Sociedade Mineira de Agriculture, Address to.

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Sociedade Mineira de Agriculture, Address to.
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Rolfs, Peter Henry
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19. Sociedade Mineira de Agriculture, Address to.


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Rolfs, Peter Henry
Sociedade Mineira de Agriculture -- Minas Gerais -- Brazil
Agriculture -- Minas Gerais -- Brazil


An address about agriculture in Minas Gerais, Brazil, given by P. H. Rolfs to the Sociedade Mineira de Agriculture.

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-ifi '-SI Ifa :^e';.I~~!.ll 'fiw
Yk.Alresir-ente Oocrate& Alvin., -on; ^residente 'of :the So'i of .ae:

.ineira -a e Agriculture, we want to expres-to you our high ap.. .,preciat

Sh confidencee in our ailityto present this subject. Yo
fo havin v > 7 u r ..
confidence in our ability is ~far Egre-- than we ha,:,ve in ourselves.

V- We w~a1tt to thank eadh a-d every m emb er of this~ splendid So ci et

for the contributions th-Irat hay ae t o w;!r d the' evolution of a Lineiran

Agr icu 1tuz ra.

.'e be the-indgence of each person present for our ineffi-

Qient effort to present so~ vast ao tprbblem an ordinary audience it

would. require f ive .undrdd to a thousa7-nd pages 0 M ae th. thesis comn-

-The eminent svocio2Lis, Dr. G.H.Bosanquet of the 'niver'sit

of Alg-eria wro te, Ernotion. and not science is w,,hat counts withY man". He

cites the fate of Galil~eo and Lavoisier to Lllustr te his thesis. We

want to dissent positively frm this pronounceme, t. The very fact t h

worthy president has assigned to us a scientific subject ffirm t ,

? Aresemitation is d~esired and welome

Our orzsDnt vioncerful civilization has bee-n Lm,.de possible by

the toils of scten.. e whil e -un g uid ed emotions have rep.)eat5 ed4ly toi.n down

#in adecade w~hat'Ait took science a century to construct. Scicnca provi

des t~'e mechanieim whila emotion 'senti~merat) is the no ti vati force
ICIT '4i-v ..: l
W a o:G i:@ao.,e ls~~

It is t-:x province of the lociedade Mineira de A`ricultur-,. to

take thti crude scientific.-matErial we --re endeavoring to present nd

aatzpt t to the sociological condition of 4inas. 'i]: is a piece of

co.-- r' tire t..ork u-'-n '.-htch all modern accomolisiimentS are basedd L2t us

/use a simile from -,rchitecture to il-lustr': t ^o ar:i te t s'.',os Lphsi-

celly or mentally strong; 'enou' to construct m m f?-ific?nt c:-:Use=Tay.

1i3 had to rel," on scincf to _.ui.e hcim in th ec.oic- o-f strictur 1

mrnteribil; on public sentiment emotion) t' provide th2. f'und,;s .--c-::.-,.

eou, enhlemen, must be the architects )t the future glorious Mlineiroi.@

abric'-ui-tLure; t'-, writers cL-nnot do mo-re th.-n poL-It out th:. stren,;th or

weakness of the stru.ictural material At your disposal.
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A fundamental reorganization of the Milnas agriculture is of

highest importance. It transcends any other question before t

wLse progressive statesmen of today. Too much of the work done in

ai has been of a palAotitfe nature when it should nave

been of an evl...tionary nature. Ato much thought ,-. imp,, _g t-

toA the effects or end results, be-, .t...M.. m ivu- .f the causes

which produced the results. It may help to clarify 2 meaning by

using a simile from the medical profession. "-mffMe'" proMes- AiTnTng

^^j~a^^esaiiebuse^. Trie wefretshA

profession up tp a few decades ago bent all, or nearly all, of its

energy toward tlff- yellow fever. It sacrificed hundreds, if not

thousands, of her brilliant young doctors on the altar o curative

medicine. The medical profession got exactly nowhere. The mortality

continued; even increased. When medicine turned her attention to be-

f e ra s he made one of the most brilliant triumphs

ever attained in the tropics.

Minas today is the most lucrative market for sugar, so we

have been told by one of the largest producers in the state. Because

the mosaics was permitted to ........... so much cane that we have

actually imported sugar. The importation and iwmbh*Abd=,in distribu-

tion of mosaics resistant cane (the P.O.J's), was a master stroke of
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S. smply a. pala tive The patients who were cured of yellow fever
er -e ce ** -a pal
'*- ,$ U. K f~tAp~ ^L~4
'ereexceedingly grateful to et i atort.e -
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a.-ec-ae-s or



4W Economic Progr ess Basedoon Education
m* -g -'A = A L

There is no one in the recent hisotry of Drasil who has done

as much for the economic progress and economic well being oaf==4r4l

as did Oswaldo Cruz. Only those of us who experienced the economic

and social handicap mif yellow fever, placed on tne American tropics,

can appreciate the tremendous difference. The present generation accepts

these advantages as their right rather than s their privilege*

The -yellow fever eradication was basically a campaign of

education. To start with Onvaldo Cruz had to b. educated sufficiently

to see clearly C the fundamental principles involved in yellow

.. fever eradication. The next step was to educate his &rt suffi-

-... ciently to give them a motivating desire to eradicate yellow fever.

The"'': ou... .. o...:" c % .OnqaeBri~ng of. mosaica -de, da -. f. :Sj
N I L .. .. .. .. .. ... .. '.-".......-. .. -.,. .. .-. ..." -.
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to educate themselves on the manner of circumventing the complete

destruction of the sugar industry. Fortunately a Secretary of

Agriculture was able to import seed of mosaics resistant cane from a

sister state and a sister republic.

&bJ,"-. CL CgLL C ,% ^^^ Oq..4D^^
S.p .! --lds t ee 1- dh_kmj n _

kn o wn a -, e.^---- ...,

\tir'dt-tedase In due time the commission reported that the immxA

aggravating cause was due to a microscopic worm known as leterodera

radicicola.AThe report was duly received and placed in the

archives without a reasonable propaganda of education. As a result

/ --of this "let alone" attitude the center of coffee production has iMtm

Drifted more and more-to the State of Sao Paulo.

r An hundred pages might be filled with illustrations to

show the dependance of our economic education. rr ... p- W

is tbead4. ilh.. b .l.
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One system of jnst auction Veie-n l that all knowledge

should procede from the top downward. That education is the ptAh

vilege of the favored few. That these favored few be selected or

privileged by the ruling potentate X class. This ideal of education

has been in-vogue in Xinas and in drasil, from the earliest settle-

ments. It was imported from 8urope where until a decade ago it met

with Ai greatff/ favor. It was a survival of the old feudal system.

When economic pressure in Burope made it imperative, instruc- -

tion in manual arts and in agriculture__was ihhaf But.

mnso_- 1f1 Ilir ri'ipiii,^n wg mbl-B -was accomplished by eli-

minating all studies considered educational from the instruction

to the masses. This method -412&JEW three very definite and easily

separated strata. TBa was the type of social strata in vogue in the

thirteen southern a fe- United states of America, when they

seceeded. bU d 4M tL(
fr4A& 0
The other system of instrStion begin at the bottom and
A -

.builds upward. Minas has taken very definite steps in that direction.

SHer laws governing inheritance of lands provides hmmb a fundamental

.. basis for development in this direction. The decision of the depart-

;- meant of the interior to limit instr.tion to. the primary qja..lasseg,;' /
,-.. ....... -..a. -s c- ...

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_to ;Lfin*' n n hfgl1^" -1QI rag~fcla+ pd.. At~l 1p Min ib *

SeThe student enrollment for 1932 is 218

.. I am told by the HonaDirector, Dr. Belo Lisboag that it is -' the

most numeroully attended -" *-- t....inm nr...1111..... in South America.

The enrollrtt at Farmers Week last year L 431), was 305. No where

else in South A merica can we find an equal attendance.

The Minas Experiment i- oc-iology
-ings -Oic-tfi. Lauoratioy
AtL._ R',&- a_, 1viUr l 0 n ra -U.5 -. .'

AsQmi L very significant demonstration& This one had -in it

all the elements of a ,reddete- scientific experiment designed to

determine which type of instruction was most acceptable to the so-

ciologicalAconditions of tinas. Here we have over six million people,:

the majority descendants from adventurers, virile and vigorous Euro-

Spean stock. PredominaMtly illitterate but a vast multitude with an

intelligence of the highest order. Practically uncontaminated by

commerce of social itfrom abroad. Both agricultural and

industrial literature almost absent. No more perfect setting for such

an experiment could have been found.

"7 -__j In 1920 the statesmen of ainas, taking council among them-

S- selves came to the conclusion that for her to become the great modern

S province- she deserve- -to be,, tw important developmeits were neces-
.-. v- fo.

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SThe Agricultural Lollege accepted any young man, over

a.~* -.

C- -*

sums in arithnietic. Efforts were made to secure the attendance of

men from the rural districts efforts were made arh to secure men"

.who had received gymnasial instruction imtminu or had completed such

'^ a course. |4Q <

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4 L a great improvement 'i4 u"M un. The J p had been foreshadowed

by her-illustrious Jogo Pinheiro.

TWO POLICIES. It was perfectly logical therefore, that the

statesmen looked to the United States for assistance in agriculture

and to Germany for assistance in thQ industries. Tweo institutions

wer simultaneously provided for and 1i The one for '^wstrial

chemistry was located in Belo-dorizonte; while the one for Atricultura

was located irr Vigosa, in the Zona deMatta the most populousApor-

tion of the state. The twvo institutions pursued an exactly oppo-

site policy of instruction and research. The former limited its stu-

dents to highly educated young men from the "best amdil families".

Xhat is accepted only up N It directed its investiga-

tions to unexplored scientific research, e.g., hunting for radium.

The keynote of this Institution was to make high grade scientists and

psEent high grade scientific work, modeled on the German ideal.
'< -

The- Agricultural Coll geaccppted any young man, over eight-

een years of age, provided he could read, write and do simple sums in

arithmetic. Efforts were made ro secure the attendance of men from "

Sthe rural districts. special arrangements were made for instruction

in hygiene, morality and patriotism.

The key-note of this institution was to make a better citigeo,

r. who was more able to pr e a. -living oelfad family. in" stt
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-COMPARISON. The Chemical Engineering College had the great 0

advantage in that propaganda for industrial students is very easily

effected. The equipment ifimmmma was splendidly perfect. The Director-

and his principal assistants were younglen of high educational

attainment. The institution was located at the seat of the state

government, enabling the director to keep in constant sympathy with

the government*. lie was thus-able to constantly take advantage of

the changes in humor of his constituency or government.

The Agricultural College had the great disadvantage in that

propaganda among the rural-folks-is difficult and slow. 1Tey ara by

nature diffident and (tardiajly acquire published information. The

equipment was excessively crude when compared with a made modern

Agricultural College, either in Europe or elsewhere. It- too enjoyed

the advantage of being located nfar its constituency. The Director

enjoyed the advantage of having had decades of experience with agricul-

tural education under the most aggressive system known. The Agricul-

tujral College was a-t a great disadvantage-in that both the government.

and the -constituency- were- accustomed to -the -former 'Surope-an I'ea.--l
S"that educ ation fwas; hYepv geof hef ed- few .., ..;;-

W' ..i t M. :. ; Q.,


The key-note of this institution was to make a better citi-

zen, who would be more able to provide a living for himself and fami-

ly., In short to produce a more wholesome country rife. Sppcial

- arrangements were made for instruction in hygiene, morality and




F.. : ..- -
p RESULTS. -After a decade since its creation, the College of r

Chemical. Engineering, a splendid institution, finds its doors, closed.

During depressed times, there were no students and hence the government

provided no "verba". The attendance was always very small becuase Only a

few young men in Minas were sufficiently prepared to profit by its splen-

did instruction. The industries of inas were not yet sufficiently

developed fvr her instruction to be of profit to them.

In short, the ideal was, that -education must proceed from the

top downward: that the government, or industry owes a living to the man

with a diploma.

The Agricultural College-aftera decade has become one of the

most largely attended institutions of its kind in South America. (218

matriculated students for 1932, and 3U5 matriculated in Farmers' Week of

1931.) Tone of pure seed grown by the institution have been sold (not

giA-i away) and thousands of citrus mudas, grown by- the institution

have been sold (not given away), to the farmers of 2in'as. Scores of pure-

bred animals have alsd been. sold..

The-doors of the institution have had to be closed against

matriculants. The Director informs Hs that 4U applicants were refused

admission this year for want to space. The attendance is er the maximim

number for the best instruction. Emsnam The attendance on Farmerst Week

for 1931 was about double her capacity. 'Alreao the College is taking on a
,. o.

national aspect. Sixteen other Dtates, the DLi o Federal and one |

.. .. .. .. .. f e g. .. .

*',- .:..


Santa Catherna, Matto urosso, Pernambuco, Alagoas and Awre are tie

only members of the United States of prasil not represented in the student


The policy adopted by the Agricultura College was that her

instruction must be of a nature that is comprehended by the actual farmer

adid the farmers' sons. That the instruction be based on known and demon-

strable scientific facts. That education should procede from the bottom





(parte IV.

officials have done exceedingly well under perplexing and confusing '


The Oociedade Min- ira de I ricultura occupying the position

of Mentor ?nd instructor for the Agricultura of Minas, cannot escape

its rssponsabiiity. This society is perennial; the government of

Iinas. is quadriennially intermittant. What ize Society does or leaves

undone most profound influence on our future -U
undone ha~ea most profound influence on our future dvl~nrt


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,._DUAS ORIENTAQOES. Era perfeitamente logico que os es.ta-

distas "ineiros voltassem os olhos para Allemanha como fonte de "

auxilio quanto ao desenvolvimento das indittrias, e aos Estados Unidbs "

se fixassem como modelo para agriculture. Projetou-se j o,:

Institute de Chimica da rscola de Lngenharia de belo-kiorizonte, f .V

icnimipcmmmmmdhammimnmmwi que acceieu(_os primeiros alumnons em 1&21.

/ *-fll t^d444 -I
Um pouco maim tarde, i- ostrabalhos da Pin o s- ie

t&&'t iyjp1e ( da Lscola cu.erior de Agricultura Vetsrinaria '.

de "inas-Gerais, em Vigosa, uma das regi5es de maior populago .

agricola. de Estado. Os dois estabelecimentos seguiram orientac5es ,

exactamente opostas quanto a instrucao' e pesquizas. 0 primeiro limi-
tou seus alumnos aos que ja haviam recebido antes, instrucqao
gymnastal, sendo por isso,c de families mais favorecidas e colimou

pesquizas de natureza altamente scientificas. D.dicava-se.. f4.

a forma@ao de scientists de' alts o a44i-e e a pesquizas

scientificas elevadas, seguindo a oriezptapo do ideal Allemao, isto

e, da velha escola "opea.

Ia Lscola de Agricultdra, acceita-se qualquar moqo, desde

que tenha dezoito annos de edade, possa ler e escrever e fazer as

quatro opera_5es arithmeticas. Esforgaram-se 6s seus dirigentes para 7/

conseguir alumnos dos distritos ruraes, nas condigoes acima, bem j

; *"" n the previous pages we have seen th t the -

great undeveloped wealth and hope of future economic stability of .f
V -

Minas is her 'immense rural popukation- about six million people.

n "Whenever one touches agriculturM, one touches the Tfoundation df

Society". ( H. H. Bailey, in "What is Democracy" page 23.) Probably

Ninety per cent. of the rural deficient in education

Sin its bvqad sense. Owing to this defici-ency, a day's labor produces

Less than ten percent of the food that is produced by our competitor

I nations. WE have also shown what type of education is effective and

acceptable. Statesmen of Ninas more than twenty years ago saw clearly

that only thru-agriculturq and .the industries can Minas attain to -

economic independence. They sax clearly that had to be done, but

failed to comprehend Jthat education was necessary for a successful
b__ out a decade ago, an Internraitional Cotton Conference
,acomplishmen The.cuottn pling ffiCu uf bhe past dede i"-an
Sin Rio. SoTa -s Mina w%,as concerned this was an economic failm
Seating op ( Quote in appendix from lecture at -io before
|^ -. [_i a l *._= i uot in ap e ix ct

SCotton Growers.) Ti4 hl__cWtf To,, of,. ,,,
SI I 'I I .'

numerous experimental stations Pnd theOCollege of Uhemical Engineering
J- ^ ^a. ,y ," ';
v. w projects that were logical ami economically -aaad. The ..

J undoundness wL7that their promoters assumed that such a project,
K.. "- ,*
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| once etnbl;shrd, would-be m self perpetuating. These projectors

-qre like gs farmerA who'bought an automobile and after it arrived
.- .....*

,. there-Was no road on -which to-drive it -nor was there anyone who could '

act. as chauffeur. "" .- ". .-. -. ,. .. ;..: .
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*t : f- ""
-.. .

The beautiful city of Belotorizonte, undoubtedly the most

beautiful and-perfect &n the VWestern Hemisphere,1is a splendid
'' .. .

.. expression of '"ineiran ideal and comfort; not one conto de reis

.- r less should have been invested in it. tut it had to be built by

r nl indsutry, agriculture.. Due to t failure to

^.-* disseminate, a agricultural sduca-ion, Rio de aheiri ha" t"....
l." s" '- J -. : -:" ". -. .
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L F!q
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Or like iany farmers of. Minas Who accepted highly bred and high

priced'cotton seed from f1%- the state government and then planted

it among 'coffee trees, in-corn fields and even in "brejos".

*fe want to repeat that the logic was sound but the unsound-

ness resided in the fact that the projects were lifted bodily from

-.iMu faL -
a ie dt= tbhat,,ad fifty to a hundred years of education for the pro-

jecq and miam. it,1mtmu in a aheit=m Without such education -es



education progresses fewer people will be needed to produce the food

consumed by the state. More and more people will be liberated to

work in tie industries. In other words, our industries cannQt

flourish in the absence of'a lucrative agriculture. In 1929 ninety-

one percent of the export from Mines was from the farm. Only nine

per cent was from her factories, mines and forests. In final analysis,

agriculture\ is the only industry that can render a dividend to the

state. ,

v a "-a, -- -9
6. .

been obliged at times to export money for corn to Argentine. Our

corn was so costly that we could not compete. In other words, the

Argentine corn growers were the more progressive while the Minas

corn growers were less progressive.

Due to the inroads in the canefields Minas was unable to
ASA ,Mnsws7nbet

create the capital necessary to provid-e a surplus for the industries.

Despite the heavy bonuses one has to pay to the industries in the way

o4 state and federal taxes, the industries cannot be said to

be in a flourishing condition. The fundamental reason for the low

economic condition of the industries is directly-due to lack of farm

production Vdhich in t-r- i- .tw 1proper.dissemLnation of educa-

tion among the intelligent rural population.-

The wise and patriotic statesmen who provided for the

establishment and founding of the magnificent capital, failed

to grasp the situation and comprehend that our competitorr nations ttujw

providing for a progressive agi icultura, that v.ould supply the"

capital and furnir the labor for progressive industries.

A *'

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P ART I l Tl7-. ,r
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SThe great difficulty vith Minas is that the state is

Wg .- and grand that oblya very few of her statesmen are
go -,xm an -ad!hto
able to comprehend her Sa= Orators halVe told us repeatedly that

she is more extensive than either ermany or Frande and hasa popula-

tion greater than a n other South American country excepting one)

.and greater than many of the Euiropean nations. And then failed to

provide for adequate appropriations for the leading industry, agri- '
*ost of them think] in mil ieis -:r.when they should be thinking in contos-de-rEt
"culture. They initiated numerous projects and before these had is*

produced results they are permitted to starve to death.

4 .-Ri-nt here v.e ,at, tto make an emphatic disclaimer of

M mental superiority. There are dozens of our Mineiran friends who would

.. out-rank us on a psycholo-ical intelligence test. WVe do clai&;, "

However, to have had more extensive practical experience. The -

Senior writer had had thirty years of practise in applying sci -nce

Sto economic agriculture b fore coming t .rasil. i-,nd since then .

i, ,a have lived for more bhan ten years among the / d people of the

State of "in&s.

., Our predecessors, applying logic only, inaugurated many

:i"- j ." .
Projects that proved impractical. The statesmen have failed to es-

,, tablio,h a progressive agriculture, commensurate with the dignity of

the; state. The logic employed by the statesmen 'was excellent, their :
Ai. ",
o' honesty and patriotism .apve reproach, but o*ing to lack of experiesna.
: .. '.-- ". ppmi1
,:..=. ."th.,... to pr. ovi~de a practicel means Yo0i Prmo tank agr ,uttiir I
01 61ill
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-'..': SJ

is -especially fortunate in having this body of intelligent and patriotic-,

Mineirans to stabilize her --agricultural ae, 1n _u. The government
changes at % least once in every four years, too short a time to work
A- .

S-out f4 a-s-aa agriculture. This -ociety acts and should
Aksn&- 4' fee>
-A .
act, as a stabilizer for, economic agricultural ta M. The Honor-

able Oecretary of agriculture though he be the most gifted man in im

the nation, andSserves the entire quadrennium, can do little more than

initiate reforms t= _.--", _"-1

It is upon us, the Sociedade 'ineira de Agriculture, that

rests the" responsibility for a stable~agriculture. It's our morao-

duty to take the time to study the Jkineiran Agriculture from a phi,&

ts tjhr point of view, divepting ourselves as far as possible
from the emotional forces S d us. In order that we may consi-

der' thec 1 as-free from emotions-as possible, War,?f4VV
VC&4- AnOr.&a '&-P5
f'.r.....4sinnr _v'". 011 z. largely from foreign countries. Economic

principles are the same-whether in Linas, whether in 'Jortht America or

a^E A 4,- 0
in Europe. A-the practical, not theoretical, application of these

principlesAis our duty -.-tonight. r".t '' th-, mcure_ ,-- -m-Mirmv which

o tf &mCionr durPj. et a tst *bathe Lhamf -an bpi an.-n rpfrmp Th- Smoke

ofA oti m's i th: lao Lliret y hsig gr ptly b|uI *| viai-&n.

^"**-- -- t- rdrbf J.L.J. u_/ <1*'a
^ :! .* ," '- ~._ -.. .

i ',"e must visualize agriculture as the most ancient and most A3

r; Importanut of human industries. It is likewise the most generally

dissemir-ate-i of human endeavors. No country in the would today can

isolate herself without serious disturbance to her agLricultural

economics. For example, -1inas-Gerais wias greatly benefitted by import-

t ing P.O.J. sugar canes, produced by the Dutch scientists of Java. The

oresernce of the superior Java coffee on the world's markets works

aI economic detriment to us. There is scarcely an agricultural
i 7..-

1"municipality" in the- world but is in active economic competition with

Minas. Wv'hen economic crises arise, remedies have to be applied L' the

form of palliatives. The yellow fever patient has to have medical

attention (a palliative)$V but this palliative must be administered

in such a manner as to prevent the further spread of the fever,

otherwise more lives will be lost than saVed. So too, in applying

palli*tives to a sick agriculture, must we guard against propagating

anti-econf)mic principles. If through our efforts the rural citizen

:"' becomes lass efficient, less progressi-Ve and less self-reliant, in

Short, uneducated, our efforts are anti-economic.

k:. .
4. -. ,.
.. ,
!:~~..- .. ......:-........ .- .., ,o-

'-.- .. 'F--;:[- .['. "-[,. ,;.:..- o"

: ". ,,.,... ,,

- ., ; -

SOur la .'s and regulations need radical reform and readjustment

to make them less oppressive to the rural population, and more economical

of execution. =-i ir e --. many of them are too highly centralized


To illustrate: alout four years ago we wanted to ship some Holetein

heifers from Belo-Horizonte to 3 aa. This could not be done without
-~~a A4A aatU^~a
unloading and reloading at 'onte i'Jova, entailing consid-ra.ile delay. .

The President of the State was the only person v;ith authority to permit

the transference of the stock car from the Central to the -'eopoldina.

Think of it I! The ere'ident of nearly eighimillion people, being

loaded dovrn wi...h such "petty details amammmmmf 1

-Lmoral resitlf!6 To illust ate :j.
~ -- 'A, --ome--f -reu----ons- dive.s-t -he e

1Vscola shIpped a collection of high class citrus mudas, produded from

imported stock, to a western portion oi the state. Shortly b fore

re-.,cbling their destine. Lion a flock of sheep was played in the same car

sa mudas arrvled at their destination devoid of bark. Every- '
body en route had followed regulations, hence no one ,,'as culpable. .

Agriculture, especially citrus culture was penalized. -nothgr-e 1|

. .1 *


Part III -5_7

r. T o
Some of our regulations compel economic extravagance. To a.
.- .''
illustrate. Some five or six years ago, -the worthy Secretary of :

Agriculture was desirous oV promoting citrus cultu: e in the state. The

Escola at Viqosa, to further the laudable enterprise, forwarded a

shipment of mudas to the Escola Agricola at Lavras. In order to accom-,

plish this it was necessary for the Director of the Escola to pRttition

a friend at Juiz de Fobra to r_.caive the mudas from the Lepoldina

,* ailway, transfer them,, about 75 meters, to the station of the Cenrtral

and redespatch them. A similar inconvenience occurred .t Barbascena.

Think of tjie absurdity. Three lines of railroad, making it impossible

/.4-1 ow.. a-vvfte, t< A<
to transport citrus Lmu&LLs from one large center of the ate to

ai-other. "In place 6f augmenting production, they were policing a' heavy

barrier against economic expansion-.

:i- "@. We have poiiited out in Part I the great advan-
stage derived from a broad general instruction applicable to the

vocation in whichh one is engaged. In other vords: "Education for

S. service". (See Appendix NQ ...... "Ensino Agricola no Grao Medio

no Vrasil", pg. 75-78.) When it comes,, to the-dissemination of

useful agridultura information, Minas labors under the greatest of

disadvantages. To'illustrate. When a former Secretary of Agriculture

'*. _..*.. '
desired to promote citrus growing by establishing a model-citrus -*

4', pomar, he was obliged-to put ai. trained veterinarian' in chargee. To. '.
i t ... ...- -- ..." ..
S" ... ; .' "-"' ""- .
*.*5 ...
L :':... '" ," ". "~ '. -" 4- n "- ; ', ,
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.. ., ;.- ,g "," ". ', .e ." ;. ,. -" ... ,. -:, -' h .' ,;' k L'-g 7,

S.;* Lw -. 3- -_ / rDo L .

L ** ave gone for a -irector to a sister state in- which people had had :
'. '^

much more experience in citrus cultivation would have resulted in -.

intolerable criticism. In other words, undesirde emotions would have:

been aroused Zgeinst tne government. If was not the government's fault

MA d tA
that a trained citriculturistras not availabl,-The fault w:as with our

pred-ecessors, who had not educated any'of its hundreds of thousands of
intelligent young Mineirans to carry oh such an agricultural. project.",

We, you and i,. as members of this great Agricultural Society, are "

more to blame than the officers of the government. eV.' should have

moulded public Q sentiment so as to favo-r the employ-ment of a n

experienced man, even if from a sister state.-

Aanother .incident. In 1920 the state employed eleven

experience men as -eftention workers. Result,- a failure. Thie v, ork was

greatly needed and the logic perfectly sound. Unfortunately the'

sentiments (emotions) among the rural people and at headquarters were

unfavorable to such a project.

SThe two foregoing concrete illustrations .h, ..... .....l

tin t r '-.= .. that there must be not only well trained messengers to -

*. transmit the information but there must also be a wholesome sentiment

among the rural population to receive the message. (Appendix NQ ....
i" '*

P 73,"Ensino Agricola no Grgu-IMedioV' Alimphmm secgo'hentitualada

"AdaptagZo Necessaria".
,. -. ..1 ,.
4-- "-:.-. 14;:.. .. c; ;.L .:.r:j:4:--; t~

.. .. .- .. .

S h 1(PARTE III, 7)

m0 uch or educati g eralities. u h ve a ri- t o ask r

moae spe ific lemon stations. w re bur prea system iss I

Sqonomiom /

^-PUBLICATIONS. The printed page is the greatest :ropa-'

gandist and educator knovwn today. Tha-t is v.hy people spend millions of

contos to support daily new-"papers. A wise man said: "The printing

press gave v.ings to. our through. Mina probably prints frvler

pages per c-pita on agricultural science than any other 9qally

enlightened and civilized country. Tihe publications are printed in

such a ridicously small edition that only a1 especially favored few

can- obtain them Xhis is not the fault of ti-he present government nor

its immediate preAecessors. They. havQ made every effort possible with

the money available.

Taking "A Muda da itrus" as an illustration. This 126 page ',

pamphlet vas praised as lthout eqqal by the leading authorities in

Brasil. Yet the department was obliged to limit tie printing to two

thaousnd co-ples. Think of it !! Tvo thous;tnd copies for a stqte that

has tw.'o hundred thousand emprezas- agricolas; it has leaders for

over six million rural .opultion. Her former secretary vEas anxious to

put on a st-st2 vide propagbe-nda for the export of oranges. The State has'

a million four hundred ttunsad citrus trees, mostly useless ones, ,

and the wonders are denied basic information. 4

.": 4,.. .. 2:
,'sk,.iSF......w -,". t. :- "S...... .. '
..-.. ." .,-- ,> ,. ,. .; ..,,,.,!. ,:. .
;,-: :.,,-.,-':...,.,:.:.:.: .. .. ... .. .. ." : .. o ." .: -. .. .....w.. .i. _.. ?.:,i: .. ."i

g.. n a. ra- n oj -, 0,

SThis illustration is more or less typical of other *gricul-

tlirrl publications. -t is extremely anti-econ)mic also from a publishers'

point of view. In those private printing estailishme-ants here strict

."cost accounting" is it has een shov.n that for the first

thousand copies lass thin ten per cent of the cost lies in th- .3aper

prjrntin. 'and binding,. In other words, an additional t-n thouscn1 can

be printed for the -md of the first thousand copies. Emmhmw'mntrb
r' -
F.rther anti-cronomy in this particular bulletin lies in the

fact thit the s-.nior wvr-iter is )rbbabL!y the only person in Mina.s r,nd

possibly in all r-rasil -.ho has had thirty ywrs of prncticrl e-perience

in citrus culture in one of t'"i most advanced sections of the .'orld.

SVet the government of Minas finds itself so 1,,-m .,, ...- funds that

she is obliged to deny her worthy citizens a right to this information.

'. THEL iURLERY bUSIigitS. The vriters hold, as a thesis that

it is anti-economic for the st.te to enwe in any enterprise of a mer-

cantile n.atre. As a corrollary to this thesis ,.we hold that the state

by educ-.tional ms.thods should promOte initi'.-tiVe in private enterprise.

Our state by launching into a commercial nursery business has

:.r--atly impeded the development of such-an industry, a sound'nursery

business is at the very foundation of a fruit industry. The state by

L 'h a
Selling, mudas at cost or worse still, for fre- distributionhas

S- frightened capital and stifled private initiative. To avoid such a .,.

.. ... contingency, the senior writer while director of tha E.S.7 placed. a
.-- A -
!.7 2.j....-..j- ..r t:- -. .r-- .. ~-> *L" 9h ,- T .<-,



: C- ft

J(PARTE II.I, 9) |

price of 45,.000 to 6$O.O per muda-on those sold by the institution-,

Private nurserymen ,:rt belo-iordionte atlthe same time were selling

citrus mudas for 1`500. To fArther safe-f-uard the private nurserymen,

ne refused to sell mudas the pBpose of establishing extensive

commercial pomars. He limited thle production per annum to about

five ti-Iousf-nd muda-s, (one of -the smal'i- chacaras to which mudas were

sold is now furntshing fruit for the Belo-Horizonte market, %,e are

told) As. a result of our extensive educational propaganda there are

no'., at least, rtinflmm six 'private nurseries in our zone \'whose

combined production this tvas paid to be about'seventy thousand muinmm

citrus mudas, equalAto those produced .- the L.S.A.V. ..

The state government stimulate$ private initiative by Pfg'

a source from vdhich mudas or buds of rare and superior varieties may

be obtained, but the eiarges for these should be Sufficiently high to

stimulate private enterprise to produce them.

SEED AND PLANT DISTRIBUTION. Free seed and plant distribu-

tion is probably the most vicious habit that a North American republic

acquired. It cost millions of contos de reis and did no perceptible

good. It required a herculean effort- for that nation to cure the canker.
c.- .*
., It vwas a very popular device for keeping some undeserving politicians

in Congress. It is the duty, though an onerous one, to council with t.
'," .. -. ... -"

,' the government in order-.that it may avoid making the same mistakes :|

,,,.... -4. .--.. ..... ., ..,
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hie .j %j. :
.~~~iig i ,a., .l i.. ,, ., ,.:, .,.

. -. ..'.. :*

made by other states and by foreit;n countries.

The state SHO.ULD-import.rare and unusual varieties and test

these out sel those that are of superior merit. To choose the

proper varieties requires. the services of an expert; to test these

varieties requires the services of able technical men. It is an ex-

pensive but a wonderfully profitable project. *

The commercial seed industry of finas is-in its incipiency -

and Sbe b given. every reasonable encouragement. Our inability

to secure 1oo. seed has more greatly impeded our educational work in

L truck 8ro".ing tt the E.S.A.V. than any other one factor. For example,

when the senflr author initiated certain experiments in tomato pro-

duction, seeds of "Rei Uiumberto" vWere purch-ed in Belo-Horizonte. More

, than one half of the resulting plants v"id ild or hale wild

arei s. en our opinion this did not show dishonesty of the d MM ,

seed-store, as was freely saidd, but a lack of education on the poL;rt
of the producer of the -. seed; he probably knevw" nothing about
Sthe naturall hybridization' in tomato varieties.

;.. The state government and nE tional government have initiated

.: some exceedingly meritorious seed arms. These sg~ld be greatly

Strengthened and aalarged and so conducted that in the course of ten

years, private enterprise A.lll be otucrae to establish an industry.

-i (The E.S.A.-V. has sold tens of thousands, of mudas and many tons of '

... seeds. A portion of this wor. has al-rea passed to private entprze"
*... '- ; .~Z. .
-., l L ...!- -- .. .. 0 ^. te f $.. l

-. r (PARTE III---l- ) ..

The organization -6f the Secretaria has' grown by

graduate/ accretion. New duties and scientists have been mmtftidmifmmuMmM

added almost ainuclly. All of these accretions have occurred with-

out providing auxiliary clerical mxm help so that frequently the

scientist employed can do hing more than c.rry out the mechanical

routine of hiS office. Probably the most flagrant incidg-

occurred eleven years ago. The ov--rnment of Minas invited the

Jorth ,merican Secretary of 'tat,; T- someone who v.ould undertake to
a *

"locate, organize and conduct' an-Agricultural College." After this

person attempted to organize the work, he was informed thru the

official interpreter, that there-were no funds available for that ,

purpose. Jot a chair, nor desk not even a pencil or paper codil&

S-be suppoliedfor v.ant of funds. Wet tt miracle has happened. Minas

tfodau has one of the best, if not the best, Agricultural College in

South America.' but at what' an expense of private funds, exhaustion

.of patience and actual privation, that were totally unnecessary. The

recompense is in the v.onderful aprecbA&.'on by the rural population,

Especially the youth of today, who will tomorrow mold the sentiment

of the state.

C This actually happened in Minas to a scientist invited by the
State government to perform a specific service and certified to b- a
Secretary ofttate in a foreign country that he was ca-ble of such
Services .






z ox ..'..

* #4 -.

., -. .

All that has been said on the foregoing pages is directly

| aplicable tay fruit culture as v'eil as to any other branch of Agriculture.

a--icltre Thr is no o
Citrus culture is the acme-of agriculture. There isno other bench of fruff

cultuM.- tnat is so well organized for mass production of the finest Lual--
'-A *

ity. Thcre is no other branch%- that em loys so many experienced technical men.',

Uh GELFT ADVr.NTAGG. a). The climate, excepting in very small!

areas., is admirably ad,-pted to citriculture. b). There is pr-:ctically

an unlimited area of vargens and oes de niorros unoccupied thE t \,\oul5 serve

Admirably for pomars. Minas;ins more land suitable to the

production of citrus that either Europe or Nor.h America. c). 'he soils sre

so productive that commercial fertilizers may be avoided, d). Vie "have an

appreciabtsue and extensive home market. Belo-Hori:onte has been selling

ori'nges from the DistritP Fe:] ral for C.--0) to 8'4000 per dozen and Vigosa

oranges for 84 00 to lU.000 a dozen. e). Ve already enjoy an extensive

2.^ -- __ -- -^ y r ^
a.' export, f). Mints has growing wv.ithin her border' four nun, red thoiisand

S. tree, ten to twenty five per cent of which wi 1 made to produce export

'fruit, g). Her public 0 institutions and private"nurserles already have

Sa small quantity of buds and mudas from highly selected vw.rieties. h) .

And most im, tort she can -crcc= oy costl-y : xprriments carnialI o'ut by

I'- a sister state end the Federal governmentnt.

... I- I I ...
.3.o..... .. :
A ... .'..',,,
}.<.".-.. o. .. .- -. ... .. --_

S. li- Poro 2 ...

S OUR L'E DVA.k.TGE. l -l 01 Lof these may be summed up in one phase, .
()f A.e- red e
F-Lek of prqp^ redejd. 'y s acting these disadvantages -categcoricrlly ve

1: ill bs more ebl- to attack them vith some degree of assurance. a). '

An almost complete absence of pomarists who produce and market f1it 'i

-, '-,-i.l ,Ut tVxy.' b). Almost complete absence of funds to carry on

Seven the least expensive awk most -ccur-ate ed'ucajtional propaganda, the

crint.2 p>e. c). There is no man available for state service vho hias

Shad successful production and marketing experience an); also ex-oerience as

a leader of agriclbt@res ambulantes. d). The innate prejudice in our

'department of agriculture to attracting experienced agriculturists. e).

Anti-coope-ative difficulties, e9g.' V'hen & faz-en.eiro in V.estern 'inas ,

wanted to pl-.nt a chacara of extra fine bitrus, the transport tion com-

-.-1;7iy allov.ed sheep to destroy the mudas in 'transit. f). Uncertain^ of

COntinuity of support for an extensive an4 intensive field program. It

trkes -at least !three years of :,:perience for a,.ollege -&ratiate to

become an effectiVe citrus exteBfion agen ) great difficulty in ob-

taininb the-necessary tools, machinery iand supplies. It tooK t-e E.S.A.V.

nearly eight years to find a spraying maci'ine suitabil.c for r, sm.:-.ll pom::r .

.E A MARIL. ?"?hen a problem has been clearly st .teqLit is

oilr.,=- Ire;dy half solved". V'e should 3ttrck the citrus export problem at once.

It should b.e attf'-cked ','ith f ull approci&tion of the fact tha-t it re-

qsuires more science aid art -to export successfully & faroj of citrus

fruit than any commercial project we have yet und ertaFk-en. W'e should ....-

,,'... ... ...



r *


i .."--

.-rS .& --.

- "' -A r

..,,,. ., ** *

dAonstra.te that-'inas can profit by the costly and disastrous experiences

of others. It re,,uires a.great ,al more than huge appropriations to

establish a successful citrus export. It requires kno'-.ledge and expe-rience,

neither of v.hich c:an be purchased, both have to be acquired. This


Society.of truly Creat men must lend its influence toward creating sentiment :

favorable to such a project. M\ --ri'a-, a. la .i, \ ln.




-. *~ C.

i sr -i~' .. .. *- **o '.,- "* ;'iI
t,'. The hlociedade Mineira de '-griculfuura should heed carefully"
'%" *' :

*. the statement thA.t the fruit company proposes sending one of

; *their firm to "fiscalize" the fruit before consigiini: it. This fiscal-

,- ,..ould refuse many cases of fruit thst otherwise would arrive in

_kmsterdam only to 5smoralize that market. Gurest -packi:.tshouses -nd

Scomplic tear ioaern m&iAin.r,r :-re i-iot necessary. They are a great

: : -- 0
'help only v.hen \,e have -.rfect export fruit in 1 re quantity. If ie
v;ish to export fruit next June, July %nd August, v.e should 'be

sp ray'jin no-w (.-eptambnr), to prevent "thrips marks It is already

:" .too late to save the fruit that wfll be re:Cy for export in Mly. In 4

O,, 5u to 1-'- d.'.ays h'. p uld be spraying to prevent russett-ino."

To us it se-mn th;it, this is a rre: t o0po"t.unity for the
,, '* .

socie ty to d eminsbrt.e In ter'shit in technical end ,r;- tic-:l citrus

ut .
.,;, cul tL. re. -


-* .o L.. !.? !', ,-... ,:. .. ri ." ... .. r -- -.

. -. .^
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i) '

Parte I. The Economic Da velpo e.. a. di v ....

dp.uM1ti ,.Ld isy ne ss'ryto

P?,c :*'Widely diffused practical educ ticn is necessary to

economic development aund economic o of a modern civiliz-tion.

The greatestiu6 resource of minas is in her vast -

tninstruc ted rural population.

It has been demonstra-ted thet our farming population

accepts an-d profits by an agricultural instruction that has immediate

practical applic;-tion.

Partz t- For Mlinas to enjoy an extensive industrial development,;
she must a.iop methods for disseminating aneconomicslly sound -ag-

ci ] -rr i.farmer, by employing knov n method s v'ill 1

liberate millions cf ls and increase her e production ,ro: !

her per capital production. The incre:-sed earning power by those

liber-ated for the industries as well as those remaining on the farm,

will gre-tly stimulate consumption, not only of farm products but

indUttria41 products as well. "

Part t:. The illustrations chosen by the v.riters have been

selected to demonstrate what has happened as practical results from

certain lines of action. 'They 4Aemonstrate clearly that our state ;.


empreenaimentos que mais exactamente se determiniam como demonstra-.

goes agricolas. --

u alvo c-sbes stcab-acimantc 3 tE, m sitde a frmaado de'

mflores cidad&os, e .iue josssm levar a efeito urma melihor vida

- para st e para / sua familiar. especial carinhp tern dedicado a bscoia. 'y?
S* -.;:

f'mm"mibfrimrpA ministrar ensino moral, civico, e de hygiene ,

visando assim a elevagao e melhoramento rapido da vida rural. -

COMP.eO.R AO. 0 Instituto de ChLca gozou de vantagens .

consideraveis e ciM isso. a propaganda para obt-er os seus alumnos foi

de facil empreendimenato. U appartlhamento excellent, e o iretor e :0

seus auxiiares technicos corn alto grao de especializalao e prepare.

0 estabelecimanto local1ou-se na sede do governor, de modo que o ,
*^ ,.

Diretor podia manter-se constantem nte ao par das predilec,'5es do- -

:overno polcdo assim tirar proveito das varias situaQ5es adminis-:ij

J -

A Escola de Agricultura soffreu desvahtagens corn a dif'ficul-''

dade de propagago de noticias centre o povo rural, por natureza

retrahido e avesso a- infotmacSes impresses. 0 apparelhamento era -
e excessivamente rude e in iciente, qindo comparado corn o que -

seria indespensavel a uma Escola -uperior de Agricultura, verdadeira-.. .

mente modern e digna do Estado. Goopu entretanto da vantagem de es teiV

de ma eael.agioa s ob Ss tema, o mais eHsnovd

:parfeiioado e objectiva.o existed. a Escola de gricu *ture

lutado para implantar seu ideal'de " Dara tod~os", mrbora o~s

elementos oficiais, sua clientela, bern assim como grande maioria do

se. pro prio Copo Docente, qato niciaram aqui seus .trabalhos, co

hecessem e aplaudissem. apeas. o ideal da m fnsano

deveria sar proporciondo apenas aos membros das classes mais avo

cias,, ,par dep .ois ser por e le ditfundidos.

RESULTADOS. Uma Iec, da depoi do inicio das sua; aulas,

*s ti tuto de Chim4ca, um. excellente estabelecimeneto, alias,, se ach3

fe zef'orniadoS, te~do mini~stradoi~n str
S..fec ..a.o. Conta apenas,, co tre\.ze

a umn total, de nao mais,do cue, cem.alumnos. As despezas do 'stab",

mento, excluido o predlo am qua Lunecionocu,, em ectimativa conservti

n9o ficaram e metienos de dolmil conto, s .ndo ainda muito elevado,

custa de instruco de cada alumni. Tais informa5es nos forma forn

;cidas por u profissional formado pelo Intituto, o quql nestes ulti

t. empos nao t-endo sido procurado por auino4 .olocou o governor na

contingencia de. fecha-o.k A sua assistencia foi sempre reduzida,

vista de pousos -ocos em tinas terem prepare sufficient-e para aproi

tarem a excellent instrucao offerecida, a ainda n iciamm por nao

as id as do Estado campo de a .ca o especializ

appcicl-Fio dvlo_ Em e nauQ teve

obj ctivago pratica o ideal que se tracou aquelle tIstiituto.

Como qub se relegou o alicerce e 3 fundag5es ,proj ebando e

S-calculando o viamento superior e t

A Escol A grioola, depois de anmnos ter se tornado u

S.dogs min is frequentados entre os' estabele.cimentos congeneres,, na Amer

do ul, (218 aumns matriculados em 1932, e 304 inscripts na Fa0zendei em 1931.) De senentes de estirpes puras, tone

laias ta sido vendias(vidas, no dadas). Milhres de mudas d

citrus te- sido vendidas (n"o dadas), aos fazendeiros de Minas

SVintenas de animae4 de sangue puro tambem: oram vendidos.

N/: *'ece'ssario tem sido fechar -se. as portas do estabelecimen

.a matriculantes. 0 Direc:tor nos informa gue este anno., mdub a mai.s

de quarenta candidates foram re.usados matriculas, porabsoluta

: alta de recurso ade :estabelecimento, enm powder provid'encias mais esp

gqo, imais professors e mais appareihamento.. assistnia comparado

aos recursos ja esta-b:em acima do numuero .B|imo para ptima.4 ot A concurrencia a. .emana do' Fazendeiro, foi mas ou m

dobr de que device sdo para que os pre te tirassem os mel-

hores proveitos. A Escola Ja' tomolt feic~o national, 'pois contain

entr ses a-umns, -e.resetan, e

SCtherlna, to -s;, -irr-ibuco, ala-oas e o Territori .."e, t

ti'. '--. .',,
a ntre os st-.cos Uni ots c r- rsil, n.' soe -chami repr-'Srt,."-os nc :.-

,.. Corpsc Ul -i:p :nt a. -.

Os professors da. Es.cola Supri,:r ? ,":ri.-ul utur., orientm-se.

cd formal mue -sua nitru'"c.o teWha t.l ^cunho, -ue jc.a dLe. f cil c.ompr-e-
de fo m .*u su ,.-i .. .
iiensoa, pelor oi:en.-aeiros a.ct' ,L.4s .por seus fiihoE, envita.os noss

E' tt o professional. Ess.a ins truc~Ao a ainklbd basea ia sobre f- tos

scientificos aonheci.Tos e, corn V4lor praticc na r-gricultur&

atual. H, Semana do tzeen-earoC ds-- su inicio tern alceaqado r-rillianbe.,
su c. s o 1t *d .... 'u ,It:.ndo
SUCCS O trcd f 0end iros, lavraciores e jiri-cultaor3s, -3ue vltr.ndo_

S- o, m--.. em ,!.LIC. i-mm _-tIt r ..e --,ren .'- '
".? sLe;.c profrieCaCeUL 1l3 poa r m ,:tiO iinet" -s .rn- *-*_ .

.eram, em aulas *ropri-am, nte .t-itas, e ain-la em converse corn us

ou-.ros ' I os. ToDos constituem slement.Ls espleni.itcs, toa.s<

S-- demonstram int.-rassa.ioas sem __elhorar a. '-ri:zultur .c- 'e inls. Conztitue -.
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Sia duvii da esta modclidade da instrdcaao e. manuira mai eficaz, f-. Il
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lanido da j-onto ds vista Je -conomia imediat-,t minister dc )alo --:t-..i, ] e-

imita, ,pois Lissemina mtmm infor-mra..oe utsLe entire OS -,ue terFo |

o.-,:,r tunid;:-., inbT _,iata c,-t;ra ;r tical-as. 1 :

is &utores est:. ,;alEstra., moiU s do ue ,-ucist.uer OU'.r pessToas;

co.mpraeendeem as inniumirir- v r -Uficin-fim-:as -I. LI.cola. bg0o -e-MtbrMnmtmwjn mM=nmm.i ...

I.- necessarios muitos anfnos _e expariencia p.r 'ue se possa formn;r urn (
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esperan~a que a maJiordla delles ~se provarki como efficazes rofi sa"

de educador, tonto como~a a outras 'proVi~sspes, apr~santa poucos repre

senttes qua a.c....m p .eemin.ancia. Os nunca .er.o sabe

com quantas sacrLi~icios dea dinheiro p~r~cular, de morthifcag6es

pessoees -ae verandeiras privag~esj. particulars, se- consegulu o estnopelc"

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