Trip  5: Barabacena.

Material Information

Trip 5: Barabacena.
Series Title:
Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Subject Files
1. Trip 5: Barabacena.


Subjects / Keywords:
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.


Trip number 5 to Barabacena and Estacao de Monta, Brazil notes by P.H. Rolfs

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida Archives
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:

Full Text


.rip no. 5.
To -rbacena*
Agust i, f ~I. "isited ,arb);enato look coe tie -plan-
tation and see th e work carried on there by the. 7cri(i iC- !r~nt.
1r. iiaulas Abreu Director. H.e spnds most of his time in Eio.
rr. t rtinez Iciera acting 1 i sector in the absence of T;. abreu.
'j cited the nlinIt- tiori in -:rm,7nyv with ---- -----(chell,
who rooms at the ,:iahce uotel, ru i the r3lrcad station. 1he
viceL Lirector lives there also.
iThe original l; ;lantatIr. as- set ozt "by a Ir zilian who
r.ceivoe .:mLA, cf the i isery .:'ica,1l 'rom Cnlifornia bbout fifteen
or tv.') years a,-,o. "he fa mc,i was purchasec1 by the national
Government and is now used as an ar'rorena ;ado aFricola. 'he main
object of the institution seems to be t, ii-tr:ct ycu~g 'razilians
in fain work, especially the ,,aunal training neat of it.
Ochell was former emnloye byr2".r C cuty, (1l. as
rticut.ral Con issioner. He had not hard -i tihrainin in a
technical line noi been extensivve educated. -e cioes rot thih'
much of the present scientific method emloy in Cal.
-chell's special mission seems to be to teach canninFr
and norcservation of fruits :.nd vee tables.4 "he canner was v o.t
generously suinlied with many kindf oC O c,'nil~ and diryinp -pnnaratus t
None of this lnneared to be c- 'lovec. -he present canninp i, done
in i-n onen shallow rat or n cment stove.
The tins -...:re being m-de fro~ s "hec-t tin, cut c-nd cri- red by
machi'-ery adapted for that nurrose. "he tint, however, Fe'...: to bo
too heavy for perfect cirring r nd it beca -c necessary to rec c-cr
:any cf the c ns and solder them from the outside. "he toFp or ts
cans w rt- Cit o T "O- ren iL c. -t ; L. r e cut rnd i-n ;,:-:ss

then sent by freight to rello Horizonte to hrve soldering m-teri al
applied and returned to the anrendizado hbeore connletinr the cans.
All the types of apoliances were of "uronean mnate, Ma~.y of
t them living a rather peculiar appearance, but uniformly clumsy and
3chell was unable to tell how large an area was owned by the
institution but indicated that it was probably three c or four hundred
hectares. There was probably fifty hectares of it in bottao land.
The various orchanrd, exoeoting the citrus orchanrd were planted on
terraces. The terraces vary in width according to the steepness of
the hillside. Parbacena is on the divide between the western and
tle eoas.erii (ra'in-ge

SL" ...S. The only nlums emnlcy~d v:cre the Jananese

kind, excppting the -ickson, the latter has not borne. Kelsey and
Excelsior are among the Jan-ness kinds tha' ~4ve produced fruit. The
old foliage of the anainese varieties was ve-ry heavily infested with rusts.
,'ickson had only a small dab.
,chell Paid the nlums were buffded on native stock. A few
large trees of this snecies were present. "ho smaller branches are but3
and struck, after which the 'apanese varieties are budded on them .
Come of the trees look like Pollarded willows.
They had about a hundred Kelsey PFAm trees and two L'atsuas
that were twV-elve years old. chell 'aid that they bore about a dozen
fruits last year. /7,.

PEAP TiRE7S. Carber and leifer seemed to -e in 'cr-t Ideand/

Various other varieties have been tried but do not anpear to b, good
producers. The largest trees are raid to be about ten years old and
are about %four meters tall. They seem to ve made very inferior

root system,.whiBkxis possible to to bend the trees over sideways without
and difficulty. Got a specimen of crown gall from one of the trees that
had been transplanted. Variety, G~rber.

APPLES. A large number of varieties of annles have been
tried but with only indifferent success. A tree of Pellflower variety
produced two fruits. A Cravens ein ,rocduced s~x "r.its last year

PZAQH. Peachtrees seemed to produce a sturdy growth but not
at all vigorous. A few ol leaves still on the trees were badly affect-
ed with rust. Trees large enough to bear a bn-hel or two of fruit oro-
duced about a dozen or so. Some seedlings ;called a native each were
in full leaf and contained large quantities of fruit. It is said thst
the fruit is of inferior quality and before it ripens is fill d with bi-
choes. According to Schell, they are gathered about rinening time
al,.l around up and made into marmalade, called pecagada. reach trees 'in
fine "bloom.
iIGS, Fig trees were rather stunted and gnarly locr:in.
They were less vigorous than other fruit trees. Schel] says the fruit
is cillected F reen and nut ;n -in syrup.

LO~~~AT. Several old trees were in Pood foliage and heavy
fruiting near the former residence' "Vmo old trees were in heavy fruiting
with fritts rioe and green on the same tree. Trees six or eight meters
tall. With proper orchard care it look like loquats could be made to
do extremely well.

Kaki. Abok:t dozenn three that were fifteen or twenty years
old w.'ere in the orchard near the former resi-ence. 1r cchell said these
were excellent nroducers and gave very 'ood fruit, but that ('rout the
time the fuit rinened wit was infected with bichoes. One snecimen, said

to be a Virginia oersil7on was also present.

Quince. The Ahinese quince is used F"inl for striking
cuttings. he jao- anese quince also coes ;well. Neither are cons:iered
good fruiterd.

Citrus. The citrus orchard was located on a hill side,
not terraced. The trees appeared to be ten to fifteen years old They
had made about a@ much growth as we usually rnroiuce in E cr. sx or
eight years in Florida. There was aprer- i reulrity in nlantin
out!. Mr. Schell seemed to thin' that they were all seedlinpg excentinp
the Bahia. Early all the fruit had been removed -ro- the trees exceot-
ing from the granefuit,which is said to be seedlings. I lasftd some
of the fruit, it vva& oxediinrly s cid WLth ver,, little aroma. 'rhe nuln
was rather dry and laced melting qualities. Ir. Lchell said that the
boys of the aorendizado would not m si them. H:e probably meant thst "'ey
would not tale them a second time.
'Tere v"as no evidence that the o1rc1r e1 >r' *trf- r'~ for
salc Inec ts or dse Cses- "one of the trees showed any inclinati'-o
to bloom. 'l"ted sc2le, Long scale c Pr:I-lc :acle were 7,res~,nt.
-J'.a P *ros, a -.ecimon c "-ich I r- o h. jrwuett. T alo
discovercL 2] oe Babs of white headed fungis. A 'redaceous insect was
also present, -troba ly the larvae of some Coccinelidae. w erc
found. The erdaceoiu ir-ect he? fluffy white wax r rc cctfni, remind-

7" 4.so7rv. & eniza a1 about three tlos7Y iursery

trees tor wcrked and ready F'-r Aiatributicn.
Cr2,cs. "LA c- 1ron 2 r c -;- levctel to the

estt!4r't of I inyard. A "r^ PV? (tiiferrnt ver u v havo bhen
GSLC. 4 ~i118 d


%Lasted and c r' r T it er4e k5"n of stock used "r. echell
said t tthe lines and fruit wore 1adly affected with various kinds of
dis Lscs. ore 3r te vlr c.ppr:'t o hr pt i v.L igorc'. A -IPre

propcr "rn eemed to C 'rI una le to die and yet were not really lvin .
The ;"ropoean rethLod of t~iellising arn' pru:in .g &a being en-rloyed. Trbor-
ers were removir- '.... Lark from the pn _c,"A -< cinti th6-1 with -hat
was ~.Cai t- h 0 minreo of sU'bi/ate iron oad Fulpthuric aci:. m;hi
was being placed on Thc'b the glorious .cn rs of as 1ll Tr.',sh taking
the liquid from a mall and inconvenient can," ch Ce; r te vineyard
were not treated -1th this antiGceetic.

Olive. A tree called wild olive "PicalinaO and used as

stock sho 'eel r P ery vigorous irovith* rone c" +he -nrCoan olives were
rrv' 'Ie rlnrendizado had about three tho-isind trees

top worked and read;. for distrih-' i n.
drafting is done a year after the cutting has been struck.
In the case of fruit trees they artbudced in the nosition where the
cuttings were placed. In the case of gra-oes the stock, is placed
out and allowed to L.cs>come established rand then grafted. At the time
of my visit the head ian was grqfting granes by mrans of cleft Praft.
He was doing the grafting in the nursery row. The grafts were pixt in
ficm two to four incles below the surfrce, soil r"eked around the union
and the scion so ao F o leave the terminal budC free. It seems probable
that this nursery was one year old and that the grafts would ,hve to
grow another year befor-e transplanting.
Schell had made an unusual departure from the normal in buying
work. ne had put in about a thousand Keifer and Garber buds on quince

stalk as dornaa'nt budse. iu,;t 7-i gotten practically a 100 take.


These had not yet snrung but all seemsOi on good condition.

Cuttings. Quince cuttings should be made about a foot long.

apple and oear cuttings about two and a iha- feet iong. Cuince wood
two year old st rikes "et.
Schel says that cutils of Japanese rfirnmsons strike
readily, bnd ttl(t L.,i cuIttinp from Tirginia nersi'mon rI o sftike.
Pear and quince cuttings are made ar.d then placed in the
irrigation ritch for bout ten days or until a conveniernt time and
then put in the cutting bed.
The cutting )beds were about two meters by fifteen meters.
The rows run across the bed. The bed it ,slf' was raised ',,out six or
eight incd be-tweeo The cuttings were put in at the: rate of about five to the meter.
io oear blight, was present on any of the1 fruit frees. The

plants were all (lorfmant witch plenty of moisture in the sc"l.
A lot., of cuttings that had struck had been ,aken from the
nursery bed and placed in the irrigatlion 6itch with their roots exposed
-t the sun awai ing a convenient time for tran-nlanting.

Pecais. Three larpe and one sriall -econ tree were seen. They
were ten to twelve years old, the largest about ten meters tell and about
ten inches in diads er at the crown. They had born about a (oaen nuts.

O&ks. Two large oak trees, more "han Cen metfrt tPll Al'V PInut,
twelve ine=hes in ciamter were seen near thL, old hLcs ii.., anneared
to be of the white oak type, nro'bably some oak from the Taci'ic coast.

Blue Jrass. There ;vas a small Patch of blue grass, much d1ried

up for want of moisture,

but still making a 'ood showing. Schell says th t it grows luxuriantly
during the rainy weather.

potatoes. Several bushels of Irish potato seed composed of
very F-iill tubers about the size of small m-arbles were beinp saved for
-nlnting as soon as the soil was moift enough. "he tubers ,were tyroly
Litured, and apparently no disease was --resent.

Buildings. The principal building on the nursery -round was
the tool shleter, an octagonal building about '5 meters in diameter.
fifty to sixty different implements were present, all in excellent stages
of preservation. They ranged all the way from a scope scrano to overe,
cotton nlanter, tractor plows, tractor as well as a iand forge.
h e stable had about ten stalls 'or "-ules.

Employees. The head stable man received 60f'COO a mont" for
salary. The nrincinnl orchardist Frets POl000 a month -i*d no nr-qu i ites.
The vsuperintendant of grounds gets 100O000 per mohth. Pe allots the
work to the men ahd supplieFS meh or boys for the worh w-hen they &ro necdcd\
Hie alc. gets a house and vegetables. The other men usua' -y get a house
and a sril traot of land in addition to their wages.

remarks. About twenty years ago y. George Poedding -made a
number of shipments of nursery stuff to the Governemnt of `razil. This
probably accounts for so many varieties o^ Cal- stuff occurring around
the place. Schell. said that Eoedding has not yet received his nay for
th,-, nursery 6tuff.
Schell thinks that-s as whole Taoanses fm--its do better th-n
north American. It is a question however, if the "orth American have
been .iven a fair trial.


/Abeu, Dr. Diaules,
/ In chFage of the Federal Plant
Breeding Eta tion.

Californian. Has been there -ore
than two vears. Bachelor. Lives in
AllianQa hotel with ipanager. Princi-
pal work to teach canning.

Teixeira, 'r. artinez.
Acting Director of the Apr-rendi-
zado Agricola. Met him in company
with Schell, at the Hotel AlianQa .

-6 -

Chard, cabbage and lettuce were doing well under irrigation.

Cchell ascribes the general backwardness of the country to

the climate and the general conditions of the country, whatever he may

mean by that. Hie says that he LI relf during the first six months was

very active cd did lots of work tut tliht nnow he does not care and he

thinks it s' the same with the fruit trees. .e cites the live stock

as a cse Ain He thinks ths cnm'-L cf" tLen have an.: rni tition.


... rf"i A

W- 9 -

"P~'I.~3_P W

Chard, cabbage and lettuce were doing viell under irrigation.
Schell ascribes the general backwardness of the country to
the limate and the p'eneral conditions of the country, whatever he may
mean 4y that. le says that he 'L -ielf during the first six months was
very active f. d did lots of .work tut that now he does not Gcre and he
think it" n the same with the fruit trees. He cites the live stock
as a case in .oint. de thinks that none of them have any ambition.

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Auprust 27", BErbacena. Estagao de lAonta.
After completing my visit at the -prendizr went to
another Federal station located at Brabacena, known r- the "stapao de
-ionta. Annarently thii station is intended foe the breeding of live
stock. Hired a ca8Bie to take me out to the nice. It was about
fifteen or t-nety minutes by a Fog trot along an excellently nrenared
road. Some day it will be a fine motor road. I arrived at the station
and found the care taker of the anmkls at the states. When he say my
camera he said that I would not 'be allowed to take pictures exeenting
by permission from the Director After I had seen all the stock I was
not much s rprised that the Director would issue such a order. "he
anidit1s probably had good breeding but annarently not so good care.
There were two Jacks of the S-naish Catalonean type. "heso
were very large, rangy, large boned animuis and looked well bred but
were in a rather low state of flesh.
One englishh horse of the englishh thoro bred type. A sorrel
with some white markings. There were two Swiss bulls in excellent
condition, gentle and well behaved, also well groomed.
There was one Guennsey bull of a very inferior milk tyne,
not of the shape that one would choose as a head bull. He was in
good Rlesh and fairly well groomed.
There was a Jersey bull, well advacd in years, of a small
type and with a deformed back. He had not been groomed, probably due
to the fact that he was somewhat vicious.
There was one Holstein bull, Holl]ndaise, somewhat o"f tune.
In addition to the above cattle, there was another that I
did hot recogiseh y name, nor dif the care taker, i enlighten me on the
subject. They were shfa ed somewhat like hollandaisee but in the nlace od


black markings they had yellow thrkings. "hey may be the additional
Swiss breed about which Mr, Dalton told me a few days later at "earo
Hog pens. The floors of the hog nens were made of stone
flagging. Plenty of water but no sunshine in the pens. One of the
sows seemed to be suffering from twitching or rheumatism.
There were four Duroc Jersey boars, four Duroc Jersey sows,
and two Duroc Jersey sows with litters. All of these had been imported
from the TUnited States. There were also four Poland China sows irnnorted
from the United States. There were two of mnre bred Large Plack imnorted
from England. The whole lot should be discard~-and a new start made.
The difficult may lie with the hard ships the animals had to under go
during importation. From surface appearance one would not be at all
favorable impressed with the animals h as breeding stock. 7o attempt
was being made to provide winter pasture or winter succulent foods for
feeds. The care taker told me that the hogs were turned o ~to
range or exercise during the cool nection of the day. The range that
he showed me was practically devoid of growth or vegetation of any kind.
Taking it as a whole, the visit to the Estacao de monte was
disappointing when viewed from the breeding standpoint.


EstaC o Sericicola de Barbacena.
August 27, 1921. After leaving Estag9ao de Monte I drove
on to the Estaqo Sericicola de Barbacena. This is a national
institution for the growing of silk and spinning into fabrics of var-
ious kinds. I called at the office and was told that the Director had
gone to town. An attendant waited on me and took my card into the inner
office and then accompanied me to the opnosite side of the road where
the factory proper was located. He went through with what I assume
was the regular form for visitors, showing me some o+ the parts of the
factory, first some of the reducAtion of silk from its crude state in
the cocoons to the twisting into thread. Later he took me into the
weaving room where some weaving was being done on the macvhiaes.
There was apparently one apprentice studying the work of weaving silk.
I saw some of the finished product, but this was rather a coarse grade
of silk, tho undoubtedly very durable. Various colors had been used,
some of the fabrics were iriadecent and others were changeable.
A small number of mulberry trees were growing near the
silk factory. Atk one place a considerable number were growing near
the fence along the right of way. On the opposite side of the hillyp
across the stream there was a small mulberry orchard planted out.
Taking it ss a whole, it did not seem as if enough silk worms were
being fed to produce the rd necessary for running the establishment.
When I asked the attendant whether all the raw silk was produced
in Brazil, he did not seem to be able 1o understand. At the nroner
time of the year, eggs are sent out with instructions to those who
apply for them. Later in the year the cocoons are bought at a stated
price. The attendant gave me a cony of the fourth edition of
"A sericicultura no Brazil".

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