Report on Agricultural problems in Minas Gerais.

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Report on Agricultural problems in Minas Gerais.
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Rolfs, Peter Henry
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14. Report on Agricultural problems in Minas Gerais.


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Rolfs, Peter Henry
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Agricultural conditions.


A report to Dr. Djalma Pinheito Chagas, M.D., Secretario de Agricultura, Bello Horizonte, Minas Gerais about agriculture in the State of Minas including recommendations dealing with the agricultural betterment of the State, by P. H. Rolfs.

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SLetter of 'iansmittel A

h 1im4-' fnr.
L'=r. Ljja-ira kinner-o riagas, M. D. -ecrLtario de "gri-
heuetaL d.i Agricul tur-a,
be, wt eriz.jnt et.'ia ,1a. flerass.

.audad'es resneituoss.

I. iLovemb-r, lw-9, in cori'f--.nce .ith V. Excia
it was suggested t'-,at I preparee rad egE gener.-:-l re:ort,

including redorm:enaatioo.n dealing '6viitln the better-

ment of tie itate of rin.-.

The brief discussion h-re.ith ,-resented has been neither to extoj the glorious past of this grzat. cre, .
u9,'n which volumes could be written w'.ithiut l:eing. ade.uae.t ,

nor to disparage the i..resent manly efforts that ma- uing uade

b; her noble statesmen wl.. are v.:ili*ittly and u-,selfishly

ti'Lu gg]ing for a better and a more gz rious sinas.

I wish to cy,.iain chat this vw.ork positively hlias not

feen pce&a..i for Lioii tion, ut i th the speci vie'A f

pre.entti-g cons trLic Live -riticism, useful to the .-nr. -ec-ret:irio

de a-g-ic:ultura *n to a fe'.v other loyal statesmen oDf ILinas

.ih:, k.i-Las not, i sLice; l.y trust, -onsid er any of the criticisms

as unduly -i--sh. y only desire is to be of service.

The observ. t.ions here r'e.orded are the results zf nine

years of study and active work in -inas, during Mhich time I

nave stinted neither myse..f, m-y time, my m:,ney, or my energy

in doing what has oea-n nossi ie for me to aid in the advancement

of the ctate. The enormous difficulties and discouragemiente

encounter red have been appreciated oy very few vineirans, I am

v;ell aware,,. My part in the agricuLturW.jl etter-merit of the

State has been to "help 2ineirans to help themselves". I wish

especially to record here my deep gratitude and personal

affection for the founder of the Escola superior de Lgriculture

e Veterinaria do Estado de inas Geraes, q Dr. Arthur da bilva

Bernardes,. whose kindly consels, unbounded interest and

enthusiasm in the work, his patience, and above all, sympathy,

have been one of my chief sources of comfort in the lonely,

arduous and frequently very discouraging work.

In concluding i wish to state that the translation of

this report from the Lnglish to the Portuguese was made by my

daughter, *iarissa Rolfs, and the Portuguese was corrected by

Professor Humberto Bruno, Cathedratico de Horticultura e

- omicultura da i'. 6. A-. V. Both are hereby tendered my heart

felt thanks for their unselfish and painstaking labors.

With deepest appreciation of the kindly sympathy

received from the ion. 6ecret&ry of Agriculture during one of the

most difficult and perplexing quadrenniums of Lini, I am,

Very sincerely yours,

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soldiers) was exceedingly dangerous to a monarchy. iLocal

initiative was even worse and must be curbed at all hazzard. The .

more severely jhe slaves and serfs in europe were depressed .'_

the more easily they could be governed. When this submerged

class became too numerous or too turbulent fa. wie for pillage '.
.* "-'*'*

was made on a neighboring nation. burope was the most enlightened'-

and civilized portion of the globe and the only place from .

which our educated and ruling class could draw inspiration and


In North america the situation was as nearly reversed as possE-

ble. The colonists from Virginia northward were almost entirely .,

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of the anti-monarchial type. For the moet part they were

religious out-casts who were classed as undesirable citizens and

criminals from various European nations. Thus cut off from

,uropean dominance they had to rely on local and individual

initiative for self preservation. The powerful and hostile inidan

nations threatened their extermination. The necessity

of self- preservation brought about a high degree of cooperation

between the individuals of a colony and also a cooperation between

neighboring colonies.

&o far I have not SB read a clear exposition of the evolution

which has produced the present civilization of rrasil. in the

first place we must not overlook the fact that -Drasil and the

"rasilians are predominantly peaceful, nonagressive and lovers of

art and literature. -They have never carried on long and brutal -

wars and have been singularly free from sangivary brutalities often..

practised in nearly all the other colonies of the Americas. -

The fundamental difficulty originates in the ideal type of -

government, which stifles local initiative and cooperation. It also'...

discouraged the colonies from cooperating with one another There "

was no need for it,- the central government did every thing,---

provided police, protection, co.lected the reeeiue, constructed -

public buildings, provided public roads and did everything that was .-

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0.1' A thought to be advantageous to th '" p;
s t: the people T at.
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so populous and the governing class so numerous that even th -

so great hearted and beneficent a ruler as Doam Pedro II lost his:;"I].

throne. The monarchy had failed to keep up with the progress .

of civiiattiann. The highly centralized form made it an easy
conquest for a relatively small numee to accomplish the over- .

throw The independent thinkers af the country saw clearly ;
a majority ..
that the great/of the population were simply serfs with no

ppssabiiity of rising above it. A country in which those favored ..

by the government grew in opulence and the poor grew poorer. :

This young republic, only forty years old, has made marve-

lous strides toward the democracy which its founder had

clearly in view. it inherited the traditions of a monarchy,-

tactfully modified toward a democracy by a tryly democratic

empreor,- hence the transition from empire to republic was

without bioodsnied, an evolution and aot a revolution.

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?7 After more than eight years of experience with the people of

Minas, ranging from the Presidents of the otate to the laborers

in the field, I can see no, essential temperamental difference

between them and the similar grade of society in Florida. In

Minas we encounter the same difficulties tha t were encountered

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.'- there during the pioneer days of agriculture. My experience for a ..,

.,. .year and a half with students in the 6scola Superior, proved to me

c;" c.on'tlusiveiy that they react to the same stimuli as do the students
*. ... ." .*
,,. : in Florida. There is a difference between a Mineiran and a Paulista ;

-. '2 or a Bahiana. There is more or less difference between a kloridian
'..- and a .A.ew orker or an Iowan. .

An Angls-Saxon Illustration. I"
-.*. \. .** ......

pfV There is another illustration much more forceful. At the close:

of War of Secession in North America there were a considerable -
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-'""" .number of people in the South to whom the subjugation h the i^orth .
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7 '' became unendurable and so they emigrated to other countries. One ...
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S:. contingent of these people settled in the ktate of .'&o Paulo, where

0" they found a beneficent government and a most congenial social con-
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,,-'.:dition. They could own all the slves their financial condition <"
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.. permitted and could worship God according to'the dictates of their "

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own consciences.AH In fact the empire guaranteed and gave them all :.
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; the liberties that they could ask of any government. They were .'.4
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of Anglo-Saon extraction. Did they prosper prodigiously and mi *1

an :extraordinary success in agriculture ?klhey did.not! Their, ,, :

agriculture and their surroundings today in Villa' Americana are a .*
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.,.-.. the same as any other prosperous and enlightened community. And tlt&.....
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:. after two generations to prove their greater aptitude for agriculture',,'
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if such a thing existed, as some writers affirm. About the only -i
*.. difference that one notes is that there are among them a larger *:,y

'. percent of people with a light completion and light coloured eyes. -:.

... N ot one of the foregoing illaatrations can be denied. Taken ".'

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-v. together tha" Ejow clearly that race origen has very lutle ihnfl-ueace.....

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on the development of agriculture and civilization. A race with two

thousand years of civilization back of it is certainly more capable

of sdlf government than one that has had only two centuries or

less for a background.V Education of the masses and inciting them to

personal initiative are te fundamental steps that any state must

take to become prosperous and to advance in civilization. jMy conten-

tion is that it is of highest importance that the attitude of the

government, the dominant class, should oe such as to oblige the

masses, the recessive class, to iCitiate and do things for them-

selves. If the masses are illiterate and uneducated and are left

to themselves, they will bot progress, but rr degenerate. ^t

If the riiemtnis over paternalistic the masses lose the power

o| 'self-maintainence and become obligatory parasites. I have said

before, that a beneficient monarchy is the most efficient form

of government,but it stifles personal and local initiative. The masses

become indolent and unprogressive corresponding more or less to the

degree of absolutism of the government.

The states in -Orasil have become more self reliant and many

cities in Minas are learning to do things for themselves. Private
and community initiative is not wanting, ]but needs to be carefully


The point I want to make is that the backwardness in -inas in
I! .\
education and agriculture among the masses should nart be ascribed to

race origem but rather to a lack of education and training-.

as some writers, both Brasilians and foreigners affirm and
apparently do not seem to be denied)

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human "aste ( L". "

The greatest waste that occurs in "'inas today is the waste

of human ift life Emand effort. This waste has its foundation in

the illiteracy of the masses and is a direct result of the

empirical government which inhibits education among the wzs*

and stiffles local initiative.

Medical men sent out by the Federal. government have frequently .

aIaeeid attention to -the tremendous loss of time from sickness
-* '-. .
and death sue to disease's that are easily prevented. They tell

us that in the -'-tate of "inas, among the :1t t-masses it is

almost impossible to make any perceptible improvement. They meet wit1'

all sorts of local opposition in place of encouragement and support.^
The ma.sses know little or nothing about the most elementary princi.-;

".. ples of hygiene and it is impossible for them to comprehend its --

B -" -
importankce. In war it is an axiom that a wounded enemy is pre- ,

ferable to a dead one, because the wounded enemy requires the att- '

mentionn of one or two additional men in the army. In the case of

sickness among the laborers, riot only is the time of the sick .

!-,zrson lost, but he also requires the attention of others of the

family to nurse him back to health. Vvhen the disease hat progressed -.

to the ficurable stage a doctor is at times consulted or called ..;:

for. 'tMoie frequently a pharmacist is consulted by.:somejther persa
r. .: *: ^

than the one who is sick.1^ .0 ".A.M. *-W
thn one who is sic.The distress occasioned by this I.,

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ignorance is beyond comprehension. .-he financial loss to the_

agriculture of the Otate of Minas is incalculable. -I

second lamentable taste of human effort lies in that of

laborers s139 have t= competent disAoeta. The feitores are .
iLn /rQ, Pqa-4'W

educated and frequently illiterate. They are docile and servile. :
r, ~..r rr a.- ;,t A-c ;rw s-t,.r&r;T7 p #.^Cccr
A cupcrintondant dooe not get along wol. with. a fFe tar who shows A
A.2. ,., i.f
'n3;itiativye aad~ muuww moro atbo'lt kkaxni the work than dcles |

the admni trder- Such a man, in case of a crises is likely to -,

displace his i,=+'' i 1 superior, consequently h-s superior is

jealous of him. (The Mkineiran has no monopoly on this feeling, it is---.

human nature.) Likewise the feitor is jealous of any laborer who .

manifests an aptitude for becoming a feitor. As a result of this -.

unconscious selection for the unfittest, during many generations,

our agriculture has remained primA.tive. Very frequently the

owner of a fazenda has other interests- that compromise his entire ,-
.*.. .'.',

attention. hie knows little or nothing .about agricultural economics. Z

All he cares to know is what are the gross receipts or gross sales.

He does not know whether his superintendent is efficient or

inefficient. When the cftses comes, as inevitably it will, reorgani- -

zation or bankruptcy results. Usually the first syePAis to reduce the'".

wages of the laborers and tnereby retain only the less efficient.
\ .-",.

It is a common sight in Minas to see men, women and -
'-* : :: :

.. children hoeing coffee, cane-or corn, while ox.n and mules are

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fattening in the pastures adjoining-. Often the administrator or- -:.

superintendent knows that work done by implements is more eco- -.
nomicaR anct efficient bt.., tt -. ,,..he is absolutely helpless to *

inaugurate such a system. They thbmmselves are unable to teach -

their subordinates the use of tjmax even the simplest implements ::

and to employ someone else for that purpose would disorganize ,

their whole laboring force and system. ,

Most of the old time superintendents who have been obliged to .:
try outt faim implements, consciously or unconsciously ruip the

implements or do ruinous work wtth them. They see at once that w -

the introduction of mew methods and improved implements, their .

former positions would lose their importance. If he directs

two hundred braqos" he is mBS much more important in his own

eyes and in the eyes of his HmpmaWxm employer and the employees I

than one who directs only ten or fifteen braqos, altho ten
.. .

or fifteen Aith agricultural implements could dothe work of

two- hundred enxadeiros. The feitor who directs ten tuaxkxx hoe hands'

would consider himself forever disgraced to be seen teaching a laboxQi]

how to drive a mule and guide a cultivator, et he alone, with

a mule and cultivator, could do as much or even twice as much .
work and much better, than the ten men with their hoes. .

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When we were preparing the campo experimental at the Pscola :'

a young^t and intelligent Lineiran was in chwtge of the field d "
_. ",* "..' .'j

He took nineteen menaid a feitor with enxadoes to prepare

the field. There were oxen% and plows on hand but they were

entirely useless to him. He was working for the state and

considered it very degrading to .... y hf ,, ip nt..-

ihe otate wanted the work done, therefore the I-Itatei must provide

the trained laborers.Soon after a disc reversible plow, a

team of oxen a boy and a native who had never before seen a

disc plow, were taught by the -irector of the Q4e how to use

the implement. This plow did more thorough work and turned the

soil deeper than did the enxadoes and in addition prepared nearly

.twice asx the area in a day. The field foreman was privately Very

much displeased. iis department lost a large crew of men and was.

reduced more than a hundred mil reis per day on the labor pay

roll. The plowing was done by an illiterate countryman and his

son, who knew how to drive oxen and who was considered an inferior

by the field superintendent. In the end the -scola lost the

services of the field foreman and saved more than a hundred milreis

for each days plowing. 'here were also nineteen laborers and a

feitor who were very much displeased by the innovation.
OL -" PAA A <
In 1929 at the "scoila it became necessary to haul a consider-

able number of tons of sugar cane to the railway station. hs the

car (railway; had to be loaded without delay, available

means of transport were pressed into service. These included CL^*

a four-wheeled wagon, (North xmerican type) with a team of small

mules and ba.ox cartl,.such as are usually employed in Minas

for transportation. One man drove the wagon and mules, while

it took a man And a boy for ii team of oxen and cart. The team

of mules hitched to the wagon e'&ail=y vw........ times the amount

of cane drawn by t- xen. -he team of muiesl made .. trips md

rny jr in the time it took the oxen to make t*j trip. This simple

demonstration whows that one man with a team of mules hitched

to a wagon can do as much asiA4/. men aria. axhz 144V. boys with

ox carts. -Or putting it in another way,- the Kzx local prince for

the work of the man, bo, and ox cart is--.-.therefore, the

work done with the man, wagon and mules saved the zscola.A'*.A...

for every day's wor. (The above datewas supplied to me by ir'rof

Diogo A. keilo, Prof. of Agronomia in the L. S. A. V.)

The Escola( has) for three yearsold citrus mudas of the

finest fia and mudas of a quality never before offered for sale

in this state- oome of these were sent to the z.scola Agricola

de Lavras, having to travel over three railway lines to reach

their destination. To get them thru to -'avras, x it was necessary

for the I-'irector to petition a friend at Juiz de -bora to receive

the mudas from the -L.eopoldina Railway, xm transport them to the

central l RailwayA, less than a hundred meters away, and despatch them

tolrbacena. TBx d s had to petition another friend at -
'* *. '

4 ..

barbacena tp receive the mudas from the Central Railway and des-

patch them from the Oeste Oation. This was a great waste of time

for the Director, his secretary, and two friends. A loss'-ithe

State of kinas greater than the price of the mudas. ouch obstacle

make the promotion of nurseries by private individuals almost


When we sent two hundred mudas to Riarianna, the Archbishop

had to send a man to ronte ovg to transfer the plants from the

Leopoldina to the central Railway, which was a waste of time and

an annoy-.nce for the Archbishop and for his employee.

Two years ago we made another shipment of mudas to a city

in the western part of the State of 'inas. Near the end of the,

transportation a flock of sheep were loaded in the same car in

Which the mudas had been paced. Enroute the hungry animals

voraciously devoured the mudas until not enough was left to

even justify planting them.

To make it possioie for a carload of dairy cattle to be sent

from bello orizonte to viq-osa, without unloading,

eez it was necessary for the President of the geaat state, pre-

siding oVe Sight million people, to take his valuable time to

have an order prepared for the transfer of the car from the

Central to the Leopoldina railway. This was an utter waste of

time for a man in his elevated position.


.S -

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abusee :
*The U69g of Inefficienty.

The foregoing illustrations have been taken from actuql

occurrences in Minas,. They/illstrate the costly penalties that
i^ ;|
the present generation kaxxk ha-*e to pay for the unprogressiveness'

of their predecessors. They show toohtiat agriculture is not the

only industry that is burdened by an antiquated system. However,
agriculture suffers more than any other. Her production is by, f :r

the most important resource of '1inas and is relatively perishable.

%uick saxax and safe transportation are essential to the continued1

existence of the farmers.

The great railway systems of the State do not cooperate

in transporting even very valuable livestock, excepting on pe- '"

tition from the President of the orate. The employees of the

railways, either through ignorance or thru irresponsability, '

mill permit valuable shipments to perish in transit. The' reason .-

is simple, the salaries of the employees remain the .same and

Le has almost no prospects of being promoted, so' he remains

indifferent. If he prove efficient and aggressive he is in constant#

danger of arousing jealousy among his fellow workers or in

his immediate superior's.
reslte cenral
BThRA- wli-c c situation resulted from highly central- '

ized government which fell under its own weight in 1889. Under

this regime the government was everything ani the

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individual nothing. Absolute subservance was the means of

self preservation. So we should have compassion on the laborer, 2.

the minor director-, and even on many of those in higher positions. I

They have never been taught efficiency or cooperation and their

initiative instincts have remained dormant, always aw waiting for .

someone higher up to tell them how, when and what to do.




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Economic Difficulties .

The 0tate and national government are passing through

financial difficulties. Every one/has given thought to

the matter knows that it is because the expenditures are

greater than, and hence financiers, both national

and foreign, are afraid we will be unable to redeem the pledges :!

at face value. The Federal Government has attempt4 to meet '4

this difficulty by issuing paper currency. The North American

government attempted to meet her deficit during and after the'

Civil War by this same means, with the result that it took

two dollars' and ninety cents of paper money to buy one of

go0A >In the decade of 1915 to 192a*.the governments of

many countries being unable to cut their expenses to equal-

their incomes attempted to supply j.- deficit bu issuing

paper money, often much beyond a reasonable amount, with

always the same result. The difficulties were that the earning ;
capacity of these nations was below their expenditures. '

Earning capa- too low. 'The difficulty with rasil and '
/ : I

Minas as well, is not that they have spent too much money for I

non economic enterprizes, but that the earning capacity of the

average citizen and hence of the state, has been and is too

low when compared with .i
thatn competitive national.

." ..

a-- -. .. .-.



In the foregoing pages are discussed very briefly how it

came about that the young republic inherited this honerous

condition. The past cannot be modified or changed but seeing

clearly the cause we are in a better position to apply the remedy.

To make the Otate of A'inas more prosperous it ts necessary

to increase the efficiency of the average citizen. AS shown on

previous pages, Minas has dedicated herself to a democratic

government even though an autocratic government could be

administered more cheaply. (Mexico under the autocracy of Dias

made marvelous economic progress but at a terrible cost to her

civilization. This was demonstrated by the period of anarchy

that followed.).
,6 ,
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Industries 4-t-j.ed. In recent decades Brasil and -inas

have given every encouragement possible to the estaoisihment of

j(gO, a a r-
industries. These have as a whole not proven as successful as

was anticipated and will need continued state and national

protection until the average earning power of the masses is

greatly increased.

In the first place the workers in the factories are so

inefficient that the product does not readily compete with that

made abroad, That Is a penalty we have to pay in order that

(in the future Iwe may have trained operators.

In the second place the great rural population has such

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mall earning power that their daily income scarcely suffices

to buy the extreme necessities in clothing and food. (A

camponez gri*tgg rice in the brejo earns less than one milreis

for each days labor expended on it. However, he should be

encouraged since he adds that much to the wealth of the state

and saves that much with which to buy clothing, himself.

Besides this it teaches him to be a mrnm= self reliant and

independent citizen.) Until the earning capacity of the great

rural class is greatly augmented, they will not have money to

spend for manufactured goods.

ihen simple implements such as the plow, planter and

cultivator replace the enxada at least fifty percent of the

present farm laborers will be available for work in factories

and industries. The fifty percent remaining on the farms will

produce a/larger amount of food than the whole hundred per cent

now employed there. Fortunately this condition will come about

oy gradual evolution. It takes time to teach the young man

the use of farm implements. Only a small percent of the older

laborers, whose only instruction has oeen in the use of the

enxada and foice can be educated to work with the plow and

cultivator. The release of these farm laborers to industry

will be so gradual that no one but the statistician will be

alarmed. The price of necessities will be sensibly reduced. .



- 11111- -


the total production augmented and the salary of the laborer ;
C ,
increased. A

S.Machine.y &3 fficiency. This has been the history of

agriculture in all civilized nations. North kmerica is one of -

the best illustrations, fith the introduction of farm machinery

has come about a great improvement in the efficiency of labor.
* -^

In 1915 wheb the world's political condition was stable, a

careful computation of labor efficiency was made. Putting the
-. i
Jorth American farm laborer as an hundred per cent efficient, .

the farm laboreriof England and Germany were forty per cent

efficient. Those of France Were only thirty three per cent

efficient, while those of Italy were only twenty per cent

efficient0n the other hand, the average wheat production per hec-

tare for N&rgland and uermany was two to three times that of Jorth ':

America, but it cost Lngland and uermany two and a half times as

many days labor to produce a ton of wheat. bngland and Germany

were obliged to put a protective tariff on wheat to keep their

farmers from abandoning its culture. France produces more tons

of sugar beets per hectare than does aorth America, but North

America produces far more kilos of sugar beets for each days

labor expended.

.U '. ..... It is not surprising therefore that North
America ..compete with uop.- in i

America -c=n compete with ropee in industries."'..
.. ,.'. i

&urope Wasteful. The important point that we must constantly "

keep in mind is that Europe has exported the most valuable of .

all products human beings, and treasured more highly land area. i

Minas like North America has vast areas of productive lands lying "

idle and awaiting the husbandman. In fi following the Iuropean :i

precedent Minas has lauded production and disregarded labor

efficiency,- has insisted on work with the hoe and has neglected ]

work with a cultivator. Ninety.pix percent of her rural establish- --
.. ... ...-<^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ~ c g .^.. _^ ....y/ /" -
inens are conducted by Drasilians very few of whom have had -.,

an opportunity of learning modern methods.:',

Minas f* Motive ?ower. We have the motive power and the man ..

power. hIk=, according to the census of 192u, we had over i

seven million bovinos, over a million equinos and nearly half ..

a million asininios e muares. Yet only a hundred and sixteen A

rural .A
thousand/establishments in 'inas. At the same time there were only :

seventeen thousand five hundred plows. If in the last ten years

the number of plows has been increased a thousand per cent, quite a

above any reasonable expectation, it would give approximately -.*

one plow per rural establishment. We hage motive power enough for *

ten times that lumber of implements, -t is not an unusual sight to :

see men women and children tilling the fields with hoes while

oxen, mules and horses are pasturing on the same farm. ..

.. :M
i- "
-, ... ^

"'" .
LaLLu Jhj.. Jr4lo. Io Labor Shortage.

We must constantly keep in mind. "0 maximo de resultado corn

o mimimo de esforgo'".

ugagas, Djalma Pinheiro, Iinas ueraes, iov. 2-4, l929,p.2J

It has been estimateddthat Minas has a population of

esyen million five hundred thousand ".h ,,.. of which

probably sixty five percent are classed as rural. She has appro-
fea.^x-'',-^/- ,, *itu 7"*'-
ximately a hundred and fifty thousand rural inhabitan-t-s, that

-At -i- 4 4 i

here should be no difficulty in securing fl-i L ufbver

a efficient and useful employees from ti large group. The

difficulty, however, ', as pointed out

on an earlier paged *e have taught our employees to be docile,

servile and unpregbressive. The farmer has not taken the time,

patience and expense necessary to educate his labor in the

art of modern farming. He will not, until zdib

compelshim to do so.

The labor shortage so much complained of is really a

most hopeful and healthful sign. It indicates that Minas is

really progressing. The data cited above show that we really

have a great surplus of labor. What we are lacking is a proper ..
compe .... .o do so




r6 6 ,4 '

(u//Ut6-LrLt'/ZC 2

instruction and direction of our labor. Human labor is the

most expensive factor that enters into crop production. Every

time we employ an ox, a horse, or gasoline we reduce the labor

shortage and also lower the cost of production. As long as a.

farmer employs hoes for crop production he is wasting labor and

he has no right to complain of the labor shortage. In 19<2

corn was cheaper on a gold basis in Chicago than in bello
aorizonte. Yet laborers were so few in illinois that they received

eight to ten times the wages paid in i'inas. In 192- a responsible

citrus Growers Association offered to deliver oranges by the
box to Bello horizonte at a price lower than the local dealer

demanded k The California Company had to pay laborers a salary

i Minas ueraes

ten to fifteen times that prevailing in linas. In addition they

had to pay long ocean transportation and -a-jg railway jransporta- ::

tion from Aio to Bello .orizonte. "

.... *is




Unwise Lesislation :.
TEe unfavorable financial condition to which have called

attention should not over alarm us but should give us cause for .

profound study, The predominating statesmen of about two decades ",
--; '.
ago made a -namber of serious economic errors which we ef today '

are obliged to correct. Their- predecessors made errors also in *

permitting Brasil to lose her predominating posLtion in the -.
production of rubber, sugar, cacao, etc. She lost her position -

bY a failure to apply known a "_i ,. and a lack of -.

education among her laboring classes. A young nation, like a "

youth, must learn-,y study and experience. That nation or state, ..
:-:, in^. is doomed to T'ailure when it closes its portals .i

aw i against the introduction of new ideas and new methods .'

from other nations. China, India and Japan were highly cultured .. 4

and ci .gized nations when we, .uropeans, were still uncultured -

barbarians. '

Brasil as a whole and Minas in particular is making -

many efforts to recoup opportunities lost by our predecessors. :.

Some of these efforts are yielding results more thah a thousand fol|.

There is a saying that there is no extravagance so wasteful as

a miser's economy. At this time when the state and nation are -

passing through a great financial depression is just the moment

when wise economic laws and measures can be prmulgated North .


.__,_, ___D___
i ij^ i t> e u -^~ ~ g c ^ / l ^ ^ ^

4 p- 4 .

.^L 4^-/^ ? o



America passed the first Mortiil Act in 1861 when her national

life was threatened. Various states established College of

Agricultura in conformity to this law when their financial

condition was at its worst. The Hatch Pxperiment rotation

(Instituto biologico) Act was passed when there was another

financial depression. These institutions laid the foundation

upon which the present prosperity of the united -tates was buil;.

.* An agricultural project to be successful must be economi-

cally sound. This requires much study, fine discrimination and an

intimate knowledge of agriculture. Data which are not available

today. -



Al i

P t III D T-,ALD j-.N.,L'SIS OF S.. `'ORTT

In this part (III) is given only so much discussion on

any topic as is necessary to comprehend the ecpomic status of each

crop or product. The discussion has been limited to an, ouine Df the

most important aspects as they present themselves today.

Under "Items para o kelhoramento" only those -gg-tijns

have been Made that if inaugurated and consistently carried out will

bring about speedy and beneficial results-. Tii'e ,er.a.i is the '-,Lie

great agency in the state through whose {ffr ;or ,he rtf'jrmb ,2,n be

conducted. Many of them must be put into e:_c.tioii Ob; if,.iiell m-Kthojs.

In formulating these "Items" due consi.r.-tijn hac. 0- 'ih-n of i-Le

present educational, financial and po-Liti:;ali -t-;.ts ..f Ih.. Ltte.

A. Vegetaes e Oeus Oroducos.

The value of vegetaes e seu-. ;.du-tus p L .psrtai i- ii S r W0S5

711-709 contos de reis. Nearly thr1: timWC t",t ojf -f i-Ii t esE

products but received relatively lesz. ittenti-r, I1--Ln tlh h tat,. I'

well directed propaganda would easily do-ioi th:- :*/.ile of th-e

export. The railroads are amply aole to haridi^. this '.- mI i5

shown by the very slow average speed of t:-i fj-i frcighnt *iLS,-

sometimes only thirteen or fourteen kii.oete-r. t Jnty fur

i'iou rs.

increased. However, we wii u3e that figure as representing a very

conservative estimate of the number of hectares producing coffee

in 1928, when the exportation was 6.58,3.8b.8 sacks, or am average

exportation of less than five sacks or 6ju kiLos oer hectare

cultivated. Tnis coffee was valued at l7T6uOU per sack or 4,950

per kilo. The cost per kil3 A of producing coffee in the ,state"

m Nuniz, Dr. J. C., Pan American zulietin, Dec. i9)9 p.iL.-40

of cao Paulo is o,06 'in zone one, where primative conditions

similar to those in '"inas prevail. '-n newer fazendas, zone two,

thle .,ost is 264 per kilo, and in the newest and most up-to-date

fazendas, zone three, the cost is -$,'64 per kio.

These figures show at a glance that coffee culture in

Minas is a precarious business. However, it cannot be abandoned

,,W- itihout causing an agricultural revolution and a financial break-

down, as every fazendeiro Knows how to grow it, and it constitutes

tne principal article of agricultural exportation.

II *

/ y^f~o o c ^^0AAA 1,,',4,.

OF The area planted tn iinas in 192j was

650.003) hectares A oince that time the area has Oeen considerably

m ^aruaiho, Afranio de, 1,h Actualidade "ineria, p 44-46 U929.J


U-S HA*' 'i( '241 4d 444* *

", .-.. r "

.: .,. ./, .. /
.. .
77.. .

I _____ ---__..-. ---""
r ?*- .Ji -i .: ; ,:.:.. .i.. .. .. ..,, .. ... : .- -. ... .*

4, a

Crops III B ,,

The cecretaria can aid greatly in rejuvenating the coffee industry

by having information puoiished from time to time, advocating the

following lines of improvement. Some of the readers would inau-

gurate and adapt some of these suggestions to their own o-s. "

A great many of them still believe it is more economical to employ

manual labor than to adapt motive power and to inaugurate refDrms.

Linqs -focr Improvement

1). Reduce the amount of Labor. a) ,-y cultivating all vargens

and pbs de morros oy mule power, o) transport to ter-reiro of the

picked coffee by mule oower in place of oxen, c.g Long hauls Ma?

be made by caminhoes. ..
A great service can be rendered by the W'ecretaria to the

inaustria by publishing articles and short bulletin that set forth

nearly tfae mariner in which these changes can be made. -

}. Improve the quality of coffee sold oy a). installing new ',
S" _".

and up to date machinery in the usinas. b.) Reject all inferior '
coffee, c. Prohibit, by law, the exportation of coffee of inferior

and mixed grades.

\ --^ Here again publications can aid greatly but without fiwcal-

izatioh of the export the grades will be misbranded and inferior

coffee allowed to contaminate otherwise excellent product. The

fazendeiro and usina operator must learn that the inferior one -

percent in -t grade often reduces the selling price of the '


Crops IIi C .

whole by ten percent. All the machinery I have seen in usinas was

old and badly worn. (The profits in coffee cuitureqWso small

that the employment of old and wornout machinery is simply ruinous.).

0). Choosing suitable land and locations. Fazendeiros should

be discouraged, by publication and otherwuse from making their

plantations where they cannot oe cultivated by mule power, and "

tae transportation Dy mule power or caminhao. '

4). Literature in arge 4uantita is needed to ring about a -

reform in a .....practises. This must De written in small

pamphlets,- preferably sixteen pages or iess in size. The illisstra

tions should be simple and elucidade the subject discussed. The :*

language must be such that the agricultores can comprehend it.

The magnificent volume, "Minas e o Bicentennario do Cafeeiro no

zrasil", published in l)29 is a great credit to the Jecretaria.
SIt should oe in e~ery private and public laDrary in the -tate. JI

between pages 585 and 492?- there are some <-j to $0 pages of

material that is of practical value to the coffee grow,,er. his .

information should oe brought together by e 20fef Li ptrmco and
published as one or tw.%o bulletins, it takes years to train up men

who can write practical builetins and articles. In the meantime

we must utilize the best that we have. Later a publication should '

be made giving full and well. planned directions for J3
'i; s


a). selecting locations for new cafezaes.

preparing the nursery and planting out.

selected for the various locations.

v..^ *..
b'. best methods of

c varieties to be


1 ._...

ra' ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ - ^

-r 'e --- / ,f

JRie'- The exportation in 192 8"was 16.614 tons, valued at

11.852' contos de reis, making the value per kilo approximately

$726, this being higher than the average of foreign markets.

According to statistics the average production of rice per hectare

for Brasil in i9' was 585 kilos, (this being exceeded by only four

countries) It is quite probable that the average production for

Minas for 1928 was about the same, making a valuation of 424$710

per hectare. This is only a trife less than one-half the valuation

of the coffee exportation per hectare. A reasonable amount of

publicity would easily double the production, and reduce the cost

of production per kilo.

Lines for improvement.

1).,,rublish a bulletin and distribute not earlier than

oep't 1, 9.UJ nor later than Uct. 1 to all "estabelecimentos ruraes".

This pamphst should be written for the farmer, in simple and clear
language, it should contain six or eight good photographs iilistra

tings that the farmer can comprehend and which will aid him. His-

tory, art, statistic, and other materials irrelevant to ric ttr-

snould be omitted. It should lay special stress on the fact that

cice can be grown profitably by sibostituting mechanical cultivation

for irrigation. Irrigation is good but far from necessary. (During

the five years in which rice has been grown on vargens altas

on the grounds of the Escola, it has never been irrigated and

the production has never been less than two thousand liters per

hectare, and has produced as much as five thousand five hundred

liters of rice in the hull per hectare. The pamphlet should not

contain more than sixteen pages, preferably less .

2,. Reduce the amount of human labor by

(a). utilizing the vargens in place of the brejosi

('O). clear and plow by oxen, mule or tractor power. o-

(c cow by planterA*

C;. cultivate every week with mule power

(e. Harvest with mule mower 0,

Ld) Thresuh by machinery

3). Secure and distribute disease free seed of the best qual- .

ity. come of the rice examined in 1928 showed as much as 410 7"

or the heads diseased and worthless. '

4). The small grower wiao plants in the orejo should be

encouraged. he gets practically nothing for the labor of himself I.
and family out it tends to teach him initiative and his family i
learns valuable lessons about Oplant growth and the preservation

of food material.

Fumo -u

The ilndsutry 2obcco is in a pery primative state-

The market- is q uite unfavorable to the producer. He is subject

to all sorts of unfair business practices from the commercial

men and hence reaps very little benefit from his toils and

loaor. vitf. all his handicaps, the exports in i9E8 were 35.194

tons, valued,at more than ten thousand three hundred and twenty

five contos de reis, or an average of 3S per kilo. To a very

large extent it is raised as a second crop, being planted after b

milho has begun to mature.

Under the present system of "hoe farming" the average

producer nets less than one kilo per days labor expended,-

probably less than a half kiio. However much can be done to

greatly augment the production for each days labor expended.

Lines for improvement.

1). Good seed of the heaviest producing qualities

should be made available (py purchase) to the prospective

planter. In the Viiosa-Ub& section Georgiea is a n excellent

variety. Its vigor and produttiveness overcome any preju-

dice in selling price. It is well known among tobacco special-

ists that the present method of producing seed by the local

/growers-is a case of the perpetuation of the inferior indivi-

duals. The state government should sell to all tobacco growers

seed of superior varieties to produce seed for the succeeding yea
.......... ." -. .........

2). Publish a bulletin discriptive and illustrating

the best methods of pursue under the crude conditioBs of agricul-

ture in Minas, to produce the largest amount of tobacco ready

for the market.

3). Aid the tobacco growers with information as to

the marketing and orobabie price of the marketable tobacco. The

price paid to the grower is entirely disproportionate to that paid

bY the distributer. bn ..w.rful i e. L.i. of the into-

-mndiflt p.....t. h -at t; 'ga sh -ita ot'f-ir.i A.. n nj t .intcrfc--- t00

t-be produor .. onti. ,elpl--. r If the state government

does not come to the rescue of the producer to enable him to

produce a better grade of tobacco, produce it more economically,

and at the same time receive a better remuneration foe his labor,

the industry will gradually transfer itself to other states and we

will be without ..he money which it has been bringing to us.


b Ii E












The exportation of this crop for i9428 is given at

eleven thousand and ninety tons, Valued at four thousand six hundred

and fifty seven contos de reis. ni approximate valuation of -U-u

hundred ana nineteen reis per kilo. This price is so much Detter

than the selling price in iorth ,merica that we cannot Dope to make

it a national export.

*The export table tells onty a fraction of the story since

a large amount of it is exported in the form of fat hogs as well

as ooulitry and poultry products. virtuaiiy the export of miiho is

aoove that of any other cereal. The actual value of miiho exported

as such aaded to that which is exported as animals and animal pro-

ducts will oring it up to fifteen to tvw-enty thousand contos.

The amoun-t of technical vvorb cone on this crop oy the

government of 'inas is almost negligible. This "let alone" poicy

of the government has militated against cnrn production until the

rice to the consumer is higher than in other great corn producing

countries. We meed not fear over production. ,hemn the actual

price goes low enough other industries based on corn will oe



'....:.^^: ;'

*s n -~ Sr;^

III b (75)

w.ines Suggested for -moprovement.

i). heed. i'he Oecretaria should oroceea to secure an

abundance of seed of the three leading varieties, yuarentio, Cattete,

and -rystal. iThis seed should oe ready to send out so the

farmers can receive it in august 1960. The 4uarentaoa for earliest

feeding when corn is scaree and very high priced, altho it produces

S &t4V
only a half or a third of the otner. *'is seed should be pur-

chased oy a responsioie representative of the department. It may

be obtained either in Minas or -ao raulo.

The planting of good seed from a productive strain kestirpe)

will increase tne oroduction anywhere from Q5 :; to 75 --

W.. Literature. 'The "ecretaria could ouoish a bulletin

giving basic practices in planting and cultivating milho. The oui-

ietin should be illustrated by single row planters, single mule

and double mule cultivators. It should give aata as to the saving

in money oDought about oy using mechanical planters and the use

of mule cultivators. It snouid also show the profits resulting from

the use of good seed.

This bulletin should oe mailed to farmers not earlier

than duiy 1, JOW3, and before august 1st.

,_,_ "". '. \

(Feijao;.--. --- -

nean culture;. is probably in the most primitive state of

development of any of the export crops. They are so easily grown

and tiarvested that no one seems to consider them as worthy of

attention, in 1228 the state is said to have exported eleven

thousand one hundred and twelve tons valued at eight thousand

eight hundred and eighty nine contos de reis or $800 per kilo.

The export Leans that have seen were everything that

they should not have been,- varieties mixed, dusty, containing

small stones, anid many imperfect seed. The estimated export Fpice

is most excellent for the quality of the product.

The only thing that can be done at present for the

t' at/. 1 '.1". v-"< I. S-*' ';
betterment of the crop is to o#;z good seed of the better :;

varieties. As seon as milho planting progressed to the state of

employing macinher there will be abundant opportunity for ..

greatly reducing the iost of bean production. At the price given

for oeans in the statistics table it would be more remunerative to

grow beans on a urge scale than to grow coffee "3




According to the table there was an export of 4.823

tons of sugar values at three thousand eight hundred and thirty

eight uontos de reis or $79E per kilo. The export consisted

mainly or almost entirely of crystallized sugar produced at the

large Usinas. In addition to the sugar a large amount of alcohol

(aguadente) is made at the usdaas, which adds materially to the

jha pma'e from the cane fields.

Aside from the large amount that is exported from tihe

state a very large lot of raoadura is produced which does not

enter largely into the export market% out adds very greatly to

the wealth of the state oy keeping the money at nome that would

otherwise tbe exported. Along with the rapadura an indefinite

amount of cachaqa is produced.

The small growers who produces raoadura and cachaeca sa-pw-

very-- difficult to reach and educate. They compose Stch a large

percent of the population and the sum total of their production

is so great that the state government cannot afford to ignore


The efficiency of the small mills is so low that it

wouda not be credited as true if the statement _P_. __..... were ,1

made. All of this loss or waste simply impoverishes the state to

that extent and diminishes t te income to the State government
t-0 the state government.


bugar ( .

The worst vice connected with these smaller mills is the production

of chacaca. The government by putting a high tax on this firey

liquid can do a great deal to discourage its production. When it

becomes more expensive to put' cacha&.a on the market than a good,

rapadura, then the farmer will oroduce the latter.

Lines for improvement.

1). The introduction and dissemination of mosaics

tolerant varieties, so well begun by the Honorable secretary of

Agriculture, needs to be greatly extended. It is an economic crime

for any usina to grind P. 0. J. 213 while there are still thousands$

of hectares being planted to disease and non-tolerant varieties.

Tne demand for rie mosaic tolerant varieties has greatly exceeded

the supply.

2). Other mosaic resistant varieties shou-d be

introduced, propagated and the seed widely disseminated. To do this

may' be beyond the powers of the present administration but plans

can be perfected that will insure such a condition for the future.

o). Measures should be taken to secure a more

perfect method of transportation of the seed. SCome of the seed

of the mosaic resistant cane'arriving from the 'ecretaria showed

n;= 80 A dead. Seeded received from Deodoro showed 80 to 100 ..0

germination. This indicates that where the seed is carefully
treated it can stand long distance transportation in =rasil without ^1


Sugar (r. "

serious deterioration. My personal observation is that no one

person or agency i culpable for this loss in germination. The

gathering of the seed in done in a manner similar to harvesting it

for the usina. It is loaded in box cars without due regard of
its value. The railway transport/ it slowly as if it were a life-

ie--ss material. The seed tZ unloaded by laborers who treat the seed.-

as if destined for grinding. After unloading --seed often

left exposed to the wind and sun until it is planted. The planting

29 done in a cr4de fashion conforming more or less to the back-

wardness of the sugar industry in general.

Observations. This merely demonstrates under what tremen-

dous difficulties the nonorabie secretary is laboring. It demonstre

tes how tremendously discouraging it is when one tr-es to do some-

thing really meritorious for an agricultural industry. It is the

result of the neglect to train the laborers and the neglect to

provide for a numerous middle class who are educated so as to

carry our instructions from the experts. The principal agent of

the oecretaria carried out his work splendidly in spite of many

discouragements. He is not to biame for the presence of the

illiterate, docile, and servile laboring masses.

4). Literature. T'he work so well begun at Anna loren-

cia and probably equally well inaugurated at other centers, should







Sugar 4)

be given publicity, among all the usinas and sugar cane growing

centers. i short article of, about four or five thousand words,

illustrated with several full page half tone views, and published

as a separate bulletin would do wonders to stimulate the planting

of these varieties, incidentally it wuid encourage the sugar cane

growers to introduce better methods of growing cane.

; -- I ;, ?,

. :








Fruits s '

F .uLs The exportation of fruits is relatively small

being Less than six thousand contos or 1i.-"8. At the present

time there is a considerable animation in Brasil for extending

orange production for exportation to foeeign countries. Mineirans

have been much animated in ti-his line. It is an expensive under-

taking but one that can be male remunerative and should be

encouraged to the fullest extent possible. The undertaking

0' :
is @r 1 0!2y Y o huge a one for the Treasury of the Octate of

Minas. The State of Oao Pauio has sent more than a thousand

contos de reLt for her tvo packing houses. The one at -imeira

the larger one, with a capacity of three thousand boxes per

day cott over eight hundred contos. It is undoubtedly the

most perfect and modern in Louth -merica. smaller Dacking houses

cost relatively more ,er box. capacity.

I would recommend that Minas begin at once to work

up this subject systematiCally so as to train a considerable

number of young men along the iine of preparing oomares and

starting work in backing houses. It is probable that thie Otate

of oo Paulo would permit some six or eight intelligent 'ineirans
to work for the entire season in the uomares and packing housed

SLimeira &nd.... ...........


Fruits B 0 1.
In this way, and only by actually doing the work, is it .

possible to learn the difficult and delicate work of collecting, -

boxing and despatnching citrus fruits. Dr. Felisberto Camargo

who is thsoving spirit, -s' is the one man above all others in '

Brasil in the citrus oa king house and field work. BHe is a

graduate of the Luiz iueiroz Agricultural college e and took

wha had the honor of being De ctor
post graduate studies in the lorida -ricul tural College He

bggan his career in citurs exportatioas the lowest class of

laDorer in a Viorida packing house at WVinter 'A& t'::olv:o- b

,u@r& tgo, and has ninu_ ._ inT fruit cuiturl ever since.

He left the position as Director of the L'-fta5o de Pomoctitura

de Deodoro, fIzagx fkti:xiaxamxiiax=.ntm to accept the position
in the Instituto -gronomico in ,ampinas, being "wndrt |

kBE kR axaxf Lm'ni .c Hr o. .... "- Lirector^ 4@& he saw that

his native state needed his services at this time of difficulty. |

The s3aax salaries of the two positions are about eqqai,and |

are considered excellent -

I helped him to construct the first ucrates for ex-

perimentai exoort shipment eight years ago, and have been in |

yearly contact with him ever since. C therefore that no .,

better opportunity exists for kinas than to send to Limeira |

eight or ten men of. intelligence and vho are not averse to

manual labor, in order that they may secure the experience I:.

.... :. 1
- - - - '.,-.,:.I',.

Fruits C "7

necessary to a successful orange export from Mines. Qzga

oP is a highly specialized business. One exporter lost over

three hundred contos in this venture last year in spite of the

fact that he had the assistance and advice of the best technicad-

man in Brasil. Other exporters made a handsome profit. On the

Eurooean market the -rasilian oranges came into competition

with the oouth African and -ustrai-ian fruits. When the zrasilian.

fruit i3 inferior to the other fruit, it failA to yield a profit. .

Read also, Minas ueraes,' Jan 14, 15 e 16, "Transformando -

Laranjas em uuro, oelo P. H. Rolfs.)

Several Paulistas, to whom I have tacked, assume

that all of their troubles are solved by the establishment of.

their magnificent packing house. The packing house can be secured A

for money, but experience and knowledge axmdxcaiinot be purchased. .

It took Florida and California thirty years to educate employees ;.

to their present stage of perfection. "

Lines of -mgrovement::..uggested. I

1). Eight or ten young men should oe selected to

go to the 'tate of Sao Paulo to work with the packing house.

They should be employed as laborers, doing all of the work from I

that of picking oranges to loading the cars. ('Jut of the ten *I

men we should expect to get not more than three leaders niless

we assume that the Mineiran is far more intellige-rit thaa the :"

^: :I
Fruits III D 1 ..

2). The establishimerit of nueBeries from which mudas

can be sold in large quantities to prospective citrus

cuiturists. (This was already Ainaugurated but had to be

suspended for want of ap:,propriation.)

6,. Ti e export of pineapples from ,kinas should oe

second only to that of oranges. here is far less difficulty in

their culture& and muchness loss in transportation when they

are properly packed.

The pineapples *in Minas ripen when the European market

has very little or no home fruit maturing. Arrivitng in Europe

during the colder monthsr-less difficulty is encountered tW

decay1 after the fruit arrive in the market. It also meets

with little or no competition from pineapples from Jorth of the


.t the fruit exoosition in -=ao Paulo 1Feb. 4.-6, 9.30)

444A was a gine demonstration of the Roperr way bf packing pineapples

for export.

The consumption in the home markets could be greatly
the riening sea s, n.
(Thi intro-nuction of otfi Lr variety _jpv uid ga-reatly extent'
augmented ba carefCFi selection of varieties tl --

,i *e4kfor marketing and better market facilities are also greatly

needed. in telto Horizonte, for example, the cineanpoles are

discharged on a dirty floor and there assorted. In ,io the diffi-

culty is even greater. From 5U ;. to 80 % of what the consumer
-. .

pays is absorDea oy the middlemen and for transportation.

I have pointed out the splendid opportunity for

pineapple exportation but can make no specific recommendation

that would be within the finances of the Ltate of Minas ec^4id *


^ ^


Vegetable (Truck Crops..j 1). One of the great obsta-

cles to more general truck growing for local markets and for the

household is the fact that it is nearly impossible to secure viable

seed of good varieties. At rhas been almost impossible for the

6scola to secure such seed for experimental purposes excepting

oy importing them. s..For example, the Escola purchased tomato seed

of a variety Rnowvn as "Franceza" from a leading vendor in Bello

Horieonte.- When the plants from these seed came to Droduce fruit

ninety percent of them were a mixture of wild varieties. The other

ten percent produced a mixture of inferior garden varieties. Later

the Lscola purchased seed of a variety known as Rei Humocerto, from ,
one of the leading seed houses in Rio. Jver 5J o of the plants

that came to fruiting on an experimental plot were i.f the wild

variety, and the other fifty :. a mixture of varieties. e the Escoq3

encounters such obstacles it is not surprising that the private -

individual finds it impossible.

2j. Another serious handicap to the establishment of a .

truck growing business is the exhorbitant tax levied, by the -

middle men and transportation companies, it is not uncommon for '

these intermediate people to charge from a hundred to five

hundred percent for their services. -

3). A third handicap is the means of communication.
";"- '

a). Tardiness of telegraphic communications is

notable in the state. it frequently takes messages from ilio or

Bello Horizonte more than twenty four hours to be delivered at

O). Letters are very tardy and often fail altogether

to oe delivered. It frequently takes five days after the letter

has oeen mailed in Rio before it is delivered in Viqosa, Deing

frequently as long a time for a letter to pamxmlvmtwis be /received

from cello Horizonte or Ponte -ova.

c). Encommendas and freight are correspondingly slow.
-- ,/.

Lines for Improvement Duggested.

ij. Postal and Teiegraph. At first sight it woud seem to

be impossiDie to improve these conditions. It appears however that

it is not impossible. At the Instituto Agronomico in Sho Paulo they

do not suffer many of the inconveniences which greatly reduce the

efficiency of the bscola. It seems that conditions are especially

bad in Minas. 'Tzeoo@ For example,- the scientific journals to

which 1 am a susocriber and for'.hich the -nstituto is also a

suDscri-ber. Their journals arrive with very few or no failures,

of tkwxe mine less than 50 t of the numoers have oeen delivered

for theo months of i.,ovember and e-caunber. Similar bad service

has oeen rendered for several years. The government of 1iinas

should be strong enough to correct some of these postal and

telegraphic irregularities.

- I

Ill C ---^

2. Transportation. The faulty railway transportation will

oe largely corrected by the opening of automobile and truck roads

to the large consuming centers. With good roads the truck

transportation is more speedy and economical for short distances

of four or five hundred kilometers or less. As high as 85 of the

vegetables received in NJew -ork -ity from some of the neighboring

states, arrive by truck.

3,1. Good -eed. It would be quite unreasonalLy expensive

for the becretaria to set up a seed supply house with branches in

all the important sections. A cooperative arrangement might be

entered into with private individuals loCated in all the larger

centers. A purchasing agent under the secretary, could buy state

produced and foreign seed in quantity and allocate these to the

various centers. AS ali of these seed would be sold at a profit

it would return to the state more than the cost. Preference

should be given to the home produced seed, to result in the

establishing of specialists for producing seed.



. i +..-. Z'- -'BB
17 -., u ..,, .. ^ zw
Ita ^-r^

The unusual .rops.

The btate should always be on the Ilert to try out s

new crops amd introduce untried and new varieties. By means of

miscellaneous introduction we at times will discover some valuable

plants that may develop into an industry. It takes/patience, time

and money to establish an industry founded on a plant or animal

unusual to a country or a state.

In considering the possibility of establishing new crops

the leaders in agriculture should raemmmber that the population of

iinas ij relatively sparce and not highly efficient. It is reason-

able to assume that better results will be obtained from crops that

can be grown with relatively little human &4' per hectare than from

those that require a high degree of skilled hand labor. The day of

the agricultural machine is rapidly approaching in Minas so we

should favor crops that can be grown extensively rather than those

that require intensive application.

a). Date culture would seem to be an ideal occupation.

It is doubtful however if there is any portion of "inas where the

climate and soil will permit the production of good commercial dates.

Before the minister of Agriculture in *'orth America

attempted to promote this industry, he sent specialists from the

Bureau of Plant industry to the regions in 'orth Africa aji Ar.;oia

wnicn exported the best varieties of dates. By conferences with

French a7 a english and natives residing in the regions, the loca-

tions of the best orchards where ascertained and visited. Data on

climate Y obtained and where analysis of soils had not been made,

samples were secured.

When the data regarding soil and climate had been assembled,

specialists from the bureau of boils, -hemistry and Veather,

cooperated to discover those localities in iorth America which

exactly duplicated the climate and soils found in the localities in

Arabia and Africa.

The purchase and importation of ship loads of mudas was the

third and easy step. In less thqn fifteen years, the industry was

established on an economically independent basis.

b). Tea 6ulturer is well established at mixpczx a few

places in kinas and should continue to receive state sympathy and

aid. It is not probable that it will spread to other places. With

increased efficiency of labor;in other agricultural lines the

experienced workers are likely to be drawn away.

Tea growing was begun in 1orth America more than a hundred

year Ego, underslaverj conditions, and continued to the present.

Despite the invention and 7xxz application of special labor saving

machinery it is not yet a self sustaining industry. The government

has given generous assistance by subventions an4 by paying for

technical investigations, but the sparcity of population seems.';

to impede its rapid extuation.

c). Silk production is very attractive from its aesthetic

point of view. Italy is by far the largest producer- in Lurope.

Her output is about twenty times teof 'rance. Aside from Yhese

two countries Europe produces comparatively a small amount of silk.

Italy in iXx 1928 had a population of 132.8 persons per square

kilometer while the estimated population for Iinas in 1927 wxx

gave 11.82 persons per square kilometer.

North America long ago introduced silk culture. After the

Civil war strenuous efforts were Made to extend its culture among

^ a. .//^
the millions of recently liberated slaves, wh climate conditions

for the growth of the mulberry tree were perfe*. It failed to give

results commensurate with the efforts and money expended. After more

than sixty years of active government propaganda and support the

industry is not self sustaining.

With the perfection sa* production of rayon (seda vegetal)

by France, this substitute is so largely used in manufacture

of silk cloth that it seems improbable that the production of

natural silk will be extended to new countries.

The production of natural silk has fine educative values

and from this point of view alone is worth a 11 it has cost. Minas

should c courage the idea but it should remember that it

will probably never produce an economic income to the state.

d). Wheat growing is justly eliciting much interest in

Minas. ft is more than probable that large /areas in the state can

ultimately be devoted to this crop. Not with a view of quickly

producing a large amount for foreign export (see pages..........)

but for consumption and for supplying the needs of other

Drasilian states. By supplying the amount needed for htme consump-

tion the export of money will be thereby reduced.

Active propaganda should be directed to those sections of

the state that have ext~sive areas sufficiently level to permit the

use of labor saving machinery. A second indespensible factor is

a dry climate not only during the harvesting but also during the

storing ueriod. VVe have raised fine wheat at Vigcosa, but in most

years the rainy season is so humid that the grain is ruined by

molds unless by could resort to artificial drying. Similar con-

ditions prevail in many other tropical countries making it imprac-

ticable for them to produce wheat economically (North of

Mexico city there is a dry plateau that supports a splendid wheat

industry, because the climatic conditions are exactly correct.)

It is probable that by studying the meteorological data some sections

of 1inas will be found quite favorable to wheat culture. A third

very important factor is to discover a soil favorable to this crop,

within the level and dry section. In the absence of numerous

chemical analysis and detailed soil surveys we have to rely on

experimenting with the plant to discover the productive localities.

To establish the Durum (macaroni) wheat industry in

iorth America required a plan similar to that for the establishing

of the date industry. The chief creralist of the -Oureau of ilant

Industry visited Italy, and other parts of southern Europe and

Asia, going as far east as Turkestan. Exact data on the climate

and soil that produced the best varieties of Durum wheat were

obtained. Seed of all the varieties were purchased and tested

in localities of North America where climate and soil resembled

most nearly those of the localities in L-urope and Asia from which

the seed aame. It took more than ten years of intensive propaganda

on the part of the -hief Cerealist and a half dozen other high grade

specialists to put the Durum wheat industry on a sound aaxs

economic basis. Bit it has paid a most handsome profit, as millions

of tons are exported annually.

e). There are many other crops that merit mention but must

be omitted from this discussion. The leaders in agricultural develop-

ment must know the specific limitations of each crop, otherwise

much money and exceedingly valuable time will be wasted for the

State, which might easy be saved by taking advantage of the

knowledge already in the possession of Mfxx scientists.

B. mAnimaes e Seus Productos.

The exportation of animaes e seus products for 1928

was 290. .21 contos de reis. This should be quadrupled in the ne(t

decade. Minas has unrivalled opportunities to increase enormously

her exportation of dairy products, poultry and its products and

hogs and their products. She has vast areas desoccupados that can

be made to produce splendid pastures and enormous crops. She has

hundreds of thousands of splendid laoters awaiting to be directed.

There is an almost unlimited national market for these products.

To realize a golden era we must have a very numerous

middle class with a practical education. Our experts and scientists

are abundantly able to fiscalize and condemn any unsanitt iy article

but are lacking in peattical education to instruct the producer

how to avoid marketm g the inferior article. Denmark in 1870

was one of the most stricken countries of Europe. By educating her

producing classes she has become Mich and made herself a model for the

whole world. -orth America has profited more from Danish experience

in lacticinios than from any other country.

.I&- .

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^ i ,


Bouvinos,- The most importantexportation from ainas, next

to coffee, is bouvinos. This shows the pastoril condition of the

State. It also shows that Minas has lost some good opportunities

otherwise since she exported only ten kilos of caree fresca e

conservada (?) (written in table "cons") para cada cabeqa de

bouvino. Te table does not show it but probably the largest

percent of the bouvinos were exported to ,o Vaulo to be utilized "

in the packing houses. This would mean that the best animals were

exported leaving the meat of the inferior ones to be exported as

a Minas product, while the meat from the best ones was exported

as a bao Paulo product.

The zeb6 is to my mind the best basic animal for the

Minas conditions. The hybrid makes the best oxen we have and the

meat is excellent. The hybrid is so far area of the pure 1-uropean "-

breed? that ... .jhju, l LU .,LIIL t -- ,Z -.tL-fn ... .

A suggestion. The Herbfordlapoear. to be the most

rustic of the finer !uropean beef breeds. It has made -.rgentine '

famous as a beef producing country. This breed has also made

Teazas which older geographies included in the "great Dorth

American Desert", famous as a producer of fine beef. Touros of this


breed can be obtained in large numbers at a very moderate price.

They could be used to cross on zebu and on hybrids. The Herefprds-

have the ability of thriving better onr coarse forage than any of"

SIII B (Bouvinos 2) C *'

other Duropean breeds. This quaLity being shared by the zebu,

would seem to make this an excellent combination. It would not

be necessary tp purchase pedigreed-touros for this breeding work

6. but L j.. Ig o nz...g.i. t-o -C-Si:e r animal since pure

bred Q full floods of the proper conformation would serve equally :

well, and cost much less than registered animals. it seems that

:C- s X^- "k~ tic^^4.^irJ~%-4,
the reciorocral cross!" .....has not been tried out in
Minas on a sufficiently large scale, it at all, to give definite ']

results. ....

SLines suggested for Improvement. -

i). Pastures are the Oasis for a livestock industry. -
Gordura and Jaragut seem to be the most gengrajly-.used.-grasses.
: .-A
Gordura has developed at least six distinct varieties, varying -

greatly in their productiveness. when seed is obtained, if possible, "j

Sit should oe of the more productive variety. 4

Jaragua has not been studied sufficiently to enable one
to affirm that it also has broken up into garieties,- but if seed :

he obtained from the region where the best pastures occur, it is

Probable that a good variety will be obtained. *1

2). Literature Much good would result from the compilation

of a work on what is known insects, worms, orotozoa and bacteria .

that affect the bouvinos. 'his work should be written in a lan-

Sguage that the laymen could understand and the remedies as far as
i^ < *. '' ^

. .--** -. "" ^ +" '. "".. '- ."' W lra W -^*

III C (Bouuinos >

possible be available to tie cattlemen and fazendeiros. it

would take an able man at least a year to prepare the manuscript

and illustrations (le would most likely oe attacked Dy the

practicing veterinarians, especially those educated in some of

the European universities, so the zecretaria would have to oe in

a position to protect tne unfortunate author.) ouch an author-

itative publication would correct i- superstitions and

beliefs aoout domestic animals.


Qeite e Lqcticinios. Minas stands at tfie head if milk

production of the Brasilian states. Her statesmen take a just pride

in this distinction. Her exportation for i928 was nearly a hun-

dred thousand contos de reis,- almost a sixth of the value of her

coffee. The state government has taken a commendable interest in

improving the breed of her milk cattle by introducing purebred

animals. There is no doubt that with the beneficent climate and

productive soil, som3'ay in the near future, ner exportation of

leite e lacticinios will surpass that of coffee. The number of

milk stations along the railways wi-L oe greatly increased. Athose

farmers farther removed will sooner or later be joined to the rail-

way station by automobi-e roads. there practicable, the sale of

milk id more remunerative to the dairyman than the production ofta

butter or cheeeed**, A4iu tWt Itf-64t.A&t V

Rio de Janeiro, the world famous metropolis 9 receives less

than one-fifth of the milk per capital that she should consume.

Even in Belio aorizonte, the most beautiful and modern city of

Brasil, the supply has always been far below the demand. It is nr

wonder that we have such an appalling infant mortality in both of

these magnificent centers of civilization.

.. .
i- ... : .. ...:.l** !^ f^.. -- -;. .... -.. .. .,,


(Leite e acticinios)

Lines for Improvement.

1). Winter forage. For the present thetmost

important innovation is the production of a winter fortage. Canna
-/, tfm ^^'fltBntr2^ <^4nG
cavallo is a fine, almost perfect,,forage for milk cows. It can be

grown at a cost of about five to ten milreis per ton. The vdwinters

are never cold enough in Miinas to damage it seriously. This enaoles

the dairyman to utilize it as a green forage at any time during the

dry season. It makes excellent silage at a cost of from 5u to 5J

milreis per ton.

jther grasses, such as J.apim Elephante and --apim Imperial,

also make excellent winter forage, but produce less kilos of

carbohydrate for each days labor expended than does the can-ia ca-


*). Rejection of coor ruduc;ers. MAst dairy cows are

ch.asen by their sleek appearance and their ability to lay on fat.

Until thie dairyman weighs tne product of each cow and keeps a

record of her yearly production, his herd will degenerate toward

the minimun D roducerstAo-E' X 4w9*

_. breeds. beyond question the Hoilandez is the most

economical breed for Minas.. They hold the world's championship

as producers of milk and butter. Other r.uropean breeds are more

pleasing to the eye and their dariciers should be encouraged to

improve their herds. If a farmer is especially pleased with his

.-- .* .. .. -l i~i'

III C (Leite e -acticinios) -

zeou milkers he should oe given every aid and comfort possible, some

of the i-hybrids are fair milkers ayd are better aoie to maintain

themselves under =y adverse conditions,

4}. Literature. jut present greatest deficiency lies

in the direction of milk reduction. T-he most speedy, ciapest
and certain way of augmenting the milk productionn is by wide ouDii-

city in regard to the foregoing three Lines of improvement. The

marfketis practically umlimitedc, especially for miik produced-.during

hie-int er.c.

Bulletins should be prepared on each of the foregoing

three points and distributed to all of the milk producers, whether

they carn read or not. These bulletins should be revised and 'M

republished annually or biannuaiiy. .v

OA'L AdtV d
5). Intrdu.tion -. 'urebreds. The introduction of

purebred animals should be continued The Honorable Secretary"
". .

should give all encouragement possible to .he establishment of :

herd-ooks for all of the breeds, ni.luding the zebiu. Otherwise "

the records will be so 4/a-h and J that in 15 or 2. years .-

more no one will ia ve confidence in he animals Droduced in Minas. -.



y*' I

1. 111.... .1||..1> I II III I I 1 I l I

(ves e evos. The exportation of ayes and ovos

in 1928 yielded Minas twenty seven thousand nine hundred and two

contos de reis. Placing it higher than suinos e seus products,

banha e toucinho. This exportation should have yielded -an income

of at least fifty thousand contos de reis. Rio is our principal

market for the Zona da 'atta. Frequently eggs were retailing at

Vigo.aa for a mil quinhentos per dozen when in hio prices were from

four to four and a half mii reis. Frangos at Vitosa were oeing sold

foB a mil quinhentos when aio sold them at -dour to four and a

half mil reis. One hundred to t'o hundred percent is too high a

charge for the services of the middle-men and transportation. However -

even these high charges for services have not deterred the thrifty

but uneducated iiineiran from exporting a tremendous quantity of waves

e ovos. if fifty thousand contos in niac-e of twenty seven thousand

had been in circulation among the poultry raisers the ambition to

raise and sell more waves e o'7os would have oeen noticeabi i -un=a=d.

For the most oart the waves e .ovos come from small farms,

sitios and especially from the smaller estabeiecimecitos. ihe

poultry fanciers, wno raise ;ureored aves aid the state indirectly

oY supplying the small producer Ywith better sto_.k. i-s a class the

poultry fanciers are educated people who are aoie to take care of

themselves. They are intelligent, widew-awake business men and

need al the hep and encouragement the govrniet an give them.
need all the help and encouragement the government can give them. V-'

. f III B':I:

They do not hesitate to mae their wants and keeds known to the

difficiaes of the government. They have made wonderful progress in

the last decade and indirectly have aided the state to export

millions of ayes e ovos, but these large establishments and fancy

breeders are not the producing power of the state. it is the many V-_!
rAM -
thousands of smail producers who turn their daily labor in o wealth

for the state. These greatly need and merit the states most earnest

endeuvuaB$ in their oenaif.

Lines for Improvement suggested.

1). From the foregoing discussion it is 4 uite clear that too
much money is charged by the middle men and possibly also by the

transportation companies. "his is a condition thayhas been met

with in other countries and successfully solved. Just how minas

can go about to solve it is not -ss.s_. The distributors,

of the necessities of life are so well organized that it will require'
a powerful and long continued effort to wrench from them a position
^ 'I
of the exorbitant profits.

-2). Literature. Two or three bulletins treating on separate

phases of poultry culture distributed among tne sitiantes and small

poultry growers would greatly stimulate production. A bulletin on

each of the following three divisions of the subject seems to me

advisable: a). Different breeds and purpose~for which they are

adapted. b). dimple Poultry houses and farm methods of incubtion.
c). Methods of feedinV Food production and economic pastures. .
.r .. ... p s --res.


H -i -- gjui o s --"'1"" ..:j

(uinos e 6eus Prodcos cording to the table of exportation.?
..-_ -_ to-e porttio

of suinos e seus productivos, Danha e toucinho amounted to fourteen

thousand three hundred and thirty four contos. Probably the weakest

point in hog raising is directly on thearm. In the first oiace the-
'. i^
hogs that mate up the vast otik of the export are of a hardy race, ..j

resistant to a ff.fficult enuironment slow to mature and return a

relatiev.eyi..small amount of oork for the food consumed. under the
usual conditions the farmer has little or no donception of the

amount of food his herd has consumed nor the value of the food if ,4

it had been sold as corn, mandioca, etc. The breeding conditions i
and reading are so crude and inefficient that Itlls purely a '*

matter of good fortune is a considera-ble unmib-'r ,-..f them .-r.i-re :

at an age ready for fattening. '

In the whole -hog-raising business there is no point that ~

needs so great attention as farm sanitation. Much, but not enough, ,

attention has been given to the subject of hog cholera. The -..

information is so tl understd that it still requires an .
A A *-

expert veterinarian to diagnose this disease. /'Parasitic worms, w

appear to cause greater loss and snn maxdi to De more difficult .

of control are very imperfectly understood. A great deal of

investigation on this subject is still necessary. .

1 .,

simple sanitation measures need to he worked out anC1-'

formulated into simple ru-ies and very widely circulated. It is a

much more simp;Le and cheaper matter to keep hogs healthy than to cure

thea sick ones. ns a matter of fact a sick hog is nearly worthless

and often times worse then worthless since he either pOllutes the

pastures or is the carrier of disease to the well ones.

flext to lacik of sanitary condition on the farm is the

iack of care oj the brood sows before and at farrowing time. '-,n-iy

a small amount of aaditional attention t.o the sows and brood during

aoott a six "eeks period woud immediately do.uoe the hog population.

The introduction of purebred sires, so well begun, will greatly

reduce the time necessary to elapse between farrowing and marketing

and at the same time'make it possible to :produce much more pork on

the S;ame feed. At the Lscula there have oeen ten to twenty times as

many requests for oure ored sires as we hlad animals tD sell.

Lines of Improvement Suggested,

1). Literatip.A-Bulletins should oe prepared at once on

a). Hogrlot sanitation, b. ihog ciolera, written so the farmer

can understand it. c). Worms, treatment for and prevention of.

). Breatly increase the investigations on hog diseases.

a). 'Foster tne formation of a pure bred register for
pedigreed animals.

4}. Increase the number of oureored animals available to .

the farmers who want to buy them. ,,
.., 1.

.. .- ^ ^ ..,:^ L r \'*
"^ .' f'**


oimae de ,''enos 'mpo-rtan-ea- e ~ broduc~oes-. There

are many other animals that merit careful attention but to dis-

cuss a great number of these would carry the treatment much beyond

the limits of this report. battle, poultry arid hogs make up the

great bulk of our export and also are the mainstay for home con-

sumption. With the proper improvement in transportation, market-

ing and postal system we will be abie to make many of these

minor items of greater value than some of those that are prin-

cipal items now.

The breeding good saddle horses has already bUen

started and merits much further altm.,ix assistance. The estab-

lishment of a good pedigree record it appears to me, would at

one? give ain i.-tu, t: pef,:t-i,-n in breeding that is now lacking. .

Mules of a heavy type are greatly needed and almost

impossible to obtain at any price. The small pack mulefw excellent -'

in the recent past. This type is becoming t, with time :

betterment of roads and the increasing use of caminhoes. The very 5

largest type of jacks only should be used for breeding purposes.

some of the mule raisers still cling to the old type, largely, from .

habit, and sa.ttm without considering what the market/ tz demanding.'. .
These people will be able to continue to supply all of the mules *

needed for pacfk service in Linas. The large type of mule is -
,* .-,


p .,.D uvinos.- The bheep raiding industry, according t

the 19W;J census is saout ecLinl to mute raising. The greatest

menace to its extension is the roving half wild dogs. There

is a very strong sentiment among all pastorii people against

the kil]inig of roving dogs, which revert to their ancestral

instinCts take pleasure in killing sheep. a state tax on

dogs would help somewhat in reducing the number, but is

not entirety effective.-Untii we can aoate the #og nuisance,

sheep raising will languish.

1 "- .' '

greatly needed Cfr echanica. The tscola has made every

reasonable effort to obta-in suitable mules for farm work out

up to the present all the efforts have oeen fruitless. Ve still

have to worry qiong with the small inefficient animals. These

vitiate to a large degree the work of the machines agricolas, and

are in a large measure responsible for the slowness with which

modern machinery is neing adopted on the farms.

It would oe very desirable for the cecretaria to

secure a e-Pf e number of arge mares occmomemdrnagcmumomamm, ;b

o i.m.or.t i'for .r......ooding with tho. in order that the

farmers may be able to obtain muies of sufficient size to do effici,

farm work. Vvith the present small type of mules the human labor i:

not, and can never be more thaCn 51 .'o efficient.

,/ /;. '> /N
U4 r ,.' '

Caprinos. Goats are almost every where present, i'heir toti

numeral appears to oe over half that of asses and muies. They add. ve:

materially to the health and support of the poorer classes. They ,

make themselves a nuisance in all of the smaller cities and townss"

toing lizryy ..'eiql. Tie ) lk bto thousands of families that

otherwise would Oe without. Their meat is nutritious and sa x tx

not unpalatable. They merit much more consideration than has oeen

given them by the Uovernment of Minas.-

Lines tif Improvement suggested.

i. Literature. brief and ;practicEi bulletins should be

issued as soon as suitable manuscripts can be obtained.

aj. ThLe cuciications on horses should illustrate the

types of saddle oreeds and give directions for breeding and feeding.

b). The puolications on mules should lay heavy,-

emohasis on securing draft animals for Minas, without these

larger draft mules our lavoura mechanic wili oe greatly retarded.

c). The bulletin on goats should be written in the

clearest manner possible. It should lay special stress on the oroper

selection for milk production and needs of suitable forage and.i



.. ?

... : 9

Part II

analysis of rons produced .

Vohat has been said on the foregoing pages, (PartL),

was inaispensaole to a rational understanding of what will be

presented on the following pages.

In -this part of the discussion is taken up very

briefly the methods that may ue employed for thie betterment of

the rural people in the great otate of ''inas Geraes. !his discus-

sion takes into consideration the state of society as at actually

exists, the political organization and the present financial

" condition. Innumerable mistakes have been made by trying to

adopt projects as a whole from Luropen or otherf'foreign lands.

These have generally proven to be failures, uur sociological and

physical conditions are very different and hence we must modify

our efforts greatly to meet the situation as it exists. The

southern part of the United states adopted hurope as her educa--

tional and financial model, went into bankruptcy and had to remod

her sociological structure, brasil has long held to the L-uro-

pean ideal and consequently has lost first pace with some of

her most important export crops, such as rubber, and sugar, and

coffee is now being threatened.


S.... .- .. ,

SPart II B

North America during the Civil War and during the

sociological unheaval that followed, lost her supremacy as a cotton

producer. From 1915 to 1922 her supremacy was again threatened

by the ravages of the boll-weevil, in 19b. and 1922 the best

: authorities predicted that before the end of the decade, supre-

macy in cotton production would oass to some other country, most

likely Brasii. brasil has the population and the area but un-

fortunately was not ready sociologically. By 1928 the price of

cotton in North america was so greatly reduced that there was no

foreign competitor for first place. 1This happy result for -'orth

America was brought about oy advancing the price of farm labor

and nence getting more efficient laborers, ma by using more modern

mechanical devices, including even the air-" to apply insecti-

cides, and- by evolving a better method of culture, ouch an achieve- .

meant was made possible by having thousands of graduates from

Agricultural Colleges and by a practical absence nf illiteracy.

The place held oy'a state in a nation and of a nation

among otner nations, is determined most largely by the value of

her export.

Export as an Index. In final analysis, an agricultural
state simply exports human labor. If a certain state can produce ::"

a ton of sugar, for example, with one half the normal expenditure .

S.-.- 4 -
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