Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais - Departments, Agricultural College.

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Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais - Departments, Agricultural College.
Series Title:
Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
Rolfs, Peter Henry
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Subject Files
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais - Departments, Agricultural College.


Subjects / Keywords:
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.


Description of the departments of a college of agriculture

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University of Florida
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University of Florida Archives
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Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
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Official Business.


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1. .r eterin.iy Science c::;-. :edici;i:e

2 H: : su I J. dry

3. r'no:j

4. rticuitu re

5. Pi- t .*i.-:e..ce 5-. i1e'tS

". "oils

1 P r tu. _ueze l anlua're

11. Hiist:ry of -T.sEil

12. 'tathe:-'.atics.

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(Escola de Agricultura)


The object of. the agricultural College is to

give practical instruction in the best agricultural practices and the

application of some of the scientific principles that have proven them-

selves to be of practical advantage. A thorough underrtandinf of the

scientific principles underlying the beRt practices mnd usages as

they have been worked out either on the farm or in.the laboratory gives

the possessor a power not enjoyed by those not possessing it.

Those nations, states and communities thiwt

have given greatest attention to applied science have prospered ;.iost

greatly in coiaierce, art and literature during the last 75 years.

The number of departments necessary for a

complete equipment of an agricultural college will run up to a ]mndred

or more. There are however a number of departments thiwt are of funda-

mental and basic importance. In a new college especially in a state

where scientific agricultural is being studied as a new departure it

woula be well to limit the number of department to those made neces-

" nary by the availability of funds and the possibility of securing stu-

dents for the studies in the various flepartuents. As the college grows

in popularity and in financial support new departments carn be added

from time to time.

The outline given below together with a general

discussion will give a fair understanding as to what are believed to be

the fundamental departments. As these various departments have been

written off from memory there may be some important omission. It is like-

wise quite probable that some departments have been more emrha.i ed than

is justified by our local conditions with which I am as yet not familiar.



1. KETERI[IARY :CIEICE. This department should prove of great ihpor-

tance to every cgricuiturict in inas :;eraet;, atC i:Lr.: animnals a-re kept
on all the estates. All furm animals are subjected to a large

of diseases. ;'any of the diseases aire tr:naimitted from one to another.

Other maludieo are caused by improper food or by improper physical sur-

roundings. It is not uncommon for as high ao 10 %3 of the animilc of an

entire region to be lost by preventable causes. The financial fr loanes

frequently falls most heavily on cattle raisers. iiogs subjected to

several serious contagious diseases that sometimes destroy practically

the whole herd as is a case in hogl-cholera. It is probably of quite as

i mchl economic importance for the farmer to know how to keep his livestoc;.

in health as it in to be able to cure the disease after it hasI appeared.

aU0 college course in veterinary science should include L thorough study

of the anatomy of the principal aniLUAls occurring on tile such aE,

cattle, hogn~ n!ulen, horses and other.

A brief course in zoology (protozoolnoy) and -tcterioloy is

Iiven that the student may understand the n. ture of tie causative c,-ent.

2. ICIj0IIL i-MlTC IA)RY. Aninal husbandry in one respect is closely rela-

ted to veterinary science in that vuith a proper study of tLe Ieedin i

of farm animals they are ;eept in"good health LIuLinG it less frequently

neces aury to apply curative Ueauureu.

iivostoci; studies includoK tlie utu.dy of proper feeding of

anim alu, the proper haiidliin of the livestock. : and livestock .roductn.

enLeral course uini;iul husbaudry include d.Liryin; uad the care of

dairy products. It also includes beef production as well as hlo{ raiiin,.

Under this head aiould uloo be included the pro, or cure of poultry.

3. AGHOIW](,Y. In this department special attention is civen to all tne

crops that are raised on the farm. In some districts where cotton in

the-all-important crop this is made a dcpartaent by itself. In otiter :--e-

ctions where suCar cane is tlhi priniciiJ. crop -it is not unusual to i: vo

a department give all of its time to this crop. 'To matter auhere an a- r -

cultural college is located it is usual to give instruction on the pre-

naration of the oil the proper planting; of the need, the proper tillage

- and the proper ih. rveuting and preservation of the crop, Upeecial emphlasis

will be laid on the le;--ding mooney crop ouch as cotton, tobacco and

--uga[Zr CLie .

This divir:iou line 'between agronoriy .:nd horticulture is not

,:trictl y iLLrLzed. In co.-e CL23C swUch i. crop ;. c.nveet potatoes is reL:-,.rded

au coming properly in the depLrtLnontof aGrcnomy and in others .-,.s com:iing

properly in the depLart:.ent of horticulture.

4. di( YlTIil.".s";J',1;. T;is de-a LLr tient h is three u.nina divisions. The iirst

is that of thLe '-roducti:on of fruits. In thin _ivii onl carcnl iinu3truction

is -:iven to the preparation ul t.:he soil bei'ore planting out the orclha:rd,

care.:.ul planti-ei of the treou, the pironer -reraration of tie fruit 'or

t:0o ..f.rct .i .Cinally t~ie othering :;'l inrk'etiirg of the fruit.

'The socron division of horticulture includes the instruction

in -rowin,-, vegiet.bles. T["e prroner prenaration :if the .oil, the proper

pl.ating of tie seed, the proper cultivation of the plants and finally

the t:t.ltherin;g tand Lr:rkreti rof the products eloncr in this division.

The tiird .ivisioi of horticulture includes the study of those

trees that do not produce fruit but are valuable either for tie produ-

ction of coie coim ierci-!l .A[.teri:al like rubber or :re valuable as ornuien-

Stal trees. In highly develo-iped -.aricultural collt.ces one fix es :'n entire

department dovoLred entirely to the production of ornamental for the

umatriet .

; brief couxr.e in LottniyL in included. to enable the student to

understand the different orgarins of grorith -.nd reproduction.

It C;Lo( ti.eej0 o0,,-uLr:j rvith oilme of our s m.uller agricultural

collees that 9the d aenut of pla.nt di::.caon and insects in included

in the d.6a!4.rtuent of horticulture.

5. 'ltiTT DIlEAS-S: :C-D) I'TTCTS. This is a very important department

initagricultural college. It in not unusual for tie famer to lose u very

l:;.rge percent of IL. crop due to in-;ecta and disease that could be

very readly prevented. It is not always niecesBary to spray in order that

some plant diseases and insect may be prevented. It is often much rore

profitable to obviate Li insect attack or a diseaoe infection than it

is to treat it after the occurrence. In many places during certain seasonss

as miuch as one half of the entire cruo, is loot irou insect attac,- or

disease infection. In ifct there are mtiy in:.,t;jces in history rhlere in-

uect attack or funliguL disease affectation IuL cua'.Eed f.ine.

briuf cr;uru.;e in tbcteriojo and c.xyTtol,,aric botany is in-

clutlcd tihat the stuIde-iL it.Ly compreheild the In.tL're of a-. planti di-;c c.

'e uij;uld ;Lloo underUstand the nature of the different orga.ns of renro-

drction and ldiuse.i:in.,tion (spores). Durinej t Dhe instruction in entomaology

a brief course vill ie ,iven in i nvertebrate goolofoi to rive the student

a proper conception of the life history of the caucative na;ent.

6. J'ILl. This includes instruction in different soil types, the adapta-

bility to different cropn, and thje req;.iremeiut; in cultural treatment.

Different soilu require difi'.ercnL treatment .to lbri. g' then iilto be;t

HLhciape for difi'erent cro 1u.

To urnterutand tlie different soil types it is necessary to make

a phyuical study of the leadinii; iindo of soil iaid determine by rhycic:;l

.:euani the different soil conutituenLc. IIn olis thut are made un o"f ex-

tre.::ely fine product it is soUetimes difficult for the student to iocke

definite deterniin.tion a-nd requires close anrilyses. /.

A- brief course in jply:ics is included t)hat the necern;.ary p ly-

sican, truths nmay be comprehended by the student. Geology, miiirralo-gy

a;nd meteorology are necessary to make a rounded \ourue in soils, -and

Solould be introduced ;r: soon as conditions ,erlniit.

chemical study of the soil a:-nd soil content is Uloo useful

and is employed in more advanced courses but for the it

will be better to employ more elementary lines of instruction.

/ The ,aoil study finally leads to the development of soil naps.

It prepares the student to understand, and appreciate soil surveys.

'/. .'A T C;L'C:ICS. ':his department of the Agricultural College is

also called ,qcricultural TEncgineering. It includes land survey by :ieans

of transit and other in:Atruinents, and also the laying out and mapping

thO :L'.-rL:.

In this de-;.rtt:aent drain-g.e and irrigation in also tautlht.

;j: Oe two part of tho .iarm1 nech '~aics are more importiat tham t.ise :.vor-

,^e rerli;.co.
"nry fet: n. ruir nrtntical ifar..ers rce:.i:o tho iLiport.nY of

the rrovor electionn O-' ac.nn irni .RilemIentsi -md ii'.ny of tihofe who :select

proper iiple-entS fjal to m kre the prorar adjuA'tientE or p;ive pr( or

care to the impl'e..enitc, such! e s plows, dj:;,c hi;.rrows, etc.

In the neow developni.ent oi .go.ricul I. re.tlie faran eziiinie a;d the

..rui motor are playing; L-a impTort.ant role. Tie up-dn-date ZarLier Linds

various ) ;in ;0 of oef inll-: andl :;otor;i of ir"re", v rntr.,:e to hia.A u -J.ll

;:aount of instructions such a'.%, i (. given by the saleeraenr of the ie ecianisi-

unually suffices to Lreer the machine run-inji. -'

In thiic dei,:irtl;lent the iiinst-retion should (o further thi:.J tlhe

sir.ple no tile e zgiin,;s ,nd in toru. It suiiuld ciive in.t.ricctioni ini

t'.ie LuJdI(U'.ental rri .cirleu.

r. C:;:I'TRY. Thi' is.3 one of thie fund1ruent tl science tha.-t are grouped

toCetiher to co-:rone ",ricultiir.L 1 science. Tt .w ;n tile earliest of the

nrience.i tli t w.-r. -d-pted to tho needs of the arvricultural neo'wle.

LUuaJlly the cl:inses are started by livingg initriiction in in-

organic chenristry. after the students become f,.irly fLailiar with

t:e different eleQ::ents of which the noil aLnd. o-ther u;.:tter are composed

they are load by :.ra.dusal st.aes into the quantitittve deter.inin:;tio. of

the different soil conmponents,

Or,-a':nic chec:-try conceruen iti elf *iore rpLrticularly ritli

the constitution r-rid cornnonition of rlr.rnt bodies and other organic Ila-

terials. It is in tiis ranch oC cheniiutry mio-t tuaizin; rrol'rena

hI.:n been made in recent .yea.r. It I\.s revolutionized many of tzie':-rts,

for ex;.Laurle the reductionn of a food from:i a foroarlly worthless cotton

seed nil.

,riculttur,'l r'lhmintry in the arecial adaptr:.tion of cliarintry

to tile needs 01' tiLe present duay larm~ r. Tothl tVie c.rg;nic andi inorg;auLic

cienistry are .-o in -rirtant in our present da:y agriculture that it in

difficult to say which i e ore ipn e r ortant division.

O F'P7r, T 'y Thi 1 a-'nch of 1-riculture i rap.-rely c.--.-.reciat'd 1-

Pt te until 'fte'r *che vir. .i., f.:-es "1v: :.een v -rked u into lu. er

a.n,! -.,'n r, int.- conu!ierci-.l ch nnelF-r. This il s een specially tr'.xe in the

liisrtnry ocf ':r T-.d .':.- : .nd 'orh .'.: _:riec.n acT -rie s.

Tt ic n't int,-nd.c to jire -.n e ten: ive or c: pliete- e c-o-.!re in

fore:-tvry b.t -,nl- .o t.e-ch th oi.:.i:ent' of the u'r-i nct. .in.. lerJt.e n.-r

till :1 .r -e we,.ith -f vir-in I.7 ert t:u '- il". :i e t

c::ce i :t ? :. .'. .n -.t the V.-..le ti..- 1. .1: it -. ,. -rttu._l i- ,' tt'

,fo- th- "-t. to t.

I,1 tr- ,cti- .*.'ul I.e iv '_ .a -t il.-.' -.t:.-t lr.-.,d',r.'.inr tree',.

i th:- i t. .t 'c '; -'in '- other c -L..Trci. 1 nrc l.ct in ti ir

Ft tlx? I1b' t j tp

"* ?:-e --1. -'- t-'" i. cli^- a" n -lli'r-. to h-,rti "1 .... in th- t

S-1 i nr- t iY. n .

I In all ncv' c -t.tries it frc...ic-; .tc i h. --,en. :::. -- -.-.::i.% :--. '

S-': i.- ,.en":dci of for'e-t trees. In cor::e *:cses it is quite ,simple ..nd

i:ne:-' nnive t'. cfor'-t th.-t re i '

1i P''TTGT'?'. E. The object of the instr-. cti rn is to en.-i le th. t-'1 .ent

to e--.-::es'- hi:nl::'l f i hiT m. trh-r t -in j e :.nd :m.':e it -,':r-n i -' f ih. to

un-lerit ndlinng_ fully the agnrint ltural literature of the dL.r. He should.

receive sufficient in-truicti-n to enable hi:n to write clearly and force-

fully on technical agric..ltural subjects, especially thrse th:.t conce'-n

the 'veir-dc:r' need. of the farmer .Later in the development of the college
Spanish and .English :n-iuld be :-ddegi"to the course.This will enable t!ie more
advanced pupils to read at first hand many bulletins tnd 1-,oo;::s published
in other progressive tropical countries.
11. HIST0RY OF BRASIL. Every student .rau.iti'. from the Aric'l tural

Coli.-,e should: hiow Prrsilian Tistory sufficiently to n'::n him ca prtriotic

citizen. Every "ttc a right to ex-nect her s.-in to be natri'tic.

Histnary is the l.est course fnr teaching --.nd inculc- tin,- pa;tri,.,tism in

th~e,ihearts of the young men. A well taught and well organized course in

hictnryl lead to -.n mpnreciation of economics.

Later in the course farm economics should be introduced and

taught as .9 well organized subject.

9. FORESTRY. This branch of agriculture is rarely appreciated by a

::tate until after the virgin forests h;lve been worked up into lumber

and gono into commercial channels. This has been specially true in the

history of ''.uropean and INorth uaerican countries.

It is not intended to give an exten ive or complete course in

forestry but only to teach Liie elements of the subject. linas Geraes has

still a large wealth of virgin forest that should be utilized so as to

kee; it from wasteing and at the same time rake it a perpetual industry

for the Ctate.

Instruction should be Civen on our Lest lumber producing trees

and on the trees that are producing other coL;:erci;.l products in their

native habitats.

On one side forestry is closely allied to horticulture in that

the handling of forest nurseries is very similar to the handling of fruit

tree nurseries. Tais is, however, ankart in itself and needs special cafe

and instruction.

In all new countries it frequently happens that a considerable

area is denuded of forest trees. In co;e caces it is quite nriunle Lnd

inexpensive to reforest that region.

10. PORTUGTESE. The object of the instruction is to enable the student

to express himself in his mother tongue and make it possible for him to

understanding fully the agricultural literature of the day. Hle should

receive sufficient instruction to enable him to write clearly and force-

fully oni technical agricultural subjects, especially those that concern

the evqry-day needs of the farmer.

11. HiICTrRY OF BRASIL. Very student graduatinzir frou the Agricultural

College should know f3rasilian Ilistory sufficiently to make him a patriotic

citizen. Every :tate has a right to expect her sons to be patriotic.

History is the best course for teaching and inculc:ating putriotisw in

the hearts of the young men. A well taught and well organized course in

history leads to an appreciation of economics.

Later in the course farm economics should be introduced and

taught as a well organized subject.


12. ..ATli]R:TCIC'. 'vory wOll organized farm requires a great -u..ny ;L'r-

itit.t:lOticLl amdi other c :icul..Ations. It is nint n- uinourlJ experience in

-an as:cmiolaL.e of 'fifty ocr more .atlldeullts rota t' to tind one fourthl

or more of tiheii inhufi'i'.:ie'itly nret-aroed in ..ritluetic:.1 ,tudies to enable

the;i. to inaiie tJe nece:,'..ty coLvmutatitouns required by thie course in

science. It iu not i ce::r:ary to go tile le.:'tih of hii'r iA .th;irtic:-; for

the Lt~ov:rt-o students.

:'a.r book-,kee7'inr or farm accolutin" ars it is noietine-' criled

ie a branch of utudly th;A: should he .le;.rinedl.' eb very rr:-ctir-l

a.l't]oug'li to thei uniifir'..ed thle matter seern:to pI,)tr,-.ct JandJ conr-lieuted.

"e3to .in JIave been viorit.ed rut 71;hich f:tiYinCt''ry for the AOost co.1-

'.Lic...ied oi :.:;.ricuL ui. rL'l o1ver.tion~.iu

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