Prepared especially for Chacaras e Quintaes: Gumosis and Limo Sulphur Point. 1928

Material Information

Prepared especially for Chacaras e Quintaes: Gumosis and Limo Sulphur Point. 1928
Series Title:
Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Subject Files
11. Prepared especially for Chacaras e Quintaes: Gumosis and Limo Sulphur Point. 1928


Subjects / Keywords:
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.


A draft response to s book review of "Citrus Diseases and Their Control," by Chacaeras e Quintaes.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida Archives
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
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e: C i -' r
.^~~ e eialy for ,ar~a'-. e <.uints- -^ ^

8uri.i &.jd -ime ^L,..i fhur Isint

Z' H. RF If
The term -,. en -em l:yel t. designate the production :f a

gum like s-bstance,- principally inL trees bslo.:ngirng to the family

,itr;/-e. This manifest. t i T'tten on I-. Ferrari in 1`46.

;i_,' tl.,t time hun.r,.. if :t t. _.c n...c ,f tiL.. e ,ha-e bL en

.ubli .e. .-n t -L:, u j ..t (se-- F.;'. tt t n -. "-ee "Citruis 1ix- c' .; andcl
Tti-: o. p 122, r vie ," in C c..r,: e .L',i ltt cS V.: l ....

.. ,. tif, fu '-n. e P ,-- in.
,'*a inf_ io .
An': :'n: v'CJLL irig Lfi-u G.eo t i i ra ...o. :o n Cimr.i,:-,i.-, .-.h.:,uld .. T. BD th ,.l mev... :* rt. i '1 : in '"Th-e -r.,ri,.:n J :'ur-,l of

:.- e ec-ii ly the one on ".um- f:rm-I, C-- n in .1 m:rn fruit I .t

t Voi *.V I-:.o p 54, .

L:.:ei :.e :.t the a E A. V.
; ,rdic!ti :n o'f the geerL-al1y called gumirLris i-.

im_-...ssible, b.oes use ..they a;e t or-ly disseminated in ,.I- .,f the

civiliv co i.ntries th at cultiate citrus fruits. TDie nnly r 21.

open-to us r ,e reve.,tin and c.uriagd the diseases. FortLU-.itely, f:r

the citrus srv.-er;, both r ... ig .: during r- ivey

Irn the 'c;ca D u.,eriLr ,"e ---gri culture e Veterirnaria do Est.,-dj

-i, r iae h : S ii.;3. '. .eh ve uc: -..e fully us ed

se...r.. u.. hn,.,. V'hcn the trees 5ro. severely affected, with as

muh ...... e fourth or Li2re of the cir-cumfe-" nce of the oa rk

involved, the affe..t?,: bark i- ut s\c.y an:L the v.xod e:o:,ed. Ten_

%he affec3ed,:,:.rti.:n is es-"ily distinguisheci from the foundd wood

by a li-ht :y'eliowish color. The unaffected, bark pnid v...-J have

ure .'white c.,.J.or. Two or thri-e te.ets are sufficient f.or- the

-:-.rien,-es r,,m .z Ltv,,ri-st to dist.ingLish b tv.:-een the di.eased end

hEalth:.' -rtions. %ll :.f the i s e.s,:! bhrk an'] vuxd is cut away,

riIj the e:i.osed p.ortions tLhen treaEte.J vith about a ,ne to twenty

mixture of -reoline :-nd water. severall othrr disinfectants .re

eu.siiy good,. k.fter t- e disinfection, the v.hle .- tru-i: and

the iar-er limbs; are painted fitth lime-sul-ihur -

The Lj-ii ulDi i ur Paint.

Thi.: has the virtue .f having been used for over twenty five

years with mo -t ?atifActory results. It is very c..,Lnvenient

since it -can re, mae' -n every cha-:'srr First secure five to ten

liters of white e ',ash such as is used for whitewashing v.alls.,:nC. obtain tv.o t.,_. five kilos of sulphur flour. Gtir I enough

sulp-hur int.- the '.h'itev.ash to'.make a thick Daint thc.t can be

_ -:'liec els ily vith .:'int brush. -.:', xi it to all ex.,-oseed

*..rti.:ns .f roots, to the trunhkj and to the large limbs.

This I'sth&d w:rkb wvell. *e have lc.t less than mne-fifth

jft o-ne 'er .ent v.hirfc tme .ai.:-t vv:. ....lied -efore the d.?isease

hi advarn .nced, to a stage the bark ha3 to ba cL-4.t Y.';y, and less

thLn :ne ,:cr cent vhere- the dis.:.-'- e h.i ,Jvl i:.eiu so extensively

that the vw.,oo haa to Oe e::,o.,ei and cre;line s,,lied

This paintt is not tins:nou t:' aji-inisals or human beings and

n be sAfely ;lie by .m.yv crefu4 latorer. The esact :ronorticn

of sulphur used is. unim:,ortant, ,ut it is ditm:,ortant that the

suinur is evenly aixe:i v.ith tie v'.hit ewesh. The sulchur gives virtue

tU the mi re nd the whitevash sim3 y holds the sullhur in :la e.

(A ic ture of nursery trees treated i

VWhat is uumnusis.

It the intorductory it.rgrah it v.a indi:t:ctti that more than

three hundred pear-s ago a gum ex\udati :n on citrus %-.s Ldescrib ed.

Ferrari writing .-on .1846) says, 1nthing i believed to be

more .-:oerful for sickness of the tree than toc bury. a desd dog

neatr the roots, of:thIE and this also mi.ks thie trees more :iroductiee."'

He d:,s not seZm to mentic.n thD- size of the dog nor whether he

'.? .e.rimentes with an e -ua v.eight. dead cats or other flesh.

This is not so humorous .as his statement would indicate to us. It

has b ve. ,'ell authenticated th'.t a certain form of aumnosis, knovrwn

to Floridians :-s diebackk" may be induced by too liberal Use of

organic fertilizers .

In 1878 riosi ztublished., an article on Mfal -Ji-gomma which

really marked the beginning of scientific work on gum diseases of

citrus. The conclusions were based on midroscopic study but pure/, 7
a* '.-

cul tur- v.=re not cyed to re rodu e the di.-.e:: e
z~ s -)PG mn-
'Ca U'2'e s ,.f GurmEInD.ii S

ve c*n safI--ly affirm that gumio.i_ of the citrin-,e may be

in;-' .?,d by" either an in.rre'anic' or an organic : agent

In:rganic a.sncies. B-y' .lacing crystal] Sf ,-oe5r- sul:..:.hate,

rni',I-e suil-hte, mer.:.iris :h loride a-i'd maiany other chemicals, under

the c..-rk of a '-i tr't .:5 tree, gu, ri 1 :g may t e i nduc-e,:. (u ee b. F. Fl.,yd j

i he'.rt Firic ..gIicultur51 & _eriment -tationi, 12.-1lf5-I-1,
: 5u- ,-4.4 T: try the ex. -rient a ,r ta' of tbo-t one ; r- ,,

.eih't m-.y be u.ed. Five to1 ten trces zh-u]d be innoc1uate. -nd an 4

e:,1.-l nuffbtr, altcrn,:tive with th'-, &,, hid be untre-, ted- In

thIe .-cour e of :. f-2%'.'. dayv, ,r ,t tim veek, : vigo rous gumming Y.i

ce noted in the treated, trees, ,cometiLCes the :,lace o.)f inn:'oula-

tic.:in hec'JL .--JW!I etchy w.*it FI*it _-rcducing i.n: ctm-r t- t"1 hi: W'*lfnj In

-- ,', ,??.- : 1-._ in L.L',:t2-r .2 ..L A i -..y -. -. -Z I

.-V' ::.'- the '...:,t i.,' e iUirCLef :. fur r n tl a-.ia y .

E:'nnthe--..- or *dieba:: h s-.. be.;n vritte:- n b-' rmn,'ny authorities

andac a-ll ee that, -ri-.r.ucti.-.n iS one ,cf the z-fclt.r :.f this 4

1ts1b >L C, c a- also tha -

t. ile ,i i pradisposing :-ux. rn 1r.':i as i: c';'t. --meri i-

it fre:, -.tly J.--UBs in C.i ely Le:Ar.:t.J trees. 'ften th-r- is
g r :" ing
n- vizihtl ui.ffe.ance in tae soil/'in ths ,'Vi.e se,- an..e tV' healthy

tre-'e t. F. F'.,'d, th -e .-t on this. di.--.:- e, V i.' unable 3

t.: fini e'.idtr,, e that ti. :- 'e to a zorm. jaA4.4- 01-90 A 410j

uu to -.ti on ll er certainn se,'i-L *;ondi ticnm mC. f:1io.

f'mi gatiLon by aai2z: gas, a remrdy freuently erM:-loyei in '-_ii-

fornia and ci;L#itda S.u..3tr1-iia frr ,det tr..:,ing .l. I4einr,-ct: anrd theirr

Organir na,'en'ie_- .. The-e may for c'nve'ni en-e :e divided into-,

the animal ii and ,.,i egeet.-.',le kingdom. "'nj.ur,' he fire ant,

o.,!eno. _.sic. v t:, is fr.;ii,-ent_- follo'"ed by gumminu g fhih

diY;onutinues'tely v.hen th- anta ar- des.troyed, ui. ;--.s if c-

tLion f the v1 und by 1a gum :1r:'du,-ir- g .cm -a -. ,.j.urI.d.

There are a:o.ut dc:,-a nlant : l:-aified as .ungus that are

kno.n or strongly suc.eted .f c L;sing gum roduction. The

I L t, y .* f I ", lI.

rnt1:zz.i:j.t C tij ii vi t fi flLj" ia~. & UZ1 -

S1--1-.. i&vL.&i :u't ,., ..te .f t h .e h,.Ie m'iter- ,z;r.- if:.t I-, rfty i in lr
I I .. v rt. .
- ,,. il ?-.- -*. -. "e l" i i" i s ,cr: ir .",fib".et. LLy m,-,,.te .i : ] ,-.:.i- It

Kint"-'i-r-L "' .2' g L i t *r, 1- :i- ru.-'t ca idi 1 ';'f i- .i.H tu:,, .e ,' A, frui t]
=<*.; -j i i. ; i j. ._ i. '_t b e .t t--1 ^ T h e- i i,' e t i -, c 'o ~ is :- f t .h i zr "..y j r tn : ,r -e

: .^ -- :l"i, la f;-..:.i'!- ,j
'-^T ^-*.; .,', iini .., -'i .: a .J evec ]. :,: ^ h:1- .-_i;-- :'. cf f' 1 i tu ^
,,:;*g !rniiij !: _,'...i',;=.: ..i ....' ;* i -r ;i 'i L.i. .n e v r .if i ..^ e ; j r -i

t,'?ez i.' '?C: ju .;.'. Hi- :s., -r ra:i :r.-'-..r th. t tW. h i .e :e i2 er-y

momfi ;.-1 :-f .-1 !thr cit t ', e,; .r't P L -E i.r V 1-- t'.:.i

n i* :-i:. ty t he .:-om n *e-Ie

17ni. m at.'-i i" '- .. r' _, t: l e .. i .t [1 .rj v: 1 c

.iPu t -d .1 w^.' .-Itt > 'ti- : ." i d -' Is :,t h;- tf'te' .

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