Trip  4: Rio, Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Lavras.

Material Information

Trip 4: Rio, Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Lavras.
Series Title:
Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Subject Files
26. Trip 4: Rio, Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Lavras.


Subjects / Keywords:
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture -- Brazil
National School of Agriculture -- Brazil
Lavras Agricultu4ral College


A report of a trip to visit the National School of Agriculture, the National Department of Agriculture, the State Department of Agriculture at Sao Paul, the Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, and the Lavras Agricultural College.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida Archives
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:


This item has the following downloads:

Full Text

^, "...- -. Trip No. 4, Rio, Sao Paulo, Piricaba, Iavras.
::- "-.-. 13 de Maio, 1921. Arrived at Eio about 8:30 A. M. on

: the Central do Brazil. Transferred at once to the Hotel Globo.
SSent suitcase and grip around by carregador and took a Fonde. As
S "-". it-was a holiday the autos charged 5$000 for the trip.
--i, I QWe'nt to Bo'tofoga and found the Embassy closed. All business,

:., even to cigarette stands, were closed. Stopped at Hotel Estrangei- :
ros -0d, met Mr. and Mrs. Riley. Talked with Mt. Riley for about
an hour on Brazilian matters, es-necially financial affairs. Pode

on Bonde and saw things in general. Went to movie at night.

14 de Maio, 1921, sabbado. Went around to the 'enart-
ment of Commerce, ]09 Avenida Rio-Branco, Apartment 39 and found
Embry. Discussed Brazilian matters from a commerce view roint.

Made arrangements to ieet Embry at 11:30 to go over tc the'"1scola
superiorr de Agricultura e Medinina Veterinaria" in the afternoon.

Stepped in and saw Schurz. While there Embass-dor Morgan r
came in. Went around to get nholtograrnhic sunnlies and found the *
photographer did not carry any supplies but that.,the surply house
was at No. 52, across the street. It took a considerable time to

get the material. The house has a large stock and a largenumber
of cameras.
Got breakfast at 12:00 and went across the bay to Nictheroy.
SGot a Eonde that took up to the location where the College is sit-

uated. The grounds are well kept and .look rT'e'asing. Went to the
offdee and found that the .Dirrctor ihad just left the grounds. Dr.
Costa Lima estimated that there are about 50 ha. in the grounds and. '

no attempt. is being made to carry on anythinY but laboratory work. :,
The Secretary to the Director took us UP to the Entomological -:
us ,. to te--o~ o-i a
Labor torIt--in the second floor of the building wh-re we were ::::
,. / .T" .. .
.* ,, -, .* ....
..*- ..... "' ^ -*.. .; '" .. ..-'. ,_*" : : ,^ ^
". ." : "-. .:,, ., .. "" '7* 4'.'
::- .; j ". ,.:. ;< ... '" ": .;'w ': &:' .:.,,. .:,.;' r ,. -' .' ".''1 ..

c i-" '

R introduced to Professor Dr. Costa Lima. He has served in a number

Ot commissions, especially the Yellow Fever Commission with Oswald
Cruz, and also with a Dr. Lutz, now Director or" the Oswald Cruz
Foundation or Museum.
Dr. Costa Lima showed us the collection of insects that he had
made in the last five years. It is a fine, collection and in a most
excellent condition. His collection is named, but by number so that
the species names have to be found in his catalog. The catalog con-
tains all data and notes. The collection is kept for-the most nart
in pasteboard boxes with glass tons, imported from France. mwo cases
about shoulder high have large glass ton drawers and are fine. These
were also made in France. As a whole the cases are less convenient
than the Schmitz cases used in the United States. Dr. Costa Tima
explained .that by keeping khe names of the species separate from the
specimens the student would not be able to get the names excepting
by classifying them. (On .the same token one should net have illus-
trations in text books. )
Dr. Costa Lime gives about 2/5 of his time to teaching Entomol-
ogy, keeping up the Library (Agricultural) and working up his collect-
ion. He has one helper who is a Feneral utility man.
The Department has six or eight fine microscopes, (3 binoculars).
From the Entomological Denartment we went to the Chmistry Den-
artment. It has three divisions, Inorgaenic, Organic, and Industrirl
Chemistry. In the laboratory we found Dr. Freitas Machado. "Ne
spent some time in the Laboratory and then saw the Lecture room. It
seats about ?5 or 30 punils. The Department is well supnlied with
desks of the usual type but far less substantial than the best Amer-
ican High Schoo1
usually has and not so good as those in Fla. The
lecture room is wretchedly unhandy. The basement of the hall is

storeroom for Chemistry and Physics. Dr. Costa Lima explained that
this is the third place at which the College has been established
and that the splendid equipment and library formerly owned had been
largely "dissipated".
The d-partments are those of: Entomology, Plant Pathology,
Zoology, Fhysics, Chemistry. Veterinary Medicine.

15 de Maio, 1821, Domingo. Decided last night that I had
better see the Embassador and the Federal Institute at P'o de Assu-
car, possibly also the work at Deodoro.
Spent Sindaf quietly. Went to the Cathedral, and visited some
other places of interest. Called at the Hotel Estranjeiros, and
met Dias, a Spaniard who is looking after the interests of the
condensed milk syndicate.

16 de Maio, 1921, segunda-feira. Got un early and started
for Botogogo.

17 de Maio, 1921, terca-feira. Arrived at Sso Faulo about
8:20 A. M. and went to the Hotel Fraccaroli across the street from
the Central Station, of the Central do 'razil. Found a letter from
Effie. Morning very foggy. Started out to find Feldman. ,Found him
at 11:00 A. M. at'the Granrde Hotel. He had an arn'ointment at the
dentist's. After giving me directions for finding the Department of
Agriculture he went to the dentist's. After some inquiry I found
the Director of Agriculture. He snoke English quite well and under-
stood it better. He was the 'irst man to work with Dr. C. r. Smith
after his arrival in the state of Sao Paulo. The De-nartment was
very crowded and all space was unusully well filled, but not over-
crowded. There was a bulletin from Piricibaba that pave two illus-
trations of the F'lorida Experiment Station Dairy barn showing the
silos as illustrations of concrete silos. I wap hunting Pr. C. '.
Townsend but he had been moved to Eua de ConsolaQsao 'o 18 where a
new building had been erected, The library at the director'ss of-
fice contained iany United States bulletins, Pooks and JTournals.
The bulletins are first filed in drawers, sorted by countries of
origin and then placed in boxes 6n the shelves.
The Director offered repeatedly to be of service if I would
call on him for it.
Dr. Affonso d'Escragholle 7aunay offered to be of service in
any way that he could. He is the Director of the Museu Paulista.
Dr. Hempel wants Coccidae.
Paul Vanorden Shaw offered to supply anything in his store. He
has a good collection of stationary and scientific supplies.

18 de Maio, 1921. After leaving Jundiahy,Bignonia Vec-
nusta was a common weed along the narrow gauge railway and was in
splendid bloom. Mandioca was common and in more extensive plant-
ings. Corn was dead ripe. Citrus showed good golden color. Nes-
per (Enybotra Japonica) was'n fruit. Lanocera Hulliana was gener-
ally planted for ornament. Hibiscus was common. Poinsettias were
showing up as small plants. Spireas showed in gardens. Orange trees
were not producing an abundance of foliage. Crop also was light.
A small plant that looks like Quaresma was occasionally in bloom.
Cattle of European tyne were abundant. A tree cactus like the
one in the Hotel yard at B. H. was growing in the Station grounds
with a trunk 30 cm. in diameter at the base. A peach tree was
growing in the Station grounds. Small flowered chrysanthemums were
in nearly all yards. Miriabilis (four o'clock) were common. (Mt.
Serrat Estaego" Oranges were generally affected with the rust mite.
The country was generally level.
Saw one vineyard of 1/2 hectare on one vine trellis. The coun-
tiy was rocky.
Breakfasts ton.
Short staple cotton was growing among the corn. The country
here is level, large and onenj fine for improved im-nlements. Many
small farms. Cattle were the European tyne. -Houses were neat.
Plenty of wire grass. Evidently this is the sertgo. Saw planta-
tions of the dwarf bananas. Much Solanum Botulanum. Bracken fern
is abundant. Coffee plantations were apparently cultivated with
the hoe. Natal grass showed in the cotton fields. Cardea sta.
Mellinus minuti- in bloom. No where abunbant and not much used for
pasturage. Some corn still green, cotton apparently none. Opuntia
and ?icus Indica were frequent. Fires ap-narently caught from the

- ~ ~---~~~- ~

railway had burned over a considerable area. Guinea grass and Ca-
pim Jaraguh were used for pasto. Sugar cane was seen in the dis-
tance, in large fields Near Villa Rafford Marmodica was along
the railway. Water hyacinth was in the stream. Saw some magnif-
icent pieces of timber, one piece 1 1/2 x 1 1/4 x 10 M at Mombuca.
Saw Papayas. A lot of orange trees were dead.
Coffee generally looks bad, but thatiis-probably due to rick-
ing. The weeds were cleaned out. lot looks discarded.
There were no palms excepting around houses, mostly macaibas.
Pales of hay were being hauled to town. We crossed the 'io
das Pedras. The ever present 0. ficus indica shows the origin of the
population of Piracicaba. Mangoes were coming into bloom.
18 de Maio, 1921, Piracicaba. In the Park there were
numerous palms, Royals, Maceabbsq.and Euterpe edides, bamboo -nlm.
The small fuzzy tufted fan leafed one was used at New Orleans. The
pendant pinnae one was used ii all narks visited and one or two
others, Latania. Grevillea robusta, "ichella chamnoca, Fi-
cus elastic, Royal Ponciana, two species of foreign Coniferae,
(Moquilla seems abundant). Some of the small plants were,
Codeuns, Acalyphia, Hibiscus, bouganvillea, (purple), Dracaena,Pan-
danus (green, but not ulilis), Aleurites,sp., Ravanallia madoga-
crensis, Accasia (used for hedge plants at Juiz de Fore).
Saw one of the largest Royal Poncianas I have seen, trunk
two-thirds meter. Very few Tillondsias. Muranties were fairly
good. Michellia are mostly diseased.
Street hacks are suinlied with pneumatic tires. There was
no auto at the station. The hacks are of the usual French tyne,
formerly much used in Cuba. Some of the hacks have auto tires on
the low front wheels and smaller pneumatics on the larger hind ones.
In the dining room rt Piracicaba there were large pictures of
strings of game fish and collections of fruit. Chromos of these

same pictures were used in Iowa 40 years a-o. This is the nicest
hotel I have been in outside of Rio.
19 de Maio, 1921, Piracicaba. Escola Agricola "Luiz
Queiroz". The Bonde ende9inthe grounds at the Forth end of the
central building. Met Dr. Vaz in the city. 7e said ho would be
out at .. !College waiting office. Arrived at 12:15 and
was told to wait twenty minutes in the outer office to the left of
the main entrance.
The Main Puilding'is a large and imposing 6tructure,with a
magnificent onen cam-pus or foreground free from -obstructions and
with a beautiful grass lawn.- I't is about 1/3 km to the edge of
the property. J
Arrangement 1, central settee with chair on each side. Table
in center of room, on a rug. Three chairs on each side of table,
and one at each end. One at north end with back to settee. Three
corners had one chair each and the fourth a hatrack. Two doors
to a porto. Boom -is about 7 x 10 m.
Halls are abott 3 1/2 m wide. Ceiling is about 6 m high. Win-
dows aew about the same width as the doors. There were five por-
traits on the wall, one evidently C. D. Smith. A frame of about
20 portraits was in the main hall. The floor was of narrow boards.
Everything was immaculately clean and in fine repair. An old man
was cleaning un in the hall. The students were passing and also
several men who were doubtless professors.
State Ap ropriation.
1919------------- 530, 696, 768 750, 000.
1920------------743, 599, OP5 943, 000$
1921------------- 200, 000, 000 420, 000$

Agricultural College.
1. Catalog.
2. Course of study, see catalog.
r 112 33 1"
3. Number of studentsC 92 19 2,
120 :3i
L19 or 20, 4"
4. Number of professors; professors,17; assistants, 8.
5. Number of employees 50.
6. Appropriations, see preceding page.-,
7. Charges for: Tiition, see catalog..
Laboratory fees ? -
Bourd, no boarding pupils.
8. Book supply.
9. Methods of registration.
10. Amount of land total, 312 hectares.
a. for Horticulture 71 ?
b. For Zootechnology and Agronomy, 184.
c. For Campus 57.
11. Hours for:
Laboratory, 8-10.
Recitati on
12. Dormatory.
13- Residences for officers and professors.
14. Military features.

Audience room seats about 400.
Library contains about 4,M books.
Library contained Fla. Exp. Sta. Bulletins and Record.
There were 21 students in advanced Chemistry, analytic of
Plants, Soils, fertilizers, feed staffs.
This course lasts two semesters, 8 hrs. per week lab., 2 reci.
Private library has large lot of most excellent books.
One professor teaches only this one class.
Phytopathological Laboratory had a lot of specimens put on
pedestals. This is the best I have seen.

1 -
- I

contained 16 microscopes.
"",,- t o peres
*de, and 2 1/2 meters long for 4 students.

Ii i0buta miae .
"oilr is t from the left side, had 4 windows 1.20 wide..
to the ceiling.
story was vacant for want of a Professor.
rtment had a fine lot of corn,-also cow
..peas, rice, two species of velvet bears, two kinds of Jack beans
--- -Had alsova'rious other crops, such as English peas."
nd was covered with tile.
out 60 X 50 ft.
argo, Professor Cathedrastico de Chimica
2 hours, at the request df the Director.
as stock in Sao Paulo.

ucid eus.
Gitriodora, Kosttats,' Tereticornis,
Fobusta, Gean-tea.
Horticulture is studied for two years, taking P hours per
.............. a____ two months each year.

director 2. For Professor of ApTonomy.
)rticulture. 4. For Prof. of "ootechni-
ng Prof. 6. Firm Foreman. 7. Five
ministrative building. 8. Twenty houses

na bloom home from the Horticultural
e was quite beautiful.

Botanical Laboratory contained 16 microscopes.
Had 32 seats for lectures.
Tables were 69 cm. wide, and 2 1/2 meters long for 4 students.
This room is 5 m by 10 m.
It had all the light from the left side, had 4 windows 1.20 wide.
It was 15 feet high to the ceiling.
The Technical Laboratory was vacant for want of a Professor.
. In,the Agrinomny Department had a fine lot of corn, also cow
peas, rice, two species of velvet beans, two kinds of Jack beans,
Had alsovarious other crops, such as English peas. ".
Desk had a flat top and was covered with tile.
The sAore room was about 60 X 50 ft.
Dr. Theodureto de eamargo, Professor Oathedrastico de Chimica
was with me about 2 hours, at the request 6f the Director.
Use Viti's Rupestrdis as stock in Sao Paulo.

-.iedge was Lygustrum lucideus.
Species of Eucalyptus, Uitriodora, Fostrate, Tereticornis,
Robusta, Gigantea.
Horticulture is studied for two years, taking hours per
day field work for two months each year.
Residences. 1. For Director. 2. For Professor of Agronomy.
3. For Prof. of Horticulture. 4. For Prof. of 'ootechni-
ology. 5. Dairying Prof. 6. Firm Foreman. 7. Five

for servants in Administrative building. 8. Twenty houses
for workmen.
Wore a spray of cinchona bloom home from the Horticultural
grounds. The tree was quite beautiful.


4 ~p

I> ~

1 4

hits ~

\.^~~~ A.'> "\^< .
Ho^ ^0e

\ -O ^ *.

20 de Maio, 1921. Quinta-feira. Water for Piracicaba

th ribbed fruit. The fruits of this
.e used for making wine.

iracicaba. Plant diseases of grass,
.-_. g and borders in all parks visited.
-i" like a Corticiim or Sclerotium. Seems
--, to affect the roots. 'id not examine closely. Occurs mostly in
planting. This disease is worse
the bridge across the Pirfcicaba

.... cicaba at the city. Wonderfully

.-t the best point of view, but
ioe of the river with the sun
arently a drop of eight meters

beint utilized. The city is
.. ti. --uu&U1fl inhabit ants.
Epiphites, Brom. orchid and fern very abundant on trees espe-
the country they are very rare.
the Pico and standing 1 1/? m
but is not veo effective.
p-----.. -- "I bought four oranges for 200 reis

EJ ey turned out to be satsumbs. They
best I have ever eaten. They had
y picked. These were undoubtedly
LA tender had about 1 1/2 boxes in
his cart. The color was vety deep golden for satsumas.


20 de Maio, 1921. Quinta-feira. Water for Piracicaba
is raised 66 meters.
Saw a show orapgeltree with ribbed fruit. The fruits of this
orchard( near truck garden) are used for making wine.

21 de Llaio, 1021. Piracicaba. Plant disease, of grass,
(liliaceae ?) used for nlanting and borders in all parks visited.
Cuts into planting very much like a Corticium or Sclerotium. Seems
to affect the roots. Did not examine closely. Occurs mostly in
dense shade. It is remidied by replanting. This disease is worse
in the park near the south end of the bridge across the Piracicaba
Visited the falls of the Piracicaba at the city. Wonderfully
fine sight. Bqnks too steep to get the best point of view, but
made two exposures from the north side of the river with the sun
squarely at the back. There is anparently a drop of eight meters
at this point. The water power is being utilized. The city is
siad to contain 25 thousand inhabitants.
Epiphites, Brom. orchid and fern very abundant on trees espe-
cially near the faiiff. Back in the country they are very rare.
The orchid we found growing near the Pico and standing 1 I/2 m
tall is used as a central nlant, but is not very effective.
On my way back to the Hotel I bought four oranges for 200 reis.
Thot they were tangerines but they turned out to be satsumbs. They
were very seedy but equal to the best I have ever eaten. They had
been carefully washed and properly picked. These were undoubtedly
brought in by the College. The vender had about 1 1/2 boxes in
his cart. The color was very deep golden for satsumas.

^>> cU^ d~^ ^C^^U

7.7 -



Platautus orientalis, a good tree from ERio.
Area 12 alcares. 24,200 sq. M is I alcare.

. I" -::'<

r r best at Piracicabs.

Ochifi kaki.

Arborizatia, CasurinM stricta. !

ety, better quality than Le Conto, but
name, Bilvs.
in bloom.

iLuUUlJbI, raoanete.
Patture herb, Agriou, is like parsley.
............................... of palm with drooing pinnse.

SBitter sweet, for stock, laranje amarge, bitter or rye.
Plor de Maio, Montano@ bipinatifida, broad leaved, composite,
seen in most of the parks.

.. -----

Platautus orientalis, a good tree from Rio.
Area 12 alcares. 24,200 sq. M is 1 alcare.
Turpentine mango is manga Coco.
300 varieties of roses.
6itriks nobilis is Laranja cravo.
Variety Doris of Japanese plum best at Piracicaba.
Kelsey also good.
Kiombo Preta among b-est kaki. bOchira kaki.
Guiboushio kaki ,. cas'tata.
Hyzakume is the best..-
Arborizatia, Casurina strict.
SPear Schmidt is best variety, better quality than Le Conte, but
not so much production.
V Aegle marmellos, common name, Bilva.

Hotto means vegetable.
English pea, Ervilha,was in bloom.
Turnip, Brassicca napous, nab).
I-omaine, alface romana.
Raddish, rabanete.
Pasture herb, Agrioii, is like parsley.
Latania Borbonica is name of palm with droon-ping pinnee.
Shaddock, is larsnga or Melonges.
Lima de (n4bejo is navel lime.
Limon dulce is sweet lemon.
Lima da persica is citrus bergamia.
Limon sede, sweet oblong lime. 2 in. long by 1 14' in dia.
Laranja Coronel, very small smaller than tiannis haIl', qblon4,
very sweet, looks like a good thing.
A Bitter sweet, for stock, laranja amarga, bitter or rye.
Flor de Maio, Montanoa bipinatifida, broad leaved, compositee,
seen in most of the parks.

i -

C~A~ ~

4.iIii 1 i ii .. l



Orr 'o

/ )1)

College has 4 Hectares sugar cane.
College was established in arch or April 1908. (Think it a m-is-
take in my memory?)
C. D. Smith there from 1908 to 1912, five yeaErs.
L. Corn put in crib with elevator run by electricity.
2. Corn grinding and feed grinding machine.
- f -0 _P4n ht m i sjdnn-xc-. ra-Om.


All. furman tractor, 2ig Fell to three
row corn nlanter. Acme, seed drills,
paper, andt road machine, drag and hay

Agricultural Department.

Horse, stallion, Oldenburg.
One Arabian, one Oldenburg, one Argentinian.
I mule, 2 years old, 400 hg.
1 PechePT mare, 3 1/2 years old, 490 hg.
1 2 1/2 years old, 4F5 hg.
Engines at college, one 160 hP., one 40 h'n/
Coffee looks bad. 1918 frost injured plants. 3 plants in old
plantation. Have i A had 10 A plants but badly injured by
frost. 10 ri in new planting. 4 x 4 m between plants.
4 varieties. 1. National, best. 2. BotucattI, good,v.g.
3. Button, good. 4. Murta, bpd. 5. Sumatra ?
V.b. ,Mauretius. White; speckled (St. Dernigam); white,Lyon (Lyani.)
Cotton, upland big boll. 3 crops, April, May, June.

Agricultural Lerartment, 74 cult. ha. 70 pasto. 40 woodland
natural. Farm over 300 ha. 12 ha. silviculture.
Cattle. 90 in all. 7U Lolandeza, 19 Guernsey, 12 Flemmish.

College has 4 Hectares sugar cane.
College was established in March or April 1908. (Think it a mis-
take in my memory?)
C. D. Smith there from 1908 to 1912, five years.
L. Corn put in crib with elevator runby electricity.
2. Corn grinding and feed grindingmachine. '
3. Rice mill and store-'room. -
4.- Cottbn in lint. Saw gin. Bailer. ,
I .
7 -. -
Agricultural implements. All. farm tractor, 7ig EPlI to thee
row rice planter end two row corn nianter. Acme, seed drills,
etc., included road scraper, and road machine, drag and hay
bE iler.
Mule stables. 42 head on Agricultural Department.
Horse, stallion, Oldenburg.

One Arabian, one Oldenburg, one Argentinian.
I mule, 2 years old, 400 hg.
1 Pecheyr mare, 3 1/2 years old, 490 hg.
1 2 1/2 years old, 4F. hg.
Engines at college, one 16 hp., one 40 h'm/
Coffee looks bad. 1918 frost injured plants. 3 plants in old
plantation. Have ii A had 10 A plants but badly Injured by
frost. 10 i in new planting. 4 x 4 m between plants.
4 varieties. 1. National, best. 2. Botucat*, good,v.g.
3. Button, good. 4. Murta, bod. 5. Sumatra ?
V.b. Mauretius. White; speckled (St. rernigam); white,Lyon (Lyani.)
Cotton, upland big boll. 3 crops, April, May, June.
Agricultural D'epartment, 74 cult. ha. 70 past. 40 woodland
natural. Farm over 300 ha. 12 ha. silviculture.
Cattle. 90 in all. 7 .Bolandeza, 19 Guernsey, 12 Flummish.



.n 1 1 I 'r

- 2 '7

H O< o+- J^.Ji





t- ^


* .. -_ :_

,t 4-h

?rVl, _,
-^^^ ftd^.^~v^^

-~ A~&

A t\- i -h i-. ..... ..

r. ^"-7 *. -~ *?*t~*""

(Q,-, 01*"'7

bf i

ot f>Vll iqt?

T"o ?lCAc

tb .




. 4,

L K-"

Horenia Dulcio, produces enlargements at the ends of the small

branches, about the size of a lima bean. Sweet to tasae.
Eucalyptus aigantea, 15 years old, 40 cm. in diameter.

Euphorbia curcas, Pinao, Paragago, Jatropha cureas, Pinom de Durga.
Caryota Ureus, large palm used in E. H.
Grama large, grass used for campus foot hill, excellent species.

I wrote Piper about it. Best campus grass.
Saw sweet gum tree, 15 years old, small growth.
Logu.minoseae, schizolciuiimhi excelsum. Guapururu, large tree in
park at H. Hi. with bean nods. (Ace. to Dr. A. Com. n. is Baourubu).
Teak wood tree, verbenociae, Tectoria grandis.
Hura crepitaus, (Euphorb.)
Specimens of Washington robusta.
Taxidium dis tichum on campus. Looks well, but small for a 15
year old tree.
Best month for sowing alfalfa is March and beginning of A-nril.
Same for mandioca.
Capim chloris good producer and green duiU dry Feason.
Tricholoema rose, favorite. Not good, fails to grow well.
Melinus minutifloris, 3 var. 1. short oi'd less green. 2. cabella
de negra or gprduro rocho, very red. gain difference is in
flower. No. 2, flower is nearly black.
Swine, 120 in herd- 1. duroc, 2. Berkshires, 3. Middlewhite,
(Yorkshire), 4 Canastre.
Varrao Porcas Leitoes Caporra Gapadetes Mestiqo Letto,
white (24) 2 4 6 6 1 4
Jersey(ll) 2 2 2 AO 1- 4

stra (43) 2 10 15 1 1 14

ihire.. 3 2 4 1 2 8


'4 ----



-- v

Flora C ess ai-
cit [g t ^e.

, Ia. t 4.'%6 & \u,,.V

C V- c V n e s
'T~ oPfl es


IAInc -A, A4.10 )LC

W,-iD l pl Ie I ,t-t I s-.
W Lttx\ pihe %ypl c s.

- }leN aclroI s c-d L T- s



I (


I _- ___


.j. .


B *'

m~ode1 Ad^ A I^ ASt.% ff-e^

0 Pr


10 16

tin y ...........
. . .

V. X.

TA.. ji




... ..:..



*1 f-



Vaccas lovillias Bozerras Bezerros Garrotes
29 9 20 5 4
8 1 5 1
4 1 2


Canastra: 50 were more or less typical. There were three breeds.
Dr. says he is brr-eding for a typical breed.
1 1/2 year- old berkshire hog w-as very good.

measurementss of building:
Breadth of Wknf, 17 paces.
Length of end, 34 paces.
length of connection, 30 paces

0 o4- fiets l4boratLO-1 4a,a
W OrK Wouti %.,


pielA StWJiN QriWv

V~a. IkdI 'A

$kautivWt Litie dt l I0dSibid9-
o AL s-L--v%.4s' OLrHoLrWsi



J' I. I U
,,ID, U.

22 de Maio, 1921. Bio Claro. The park was enclosed in
a tall iron fence. Took trip from Piracicaba Left at 7:15. It
was foggy. The country is level but undulating, There was some
forest, but it is mostly matto. It reminds me of -narts of Tmexss.
The auto road was Rood. There was lots of farming. Looks lihe
mostly Italian. Houses are of the usual type. The dirt road was
fairly good.
Arrived at Rio Claro about 9:15. It is a city about the size
of Piracicaba. In the city -park there some palms, Coyoto Ure us,
Latania borbonics, Palmito, Bamboo Palm, :Zschiibas. Also were Pav-
enalia, Guspururu (Schizolobium excelsum, Vogel,(In Dr. A's Arbor-
izacao,Bacurubl)). Saw spirea, oloe, and iris. Also Cycus revolute
a prickly stemmed nalm 8 m. tall, caryota (?).
Sameveria zeloia, Auricaria,(not Prasiliensis nor excelsai,
Royal Ponciana, Eucalyptus, white barked, Michella Champaea, Hi-
biscus, Pandanus Dracaena, AlamAnda, Urostipma salzmanianurm,
Bombax, Terminalia, Plummneria, Grevillia robusta, a few stragp-rly
Phyllanthus inivorsup, rose@ -picta, cycus circinalis, Codeurm,
Flor de Maio, (Montanos Bipinatifida) was making a grand showing.
Acaliphia marginata, a large number of Magnolia grandiflora, but
not "happy", Royal Palms, one species of Casurina, not eauisetifolia,
and a few specimens of Pinus. A Ficus which looked like Ficus
elastic but was not. There was a tree Clerodendrom, 4 meters tall.
Also an Italian columnar cedar, roses of the James Snrint type, Al-
ternanthera, St. Augustine grass, border "grass" vareigated St.
Augustine grass, Arborvitae seedlings% in full bloom, English ivy
used for covering grounds, Pioenus Dactylipheria Plummeria,
Star jassamine, "zebra grass",(It is a long time since I have
seen this Andropogon). A peculiar Epiphitic fern, probably a species of
Polypodium, leaves lanceolate, twi dm. long. Collected the small

leaved species in Mines Geraes. Disease affecting"border Mrass",
see note on plant diseases, Piracicaba. Tree Eunhorb that looks
like cactus. One small camphor tree, four meters tall.
Lilaz syringium, Chinese lantern plant, thevetiw,
Fruits at Eio Clara, mangoes, avocadoes, (only a few), oranges.
Very large Ca'dju tree, Anacardium Occidentali. Anonas conspicuous
by their absence. Grapes looking qui te well. Large tree bearing
yellow fruited cadju,
Saw one Zebu bull on return trip.
Very little Capim Gordura in this region. Some Jaragza.
Mostly 6apim commune.
The return trip from Eio Clara was most delightful,had
front seat in the Ford. A lady and four children and a man occu-
pied the back compartment. The road was about as godd as that
from Gainesville to Ocala at their best. No chance to speed at
any time. Henry made slow time compared with U. S. even on bad
roads. Met one auto and that was standing in need of a mechan-
ician. Directions for me are all upset, can't get used to the
sun shining from the north at such a slant. The country is dif-
ferent from anything I have ever seen. Red soil is everywhere
no limestone visible. About as level as western Tenn. and !'y.
General contour of the country rememdd me much of the Shenendoah
Valley. Crons not nearly as luxuriant as in Minas. rfountains
in the distance, but low. Coming in from the north we got a
beautiful vista of the Agricultural College at a distance of about
two or three kilometers. Bignonia Venusta in bloom all along fhe
way, frequently in heavy festoons. Fazendas small and numerous.
It looks more thickly populated than the mountain region, but that
is only apparent. Really is sparcely settled, butsmall three
roomed houses can be seen for a kilometer or two. Found two men

who would venture to talk English. One of them said that the
North Americans all talk through their noses. There appear to
be about a dozen or two automobiles in both cities. "Real folks"
seem to prefer the opulent European carriages. On the way to
Rio Clara passed about a half a dozed carryall hacks, P11 of
European type, which suggest a European style where the servant sits
high on the seat and away from the master.
23 de Maio, 1921, At the railway station there was a mar i
guard of four soldier's and two prisoners who had been caught passing
counterfeit money. The soldiers worn a very dark blue, almost black
uniform, with dark red stripes running down their trousers, and some
on their coats. The caps were of the old peculiar French tyDe.
Last night the government agent explained the difference between
counterfeit and real money, and showed how it could be detected.
Apparently this stuff they were passing was a very poor imitation.
Thio prisoners were rather simple looking individuals of only fair
intelligence. The bills seemed to me to be very crude. It is more
likely that they are the dupes of the counterfeiters rather than
the real counterfeiters. This morning was cool on the trqln.
Seven out of the fifteen men wore over coats. Eight wore straw or
Panama hats. The ladies wrd the children were dressed for warm
weather. The men seemed to be the ones that were catching cold.
On the way to Jundahy. Lots of small beds look like
onion seedlings, patches of Irish seedlings. Capim gordura more
plentiful. Partures look better. Animals are all sleek and fat.
Of European or native type. XZebfi type conspicuous by its absence.
Between Indaia/tubu and Itaicy. An airplane had li-hted.
A large crowd from the nearby village was going out to see the
Jundahy. Anonas in baskets on the new train coming from
the aM*kx down north.


24 de Maio, 1921. Barra de Pirahy. Arrived at 5:30
left at 8:30. Went to bed end had a good sleep. The train
seemed to pass under through the hotel.
Sitio, 14:35 o'clock. Left on the Central do ,Yinas as
soon as the passengers were transferred, about 14:50/ It was
the narrowest gague road on which I have ever ridden. At a small
station about thirty kilometers from Sitio a boy came -in and sold
leite. It was s mall gourd likeA appearing articles made from
apparently skim milk. He had a basket full of them and was sell-
ing them at 400 reis. They weighed at from four to five ounces
each. I bought two and ate one. It tasted decidedly salty,
somewhat acid, with a flavor like cheese made from skim milk.
The couter portion was decidedly fibrous, so that it could be
peeled off. Apparently they were freshly made. So far the
country had been quite level. The mountains are low. At one
station the altitude was marked at 900 meters. Sertao, not much
native growth left, not a great deal of farming carried on. I am
told that there is a large population in this region, however.
Breakfast at -------.
Arrived in d'El Rey about 6:30 P. W. Vent to a hotel
some distance from the depot, located at the principal bridge
across the river. REther tired, but walked around town. They
have three or four very grand cathedrals. Lid not see the inter-
iors. The River is conducted in a straight line through the city.
I was told the city had a population of about ten thousand. 7anu-
facturing in a smrll way is carried on. There is a street on
each side of the River and concrete sidewalks on the banlks of the
tiver', leaving a space about three hiindred to five hundred meters
wide between the houses on opposite sides. A large amount of money
has been spent on the bakns of the River and bridges are put across
at short intervals.

The railway station id a rediculously large affair when compared
with the smallness of the railroad.
Went to the movie at the Municipal Theatre. The film
was farily good, the story about what you usually find in a movie
film. A comic extra was thrown in. Both of Amer. make.
Had a fine room at the hotel. Clean bedding and a good light.
Paid seveh mil.1 reis which was very reasonable, for the accommodation.

. '^ ,. **

Wed. 3L30 P. i. met at the train by Profs. Hunnicutt and Knight. Taken

to Knight's home-
Dr. Gammon called on me that night. WaP tired and travel
worn. Went to bed early-
Thursday, May 26, 19?1.
mossadr &!organ to see the
3:u0 A. MI. Went ont in a carn Lage v, ith Ambassador organ to see the

College. Saw the grunnds and builtirigs, cattle sheds, hog pens, steer
pens and finally the fields.
Breakfast at Prof. Knight's. In 7. M. Went to chapel. Am.
Morgan spoke, and then I spoke. About 160 boys and girls in attendance.
Usual devotional exercises. Visited the Normal and thle municipal ChamP
bers. Dinner was at 4:30 at Dr. Gammon's.

Friday, May 27, 1921-. breakfastt at Fev. Sydenstryckerls.
Saw a gamellera surrounding a phoenix dactyl.ifura. Eleven years ago
n r
.nie seedling begp-an P.75 meters up. Late is 30-4C years old. For some
years the seedling grew without any attachment 1o the soil.
Eucalyptus viminalis is very uncertain Ps to the growth it
Will make. E. globules made 95 meters in P, years.
Lormatoiry at college is Sx 3.6 meters. Class room 7 x 5 M,
hao 40 sqats. i Laboratory 7 x 10 m. for 24 students.
Program of the day. C f.fet boom. -kent to see new building
that is teing erected. Across to sclf-help department.
Breakfast at ,ev. S's. To hospital and had coffee, then to public

school, served coffee and cake, then to the railroad shops, to Fazenda,
served coffee and oranges and cakes. Back to Hunnicutt's for dinner.
Prayer meeting at Hunnicutt's. Then to movies, and after movies to
reception at ihe layor's.

.: ':' '- ....... ... ... ..

-<^ ^ -^ ",/ 2 ,

,, -, .- J e; -

I .
W6 ^^ ^ 7 <',--- ^^. ^---

1- /

ZJ ?U 4L _A -, ... _esJ"
---_ g ._ _
,LE(A a/~4 't ~ ~ u / '
// f -- ,__ raw

^^^--^ %- /^-Z- .f x- 4^ >^<<

^ ^J /^^/fft^^-^i ^^^~y-y1-^ ~^^Si_^^/y <^^ex^

"-- .@ ... ,... .. l,.

y *-_^<. .. c^, /<^- = ^-^^ -^J.^ ^-^
...... -.- _. ,,- .>.,=_ ^- Z _,

. .-* ..

,4 '' -' -- *- '-
-^ A- *

,e. / 92 .

... ..* ," -. -. .
'i^M /' ... ..., .. .. .. ,
. ,,- ,7 ,. .. .- --. .

"'- 1 '/ / ^^^-. ... ..

'/ z7^ .. _. ..*&. .. ... ..

^ o,,^ ,,J ^ *^ ^
/^LC~ ,L- /&A> A^ 4r^-^ ^,^

-,.... .. 7,/ '

*r '
//;, 3-o= __UL. A 2?-t^ ^Ce~ *^-r< ,-^ / ,.^

/1 -Mt^*t^- a<
_/ ee-^- G^^^ Z ^^ SL Q ^ ^

N a .. .. ,.) -' '
., */ _.,....w ''. _"-~ ./ .. --. ,- -. ,,,,.t, :.-',, ,=" .: .- ,7 -. i ,sfy"

(. i..: 7 a" c'
-., ... ,, .. .. ,, -. .. ... ^ .. .
' .
4'& t -i. -jyLK _S

, .. ,_.*: ;. -'. ,' ,, -, ',._

A. .

. 1... .. .. ^ .... 2 s-- .< "' .- -" J s / .. .. /
,'. "". ., .
'** / \ 'i .. -- ,: sa K ie :,, 6 ,..4 .. ^^,, ^ 'S ,-. *r l-'-" -. .. -' ,- -. ^- .- ,t '" ... '- .. .

"_ "* '

t a- e f y ---- 6'-

w (9 -t r'

/ &





1 .







' *-

7?etrinaLr,r sciencee an" -eri,:.ine
Ani-a.l '.'sbamd'Kr

!inrr 'i cul ture

Plt.nt ai:ec;.ees and insects


Fari ..eciiE-l.nics

ri-e.ii.:- tr;

, .o est ry

Ycrtu/ue~se l,?.ni"L '.;'

Hi.Ut,, ,o P7 : 0 ir

?'Lathe~-.-e i c s




I "










(Escola de Agricultura)


*me object of the Agricultural College is to

give pr .cit-oli inii:truction in the b-,est Eg'icultura.:.l practices and the

a.rrlicc.tion of som.e of the scientific principles that have proven them-
;elve. to 1:e of p'ji.ctic ., n.dva-ntae. A' thorough understandin'- of the

scientificc pr'inciples underlying the be;rt practices aind usages as

the-p huve 'been worl:ed out either on the fari-mi or in the laboratoryr gives

the possess-or a power not enjoyed by those not possessing it.

Those nations, states and coi.-muunities that

have -iven greatest attention to applied science have prospered most

g:reatl-.y in com,.erce, art and literature duri-ing the last 75' *rears.

The Cnurib:,r of depart:.ient nece.- ..3cary for a.

co>..plete equipment of an agric.llturs.l college will run up to a hundred

or more. There are however a nu.Lber'r of depar',aL.ents that are of funda-

mental ::ad ..,.ic ii.J-,rtanrLce. In a new college especially in a state

wvh're scaacientific ariculturcal i: Ue.ig s:tu.died as a new departure it

volld. be well to, limit thle ii;i"r of de"artuents to those made neces-
7 1
tle c vsLabili t' of funds a..nd the po:-sibi iity cof securing stu-

de-int for the studied in the v-.rious den artments. As the college grows

in oi-rit in n financiial sun-oort new deo:.-,rt::ents can b1.e added

froimi ti.!,e to tiue.

Ti-,e outline given below together with a general

discu'-sion will give a fair understanding: as to what are believed to be

the funida.ientl.1 departments. As these varLious depa.rt.mients lave been
Sv.ritten off froM .:ie;,,.ory there may be so:ie important omission. It is likle-

wise quite pro)Lbable that so3r.e depart.:;,ents have been .iore empha4i.ed than

is justified by our local conditions with which I an as yet not familiar.


1. ETERINARY SCIENCE. This deoart.aent should prove of great impor-

tance to e.rver"r af-rviciilturist in Tlinas Gerae:'., *-. fara.L sni::i I:? keie t

on all the estates. -'11 fc :&nii.ials .'.re subjected to a l -, n e na. .-er

of diseases. rany of tie li-reases .-re'ni tted fromn one to another.

COthe-r, .re caused by improper food or by improper physical sur-

roun:'.in,;s. It is inot unco,.iion for as hi;h as 10 ;< of the animrials of an

entire region to be lost by preventable causes. The finriancial x. losses

frequently falls most heavily on cattle raisers. Hors are subjected to

s-veral feriou.s co-t.gious diseasess that soi.metimes destroy practically

the whole herd s is a case in ho,--cholera. It is prob-,ably of quite as

Miuchi econo-.mic imnc'rt,"nce for thie farmer to l:nov,' liow,' to, b:eep his livestock

in health as it is to 'Cbe able to cure the disease after it has a-.-,peared.

College course in veceriiary science should includLe torouc, study

of the anatoziy of the oriinci-Ll ania' occurring o'n tie fariM such ,

cattle, hos I, iules hor::es c.d o, other .

brief c-ur.,re in pzoo I. (pr-'ocoz;4olo.y) nd L. ctetiolo1o is

i.e., that t1 su.,,.,n 1 m';. s..erst ,nd the .i-tare o0 he caw.i tive a,,en-t.

2. 'II,-L '- "DRY. Anial h'.s.ndr- in one respect is closely rela-
ted ;k1 v t eri .ary science in c -.L .i alh a pro,:er stud'A o t1:e feediriQ

of fl.,.i anim.-als they .-r-e ;:et i- ,*.od health :,-:in it less frequently

nece to a i I c .i ei -U...U. u r C .
Li ve..toc :. C,.i.iis iie clu e de% the'd" of p",'per feedi L" of

-i ,. h, &ie ,ro,,r l"a...x.;..lii-_ of the lives.t,:',c fn livestock : Prod ucts
... .erai ci .ni. 1 h ..' .i:.r', in-'lu,"es Li ryin aL the c.- re of
:aiy pi.-ducts. It also i clu,:cs beef production v.i well as ho: raisin,.

,ner this i ,-aId should ..lo be i.1-aJded -tthe pro'-er care of oultry.

3. ;T ,.: r0..r.r In 'Cis des arcd.ee1it sIecial a! tt teo n i. s ive n to all tlhe

crops that , rAised on thii far:.i. In soi.;e districts where cotton is
t ,e -o. IU i.. i ............ .e
the- ..s.11 is rt--".nt c.op thi.-. is I-ade ,.d der,;,.rt,.. n;"i 'y.., its.elf'. In oti. .r se-

ctions vi-;'e Lu-i.- c ;- ne is t'h;. on .ci. ".l crop it i,. nriocu u.;.ial to h.'ave

? '.e.rt...ent rive all af it tiline to this crop. To -imatter v-here an aGri-

cultural college i, located it is usual to give instruction on the pre-
paration of the soil the propr planting of the eed, the proper tillage
,d the prpe eedesir th poertlld

a-d- the proper. hrvesting and preservation of the crop. Special emphasis

v.ill be ! on the leading z.oney crop.i zucLh Ls cotton, tobacco and

,-u-ar cane

This divi:.i,-n line between agronomny and is not

s-trictl:y ,arlhed. In s,L:-,, cs'-'.,e. .ch a crop as sveet pot'.;oef: i5 e:"arded
a. c:, ;in p ,rorrly in tnhe .: 1.-. t-nf ari',noi,- -id in others coning

pr-q ,-.erly in the feport:ent -f i torticclt r.r

4. 1- IORTICULTURE.. T:his de trt:.ent 1ar- threu main division.:. The first

i, that of the r'rodii.ction of frui.ts. In this division careful inotructi n
i:; :iven to the pre-oarati.o-n of the- soil before plEinting out the orch.-.rd,

careful planting of the trees, the p rcer ,nre-criti-n of the fruit -:r

th'r. -:r'et ..n.. finally t-e ga.t:erinv and :'!r..r eti'^ of the fr"'.it.

The second division of horticulture includes the instru-ction

in jrowin- ve-etaLles. ThIe proper preparation ".f the ,, he- ,r-oper

planting of the seed,, the pr-oper cultivati .n of the plants ,and finally

the aieri ad of th pr:.cts belongs in this division

The third .iJ'iision of hioGiculture includ, thIe :t...d j of those

trees that do not produce but are val.ualle either for, the produ-

ction of ::..e -.u..e ,erci.l ...ateriAl li2 rubber or Vlalu,,l- as orn.nen-
* t l tiee:-:. In hi, hi,, J.e-el :-.,ed ...ri iul tu'-. ,llc e :. ..-c fi,:" s an e-ntire

de'...rt.i e'oted entirel to the production of ornarinentals for the


A brief course in L ,-,any is included to enable the student to

understa nd the different or-ans of growth t.nd renproduction.

It .,ru, times with some of our smaller ag icultural

*:oll.-e.: that flhe de. art,.-ment of plant diseases and insects is included

in the i''.eartiaent of horticult-.Lre.

5. PLA:TT DI6EASES AT.D I:TSECTS. This is a very important department
inA.--ric.ultural college. It is not unusual. for the farmer to lose a very,

1 rge -,ercent of his crop due to insects and diseases that could be

v7ery- readly prevented. It is. not always necessary to spray in order that

- --- -: :rEr^-,,<^_^, ^.:{-1-'- '


some plant diseases and insects may be prevented. It is often much i.ore

profitable to obvisate an insect attack or a disease infection than it

is to treat it after the occurrence. In-';ny places during certain seasons

as much as one half of the entire c;rop is lost fro.. in,--ect attack : or

disease infection. In fact there are .i-ny instances in history Y,'ihere in-

sect attack or funus disease affectation _has ca!-,.sed famine.

A brief c'.urse in llact-riol_,ry and cryr otor. a-:ic 1,otanr is in-

1'.I.ei that the stv I..nt .:a. :'-,. ip ehenid the n:t'.;e of pla. t di .... ':ce.

.Te should Iso un...erstan-d the 1-i-ture of the different or-ans of repro-

d"ction and diassepination (spores). During thie instruction in crjitonolory

a b,'rief c.-,urse will be ,iven in invertel:rate zSoolog.y to give the student
a. proper conce-tion of the life history of the causative agent.

o. SrILS. This includes instruction in different f-.oil types, the adapta-

b-ility to different cror,., s.nd th-e req'-.irement- in cult:rel tre.&.at.-ent.

DifferenL soiled -,'quire diffferen-, teret-.-,ment to :-Ui. thea into 1:,est

:;'i. -e for different cro-s.

T-' ,'-.ncrcsta..nd Lthe different soil types it is nece..--'ry to make

a physic.-l stud, of the leadincn -id c of a and de-ter.iinc by r.h, sic..

.:.:ez -0 ....C ,- Cif rent s;il c_-nsti .,s z .1, s li -. t ..t L re m.;e 'v.j f ex-

trc..e-l fine ,r-.dt.'.c it- i .:o. ti.e" difficult f:,r the st-...d.en" t to mal-:e

cd. fi-itc .etcr:'ia. tico x.l re a ires close :.v ly-es -.

-A brief course in ,- '.-i s. is in ,.lued thu ,t the nece .:..;r'-o h .-

.jdcml "tn',Cs rm '.r- nomiprehended 1-.r fIe nc :t'.dent. Oeoli-',- min:rc,'loy1

a-nd :m:e beoz'olory a--e necessary,- to mi-.:ce u e ure:: ri un.e e in soils, and

shoul-1. e introduced .s c tion cr:.

A che.nical st1dy of the soil 4.i l nd il content is -d-,.o useful

*;-.nd is ,~o-;lo'ed in more -dvanced courses but for the initia-.l work it
.. .
.i-l- b-Ce b:ctj.-er t;. elaclo .- me elem.entar'- lines ,-f instruction.

/. T~v-S' oil\ st,"--r finally lead.: to the ievelopment of soil eaus.

, It prep .1 r-s the stuElent to understand, -nd .-.n-nreciate soil surveys.

7. r..: *ECIL,,IC:. This department of the ACricultural Collee is

a-- o called Agricultural En:rineerina. It includes land survey ',, means

of transit -...nd other instrumnen-ts, and also the laying out and aiappin-

th fa irm.

In this department drainage and irrigation is also taui-ht.

These two nart; of the farm rmechani.s are more important t tmi the :.ver-

&j'e f'a rm-er rear.lizes.

Very fey: of our practical farmolro realize the irorft:tnt of

the prore-ir selection of fan im-plements and many of tho.e who select

proper implements: fEil to make the proper adju.s3tents or give oro-,er

care to the farm imnrleients, such L.s plows, disk hL-rrows ., etc.

In the new dcvelop:.-ent o' .gtrilture the farm engine and the

farm motor are playing, an imrortr.nt role. The up-do-date fai-rier finds
u.irioUS, :ind.:! of engines tid :,ototi of .-reat -d'.v.nt.e to' hi .A s.all

aui-ount of i-istruction -uch as is Liven by the salesmen of the mechanism

uLisually suffices to l:eep thlie machine rurning.

In this depirtmentthe instruction should go further than the

simple care of the engines and motors. It should give inu.tru, tion in

nthe funda:.-ien tal pi n ciple s.

3. C=MI.7TRY. T7 i' is- one of the fui r-,c.-,:.r. th..t grouped
, tether t:, cor.ore rcrictlltursl science It 'c.s the earliest of the

sciene thc..t wa' s t: ted to the need .-.f the ..rict..u'rtA,! -.-nle

T; the sre started 'Iy jiVin inF-tru.ction in in-

.:r;-..ii c che::Listry. _.fter the students Tecone ft'-'irlr frili.-r with

-ie different t elements of w'hich the soil a.nd other er c-r 'rc composed

they lead 1by "radual st, into the c-uantit.-.tive detex2-,in.ti-n of

the ri fi erent so-il '.; p ,n.. :- ,

Or-,-.uic ,-"he.!ii:tr-y c,.e:i~r -e ; :n itc-:.lf :nore irtti culr .rly with
*n e
the cnt'titutin .a.nd cnmTpoiti-,n of -r.lant todiJes and other organic ma-

teri .Is. It is in thi2 1 .ranch of chermi -tr'- that Lmo.t amazing progress

h...; "been made in recent "ears. It revolutionized many of the -.rts,

for e::ample the production of a food from a former ly worthless cotton

seed oil.

Avr-ricultural chemistry is the special adaptation of chemistry

to the needs of the present day farmer. Both the -,r-ganic and inoranic

che.i;istrv. are -o important in our present day agriculture that it is

difficult to 2.a' which is the more important division.

w6 -

9.-FORESTRY. This branch of agriculture is rarely appreciated by a

A, tate until after the virgin forests have been worked up into luiLber

a.nd gone into co::z-iercial channels. This has been specially true in the

hi.stbrry of European and ITorth Anerican countries.

It is not intended to give an extensive or complete course in

forestry but only to teach the ele;ients of subject.. M.;inas Geraes has

still a large wealth of virgin forest that should be utilized so as
to keep it from wasteing and at the sale tile it i.erpetual in-

duistry fDr the ;.'ate.

Instruction should be given on our best lu-mber producing trees

and on the trees that are -producing other commercial products in, their

native habitats.

On oe side forestry is closely allied to horticulture in that

the handling of forest nurseries is very similar to the handling of

fruit tree nurseries. This is,how;ever, an art in itself and needs

specin.i. care a:-,d instruction.
In c..ll ne.: countries it frequently happens. th.t ,.. considerable

area is denuded of forest trees. In some cases it is quite simple and

inexpensive to reforest tnat region.

10. P'ORTUG'UESE. The object of the instruction is to enable tlhe
student to express himself in his mother tongue and aizee it possible
Sfor him. tc understandJ l fully the -.rricultural literature of the
dayr. 1-e should receive sufficient instruction to enable hin to write
clearly .nd fni'retuliy on teclimicai ?nrricuitura.i subjects, especial-
ly tnose tnc.t concern every-day needs of the farmer. Later in tne
deLelopment of tie college Cpanish Lnd English should be aLdded to the
course. This will enable tnie more a..dva-iced studeius tou read a't first
nand ..iany bulletins and books published in other progressive tropical

11. HISTORY OF BRASIL. Every. student graduating from the Agricul-

tural Colle.e should !n:ow Brasilian History -ufficiently to make

him- a patriotic citizen. Every State has a right to expect her sons

to be oa-triotic. History is the best course for teaching : and incul-

cating nsAtriotisrsm in the hea-rts of the young men. A well taught and

well organized course in history leds to an appreciation of economics.

Later in the course farri economics should be introduced and

t-ught as a well organized subject.


12. MLTH2;aTICS. Every well organized farm requires a great many ar-

ithmetical and other calculations. It is not an unusual experience in

an assemblage of fifty or more students from the farm to find one fourth

or more. of them insufficiently Drenared in arithmetical studies to enable

them to make the nece3satry computations required by the courses in

science. It is not noces--ary to go thle length of hirhier mL.thematics for

the students.

Farinn book -Lkeeepin 7 or farm accounting as it is soL,:etime,. called

is a branch of study that should be learned by every practical farmer
although to the uninformed the matter seems abstralct a.nd complicated.

^,yste'-ims been worked out which satisfactory for the most com-

plicated of agricultural operations.

(Appendix "D".)
State *obool of Agriculture for Mines Gernes.

For the teaching of scientific Agriculture and the science of
Veterinary Medicine, else the scientific investigation of epricul-
tural problems as related to the State of Minas Gtraes.

I. Chair
II. Chair
III. Chair
IV. Chair
V. Chair
VI. Chair
VII. Chair
VIII Chair
IX. Chair
X. Chair
XI. ChAir
XII. Chair

of Veterinary Science and Medicine.
of Animal Husbandry.
of Agronomy.
of Horticulture.
of Plant Diseases and Insects.
of Soilf .
of Frat Mechanics.
of Chemistry.
of Forestry.
of Portuguese Language.
of History of Brazil.
of Mathematics.

. 4 1 *" t,
I. Chair of VeterinaryScience and Medicine.
1. A Study of the External Structure of Domestic Animals.
2. A Comparative Study of the Skeletons of Domietic Animals.
3. A Study of the Various Internal Organs.
18 itB ief C in 7ertdbrate Zoolog-.
tuy of e Principal Diseases Affecting Domestic Animals.
5. Animal Hygiene and Farm Sanitation.
6. P b .. 8 /ol a d-31i .
( 6. Parbsitology and "elmi-trology. ..





%- i





II. Chair 1a l Husbandry.
1. General Introduction to Animal Husbandry.
2. Study of the Breeds of Horses and Ases.
3. Study of Bovines.
S 4. Study of the Swine Industry.
5. Feeding and Reproduction of Swine.
6. im Dairying.
7. Production of Milk and Cheese.

8. Fieding and Breeding of Dairy Cattle.
9; Poultry Raising.
10. Handling of Poultry and Poultry Products. .
11. Study of Other Domestic Animals.
1?. Production of Pastures and Bther Food materiall Ucr
Domestic Animals. {.-,V: < 'v.


11I. Chair.of Agronomy. & "
i. Study of Principal Farm Ctpns.

2." Preparptionpf the Soil.
3. Cultivation ef the Crop.
4. Plant Breeding and Improvement of Farm C rWs.
5. Selection, Breeding, and Growing of Sugar Cane.
6. Selection, Breeding;' and Growihg of Coffee.
7. Selection,.Breeding and Growing of Corn.
8. Selection, Growing ani Handling of Fice.
9. Selection, Growing and Handling of Cotton. .
10. Selection, Growing and Hangling of Tobacco.

11. Growing ofensMan&Ica, and other Farm Cr&qs.
12. Studr of Cover "rops xix Used. tor the Improvement of the


4 ^


- S W W~ W n -
~ga* rn ~
.I*- *~

IV. ChAr of Horticulture tP:.0 ...... ... -
1. A Brief Course in Phanerogamic Botany.
2. A Study 9f the Principal Vegetable Crops.
^W .
3. Study and Preparation of Seed Beds.
4. ?repaation of the Soil for Vggetable Crops.
5. Repruduction by Cuttings.
6. Transplanting of Vegetables.
7. Uses of Commercial and Farm Fertilizers.
8. Irrigation.
9. Cultivation end Care of Vegetables, prtec-
tion against Diseases and Insects.
10. Detailed Study of Principal Crops Used for T.bers, for
..Roots, for Foliage, and for Condiments.

11. Frait Culture. '*
12. Detailed Studf of History and Varieties of Principal Fruits.

S13. Studi' of the'Propagation and Beproauct.on of Fruits.
14. Reproduction by Cuttings.,
1'. 15.: Reprodus.tion by Budding.

16. Reproduction by Seed.
17. A Study of the Bes.t 'Methods in Nursery Peactice.
18. A Study.of'the Best Wethods of Avoiding Iisect and Fungous

:19. Preparation and Care of the Soil.
20. Intbnsive anC" Extensive Fruit Planting.
21. Handling and Preparetion for Market.
22. fmproving Fruit Crops by Set'ction itr Hybridazation.
23. Culture of Ornamental Plants.,
24. Propagation sua' Eandling of Herbaceous Plants.>


IV. Chair of Horticultur4 (Con't)
25. Cultivation and Planting of Shrubs.
26. Cultivation and Planting of Ornamental Treet.
-27;- Underlying Principles of Ornamentsal. Planting.

V. Chair of Plant Diseases and Insects.
I. Cryptogamic Botany.
2.- microbiology.
3. Parasitism, Saproohytism, and Symbiosis.
4. Study of Parasite and Host.
5. Diseases of Principal Farm Crops.
6. Diseases of Principal Vegetables.
7. Diseases of Principal Fruits.
8. Diseases of Forest Trees.
9. Preparation of Fungicides.

*10. TXse of Spraying Machinery.
11. Entomology and Agricultural Parasitology.
12. Invertebrate Zoology.
13. Verses and Molluscs Attacking Crops.-
14. Arachnidae Attacking Crops.
15. Insects Attacking.Farm Crops.
16. Insects Attacking Vegeteblesu*. .

- .* ~t-r "S



V. Chair of Plant Diseases and Insects.
17. Insects Attacking Fruit Crops.
18. Insects Attacking Ornamentals.
19. Insects Attacking Forest Trees.
O." BMaking Insecticides.
21. Applying Liquid Insecticides.
22. Applying Dry Insecticides.
23. Applying Gaseous Insecticides.
24. The Study of Beneficial, Insects.

VI. Chair of Soils.
1. Geology and Minerology.
2. Meteorology.
3. Elementary Physics.
4. Chemical Study pf Soils.
5. Physical Study of Soils.
6. Movement of Water in Soil.
7. Gasses in the Soil.
8. Soil Acids.
9. Soil Correctives.
10. Soil Surveys.
11. Mapping of Soil Areas.

VII. "aiir of Farm Mechanics.
1. Surveying by Means of Instruments.
2. Ascertaining Levels, Elevations, and Inclinations by
leans 6f Instruments.
3. Drawing of Slaps of the Farm.
4. Principles of Irrigation.
5. Principles of Drainage.
6. Water Supply of the Fara.

..Sw ... .. ... ..a .* .... .... .
__ *v. s -


VII. Chair of Farm Mechanics. (Con't).
8. Shop Work With Wood.
9. Shop Work With Iron.
10. Farm Water motors.
11. Farm Electric Motors.
12. Fare Gas Engines.
13. Farm Steam Engines.
14. Farm Plows.
15. Farm Cultivators.
16. Harvesting and Reaping Machinery.
17. Killing Machinery.

18. Construction of Rural Buildings.
19. Construction of Rural Highways.
OAO r4Xtra / /2w4O- td.AL/ktt P

VIII. Chair of Chemistry.
1. Inirganic Chemistry.
2. Study of the Principle Elements.
3. Qualitative Analysis.
4. Quantitative Analysis.
5. Study of the Principal Metals.
6. Study of the Principal Acids.
7. Study of Agricultural Soils.
8. Study of the Elements of the Soil.
9. Study of Fertilizers and Corrective Materials.
10/ Organic Chemistry.
11. Study of Organic Compounds.
12. Study of Vegetable oils.
13. Preeess of Manufacturing Vegetable Oils.
14. Study of Alcohol.

i ,, '. '. -',- _
VIII. Chair od Chemistry.(Con't)

15. Process of Fermentation aMd Manufacture of Alcohol.
16. The Sugar Mill.
17. Determination of Sucrose Content. of Cane.

18. Sugar Making on Farm Scale.
/ 19. Structure of Sugar Mill. for the F arm.
20. Preparation of Sugar for the sMarket.



IX. Chair of Forestry. \

1- Silviculture. .
2. Seed Beds, Propagation, end Production of Plants Grown

for Fuel and for Lumber. i
3. Detailed i -peeeie of Species Introduced from Foreign

4. Detailed Study of Native'Species.

5. Detailed Study of the Principles Underlying the Production

of Fuel and of Lumber.

6. The Proper Handling of a Silvicultural leanting.



: .-. .- -

/ '*-36-"
Jf k1-, :^.1

hair of Portuguese nage.

1. Review of fimu .Portugu-ese Grammar.
2. Work on exposition.
3. Portuguese Rhetoric.
4. Reading end Transcribing Agricultural Publications of

B 5. Preparation o Articles :fx on Agricultural Subjects,for, .7
Publication. -
6. Agricultural Jownmalism. 4


XI. Chair of Hibstery of Brazil.
1. History of Brazil.

"2." -General History.
3. Rural developmentt and Social Life.
4. Rural Economics.
5. Rural Laws and Contracts.


XII. Chair of Mathematics.
1. Arithmetic, beginning with Quadratics.

t. Working out Fertilizer Nermulas. /
3. Working out Feeding Rations.

4, Algebra. t"'
5 Pieeh Ge4etry.

6. Solid Geoaety. .-
7. Plane Trigoneoetry.
S8. Rural Accounts 'ad Accounting. 4 W
Ir t
4 *
: .

if .' u *
r o. .('rIr[ ? -.

Ira'a'-'. .i. ,'
., .. c .. -**_ *....
.' ',,. .1 ." -. .. :
... ';

'n "- "
,*.. _.. .* *

e-0 *


Y ,

_. "' .- .

'- '- -.

Export of trip to

(1). INtioml Collets of Agriculture 4.:

Vetdrinery er. icin he. -.


*.- .-

4 .

* ... (3)'

d *-^ 14)


q4o ?a to Rtetf Scehoo of Ag-ridt -lture.

"Lriz de Quejroz"' Aricutur Ce flio.

Levres Agricultursl Col. ee.. :. .,

by 'a..
by '. ,:.,. ,' 'r"

Pi. H. Rolfp., p-

* ,^ \ ,.- *
... .. ;
;-* \r



*- 1





S. 6'

"F. r

4 **- ..
- ^ **_ ^ ** ,B

k, ...,.,

"' {. .

'^ .





- .. -.^

,1 f- 1 !
S p
l .< ,' *. r



Letter of ynsrniesyial i

Itinerary 2 iticni, Visited 5
Nlisi.r.l College :of L tri(']a ure snd Tf:eeri .cin
"eaicine 5
National Plant %narantine Stftion 7

L'SO Ppualo Peartment of agricuniture 8
u 'niList& .,iusoum El l
tui j' ', Agrie.ultursl College 9

a vrcs icul turl College 17
tcenuri i19

."A", .our.e of 0Itly i : onl Co]ef ?
*l n inei n n 0i o e n- 1 0 o csre -, <
:II "J :in i-uIiz e 10leZiroz'C olle'f'e
of Ao-ri culture, ?5
"" in L.vrn. -Oollep of ,ri.cltuie 'R
ri I' i .
,. 'tuin L.l d VerO, Colleo-f.c
Agriculture ard Veterinnry Lnicrce .2q.

< : .. -- *_ :*. *' ." o .." -** *. '* .* .
,r ,
,..9 .*

College of Agriculture and Veterinary Science
for the
State of Minas Geraeg.

bellb Horironte,
June 16, 1921.
To His ,Nxellency,
Dr, Arthur dn 'ilv, Bernardes,
resirlont of' t-he tf.ate of ,nas Oernes.

Rin.orable Sir:
In fci'ewi-Th:Ac\-wiLh amy ve-rbal instinaction?, I vi's-ited the
National .l'chool of ;Arriculturo, the Nptionil Deopartmcnt of '-gricul-
ture, the 'LtAate D'epcrtmQnt of' ,.grivulturo at Paulo, the "Luiz
de Queiroz' College of Agrici-;lturoe ,ao aulo L.teG College of Agri-
oulture), and the Lavres Agpricltural Cclleje.
Herewith I irfnsmit a brief report including.: itinerary
and remarks on the inFtifutioen viritcl an,' a brief reCuJm. Attached

are four appendices. The first oive!s rcneorcl outline of' the course
of study al the U.ational Col-c-ge, "he sFc-.onni an oi. tilire of the course
of study at the "Lui: "e ,.uei)'oz" Coli ,e, .he third the course of
stu y t e .., ol ,e, -rd -br- .o of"
study a4 the -bvraP College, I f" t,- fourth thc course o' study as
outlined for the- PU."AS 5T":. ,'TT.qL A." ICr'.W, A VnT'-
ERINAFY .? 'IyT, 2.
The L 'I.,Ine is. fa renornl oitlrne Iy r. icticisms on tie
varinup ir.r ti ht -ion,, i, ited.

- r,- rpp-Ir,,,c t f ;I y,yr'-prs

- r .. .. ,,r h w...... : ^ ^ .-., 'a'. "- .
," -- ..<


*. Itinerary.

This trip was to examine-the grounds, buildings, curri- :
culums, and equipment of the scholastic and scientific institutions
located at Nitcheroy, San Paulo, Piracicaba, and Lavras.

Thursday,May 12, 1921. Left Bello Horizonte for Rio de
Janeiro on the Central do Brazil at 4:20 o'clock.
Friday, May 13, 1921. Arrived in Rio de Janeiro at

8:30 A. M. Transferred at once to the Hotel Globo. After arriving
I discovered Ahat it was a holiday and that all business houses
xxi were closed. The College at Nitcheroy was also closed for
the holiday.
Saturday, May 14, 1921. Visited the National"Escola
Superior de Agricultura e Medicina Veterinaria' in company with
Mr. W. E. Embry, an attache of the American Embassy.
Sunday, May 15, 1921. Raining, a very muddy day, im-
practicable to do anything.
Monday, May 16, 1921. Visited the National Department
of Agriculture and Plant Quarantine Laboratories.
6:35 P. M. took the train for Sao Paulo.
Tuesday, May 17, 1921. Arrived at Sao Paulo about 8:26
A. M. Put up at Hotel Fraccaroli. Visited the St.ate Department

of Agriculture. Was shown the different offices, library, anid
laboratories contained in the buildings in the city group. The
Director spoke English quite well, he having been Secretary to
Dr. C. D. Smith at Piracicaba.
Visited the new building of the State Department of Agricul-
ture, located a long distance (from the principal group of State
buildings. Called at the office of Dr. C. H. Townsend, an Amer-


ican entomologist employed by the State of Sao Paulo.
Visited the Paulista Museum, located in the suburbs of Sao
Paulo. Called on Dr. Adolpho Hempel, another American employed
by the Museum. The Museum was closed but Dr. Hempel showed me
his superb collection of economic insects.
Wednesday, May 18, 1921. Left Sao Paulo at 7:00 A. M.
ifft for Piracicaba. a Put up at the Hotel Central.
Arrived at Biracicaba at 2ifi 2:00 P. M.
Thursday, May 19, 1921. Visited the "Escola Agricola,
Luiz de Querroz", and presented my letter of introduction to Dir-
ector F. T. de Souza Reis. He showed me the main part of the
building and offered his services in the establishment of the
College for Minas. He also introduced me to such of the Profes-
sors as were in the main building.
Dr. Camargo showed me the Chemical Laboratories and other
laboratories in the main building in detail.
At 4:00 P. "U. I presented my letter of introduction to Dr.
Vaz, professor of Horticulture, who showed me over the grounds
till dark.
Friday, May 20, 1921. Continued the study of the
department of Horticulture with Dr. Vaz.
At 12:30 o'clock Dr. Mendes, Professor of Agronomy, met me
- at the main building with a buggy and took me over the extensive
Agronomy grounds.
At 3:30 P. Ji. Dr. Nicolau Athanassof, Professor of Animal
Husbandry showed me their extensive laboratories and buildings
in the Animal Husbandry line.
SSaturday, May 21, 1921. Wrote up notes and took
photographs to illustrate types of buildings and artlhiltecture.

Lavra s.

6:30 P.

A. M.

Monday, May 23, 1921. Returned to Sao Paulo on way to
Left Piracicaba at 7:00 AM. Left Sao Paulo at 8:05 P.M.
at Barra do Pirahy at 3:00 A. 1.
Tuesday, May 24, 1921. Left Barra do Pirahy at 8:37 A.M.
at Sitio at 4:43 P. M. Arrived at Sao Juao d'El Fey at
M. Put up at the Grande Hotel.
Wednesday, May 251 1921. Left Sao Joao d'El Rey at 8:30
Arrived at Lavras at 3:30 P. f. Was met at the train by
Hunnicutt and Knight. Was entertained at the home of Dr.

Thursday, May 26, 1921. In company with the United Sta-
tes Ambassador Morgan we visited the main building of the Lavras
Agricultural College and "Instituto Evangelico", inspected the
Chemical Laboratory, the live stock grounds, the swine houses,
the live stock houses and the Municipal buildings in the city.
Friday, May 27, 1921. Visited the farm and viewed
the operations carried on in the field. At 12:00 o'clock we
attended chapel and saw the assembly of students.
Visited a coffee fazenda about two kilometers from Lavras.
h wurx, i Visited the public school where exercises were
held in honor of tba Ambassador.- At 8:00 o'clock we were en-
tertained at a banquet given by the Mayor, in honor of the Am-


at Bello

Saturday, May 28, 1921. At 9:45 A. M. left Lavras for
Arrived at Sitio at 11:00 P.M.
Sunday, May 29, 1921. left Sitio at 4:00 A.M. Arrived
Horizonte at about 11:00 A. M.

-~ 'w.r,~2r~w5.rtr ----, .-.--. -. -. .~-.<' -' -~

Sunday, May 22, 1921. Made trip to Rio Claro by Auto-
mobile Bus Line to visit Horto Florestal, conducted by Dr. Navarro

Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID ECVCEH8D1_TU5C71 INGEST_TIME 2014-05-16T16:42:55Z PACKAGE AA00000207_00099