grants relating to interoceanic communications are to be subject to the privileges conceded by these treaties. 7. Each contracting party in these treaties stands toward the other on the footing of the most favored nation. These treaties relate to projects to be undertaken by companies or individuals, with the exception of the Frelinghuysen-Zavala treaty, negotiated between Nicaragua and the United States in December. 1884; this is the only one in which the consent of any of these Governments has been given for the construction and operation of a canal

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 181 through its territory, to be owned and operated in whole or in part by the United Slates. The withdrawal of the Frelinghuysen-Zavala treaty was followed by negotiations between AnieetoG. Menocal, a member and representative of the Nicaragua Canal Association of New York, and the Govconcession to Nicaragua ernment of Nicaragua, which resulted in a certain Canal Association. concession from the Republic, granting to the association the exclusive privilege of excavating and operating a maritime canal across the territory of Nicaragua between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, with grants of lands, exemption from taxation, and other valuable rights and franchises, to aid in the construction, maintenance, and operation of the work. The concession was to be exercised by a company of execution to be called the Maritime Canal Company of Nicaragua, and was to continue for ninety-nine years from the day the canal should be opened to universal traffic. The association was allowed two and a half years from the date of the ratification of the contract, on the 21th day of April, 1887, to make the preliminary arrangements and commence the work of construction, and the company of execution was required to complete the canal and open it for maritime navigation within ten years thereafter; but it was agreed that in case of unavoidable delays impeding the progress of the work the time should be extended. In case of failure to complete the canal within the time designated in the contract or within the period of extension, if an extension should be granted, the concession was to be forfeited; and at the close of the term of ninety-nine years, or in the event of a forfeiture, the Republic was to enter upon possession of the entire work and all the establishments used in its administration in perpetuity, but the grantees were to have the right to lease the property for another period of ninety-nine years, on the condition of paying to the Republic 25 per cent of the annual net profits, in addition to the dividends due upon its shares in the capital stock. At the close of this second term the rights and privileges of the Maritime Canal Company were to expire and the canal was to belong to the Republic in perpetuit}*. In consideration of the rights, privileges, and franchises conceded to the company the Republic was to receive in shares, bonds, certificates, or other securities issued to raise the corporate capital 6 percent of the total amount of the issue, such amount in no event to be less than $4,000,000— that is, 40,000 shares or obligations of $100,000 each— the same to be subject to no charges, assessments, or payments. The interest of the Republic was to be represented in the board of directors of the company by one member to be appointed by the Government with the same powers, privileges, and rights that other members might be entitled to under the act of incorporation and the rules made there-

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182 REPORT OF THP: ISTHMIAN" CANAL COMMISSION. under. As a further compensation it was stipulated that no tolls or charges should be exacted from Nicaragua!) ships of war, and that merchant vessels belonging wholly to citizens of the Republic and sailing under the Nicaraguan flag should pay only one-half of the usual tolls for the use of the canal while engaged in the coasting trade or in reciprocal trade with other Republics of Central America or when beginning a foreign voyage with a cargo composed wholh T of home products. Under certain circumstances like privileges were to be extended to the other Republics of Central America. A copy of this contract is attached to this report, marked "Appendix R." In accordance with the terms of the concession Maritime Canal Company £ >!• j £ -\ m \ i. jz /~i of Nicaragua incorporated. from Nicaragua and one of like terms from Costa Rica, which will be referred to more at length later on in this report, a compan} T of execution was organized under the name of "The Maritime Canal Company of Nicaragua" and was incorporated by an act of Congress approved on the 20th day of February, 1SS9. A copy of this act is attached to this report, marked "Appendix S." The company was required by this act to make an annual report on the rirst Monday of December to the Secretary of the Interior, giving under oath a detailed statement of its affairs, its assets and liabilities. This requirement has beencomplied with, and the report has been printed as a Senate executive document each year since 1889. From these reports it appears that the surveys and plans for the canal were completed within the time required by the concession and duly approved by the Nicaraguan Government, and that the work of actual construction had been begun within this limit and officially recognized on the 8th day of October, 1889. The work proceeded under a contract with the Nicaragua Canal Construction Company, and some progress was made, but the construction company met with financial embarrassment, the work was stopped, and the company was obliged to suspend payment. This resulted in the appointment of a receiver for the companj 7 on the 30th day of August, 1893, hy the circuit court of the United States for the southern district of New York, and the work of construction has not been since resumed. The President of Nicaragua, in a message to the Concession of Maritime tanai Company declared Congress or tlie Republic dated on the 2
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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION". 183 forfeiture authorizes Nicaragua to enter upon possession in perpetuity of all the property oi' the company within the territory of the Republic without being required to pay any indemnity. Before the time limited for the construction and conmBiontoiiiteroceanic completion of the canal the Government of NicaCanal Company. i ragua, on the 31st day of August, 1898, entered into another contract, or "promise of contract," as it was officially designated, for the construction of an interoceanic canal through the territory of the Republic. The other contractingparties were Edward Eyre and Edward F. Cragin, who agreed to organize a company of execution to be called "The Interoceanic Canal Company," which should perform the obligations entered into with the State. It was declared that the concession to the Maritime Company would expire by its terms on the 9th day of October, 1899, and that the new concession to Messrs. Eyre and Cragin should take effect on the following day without further action. Messrs. Eyre and Cragin were, however, permitted to negotiate w T ith the Maritime Company, so as to secure the recision of its contract at an earlier da} 7 in which event the Interoceanic Canal Compan} 7 was to be permitted to enter upon its privileges from the date of the recision. This contract gave to the Interoceanic Canal Company many valuable prerogatives and franchises, in addition to the grants, exemptions, and other privileges connected with the canal project, authorizing the corporation to embark in business enterprises of many different kinds throughout the entire Republic. Messrs. Eyre and Cragin obligated themselves to effect the organization of the company of execution within six months from the recision of the Maritime Canal Company's contract, or from the day when the Government declared it would cease to have legal existence. The Maritime Company did not consent to a recision, so the six months commenced at the latter date, which was declared to be the 9th day of October, 1899. The Interoceanic Canal Company when organized was obligated to commence the excavation of the canal within two years from the date of its organization and to complete the work during the ten years following. At the end of this period it was to be open to universal traffic. In consideration of the privileges granted, the Government of Nicaragua was to receive 8 per cent of the total amount of the stock issued b} r the company, to be considered as full paid and nonassessable, and in no event to be less in par value than $8,000,000 in American gold. This stock was to be represented in the management and control of the property by one member of the board of directors of the company, to be named by the Government of Nicaragua.

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18-1 KEPOET OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. During a first period of one hundred and ninety-nine years after the opening' of the canal to universal traffic the net profits were to belong to the stockholders. Duringa second period of ninety-nine years the stockholders were to receive an annual dividend of 10 per cent from the net profits and if any balance of profits should remain one-half thereof was to be paid to the Government of Nicaragua and one-balf to the stockholders of the company; After this second period one-half of the net annual profits were to belong to the Government and one-half to the stockholders. As a guarant} 7 that the company would be organized in accordance with the contract, Messrs. Eyre and Cragin agreed to deposit in the treasury of the Republic the sum of $100,000 in American gold within three days following the ratification of the contract, and this condition was complied with. They also agreed to deposit the further sum of $00,000 in American gold within four months after the organization of the company. These sums were to be held by the Government to respond for any fines the company might incur according to the agreement. It was declared that the rights of the Maritime Canal Company would expire on the 9th day of October, 1899, and the limit of time for the organization of the Interoceanic Canal Company was six months thereafter, that is, on the 9th da} 7 of April, 1900. The second payment was therefore due by the 9th day of August, 1900, but the company failed to meet it or to secure an extension of time, and the contract was declared annulled according to its ^Concession declared for^^ Rg ^ ^^ gg ^ ^^ t() mafee ^^ deposits was one of the causes of forfeiture. A copy of this contract is attached to this report, marked Appendix T. During the long period that the subject of establishing an interoceanic communication [across the territory of Nicaragua has been before the commercial nations of the world that Previous concessions. it Republic has made other and earlier grants and concessions than those mentioned to individuals and companies proposing to undertake the work; but none of these projects thus authorized was ever actually commenced, and these contracts have long since expired. It has not, therefore, been deemed necessary to mention them specially in this connection, and this investigation has been limited to concessions under which the contracting persons or companies have commenced actual work and those in which it is claimed, or has within a recent period been claimed, that the concessionaires have rights, privileges, or franchises still in force and entitled to recognition. There have, however, been other contracts made by the Governmentof Nicaragua with different companies, giving them privileges on some of the navigable waters of the Republic which will necessarily be used in the construction and operation of a canal along this route,

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 185 and it is proper that attention should be directed to them, so that it may be determined whether these privileges will give to the concessionaires the power to obstruct or hinder in any way the successful prosecution of the canal enterprise. It appears that the Government of Nicaragua contract *ith P. a. Pelfa i to ^ conce ssion to the Nicaragua Canal Association, granted the exclusive privilege for the navigation of Lake Nicaragua and San Juan River by steam. This privilege was transferred to Mr. F. A. Pellas, and a contract with him was ratified on the 16th day of March, 1877. In the concession to the association the company was given the right of expropriation against Mr. Pellas on just assessments by experts, after making a corresponding compensation according to the laws of the Republic. A company organized under the name of the Nicacontraet with sicwagua ra gua Mail Steam Navigation and Trading ComMail Steam Navigation and . *" -. Trading company. pany had acquired this contract, and it became necessary for the Maritime Canal Company to control it, so that it might have the right to navigate the lake and river for transporting materials and carrying workmen and supplies from point to point while the canal was being constructed. The Maritime Canal Company stated that this was M^rrklC;-.,.' accomplished by purchasing the concession and plant for $300,000, and the purchase is mentioned in its annual report to the Secretary of the Interior of December, 1891. Scon after this, owing to the failure of the Nicaragua Canal Construction Company in August, 1893, the Maritime Canal Company was unable to continue its operations. A new arrangement became necessary, and as the contract was about to expire the Nicaragua Mail Steam Navigation and Trading Company was reorganized and obtained an extension from the Republic for ten years from November 3, 1891. It was, however, stipulated that the new contract should not interfere with the rights of the canal company. Subsequently the Atlas Steamship Compam T a sh^!n!plnv. AnaSSteinU British company then running a line of steamers from New York to Gre} T Town and other ports in the Caribbean Sea. bought the steamers, plant, and concession of the Nicaragua Mail Steam Navigation and Trading Company and applied for an extension and enlargement of the contract. This was granted by Nicaragua in June, 1897, for the purpose of securing the improvement of the lower San Juan, facilitating the communication between the lake and the ocean, and thus promoting the Tran^company^ ** internal commerce of the country. Both of these contracts were transferred to the Caribbean and Pacific Transit Company, an auxiliary of the Atlas Company.

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186 REPOKT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. The contract gave to the Atlas Steamship ComContract of Atlas Com;i i • i i . .. pany the exclusive right or steam navigation in the Silico Lagoon for thirty years, dating from the approval of the contract on the 30th day of September, 1897, and the exclusive right for the same time of constructing tramways and railways along the line to avoid the obstacles in the lower part of the San Juan River, making the transit to San Juan del Norte or Grey Town more rapid dining the dry season. The company obligated itself within three years to construct a narrow-gauge railroad, about 5 miles long, from a point on the Silico Lagoon to a point on the San Juan River near the Colorado junction, and suitable warehouses and wharves at the terminals for passenger, freight, and other service. This road was subsequently constructed and is now in operation. The company is required by the terms of the contract to make with its steamers at least three trips a month each way between Granada, on Lake Nicaragua, and Grey Town, and has the right to cut in the natural forests on the lake and river all the wood required for the use of its steamers, tramways, railroads, wharves, and shops; also to occupy in the ports and places of transit the national lots of land necessary for the establishment of warehouses, offices, and other buildings. It is, however, provided that the concession shall not be an obstacle in the way of the contracts which the Government of Nicaragua then had, or might thereafter make, relative to the opening of the interoceanic canal along the same line. A copy of this contract is attached to this report, marked Appendix U. As was stated in the earlier part of this chapter, ra "::t„ r corBu:. Mta the consent of Costa Rica, as well as that of Nicaragua, is necessary in order to place a navigable canal b} r this route under the control, management, and ownership of the United States. The award of 1888, already referred to, settled the disputed boundary and was accepted by the two Republics, and the line between them has since been actually located and marked. Along the route of the canal it follows the right bank of the San Juan River from near its mouth to a point 3 English miles from the outer fortifications of Castillo Viejo; thence in a curve, of which the said fortifications are the center, from which it is 3 English miles distant throughout its course, until it reaches a point 2 English miles from the river bank above Castillo Viejo; thence it continues in a direction toward the River Sapoa, which falls into Lake Nicaragua, always 2 English miles from the right bank of the river with its circumvolutions and from the south shore of the lake until it reaches the River Sapoa. Though the line of the canal, according to the latest approved project, does not actually pass through Costa Rican soil, it is manifest that it affects the natural lights of that State, for it includes a part of the San Juan

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KEPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 187 River below Castillo Viejo, in which the Republic has, according to this award, the right of navigation, and the construction of the proposed waterway will necessarily submerge portions of its lowlands contiguous to it and to the lake and diminish the flow of water in the Lower San Juan and Colorado rivers. Hence the attitude and policy of this Government, as far as they have been developed by its diplomatic negotiations and contracts, also require examination and consideration. The United States and Costa Rica have never Treaty between United en tered into a convention relating directly to an St'itf's nnd Cost *i II I < ii is.y_>. interoceanic communication or to a transit through the territory of the latter. The only treaty affecting the friendly and commercial relations between the two countries was concluded on the 10th day of July, 1851, and the ratifications were exchanged on the 26th day of May, 1852. It was agreed that there should be perpetual amity between the two Governments and their citizens and a reciprocal freedom of commerce between the territories of each. Their ships of war and post-office packets were to have liberty freely and securely to enter all harbors, rivers, and places in the country of the other to which other foreign ships of war and packets were or should be permitted to come, and to anchor, remain, and refit there subject to the laws of the country. The intention of the high contracting parties being to treat each other on the footing of the most favored nation, it was agreed that any favor, privilege, or immunity in matters of commerce and navigation which either party had granted or might thereafter grant to the subjects or citizens of any other state should be extended to the citizens of the other contracting party upon like terms. A copy of tiiis treaty is attached to this report, marked Appendix V. In May, 1850, a treaty was entered into between Treaty between Costa /-ij.-t>' j c • • ^j_i j_-i ' j \t,i > • mi and Nicaragua, 1869. Costa Rica and Nicaragua upon the subject, as will be seen by reference to a treaty made by them in June, 1869. By the terms of this treaty Costa Rica agreed, on due notice from and in conjunction with Nicaragua, to take the necessary steps with the Governments of France, England, and the United States, in order that the neutrality of the proposed communication,

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188 REPOKT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. individually guaranteed by those powers, might become the subject of a general convention on the basis of the Clayton-Bulwer treaty, in accordance with the promises made by them in the former treaties referred to. The treaty in which this agreement appears was entered into to authorize the construction of an interoceanic canal through the territory of the two Republics in accordance with a contract made on the 6th day of October, 1868, by the Government of Nicaragua with M. Michel Chevalier, a citizen of France. The project was never carried out, and the treaty failed in its purpose, but its engagements are important because they indicate the attitude of the two Governments with reference to the establishment of a transisthmian communication, and the policy that should be pursued with reference to its management. A copy of the articles of the treaty relating to this subject is attached to this report, marked Appendix X. Other treaties were made with the Hanse Towns Other treaties. . and 1 ranee, both in 1848, with Great Britain in 1849, with Netherlands in 1852. with Belgium in 1858, with Italy in L863, with Germany in 1875, with Guatemala in 1895, and with Honduras in 1896. The purpose of the contracting parties was to strengthen their friendly relations and to place their international intercourse upon a liberal basis, but they contain no direct mention of the proposed interoceanic communication. An examination and consideration of all these Policy with reference to .• j i s>< t>* u *.i • interoceanic canal. treaties made by Costa Kica show nothing inconsistent with the general policy that was dc\ eloped in the case of Nicaragua, and it is manifest that Costa Rica stands fully committed to the establishment of a communication from ocean to ocean, partly or wholly through its territory, and the Republic and the Governments it has contracted with, so far as they have given expression to their views, are in harmony with the policy already outlined. A list of these treaties made by Costa Rica and the publication in rv'hich each can be found is attached to this report, marked Appendix V. On the 31st day of July, 1888, the Government Concession (o Nicaragua <• • t-i i i i (anai Association. * Costa Kica concluded an agreement and contract with the Nicaragua Canal Association, granting to it the exclusive privilege of excavating and operating a maritime canal between the Atlantic and Paciiic oceans for a period of ninetynine years, wholly or in part through the territory of the Republicor along the whole or a part of the border lint 1 between it and the territory of Nicaragua, and it was duly ratified by the Costa Rican Congress on ihr 9th day of August. L888. This contract was negotiated to supplement the one already obtained from Nicaragua, hereinbefore mentioned and designated as Appendix R, it being manifest that the project generally known as the Nicaragua

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EEPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 189 Canal could not be carried into execution without the consent and authority of Costa Rica, It conferred upon the association and a company to be organized to construct and operate the proposed canal substantially the same rights, privileges, and franchises in Costa Rican territory a^ had already been conferred upon them in Nicaragua. A period of two years and a half from the ratification of the contract was granted to make the final surveys, organize the company of execution, and begin the work of construction. A further term of ten years was granted for the construction and completion of the canal and opening it for maritime navigation. This required the work to be commenced by the 10th day of February, 1891, and to be completed by the 9th day of February, 1901. It was, however, provided that in case the company should fail to complete the work within the prescribed time, because of unavoidable delays or unforeseen difficulties, extensions should be granted according to the length of the necessary delays. It was agreed that the failure to begin or to complete the work within and by the time specified should each be a cause of forfeiture of the' concession and in case of such forfeiture that the Republic should take possession of the canal property within its jurisdiction and hold it in perpetuity. In consideration of the privileges granted, it was agreed that the Republic should receive in shares, certificates, or other values, representing the capital stock of the company, an amount equal to 1^ per cent of such capital stock in shares or certificates of $100 each, the same to be regarded as full paid and nonassessable. The amount of such shares was in no event to be less than $1, 500,000; they entitled the Republic to all the benefits and privileges to which other shareholders should be entitled, and the same privilege of appointing a member of the board of directors that had been granted to Nicaragua. In further compensation for the privileges granted, the company consented that Costa Rican ships of war and merchant vessels under the flag of the Republic should be entitled to use the canal upon like terms as were agreed to in the contract with Nicaragua with reference to the vessels of that Republic. A copy of this contract is attached to this report, marked Appendix Z. The time for the completion of the canal under this contract expired in February, 1901, and it has not been extended, and the con tract of the Maritime Canal Company with Nicaragua having been declared forfeited by that Government, as already No obligations now in „ . force to prevent an .l^reestated, there are now in force no obligations of m.-nt niti. the i nite.i states e i t her Republic with anv Government, corporarelative to a canal. .,..,, . tion, or individual to prevent either of them from entering into an agreement with the United States that will authorize our Government to construct, control, and manage a maritime canal

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190 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. along this route and exercise all the privileges of OAvnership over it, provided the negotiations and action proceed upon the lines indicated b}* the treaty relations by which the different Governments are bound. The contracts made by Nicaragua and Costa Rica giving special privileges to individuals, associations, or companies for the use of their ter ritory and navigable waters for the construction of a canal or for other purposes contain no authority to transfer these rights to foreign Governments, and in most of them such transfer is absolutely prohibited. This indicates that each of these Governments at one time was unwilling to have its territory occupied by another nationality even for the purpose of promoting the commercial and industrial development of the State. The Commission has reason, however, to believe that this feeling does not now exist. The sentiment in both countries is strongly in favor of opening a navigable connection between the two oceans, and the failure of every private effort to construct such a work has brought thinking men to the conclusion that it can only be successfully accomplished with the large resources and abundant means of a willing Government. During the visit the Commission made to Central America early in the year 1900, its members had favorable opportunities to meet and confer with the Chief Executive and other leading and influential men in public life at the capital of each of the two Republics. They received a most cordial welcome both at Managua and San Jose, and were assured at each place that the Government and people were ready to listen favorably to propositions that might be made by the United States for the arrangement of terms upon which our Government might occupy their territory for the construction of a canal along this route and control, manage, and own it when completed, with the understanding, however, that the rights of sovereignty of the present Government must be maintained. This sentiment has since been expressed officially by both of these Governments in agreements made with the United States in December, 1900. The protocols of these agreements provide JESS?™""*" fchat when fche President of the United States is authorized by law to acquire control of such territory of these Republics as may bedesirable and necessary, on which to construct a navigable canal for vessels of the largest size from a point near San Juan del Norte or GreytoVn, by Lake Nicaragua to Brito on the Pacific, they will enter into negotiations with each other to settle the plan and the agreements in detail, which may be found necessary to accomplish the construction and to provide for the ownership and control of the proposed canal. It was also agreed that the course and terminals of such canal should be the same as those stated in the treat}* of February 5, 1900, negoti-

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 191 ated between the United States and Great Britain, which has already been mentioned. The failure of this treaty terminated the negotiations for the time, but they clearly indicate the willingness of these Republics to permit the United States to use their territory for canal purposes on such terms as may be agreed upon. A copy of the protocol entered into with Costa Rica is attached to this report marked Appendix AA. The one entered into with Nicaragua is substantially in the same language. The legislation and instructions under which the Treaties with Colombia Qommission is acting require also an examination or New Chrannda. , _, ,,. /- i u* of the treaties made by the Republic of Colombia or New Grenada, as it was designated prior to 1862 with other governments affecting the Panama route and any contracts made with corporations, associations, or individuals authorizing them to open a communication there for travel and commerce. The waters of the Atlantic and Pacitic oceans are only about 30 miles apart at the narrowest part of the isthmus which connects North and South America, and this advantage has naturally attracted the attention of those who have interested themselves in the subject of an interoceanic communication during the centuries that have elapsed since the first conception of such an undertaking. But no action was taken by the United States to secure any special advantages or privileges there until 1816, during the controversy with Great Britain over the Oregon boundary, which was settled by the Buchanan-Pake n ham treaty of that year, and while the country was engaged in the war with Mexico, when, as one of its results, an extension of our territory on the Pacific coast seemed probable. During this period a treaty was negotiated with Treatj ne ? otiate,i in 1-S46 N Granada by which, among other things, the securing transit rights. ., United States secured the right ol way or transit across the Isthmus upon any modes of communication then existing or that might thereafter be constructed. This transit was to be open and free to the Government and its citizens, and for the transportation of any articles of produce, manufactures, or merchandise of lawful commerce, subject to no other tolls or charges than those levied or collected, under like circumstances, from citizens of New Granada. In return for the advantages and favors acquired, and in order to secure their tranquil enjoyment, the United States guaranteed to New Granada the perfect neutrality of the Isthmus, so that the free transit from the one to the other sea might not be interrupted during the existence of the treaty; the United States further guaranteed the rights of sovereignty and property which New Granada had and possessed over the said territory. • In addition to these stipulations, the two Republics engaged wdth each other not to grant to other nations any particular favor in respect

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192 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. to commerce and navigation which should not immediately become common to the other party and on like terms. They also agreed that whatever favors, immunities, or privileges either Republic might find it proper to give to the ministers and public agents of any other power, should by the same act be extended to those of the other contra: 'ting party. This treaty was concluded on the 12th day of Ratified in 1848. J December, 1846, but the ratifications were not exchanged until the 10th day of June, 1848, and it was proclaimed two days later. A copy of the treaty is attached to this report, marked Appendix BB. During President Johnson's Administration, in 180!), and again duringthe first Administration of President Grant, in 1870, other treaties were negotiated between the two Governments to promote the construction of a ship canal across the isthmus, but none of them was ever ratified, and the relations between the United States and the Kepublie of Colombia upon the subject are still defined by this convention. Colombia has entered into treaties with other governments 1 tearing upon this subject. One with France in 1856 peris.-,'2, are hereto attached, marked Appendix CC. A treaty was made with Spain in 1881 providing iic.i ji i. i>a u, ^ a {. £ na f. Government should enjoy the canals and ports of the Republic and all advantages given to the most favored nations. A cop} 7 of this treaty is attached to this report, marked Appendix DD. Conventions, with the Hanse Towns in ixr>4. Other trca1i*s. ... ,^ -, OK ^ •,! t x T > "j • • Hon • with Portugal in 1857, with Great Britain in LSoo, with Italy in 1802, and with other governments are upon the footing of the most favored nations, but none of them contains the obligations of neutrality which were assumed by the United Slates. A list of the treaties made by New Granada or Colombia and the publication in which each can be found is attached to this report, marked Appendix EE. Before the treaty concluded in 1846 had been ratified the increasing value of the communication across the isthmus of Panama attracted the attention of enterprising men in Europe as well as in our own land. The first movement to establish such a communication was made by a number of individuals in Paris, who formed r::;::::;;;:i,:r ^<^o„, m ,ur ti>, name of t i„ Panamas panv for the purpose of connecting the two oceans by a railroad across the isthmus. Through their agent and attorney.

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 193 Mateo Klein, they negotiated a contract with the Government of New Granada, which secured to the company, for a period of ninety-nine years, the exclusive privilege of constructing and maintaining a railroad at Panama, to be completed within six years, to be counted from the expiration of four months after the approval of the concession by the Congress of the Republic. The agreement was executed at Bogota on the 10th day of May, 1S47, and was approved on the 8th day of the following month. The French company was unable to control the Transferred to Panama ea pital necessary for the proposed enterprise, and Kailroad Company of New . L York. in June, 1848, its privileges lapsed. Subsequently, on the 28th day of December, 1848, the grant was revived in a modified form in favor of William Heniy Aspinwall, John Lloyd Stephens, Henry Chauncey, and their associates, under the name of the Panama Railroad Company, an organization which was afterwards, in 1849, incorporated by the legislature of New York. All former concessions of a like character were declared null and void and the grant as modified gave the company the same exclusive privilege of establishing a railroad between the two oceans across the Isthmus of Panama as was contained in the contract with Klein, to continue for forty-nine years from the day of its completion and its beingopened to public use. Six } T ears were allowed for the construction of the road, with the assurance that an extension of two years would be granted, without the enforcement of any penalty, if it were found impracticable to finish it within the required time. Under this grant the company constructed the pirtea a in a i850. llroa(1 com road and on the 27th da y of January, 1855, it was completed and the first passenger train passed over the track, and ever since then it has continued in operation. On the 16th day of April, 1850, the contract was put in a new form, so as to render it unnecessary to refer to the original contract with Klein in order to understand the rights of the contracting Present form of contract. parties. Subsequently there were other modifications and changes. In its present amended form the company is entitled to the use and possession of the railroad, the telegraph between Colon and Panama, the buildings, warehouses, and wharves belonging to the road, and in general all the dependencies and other works now in its possession necessaiy to the service and development of the enterprise for a period of ninety-nine years from the 16th day of August, 1867. At the expiration of this term the Government is to be substituted in all the rights of the company and is entitled to the immediate possession of the entire property. The Republic is bound to grant no privilege, during this term, to any other company or person to open any other railroad on the isthmus, nor without the consent of the company to open or work any maritime canal there to the west of a line drawn S D— 57-1— Vol 7 13

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194 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. from Cape Tiburon on the Atlantic to Point Garachine on the Pacific, nor to establish any such communication itself. But the company can not oppose the construction of a canal except directly along the route of its road, and the consent required is onl} T to enable it to exact an equitable price for the privilege and as indemnification for the damages it may suffer by the competition of the canal. It is also stipulated that the company shall forfeit its privilege should it cede or transfer its rights to any foreign government. A copy of this agreement in its latest amended form is attached to this report, marked Appendix F F. But this communication by rail was inadequate to supply the growing demands of commerce and the subject of connecting the two oceans at the isthmus by a navigable waterway still engaged the public mind. From time to time it was considered by Congress, and explorations and surveys were authorized and made under governmental authority. But the reports with reference to the routes across the Panama and Darien isthmus were unfavorable and no further concessions or grants were obtained by American companies or citizens with a view to construct a canal there. contract with Wyse for Meanwhile, in May, 1876, Lucien N. B. Wyse canal obtained from th"e Government of Colombia a right of way for this purpose across the isthmus, south and east of an imaginary straight line drawn from Cape Tiburon on the Atlantic side to Garachine Point, on the Pacific. This restriction was to avoid Modification of Wyse conany conflict with the privileges of the Panama tract m 1878. Railroad Company. In 1878, in behalf of the International Interoceanic Canal Association of France, he sought an enlargement of the privileges granted in 1876 and a new contract was entered into on the 20th of March, 1878, which gave the association authority to locate a canal across the territory, in which the Panama Railroad Company had exclusive privileges, provided the grantees could make some amicable arrangement with the last-named company. This new contract, with some modifications introduced by a decree of the Colombian Congress, became a law of the Republic on the 18th day of May, 1878, and in its modified form was on the same day accepted by Mr. Wyse. The amended contract thus accepted gave to the association represented by the negotiator the exclusive privilege of constructing and operating a maritime canal across the territory of the United States of Colombia between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans for ninety-nine years, to be computed from the day on which it should be wholly or partly opened to public service or when the grantees should commence to collect tolls or dues on transit and navigation. The general route of the canal was to be determined by an international commission of individuals and competent engineers not later

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 195 than 1881, unless unavoidable circumstances should prevent their doing so by that time. After the settlement of the route the grantees were allowed two years to organize a joint stock company to take charge of the enterprise and of the construction of the work and the company when organized was required to finish the canal and place at the public service within the subsequent twelve years after its formation. All public lands required for the route of the canal, the ports, stations, wharves, moorings, and warehouses, and for its construction and service, were ceded gratis to the grantees including a belt of land 200 meters, or 656 feet, wide on each side of its banks throughout its entire length. There are other provisions and grants to aid the association in the successful prosecution of its work, and the port at each end of the canal and the waterway itself are declared neutral for all time, so that in case of war among other nations the merchant vessels and individuals of all countries may enjoy its use and advantages without being molested or detained. In consideration of the rights, privileges, and exemptions contained in the contract, the Government of Colombia is declared entitled to a share in the gross income of the canal from all sources on an increasing scale of 5 per cent at first to 8 per cent from the seventy-sixth year after its opening to the termination of the privileges. Four-fifths of these amounts are to go to the Republic and one-fifth to the State through whose territory the canal may pass, and the company controlling the canal expressly guarantees that the share of the Republic shall in no year be less than $250,000. The right to transfer these privileges to other capitalists or financial companies is given, but there is an absolute prohibition against ceding or morgaging them to any foreign government. A copy of the grant is attached to this report, marked Appendix GG. The agreement that the route of the canal should con^sT^pfrisiriS be determined by an international commission of individuals and competent engineers was complied with by calling an International Scientific Congress at Paris, which met on the 15th day of May, 1879. There were 135 delegates, a majority of whom were French; 11 were from the United States. Great Britain, Germany, and other European nations were also represented. The convention was called to order by Ferdinand de Lesseps, already famous by reason of his connection with the Suez Canal, and after a session of two weeks a decision was reached that the best location for the proposed waterway was from the Gulf of Limon, or Navy Bay as it was called in earlier days, to the Bay of Panama, and the construction of a sea-level canal was recommended.

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196 EEPOET OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. Subsequently a company, chartered under the Panama Canal Company j aws Q f Yvance, was organized in the early part of 1881 to construct the canal under the grant from the United States of Colombia and De Lesseps became the leading spirit in the enterprise. The company was designated in the law as the "Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interoceanique de Panama," but it is more commonly known in this country as the Panama Canal Company. The location of the canal in the part of the isthmus where the Panama Railroad Company had exclusive privileges in the construction of artificial waterways as well as railroads, made it necessary to enter into some arrangements with that company before the work could be commenced, and this was accomplished by obtaining the control of the railroad company through a purchase of its stock, or the larger part of it, which remained among the assets of the canal company when it subsequently went into liquidation. All obstructions being removed, the company entered upon its work; but after the expenditure of vast sums of money danoTin^sIT iUt0 m,Ui the effort failed and in December, 1888, payments were suspended. The company went into liquidation and in February, 1889, a liquidator or receiver was appointed by the civil tribunal of the Seine and was given authority to transfer to any new company all or any portion of the company's assets. This failure and the change in the situation made it important to have a new agreement with Colombia, and New agreement with CoM w authorized to enter into further .in. Inn. 18J)0. J negotiations to obtain a modification and extension of the contract in favor of the receiver, whom he represented. He succeeded in his efforts, and another contract was entered into at Bogota on the 10th day of December, 1890, granting an extension of ten years within which the canal was to be finished and put in public operation by a new company to be organized with a capital sufficient for the purpose. This company was to resume the work of excavation not later than the 28th day of February, 1893. The contract was confirmed by the Congress of the Republic, and a copy of it is attached to this report, marked Appendix HH. It being found impracticable to complete the Contract extended to 1904. . . .,, arrangements contemplated by the modified contract within the specified time, a further extension was applied for and obtained on the 4th day of April, 1893. This required the formation of the new company and the resumption of the work in a serious and permanent manner by the 31st day of October, 1891. The time for its completion was extended for ten }^ears from that date. A copy of this contract is attached to this report, marked Appendix LL

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 197 A further extension until the 31st day of OctoExtenslon to 1910. J ber, 1910, was granted on the 28d day or April, 1900. A cop}' of the contract granting this new extension is attached to this report, marked Appendix JJ. In October, 1894, the new company was organized under the general corporation laws of France under the name of the New Panama Canal Company. Its capital was fixed at 65,000,000 francs, divided into 650,000 shares of 100 francs each; 50,000 of these, full paid and nonassessable, were to be set apart for the Republic of Colombia. A memorandum showing the legal status of the company, including copies of the French laws and the decrees of court which govern it, and of its charter, is attached to this report, marked Appendix KK. The receiver of the old company became a party to this new organization, and transferred and contributed to it all the property and assets of the Panama Canal Compaiw, real and personal, Avhether in France or Colombia, including the grants from the Colombian Government under which it had been operating, and also the rights of every nature in the Panama Railroad which had been obtained by the arrangements made and entered into w r ith the company or its stockholders. He also subscribed, in his official capacity, for about onefourth of the stock of the new company. This sale and transfer was made upon the express condition that the property and rights thus transferred should revert to the estate in liquidation upon default in the completion of the canal within the time fixed in the concession under which the work was to be constructed, and special conditions were made as to the Panama Railroad, which are set forth in the charter. During the progress of the work the receiver has the right under the terms of the transfer to appoint a commission of three engineers to inspect the progress that is made, the condition and maintenance of the buildings and plant, and the accounts relating to these different objects. The expense of this commission is to be borne by the new company. Under the terms of the transfer the New Panama Canal Company has a title to the whole propert} r but the rights of those interested in the old company have not been entirely extinguished. They are under no further obligations to contribute toward the construction of the canal or the auxiliary works, but its successful completion and operation will to some extent be to their pecuniary advantage, for under the terms of the sale 60 per cent of the surplus income, after paying all expenses, charges, and stipulated dividends, is to be appropriated to the liquidator, to be properly distributed. While there may be little left for the proposed distribution, the existence of this right in favor of the old company will apparently require its concurrence in case of a sale of the property and the concession and charter under which the company is acting.

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198 EEPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. no treaties exist giving Tt appears f rom the foregoing that no existing united states the right to treaties with Nicaragua, Costa Rica, or Colombia mc^OTCrtombUtoremii £ ive to the United States the right to occupy the purposes. territory of any of these Republics for the purpose of constructing and operating a maritime canal. The concessions and grants heretofore made by Terms must be arranged these Republics to and with corporations, associaby diplomatic negotiations. ,. t-i-.it ,, •• ,, tions, and individuals authorizing them to establish and maintain a communication across their territory from ocean to ocean, whether by land or water, in terms exclude the right of the concessionaires and grantees to transfer them to a foreign government. The purchase, therefore, by the United States of any such concession or grant would be ineffectual unless it were accomplished with the consent of the Republic by which the privileges were granted, and the terms upon which such consent will be given must be arranged by diplomatic negotiations. It also appears that the only prior obligations to concessions from Nicaracorporations, associations, or individuals, in the gua and Costa Rica declared r _. . . __ forfeited. way of a direct agreement, under which the United States may acquire authority from Nicaragua and Costa Rica to use their territory for the construction of a canal, to be under its control, management, and ownership, have been eliminated by the forfeiture and termination of the contracts with the Maritime Canal Company of Nicaragua and the Interoceanic Canal Company, and if these forfeitures are final there are no private rights in the way of continuing at an appropriate time negotiations with these two Republics to acquire the consent and authority necessary for the accomplishment of this purpose. One of the purposes of the investigation meniegeTtolrn si r de red! ,riTl tioned in the law was to determine the cost of constructing a canal and placing the same "under the control, management, and ownership of the United States." Under this head the Commission may perhaps be expected to consider the cost of acquiring the privilege of entering and occupying the territory of the States through which the different routes extend. Preliminary to this a question arises as to the Nature of title required. J nature of the title by which the United States is to hold the proposed canal, and the words of the law already quoted clearly indicate the legislative intent. Propositions Plans formerly before t i t <• r* ji i_ congress. have been before Congress in former years by which the United States was to be a part owner in such an enterprise, or a shareholder in a company organized to construct a maritime canal, and the projects which were considered contemplated ownership for a term of years, after which the property was to revert to the Republic that had permitted the use of its territory. But

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 199 there is no such suggestion in the law under which this Commission is acting. The United States is to control, manage, Jimmltedcontrolnowre. ftnd Qwn ^ ^^j. the period of oWnersMp is not limited; it is to be in perpetuity. No divided control of management is proposed, whether effected by some arrangement between the United States and the government contracting with it, or by. the formation of a company, with stocks and shares, or by any other method. Such divided ownership would give some voice in the management of the enterprise, even to minority holders, whose interests might and probably would require a polic}' different from that deemed best by the Government and people of the United States. This right of complete ownership and control in perpetuity, which is clearly indicated, is to be exercised under the sovereignty of the State in which the canal is located, according to the view presented in the early part of this chapter. It naturally follows that the compensation to be compilation for privipR [^ ty tne United States in consideration of the leges should be definite in ... ,11 111 i^-.i^ -, amount. privileges to be granted should be definitely fixed, whether included in a single amount to be agreed upon during the progress of negotiations, or in payments to be made annually or at other regular intervals, or in a combination of these two methods. A compensation to be dependent upon the earnings and profits of the enterprise would be subject to the objections which make a divided ownership undesirable. Other interests than those of the United States would be involved in the management, and accountings would have to be made from time to time to another government. The amount of the compensation that these Amount of compensation. „,,. ., Republics would require for the occupation and use of their territory remains to be considered, but the Commission had no power under the law to enter into negotiations with them, and the treaties and concessions relating to this question supply the only information from which an}' deductions or conclusions can be drawn. This ma}' be of little value, but what has been done in the past with reference to a subject is often suggestive, and it. is presented so that it may be available for future use and reference. A treaty negotiated by Mr. Elijah Hise on the gua. Sl " f CaFa P ar ^ ^ the United States with Nicaragua in June, 1849, conferred upon the former, or to a compan}' of its citizens, the exclusive right to construct and build within the territories of the latter a canal or road for the purpose of opening a passage or communication between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. No pecuniary consideration was required for this privilege, but the United States, by the twelfth article of this treaty, solemnly agreed and undertook to protect and defend Nicaragua in the possession of the exercise of its sovereignty and dominion over all its terri-

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200 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. tory and coasts within its just and true boundaries. Mr. Hise acted without authority in negotiatingthis treaty, and it was never submitted to the Senate for continuation. The purpose of Nicaragua in agreeing to its terms was doubtless to secure a powerful ally in the disturbed and threatening relations which then existed between her and Great Britain. A copy of this treaty is attached to this report marked "Appendix LL." In August, 1849, Nicaragua entered into a contract for a ship canal across its territory with the American Atlantic and Pacific Ship Canal Company. The company was to pay to the State $10,000 on Contract between Nicara. x sua and American Atlantic the ratification of its charter, and the same sum and Pacific ship Canal comeae h year thereafter during the period of conpuny, ox struction. The State was to receive stock of the company to the value of $200,000. The total amount of stock intended to be issued is not stated. After the completion of the canal the State was to receive annually, for a period of twenty years, 20 per cent of the net profits of the work after deducting interest at the rate of 7 per cent per annum on the capital invested, and after this period of twenty years its share in the net profits was to be increased to 25 per cent annually until the termination of the contract, which was to be in force for eighty-five years from the day the canal was completed and put in use. The company was to present a report and account yearly to the State as a basis for these payments, which was to be subject to examination and comparison with the company's books by commissioners to be appointed by the State. At the end of the period of eighty-five years the entire property and the rights and privileges granted were to be surrendered to the State without indemnity or compensation, but the company was to be allowed 15 per cent from the net profits of the canal for ten years after the surrender if the cost of the work should be less than $20,000,000, and for twenty years if the cost was greater than that amount. A copy of this contract is attached to this report, marked "Appendix MM." The next contract relating to this subject was Frellnghuysen Zavala .1 • xn t i rr 1 i j.i 1n ,. ity the fc relingnuysen Zavala treaty between the United States and Nicaragua, signed in December, 1884, already mentioned in this chapter and designated as Appendix L. By the terms of this treaty the canal was to be built by the United States and owned by the two signatory powers, without any limitation as to time. The proceeds of the canal and its accessories were to be applied to the maintenance and necessary improvement of the works, including the salariesof the board of managers and all officers and

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN (ANAL COMMISSION. 201 others employed, and the balance remaining was to be divided between the two Governments, one-third of which was to be paid to Nicaragua and two-thirds to the United States. The United States also agreed to loan to Nicaragua $4,000,000, which was to be expended in making internal improvements and was to be repaid with interest at 3 per cent per annum out of its share in the net revenues of the canal. As stated in another part of this chapter, this treaty was rejected by the Senate, and at a subsequent session, while a motion for reconsideration was still pending, it was withdrawn by the President. The contract which the Maritime Canal Com(jontrMt between Nicwrft. p llnv f Nicaragua was incorporated to execute sua and Maritime Canal , company. was made by .Nicaragua w^ith the Nicaragua Canal Association of New York in March, 1887. The pecuniary consideration promised for the privileges granted was to be received by the Republic in shares, bonds, certificates, or other securities which the company might issue to raise the corporate capital, and was to be 6 per cent of the total amount of the issue, and in no event less than $4,000,000 in face value, to be represented by 40,000 shares or obligations of $100 each, full paid and nonassessable. The privileges were to last for ninety-nine years from the opening of the canal to universal traffic, at the end of which period the Republic was to become the owner of the entire property in perpetuity. The company, however, was to have the privilege of renting the canal for ninety-nine years longer on condition of paying 25 per cent of the annual net profits to the Government of Nicaragua. This contract has been stated more fully in an earlier part of this chapter and is there designated as Appendix R. The latest contract made by Nicaragua for the contract between Mearaconstruction of a maritime canal through its terrigua and Interoieanic Canal company. ritory was entered into with Messrs. Edward E\ r re and Edward F. Cragin, representing the Interoceanic Canal Company, in October, 1898. The terms of this contract are set forth in an earlier part of this chapter, but the part relating to the consideration promised by the company will be briefly restated in this connection for more ready comparison with the terms of the other contracts. The Republic was to be entitled to 8 per cent of the company's stock, full paid and nonassessable, not less than $8,000,000 in par value. For one hundred and ninety-nine years from the day on which the canal was opened to universal traffic the net profits were to belong to the stockholders; during a period of ninety-nine years following the stockholders were to receive a cumulative annual dividend of 10 per cent, and of any balance that remained the company was to pay half to the Republic and the other half to the stockholders; after this period the net annual profits were to be divided equally between the Government and the stockholders. While the grant was nominally

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202 KEPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. in perpetuity, it is evident that the company after the first period would not be entitled to the rights of undivided ownership. The Republic in this contract granted to the Interoceanic Canal Company some important privileges which do not appear in any of the other contracts. It conferred authority to make and modify police regulations, subject to the approval of the government of the State, for guaranteeing order, safety, and health within a zone 5 miles in width on each side of the canal. A police force, to be appointed and paid by the company, was to enforce these regulations and also the general police regulations and laws of the State within this zone, with all the corrective powers exercised by the police force of the Republic. This provision is found in Article XVII of the contract. In another article it was provided that all contracts made by the company relating to the canal and its accessories should be governed by the principle of "lex loci contractu." In addition to the privileges contained in other contracts relating to canal construction, the Republic granted to this company man} T mercantile, banking, and other business prerogatives, varied in character, which would have been of great value to private owners. These are enumerated in Article XVI of the contract. In addition to liberal grants of land, such as were contained in the contract with the Nicaragua Canal Association, the company was given an option to select and purchase, within two years from the date of its organization, a million hectares (nearly 2,500,000 acres) of national land, at $1 per hectare in American gold. Taking all these privileges into consideration this is by far the most liberal contract that has been made by Nicaragua in connection with this subject, and it is of special significance, because it is the most recent in date and is the latest expression and act of the Government from which an inference can be drawn as to the value that would be set upon such a concession or grant as would authorize the United States to construct, manage, and operate a maritime canal through the territory of the Republic. A copy of this contract is attached to this report, marked "Appendix T." contract between cost. 0nl y one of these parties that contracted with ijica and Maritime Canal Nicaragua with reference to the route known by ( "" 1 l) the name of that State entered into a contract with Costa Rica so as to secure the consent of that Republic for the use of its territory as far as might be necessary in executing the project. This was the Maritime Canal Company of Nicaragua. Its contract was entered into in July, 1888, and Costa Rica granted to the company privileges as to the use of its territory similar to those it had already obtained from Nicaragua, but the amount of capital

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 203 stock in the company was to be li per cent, instead of 4, in shares or certificates of $100 each; the total value to be in no event less than $1,500,000. This contract has been referred to in an earlier part of this chapter, and is designated as "Appendix Z." While the way is open for direct negotiations with Nicaragua and Costa Rica for the occupation and use of their territory for canal purposes, the situation is different at Panama. The Republic of Colombia first granted a concession to the Panama Railroad Company, giving it exclusive privileges on the isthmus, which will Privileges of Panama continue, according to modifications afterwards Railroad Company coni e • • j> j. ^ h -i nr>i-r tinue to 1966. made, tor ninetj^-nine years from August lb, lboY. A later concession to the Panama Canal Company required it to enter into some amicable arrangement with the railroad company under which the former might occupy the territory along or near its line. The canal company acquired by purchase a majority of the railroad stock, and the necessary arrangements were made. This stock is now under the control of the New Panama Canal Companv, which gives it a directing influence in v™^?^?™' both organizations. The canal concession is to continue, acccording to its latest extension, for ninety nine years from the day on which the canal shall be wholly or partially opened to public service, and the date fixed for this in the contract is October 31, 1910. Should it fail, and the concession be forfeited, the company will still have exclusive control of the territory through which its line extends till 1966, under the railroad concession. The canal company is absolutely prohibited to cede or mortgage its rights, under any consideration whatever, to any nation or foreign government, under penalty of forfeiture. The Both companies prohihcon tract with the railroad company contains a like Ited from ceding privileges ..... tit e 11 to foreign government. prohibition, and declares further that the pain of forfeiture will be incurred by the mere act of attempting to cede or transfer its privilege to a foreign government, and such an act is declared absolutely null and of no value or effect. These concessions, if acquired by the United concessions. 8 Un States, would not give to the Government the control and ownership evidently contemplated by the law — that is, an absolute ownership in perpetuity. The right under the contract with the railroad company is designated as "the use and possession of the property for ninety-nine years, and it is provided that "at the expiration of the term of the privilege," and by the sole fact of the expiration, the Government of Colombia shall be substituted in all the rights of the company, and shall immediately enter into the enjoyment of the line of communication, its fixtures, dependencies, and all its products. The right of the canal company is substantially of the same character. Its concession expressly provides that five years previous to the expiration of the ninety-nine

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204 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 3 T ears of the privileges," the executive power shall appoint a commissioner to examine the condition of the canal and annexes, and make an official report describing the condition of the property in every detail. This report is to establish the condition in which the canal and its dependencies are to be delivered to the National Government on the day of the expiration of the privilege. There is no provision for an extension of either concession beyond the period mentioned, and the entire property in each case passes from the company without compensation. The privileges granted by these concessions are nuai changes. 8 ™ an subject to certain annual charges in the nature of rentals, and to other obligations. The railroad company is bound during the continuance of its concession to pay to the Colombian Government an annual revenue" of $250,000 in American gold, in quarterly payments. The failure to make any of the quarterly payments, after being one year overdue, subjects the company to a forfeiture of its privilege. It is also bound to transport over its road the Colombian mails without charge, and the troops, chiefs, and officers, and their equipage, ammunition, armament, clothing, and all similar elf ects belonging to or destined for the service of the Republic, and emigrants to the country up to the number of 2,000 annually. The canal company is bound to pay to the Government, in half-yearly installments, during the first twenty-five years after the opening of the canal to the public service a share amounting to 5 per cent on its gross income from all sources, without any deductions whatever. For a second period of twenty-five years the share of the Government is increased to 6 per cent; for a third to 7 per cent; and for a fourth, to the termination of its privilege, to 8 per cent. The company guarantees that this share shall in no case be less than $250,000 in any year. The Colombian Government also owns, in accordance with the extension law of December 20, 1890, and by the terms of the company's charter, 50,000 full-paid shares of its stock, of the par value of 100 francs each, the total number of shares issued by the company being 050,000. The Government of the Republic has the power under the concession to protect these interests by appointing a commissioner or agent to intervene in the collection, and examine the accounts of the company. This being the situation, it was manifest that, even if the privileges of the companies could be purchased by and transferred to the United States, they were encumbered with charges and conditions that would not permit this Government to exercise all the rights of complete ownership over a canal constructed by it at the Panama route. A new arrangement is necessary if the United n, arrangement netesStates is to undertake the work. The relinquishsary If lulled States under. , takes work. ment by the canal company, with the consent of Colombia, of the privileges it has under existing

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REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 205 concessions, for a consideration to be agreed upon with the United States, would leave the way open for treaty negotiations between the two Governments to ascertain whether Colombia will consent to the occupation of its territory by the United States for the construction of a canal to be under Government control, management, and ownership, and, if so, whether they can agree upon terms mutually satisfactory. The situation is peculiar, as there are three parties in interest. The United States can obtain from Colombia no concession that does not have the approval of the company, and its concessions do not permit the company to transfer or attempt to transfer its rights to a foreign government. As the Commission was specially authorized and instructed to ascertain the cost of purchasing all the rights, privileges, and franchises held and owned b}^ corporations, associations, and individuals in the different canal routes, so as to determine the cost of constructing an isthmian canal at each of them and placing it under the control, management, and ownership of the United States, it attempted at the first favorable opportunity, after its organization, to ascertain the views of the New Panama Canal Company with reference to a disposition and transfer of its property and rights. While the Commission was in Paris in September, 1899, interviews were held with the president and other officers of the company, during which their attention was directed to the' scope of the investigation in which it was engaged, and their views were sought upon this subject of sale and transfer. They were not prepared to make a definite reply, and responded onty with some general remarks, which did not give the information that was sought. Mr. Maurice Hutin was afterwards chosen president of the New Panama Canal Company and came to the United States early in 1900, during the absence of the Commission in Central and South America. Soon after its return, on the 4th day of April, 1900, he addressed a letter to the president of the Commission, stating that the principal object of his visit was to give to the Commission any additional information it might desire with reference to the company and the canal project, and that he was ready to do so, either upon technical points or others that might be indicated to him. In response to this letter the president of the Commission reminded him of the discussions at Paris with reference to a transfer of the canal property to the United States which had then led to no result, and submitted three inquiries to which he solicited replies as full and as clear as he might find it convenient to make. They were substantially as follows: 1. Whether the company was willing to sell its rights, property, and unfinished work to the United States. 2. Whether the company had the legal power to make such sale and

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206 REPORT OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. give to the purchaser a perfect title, free from all incumbrances and the claims of the stockholders and creditors of the old company. 3. For what sum, in cash, would the company sell its rights, privileges, franchises, and its property of every description connected with the construction of a canal across the isthmus of Panama? He stated that the Commission was well aware that the concession under which the company was acting prohibited a sale or transfer of its privileges to any foreign Government, and suggested that, in the discussion of the subject, the consent of the Colombian Government might be assumed. He also called atte