The Negro and Agriculture. 1917

Material Information

The Negro and Agriculture. 1917
Series Title:
Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Articles, Speeches and Other Writings
87. The Negro and Agriculture. 1917


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida.
Rolfs, Peter Henry


Typed draft of an address to the Y. M. C. A. regarding negroes and agriculture.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida Archives
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:

UFDC Membership

Peter Henry Rolfs
University Archives


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Full Text

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-' .g -tld t l 'be Itth you t!lis afterno,-on. I I is al.waxa a pleasure for

Sme to be with you an' h'-p you take part in tihe rud- -, you are tpr-

sui-r in concoction with your organiza ion.. As I l:ok ba#k on my

S. ollee -ccuree I rc.ard-.the rrork -lo-e -ion coinection ri-h the-reli-

dtous organizations among my moct pleasant recllections. In those

days the Y. ;:. C. A. id bnot entered very strongly into college work,

as it has to hy. As a i atter of fact .the Y.- C. A. wark 1i the

4i. United St.:.tee w'2s quite in its be&gpninR an.d -ractically unknown.
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.There wa in. however a feeling avrong the collence sturlents that some mn-

... .-d binational, or nor.-demomiirational student organizations should take

S. ar -e of tj), religious work connected with tie institutions. fs-

S e.pcially was tli true with the tate-suprorted colleges and univer-

s ties. In those days it was-quite a common accusation frorr recta-

.riFan institutions that all state institutions, and apriculturar col-

leges in particular, *ire atheistic. Even after the Christian As
4.u, --,
sooiation bec ae quite strong in .m home college it i?,a no tan ~Jn-

coirnon thing to be accused of bei.ufp non-religious, although we ha- a

larger peroent&.me of our atudente i.n the Christianx organizations

than occurred irn some of the denominatio-nal school.

SI have been requested to speak upen the question of the Negro.

and Agriculture. The ne.-ro.question is one of the most important

that can core betDre this bolny. ie may theorize about what

Sthe condition if the ne!ro were not present and what would be done

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under other conditions. We are, however, right up against the fact

that we have some eight or ten million negroes in the South' and they

are a factor that must be reckoned with in all of our economic 'deal-

ins. The question-of the social states fif the negro has been defi-
:: nitely and permanently settled, so whatever is said to a. has no ref-

erence to that side of the question. The part of the question I am
S dealing with is one of economics. We have thennegro here and he is

S here to stay. It is the white man's burden 0d make the hero as near-

e-- lysi ups.,orting and of as little hindrance as possible to the prop-
/ or develApent of the eononoai of the South. For the last half

century the negro has been a burden rather than a help to thy devel-

opient. He has been a subservient pawn'in the hands of the unacrup- This side of the question, however, has been ably Iihtndled -

by speakers on the negro question who have appeared before you 1rom
time to time. Dr. Farr has Tiven you a rather clear state ent, and

his position on the cormiasion which was to study, -he negro question,.

S gave him unusual opportunities of understanding this problem. Dr.

S BJma and Prof. Ault have taken up ohher phases of this whole big

question.- ky part of the liaoupsibn has to do with the nerro on the
S farm and what is being done to make hia self sustaining and :elf

: up8or-ing. NHeer in the history of the United State has this been
forced upon as as during the last year, when the war has called for

S the most streomous efforts toward producing all the food and f maize

N' possible. Ho element in tJis'whrole great work h"s. .been o;or looked,
ven going 'to the extent of marshalling the labor power of sehoo1 girls.


A ._..

It is quite natural, therefore, that stress should be laid upon

ora prinoLspal labor element, the nefro population.

r'?heo ertuc.ation of the neero began of course IAt thf t ime when

the first alaves waroe,brought into contact wit1a a siuperior race.

While_eduoaton-~-generally is looked upon as eyncayaoiw with book teaeh-

ing- -i g ts i-realLy ot e. th rre Ft View If the members of the
_, ---t : ..
Y- '. .G. A. it- hno training ioti efteation' asiide froa that obtained --

'. in the aC&so rooms of-the Uitiversi : it would be very 1 :-eed.
In't.h- Y i .. -

:Flly ene-hQoi of the educational advantages to stu'tpnts o0n our oaae

pU is i.the development that ccarres fro,, ;inglia with their fellow
,- .. -
.tudrents awi ma iniglianl rlth people of .affairs.- The development de-

.: :, rived-fror seeinri and hearing the speeches or national and .inter-

5..--:"ia al f ir aures I acunt as bring we.rtlh more tliLin any one course of

` Study pursued in the olaxaf rooms. Ti1' is an unconscioue 6el'rent

f-or education that -enters into your davelopm nat while at the Uni-
versity of Plor!ia.

Ae" negro baing takenri froe 1s BsurromidiaTgs in Africa, amcng

s atraes, and- forcibly thrust -nto a much higher siviLizatiow-, this

was in itself an dbteation to him. Or.-n*riiy we thix k of education

as consisting soflely of institutions ead aorrisula. -ihen we spay-t

of he d t the ucf the eiorro, tlhrefoe2- it usual refers to op-

portunities afford4e by the elementary and secondary schools, by

cofleaes and institutions of 1hiherr larninz.

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This phase of th-r ncera problem Wvas duul'tl,:'s ta. en up by

yr. Cox, and therefore would coma outtirle of the speech I was to

present to 'ou today. ihen we come to otud;' the question somewhat

closely we find there are fairly good elgmentctry schqolrs for the

Sneproeo Thef are bett-:r tha .lo tmh elnmentaryr .cools wvrce fIi'fty- -

years ai.o in the rural portion Of the United rtatc. anfy .f our

national figures not .;-cir 6arly training in Lpg ecalool hZbuasc and

under corditliono not :.s favorable as the rural scl'ools for ner-roo

in the *tate of Florida at the preset time. SecOinl!ary ic;'ols are

maintained in some of th1 larger center aprd .thse ar'e d.i.n~' f'?.ir

work, bettor indeed thar ';ny .f the secondary schools of t",t-:r tv-

five or thirty years a.o. There are a consil or'a.blo number of sclrools

where the negroes cain secure hi.ther .ed-:c:tion in the State of Florida.'

I:ost of thi; e are denominat~fonal zchool.. There are in th:e 3.tal of

Plorida twenty-tix private a-rd hijrher =cboolb for "ne.
eludes the Agriculltural an,! MWohanical C'lleqe a1 Tallaaassee, wJhich

is supported by tUe State and TedierAl :varnmcintc. The tot'Ll value

of the property owned by these different achools'a',ounts to as)r-,thing

over a half tillion dollars,' These schools do not, however, con-

tribute rerpeptibly to the agricultural production of the. state;with

the exception of the Agricultural and M-sehanical College very little

work is done in the direction-of better agriculture hy these schools.

Aifty r::rcent of our jrioultura4 population are negroes although

the. total noaro population of the state is only-a.bout 42c. There

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are only three pf the private schools that give instruction i. gr-
dening. This is a notable edofeet in the training of nemroes in the
State. Seventy-one per cent of the negroae beinm classed as rural
it wduld seem that aariaultural- training would be -the most important
thing to emphasize in aennection with these sacools. WH miut not
judge the system harshty, iosne it haP been only a short time that
agriculture has been recognized se ano educational factor. I cr. as
late as twenty-five yeaTr ago suoe of the State universities re :-ard-
ed agriculture as not being quite worthy of recognition au euiuc.ttion-
al trailing. I halve visited tle Agrioultural and Mecohaaiical College
for Negroes, at Tallahassee, frequently during tle las t-toe y.:-rs.
:The progress male in the direction of agriculture io very eaticifao-
to+y indeed. They have a very nreditablo fuirm, rc0ona;:ly good
barns, fairly good class rooms and are giving a l'.rg-e amount of at-
tontion wad encouragingg general agriculture -and dairying.
It would be very interesting and profitable to use the entire
time allowed in tis iassaion in a disonosaon of the various fuiids and
ienoaminations that are entering into the education of thLe ne.Cro in
Florida. .-'iile apparently it haa no bearing on the adbject it has
still a very important and potent ihflunce on the general trend of
the negro eduoatidn in the State. All of tle aetivitic-e of the neFro
are lasting far behind the bent practices of o-T civilization. This
is true in education as well as in agriculture. whilee the fruaers
of our commonwealth, washington and Jefferson, i:othi insisted on, the
teaching of arrioultie, and development of this line of industry





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in the educational institutions of the United States, it toot the

man of the population a long time .o become conscious of. the fcat

that it was a mine of undeveloped wealth thEt" hA.- not been opened. .

1 ,se shown you that ie general t and of ay.propriatians fror, both

l diidual and deseminational oourcee for the education of trhe negro

Is in the direction of classic or adahlomic education rather h than

industrial pnd agricultural. It is not to be wondered at therfSore,

that a larre paroentage of thoe negro race 1 ok upon education as ao--

moans toward culture, a means toward "cIvilizqtfn. ihis is zan u-

usual point of/vie. If' you. ilJl take time to Study the motive for .

settinr- asite th'eqo la;-:e a:-o intu of' money that have bose Rivfe for

the education of' the negroes in Siorida you will fCiid tiiat it waa al-

truistic wian had for its object the elevation of race.

TIie donors of the fun 1,. however, cUid nut have th e clar vision of

how development would occur tl;at Washin-'ton a-. Jefferson had.

I thin- k 'itJh one exceptio. .i the Je 1nx Fupndthe donors amp.a -

ized the importance .f academic education. the Jea5ts Fund, however,

permitted a con iderable amount of. rioney to be used for what is ee-

sentially the same work as is being eone through tle cooperative dea-

onitration work.

I h ove now niaced before4 you a v ry brief, but somewhat clear

outline of the academe educational situation among the negroes in


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existing institutions, their report being mante direAtly to the Jeanm

nd Corporation. e r r is out o hrn .ith

t1t, being..ilf oneithcr locally or in the State. For iitaunce, one

of the ts is located in Jtionedkson Cothe Jeanty gives instrucension

to the rural negrer in gardening, ti fundg, are in ep and other work

of that kind.
extine printitu ~nr, ericur ropr et beion orke drone in the Jean~
'" fund Corporation. 'e ro, how/erer, is not out oi harcno o'-ith

i thant beiini. onc either locally or in the State. For ir.tansce, one

: of the events is located in Jackson County eja. gives instructions

to the rural negDpes in gardening, canzning, sewing, and other w-rk

of that kind.
The priracip'l ac-ricultural e:t nlsion work dons in tlie state

Sof Florida i. through the ixtension Divioion of the Agricultural
1: .- .
College. 'The busis for its support is the Smith-Lever y~ud,of

the Departmrerit of Agriculture FPund anx: the Emergency Pund.

D:;eteiled dietuaaion of th'f work Is unnecessary. j3riefly

i" s~.~ated, by agrcoment between the University of Florida and the

U S. Department of Agriculture cooperative forces carry on the

extension work in agriculture ir the State of Florida in a coop-

erative wry. the two aagenisfhe-hbve pooled their funded and agreed

that all work of a lemonstratio-r nature. will be carried on after be-

ing agree'l upon by the two ageencie:, and that neither party will

.. undertake lin,;a of demonstration work, or arxry on demonstration

wor k not aq eed to by the otler party* The pooling of these funds
gives us sormthing like $100,000 between the two agencies. This

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l. i the basis of our work in Cooperative Demonatration and Home eoP- -

Sa. oloes in the State. Outside of the field of demonstration there

lies considerable agricultural territory.On the one hand wl have the

regulatory which is carried on in two principal directions in the

SState ,-the Plrnt Board, cooperating with tle Bureau of Plant rndus-
Stry, hnd the Live Stock Sanitary Board, cooperating with thl' Bureau

S of Animal Induswtry. refulatorory.worLk 1 'a separate oreaniza-
^ %tion from the demonstration work. The nvestinational work, pc:p

alarly spoken of as the Experiment Station work lies on lthe other

:14e of the Demonstration work. If you car define clearly juot

where tle line of demarcation is between the demonstration and regu-

latory work on the one hand, and between the .demonstration and inves-

tig.titonal work on. the other hand, you will have in mind clearly <

; wlat the demonstration work is.

S,.,ra Dennstration i l *
'The University of Florida has a cooperative arrangement wih -
: the Agriculttdral arrn Keehanncll-College for Negroes at Tallahassee,

whereby arrioultural and home econo tic demonstration work in the

State in carried on. The importance of thin work will be apparent

When it is roneme ered that whatever eoademic instruction in agricul-

Sture and home econeotes is gitelj the negro race comes mainly, or

Snaarly altogether, from the'Agrieultural a dt MiechE.nial ColleRe for

N earoe at Tallahassee. It is very important in this dcraonstration
i --
work that.whatever is taihtt shall be in accordance with the princi-

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Sples laid down at the technical institutions, in other words, the

-negroes in the field thouler be tauJdt In. accord:rince with- the best

lines of teaching at tl-e Agridultural aMnd Meeh:Lnical Collere.

l'. lier tl-:i cooperative arranement went Into effect, Pros.

:F'" B. Young, of the .:e1ro colleRe was instructed to find a asita-

blo manm ..)r hracling this line or work in tlhe Statn. The under-

.. standing with tha-t institution io that this aren't shall be retained

S orny so long as he is m'itually satisfactory to both, the Urnivrsity

of Florida &:Ad 'he ,AgWc"ltural and Mec)lari':. a folle'?e for ecrooe.

SA. A. Turner, a graduate of Tuskeetsee,. wxtB e-rloyerl; he also

a grrduhate o toc Ohio Univearity, and h'A h-a.d h,'onsidera. le

..-- excrience in arriculturil work before 1. -n riding college. r ring

t" tle first yc urrlo was instructed to visit various counties and

bsec. e e f a.iliar with Cl! c ;egroes in tone. counties, forming farm

Sand hor.:: maker' plubr an:oir the negro youth. These would be

', :r irectly conineted with the rural school in the various ounit on.

Si s activities were limited to seven countieV i:: order that he

Might have aa: orportuaity to visit these at freqtmnt intervals

and give .nstruation by Aeronqtrationor lectures, and otherwise

comne into direct contact with the negro youth. 'During the next

y a-' Turner confined his attention to the counties in whioh the

nenro population wea heaviest -and -yet tear enough, to Tallahasee

: not to cons-req too great an a;:oun) of his time in. pettin to 'these

S'counties.- aI the asking of tihe year an advance waa madd in thl

-'. .


S- ert aount-te. these were a:ainta: a toTurner and wei e w rk in

uxidur Iris ritroctior. and, inspiration,. For appointment it 1 ro

quirod that the io;a-l man hbhouald be accwptablo -to the (%'uity ouperi*-

tehdolit ajtd tha.t he. should iv:e Itaught sciol The first ..relu iro-

-ent. -wasa marle' to ensure U1tat thera woUld'be no fricttln btreen the -.
County Aqp:erinttenrtent andfl-to colored county loader. L-The. acuo)a re-
tr... ors in m- elect o- -of ee w a

qf-the Quetio. Iw.y de-id Bld
t- a:

Amoirted --- I l on r o-'nartion of r tho -7iB mai'.t e uperi ten rnt rn-

stra ii a-n Jo whte -resiFonii6t e elounty,: o or te'e Er'-t ;!ti a a-
tion itnt- I1, th a;e or o will inelubcr t hie yagt e b -.
i^.mp *' -.3'ta uat l to oft ai-, tgro o e n r f3ro d lio -rn. ont can ne s or ytiint o '
-s .- r

v- f orw-.. -k b y

p oaa far whita rnu s uisnts -a- t County, bu- tbey wovearam-n' -i

..'-,.:.. .nioaJ@ y wale't assj.st_.nts to t..e County 1Scri1onstrai o irst.-- -
"- n n o c p T -- us "".to pa e
a441- .**tioat. wo-rksn o iAn, ..o th e ild ay ot-rbr: sute n forward w nas takena b-y
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j^.-_ -.- -" .ai -,;..gecyh fo r:l ,ork i'nce eor p r c t < d irifs,. elgr.n. ednt ns to plaed n *t o

1-.. t ie na i c ff -tt, fi:a4:. A a sfAru-9t .M'
^:'--'. -nsployi.a: _. B tE for oaj-ryAri^ Apyinr

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and general crop .onaervLtion programs. It in very gratifying indeed

to know that ther-e gare aWMniw -the nsero population many earnest work-

ers wto have a real zeal for'the 1atterm ent of the race. In MoOst

eases the compensation .attnthed to the oeofia was a minor consirl-

eration, wh1le the do~tU of tIe work was the principal poti ee -for en-

gaging inr -f en-erprise The handling of the work conducted by,

the neoro wu~rn .a a very difficult problem. aowherre-in the .1tate

ceuld ari adequate nuAmber of women be tomnd who3 hact been trained

in home eoonomios and naturally every negreca who had a fair knowl-

sedre of E:-glieh considered herself compritet -to instruct Jhor rr-ae

in tFis line of ork, -

We niw have every County in the State covered by a Count.y

DeNrnstaratlorn Ariget and a reMe Demonrjafatiort Agent. In sore couio

ties the av-ent Ls working only pai-t time, while in a few inr:tancee


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tie agent work

hB is entire time and gives jiLs attention 'to two or

more Counties.

In the negro work we have negro a enta for the rural

fural work in the following Counties

S AlachUa killasboro- Leon

Columbia iHadlton .adison

/ IUval Jbkseon Marion

Gadaden Jefferson Putnam

-. Suwanzmee

and in the. f -lowi ina counties we have negro women actts, -

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SAlacinia Jackson Oran oe

0 Ouimbia Jeff or n Putnam

Sc..;.. ia L on Su':ann e

Gads;ici ixadison

.i- i llhJ bor. '.!. i on Waniinrton

In both cases, the men and women, the nePro agents ;aive their tire

to instructing the people' of thelr -owr race.

The foroegAng I hope has given you a tangible idea of what

we are duing for the eduoati.onr of the negro to o maao him a better

economic indtrtdual. This of oourre relates to our -work solely as

t is carricd out for the negro race and by the negro race. It

does not included the large b.t intangible a.:outqt of work we arec oing

i;' for the negro race directly anti indirectly. The de--onstrat'o!. ";,rk

carried on by the white a-ornts is as potent a factor in the develop-

ment of hegro race &s it is for the whites. The ieaRoea consult the

White county agent freely and are given a large waottnt of attention.

S That, however, is work that is not directly segregated and in dif-

ficult of bringing forward in etatieti4l form. There is practically

Fi no County or Honme Demonstration Agenft n the State but has lectured

and.i demonstrated before negro audiences and I ar told by leader of

S' the nero,eas themselves, that they prefer a white lecturer'to oi.e

i: of their own race. Bullotinc, printed matter, posters, and all other

: material soes as freely to the negro farmer agd to anyone else.

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The following auaar.y of the work dloi last year among.the nesroes

will give you a Cawprehenoire idea Of what han beIen asomplishe{.




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-Te a-eq-iata, tn vie .wd from.the standpoint -of'

7 it Mighrt 1e.8 but i.s not so bad waen vm wedt fro thet I

Ezt&ad point of what edudatlon in a- Reneral way was in the

ted Statep fifty r ao nealy cona._-
th^ m "w -.' *q .. .. .

...e. -it Blefr-the zi-ividt2l aAekiaR earnestly.

for'- an elementary Ot nation. to adeure it.

S () The. ea."nUry and id.gher. education for ne gr oe I the tate
:of Pa or e. eaa asiat aw trongly tm .asadtheo 3athero than the

--he :"AgricultiW&l iqHaeancal.Coll"e for. eexcaeos at Taller- .

-o has of wht e facilities fior arrying-out -Ita s Iork n t
-.:,U ,t Bi i .e xc .- go, n eal cowm i

S- AFlengs a ist rural ine fot Its equvidpment and appoetunestl -
e. ,^ .q- ....- .
-- -~for m e]enntar-y -ru-ation t r beture 1t4 f c

or instr acting thie. n*eronet ate better than occurred tin
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(4) The lar-eat adI most.important single factor for extendirig

and inculcating correct agricultural kJnowled.m.. and a.rrioul-

tural practices in the State of Florida is' the wirk done tiou g

the ERtensioA Division of the University. 3tatistioal resorts

show that many thousands of neroes are reached through this

me :3n8.

(C-) In conclusion, though thiu is not broinlbt out in the. paper

itself, the locl1 corrmunities, cities ani counties are -

recogni ing te- value of this work by Rivin.; financi-.Al aid

_to:,lIto extension work among the negroes.


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REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EDYTAKPJU_35OQY7 INGEST_TIME 2012-09-13T14:58:57Z PACKAGE AA00000206_00080

xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EVOPJ6XA9_QED5T1 INGEST_TIME 2011-07-29T18:35:12Z PACKAGE AA00000206_00080