Truck Growing in Florida.

Material Information

Truck Growing in Florida.
Series Title:
Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Physical Location:
Articles, Speeches and Other Writings
129. Truck Growing in Florida.


Subjects / Keywords:
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Agriculture -- Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida.


Edited paper on truck growing [farming] in Florida by P. H. Rolfs

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida Archives
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
Ms COLL 63a

UFDC Membership

Peter Henry Rolfs
University Archives

Full Text

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By P. H. Rolfs, r--'.:

This line of Agricultural business has grown

in suoh volume that very few people, even the thousands who are

living in Florida, have any oomprehension of it. magnitude. Florida

is a great'Statea It tL four hundred miles by rail from Pensacola

to J.aokeonvillte-and Overt five hundred miles. from Jaoksanville to

Key West by rail. While no portion of the State has an elevation

of over 350 feet there tis till a great-variation in climate, the

-western portion of the State being more like that of Louisianna and

Alabama and hence quite similar to that 0" the region farther north.

The region, of east Florida.-gradually-merge into the tropical oon-

dition. This ti shown by the inorearing abundance of oitrua groves

as one passes southwsard from JAcksonvill.e No one Oan tsay that he

has seen Florida If he has simply traveled thru the State on railroad.

lines. -muoh of theland adjoining the right of way is of a very in-

ferior kind. One however., gt a fair impression of the change la

climate a. he travels eastward over .he railroad from Pensaoola to

JaokeaCnville and then southward. The- region n whiob the greatest

number of palms cabbagee palmetto) are found begins on about the

narrowest part of the Peninsula. This -bersne is so striking that

-even the oisual observer-will notice it, no matter by what means he


Florida is a great winter greenhouse for the United

States.- The total annual production of vegetables 'amounts to thoue-

ands of carloads and brings an annual revenue of some twenty million

dollar to the State. It is the moet attractive employment for the

small holder. It requires only a small area on which to grow truck
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Oropel, aud at longest it is only a matter of six months from the

time of planting in the field until the orop is harvested. Millions

of dollars Worth of truok is harvested within ninety to-a hundred
days from the time that it is planted in the field. This make it

possible for the investor to realize rather promptly on his investe-
ment in labor and Oapital. The United States Census Bureau has shown

that the production per aore in Floritia ranks higher than in any other

State. The truck grower is one of the mo-st important factors in
raising .the average price of crop per acre.
The faot that Florida is able to produce the tender-
est of vegetables such as tomatoes, egg plant and peppers during the

oldest months of the year, has made her especially attractive, sinoe
-Florida is the only place in the eastern United States where truck ,
oan be grown out of doors in mid-winter. Its importance to the well-
fare to the people of'the United States oan hardly'be overestimated.

It makes it possible for almost everyone to have at least some fresh
vegetables on their table every day in the winter. Wlth..the rapid
railway service and the possibility of refrigeration, these vegetables

Oan-tbe delivered to the consumer in as fresh a condition as if they

oame from a near by market. The ehanw. of growing these in the open
over producing them in hot houses of the north are so great that thous-

ands of people have taken up the truck growing in the open in the
place of confining themselves to the green house.

There is no county in the State of Florida that has
a monopoly on the truck lands. Some counties naturally have a larger

amount of it than others, but good truck lands may be found in every
county in the State. A soil to produce a-large crop should be one

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that does not dry out rapidly ad at the same time should be suffi-

olently open or porous to keep from bfg w&teJogged.- Generally

speaking the gray sandy loams are more frequently employed than any

other. The rich drained muck lands that have been well aerated

probably produce the largest orop per aore. This however, varies

greatly with the particular piece of land and more greatly with the

particular maa who is handling the land, or we might put it in another

way, some men have a much-keeuer eye for picking out good truck lands

than do others. Some truok orops like eggBr lants, peppers and toma-

toes will produce a sati sfatctry crop on lands that are normally too

dry for lettuce, celery, peas and other orops of that kind. However,

under proper irtifioial arrangement a rather wide variation of soil

may beadapted to the needs of particular orops. The loose open

sandy land, spoken of in loIal vernacular as "blaok-Jack tidges and

spruoe pine lands* are not well adapted to truck growing, and while

it is-posible to reconstruct these lands to finally raise fair truck

orops, -there leemp little excuse for doing this where thousands of

acres are still lying idle. In short then, for aooosing truck lands

one should keep his eye on the grey eandt ioan and on the drained

lands. It should be-borne in mind however, that evn in thia narrow

limitation there are some soil that are not well adapted to truck



Under ordinary conditions the rainfall is rather

spare during the truck growing season. It is nearly always suf-

ficiently abundant to raise a tremendous truck orop when taken as a

whole, even if no system of irrigation is employed, but even the

drained lands sometimes become dry enough to justify irrigation.

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There are three principle typps of irrigation -
Sin genral use. The one that is most extensively used is the
mer-head system of irrigation- This can be employed on all kinds
of land. Water is so abundant that all one has to do is to sink
S9 wll6 on his farm ad get an abundant supply. By installing a
gasoline engine with a good pumping plnaa suffiolent water is
always obtained to run the irrigation systematA oapagity. The
Depth to which a well has to be'sunk for irrigation purposes will -
depend upon varying conditions. Usually it is only qoesaaar to go
Down from fifty to a hundred feet. In case artesian water is wanted
it iS usually necessary to go down from one hundred to six hundred
feet. ArtesIan water oan be obtaine- in all partat of th State,

ut hbut .fR only certain areas .whe te amuuaM is lo enough to
oause the wells to flow. When good flowing well can be obtained
this is of course, the oheapeat and most ponvenient-s~aroe of water
supply. -
There are numerous-,ypes of over-head irrigation
systems. This aes of irrigation he -been in pTracti-e for so long

that the inoonvenient and impractioable systems have been eliminated.
Probably no ore type Can be said to possess all the good points, It

A .will depend very n=h upon the truok grower himself as to which aye-
toe will suit his particular needs-best. In all the over-head systems

the pipes are placed on posts sufficiently tall to permit aesa to
--work -ader them.
.Tha surface irrigation system can be practiced only
on suoh lands that have a general elope in a certain direction. If

th general elope is more than four or five inches to the hundred feet,
some difficulty i:. experienced in Buiding the water down the furrows.

S At first sight it is pronounced-impossible by a-novice to ru. water

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ow nr fltorida smadt. It has been done so many times however, that

-it 0an no longer be placed in the impossible oluma. So it is
'possible to use the surface irrigation even on lands tt are relas.

(-vely high and whereathey be too sandy to et the water
run over them. Lands that are lew and flat frequently spoken of

as flat woods land, are -w easily irrigatedjb the eurfaoe methods.

These lands are usually very level and have a gradual slope -tn the

direction of the -water "ay. These lands also ara likely to be under-

laid with a-hard stratus. Frequently they are underpaid with hardpan.

W- er- flowing artesian wells oan be obtained this beo.omee an economical
and satiafaitory ,way of irrig.aton.

SUB IRRIQATION. In the region whSeri truak lands -
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are the:most valuable the-fields are underlaid with drain tiles at
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short intervals, usually 12 -to 30 test apart. These wet@ of drain-

tilt are then connected s ith a main which supplies the water to the

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--an ti {esr wihen at is desirable to .rriga te the laend.' A luge is
S put in the lower end 6f the supply line and the water i- o into the
laterals. /This a af irrigation i. practical only 'hen the field

is underlaid with a hard stratus to keep the water from sinking drjwn

too rapidly. It is alsd asoeasary that-the surface bof the- truok

field be absolutely level or that it is sloping witb an oven albpe in *

one dirsotiora. &.^i/^iL- i-.C/ *L.:? -t' ^/
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-- Hundreds of thousands of area of excellent trudk

-lands are still lying in the natural stat. Some of these lands are

every it as good as the lands-that are now being utilised for truak

growing. This latter statement will undoubtedly be denounced by almost .
*everyo-pt in those seaties where specialized farming or trucking is

.going on. -We muet remember. owrevr, that the lands whioh are now
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.pSdtaoiang azilliona of dollar worth of truoj were potentially just

a profoV~g te a-hundred.yeare ago a&.they are toAy. They looked

However, ftoV and that was the man. he lands had to be

GelVA L "p/lto -shape and the Wrope had to be wi-rkltWV TQ do this

required tame a nd an immense aMouat of labor. To get the labor be w.- -

had "to depend upon oommmnities so that he might hire the labor. Whoa

the suooease of itruok growing aeotions arS akalysed it will

in the end be found tha t ts was a:gooA trucking ooammunty a*hi had
more to do with ita suoaces than that-it was -artioular'ly good land,

The o-aracter of the rand can be ohanged,

Trucking is a work that requires Ea iummnse amount

of hand labor fti only a sh-rt period of the ayaz. At beat a single

orop oa not require muoh extra labor for more than ix or eight

Weeks and if the ooamnity ai a single ow6p community, the labor must

find some meansof a liveli-hood during the rest of the year. Several

of our moot- thriving thrU c oamuitiaes beoga at single qrop communities

and had to add other -ropa in order that they might .retan the labor-

ers from year to yeas. It would be very inadvisable for anyone to

attempt to start truck growing tar removed froa the trucking centers

or far removed- fom rapid transport tton, 'Thousandas f people have

tried it and later movedto oom$unities where truck growing wn made

' the principal- emrloymelnt and where transportation wa oertan and rapid,

It is not absolutely possible for a man to suooefl whto located

miles away from neighbore, but it is very rrobable that 'he would change

-Te location to a trucking community,

The tomato s- the king truok orop for F1Trrda. 'If

is grown from one end of the State to the other, but market4d in large

quantties from the enter of the Peninsula southward. ThU# rop iL


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-a. Xant & out so as to mature for mid-winter delivery in extreme

o *uthern Florida and then the gradually northward as

that by May and June ripe tomatoes are going-forward from the osn-.
tral portion of the Peninsula. The value of the cropper annum

may ~e ang anywhere from five to ten million dollars. It sl the one
orbp that almost every truck grower oan ralse, and more people are
employed in its production than In any othbe of the truck orope.

It It a vOersatil or adaptive'. rop. Small amounts
have been produoa on even spruoe pine land and now and then a man
rwll attempt to grow it on the baoek 3aok land with some suoosas.
Nowesvr, the man Who ohooses the right kind of land, tjAes the pro-

per Gare of his arop, ti certain to make more money out of. it than

those who use the light sandy land. -Muok land, flat woods lands,

-rolling pine lasds, all have been raising exelle t oarops, It- needs
a rather compact soil and,one tha will not-dry out severely during

dry weather and ean still stand. a vray large amount of water 3cugbgh
89 we find it to be probably the most adaptable of all of the truck

VARIETIES. The varieties of tomatoes to be planted

will vary from year to year. In general the fruit should ripen a.

Sdep'%red or purple, -The yellow and light red varletles sae sot
favorite on the. market, Varieties should alao be chosen that are

not likely to oaok or'produoe oat fac40. The smooth, round tomato,

ripening so as to p.ok about 33 to 36 in the orate, is generally Con-
-sidered-s a favorite. Perfection, Matchleas, and other of the old

Sne and Beauty type are still favorites. Pondorosa, Dw art Obm-

pion and those types are not largely grown. As nearly all of the
Tomatoes in the State are grown for northern markets, it is awportaat

That the variety ripen evenly and well in transit.

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The preparation and care of the seed bed it mmrt
one-half the ofmb of successful tomato growing, and it is the one
place at whioh more failures are beg:n. than anywhere else along the
linoe In extreme southern Florida the beds are usually prepared in
the field where the plants are to be set. A good lean place is
chosen, one that is to be free from root knot and other dis-
easits, preferably a new pieoe of land. This is worked up and put
into the best possible tilt. Then a oosiderable amount of oftton-
seed meal or other good fertiliSer is applied Cottonseed meal may
be applied at the rate of about one pound to the are to worked -i
and thoroly moistened down. ter 'this has been allowed to stand
for about a week or so, the soil illl be ready to reooiva the seed.
If good seed oan be obtained, three ounces will be enough plants
to set aa aore. Those plates will be ready to go tOtYp field in
about four weeks from the timp the seed is sown.
In the region further northward he see beds have
to be made at a time of year when frosts ase likely to aoour* These
soed beds have to be made in pold frames or under some othex condition
where it is possible to put a protecting cover over the seed beds
during the nights to protect tham against cold rar winds. Old
frames are usually male narrow so as to be convenient in ha~3ng the
plants and also in planting the seed. The drill in cold f ae may
be made six inches apart and the seed dropped so as to use a ounce
for about every five hundred feet of drill. The drill should prefer-
ably run across the bed rather than lengthwise of the bed.
Tomatoes will grow and ripen one or more fruit tader
almost any sort of adverse condition that one could imagines, Tey
however, take very kindly to good treatment. The land shquid bo


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thqorol broken up and put into excellent oondltion. Before the

tomatoes are set out the fertilizer should be applied where the

.-Zpa ~hlare to be set. This Should be worked Into the soil well,

Sand allowed to remain for twp or three days in order that the

feftiliemr may become well disseminated thru _the soil. Ordinari-

ly it is not necessary to break up the entire field, but it is

desirable to plOw and prpsry drill that, portion of the field in

whioh the plants are to be sit. After the plants have been Set

the remainder of the field may be thrown up by a turning plow to

the tomato rowe. _Where the higher and-deer land are employed

for tomato growing, It i adyvisbls to break -the entire field,

Stunning it over completely tand deeply, following this with killingg

'ii)lhkrtl as .the out-away harrow oi weeder. on the lower lands

this is not so necessary as the C moisture is not so spt to -b lost

- from the soil.


Harrowing is not very muoh indulged In as it is a

rather expensive paetie, n the first place the Florida tomato

field is not *ry badly affected with weeds. If however, the field

has been mishandled 'nd weeds have been permitted to get the upper

hand, or if unfavorable weather conditions OOcur so that weedo get

a start bf the ttomato grower, harrowing is the one and oay n ty to

take are -of the field. However, thi s i expensive and as .' gaener&l

rule so cultivation is neCessary excepting suoh as oan be\ 6iven by

a horse drawn implement or shallow going plow that are not li to

disturb the roots and are to be preferred to the deeper goilg im-,.

plements. Ordinarily our soil are sufficiently aerated so, that the"

stirring of the surface two our inhes !- euffioient.
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Tomatoes are pioked when they are- tmning a utght

SeolotV -.1he picking cerw must be experienaoed hads to be able to

Swa the fruit is 'tu .s from a ef.p green to the lighter

l sole adn-hereby Showing its maturity. -When poked at this time

They will ripen properly In tr it and be ready for the market

at the proper time. They are taken to the-central packing houns

Where the to ar toe are packed g wording t. ripeness and size into

variou- grades. If the field hands are experienced in this liae,

there will be only one degree of ripenets, aince the field is gone

S OVer from two to five times to take off the fruit that is in auf-

: ftolently mature condition. All that is necessary in the packing

house than Ia-to orate them aoobrding to sims the lqrgeet aize

usually bringing the best money. Where the field orew is somewhat

oareless there three degrees of ripeness. Those that ar

too mature are known as ripea pad those that re too t rmture iea -

known as greens. In the central poking house the grading and

wrapping is frequently done by women,who bsaase especially expert

- at the work.

OSEsIf ..

Ceairy say be grown in all partS of the State of

Florida. fine specimen .have b:aen produced in every county in the

State. The work of eel growing however, its of Ouih an exspet

nature that it has gradually drifted to one large center ksnwn as

the "Oelery Oity.1 This Is simply due to the fact that the.early

celery grower in that vicinity reoognised the opportunity and took

advantage of it. Celery vowing is a high priced line of agri-

oul.ture. t is anot unusual to use -as uoh a #100 to $500 worti of

fartiliser per year on a single aaze, and it is not an uaoompwn hing.

to make a profit of 5BQO-to $1000 per &are. It- should not, beMt -

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'""kidSb W",wr. that4ill oelety growers use this muob fertiliser not
M t 4 a saV owereu make so handsome a profit. The best oel
las to provided with a thoro system of sub-lrrigation, euoh as was

.pravicusly -desoribed in the parragraph on Irrigation. It has been
developed and put into'psrfeoti -n largely due to the fact that an
abundanioe of flowing artesian wells could be- obtained. Much e-

S perimenting had to be done before the right amount of water to be

applied could be ascertained. Likewise the novice in qalery growing
if he were given the fertilizer mentioned about, would- undoubtedly
ruin his field. --
Expert labor in the celery field Is needed from

the tine the seed bed is started until the orate it played in the ear.
Consequently no grower need expect to produce the maximum arop nor

place it in the o.r 4 the best shape unlesa.he has expert Labo to
help him in 3.ll of the operations. This means that the labor used
Sla celery fields. has to be trained for weeks and even years of careful

attention to their duties. Even the smallest fields require a large

amount of hired labot- during the rush season. During the oelfs4

season it la not taoommon for a whole train load of celery to go
forward in a single day. / As a money maker, the orop when taken as

a whole rivals that of Irish potatoes.

SEED BED. The seed beds are put out in July or
August, special oare veing given that the beds have been well treated

so as to be free from root knot and other noxious diseases. Large
quantities of special fertilizers are used even on the seed beds. The

best shade for the seed bed is a thin canvass or oheese-oloth, that-

ever is used as a shading material, is placed on frames so that the
seed bed may be treated with a fungicide if necessary or with aa in-

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e. esUo4ids it ineeota appear. Ordinarily the seed bed is provided

with subirrigation onsequmnfly the sprinkling of th o. 0o is

na*oe*aSW. "7 n six to eight wasks time the plants have been forced

Along :uffiolonetly to be in goooo onlition foreetting into the field.

,?REFP ot OF THE FIELD. Celery soil is ,the

finest -ype of soil that we have4, Epecoially is this so where the

elery grower has been preparing his soil for a number of y-:are.

sorne field planted to cotton raises eormioui orope. When planted

ito orn as is frequently 'one after the oeley-orop is off, corn of

magnifioent site is produced and large yields of corn taken from

Sthe field. This goes to show that lands whioa produce the best

*rope of aelery are likewise in the very finest agricultural oondi-

tion. It likewise should convince the beginner that where the

proper kihd of .fetiliser has been used =nd applied in the proper

manner, that It Is practiaolly-impossible for'one to put o) too

muoh fertiliste. -

The celery fields rae give% the most thoro prpa&ra-

Stion that axe given to any-atop is the State. The soil is -plowed

SdLep, either by a three mule tesm or by a traotor .In ftot it

is turned as deep as the tile wIll permit. After this plowing has

been dohe, a thore evening andworking up of the soil is aose- with

a spoial dief harrow or OautVqSa. Finally the field is siaethed

Down to the evehese of a plank, Naturally cbalry land that is worth

Anything from $500 to $1500 per aore cannot be indifferently treated.
SPIETILIZWRS. Oelery growers have a special formula

for fertilizers that has been generally adopter.for beginners it i

important that they adopt thi sarme fertilizer, rather thin to expert

seant,on formulas of his own. In addition to the gennal fartililaq
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whioh is applied to the field, a certain anoutt is hel6 d I en eervn

for top-dresesings. The crop is watched loosely and if at any ti-.
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S rtaig its growing season additional nitrogen is neeede, this ie

applied most frequently in-the form of nitrate of mod., The arrount

of-fertiliaer needed and avplied will vary from *"ftto4*-9r. If

heavy leaohing rains ooour, ajbonaiderable amonat- of the ammonia is

ashedd out of the soil. The one thing that needs to be cared for i

'to see that there is.,enouh plant food in the soil to.keep the oelery

rowing from thS time it ti set out until it goes to the orate.

MWRKSTISN. The FloriLa Gelery _,onto the

market after all the northern stock has been oonsiae. It -omes on

fresh from the field, oonsequently- it-is su h rare delioousu than it

would be after.having been stored for weeksF and even months in oold

storage. Being rown under tha most intenalve methods it is orisp-

nutty and easily digested.


.Irish potatoes -in florida are n lasted among the

fancy vegetables. Anyone wh$ think thi~ a cs ot so needs only to

attempt to buy new Florida potat s in the northern astrket for

Christmas dinner or for any other dinner for that matter, and then

compare the prioe of the4 with what he pays for the stored product,

Protioally every county- in the Stapte has prodUoe4 Irish potatoes

f"t northern markets. The Ohriseta3la rop goes forward from the

Southernmost counties and is usual ly packed in haimprs. .very-

body of course, wants to have new Irish potacQas for his Christmas

dinrer.. It takes new Irish potatoes to compete With the other

delicious vegetables for that oopi~aon. .The northern most part of

the State sends the Irish potatOep .to market sometime during late

spring, bginnlng usually with Ap*i. and continuing until June. -'As

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it takes only ninety. to a hundred days from the time of planting
Sfor the maturity of the orop no one need have aaidiffioulty in knowingg
i appnzoim-ately the time in whioh to plant potatoes. By consulting
She water man it i. not difficult to find the average date of the
10 t *pring frosts. The see should be planted so that the young
Potatoes will just escape th-ae frosts.
Irish potatoes do not require as mUob es aert labor
as is required by oelery, lettuce, egg plants and peppers. However,
If one expects to make a large drop of Irish potatoes by employing
onay ordinary floating labor, he will surely be disappointed. --OrA-
.nary g od, intelligent _laborers oa soon be taught to perform practi-.
oally all of the operations necessary in the handling of this crop,
-. itsh potato growers in Florida ate Aiong those
who have had.t) pay excess profit tax.
SOIL. Irish potatoes will grew on almot all
good Florida-aoils, or what .was ordilnilly flat woods lan. -This
land holds the moisture well. is very level amd Ooneequently oan be
irrigated without an extensive system. Fortunately also, '"atesian
Sweater is nearly always to be had in suoh regions. Irish potatoes
Produce excellent cropa also on- th drained lands and make the
finest of produote. -

he preparation of the soil variep with the different-
Sloalities and oharater of --the lai on which the 7potstoes are to-be -

-planted. In the flat wooda region it iz-necessary not oly to pre-
S- .pare the lansa in-beds so that they may be irriglted, but alm prepare
them against the possibilities of sepver rainfall,- In other word,

-provision must be mad. both for ir~igaion and -for drainage. 8~P-o
Sproviaon i usually made by laying the land off in beds varying la

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wVth abowrdJng to the-binor Variations of the soil. Usually such
be l. are 89 to 40 f.eotw i with deep water furrows between the beds.
The rows in these beds are then ridget up and the seed planted in
e ow., -
MARKETIJQ. -Nearly all of the operations with the
production of Irish potatoes lends itself quite well to the use of
labor saving machinery. The field are large,. oonsequently traotors
are eoonomioal machines to use for preparation of the lead, Planters
oan be uaed for putting out the crop. Two horse disk oultivato can
be readily employed for cultivation. Diggers save much expense ove
Sbhand labor. Grading machine do the work more perfectly than oan be
done by -hand. finally the motor truok to a more economical trane-
porting vehblolh han the one horse wagon. Sparyirn is done by powea
rabhines, taking in anywhere from four to- eight rows at a time.
In the foregoing disoour e I have taken up the
heavy crops whose annrul sale run Into- the milliono. There ae many
others that are oaNesuOBmpetl tors with some of those mentioned. The
limits of this article however, forbid any general discussion on these.
Under certain olaaalfioation, sweet pota oes are considered as a vege-
table orop. If sweet potatoes are considered a vegetable crop, this
one crop would ovet top all of the others... It is so generally grown
In Florida that it is really looked upon as a fibld orop and only
the arly production, euoh as my be marketed in July and August finds
their way ttths northern markets.
S" AAmoig the orops that are produced In large quanti-.
ties and are shipped forward annually may be mentioned lettuoe, pepper,
egg plant, uoumbers, oniono, cabbage, squashe*, water melona, oaata
loupes, English peace, beeta, okra, romaine and bean. The last meu

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si .. -
Sfor t. I 0. the lai man s oropt Aoequt all that t neods

tl. e pert he ant ki goeod bean ead 4n enhe sto it and who at theo

41- he.'ektPDP1,.. -' ther-for.ebec~v a e striotly-on n
:.-as time knows looal on dititons as well as northern markets at a

Sao.fte. It tikes only. from fifty u to sety ,p ays from tima of aowing the
-fox the or op to -beteaay fr market,. 7%ua0 an nd required no expert

Spre paration it does riiro an expert to know twhetheat arhe soil
. i good-bean so.1l o not,. It does not required an expert to pack

Us the beans ana it doAs niot require an expert to put' these beana on

t he saret prlprly,.. rt therefore. becomes n iore strictly odne man

pro position- ta almv t any other.orop. The total numibr of snap

market -tart ',froz Oeorgia, loiueianna and Texas'field s which is

sometime in tp u spr ing suat y- during yon

t tuoollar worIn addition to the a Vegetables that are pro-

di.uced ~i fe is almost an utening li-t of unusual and

Pi geon peal, o t ginger, yaQinth pea and others.
S- aflME OF PLANTING, The following is a. tentative

lit of the eetabdhp that may be planted during the different months

in differs soeotenai of %he tate op a2oxida,


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