Introduction ror Bul3etin on "F=EEZE"
A record of the different freezes that have occurred in
Florida would mak'e an axtreme3y interesting sketch. In al] of the
different freezes it will be ob3ervedc tr'.-t they behave in very er-
eratic fa'ish'.onit? o one p3 ace in tVle State caxi be iald to be a
correct inJez to ..i.t -ni,: occurred in other parts. Since 3886
rather r'ul. 3,',J accurate i-etSeorologicaJ aata has been kept for
Florida. Vror trh reports of the W'Veather Bureau Jt is observed
that there 1 : no general Areeient in anj two of tjese freeze.
Thiee frze of J.iJiLr, 3 2. ,3 (33 at J;el:eotvi33 e ) seeiis to cor-
respond more nearly to the freeze of tuis year (Feb. 3, 337,
at J-acsonvile ) toian any that had occurred before. The e:ndi-
tlons ioviever after tne freezes uf 1686 and 1917 is tiart tie lat-
ter freeze .vas tw.enty-one u sv later. 4.~13e LiUtis had its .ivan-
tage in 3j:io,'lng citrus ;,ro.vers, anJ truckers Lo aso. extent, to
Gi3jode of a cons1rJerauje ainunt ..C tiie cro, it h-itu tUjo isad-
v int4t'e to t., e citirud ro'e.ra I ,i t-it tihe trees vee. b':
r.api. spring; grown.
EFFECT 01 TREES
The effect of the freeze on trees in different localities
of the St3.t3 ;Vt s extrome2y Varlauie. In I3 ir;e measure tils was
due to diffrL'cneo in orition of tne trees ther.selves. Satsuma
tr:e3s I. North: and I:sPt Florida Leing stil1 in a dormant condition
were naturally lej ;.cf,-cted boy the low temperature tian were the
3ajne variety of traes In Central and peninau]a Florida. The dif-
ference in severity of cc2d in different p3 :vces in the State was
also Ji-r.ei. FrequeintYy this r..irl:ed .li'fereince in t-;rnperature
is .saribed to variation zil ob:ervation or v3.rl-ntlon hi ? to im-
perfect tierrmometers. Tnr Government stations, ]ho-zeve,- are
suppl'led with thc-rou.g)y trustworthy Instriii~u;-nts, uI.j3ia.3: pl oeda
in fairly- co.rp. ra ..e conditions, From this it is '1uie -'rtain"
that macU of ti'e Viriationi in Jn-'e in differ,"eit locations is due
to differ.-.,t int,..iltie. of cold.
In : ly places tihe citrus tre.a had bjegi.u to r1iae :rowtl
anid in s-.Le instances blooA(L LbuJ had be,-:1un to ap' r. I':5 left
the trees in about thie worst condition po;liso3e f-ur resisting cold.
Fortunately the winter had been rather favorable, pJ r-:itting the
trees to hold practically all their leaves that were on them when
they enter.,~ t:he winter, 'lnis in large measure helped to protect
the head of the tree. 'an where the trees had not been trimmed up
from the ground protected the body Of the tree.
Where the body of the tree was protected by the branches and
leaves, 31css serious damage was done than to tho3e trees that had
been trimmed up high. The recently set trees were naturally more
subject to injury than older trees, They were in a more vigor-
ous state o' .growth aid the buds less protected.
In' iJlti1g frosted citrus groves it 'was quite noticeable
that th e tre s .2 t ite N.ea.i:ened by disease, especially suchlas
were aff tct-.a by giiuauiosis, foot-rot ;nd dieback. have suffered.
more s'verzaly ti:- t t'.o ;e rnot affected by any di3e3Cse. Lik'Lwise
t trh Lrs t-.t n.U1 e- .3iin b-3y ni 12I 3Lced or were V;ire'y i._'fected
pith acale insects h.Xave farcLE worrs til3n tiiose iii a thrifty condi-
tion. ?re.2a.ice or absence of a'irge crop does not ..r\ to have
any materi3.J inf uence on thl effi '.t of ti fre'ee.
J."t.-i.' dF iNJULELD irrjS;
Severe e ;lt.*ir cold ihid no., o.-c.urre'. sir:ce ,Til ary u, 3 909.
Oirin.. t? reJ,,-.t.,ld f'Ivorl'b)e winter., a f."; -7..p] cl even in tL.e cen-
Stia3 pPnmi.:;l a p..art of vlorida. have n:] -.;ted to bii: you;i.i trees,
A consl.-eraoi]e ;part of tniee r;y !.ave boo ::I. ot to tbeo'] ti Lud.
Wliere this D.an]:lng iad been oritted tno tir 3, GioujJ i;1ve been
banked ,1iring the cold speli or iTmedi3.te]y fo3Jvij.r it. Severe
cold is pretty sure to split tie bark -an'. even t:i, trunm of citrus
trees. It his repeatedly occurred that where 3 otection of this
kind is given to trees when the bark has spJlt a portion has been
saved so as to save it above the bud. The banking, of course, is
intended as "first aid" to the tree. Soon after al] the trees have
been give.i this first aid, the bank may be re. oved ai .d the injured
tree put in the best condition possible. The split portion should
_ I~_~ _
receive early attention all loose and death bark removed, and if
some time has elapsed between the banking and attention to the bark,
ar antiseptic :n.ay be needed to clear the wound of rot flgli. Aven-
arius c:rbo3]ineum h.as been found to o e an exce'jeet antiseptic, but
it is not aJ3 i.r r ]y obta-ijac 3e. Crude carbo2lc aciW, (3 part
to 1 part of .ater) .. ..' ,. a lpy ed, bkt this is a vari:jble mater-
ia] :J f n.rJ.\-n not 13 satisfac story as one would wisilh. M ercuric bi-
chloride ta~lets *i- also be t.mloyYd, Th3eae ta3.t I c e in vary-
ing sizes but wi321 i.. e Ji ti:I tl diractio ICSry
for 3.ing :i ~e antiseptic. In t'i ,ubne of other intiseptiCs
a s;3-uti. L cpprP saul, 1iat.c L e ei-JLoyed. 13 3b. to 15 fal of
water can be saf 3y aprl3ied to dori,, ut wood.
After the -intiseptic lbi.s been ,ippT3ed it 's~oifd b,. -i)o'.-ed
to .iry ald ti ,jound covered -lth lsor-ie protectl.,Lg inw'teri liquid
gr':tintI :. isA quite ieslirible for this pirpos. Should it n.t-
be obtainable, or a.,ou]d it be con.iider.,.! too expen.-lv.?. .*--od paint
i,.' L,' u'. 'i as a .absttitute. Llins-EJ ao! h -. a .o becl. recommended.
In some cases boil !:f linseed oil has proven caujt.,c. to ct.r.:. to
One should, therefore, Ude this niat--rial "1.J th :3.-1 caution. C(al
tar for the Lrpt part makes an excellent co -eri.: for "ir-::. Once
in a while, however, oooe of *.e coj.3 tar is extreiLey c.ustic to
citrus tree, i.akling it inadvisable to recommend this generally,
Pine tar will be foun.J excellent ard is believed never to be caustic
to the trees. After tne wounds have been dressed so that there is
no prob.billty of infection by rots or infestation by insects, the
bank may be put in place again. This should be allowed to remain
until al3 danger of freezing is passed. No severe freeze has oc-
curred later than February 32th. Minor cold speJls, during which
the thermometer r ~'ent beJow the freezlig point. hgye, ho-.-ever, oc-
currd-- up into a'.L'rcl. It is weL], tiere.fore, frou tna st.iadpoint
of safety, not to risk too uoich In this dircr.tioin l!ntil the JOthl
of- Mrh jo to ..t:JJ 1j:ortion of ptOeilncul a FPorida, ;aind possi-
bly even later for the colder ro'tions of thle citrus growing sec-
.7E:;\.VIN1G IEAD ORTIOIS
The freeze- of 3395 o'nurre-J. on i'brnary Stl., a.d the 'fr eze
of 3 ';. on FPe'b-..- 2th. 3rth of ties- dates '.ore a little later
t! a the one tiHat occurr ?J tllis ye,-3r. The expnrien-ce fol3 o'.7in .l
those freezes isow ed that no a.,parert injury result tod from leav-
inr: the fro;:en tops attached until grcod stron growth hr,.d occurred
in te ar3 in. Evern aijere t.ie frozeLj tops .!ere pe)t: ttcd e. remain
untirLiJ3 uci. later ein LK .*: r no serious reii:] to fo lotovei.
As aon :.. th i..'v sprouts have i..\Ja3 coJ T.ro;t, say anywhere
friom four to teU: inchs lo'i,, ti'e top should "o e.' tire'y r';'.o'ed,
Care s;iou3d be ta.:enx to cut ta'ay the upper sprouts so IsL to remove
the deax a ri diseased wood. After trh rej.:ovxj of thi3 tor, the
wound snoulu be treated as directed in a furi,'er prLra-.rajh.
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