Notes on the Present Brazil.

Material Information

Notes on the Present Brazil.
Series Title:
Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Rolfs, Clarissa
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Subject Files
1. Notes on the Present Brazil.


Subjects / Keywords:
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.


Outline of a book on Brazil, The Present Brasil, by P. H. Rolfs and Clarissa Rolfs, includes chapter headings and photographs

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida Archivs
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:


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P.H.Rolfs-and C.Rolfs

Chapter 6 (1st part) THE BIG C8s
COFF-, CO:, CATTLE, Cotton



13 photographs
4 photographs

Chapter 6, (2nd part) THE LITTLE C's.


Cocoa, 4 photographs
Citrus, 3 photographs
Carnauba,4 photographs

Notes on

Notes on



lf by

P.H.Rolfs and C.Rolfs


All It Involves

6 Photographs

INotes on



P.H.Rolfs and C.Rplfs


Biology, Health, *Agriculture

17 Photographs


. t

Notes on



P.H.Rolfs and C.Rolfs


How to see the Usual and Unusual

13 Photographs

Notes on

T H P R SE NT. B R A S I L '

P.H.Rolfs and C.Rolfs


12 Photographs

Notes on

1 ;hrkig Sr.i6ss Decpcriin, 'ar-,ters8
;:.-,: .... Pa. inl Rails.
i'1'an. p ortationi

:-i-n,:in .-, the onig n nd

children and dwos enjo luch hliks more "than ri-r'un g

in an ox cart (if they hbd one). Journics of -.n

hun.,lr., E iid are no obst.'tcle -- reie nlyi

tu-re- or four ,' ,'7.

P>iot o b.,[
p..' :ifs


Ladn "teJL;-.- full sail ^*1;on

t,]i *-ist o a big coib-r. Lit on its nose; no

ailt ...:, the ,ix : i,-.,-I one will ri,:ht it -i..

full Jail ';il c it above high. tid. e o
h.1t,4. in icssaiy -.onsinkabli and 1nrwrir&kable; or calsa E.,' -fiC, and tenacious as cork;

fo1 r or 0 i-e 3z(.'..i. ._j.a in plrice with 1_'alm

bolts, as pliable jn-1 tough as hic':.or:. Popular

a elsi]- j x&i' on tUi T'ortheast coast and for

0 oo" ... 1.. 1 1 i tc of tz c '3pr .rse one

and t..... "ries. i.iA sail also serves to
lunc., the Ji. ^lL~,.?L asy for thc cx: -.'iL. t'

Praia de t&.ut'ui.., te of Ceara.*'


-. f. _ht l boa.s Eloc ... d "Santa

yL'ie ")) o- 'l'i. :"lvc P ra^'"-., 3ta e f ~'.io de
,Jan2i.o. r .,: j.o.r o ...r.. os. "ea "-, at manned
b~ ilot.
-L. y p>.. ll t

Photo by
S..ay, 1937

T II:4

"Cano."& sailing up the River Sao `.:I-ucis'Co,

from -ropriLA, state of :ij..e, to Pi.'.Tnh.s, State

oil P .,oas. To visit the FPulo Affonso Falls.

i"e- "CcinOSi" L-Ae eijit f-"t broad and six or
&ii~lt. tL '.,. t- hat "_o ...'. c.,.:rr -'/ n ext :[.3-J*dinarV

spr.e-.,i of canvas.
*L'. lIs ai bfd. -Iost eXcllent the 'c,2sstnoer

provides his 'ov, ,food, bedding an'- seats. During
h Wat-er, follow 0 14L the rainy s,.as,- s t tmboats

ply the river to near the falls.

Photo ~.y
P.:T.o 1fs


3elem, State of PI'a. r7t.itL: .'" ce is

et a p'eiai-,jun in the marketing ard s]c:, ,i.', dis-

trict. Tinible .aailbo!.ts -n --: *-'t spilmos ser-

vice ir..,ny hundreds of miles of water fibont.

Rivers in .-r.r rlI- r i-MC.'lC,:I C Fn.. t,-:, r..,O-: : ;

On the vast d.clta of the Amazon no one hals a v--r

huntedd the. passes.

Photo '0,
P ifs
*19 3 3


Favorite t-jpc of sail siffs on the mile
.";:,:szn. -..LPe the .. paj.^s with the Amazon

River, a veritable inl.:n.i sea.

**i-Lt, day at Santar6m, EtUr of P-ri.


iv&{einy^ up the~ .*:nb'. 7 Stn of JVatto

Grosso. tA lamcl tri..-.ling two ...... L% rrd ,

skili'. La~yini+ u+p f or t nI)t by

..T-h .to by
+.>. H.Rolfs


BQr..e goink up the Aiuianby; hiver, Strite of

Latto &rosso. Inroute to l:_te ..'v.S. The passen-

ge"s furnish their own food andi bc. ini. Just

killed a steer. Strips J ribs h'nJ up to day.

Cooking by open fire in t1.) b. rvc.

Photo b'."
P'-a! 33.F
TIay 19c33


.t6,iieL AiJuuante docked & c Aveiro S>IaLe of

Para. Liss Loit2s ii.jpectinj o, -ct slabs of wlazon

Eislar fish Li--n. JYnen baled it ma'.es an article

of commnnercc.

Photo by
S-.\ ol
1 g-.l^ -

LLL: 0l
iII: lO

Fueling up. A blast .';, the st-:;L::,at

br rujht. a floIk of 1'wcse i..iui',..t Lve n '-,:*'e ski 'fs

Scuttling to the dock and beat t wsteamaer in.

State of ?Para.

Ill :il

fit7c gi : the : .... h.l ir t stcrn wheel

frl~te o o'. -'l Do-l S~e of t;.ijio Santo)
..t I :tor \:c: .Ta rudOar across the channel

o JrO ic'.v&ice Prled o-ff; Bace up stream;

Turn-. -t. ..- vheel foremost ,:'h cutl her ovn

chnr.inel: '*. at .o o im. C -

Sjto yolf
P ."H.Ro lfs


111: 12

.:*.; nt erected-under guidance of the
Auto "Club of Brasil. C'.i.i;.ting t1 ir iau-ura-
tion of the 4io de ianeiro- dco 1-. -ihway

2- .,o If.'
P. H Ho if s,
1. j )

r X.ucrtion

/All T+ Tnt1lves.

Tthiopanris >.'i..L... ",hree Iuljdlred yc! : -.,-.

- .. to Lv
'" L-t O O


An open air F&:'..:' Institute in a rural

district of The ,thnte of ..,rito Santo. Dr.

Bemvindo Fovaes, not in vv.,, lecturing on farm

preparjtion of coffee for market.

;";.>to' t
!F.'.-" "'f


Recess in a country school near .icira,

State of S6o 'aulo. The teach(.zx sbur':,un.icJ "

the pupils. \,:.'pxtiy no lack of vitai.ins in

their food. Also no lack of IIu:.n sympathy.

PnLoto by
1" [ f~\


The dugout canoe with outboard motor m& a

dependable mearins of tr-ns rtation on the lower

Rio Doce. State of 2.irito Santo. ServiinI

hundreds of miles of tortuous river bank. 'Se-

cially coLv;iint lo'. ..ater when the flat

bottomed '1t4-, bs '"lth"r .ith difi-

culty or not at all. a:> speci.' i '. ltor

Ambulante) finids it possible co visit sev 'al

cacao orchards in a da school te`.C Als pupils,

and householders enjoy its benits. Wfu .'one has

remarked "it would run in a he-'.: deCw.

The j cLt chocolate metIats--ni is, i 1"l, 2 StaIte

of 3ahia, elieJves in tLL ornament-al in architec-

turen as. ell .s usual.

Ti-c puuLic ^r--(,auoi^iai r;-a-, to

rin6 the bell.
,. "t bj j
:..:{.Rolf s

* j

A : L

Geiraes. Located at Vis'. -tabU:'-K.:.. "

State. PlnnCed r i2 ,,rec i by I ..o ;" :-'-

Dean of the TlorxiK. 'icuLur C. .i>

laiin building 100 by 3. 2t. (31 x :3.-meti-s).

Lawv in for1 oud a .-n;,'t of the airol' 7.- .U.;,

field in p-cfeccL conrijition.

Ripado ~ ~ ~ ~ C (fltTos) ^-saeis '.jn fc'>en-*

t ial. hiS IUXILV *L', ri-"'.. pcro:,..c.> tens of

th r:i-nds o f 't r -ious --r:- lig-neou. pl --nts fo-r

the. city of 1'- i -,.
/ / *

S.' ,' ".Photo boY,
S1/ .-..

:XII. Science at ':ork 5iolo.y,
I.ealth, A;ricilILure

r'XII: 2

Half 21Ca at Cio Eelo, P&.k,'. .uaco, made of

sticks from the bruTsh and ooL. jic'v-s. Such a

small mt,-, as la: of money cannot daunt t,-L

scientific -.iirit. radr-, Pic.t-l end li=, as.0, .da-

tes nave ca'ri-C-1i out S.IL;..L^ ii-'ivtiat:iobr ith

very micaa, resouces. l, scientists, .:.oed

with patitnic- am nd Wl, Wiav-- done one of the fLi:.-,

pieces of su.:z.rcalne breeiiL t,.. one is pe-;:.!itted

*to see.

j-- ,)to by
T* *IP.Rolfs
** I },3

XTI: 3

S. cdb-Is.

See-dbel in. the .l-.-t .",; The trde vnIs

whipped gunny c Ec'i,,L to ic : cr-s 'h sun's pleic-

ing rays pass t,.oiir- domestic; A matting ovenn

from sert;. ) ss ,.ithst-,s bctoh. -'e scLentist

don't give i.

Photo b:
/ ;P. .Rolfs
/ 1933


Salad vegetables unlEr irrigation at CwnJado, St-'tE of

Par i' Tho '.:lter, no fog .;d no 'ains to )t-., :v-:

.-... of. .. .....n.:." day. T-.ese" e p ; zone

V-egetablc-s g 'o" 2-rcJ.;jius.'j/. A half cre i"o:ld su-plya

whole ton vwith li u-'iant vc.:cL[olDes thc year :'1u' J*d
co-incidentaily with vit,

by courtesy of
Dr. Jo~3 0-3,to i. '^e
-r 3 -


Hauling cane to the ,aill. After a, variety of
cane has proven its adaptation to soil and climate

(acclima&ted), milling tests must be made. The
final 'est, is the variety that will p-.' ,uce a

kilo of sugar at -the least expenditure for human


Photo by




Cutting jew Verifties of Canc.

The :.iujor project or the ".c -,- imeiat Station

at Caiupts, SEtate of -;io de Ja1eiro is the brcee-

ing and t. tlio of nvw vari;t-ies of zvj-ar cane.

Laborers ace chot1il -1or ll,-ir 61.ll in cutti'n

and pr~pi',-'ing c[tne.

Photo by
i' ^ ''"


Truw-. of Isabella grape vine fifty i--,s

old, in the miounti- l.s at Caxi.s, Sjate of io

Grande d3 Sul. SouthernmoE.t state in Brasil.

In the :.:IDrt ains -.o'.. and freesing .occur

every winter. Delicious 'ia,r;ras and Concords
also ripcn. in 'ctob,-r in the ,oYiti" of Cl r.

( d '' latitude). The c^.L- .1'iLeLiCs

ripen during Januarx- and Fcb'ruary in the '-rtate

of .&Io Paulo. A.s one cpp-'.).ches the Equator. f-iri

Sho. Paulo, the c.ate of rippling is reti-d-

influencLd bj- the advent'of LhE rainy season;
Shifting of the trade%:inds.

Photo by
.. ..... ......... ..... .. P .i r o i f s


'r-, es

> Vin-.ara at C&xias State of

R-io GVt:,JL do :.. 11r:l la sto t t'hirt-tv o

years o3d, or l .afted to u,:.;./ .,ean vr5iettics.

Dr. CK-lestc 1obtst, Cotatc Viieyarist..

:. _to by
?.'. ^'L 3



Testing iany varieties of .;r'-pes, at

Caxias, S-L t:: of Rio Cronile do 'ul. The first

plantings were rade. ovcr fifty years Sgo.

ioto by

Cocoanut Oasis

A cocoanut o(asis in the S<'-rto over twoo

hunxx.ed miles from the oceiEri,- a natural phuno-

mtena. For eons water has been evapir-ting, leav-

ing a saline reside "&t not sufficient to inhibit

the oi f.iis, see lower left. in a few

.-llion y(-.r me. it ---r bcco:h a salton sea.

Photo by
1. ..33fs

XII:11 I


Called Cassava in Florida. Produces a meal
in=. a fod meale

that is all but universally used as food; espe-

cially in the drier and more arid V.-l"ons. Innu-

merable va-.ieties are cultivated. The percent of

starch in the fleshy roots may vsr-j r.nywhere from

ten to thirty per cent. A root we'-;hing eighty-six

p unts w"as exhibited in the; Cjunty (Florida)

Fair in 1901. Grew, witho-t cultiv- tion in a

In the jgras zone in rnil, near Joao Pessoa,

:-Lc.t of P..rahyboa ..'rof. Joaquiiu Carvw-1ho indica-

ting tht y ar's a ; In thi. --ion It is

se',i-deciduous. An ileal crop; meeds only one

shallow cultivation a year; stores up starch for

years; may be harvested any time in dry weather.

Photo by

XII: 12


Five year old orchard of Itzarmna Avocados. Miss

Rolfs and Prof. Correa critically Exauininf the fruit.

The first of the superior vr-ieties to fruit in Bra-
sil. T-.i )oted by the iinas Geraes Ajricultural Col-

-ge :l..- 5s -'ursety'ciCL) have sold to'-o.i:ands of

tek bu*Le o tiis variety. _any tens of thousands

of -i-. buu..i.r to varieties belonging to the Gua-

rteaalan," xican anid hybrids have been sold. Although

ghe first tree fruited only ten years ago, thousands

L7-Avocado, continuation

cratess of theii- fruit have already betrA n1:rketed
in ?rnsil. One pl.[rter mar:-kted c./lurn thousand

crv,tes in l1:37.

S...." differ rar'c.Ily frornm maerlicans in

that ti; whole population, nearly fi"'ty million,

are av,;.',,'v No other la _; country con-
suces su ,l..., f this fruit. 9l-e!tively few

Americans know an avocado when they see it. A
X~~~ov;,- ay ovz lrl

s,.il '._cent apply the vulgis.-risi ",lli"_tor pear".

Cp1ifor-ni sind Florik'a by ,hi pressure propaganda,

have made the better class P_ .. AL'ceans avocado
C -".','.:.."cious.

XII :12

^ 'i.-i.b't- leg'end for avocado
.-f.02oEo .._
piloto. "'[ be .:Li1:'t itut ed
for 1-^.2.' r-tt~acIhc to



A./fivE;-yzar old Itzamnna avoce-o tree in -tihe


critical exam tion of -the fruits. Dr. KO A.

/U. S. p:tiat of AgriCUUr in 1925
A/five-ytar old Itzamua avoced tree In the

orcna'rd of the *._ricultu-rral Coll.:e of ,'ilnas Geraes.

(Vigosa). Miss Rolfs- and. Prof. Correa making a

critical exam irc.t ion of the fruitS. Dr. K. A.

.,*, U. S. Departmlent of Agricultura, in 1925.

presenrte thie Collge with two 'bu-._Id trees, about

twelve inches tall. J.any tI:ouzarts of budded

Itzania trc&s are nov< pi oducing comit.rdial1 fruit.

S7 7


}B 1 .'1 '-'.:,

J th cfi~al**-hforcst, at 3o"~~sio

State of Sao Paulo. !;av,-cnjish Tr,... plantation.

Soie .t-.; ..t pV 'lnntcd. For ,*x::oit to -.ngland.

" .- ,.r,.? i s set .,c in "*', and eds

'hen the f2. .t is flledt, -%- tw- yuars the

'nL, *. a- al 1the a-l:,t trunks have rot-

t4 &&d'.r,; :-o -t f otifliy of the soil The

fist ciJ-., eay fol- harvesting, -in four or five

Oar:s morer the soil w ill be in fine -,pe for

pl4c-ti to itrus. (See Kammel, Brazilllv-meri-

ca-, 'p~r'. IS, p. 23, col 3.)

Aio by
P.H. o ilfs

o n o x .L ;3 ,'* .. .;. .: z..* ;, ,, :.. '. :, ,: ,,, .)( .:z ...

of "-.

a mn te ( ..' ;.; ... : :

inteibiy. ,

..... (. L

XvT: 1"4

XII S: 15


..L. *aB not eaLVV nA- u ? S
the dminsLnt speeds on ?s.'ts of the "tebs11iro"

...L. in H. Ci.. haG a Adiameter at

he collr of tee and a half fee ,.i a spread

of ovwr an hu'cd a twenty five f.,t. In or-

chards they .-*. about th& size of citrus trees.
T-n 1901 some' hnig1h3y productiv. ...s o~cmxrred

At Coconut Frove, #iorida1. -. pers-Isted until



;JI "16


Pias,ava (Atalea)

Fiber of this palm is employed in the rmianufac-

ture of various types of brushes a l- b.'oms. Some

of these fibioovasculir bundle are as long as the

mL..-rib of t4e lcaf (14 e-t). An ITiw,)rtant export

.from the 6taote of PahiLa, DonainEtin- forest trees

are uut and 're5uz,&d to chqrco?!. duringg the refuse

:. c it to collect the piassava.
.rhsto by
!'- P.i.:.olfs

.4, 1 XII t 17

Sy. -apaya.

The ;,.-p.ya7 ciled ',: &iarn'" in Por-tuguese,'
Melon t.w;m ,-...,.IQU as the be--st.. J0- t;c, :LA.6k-

melon.,'1',*J y dtv. loped by thne netivo horticul-

tural cx..:errt tcf're '.raerica was n.jd Fruits

vary fi,.. /ize of a v.&lnut to ten or mwre

pounds weight, 7e most delicious grow in rich

rainirore st ,2iaions* The lav-est shovn here weighed

more th-n pounds. Seeds have been carried

to all 'tropicaI and subtropical countries.

.Touring in Brasil.

i iJ ), .^--ist, ..L"-u..";.lii_- or Lciui'^tiJ,,"L.

-t] o- ,n or" t L o L.. r of these is .... .

a matter oJ? f c .. ..I ,.. .-. ouris5 L,.,. L L ti..

b aes ,- ^ vL,'.-'- uI.-:. ;b a'nd ,.iys for the
is M( sL -.a > v ^: i, i .. n w *- > L^ .n^ 342. ..' .- i' i t1* .ke

ainorou.;. Alo* U'.i'^i~ -1L3 'c *-: u .' I kAn .'-

tins of an enie ... b' I.. cue viol'.

1headac,.- f:br t.hU Q) tu'. I tl&lA1 -

caus.c a "world v'i& sccw&dal. e,'. j U-. t..

phone f jr ntiona v.r:'.^I" two) o ore t*'." U1 16'ts)

meet* No cc-.: p po ictt o-i

is, po.t'Q.rAJ. a. to p. u.U'ba. i.
*luxe"'tontine'ntal trai.lj, arc' lli~er.:' con-

venic-rnc ; and n eJ. &fDJV- LI e"- .I2

unpar' t" y U U, -o.rists

halt at thei r.i of t ....c .... .. t lra-

do f or f -'.' ~ *

tacle I .-. htoricians hav,- tarvied fod vf 'o:, to

write undcr Ut- .in iratlon. 'oets :vc bur-st

forth in ethereal Iui-t A..t:iss >av. t,. ,

months to trlc.oer thcifci Vc nI. .: to C II.I"I-
"A nat, 'ictoi y .."i-. ...'.. : lovrr 'Ioever
knows '.ALat he is 1-, inc 1 c -ad is .. ,t ci--l it'

'a lhen IC f iit: it' ['.. rmainta :-i:. t:':t (v,. _-t im-
,as v.-th obe vV.- and recoln; !i-I 1 o., time and

somelhtre it t into I-t're's :i -saw u...e

He kn-cw because hi. wrptet several delighti'ui o.

on natuii.2 hlsti-'y. I ....C h dnti,

b,-c-r a o e as he, the sc nt-l.-u inev uit *^ -

hte 'vat i...iL 'or .....i nrCvtr l -. % up u nt L LIe 11! 2

foun- it.

Dr. Jo.: :- LA- ConiXe, :Cofessu r of' -. Gol"'... in
the U iv cia 01 Souh .. :.. l1..., c'c 1 aot,

the unxt.-pore. .. c..a. i .a'i-

tains, ca-rriT ng Ln ,i '"L i it raXE-. is, conoj;'Lxi(

of "side. "" (b o x'. '

He 'wrote the uosJt de'igli)t'l 'ext:ok "2e k-'s

of Geolo_ ", ver compiled. o% set w western

empire-, Caii i mis *.- t il c .li-al<- to

coax him tIo he, j& ., Dr. I :avcst

one of -Li oc iLi.o. ..L SCi.ei I-S

'day's Ioyl>.} ,''f d '..''-- ? -!- _,.vc :ioi'ea'ot'ucj to cCtt
my "y p i t i'

rem.rind, dTfL I ZaEJe it hoLi2 1 1i ii l h

often slept uni devr'es vh.e .he 1,.. I._.

TIma..i.- ii you., cn, a Lu .list turning tYurist

or the ia ter exoihsnging p accs ,-L h h .... .al

Josepr 2t ,x-i. ltc3,?n't be done. it is purely

a matter :f- the cU,, 2,... .t, of U .f individlial.



S 2). To $Sete Cutvdas and Iguassu.

scientist, should visit the sublime ITuassi ?F-.lls.

The tou.P1tt should go by ;.l:.lcIl steamer 2::,

uenos Aires direct to the ;.i',Drn 7aisebi on the

Argentine side of the Riv r TIuassi'. The hotel

is equin'^Li f nt'.L'taining tOuiists, L-C.!1curinl-

higi prices z_,. u.LiiLes to conduct parties, to the

spectacular points. It wilJ. t- ke about two ,ixrs

to do the f.lls. (The rP.-t IJ1,_i&i'a has so

extensive :.'..:,vcd chat a i:: *e percent of the

visitors do both.the Aenericn. armd Cn--:.-i.n Falls

in a day.

The nst.. list hes ,'.E leisure ;ni, so both Sete ('uedas and -.ssi in

his itin,.. *. He c- talce the e:i:.:",ion train

.frou So Pt-ulo to lesidente Epi<:lo, connCtig

with a 'stbc-iur on the 1:-r 2erana Uvs.r for

Guawjra the "mate eropolis. erhe he wiil want

a week at least to st'rdy nd r-cord nat_.'!- in her

captivating enchanting moods. 1 raculou

under water -x:'siions; Land opl'nts and

adaptirin: t-. ..olves to a perpetual mist -')Iro t1e.

falls. The voluminous Sete cuedas, said to have

a five million horZe power hy-iroelectric poten-

tial and to be one of the most powerful water-

falls in the world, potentially. Flocks of

- -4-

noisy-parrots arnd brilliant macaws. The three

story Pr-esumptious tropical trees

occupyinL" topmost story. Gi.nrjtic bariiboos,

sixty feet tall, cont'LLn vYith the ,idLe story.

The. io'. wild o"ar- contd Lr. with L'..."

of'other species for floor space. Lib.ia in

every direction at :v,- elevation, from floor

to ccilinj. T fatigiued naturrlist *^: eatingg

that had -... 'ed hdiself only a week-, leaves

a call a.t Vic Iesk. A. caor-' nd- E-ny

truin cLri,5 him to Torto do -eu&ez, forty

miles ..:,i-,, a1t 1.1 ff)ot of th raids ,i-i of-I:

the lover h n "iver" Here is another 4liht.

The p;seni rs at the railv.F-- station, board a

double ticked, inclinei cUble trolley and step

off at 1Che 'hi. sde.

he, -.-ra r disc"-'cr E-:. the city of

Foz do Ia3,u, ' an'ole t sL.pic accomoda-

tions for .orc... t."vl. n. auto road takes him

to the ,sub:,be fis t ty feet higher than ',e

yr l.YiL snC durtng hih .,-tcr, w.-th a uuch

gre-ter volume. The'naturelist and s.:ilitist

w-ill fL.1 the lof I ..,'tter -'iod iozE. auspicious.

Th1". fo:3reI, u. uld Aflil-w himself two veeks, a-L"
.least. Come .:..-,i with several volumes for

recording: notes eanJ a roll of his favorite film

for each dat's tsy. One roll should be highly

sensitive; to col-r. A rainbow cast by the moon,

in the it, is a rare spectacle. It will be


dic-m.iunted without tani-ible evidence: and then

too, )id-i a -ljtorap :ul p.'...j. t>e only

one e:Qtant. Or h; may be so iuc:y ;c to '*t a

photograph of sv;l.s divine, thru thc falls to

their ne.1 -, bei-Ti it.
s ,ccnti::t has unlimited ti L, and infinite t. vrorzk ou' his theme. Ke can follow

the routc of the n;tr'aalist or -o to Curityba,

tai.e of i.-rane, ad there hire a truck )r auto-

mob-:'9.- .' o dJrctly to the Ir uaszc Falls

some tr.ce hun .lr.d iiPec ':st ter he has
....** .:nt tw.o rionths t??kin;' notes anc. T i- i.- -os

.',-s(, cll.ctifnl mK:i laelling spec:,,ng he will

,-.' -Th u m t',ril to keep him '--r: .- -isy for

tw0 or three Y-rc;-vc to com?.

-.erial. for vol .'vei and vo ...s of natural

histcr-..- B -,, scc tific lore ... 3 been : :-::d

S-ro ns 4Q SZ-. I"" J.


3).. To Paulo A -ifonso f:-.I3

In -D>th Brasil.

ThG. 1 vl', *.bcteIernattrli:st or scientist,

should ae.1.. .L tI (the secctnr and suc-

c *--,.i, trips xill be inevitable) to the -aulo

Affoniso 7ails :.Lu--ji lovw vater, August to Novem-

b.r. i.. foM the north is at Garanrhuns,

Pc:...i. o '... hunred ramiles to Pc-ara nearest

tovn t the falls. It -caes L"-o days by auto to

do it, V.. -'J-: is tortuous r,.: with inter-

estinr and import. ent things one -nts to see.

'.llheed frorr. the s.u-,. is at P,',-:'iia, State

of ..i-ie. -..-" ""v'i to Piranhas, State of

/! Foia, n -,u;1s.:-J miles up the Zdo T.-r-cisco

Ri /i, is an enc/. '- ;".n trip. S?"it..i.-L truly

out of the oi-;,j..-. It is m?..:e by "canoa",

with r._--mt;,. sails. iav take a dl-: or two or

a.3v take a 'ck. at .,t if tl-c- w,,i is obstre-

p.u.. ,, th 1 Pi;.-.....:-. to -edra,
f--.L, mites, is.L. "-i <-7 ,^ L, .... to.


Three great \wauezvalls,. S3cte Quedas,
thc subi-nme IT ,.r.. nu.lo, AffoInso.
( y ,


.;. Falls of 3^e ,uedas, at ,':u.jra, Satle of

Parana. The falls -LJtend for nearly a mile fr'om.

this point. Prevailing south -tst .-.i-ind keep the

woods to the left i.i-;-ttually bari in rainfall.

SVeritable. f5irylard for a scientist, if he don't

mind' &gft'in wet. -.)E .rain comes :ro'rz above, belovw

and all sic. ,'n s s of no use. Lt.
s i c .' '," l a." .oi no u e *t .

*the scientist or I LL .A troit ;. from suiplise to

* amazement .ers say that thIrz is a potential

of fiver nillioh "'Ly.tiroelictric i'-a'epo',/.


e~2~ ~i



Jungle at Guayra. The ..,.i. 16c 6.1,
das Ltc (uedas, i.iiss Rolfs ap-_,r -1 rather

dimn-.lutLi',c even the ,.'pn.' tree twifcr

her li-I t looks like a ssehrub.

XV: 3


On the lower -/rond below the St,. que-las

(2evc. FPR1Is2 n V. s z ,ids. Port ?.,_ne..

ste.' >';ncszlj>. ,

SbAn l/p E slLcers

from raih.L ste-arjer. F.c i-arana is still

sufficie- tly 'atpebtrous to require Ln expert

h elr6smT n.!


Tguassu, the sublime

Beyond the c",:'.q.r, in the b *,': "'i is the

voluminous "Garganta do Diabo (Devil 1--l.?').

After the rain.- season, T L.ssU is move volumi-

nous than ,;. -a and fift i-, hI n ''

In the center, .Lp.s su.rouded ,

enchanting amazing sn -..

Photo '



Decor tc, nrttiv cV t --. i.''i, 'c

rought in fco t .

..-* -.: /.

r ,. .~

On th2 ey to 7n-ulo offnso ll.

lrka et 7-.r r .... StAct of' S ... c, at -il-

head, on ,. 3.-'ilhern 1'n-.: of th. .'.'L Franc ,.j

River. e r'. ,tt. Some hu a' fi

miles vip tlie(r river are thc falls. It ia t-L a

day r' po-:i1ly a week by sail boat, c,?icj a
/+ }
"cano.". a-srly all tlhe same 1. .-th, u-t

fifty feet, arid .l eight feet c ... sails rj

similarly. Pa...tatiw.--t catins. Lol;ing : nd

cousine excelle.npt- the iprjvide tlieir

own food, A,,,.nd and chairs.
z-S e-.a-lso., a I-b 3 :t" %n .- e'r +"-"..." ,'u.'" -^i -c "")-' 'i io+. "" -_7

L-ilto by P.H.-olfs, 1933

aAA- f r-i- is a

XV :7



Paulo Affonso 7nl l-,.

Under vater explosions occur st "'.rejuar

intervals, at the foot of' the flls. ".hr'.'n up

tons of water r. .-.,I ooting'up sk, rckets two

stories '-; c"-jM.i~ i"'_'. one of thes-

explosions would be "out of "'ic'. ini.eed. ee,-

"untutor:Li. mind" livI-'; a-1 .-j the t- ,iL nt

rapids of tI E. A. iazn and& t".x..i ase

cribe such- "n- en t.:, o.'rful .in t

spirit th-ft i.,.uct be -ppc,:. "'ith prper r-itu!

arnd incanta.tion. The spirit must be a po.-erf'ul

Sone to r.1c1h up such a quantity of water. Your

turn next That causes tle.explosions ?
Photo br,
r .- .' r ...... ... ....


.1kftDay a-t CL~i%4n1a L -IdU.L- IS;ta-:t e of

Para-.ylba. [sing 'th

animals loaded with cl'ajj .xlucts. Over half

of the io..s are bricks *Y-..,n sui-rr (rapa-


.'h-_to by
"i9, 3.'

XV 9 -

At Santarem7 StaLe of' Vc.rai v..cre the

great T.;):jos unites with the voluLmn:,)u

AmazOin. Oc.-;.:_'; s tc --'S D-:J on th-ui :, ;.ay


FItLcto .-'


'. "'1


2FEncinj on the cer'

A fence on the sertfo. T--i;r.,Lity .id "

knowsB no race b.-,uniry. F- 2.f Jose Cj.:.:-". es

Duque tol.J a descendanit front the Pr'.-C .u... ijan3,

"Build me a fence from here to thc--"s- r'esulIt, a

storm prof, arot orof ar'. man -.- -:f fence. No

sensible man w-',].d risk '":C1.. or .i. to:.e-r-

on it. Goats can't cli., it nor s^eze t.&Li,

It brc.a,.: the' ri#.rnj trL.-Ie ,.in.*i and yct is o,.en

enough to Ir :-CF "Into L.Ut ito L)

j'lot h lail; not a wire; noir a vine was Ui-.

The only imnolfrleinL c-,pI-lo---,-& a machiLte. A ravine
/ t '. .' ..
a half MidlC .I* IW'fL'Yrnishei all the material. The

machette cut'ti.- posts; tr.e.- th brinchs and

dug the post -oles. Tre native cL'r'Ped thi

material frir./the revine; set the posts rn.d v. ove

the branches 'n,_atly and securely. ?Iext I Can you.

beat it ? /7
S3 Photo by

XV: ll

Palace of th* first Dutch. Go.:..,-

constructe., *; tur4.s '. *

very Aint cestinJ .A'.-d m,'Dk. :.n T Luiz, St.te .2_

of 1.:--anh.go.

Photo .--

XV: 1r

The, r-o i .... z -- L i- ... : -their, c"1; ,",
nearly th1re, c.. .',c, -- ut the u-se of the

beautiful blue a:;', L:" .-, ein t, cc.

persists.' P t "', nha o

A go:d. custom is more t..'.. o "nj tCha -rick a ,.


A.- !to by
I.f a
19 ":


I ~*

P!rand "Coal", gath-jir.-. from the floor

of the Araur-ria forest/ ''11 by the cubic
meter to the. roilvlw-r fr fue.e These resinous
areucnri.. 1I:ts have #esis 'ii 'ieo-ay for millen-
iums. .".t \\ FS Z l. c'.L C bt.--,a rina.

'.-hoto by
_N L2 7


)'. Cattle
tJ t

.'.-.-j-'es e -and Coat ":-.-

'li e. _' acay, the Caati-a' iiUs bett.een

the Agrea1-t1 (g.rc zon)c ', i& (o s .zrt).

The ':.. on of in C cr 1 Cuul crougi& .. sp
Sainf ll-- t 1- 2 L .,

partially or c .;7.tl_, ,.] yves. .''i the

ra unless scEason,2 1tC c'in tse ies pa. able

and nutritC tous *

VT:C:l V

In the ." neste. Cui.:" !te i a typical

Caatin tree. elect-. v'Leties oi' this "

sold by Florida nur'imern produci-_ delicLous

fruits. ..): L.timCes called rpa,.ish pliua. '.'hat

appear to 'c burrs on the tree are clidirnotive

Tillandsia, belonging to the pineapple f3.;1-,r..o

Near Garaiiuw:, 5eae of Per;.buco.

i-'hoto bj
"' .R"*i''lfs


A yrive ,. in A ....e T, oun-

.6urro'mx.; a *.^^-*.i-i^; p~ool. &sv/a cxlaw iiATLO trie A

river ... .o. :of tL. I tear aulo

Affonso _alls.

c to by


. VI:C:3

At left, and b mind "-, J .... '.

water. 'l broiii," (- i.'.^.ple fa" ily)"
grsniui O .; le. i.

Pnoto by

Val:C+4 V

AgrcsL a ).. :,ilo, an iron

cylindc; v'ith o >-:]j I, a.t top (if'lon-L .:-.rJ) Viaiat cz.

be tiizl: ecip, though wli-.cli it, is-f'l

with bLenc, ie-L-. corn *.* near thfe ,.; of

the dry '. ia the 'boottm, on -6he side,

is a smaller ope)ni=g vr- .i wh ich the food may be

taken) thi_, c onse'vs it from molding and A.-.rting

during the rainy .oiths.
Photo by
*1. p .H :fs
.1' ,..33


nter. the vKlley o"f the -'cldo., u

aaon linncr. in the (s'Tsde () of j l ls s

tubosa t e-..t -outh

and still v'eering cots .n' felt hats,. S T7,-

lai\, .a, tree visible ats the suto o. s; c c ." "5

the Coat' to t. folf .. .... "

ed with te o)ny seat in t se s .

Photo b;v
P, N olo fs


A hillsidel caatinga on the ro-i:. from Flls

of Pa&lao Aiforiso to Cc-.rr.iiu CLtat.e otf' Y'r':-uabuco.

.,All the si'iu. have dropped l.,.Lir leaves. No

rainz occurrij .t tse dS'-. lea'.is ..i. hlh L--.e

f~or as Cactu td out ~c-, .i...-Lrtly a.rinj the

dry,- ea6.)n.

Tho' -
*7. DI fs
dO7 <-

V : Cattle

The Covbo:; and y

TThe co/b o, in .hc 'G'1l4c 2 ( .. .
THGs-^ v O/,a. O.s !? ,, 0.... vc.'r' ,,izlOCj-t-n' i:;u u .cx' 0;<' "G
Bra !1 li 1-'. -a

f ro-,.his c .- th uc.o -o"- L :. .

states i-.- his second -ouXin "e .... 3, )j

pampas. His suit :,.s "I C-1 dcvrl.opdJ as 5 p.o-

tection ./-i::t the. I-,ias -ho,.rny .nc& briary

c aatin=- Ui. h x .,a ^,len.Lal.-

hat, lahrc-fIah- s otrn pu

the hips. .!.s horse ir a e ;-'rs plae

3. es ,.,-' pjc.i- ..:, ...(.'<* i-?) LI'.e. j'es -i" I '"( -',! .. 7'i .
widce lCatr 2i bLt.: ...J o.

T hEi os j, iS I um ci z? ~0 I i -,1

docile wiry anl l '.... a,- a cat. -". -'it -

h is a ... ......e .

c onve fi- a &.'On thns.1-vs n tiu uely

makes believc t.l-ati he is Zlth:ng i. If a steer

is plotting a br-ak .,,.; '. cbunh, -ec is al--..r.c.

and aft'r the -te&r; hlie don't .'. L-t .X: s. The

pony knows aEll th- tricks and to'roo,..: of a wild. c.tee,.

He nevt'r comes back without his -teer. atri.- pn

attitule of "I'll tc, ci. you". T-oroly e-njoys a

steer zha.. a -oo-. z'ace ..-. sever.

generations. io.-' calf to oxen ar the slaughter


ou',.-i..'t .s o t.. cot.*- and a --niy in the
-^. ...,te OIor-theas~t) of 3rasil h:-vb been evolved

by tie e.xp'-ri^ucf of ^:.-^"a'tions, iHave reached

the ac,,C& oi' QL'Ticielcy- uian. uL.Ui'abiiity. i.ot elegant
%..cut C~zt it inj-y, pic-turcsque. Almnost -.~iti'
-JL;.L' ^vc-uL stirrups nave Leather .,'i-irin in

fs .lU ;u pi-',qf ee5 or xj i' .^:-,., avoid ebntan-

* kle4I,-t i-a tnc i. t- i..iia.Kble brush and cactus of
't<'-. I-f-e. (.IJ..


Phot t

VI?:C8 y

!iode* or eale of cattlWe Satilnna, zLate Off

ahia, rasii. ...i buric-nhee showed a ,:.rc-onder-

ance ,1, Europj ,-,. aA.;. 'L..-d^. a ::.' onde.-ic.'nc6

o A'-- a gLl ( aii)

-' "

VI :C:9

Ro-Qeo or c_,.L sale at atanna, :7tpte of

Bsahiah. 'r tho i' five hundr. stc: :r ch-ecked

thrviu'CE til-s "... l,*s. s rieirgm a'
.,. .-lo v,.l.,r-ed f m a*

e as Q fu C Sn of the
!; r}.est}. .'"_-e- uropcan j;'-... .. """ ]' id] -" -:-! ;--, :;^] U t

1"'nound.s. consid.rl',. ptrcert were trans-

porlI'., afoot. to h.a and othlr lrac cities

for c T..f. TIn ir.n L-te for-u.r :,',-id is a bunch

snowing zebu ancest!-,.

Photo bj
l':> 3


The Feira de ,'LI nt'A, n:4 Etado de ?ahia.

Rodeo or ca&tlis sale, on -ln,'ys. A .tentic]

Will Rogh.s sio,,Lnr his ,I,.L with a lonz r,.-

hide lariat; it'1i men nor ..t)iL-ers $ic inter-

este ie: ,._H Ited mor- a p areca ive e, '-- ..

The raen wree too busyj bar<%1:il for inerds.

SOE fo)-u tI1ousad '.. -.. chA '.- t.r

that day.

lict o I
P) .

VT C: C :1

Goat s2:i-:,, dried :.* an ,.')r -.rint

export article. i; t2he 't2 ,f thie -:'th-east.

In :'Tw Yrk, d io -2 .'-ct.Bed into

kid shocF, Iov,:s r'd .e ;""--:., tT..- i lost

their of :)Thn *-it. Port of R cife, State f

n ambuco.
-hot o by
r ,n.r. o!-

^yc-' ))} f

. ,L:S O ,, 4

.. .. -J I

* )
tD .+ ion, ;* n.. ,

0~* i(wS L C2

i eLcnd 9;

Ci -



2'2i20 ~ -~

CAd 29 7 Ci I

.1. 0 K. 2~ >- )D~-

C.. t &3.

~t~c C~U2~



V: C. 12

*A :ricu_ ui'ai Coxij-f t oi' the S>Lai-e oi Rio ij, andie
Ci.AuJ (uiulorOSx 01 ol .ail), the.

,aax'l *uc~ai s'iLrs aire 01on 01' 'thLs breed.

..Yto by
1. H oLI

SVI:D: 13
VI). The Big C's, Coffee, Corn, Cattle, Cotton

D). Cotton,


Prof. A.S.L6uller (left), a Cornell graduate,

giving the Cotton Extension Agents an intensive

field course on cotton diseases. The following

week the Agents will go to hundreds of farmers

gEv*ing cotton. Agricultural College of I.inas

Geraes, Vigosa.

Photo by
April, Is


Cotton Cooperative Demonstration at Lima Campos, nearly
under the cquntor. The ITordeste has millions of acres of

treeless, uncultivated lands; millions of inhabitants; water
enough to r oduce more cotton than is grown east of the

Uississippi. :ot next year; possibly not in ten years.

American seeds, gins and farm implements make intensive

and extensive planting possible. American trucks are trans-

Pnrting cotton for hundreds of miles to railhead or sea-

board. American educators have been teaching in Brasilian

Agricultural Colleges and in the field for more than three

decades. That is the "Noddeste".

Photo courtesy of


Tree Cotton; Variety Moc6 (pronounced 16-kW'), at Cruzet4a.

In the Nordeste (northeast), region of scant rainfall. Pruned and

cultivated. Profuise blooming occurs simultaneously with the rains.

At the same time vigorous suckers are produced to'bear the bloom

of the following year.

Bolls ripen during the dry season; which being of long dura-

tion gives plenty of time for gathering. Eighty percent of the

exDort from Rio Grande do Norte is of this variety. (See "0o Jor-

nal", Apr. 7,1938,p.4.)

The Northeasteners grew cotton before Columbus learned to

sail a ship. They developed varieties adapted to their needs

and climate. Spinning and weaving were well advanced before

the Europeans came to Brasil. Suits of homespun are still worn

by some.
The Central Brasilian is coffee-minded; He grows it whether

it pa.o or not. The Northeastern Brasilian is cotton-minded;.

He persisted for over four hundred years against world competi-
tion. In the last forty years he has nearly suffocated the

sea-island export from South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. The

European thread spinners find his fiber cheaper and just as

satisfactory. Thanks to the American truck, gins and com-

presses, .. ... ....

Photo by courtesy of
Dr. Jose Augusto Trinidade


Cam'nina Grande, State of Parahyba.

Perennial cotton arriving by truck at rail-

head from distant interior. Formerly the

:uronejn thread spinners bought American

sea-island cotton.

Photo by

VI :2:

The Little C's.

Cocoa, Cane, Citrus, Cassava, Carnaiba



Cacao Orchard on banks of the Rio Doce R7iver,

State of Espirito Santo. The tall leafless trees

are leguminous; produce shade during summer

months. Bemvindo Novaes and Miss Rolfs in

the roadway.

Photo by


Floor of Cacao Orchard after gathering the

fruit and husking the berries. Shells to right

of Dr. EBondar, director of the Cacao Experiment

Station at Agua Preta, near Ilhe6s, State of

Bahia. LMost of the trees grew natively, as

under-brush in a dense jungle; Others were

planted in the vacancies, Tall forest trees

were left for shade.

Photo by

VI: 19

Cacao fruit nearly tipel largest one eight

inches long. The blooms spring in a cluster

from adventitious buds along the trunk and

larger limbs. Taken at Cacao Experiment Station

Sat Goytacazes, State of Espirito Santo.

Photo by
.1933or s


A Cacao-retting, drying and storage house,

on the Rio Doce (State of Espirito Santo). The

upper floor serves for drying the berries after

being polished. The two roofs can be quickly

rolled into place when showers threaten or the
sun gets too hot. Cacao grows natively and pro-

duces best in a rain forest region.

The lower floor serves for husking, retting

off the mukcilagAnous pulp, and polishing the
berries. Also for grading, sacking and storage.

The dried berries may be exported or thao may

be shipped to a chocolate factory.

Photo by
P,* uo1fs

VI :21

In foreground, citrus grove on grounds of

Agricultural College of State of Para, in

suburbs of city of Belem, capital of state.

In rainforest region citrus trees grow amazingly.

The State of Para is crossed by the Equator

and borders on the Guianas.

Photo by


The Little C's, Cocoa, Cane, Citrus, Cassava,

C). Citrus

Delicious oranges are produced in every part

pf Brasil, from the Amazon to Rio Grande do Sul,

the southernmost,and coldest state. Ripe oranges
are picked every day in the year in some part of
this marvelous country.

Txport is limited by the European prices. In

1937, it is seid, the export was five million

boxes,, would have been more if crate material h'ad
been available. (Arthur Vinnna, .io).

The export is orepared in packinghouses with

the most modern American equipment. Cold storage

at docks and on ships in transit have adopted the
American system.
bThe citrus industry has employed many skilled

technical men from America, South Africa and Austr-

Brasilian citrus scientists have studied in

Washingtnn, Florida and California. Am rican scien-
tists from these sane nlnces havE cooperated in

scientific investigations in Brasil. Thtre is no
technical discovery of importance but what is

equally. well known in Bra-il and in America.

C). Citrus (con't)

Brasil has good orange land enough to

duplicate the present foreign export from Europe,

Africa and America, in quantity and quality. The

new Erasilian Pira orange is crowding the American

Washington Navel for first place on European



sVI 22


Southern Brasil. A ten year old orange

orchard at Guayra, on the banks of the Parana

River. The man in white,1i an Indian, is

superintendent. The State of Parana borders

Paraguay and the panhandle of Argentine.

Photo by

VI s23

Ponderous and grotesque Navel Oranges,

picked from the tree' whose limbs nre shown.

Lichens luxuriate, do no harm1 live on air-

and water. Near Porto Alegre, capitol of

Rio Grande do Sul, southernmost state.

Photo by
P. H. Rolfs

VI 22 !V:

ihc Little C's, Cocoa, Cane, Citrus, -

Cassava, Carnauba.

-,.) Car-.f~h.:n'a


I h~~~i ici: oi j~i7
hacanc,/7ck of" r-" -, p, ~ .l.

coast at J2n,,'-:'a.].eza, St:te of. Ce7 :':,o The' trees

in the -7,"!-':.r- Lot produce. !. i-;. one bctts" **waxe.

.Photo r-.
/' .* 1.9 "

VT: *

o!h. .

ahoto -2


A Cr.-'.^ "' Jis zi he ^'Lo.Aftzr 'the

:.::.-:.- *of i: v s ...:.- b n C*.'.e r ^i-coverlint; the
w a x,, r :c : .L e : .i n -s .o o f a c .r p e t , jl'i il o :;-lo-. p',od, tivc 'ir s oc-Ur

in~ t.'- c c5.r..l
9' .---i o 'b
327.. 1,: -.~. ..L O.

*. A ", 05;
2 Q'

- *., -' ,7~j'


t ) ~

5 .t.

-I.* -~ -'.

it or more spinners of

" *eir pr^ a't. spread out. on

'- "- ,J : ror the
S- p- S. ..- iL -Ln

-Z :O

- '.. jto F

i.... ,. .

1 4
1w t 4 '


P r'.od i

.? "*

XV. Touring in Brasil.

How to See the Usual and the Unusual

1). Tourist, :Ttura list, Scientist.

Whether one or the other of these is merely

a matter of temperament. The touristwhose time

is always very precious, demands and pays for the

best;-means of transport, meals and lodging. An

amorous flea pursuing his mate may upset the

routine of the entire hotel staff, and cause a

violent headache to the "gerente". A thirsty

bedbug Imay cr-use a world .ide sc-and.l. The

araevine telephone functions wherever tvn or

.o~'e tonurissts -eet. -o censors-i'' can sto*

dictator is _oLeru enough to pro-

scribc them. Great de luxe continental trains

are run for their convenience; -.".1 expense. A

five minute delay is unpardonable. Every d(y'

train loads of tourists halt at the rim of the

:.- Canyon olhe Colorado for three houi.s to

see the incomparable spectacle. T.hetorkcians

have tarried for ee Ls to write under the inspi-

ration. Poets have burst forth in et-rAtl meter.
A-rtists have tr; en months to transfer their feel-

"A n.turali t, said -'radford Torrey, "Iever
kno::s wvhat he is 1os0ig for a is most delighted

when he finds it." Ze maintained that c .*thing


was worth observing and recording; sometime and

somevwhere it will fit into nature's j.tgsaw puz-

zle. Me knew because he wrote several delight-

ful books on natural history. 7Te dis-oaraged

the scientist because, as he said, the scientist

knows just what he is looking for a d Anever lets

uo until he has found it. Ti:,e, -. 3. '

Dr. Joseph Le Conte, Professor of D2eology

in the University of South Carolina, traversed

afoot, the unexplored stretches of the .palachian

>ountsins, carrying vwith him his rations, con-

sisting of "side meat" (bacon) and "cohn"' (corn)

bread. He vote the most delightful textbook
"Elements )f Geology" ever compiled. The great

western empire, California, had to smile and
whee.le to coax him to the University of Califor-'

nia. Dr. H.S.Fawcett, one of the most brilliant

biological scientists living, repeateJly, has

said, at the close of the day's work,"By jinks,

I have forgotten to eat my lunch". And then looks

up at a negro janitor, remarking, "If I take it

home my wife will be distressed for days." Before

he had a wife, he slept in the onen under trees

where he was studying. Imagine if you can, a

naturalist turning tourist or the latter exchang-

ing places with the immortal Joseph Le Conte. It
Q be done. It is purely a matter of tem-

perr-rm nt of the individual.


(Pi) L/3A d, c -

14 zfc



Everybody, whether tourist, naturalist or

scientist, should visit the sublime Iguassd''

Falls. The tourist) wlse ttse iSlAys vN p e-

ces, should go by palacial steamer from Buenos

Aires direct to the modern hotel, on the Argen-

tine side of the River Iguassi. The hotel is

equipped for entertaining tourists; Including

V! guides f6 to conduct them to the spectacular

points. It will take about two days to do the

falls. (The great Niasa has been so extensively

improved that a large per cent of the visitors

S do both the American and Canadian Falls in a day.
'The naturalist has more leisureyHe shald

take the excukion train at Sao Paulo, to Presi-

dente Epitasio, connecting with a steamer on the
A4yrL, & jAZrtX %
upper Parana for Gua h/ ',here he will want a

week to study and record nature in her captiva-

ting and enchanting moods. The miraculous under

W3%a#Ji water explosions; Land plants and animals

adapting themselves to a perpetual mist from the

falls. The voluminous falls of Sete QuedaS, said

to have a five million horse power hydroelectric
Spotential-.V Flocle of noisy parrots and brilliant

macaws. The three story fungles. Presumptious

tropical trees occupying the topmost story.

Gi;antic b,:mboos, sixty feet tall, content with

the mirdle e,6try. The lowly wild orange contend-

ing vwith huriareds of other species for floor


space. Lianas in every direction and elevation,
from floor to ceiling. The fatigued naturalist
regretting that he had allowed himself only a
week, leaves a call at the desk. A comfortable
and dainty train carries him to Porto daMendez,

forty miles away, at the foot of the rapids and
head of the lower Paran6

Here is another delight. The passengers at
the railway station board a double tracked, iein

inclined cable trolley and step off at the ship

,side The steamer discharge him at the city of
aIguassi, with ample but simple accommodations
for normal travel. An auto road takes him to the

\ sublime falls; fifty feet higher than the Niaga

j) Fallz and often a much greater volume of water.
and scientist
The naturalis-t/will find the low water period

t auspicious. The former should allow himself
two w-eks, at least. Come provided with several

volumes for recording notes and a roll of his
favorite film for each days stay. One roll should

be if highly sensitive to color. A rainbow in
the mist u'ast by the moon is a rare spectacle.
It will be discounted without tangible evidence,
And then too he will have the only one. Or he may
be so lucky as to get a photograph of swallows
diving thru the falls to their nests behind it.

A scientist has unlimited time and infinite
patience to work out his theme. He can follow
the route of the naturalist or go to Curityba,
Parana and there hire a truck or automobile and

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