Introduction for Bulletin on Freeze in Florida.

Material Information

Introduction for Bulletin on Freeze in Florida.
Series Title:
Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Articles, Speeches and Other Writings
66. Introduction for Bull on Freeze.


Subjects / Keywords:
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.


An introduction to the Bulletin on "Freeze" in Florida. P. H. Rolfs writes about freezes in Florida and effects on citrus trees.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida Archives
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
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UFDC Membership

Peter Henry Rolfs
University Archives


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Introduction ror Bul3etin on "F=EEZE"



& A

A record of the different freezes that have occurred in

Florida would mak'e an axtreme3y interesting sketch. In al] of the

different freezes it will be ob3ervedc tr'.-t they behave in very er-
eratic fa'ish'.onit? o one p3 ace in tVle State caxi be iald to be a

correct inJez to ..i.t -ni,: occurred in other parts. Since 3886

rather r'ul. 3,',J accurate i-etSeorologicaJ aata has been kept for

Florida. Vror trh reports of the W'Veather Bureau Jt is observed

that there 1 : no general Areeient in anj two of tjese freeze.

Thiee frze of J.iJiLr, 3 2. ,3 (33 at J;el:eotvi33 e ) seeiis to cor-

respond more nearly to the freeze of tuis year (Feb. 3, 337,

at J-acsonvile ) toian any that had occurred before. The e:ndi-

tlons ioviever after tne freezes uf 1686 and 1917 is tiart tie lat-

ter freeze .vas tw.enty-one u sv later. 4.~13e LiUtis had its .ivan-

tage in 3j:io,'lng citrus ;,ro.vers, anJ truckers Lo aso. extent, to

Gi3jode of a cons1rJerauje ainunt ..C tiie cro, it h-itu tUjo isad-

v int4t'e to t., e citirud ro'e.ra I ,i t-it tihe trees vee. b':
r.api. spring; grown.


The effect of the freeze on trees in different localities

of the St3.t3 ;Vt s extrome2y Varlauie. In I3 ir;e measure tils was

due to diffrL'cneo in orition of tne trees ther.selves. Satsuma

tr:e3s I. North: and I:sPt Florida Leing stil1 in a dormant condition

were naturally lej ;.cf,-cted boy the low temperature tian were the

3ajne variety of traes In Central and peninau]a Florida. The dif-

ference in severity of cc2d in different p3 :vces in the State was

also Ji-r.ei. FrequeintYy this r..irl:ed .li'fereince in t-;rnperature

is .saribed to variation zil ob:ervation or v3.rl-ntlon hi ? to im-

perfect tierrmometers. Tnr Government stations, ]ho-zeve,- are

suppl'led with thc-rou.g)y trustworthy Instriii~u;-nts, uI.j3ia.3: pl oeda

in fairly- co.rp. ra ..e conditions, From this it is '1uie -'rtain"

that macU of ti'e Viriationi in Jn-'e in differ,"eit locations is due

to differ.-.,t int,..iltie. of cold.

In : ly places tihe citrus tre.a had bjegi.u to r1iae :rowtl

anid in s-.Le instances blooA(L LbuJ had be,-:1un to ap' r. I':5 left

the trees in about thie worst condition po;liso3e f-ur resisting cold.

Fortunately the winter had been rather favorable, pJ r-:itting the

trees to hold practically all their leaves that were on them when

they enter.,~ t:he winter, 'lnis in large measure helped to protect

the head of the tree. 'an where the trees had not been trimmed up

from the ground protected the body Of the tree.

Where the body of the tree was protected by the branches and

leaves, 31css serious damage was done than to tho3e trees that had



been trimmed up high. The recently set trees were naturally more

subject to injury than older trees, They were in a more vigor-

ous state o' .growth aid the buds less protected.

In' iJlti1g frosted citrus groves it 'was quite noticeable

that th e tre s .2 t ite N.ea.i:ened by disease, especially suchlas

were aff tct-.a by giiuauiosis, foot-rot ;nd dieback. have suffered.

more s'verzaly ti:- t t'.o ;e rnot affected by any di3e3Cse. Lik'Lwise

t trh Lrs t-.t n.U1 e- .3iin b-3y ni 12I 3Lced or were V;ire'y i._'fected

pith acale insects h.Xave farcLE worrs til3n tiiose iii a thrifty condi-

tion. ? or absence of a'irge crop does not ..r\ to have

any materi3.J inf uence on thl effi '.t of ti fre'ee.

J."t.-i.' dF iNJULELD irrjS;

Severe e ;lt.*ir cold ihid no., o.-c.urre'. sir:ce ,Til ary u, 3 909.

Oirin.. t? reJ,,-.t.,ld f'Ivorl'b)e winter., a f."; -7..p] cl even in tL.e cen-

Stia3 pPnmi.:;l a of vlorida. have n:] -.;ted to bii: you;i.i trees,

A consl.-eraoi]e ;part of tniee r;y !.ave boo ::I. ot to tbeo'] ti Lud.

Wliere this]:lng iad been oritted tno tir 3, GioujJ i;1ve been

banked ,1iring the cold speli or iTmedi3.te]y fo3Jvij.r it. Severe

cold is pretty sure to split tie bark -an'. even t:i, trunm of citrus

trees. It his repeatedly occurred that where 3 otection of this

kind is given to trees when the bark has spJlt a portion has been

saved so as to save it above the bud. The banking, of course, is

intended as "first aid" to the tree. Soon after al] the trees have

been give.i this first aid, the bank may be re. oved ai .d the injured

tree put in the best condition possible. The split portion should

_ I~_~ _

_n__ -

6 *

receive early attention all loose and death bark removed, and if

some time has elapsed between the banking and attention to the bark,

ar antiseptic :n.ay be needed to clear the wound of rot flgli. Aven-

arius c:rbo3]ineum been found to o e an exce'jeet antiseptic, but

it is not aJ3 i.r r ]y obta-ijac 3e. Crude carbo2lc aciW, (3 part

to 1 part of .ater) .. ..' ,. a lpy ed, bkt this is a vari:jble mater-

ia] :J f n.rJ.\-n not 13 satisfac story as one would wisilh. M ercuric bi-

chloride ta~lets *i- also be t.mloyYd, Th3eae ta3.t I c e in vary-

ing sizes but wi321 i.. e Ji ti:I tl diractio ICSry
for :i ~e antiseptic. In t'i ,ubne of other intiseptiCs

a s;3-uti. L cpprP saul, 1iat.c L e ei-JLoyed. 13 3b. to 15 fal of

water can be saf 3y aprl3ied to dori,, ut wood.

After the -intiseptic lbi.s been ,ippT3ed it 's~oifd b,. -i)o'.-ed

to .iry ald ti ,jound covered -lth lsor-ie protectl.,Lg inw'teri liquid

gr':tintI :. isA quite ieslirible for this pirpos. Should it n.t-

be obtainable, or a.,ou]d it be con.iider.,.! too expen.-lv.?. .*--od paint

i,.' L,' u'. 'i as a .absttitute. Llins-EJ ao! h -. a .o becl. recommended.

In some cases boil !:f linseed oil has proven caujt.,c. to ct.r.:. to

One should, therefore, Ude this niat--rial "1.J th :3.-1 caution. C(al

tar for the Lrpt part makes an excellent co -eri.: for "ir-::. Once

in a while, however, oooe of *.e coj.3 tar is extreiLey c.ustic to

citrus tree, i.akling it inadvisable to recommend this generally,

Pine tar will be foun.J excellent ard is believed never to be caustic

to the trees. After tne wounds have been dressed so that there is

no prob.billty of infection by rots or infestation by insects, the

bank may be put in place again. This should be allowed to remain



until al3 danger of freezing is passed. No severe freeze has oc-

curred later than February 32th. Minor cold speJls, during which

the thermometer r ~'ent beJow the freezlig point. hgye, ho-.-ever, oc-

currd-- up into a'.L'rcl. It is weL], tiere.fore, frou tna st.iadpoint

of safety, not to risk too uoich In this dircr.tioin l!ntil the JOthl

of- Mrh jo to ..t:JJ 1j:ortion of ptOeilncul a FPorida, ;aind possi-

bly even later for the colder ro'tions of thle citrus growing sec-



The freeze- of 3395 o'nurre-J. on i'brnary Stl., a.d the 'fr eze

of 3 ';. on FPe'b-..- 2th. 3rth of ties- dates '.ore a little later

t! a the one tiHat occurr ?J tllis ye,-3r. The expnrien-ce fol3 o'.7in .l

those freezes isow ed that no a.,parert injury result tod from leav-

inr: the fro;:en tops attached until grcod stron growth hr,.d occurred

in te ar3 in. Evern aijere frozeLj tops .!ere pe)t: ttcd e. remain

untirLiJ3 uci. later ein LK .*: r no serious reii:] to fo lotovei.

As aon :.. th i..'v sprouts have i..\Ja3 coJ;t, say anywhere

friom four to teU: inchs lo'i,, ti'e top should "o e.' tire'y r';'.o'ed,

Care s;iou3d be ta.:enx to cut ta'ay the upper sprouts so IsL to remove

the deax a ri diseased wood. After trh rej.:ovxj of thi3 tor, the

wound snoulu be treated as directed in a furi,'er prLra-.rajh.


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