Truck Growing as a Quick money crop.

Material Information

Truck Growing as a Quick money crop.
Series Title:
Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Physical Location:
Articles, Speeches and Other Writings
131. Truck Growing as a Quick money crop.


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida.
Rolfs, Peter Henry


An address on truck growing [farming] by P. H. Rolfs

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida Archives
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:

UFDC Membership

Peter Henry Rolfs
University Archives


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Its outlook and its Limitations.

By iFH. Rolfe. '
iHntIlTO:, kperiment Station and Agrioulturalj ix-
tension Division, Unlversity of Plorid4.

I a:a glad to be with you thib morning and

address you on one of the great industries of the south,"

Truck Growing* I shall feel especially grateful i I

ean say something that will enable the Georgia tirok

growers to escape some of the pit falls that beset us on

'all aides. If I oan brtig you a message that w-ill en-

able j/ou to euoape some of the disappointments that have

befallen us. As Chairman of the ixeoutive Committee of

the florida State Horticultural Sooiety, I can assure

you of a hearty affiliation. Yoxtr own grand horticulturist

the late Prosper J. Berkmans honored u- by permitting us to

enroll him among our honorary members .t first sight it'

woald seem, that i was rather far froi home, but au a Imtter

of fact, I am fewer miles from Gainesville, rloriaa-than I

would be if I were at ..ensacola or ut Homestead.



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Financially Georgia and Plorida are quite inter-

Gependant on one another,- a good price for cotton gtves

us a good. marett for citrus fruits and midwinter truck. A

good price for citrus fruits enables us to buy your eummer

truck crop.

Twenty years ago cotton was relativeLy the most

important crop grown on the 'loridae farm Today it is

relatively an unimportant orop. Cur truck brop sells for

about three ties as much as 'our cotton and the fruit crop

'for about four times as much. Rven corn il worth more

than-three times as-amch as is our cotton crop*

Georgia is just beginning to awaken to the poss--

bilities in the p roduotion of truck.*


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C routMiiz n .ers aGeorgla has 37 alllion acrea oa

and, 32 amil2 3on acres are sald to be improvedM 3and on

r/ 'arm8s, according to the Ui tes States Census Report for

1910. Assuming .that nearly the entire area tI capable

S or tbbeiing tl3 ed we Have under nominal cultivation about

.; one-third of the entire area. Tahe l target amountt of laprove

S meat o f arm In Wl in Georgia has ta]:en place outside of

what is popuiarny lawn as the "wire-grass' country. This

S corresponded in a gendras way to the area that is 3own more

correctly as the coastal pLi41ns.. O th ooauta plaln

region accurs what 1, now-it uafl t pt orar r~qe T1

: Jf I h-tht rsion3 o r-66 aaree .arast Of InVry chomap arfl

.t'ar4r-freu .T

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o' thn conditiotis as they exist, these lands are capable
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O_ o r being made in to the bes t'b our agrilcultura ]aa s in

^ th ,te State, -TaFe ense ca aB3e of produoring miff lcient
=:e :t, ,

aS .. sount of tanm oeops to support a population mwny tties

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larger than is conained in the nti re State. It baas

only been within recent years tbat tie region. has been

conai4lred to be at alI suitable for .the whit6 I-an to

live in. T numerous 1Justrations t at may be ci ted

of splendid homes and prosperous farms in tils. Te ion

aoly that it has beer a 3asg negleotl' region. The

coastal plains regn oa f Geoltale and for that. matter the

rest of the Southern States, had to await the adv at of

qu'io ,tranporartation and the depletion of the Western

anda. orthemn rfre. The plonees of tha West were not

faloflOturists but soil robbers, They found a very fer

o1ef and phome rodutve el that was oa33ed inexhaustible.

After thirty.or forty years -of soil robbing they "were Trce

to tae i th the feat that their so3 a ld e orn out tnd

-nedea Iald ing up to be mae Geargain productive. aDurig tit

last fif t Rare ther Stated States has been anvat of

qior, tnaion rtatenl t camn tI fto te pplid the saest



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E. We hia*e onstantly been approaching .arer-

Br the poInt whore the food products produced

Last year (14) we cro the

L ine where we -becams e an importing nation food prodipe ts

igis.- does not mean that we did not-export omi6 wheat

and otafer small grain-s9 but we imported a sufficient

amount of other food- product so that we% ad no b4tmoe ia L

favor tcf hsap taina ani ool aa paeduots.ater these con-
ditions the rice aof food t phduot

that does nhalot greater dlneed t itheritenomey ourat

metod otef farmLng as mak, ourt farm pote a more u cprodntive
rtaen In t ae oited stadeor and the present outlooe 19

Sthat wee s elj hereafte aned to si.ther n tiono oiTy our

risen t in ofe fnieng aWtaae OUT fand lthe pee re p3?oomctlTe
la we e*a' *ee~e ne_ *-lte neo a

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S _e a3) know this is quite unnecessary, as it is

possible for the Unt ted States to produce all the corn

needed. by our oti people, but the fact remains that we

do not do it. AS long as prices of food products ranged

very low there was no great Incentive efl a Jarge amount

of aki n and energy t-tr -usaV in produotion of these ar-

Sti W as

jira --amwl A-or n ,tiiter tn -r--- 4ft'-- e &- "-- mor pr.

dhettb .... A year or two ago when the price of food ro-

ducts -was increasing Tery rapidly, and probably reached

its msminum, someone aai4 facetloudly that the nec-ssitles

of life ha ftoome. ad expenasve that he would have to

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o r eas atS less of ir el:=.CLC t we Wca3 neoessitles.

I SsJutt tt t 0. w hV, M r d qw *% 1 : '

ale know this is quite unnmecessarm as It Is

possible for the t'nted States to produce a33 the corn

-neede. b' our o li people e but the fact remains that we

do not do it. AS long as prices of food. products rmaned

r ey low there was no greA t incentive tr- a large amount

of tti33 and energy4a-btnr~uaed~in production of these ar-

& m. fr aR, ** "%. t

dfettto... A year or two ego when the price of food pro-

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its saEm, .adomeope sala-t raetionpay thati the e nceasr-es

3a-rs- .tt... ....t gm a..e..T tha e ,-,l.a.e o
oftSfltkS. a ar ago GKtre tra hs. oW fd hv to

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.live on the luxuries. There is more sense to this state-

S. Rnt than we would at first saoord it. We- xR ftIn that

S. th)e products which we conlsdered luurles twenty te. 0-

ir.tmly-flve years ago are oanoidered stap.e neemssltles

of the houseehold of tool Mwent-flve years ago It was

aC onsidefed quite a lumry to have ripe tomatoes 94r other

S fresh vegetable, -we ..w l .1 _ay--at Chrlstmastime or at

Rastertide. Now, however, these materiala are being

prrodfoed in such large quantltles an dellvere~ to the

Consumer at such p eeaonnab prices that they have become.

StA tat0e srtloaes of rood for almost every month In the

S year. -

I.remember inJ the spring of 1893 seven ar3oaals

of tomatoes were placed on the iA YorX market in a single
ais "

g dy, and broke the prioe's to lees than the coat of trans-

poxrtetlon. This was heralded by the lorlda papers as a

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or 1er-p ion t h
large over-proautlion of this sit r vegetable. At the

Spreaent time it sl not anuneoamon thing for an entire

: train oad of tomatoes tsbe thrown on the w York mar-

ket without causing Teen the .ausppl on of a 'break in

prices.- M a" caattor o ot .n I IKave seen a8 marty as

Sporty arloads of cucumiers leaing a single statlon tIA

gne day and yet the market was calling for more oucumbers.

SaR ol ting tr8 itllustratlon to show how enormeouly the

tr ae In vegetables .s grovwp d ar ag the last two decades.
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I can bring this before you Maet more onc ortely by g-i- -

Ing you sataistos in ten-year periods of the rise of

track growing in F orida- for .the sale oa te -point I

want to make later in a~g a.drees I a. a3so giving you the

rise of t l fruit crop in Florlda during the sae period.

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I- R. .ae 9f Trust Growing Rise of Fruit Crop-
i .n florlda 24 P 3ortga *

I890 o 900,000 1890. $500,000
2.;900 2. 10,000oo (2893g 1 ,200,000)

S' 3910 6 0z3o,000 (3 96 3650,oo)
4<, i. l V a- S-, v^ / A -,.
;i' 2900 1,200,000

/y7 /,A,1- 1910-.:: 5,900,000
12 9 8,o000,00.

X Ware gtre4 these. tables in round numbers. and confined

Siie. ~ tto. t9 t money values of tie orops. Shonul we go more

:, ._ly Into thBe tatistta we wouId r' n there were sore
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year during wflIch there was a large Inorease in the

: aibonta of truolk shipped, and then posalb)y the neKt year

tHe aiownt ahipped allghtly eoreaat., 'but the. general
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S denoy- wl.l .udoiute dy eMontiue almost indeainttely, -

oe taIr cnly: Indefinitely so far as it oonderns those o? us

S' are- aseblea re today.

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V .ith all of the tremendone amount.of truca

.i. oult-ivating fivo time ars mucCh lands amo i u lo ru

rhero thi a difference, however, Georgia e s giving

her main attention to the production of. fai :cse nmd

bstapl oetwile lnorida is giving much more attention to

the proltuction of tck orops and.fruituh I Florida

the value of the farmropse proeverd annGoria is de-

idedlr m.le thaln toh value of the trock and f-ruit

oro p combinon te tru )k rop m f alone approuh nearly

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two-thirds of the value of the field cropse

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Te Youll all reember :that in the winter 'of
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K1 .l45 we had'devatating frost in Florida, which

destroyed' for nts about 70,OOO000 worth of eitrue

tree. The result of th$p disastroua frogt was a tre-

maendous stimulation for a year In truck production.

this however, did not- greatly change the bniez Ial upward -

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.ten&ency. There- as a qnlok rise but it sthbeeided and la

the aMd 6f the decade we were probably not shipping uech

i orb traOk thari we would have if the freez.s ha.d not

occurred. It. is quite likely -

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e 04"' .ers Gg -- to tX trk rowi tile

year. Mire to no 4oubtbut btDat a large number of the

't.on farmers. -can do so ery pro ftably ',ra *a I

..quid -ong oop. or tue sae o o mparason I am

in.. t -the f 'n a t ,ertan ,tC orop... .

Be tfie'anera o50 to a65 ./ igarot 3. an 320 to 2

Co'3 (.r)- b ..- 7 q 3 0

(83294ye r. hor TO BOaal douqt 60o
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'.." .. tiw c s riop. for oottn wl utim oaWl many oI--

...bbag. 20 3 *e

o frm ers .a 90 o atermefltay. t o i a
*^..';t: to the time of ulaflettog cref'in truotc crops.

SC ateops 90 P 80 ;' atoea 90 130
,i: otn O saarg)- *a d70 o vSqua u m pasr) -50 60

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'Bb1",,i. a g 120 34. ai -. 20 3

l.-'. Caultflower 120 15O L 1uppers Zo. o *1)10

*|,Pes6,' 0lte 3so6, a"'r-Oo .- ioas 90 io
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-ruck growing, In florld a at ,least ls the pokler

g,.. in agrtoulture. To show-exactly what I meau by the

l expre aion., let. a cite an iJustration. Mr. iaPo, a

MisasslaIppi bIr-, but trucking nA the Terra Cait section Co

l. lqida in 389., was wll3ing to sell out his entire hold-

S. Wings. for $40 at t e time the tomatoes were beginning to

,wet fruit. Ee 0hel about eighty acres of land w;lich was

::. aortgagea to secure money ror Ierttll zer and

labor. His nelgMbors, Sesres Howard and Kennedy refused

to. accept the propoaltion, saying that he had entered tne
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.. iasl wliwthiem and le would ave to.atey. thUn and either

sink or swim with them. i. JUly of the saae year the aort-

Mgage was entirely paed otf and a uaiflolent amount of money
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In the b a to fa'an. the 0*94 orop. In 1908 a personal

f friend of mine, *miose name I will not give,. aouftt a prop-

,erty at saford fror about $7000. H planted the tire

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area to oeaery and that year made en ~g profit from ten

rpres of celery/to pay for the, entire property and have

noney in bank for financing the next crop. During the

buBer inhe prepared for another large ce2 ery crop for the

next year. He and his family were preparing for; a trip

to tour ropee after the second crop should be turned

into. oney. A splendid crop of celery was raised but

at the time it waa sipped it would not pay for trans-

tertation. As a result Of tle second year s*venture

there was no trip to Kurope but on the contrary a heavyy -

mortgag on the property and te. daughter of the family

we;e teaching so 1 the nixt year.

Truck growing is the poker game of agriou] ture.

Last year an unpreeadentedly large ao- of tOruk

was planted out in e t 8ae Southern ]3orida, especially

around Fort *yers and in the seoayne Bay region. Brery-

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thin-g went along splend dly. There was scarcely a beo

tar year -for truck growing, but on the 7th of March a

frost soonrrel cutting off a r3 the trucr to WMasa about

thirty een am south of Mlram. Two waeks after the frost


T50o sacreof tomateum south of the region visited by the

jfrot,. He told mse .Jrnma that the frost was worth

15,000 to .=la, but be greatly wander estimated it, sin*e

before the and of the seasac It proved that ithwas wort~

.ore iman $0ooooo 0 to mm.

Trok growing i the poker game of agriou3ture.
^35000~~~~~~~~ to -~m ---------- udr stmte isi


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Who Are the fSoocstful Track Growers?

Fortunes of onsiderable size have been bull t up

on'the truck growing business in Florida, 4s ny 133us-

trations show, Jere sl no certainty $s to whether the

track grower who plunges; anlputs his last dollar lnto the

business is going to come out at the end of the season

Svety oe31 y off or w thout n meney-rrr l

Satirt. From zy dbseaatione among tae truoX growers

'In Florida, extending over a score of years, I am inclined

to believe that the financial credit of i truo) growers
cannot be nulned matterr how wild and reckless a plunger

he it is almost certain if he cangrow truck that

sooner or later somebody can be found wlo will finance

n his no matter if he has credit iutltxs

0gI OZ These plungers. however, rarely

Make any money for themselves. If they do it one year

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they are very sure to ~bntinue to plunge until they lose2

Their career as penniless as when they. begon.

In spite of the licissitudea surrounding truck

growing when indulged in on the gaml ar' S 'p32, there is

abundant opportunity for making a-a.4-- ofoney In trucc

growing If the grower plays safe". There is no truck

grower who las rthe keenness of Insight to enable nita to

teq]3 'what axops are going to,be sauoesstf during the

ensuing year. ij3. ieare anyone Wah can. foretell what

either proes or olimatic conditions are going to be.

There is no 4trficulty about making the stuff, the daFti- -

oulC coaeas in marketing it,at such a time as prices are '

remmaerative. Taoe 3ast year as an illustration In

73ortda. The frot w tri I rdefrred te'out off a very

large proportion of the;ring orop., Go large were the

r-Iplantings. however, and so abundant( was the crop

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A- Maw that Wragb g theta t ippig ea arV

Sm l different Rinds of truck oropa

were allowed to rot in the field for want of a market. AnA

yef last year was b a A which prices generally prevailed

liigh and the diiflcu2ty was more in the direction of adverse

climatic conditions tbar, adverse prices.A aIn i3ustration of

how fate pl3ys tricks with the trucker I want to cite the

case of Mr. KeiGy-y t a-e- ntee. .He was a new comer to the

State. co:,ing froam Louisiana, I believe, Throughi illness he
was unable to p]ant his lettuce crop a" the schedule time

but was about 38 days late In setting it out. The lettuce

that was planted out at the proper time brought less than

freight charges. Sr. Kelly's lettuce, that by a3l the rules

of the gane sHiould have been worthless, brought him about

00oo0 per acre net. /The mer in Florida wlo have prospered

at truck gr-',ving are t;osae who have playedd safe'. Tley

have usually put in those crops that so far as predictions

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tooIG te i&1new blhbl good ptlces.

I','. A dition- t tA hi ;, ,'9'- ..,at p*al one. ypar

in the t=arukoroa was never so 3arge a P tirtlon of

t r o aptal 4s to e i ouSly emb rra ti r o er-

ations a second year in -case the drop was a tota3 tai3ure.
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to1 yo as n auoc.aon a3ou.d be veras

tay .at ae the pers.onaaal credl and a conS -

h. l' ,* I I '- ,' '\ 1
.l fun t'oi a""state t. back tem. for a t ird

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,fijrm A neighbor of -mine who was said to be without any

money ,twenty years ago is at the present time. estimated to

be o .r So somewhwere from o100,000 to $300,0o00, his surplusa

from truck) growing having been Inested in real estate

.a~q other propert ea.,, Yet he is located in a tpgiod that

does not coise into the market any earlier than toe coast
p" i a
reglois of Georgia. ar. Joftir ro, to -wiho I referred

'lri a former portion of nqr adresa, has been truckingg for
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over' twenty years an4 has followed this butinesa in ee*

Sregol $ulu e'nt tfth He.-has worked ind er many

Sandfliaps and dcisaavantages but a' now worth rrom -$100,000

S to $200,000 though. he began a-withoat any money or ary fl-

nanolal backing.-

". i ntght continue to. alte illlustratlons "y-it

-eeG_, ~ 0. ma scores of illustrations of _n-

srauce4safu tuojcer wo make It a pratics to plunge.

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S'L iu~ltatlons

Should jou aak Is wbat 1t the most serious biana .

cap~ to tru ing in tlar extreme South -b ty whmorh I' ean

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6 *eorgia, Iortlda and southern :A;abasi arA EnC1Judfing- to

greater or 3ess extent Bouth and North CarolIna& -I ahduld

*Wvr It, was the lac= of coordination and organiantton.

Strteniotsl attempts are befnug made in F lorida to correct

S this de'fet. We ha' e now an active Growers4 & ShBippera'

Leag~it with 'many 2oca organizations, This Growera' &

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Shippers' ZLagueQ doea not conoarn Itaese wth .the Bar-

eting and-of the trnA dlg bll lines' The Florida Citrus

tclhange oancerna Itseet whely witn the -arketing of 01traap

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fnruta and onfcinda it afctivt-es to -that ciop. oPrvate

-' "iterprise and -sall Q E40 organizations are all weharve


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I. In tihe*qWy of marletirg '8orga1atlonsE for truck o*rop .

The marketing and di strMbting mnd of our work -i ONO

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-baieind tmh times. To sho hoV ttiis works, let -a alto an

123: station that occurred two year ago. 'A nelSnor

to tie Speirimaent Station., tW*fMambs had ton acr&a' o

'. as tine lettuce as wfe-ever produced outside a greenhouse.

During Februy so suoh lettuce was being turee-bon the

Snret that the. atuff would.not bring the freight. There

Swas -nftoing f6r m.r-it-arby- to do but turn his mi' cows

ipto the. lettuce feld. At th. same time tnat tLe cows

were -roweing on' the jettuaoe,Qcsaumers in Indianapo6l

wo rere paying 25 oents a lead ror their letttce. T'he. let-

tuce p --BrsTfed to l r~mi2r cows -could have been

capped and marketed in Indianar.ol s very profritaby at 5 '.

cents a haaw. Gtihb 1llustratlonsa 4ght be ntultiplied

by tile hnarad a. TmS growers bOtasS"out the omnalastoan liae

'a=pauf9gw., The Oc lsalon Oan'cusesa"out the grower for

i- dliwnO.ty- atnd now and tiUn tase. a hian at housing out

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the local distributor, retailer or whatever you may call

: ui"mi. And all of this gets us nowhere. Just as among as

the, truck growers make no effort to oombine and correct

tese eils there is no probability that tney will be die-

oontinued. iuaring the last five years we have had

little trouble from real over production of truck crops.

"ur troub3 e as arisen mainly from the 1 ack of proper 4.a-

-tribution. The *rg oaenters are quickly glutted
| '. "G~n.. .o _-.BJ
1and it becomes almost impossible to get the stuff eatUeen&

g Wp so that -It can be used up before it has decayed. r

proper, organization and coordinattn tilrs stuff would be

asent into the proper hainnels and kept from congestl g 13

Sthe larger centers. T~his ta not a theoretical and Vislon-

try idea at a]I, it has been oomplete3y worked out WS dif-

frernt agencies in 4firerent parts of the United States,

and Can be worTed out just as readily in Georgia and Blorlds


-. :.i:-,'. '. .. .


-. -. .*' *.. T '- .,,
c .

:aeturtly anti themain int'ereests that is the 'track

grsrowers thaweles,'shsalL recognize the necessity for

ooordiliption and proper AiEtribution. Temporary over

. th rower to aa hi tu it stan i the ;iald

,atoi a shp it forward into the fmarketr ani hhe it a '

abandoned. tar'ew Orga azations aro ng the truckers ito

.the .nly way to prqthw glutting te smarkat. It s naot

ta. paurt0oe to talk on the atter of organiation among

k-, ruok-'.ro**re,, bs; for tb.e oomapleteness of my adrea- ,

atoda it is wooea-aryto mention this somewhat at length

S aAnother l1iraitationawe haye -in the trucking bL -'

ineas at the Ixresapt time is a lot k eat starnardisationo

t-hi eaan be over a e9w oLy. ba tabtla~Isg autral paokag

hoaaey foe thM e t o nityq This works is einag rapidly
.. o- .
rA.- _, ,. -.
..-.-' 2 > .

: oarr.e4 forward in florida.- The snall individual paoke

'.:; g house .for each farmer is rapidly loosing favor. Thea

, -;.' : .* .
S eeztzal peo kng house gives a aane1hbettor opportunity for

S grading, sizing, and markoting the material.

S'* I have already referred to selling organisationes-
__ .

This, however,, was in a rather broader sciise than I want
r. ,' -'

to mention now,- h.;att I am refe-ring to here is not aay

..' broad scheme of marketing, but a local .organisation whioh

runs the central packing house,- grading, make tin6 a '.

c, collecting :the returns for, th truak4 whether it is oon-

aigaed to the Mkotarkt, sold to buyers or disposed of in any

first steps in the right direction and one that is qtite

s'el d :. e .
aa: *3. aj nd: .reQul. J #* .. d

;:. ,r.

i:':.::. "" i -' 4.


at. "t)I-n a small way tce the at the-
II .. .*- I- S .

^:..'^- tiT tsufsk grofint, wOaratyone in thio m egion should tory

Iouatr as other" E il ie t "o t.h e i e i at te
1f -a n l
66i.r .

-. GhiO Ppe h as GZGEPROA -IaT Iela. G9is i6 th Oi e

tin atruc Geeronit A. to miLryten tii- regiotana isoultry
^'** *-.. '* *+ 'aeab .o nery .em nl- -'
S .- ,-

abot ." a.s.l th" ge i = -nsmu G
? -- :

*+ .. N ...

J!,' a .te. as-n to it tgat hia' get.r fain work, stook,

populatir yb aoe is hl-L cidhao -tha n e t .o.. arei-thirn g *

hi- - ------- ---- -
.,tj.,. -. o,.. -.. ,.. ." W bY S C y...+ ....... ,+I. -, F... ,'.,I .'-4 + ', + :K ,.,'.S 4 ,..r. ++ +,%

s i i


;..- .





;-. .r


-- I







i. -

: .

: 1



the di-stance from'tBe great buI~ of the people, ts e great

vegetable consaumng population of the Uilted states that

TexaQs is. The difference n freight srtes alone to sut-

fiolent to make a handsome profit to the Georgia farmer.

Ant with twiu b lwaneteltof or the trauc

.rops (an a tariff that can na ser .e removed) there is

ao toy no reason,wy this satire seotlon should not

enjoy a very luoratives and wholeane traAe In thl truck

rops., The time "as long since passed whn frean VeMe-

tab32ls n the early spring months-are regarded as luxIutee.

They are now necessalteas, de1 anaong the6 poorer 0 assea of

the larger o.tert -




I Coluainonse

1. Truck can be -tpicLat-a.1a marketed in so

short a time that it makes an ideal orop.

P. Truok growvin should be carried on in con-

junotionwith other intensive far.ninig operations.

3 The tiauoker who is a plunger ia almost cer-

tain to end a bankrupt.

4+ the tru.kel who plants a liiaitei amount of

vegetables of r.ll chosen kinde io almost certain to


i. Georgia has an ideal soil and location for

trucking. It cojesoff alter tho Florida crops and be-

fore those of the Carolinas*.

6. The most serious limitations to increasing

our truck crops greatly is due to the lack of proper organi-

.aations to effect a proper distribution.

7. Proper organization must como about by agree-

ment of the truck growers.









., -, f -

Conolusions (COon't.)

8. Proper distribution' oan be aided by federal

\ -

le~gilatioa and made effeotiTe through looal orgnt.iasations.



'-' e .

l l


r' -
""' 1
-- -

homueqs foor the community, This work is being rapidly

' carried forward in ilorida* The small individual paolk

in hoe each armaer is rapidly loosing favor. The -

central .packnug house gives a mulch bettor opportunity for

Se grading, sizing, 'ad. -arkxeoting the tatcrical.

I hfme already referred to selling organizations.

This, hov.v r,, as in a rather bro :es.- ~einoe -thnx I want

to mention nowv. That I am refe ring to h re is not any

broad scheme .of marketing, -but a local orLanls at n whieh,

runs the central packing house' grading, iMarketin6 anad ,

co llecting the retaras Tfor t he tuok, whether it is Gon-

signed to the hearket, sold to bu y-res or didsosed of in any

other way., A looal 6Xlling orgaisitio ie One of the .

. first steps in the right, direction anad one that is quite

- easly and frequently oeua e --

Its outlook and its Limitations.

By .'H RolfJ.'
t 17.- ., xperiment- Station and agriculturall Zx-
11 ntion Division, Unive-sity of lorida.

I a C tlad to be with -ou thi i morning anli

address 3 ou on oone of the great industries of the south,-

Truck Growing. I shall feel especi-lly grateofl if I

oan say something that will enable the Georgia truck

gro-wrU to escape some of the pit falls that beset us on

all 6ides. If I can brj.g you a message that will en-

able ,ou to escape some of the disappointments that have

beiellen' us. As chairman of the Mxeeutive ao ittee of

tho florida state Horticultural Society, I can assure

you. of a hearty affiliation. Yo-r own grand horticulturist

Sthe ate .-Irosper J. erkim -. honored us, by permittin& us to

enroll hia aiong our honorary members. .,t first sight it

-oalJ (,eem that I was rather far from home, but au a mgntter

of fact, I am fewer miles from Gainesville. rlorida thai I

would be if I were at en aeola or at Homestead.

Rise of Trust Growing Rise of Frult crop,
in Florida 'in F3orida

1890 $900,000 1890 $500,000
2900 2,100,000 (3893 3,2,, 000)
3910 6,820,000 (1 96 650,o00)
/f 'I 1900 1,200,000

"- if6 /, f,- 1910 5,900,000
0 12 8 8,000,000.

I HIave given these tables in round numbers and confined

them 'to the money values of the crops. Should we go more

deeplyy into the statistics we wou3d find there were some.

years during wnich there was a large increase in the

aniount of truck shipped, and then possibly -the next year

the amount shipped slightly decreased, but the, general

tendency has been very strongly upward.. This upward teA-

dency will undoubtedly continue almost indefinitely, -

certalnly Indefinitely so far as It concerns those of us

who are assembled Mrs today.

ith all of the tremendous amount, of truck

crops that are going forward to the market from Ylorida,

we h\vr under actual cultivation in our ta;te onl. a-

bout one-twentieth of the area 6f our itate.- Georgla.

. ia oultiva.ting fivo ti;oc as much land .s is l].orida,.

here la this' difference, however, Georgia is giving

her main atten tion to thie production of ,an. c aops. an

staples while Florida is giving much Aore attention to

the production of t ruck orops and, fruit. In Florida

Ahe valne of the :farm,o rops produced ajnuI..1.y Is 4eo

cidedly le~s than the value of the truck aid fruit

crop combined. The trujc cro'Ip" alone approoh nearly

.two-thirds of the value of the field crops

I /, "' Z. .

large over-production of this steptv vegetable. At the

present time it is not an uneomonon thing for an entire

train load of tomatoes, tosnbe thrown on the ew' York mar-

ket without causing even the suspicion of a;!break in

prices. I have seen as many as

forty carloads of cucumbers leaving a single station in-

one day and yet the market was calling for more cucumbers.

am citing this illustration to show how enormously the

triae in vegetablestiaas grown during the 2ast two decades.

I can bring this before you much more cancretely by giv-

ing you statistics in ten-year periods of the rise of

truck growing in Florida; for the sale of the point 2

want to make later in nWr address I am a2so giving you the

rise of the fruit crop in Florida during the same period.

/. o


re, else. Buat it w1ll not be woaed ou satisfacto-

rmly 11 the main interests, that ts the t ck growers

them~eeves, eha1I recognize the neceesilty or oozdllnation

and proper is ibution. Over jProdic ont Is aike3y. to

occur am year to ear in any cr and in some arop it

w.l3 occur every year. When, ever, over production

oes oour it 3Is ar. che tfor the gr wer to abandon ,

S3is stutf as ithetands t e fleA thari to pysh it forw

ward into the market hd ave it abandoni.ed there.

'It is not purpose to: t on' the matter or od r

gnizatlon, truok grlero tb tfor the comply etiel.e

a .. .: ; / -,.-
o of I a dres today it ls necessary t mention this apme-

what i thw

.Another limtitat-lon we have In the ct king abusi-

nea ati te present tiin tIs a /.i oi stand nation,

T"is can be overcome on2y br eatablisahing central ptoking

"S .".. ... '..t '"' -..I ,. ..... : "S

the distance from'the great bulk of tlhe people, the great

vegetable conawanig population of the United States that

Texas is. The difference in freight rats a 3one is uf-

fioient to maxe a hand some profit to the Georgia farmer,

And with this a et. .&ai'ff r .. ht. rt on the truck

orops (an4 a tariff that can noTer .be removed) there Is

abelt te3y no reason, wly this aeiUre se otion should not

enjoy a very luorative and wholesome trade in thae't-.ue

crops, The time has long since paWed whl f re h vege-.

tabl es n the early spring aonth are regard ed as luxuries.

They are nqw neceasitles, evei among ithe poorer glasses ot

the larger ce.ter's. /



Georgia isveryj fiv -rab{ located foi remunera-w

,ive trt.uck going. iivuery one in thib, region should ti -

at least in sa s ll way to 1roc-,,C',e the 11rope t- ,aO at the

Proper season oC t he ;earb (ainig this ork tt a side issue'

after havi.aS ` sao-n to it .thut his genia& a fana ork, took,

p poultry and other lines v,'ioh auit him best,, ,are giving"

hi i a suafficierIt remeunration to maue a good living for

,'' himselfad his f.aaily.' .

If you will view the wap of tI ie 'United -6t teas

- with me for a moment yoa 7' ill notice th at IadiaxAapolis is

about in the contb c p pia.on for the Utiite.d States.

S Thia has a -very important bearing o-.the welfare of the.

Industry in, rGeorgia. 6is wvire 8gs poetry is only
i "

;aboat half as- ar to the great maia2,tuaig anS cons=dming

population aS is 'lorida. t is lessathan one-third

I < T W.. *

*. ; .
t : 1. .' .*. ," ". : i "' *, : '' *... ". ,

We. W haVe constantly been approach-Ing %9a&--

the point where the food products produced

in the thited States were consumed by onU own peop]3.

.f. f. prdto w-r- epotd This consisted mainly

of the small grains and corn and pwAducts from these

-ag.riou.t.u.Tal--rop8. Last year (l3910) we crossed the

line where we became an importing nation of food products.

Thia. does not mean that we did not-export some wheat

and other small grains, but we imported a suffiolent

amount of other food products so that we had no visance In

favo prtatIn f protr tider these eon-

ditions the price of food poot att3ly hafe

risen in the United States and the present outlook i,

that we sa33] hereafter need to either intensify our

methods of farming as malke our farn 1 ands more yproduetive


live on the luxuries. There is more sense to this state-

ment than we would at first aoord it. 1We R- find that

the products wJilch we considered -luxuries twenty Ue. rr-

tnlrty-five years ago are considered staple necessities.

of the household of today. Twent~-five years ago it was

considered quite a luxuty to have rIPe tomatoes a* other

fresh vegetables, h Ljg t Chrlstmaatime or at

SKastertide. Now, however, these materla2 are being

prodUeed in such large quantities and. del1vere to the

consumer at such re&a =gab34 prices that they bave become

stale articles of food for almost every month in the


I.rermember iin the spring of 193 seven oaro ats

of tomatoes were placed on the w Yor6c market in a 8thgle

day, and broke the prie's to lew4 than the cost of trairs-.

portation. This was heralded by the Florida papers as a

that tra low prices for cotton wil3 stimulate many of

the farmers of Georgla ,to take up truck growing. this

year. There is no doubt but what a large number of the

cotton farmers can do so very profitably. Truck is a

quick money orop. .For the sale of ooiparison I am

giving herewith1 the length of time necessary, from plant-.

lug to tie time of marketing certain truck crops.

Time from seeding to Marketing
daqs days
Beans (snaps) 50 to 65 / ggfl3ant 120 to 150
Seets 75 90 Lettuce 90 120
Cbantiopes 90 320 2 Tomatoes 90 130
Corn (sugar) 6o O- -o Squash (summer) 50 60
Cabbage 120 -340 6-Radiai 20 35
Cauliflower 120 150 4Peppers 100 0" .'
Cucumbers 60 90 W&ttermeneaus. 100 I* 50
iiv 11stls eas 60 80 Onions 90 0



2 k v // 6 -ar


4.Ued that before the end of the hilpprng season arrlvedm

mo re than a midlon crates of different kinds of truck:

crops were allowed. to 'To in th 'ie a]fl for want of a .r-

let. And yet last year was one in wDicch prices generally

prevailed thigh and the difftlO ty was aore In the direc-

tion of adverse olimatei ondlt oni tian advyer4O prid-es.

The mean in Plorid a whoi bare Fro..spered at truck
'- r / z '-

.. growing are tnose Who have a 3aycd lfe '. tliy have

usually put in those crop that so fraas predictions

could d determine Would IM reasonably o prices -

Swiiti't.on to thi-s. the ..ou-nt invested in one y-ear In te

truo orop was noe sol arg -a proportion f their capital

as to seriously atrrass their operations a secondd year*-

A4 e r.n it It6o years in. sucoession lsouJd .e \aelverjle thl

still have thetr personal credit anid e-. a _o-

iclera33 e amount oi real estate to back them tor a th2l .


r *' .

Who Are the SUocestul- Truck Growers?

Fortunes of eonaiderable size have been built up

on the truck. growing business in FIorlaa, As ny 13Ius-

trations show. Oere Is no certainty as to whe-ther the

tract grower who plunges;,i iadputs his last do) lar "into the

buslnesse ls going to come out at the end of the season

v .g)e e l1 off or withot ary MFo -- -.-_E G at .

Spare Fromu obaeaexations aiong the truoc growers

in Florida, extending over a score of years, I awa Ine ined

to 'believe that the financial credit of ^true growers

cannot be Wuinedgri matter how wild aiia release a plunger

he it Is almost certain if hA -a grow trc that

sv soonerr or later somebody can be found, who wll3 finance

hiim ao latter It he has credit but=t..

q WL I, Ue WgO These plungers, however, raore3y

make any money for themselves. If they do Ut one year
i1-* '/*'' ^ *, -

r1' ;*..; ..; ^ 1 ^ ^ '! '*" .1' .*.: : x ^ : -


With all' of the tremendous amount of tTk ,ic cp

that ar going forward to the market from F rida, we

have under ,actual cultivation in our Sta a only about

one-tenth 0 the area that is being tivated in Georgia.

There is his difference, however Georgia is giving her

main attention the product i ofqifrarm orops -and sta-

pIea while Plorida ia givir much more attention to ths

production of truck op and fruit. In P3orlda the

-ta3ue of the frarm or oduod annually is. decidedly

less than the value of the trucks and fruit crops Combined.

As a matter of act the true crops alone approach nearly

two-third a of the value of ti t 34 Acops.

conditions in Plorlda sucuh, and have been

BRobh f -a number of years that it e an excellent op..

po tity for stuadyi the situation pretty o)osely and

En els us to- formulate much 'more definitely just what



area to 0ce ery and that year made enagh prof it from ten
( / ,. *
alree of cele to pay for they entire property ad-a ave

money in bank for financing the next crop. During the

summer he prepared for another large aolery crop for the

next year. He and his family were. ,reparng .for,-a trip
\ .

to tour Nurope after the second crop should be turned

into, money. A splendid. crop of celery was raised but

at the time it was sAhpped it would not pay" for trans-

portatlon. As a reau3t sf the second years venture

there, was no trip to Zurope 'ut. on the contrary a heavy -

mortage on the property and teio daughter of the f8amly

weae teaching saotbI1 the naxt year.

STruck growing is the poker game of agricu3 ture.

Last year art ipreeadentedly large of trui

was planted out in extreme Southern -3orida, espepla33y

around ..ort ters and In the 1 EaynO 3y region. rvery-


thing went a3ong splendidly. There was scarcely a bet-

ter year -.for truck growing, b1ut on the 7th of March a'

frost occurred cutting off a31 the truck : to t*jda about

thirty miles south of 1iami. Two weeks after the froas

,I visited that section and saw Mr. j~e Trs, who had "

750 acres 'of tomatoes south of the region visited by the

frost. He tol2 me aA that the frost was worth

$35,000 to aize, but he greatly under estimated it, since

before the end of the season it proved that itmJwas worth

more tlan 1 00, 000 to him.

Triok growing is the poker game of agriculture.


-' *' .' *' ** e

,' -<* '


T- oc growing, In florida at least, is the poker

gsat in agriculture. To show-exactly what I meaan by the

expression, let me' oite an ill3utration. Mr.s j'ee, a

Mississippi by-, .but truoking In tie Terra Cola section of

i orida in 1893, was willing to sell out his entire hold-

Ings for $40 at the time the tomatoes were beginning to

set fruit. He held about eighty acres of land waichil was

Sortgaged to secure money for fertilizer an4

labor. His nelgibors, Messrs Howard and Kennedy refused

to aioept the proposition, saying that he had entered, tne

-ame with them- and he would have to-stay by fa- and either

sink or swim wi th them. In. July of the same year the mort-

gage was entirely patd off and a suffialent a.mournt of nonen

in the bank to finance -the 94 okropy 'It 1908 a personal

friend of mine, Oho se name I will not give, bouAo t a prop-

erty at SaiaTord for about $7000. o- p3 ated the wMtire
S', .-

p V.



' I

r -~


1. Track can be.-Iatda4, marketed is so

short a tae that it makes at ideal .e;op.

S, Truck voting should be carried- on in coa-

junati othi with other intensive farnnig operations.

S-34 The Li 'aokr who is a DpliLt6tr is almost cer-

tain to end a bankrupt.

4+ The t u(ker who plants a limited amount of

Vegetables o~f v.ll chosen kinsi' is almost certain to


5* Georgia has an ideal soil and location for

trucking. It, coame.s off aXter the. Plorida, crops and be-

. forethose of the ,arolina&,

/ 6 he most aoriius limitatioas t0" increasi-ng

our truck crops greatly ip due to the lack of pYroper oregani-

.-sations to effect a piop'er dliri]ution

7. Proper organization must come about iy agree

ment of the truck growers.

! =",..,

2/ 2

larger than is contained in the entire State. It has -

only been within recent years that this region. has been

considered to be attal3 suitable for the white niia to

live In. The numeroTis 133ustrations that may be cited'

of splendid homes and prosperous farms in th 1i region

Show that it has been a 3ong neglected region. The

consta3 plains region of Geotgia, and for that matter the

rest of the Southern States, had to await the advaat of

quicK, transportation and the depletion of the Western

and Nort hern fars. The ploneelsof the West were not

agmieflturlsts but soil robbers. They found a very fer-

tile and productive soil that was called inexhaustible.

After tlhirty or forty years -of soil robbing they were fTa

to face wit "the. fact that their soita had. worn out and

needed 'building up to be mamle again productive. During the

last fifty years, thesUnited States has been an ex-

S ortin cam p

I S -4 '. '' .


-the tendency and conditions are, e

To wl33 all remember that in te winter of

1894-95 we had very devastating f- at in Plorida,

wlich destroyed 'fo us about 470 0,000 worth of citrus

trees. The result of this i astrous frost was a tre-

S endous stimulation for th year. in truca production.

Al a whole the State di not,-f e o00 badly from this stta-

ulation, of truck pro tion. Tak the crop as-a whole ,

' ori da marketed unusually 3 large valuable erop of

truck the foZ3 wing spring. Tis, h0oweY r, did not
greatly o0i e trie general.
upward tendency. There was a

quick r se but it subsidedAy the -end of the de ade we

wer ,rob ably not Shipplng awach more truck than we would

have if the freezes ba~ not occurred. It is quite likely
t .

Finance ally Georgia and Florida are quite inter-

d eendant on one another,- a good price for cotton Pgives

us a good. mir ket .or citrus fruits and mi-dinter track. A

good price for eitrus fruits enables as to buy yonr summer

truck crop.

Twenty years ago cotton was relatively the most,

important crop gr-ow.n on the 2lor'ida farm. Today it is

relatively an unimportant crop. Our tr-uck trop sells for

about three times as much as'our cotton and the fruit er -

for about four times as much.. given corn is worth more"

than-three times a6-much as is our cotton crop.

Georgia is just beginning to.'awaken to the possi- -

billties ,in thc production of trucks :

*1' ,.-*.

S20~ .

the loca3 distributor, retailer or whatever you may call

htu. And a3 3' of tris gets us nowhere.,, Just as long as

the tlruk r.-rowers make .no effort to combine and oorrect

tnese evils there is no probabi3 ity that they wlfl be die-

continued. During the lst five years we have 'ad

Iittt e troub) e from :rea over production Of truck crops.

Our troub3 e has arisen mainly from the lacR 'of proper diea-

tribution. The d A enters are quickly glutted

and it becomes a3moat iirimpossible to get the stuff satuered

;e oo that it can be used up before it has decayed,, .

proper organization and coordinatt thts stuff woui beo

sent into the proper channels and iopt f rox contesting 1@

the 3arger centers. This is not theoretical and vlsion-

"ry idea at a.., it has been oomplete)3 worked out bay dif-

ferent agencies n d Ifferent (parts o" the United States,

and aa b9e worked out just as readily in Oeorgia and Ilorlda

.4d q, d l-

' ,..., ? ---ii ; I : ,, L / '

.-y~pew A neighbor of iine- who was sald to be without any

o. money tenl' years ago is at the present time estimated to

be wo or~t somewhere &from 00100ooo to $306,000, his surp us

from truck growing having been injested in real estate

and other properties. Yet he is located in a Tugioa that

does not co(e. into the market any earlier than three coast

.. ;. .... ,
regions of Georgia. MUr. a- Jh -to -wiom I referred

S'in a former portion of Iy 4d re ac has been trucking for

over' twenty years an4 has followed this business in ,.e. -

ese-a- region 4 a. -atir-e ta He .has worked aiuler aany

handI gaps and disaedvantages but in now worth froa 100,000

to -200,000 though he began without any money or ar"mT f-

nancial backing,- -

1 ilt continue to' l te -ll.ustrations by-,o -

-See I a cou te mowy ,aores or' 1l2 ustrations ot n-

successful truck ers w,.o make it a practice to plunge.,

C.- that b40*e the
of different kinds of truck /rops

were allowed to rot in the fiel4 for want of a market. And

S ye. last year -wao3s 4w whlh prices general ly prevailed

lig amid the dirficu2 y Was more in the direction of adverse

c) izat.c conditions ta.i- adverse prices'.A An 132ustration of

how fate pays tricks with the trucker I want to cite the

case of Mr. Ke3ay- on -te-Mn~tee. .He was a new comer to th-

tate. co :ing fromiiLo tsianai, I be) ieve ThroMgh illness 1b

was unable to 3ant hisB lettuce crop ar the schedule time

but was about 28 Oays .late in Betting it out. The lettuce

t. at was plante out. t the proper time broulit less than

freight charges. *T. lKelly s lettuew, that by a2 the rules

-- of the game should have been worthless.. brought him about

So000 per acre net. /T nen n )ylor1Ta wbo hare prospered

at tnrci :r .ing axre- t5o0e wlo have p3 ayd 'afew. They

*~ o re. i

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behind the times. To snow hoWthig works, let ae cite an

Illustration that occurred two years ago. 'A neighbor

to th e cperimeit Station. r wy, had teor acras O t

as ine lettuce as "9 4-eer produce(1 outside a greenhouse.

During February so aPu1o lettuce was being kr othe

market that the atuff wou3d. not bring the freight. There

was -nothing for Mr- ury-t do but turn his mij) k oows

into the lettuce fte3d. At the same time tliat the cows

were browsing .on'the Iettu;;e,coqnsumer in Intlianap6l s

were paying 25 cents a head for their lettuce. The-let-

tuce k.B mbyfed to U~~rii2t cowo could have been

ahlipid and marketed in Irlianai 011s very profitably at 5

cents a head, SUaI illustrations might be multiplied

by the hundreds. T. rmowers "cuss "out the comianision pen

SbS5aE. The commission i=a lqUgaO out the grower for

dishonesty and, now aid then takea hlanb a t cussing ,out

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"onclusions (GOont)

8. roper distribution'oan be aided by federal

leJgislation and made effective through lodal organization.

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On round numbers Georgia has 37 mill ion acres of

land, 12 mi33ion acres are said to be improved 3and'o I

,' farms, according to the Mites States Ceisuis Report for

1910. Assuming that nearly the entire area is capable

of tbein tiJ2e$, we 1,ave uindr nomina] cultivation about

one-third of the entire area. The largest amount of improve-

ment of farm lWids in Georgia has tal:en place outside of

what is popularly kiiown as the'*wire-grass" country. This

corresponded in a general way to t~e area that, is iownM more

correctly as the coastal plains. Or -c 3ootal -2ain-

t; fa, 14 Ito

of the conditions as they exist, these 3aiAs are capable'

of beirig mTade a i-to the best 6f our agricultural l a~tI in

the S tate, e-eae capable of producing SufIficen tt

amount of farm otops to support a population many times

-. "- '" ." *' -. ,. '


they are very sure to oWntinue to pl2Wge until they close

their career as penless as a w;-,en they. began.

In Spite of the Vicissitudes surrounding truck

growing when indulged in on the gambrl er 'p23a, there id

abundant opportunity for making e-at -ef--money in truoc

growing If the grower *plays sate'.o There is no track.

grower who -as the keenness of insight to enable 1hi to

rteo]3) what c eOpS are going successful during tle

suing year. aS ghliere ara~3e who can foretell wiat

either prices or climatic conditions are going to be.

There Is no iVfloiulty about making the a tuff, thle rri-. -

culty comes In marketing it at such a time as prices ar'e

renmmerative. Take 3ast year as an illustration In

F3orida. The front wich I rdfarred ',au off a VOry

large proportion of the *ring orop., so 3arge were the

4IjrWpl antings, however, and so abundant was the crop pM-



Should .you ask mea what is the most serious handi- .

cap to, trac ng in thr extreiae South by whici mean .

Georgia, -Porida and Soutaern Alabama, a id lnie, uding to

greater or less extent South and NOrth Carolina, abould

sa'" it wat the laclt of coordination and organization.

BtTenuoaii attempts are befhg maaUe -in lorlda to correct

this detect. we now an active Growers4 & Shippers'

Leagite with many loca3 organizations. This Growers' &

Shippers* League does not conoe0ti Inaelf with tlhe mar-

keting ean of the trx&nag businesss." The Florida pitrus

3cchange conaernyt itself wh6nly witn the marketing of 0 ttat

rriits and oonaines its activities to that ofco.. frvate

enterprise and sixa3l local organizations are all we-hare

in thewvy oat marletiAg orgai tzatioa ior truck orops.

he marketing -and distributing *-- i d* -O Wo 1

Tft a-arlceting ~o^ mitiftig^ao ^waMA ~i~

.: .- ,- :.

as anywhere else But it will not be worked out satia"

factorily unt il the main interest, a that is the 'track

growers thomsciyes, shall recognize the eoessity for

S -oordinationd a-d roydr distribution. T-0or2ary over

pIoduction is likely' to occnas irom year to year i ay

oz op, nha;L overx pxrodction' iocur. it is far cheaper for

the grower to aboandonhis stuff aa it stands in the wield

thai to-pu a& it forward into. the market and h~ve it a-

S badoned therCe [Origanizations amoag the truckers i ;.

the only way to prewtpat 'g.itting tk- market It l e not

S. Lrposo' to talk. on the P"atter of- org aization aiong

truok growarsa, 'ut for .the ooipletoness of my addra '

to&agy it is ijeooabary to mention this .omewhat at long -'I

S'other liitation we hie the trouking bus- ."

iness at the present time is & laok -o sta.nardisation..

This ean be ove gime only,by establishing oentar paol kin

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or else eat less of .z.4_mooo= thtt we caln necessities.

'4 A m W e a

e a3] know this is quite unnecessary, as it is

possible for the United States to produce a33 the corn

needed, by our omn people. but the fac t remains that we

do not do it. AS long as prices of food products ranged

very low there was no ,great incentive af- a large aro nt

of Skl33 and energy at-bi-easedIn production of these ar-

3ti3 se.

"e'Mtoi. A year or two ago when the prioe of. food pro-

ducts was, increasing very rapid iy, and probably reached

ita maximum, someo.e said racetiously that the necessities

of life ha1 become so expensive that he wou3d have to


'You will-a&ll remember that in the winter of

1894-95 we had'a devastating frost in Florid.a, Thich

destroyed for us about P70,000,000 worth of citrus

trees. The result of this disastrous frost was a tre-

mendous st Imulation for a year in truck production.

This however, did not- greatly change the egpoeal upwar&;

tendency. There was a qnlok rise bat it subsided and by.

the and of the decade we were probably not shipping muoh

more truck then we wou!d, have if the freezes ha d not

Occurred. It is quite likely



could determAne would bring reasonably good prices.

In ad ition to this, the amouTi jA- 8at on.e year

In the truck' orop was never so 3 arge a rtion of

tieir capital as to s.riolosly embarrass tolir oper-

atlons a second year in case the. crop was a tota3 failure.

And v i if t7o ya 1 in Cccs3 on ;o .:0d be v roe

they, t I have the personal cred t and a conas d-

era. e .-ouant of re a estate to back them for a "ird




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