Forage Crops.

Material Information

Forage Crops.
Series Title:
Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
Physical Location:
Articles, Speeches and Other Writings
62. Forage Crops.


Subjects / Keywords:
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Forage Crops


A talk about forage crops that can be grown year around.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:

UFDC Membership

Peter Henry Rolfs
University Archives


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F"OP '-Th rnicprl
Fop ORr Wnp7

P -e Lnimj ni: -op 1

tie ;t'ory- of boy f .-L :-i one ie lived in Fi-.l .. -. Li

L c.c 1- l -A -" e o asi j!o t o.\in r.- Wolt of ,holp; he.

dlid .ot arouni-t to verj ouIch. 7iS ,NMI:, Aid not cons:i Ci

hlin as the rl.i'ht boy of the fuily.i, "cd :o-e.,ntl n: ,.tai

not ut Wt tho: L1Lnc tM t MoYL' o :0 .11; pput *:; te M i1J

of .-..': 2ct .u L o vc Loa-, 11i ,nUr ." ton, :a, .0 h t1 ;,

oN: r iL:.ais, oz o.n o. hin.- of..J. t 11M. Piz w _on-

.ictod of od.Iu ond enls. Picking P02Vo buss v:n oc. of h.e
jo.c v- h M fr it hi t Th e ..,,V c for

coanv;ir L.ion. S1 o-in, *]e hoj .Ur : nc .:r xvOf:O adli-vr-
"., -,-.

ion.. Fe ;c. K n1 2 oin LW: y en^ it Sac C. 0: o ,.-:-

"Lri o-r- F :.. n h'.o ,- 't ofi' Co '.ol ;e.

He .ioin't ..-in .l -t,- ct1 :.n:-. -e-e. At coll -h he .l.- .'t

amount to uL..h c A ,h r. T. lo t iJ t -.1 11cic, .-.QL A-

boy-. c v.'a n ithcr :ood nor lad. Fc, to.-:v cr, Look a

powlt ,v7 nto co e. About the onl- ing by- -li,- bc h r
-li..:'in. uilshed. i c li t o Lht orioq of j.i l2 1:e,}iF

*.' r the c oll. ; '.: .: ..-C I. 1 ht M b oy

L..a .. ther vi',.anV u- 'l .. i' it 0.:'.:o t' n ''h. TC hI '

j i. "cLo.ut ,'- ; u-, his in:i t .:O'.j tC,_ Plc' riida-- ;:- ,3.--e ca 1

arr ni .L-',,, .;Ls, enll noti ,e ca lio !Tc'.. orL :t .:e, L Zt:ci c:,

h, i to :01o. o'-"r t_- re -.nd do :oie orl: in ho 1:t ic~l u;.- --a

minor ipositlon. T Le,-'e he Loeiied to, o e-- lop .1 at o-,;.

In the :ourzc of :.. I aL nra c \:C. Lrcti atUci
_.C r l' L-K O'.l.
.... Co l C ,

al : o"r the Saete of :c,\. YorI,-- r-,'t i Lte, nJd a rY.b ."ople i .n .it. Tc r.. .L .:, to .it ct ; : '. c.i- on.

,? lle .:r ow o or: until he :70 a.ttr,.t-ng- ..-,*ion, and a

:ooLd e.eel a -, ert o-rin, l cl over 'TE E ; ,-. E anc by the

wholee co'unt- '.e.I loo hin L.:. t cQ'-., o_, tc::t book -f.t -

. I.othe issued fro i: f.i 1 e tc'.i. Still that was not

Vsuf i t: .Lrt W1hiEe c'.:c at _1- a1 v n ::cejeed s',..:ooLie

to a'vise thou, .:F aL thl c- Wi.r 'Dr. 7: ilc-r. ?h.r .: 3."-o

the story of a boy vho \;t n u 0i1i *-* in th- *t.rt, otAac

of it 4 ll Lu.t o :1 incthin. in im, ha soirnethi: to

....e a l 'an of him, 4.- toa ay ther. tio n a 3 1n in all the

world. that re. ... horti -ult.ral lii ;-'e but t mno\s ,c]o

no.mie of Bailey. T .:,-.1d. rather .e -,iloy tol.L thln Pr i-

dent of the Unit ed S 'Lr s. I c. cLn be e.iL 1.t I can o-

Yie;-.s i; ref :'-n e. I thin: he It is d oilng more for the per-

o,.nent upbuilG ing, Lte i-er.!cii enlt : .-' of ho l, i ,-..lture

t an : i',--o e clae t-. t e i..vo .

Th-is is .ritr .: t :-roa -e talk I wish to -ive ;:-ou

. ...-.. -ioon. T tal: this ..L_ '-trno'n o Irish to be along,

the line of forage .n, d" "orSe production. ITow, I wi' L you to

tall: no-Vs ec I go F.o:!s a:d if I go Lo f':At, tell me anid T

will .o lit-tle slower, bbecrL.o I e:-iTcct to .;.-.o'. questions

tomoizrov. upon this aund shall e:ecot evc. -ole to bo ready to

::i '.r ,_- ose ;.":t ons, to,the best of his ability, of course.

Forage is the of our soil fertility. The

iminer'al el:i.cnts' in the .oil ,'re used by pl oits to build up

their tic Ues. 'Plant ticues cro nseed by animals to build

u-- their b.!Lics. The v;:.rt of the yl'ii t not needed is a

7 Lte p'-od ct ;tht goes ubc_ uo the soil lircj't. Without a

p-.Ct ts plant material '.eca.-ing in the soil and l.,ing

wha-t ve call hIunus, vwe -;:l. 1.l : jroiw very poor crops. Some

start can be iade, but the crops vil1 be ver; poor. We

therefore have, fir't, the ini::-ral art ':f the soil, vhich is

tahen up '-iy -o pi-^, d -.nd. built inLo plant -~:Iues, the plant

ticsues built u i-- 'Ito c';.-iell -ti ,S, -nl Lthe aiii.,l ti ,suc.s

going bac: aSain Jinto the ..oil, ;!hhli irn ti' n form r. -'rt of

Lthe hius. TT ve Lo." evera no ticcc a fcr.:L-Lui -C l.a 3re a per.c., .:.s

,:racticed clc--ri ;ii.. e? I1f om. r-.-rc'ctice clean culture on a

flc1, f or a 1n jte, .. ca-rs, v.c .ill .c. e-b -olutely cl, .n, -ee,-

i a. eerl .o7n, in hc 'cie of .Lce years ou will have

,-retty nic:.arly a dead soil. Tha7'i. is !.-.: i.e the vegetable

-o: ction o. uho soil, or li-ua., as, we c-ll it. has been .eCimov:l.

SWe a-pr2o::i! Eatc cuci, a coil.'iiton when wc e grow cotton.,cotton,otton

cotton, until it is cotton after cotton, d our soil rn: 'u:cll

joes .'.oI'n, even the :,f:,st fertile soil, i .:L as occurs in .Lo

Delta of the TIicsi--,i, -nd :',ill in J.-'.c beco.,e exhausted.- :.i

deiprived of *L '1 humus and '- ve ,oor crops. The great Iorth-

vest, tr-,t as laias la a -ra-_ii-rie for untold years and yeeoa,

v;a.E L;,iade -up of d. dec.l of r humu. 'lin co proi'.-l ed lar e

croos of all c-'/.c of *..:ts vi. f"i 't cultivELtcCd. A ter a

sci.ics of .yocr of culti-.ati on the crops began to fail, for


the lac: of btunus larIgely. WVe h, ve tlh same condit -.n in

ran" of ,--r citrus -roves i-n Plo ide. of our citruC--.'o: .ers

believe in v.'h-:Lt vc cal.1 cle;:,n *'.;"- c, llo- i, absolutely

no v.' or ,rasa or :ny-ting to -ow in th-: ; ves. In tine

tl'.AU 2oil becoLes v'--1 sterile aSid. LIho tree begin to decline.

They.O need .OL thing th, n th1 a is in the soil'. The cit-rus

:-ouc.r thocn 'ii 1t a '.-ly some o-: u.lnus in the o-- of 2ome

organic _aLter, frc.uentLly in h.e -.,:; of fertilizers; bu-ttihe

organic f,'rtiliSers .'rc noit ve;- goodi for citrus t--ces, conse-

-.iinently he is h'oering between those two extremes-- first, of

hurting his trees bec-:L.e of clean culture, ind, second;

hurting then by giv-ing them hurljus in the form of organic fer-

tilizl rs.

The pro..uction of foir e- n .t:-h-se :r.ovc,E proves .:,0-

beneficial. Quitc a nuitAc' of our citrus .-r,'uvcrs now .ccow

crops of crab-srass, IbeL_ orweed, covocas, ..rl crops of that

hind for Tihe :sake of Cotting the foror. from those -ioves5/

In addition; to Siving hem the, they get the advr.nt. :e

of the tops, v.hich dcc:.y in the soil, thus pro-Ading a be-tcr

soil for the citrus grove.

louw, let us tar.e the e:am:ple. c i in, of Con e of the

farm, at TF tingr s, for c:Eamp.le I .:..;.ld cite ;.-on, oit!.:r

places, but Eatings ha-rens to be nonr at hoime -ere The

farriel s there Srow thrIo or .cfor fc:am cro;-s on 1h:t land in

a single rear, iandl aftcr- the l1 nd hs c-iboo cro;e for 1-i

ber of years, the l i.nd is actual. 1 bC:ttcr th on it was .:.hc.n

they began, and yet in some cases they tal-e four crops off of

the soil in c. '-inle ;: 'r. Co. cre lhat, the-lc, l-:th l the land

on vh-ich '.e have grown cotton all the time.

I have just 'sliovnm :oo the c.;va-ntc ---no, not the ad-, but absolute ,:.c.szity for 1-rowing forage to

]keep our coil in good condition, in the b.:.t jlo&uctive con-

,iJtion. To garo,, the L'--t linac of livestock, it is abs.olrtely

necessary for us to use ;oriothing beside our native vegetation.

Have you ever though of it, that of all the provs we -oroduc.e,

not a ,-ingle one of the impolitr--it cro;-s is of native origin?

Let us enummorate then, beginning Uith the most ir-mortant crops

that we produce in F'1'- i"a.


The citrus crop., that binAg~us iore imoneythn_ any other crop;

corn stand second.; cotton th-rd; I think: -h-n comos M'eet

potatoes; peanuts; and o on "Lovma the lict. Yon wiill1 h ve

to go clear on uovm to beg;earweed before you come to a native

crop. Bearw.c-cc. and cro.bL-ra.-_S ar'e to the State but

the,, arc about all that have of the iriport'nt crops or that
a- e L

can be -Lane:od os cro- ?.t all that are 2~.tive plants of

State. It is so,] every ccunty. People have not "en

satisfied ";ith n: ive Il inits. Io one ltht is 1proressive .uld

b- satisfiedd ',ith our wire-gra ss in the pinec.:rT ooCds. As a

imac:er of fact, ..hen he eyc bcgi to. open up our piney w; ..altd

begin .ratin on thIiu, the ;ire "aT.S- disappears and the hr',:io

leaved, grasses come in and r':1pl::,ce it.

Let ui take :.-cin the illustr:tion of the feed o-f

cattle. i7e all knovw vi.1\ t t:G 2c -:ho ive cattl e look like. '7c

hIve seen too Lany- of theim, of the old Sanich stook. In

their original state, thei -ro fairly ood cattle, but they

have hai to depend. on Ith e native grades and native fied until

they have deoencaited into being 1.c-r'ly bones and a digestive

system. I thin if you to lool: for l ir point, .yo.

2 --
would. find that theiy a ovld 3E..cor a :jood to-caEt pretty close.

They would run a pretty close parallel "to thf' t 1 'or Ihinl qucr-

ters. Or they .:old coinare pretty .-lose to -n alligtor

or a billy-coat. They c..ll have a p ic)ty load dig.:stive

sy stem. TI:-t is ithie wiay n.-t. i. o has broi L h t tl; r:.h ,;ot.

Thr-re have been tim is- of bhe c<- oe n-hen these cattle were facing,

starvcai:' n. Th'e hld the meanest kind of feed possible, and

only -chose survived tl..t ..:re able to vith.tae.-: those conditions.

Some cc.plc co::.ploin of our r;3rub cows not giving a-ny milk.

Well, all the good iilcrS .died, btooc.nze -.hen 1:cy sucklod their.

calves, they sinrly drained. the cows, to death h :.nJ there vwas no.

survival, calf and cow both lying p-robably.

ITov, I lhin: ve .lve one over the first part of that

subject pretty tilly. We see the :,bolulite necessity for doing-

soliething in the way of -,roducing fo-.rce, :.nd we must for

this. We must plan, not for pLroducing forage -..hlcm there is an

abundance of feed, but rplan for producing it v;".cn it is -ne.ded.

Th,:re is a certain time of th-e :ear :hen we do 1not have to

any e:'traa feed. time he we iu.t have 2w.oe

or else lo.-e em. a good part of our stoc]. Even t 1hat r;- t tlat

survives is so serious.-y injured .u ri ng th.t time t'hrt the are

of very little value, it tLe;-]:s so lo-n to recd:'.-.te rncl

get back to the normal.

I .,ich to t.]:e u1'p the *h-:.rts for the ne:At point, shon-

ing- us the fora-go ero.'s T-h-. c.n be produced. I luially prefer

to begin v.itJ the cL-rl- .-it.r. 7c -i ht h, ii ',ith the ..i .r

today, SC '.'e -;Ire located in JL'-;i. c-y.

Under ori0injr, circcuiLtances the Georgia Sal.:d is a

i:lant tt tit ill ,ive us a 'ood. crop at this time of the year,
This -cear .e missed it. ITow, Tch sure thing is not in/farm-

ing line, as :,-ou v, all n::-npcrienced ".c fore this. If you hare

had an,- ec:.:i'pricnce in farming, you 1-now thit it is a d iear- .sure

thing thaU.t you a re not going to have a large crop of ove..-ThirnS

you put dn, otherwise there would be no necessity for faring.

If you Vant a dead Lur'e job, cut the job of cutting coupons from

government bonds. But fortun-tely we arc not able to .ct --.clh,


a job.

So if wie happened to have failure- this year .'itih the

Georgia Salad, ve will try it -.j; in ne;:t year. This is the

fir.t failure in five .Ucua011y we .r-ve a lot of the ocorria

Salad for feeding. L-:st year v.e h.aid five acres in a single field

and twenty head of stocci could not 1.:.:ep it razed down..

Then wve h:ave a second c-ro- tio t comes in.about that

time--Lhe Japanes, Cane.C .Our Jaan:se Cane has been grc.zed

for so!:'.tiae. I have not seen it since th.e freeze. I thinf

,e had. five acres th--.t had not 'Lc en cut. It is -robable t .i-.t

it is in -.-rety good .Iape for grazing still. That portion of

the Japanese J:ne thi t has b.:cn out caniJd l:a',icd in windrouvs is

absolutely safe. I dare so;3- that ;,-ou ,ve been told my Tr-.

T.c 'uarrie how he tales care of his Jaranese Cane. How he cuts

it in ;-7indro-s, puttinS the butts on t;he gr-ound, so they wiill be

in touch '.:ith the earth r.nd draw up moisi.'ue froi. the gr i.nd,

the tops forning a cover for t]2oe rest of it and protecting it

from Lthec 'cJother J


We had some out last year that laid ther until J.-nu.ry, -nd

at that time we i7ree be,-iin-ni- to cultivate Lcdt so it \as

hauled into the hay born end in Iovember-Prof. 3cottw \:as

still feeding from that Japanese cine. The cattle relish

it and ---refer it to some of the c.. hr ht.l? 10 e -d.

Velvet Pcans are now at their 0b tc. Yo;: vill no-

tice that in those two cro-:.s wve hlve fwhaat we iiiihr t cull a bal-

anced ration, and if tLe cattle ae tu.-ned n1 JTpanese Cane

and velvet be'ni .o tl.tht cthe;,.- e-t r.. nch oi f each as they

want, they will cat v.'h:t they want ;:nd will iitvC a Ibalanced

ration. The Japancse Caiie and lithe Velvet 3can are t]he bone

and muscle-,producing fc.eds, the protein.

Rye ;rnd oats can be used a-t this time of the .::ar

ifor fee-ing. cattle. L.Late in Feb-ruary othe -oats field will come

along so that they w.,ill get good pasture.,

So we se:e that 1 l,.uring ,,niary a, d FT'bru ry ::.e --c

large supply
a earth of feeding mitor;ial provided we have looi:e ahd a and

planted an abundl-nce of crops.


We will novi take the early' spring. In the e-rl

spring C lhave the Gc-orgia Salad, velvet beoss, rye, o,.ts, rid

in I.arch the 'CLi-neO gr-ass u!irj.c favorable .on:aitoion. That

makes nice, succulent feed for 11.ose w.orl onis.1 th :t e-re

falling off soTmewvlhat rnd. for _C Oie of tlc co.s E.nd calves, but

it is rather/early in ITarch to pasture the Guinea csras ve-r

much. In April or Th.y:, our Espring here, we come to the period

of hard times. You \ ill notice ti-t it is too late for our

crop of Dwarf Ecse:: rspe or the GeorJgia Sald,.; too late for

velvet beens, nrd our Japanese cane is practically all gone,

and. at thC.t time .7 have to rely on ots, r;y, Guinea grass

end Para c.rass, unl.esr ,.:e have stored ':cLie o,'ra'-e. That is

our hard time. Some years by the '!ii.dle of the native

pastures a-re alrepay coming up o that the cattlo cans be

turned out into the ivoods i-nd onto the .ran-e to hunt the ;-ra. c

for thnCmselves.

!Tov,, wh]en \C:e :come to uuniUri, we [hs,,n have a la.r e as-

sortmnent of -lants that -,o can use. In the .:.iter part of Juno
.,-t o jq,ji,, e IIIt~j 1

the earliest of the sorsglunis will 1'.o rie. We :.ill not c-l .ve

forage, but 7.:- will :also hr.e irin. Our corn -ill then o v.-l

enough along, taking in July, so that 7ee c7in fcied. Corn and sLovel-

to ooDi e. O.ts .:.n rye 7.ill clao be i..le ';.- t ioie, rL-e

coming on about T.iy or Jiue ul-,_l y. In June :nJ. July one of t'he

earliest ilcin-tina of, v:-ill :,e on at that t-ii:te.

Yet onotiher iiupoCrtnt ri.l muc.h nlectea cr-op is the- Para

re*%' io t *,.,a A,- *,. t... of
grass. Tlat, t .iso, i' coin ona ct t1 is tije. At ar matter of.

fact, in April the .ara -r-ss b c-innii .o be Yvcr good :'raing

as far north as v-we r, loc.ted. lbcj.c .-,nd throv -',ou-t the no rth.-i- art

of FloriLda. The .'.iinea -r: .'ill t'ii have .m. turs so it can bsta.

stiron, g -ras.ini. Bc- arve-:ee x(:il i he ci,,ir-. in in July, a.nd T'c-.:ii'an

0Clover Clc0.

Whein 7e cor.i:. to a'rl:,- frll, then our 1.-,tc sorV.huiE v bill be

matured., thoe large cro. th,:.t 0:ive i s :-.i:: oon to twenty-five times

of -'i-een ir .tter and. -0o :rn buc- lel. s of -.-'i:in. T.: iin.- 'Ic Sumac

nd ponaech, viOll -ive us a l.r.. 'e .nt of foc-,e, and -in.

Odwoeas--the fir-Lst crop -.ill hob rie. Be_ c-.Geed, P-,ra -r...,

-1- -

Guinea grass, I'c::.icn clover. T thin]: trhat mnt of aon people cal

the Mexican c1,ver Te:-:a. clover in Eac-iLi.. o.1ct'.. T-her are a

goocl many iliff--ent n.aees for it. It is one of : ..o. felloic ,.:t.

Lc.s n C. aoert "t of ie .

In l,:otc, fall v\.-- >x- e ai, .holo list. Sorlin:tn, -e.-ra 'ra':c,

Guinea g Srass, ITatal 2-ra s, -l: -a ce;,-.. rvelv --: b.-.:jia J-..ans, c c: ,ne

again in ITo :.,ubcr, thao -'h it is not e'-St tc it : this

time, but if you crc ; h ort, it c:,in el- 0-.- out. J.:p.l.e cno is

laying up a lot of n.V ',r .ti. t ic .'.i-id q .t to be :c--t until

frT ost is er-:r cted.. Tt Lc-es a.. ,in lot of' .;..r u'in' tL.; t.time

and. it is 'est not to feed it until ..b.t tie. Pcanuts cone in -I:-n,

and. M-exican *:lo-ve.

That Lbrin.z us oack to D.ol:.bcr :-cid 2 nI-'Ty, our .inter.

We have Du .--rf Essex r 'pe, C.-.orsia Salas., ,Ja.anese cane, Pi.a _-r .,

Guinea ss. Para rra'-2 ld C-uinea -:rnS. :ill l:r-:- n unt

li-ht frosts. Ilatal 'rass stnci.s v:uit-e soevce .f,..-,, Last win- *

ter ac .lidc net have a froze that Lili. it out enti-. ly, thoi' U- I.or.'

'bf the la:ntc v.ere 1:ill e .d .:t, but 1. ir.f e nuL:;r lived -.i1 t-'c1 -h.

Velvet Ij)c.ns, of :ous' e,

P-,an1ut C, Chuf:I-s.

C uc.s ;.;r not -7"-,ntctd


to ani- con:id.leloable cj:itcn.t. The r not Y .:ctin

as a feed; they ;-il. not nimp:rov the ,&-oil.

Whon ;ve come ta .-nd Febru-_.-; vc. '_._ u .: .Ie cur r.ou d,

we V ho.vo ;7,'_.e E& caoirleate round of the ;"car, .1o.i' fo' i t ..t

we can grow. Aside from b:.:ing ."',. to .fou.. du f" it is r;;

impo1 rt- ,nt "for us to lno h.eth'r o.'Ti -"o it "- 1'it Ll r no:t.

Tot uLu t." _:e tL: --,]..-i"_t- one alftcr anotirE' -. .' L c ,.he :]-C.riced.

he re. -

Fi.".t, the Eaor jlis Tc da.t c.t vt.ih t i....: a,

June to Oc -ober. T].cy -v.ill ire us from 5 to 16 tons of 1rcen

matter, or from 2 to 4 tois of d:ir.: !..uco, :.ind it w.ill not .:o ot Uc

over '15 -u a:.cre to produce. Thi is a. liberal ;:a.lowrnce. -r'

i- n1 t one of .ou l .rc. in t:. cl,:. o. .J bu.t -t. c;l. i:"'- it on

$10 to ,12, allovin.g for cvc.r; ocible o:c"..:.e. live ut the

figure, hovweecr, ,at the outsii.e.

L t us Ut-o cona. July to Augu it, ho criod. rin; ch

iha-t should l:be har'vosted. or g-round. for :foed.. 0 to 8 t :no 1 of i: .ron

matter, l-- tons. of d,;- tottcr. I put tlt c.t 15 .n

-1- C.-

ITow V.e -Par.a .r E.. The -eriod. Juri -t ,hiCh thit ..n

be grazed is from A,-ril to Iovei;`..:r IL .;.ill i:ae e hi,- '. 4 tons

of hey. The o..o!nt' o"f green i.i_.[:,er .ilC t it -.rlouces we have iL';,:'

for about 2

IT::ttal g-s, Augunst to Dcce,. bor. Gives us c .:: to t. co

tons. Guinea 1. L 'zr;ch to Irvc-c or. The first, i2.. it cost

us t21. That inslu.ed 7 for ,c--ress i.'jh we : 0'. to 'i 7 on. t.Lc

rlnts. You vill thorofo:. e eethat the a.m -.n was -.. high for the

Guinea grace. The J-c::t ;-o.:r it .:hould not cost us over *t. I ]: ven't

the number of tone hcre, e c:.. U C at th0,at time we ,-d,' n.,::._,'red it

up. Sin .c that L Lie T ho' c fo:u- L.ho t it ,,,e -1 tons of Ioy from
up. Sin ': tha' tLi,,e L 'fr''o

an acreo.

I ital g-rai---r'o ra:icod. E.,lclthing o-cr 2-, toC on that

scaie class of land, costing uC about 2 :n acre. Cr'ab ,rasE--I have

put it at the ie figures--! to 1- tons ,r- acre, co;-tin, aL :,


$2 per ,acre. Japanese runs from Iloveimbi-. to .Dec.i.eir. I

should have -,ut that -lcor on to eroLr:.T..7 I.ovoi;Jbo)r, 'c cc- ,lor, J'.n-

uary and. Fcbru:y. 'ivc s us 6 to 12 tons. 12 tons "1 less Than

any that vo h?.ve v,.. i:hed up I dare say th:.t our f j t ycrr's

planting would averjed 12I toi:s, but our ls.t E -c :er'.s -.l::;

averaged ner:rl:- 20 ton 3oime of our -'lot: IisL :-car r:'n '7.

Oats, J-inu-'ry .o Jitie; 1 to 2 ton'; :ort :3 on an -..* L-.:'e.

er,O ru nning from J .ry to "Tur.e; -1 to 1- tons dr :.ttr; C

can,'eount on Ll-2t.

'eggurwoo eel run rom Ju to Ootob-o C .'. ,: :es 'us f OLi on.i,

to 2 tons of be-- L-:ar-c.d. hy -, or acre, .: t S4, pr:actieally t1: L'jme

price as t'h cow: eas. Velvet u aois, ITo :ve or to Fab iri.-ry, YnI.L :.;re

it ie possible to leave tho field lie out, t hat is, ;.:re it is not

nGcec'sary to )lo'., tli: field, the velvet be ans.,c- be loft until t'e
,ri o 'y. ]e c ,e.. Veue "-.Lns -L-,m~_% ~ -;5, --_ ...

L0- -1 -

end. of Januai~iry and cattle msi;. for:-:cc on tho;em Ju:-in T:-rch. The

figures here are'.r too low. 'i7c not had a crc' of

velvet bo.ns. that did not -ive uu 'c1r than a h:-.f ton oaf b> :,- in

pod. One plot hiEs .cracca ov-er a ton of ,%ns;e in pod. Tl hoe

figures, 'l.cvcir, Ie: tac:on :roi-! Dta TI 'ai! at :i'.nl .v.hen the chart

was maL e. The h rice thlerice is rlo1 ru1ii-iin h.1her t1::,'n is auL-alute ly

nec-Css.2r,, t. rt is, $5. T.-'t ..oes'not iujl .: th. e ga.t-' ring of

the pods. You :-an .ount on .:mut 15 or 20 cents a hundred for :. ;'-r-

in" the po:J.

Peanuts ,mn from 1'2 to 2 tons per acre. I put thcm at

:6. That is rather low. You. c;:n, however, p::.d-ie tlmi at :o by

plchntini: thlcm in ltorui- te Uro.s of corn., but ~hire Lec peanuts are

plan ed in the field {ihot price' is a little low. D.Carf Ee e:: rape

or Georgia 3altd., Dccehlber "to arch. 3oi.c years it :a'" .1:h fe. all

through Apriil id up il Tey, but ;.ou v.'ill be pretty certain to -have

it throughout the I-.rgr portion of TI.-rch at least almost every year.

I have im:,e that S to 10 tons, but we hove giovw !-n--.llh li;c:-cr crops

then that. This :ar c :.:c t '._Oinf -uc get L tons. -It is going to

be pretty n:-arly at the vanishing point.

TL.'-t -.:ice is alto:-.:thi.

too rTx high. Do not copy it .:1 but put it ra'thr I6 to .:8.

TIel:ican clover cost us w ei'r1ly for the plovi: n of .Lo C:il ..j.i t-he

makir-i of the nay. y It vas fairly -,'ofi-iable ad a .o i ior; cI .

I have nov.' lon-e ove-r t!.e fo c:-e oiore pre tt fully in con

section w-ith th. chrts. 7c vwai-it to t a.-e n- the .otogra-hs r-c::.

First ve h-vc the G-orgia S'l,.d. Tlh field ihlotosra-,hcd

ther-e v;as oi the E::me:.-i:e.'it St: ..ion at Lake OCit, end. i -ove

us 16 tons. You notice .;';-.t crovmwn 10 l ie. It vi;. planted

in row7S about A24 inches e;-.-i'rt. Th.t is a -.'ely succulent and juicy

crop and one especially well adapted to v.-i:,ter tii.e ouhen our stock

are vwe.ntin. :-.tiing juicy. And. if you l. vo more ther yo- can lpos-

sibly use on the .fa-t, tc:e sore into the kitchen Don't take it

into the 1:itchen until ':.u hc,'o f,'d I our :1.tocl: .1 the-- vant to

eat. It is be. ter than collards tD-L bettleor thlan .1miEtard. It does

better in rows .than to sow it bro-.Lca. t, bec- u.e that gives a c:-lnoe

for cltivation. By putting ; it in na-rriow i-or.s, y"ou can 'Ct a narrow

cultivator ;.nd -o tC, hrouh it so c': to stop the c:xcessive evr.-oration

that occurs during" our fall F V-id vinL.r. It taLes :bout -ten to twelve

weeks for it to get up to this sie, so for or0.iny purposes it is

well 'o rmale rep'oeted soingis. Sow a half :core, say, about tl-he

first of October; c.aout the middle of the fi.-t of Jcrnu-

ary you can7 begin grainmg.. Plrntiing four weeks earlier it will come

in Janu-'y. You will fiil corio difficultyy in. plaln:ilng earlier, becauLe

of the hot olrhc-r, snd thi:.. -..:nr. y 11 re o...t of sorts for .lentitg

seed the -irst of Sc-)teicrjer. It is theo most difficult tJiae of the

yee.r for EprouLTin- s.:ccli. If :-ou L, :ve.a good. seeed-bed., it is a good.

thing to put it in and ,gt some eac-icor, bccc.urse if it is inr-ing up

too much, tal.e ,our m:onvcr .iC ri-~ i across it, 1nO. it ill. come up again.

.You are not icoin:o to lose : i.-thi. 7 by r-utting it ciovn.

Rye-in Jcanuary. Rather lar,.-r yield '. n. usual. It was the

result of La cror of co.- ucAL-.1 of them, I believe it

v.Eas co:."-._as, 0oli- lI 'tuminrous crop & of tli:U. It sh,-, the won-

erful, e.fft of .r.celing '--i vith a 1e -ume.. The saife i.Ti is

true '.I-ih Georria Salad. Professor scott has just gotten the 6ccta

to.-ethcr 'h:"r.- ,eorgia Salad c..s '.crcded Lyd sorihu;i nl where

preceded by. co:s-.cas. I thiri7J: -I.:t -..iere it was pr.-ced.ed with cow-

-:,eas it made thre .ti.ieZ c much as ..hen it was precedIed& y sorghu.

.: -21-

The Poorland corn is bred. by MJfr. Oadsb:-. The Poorlland

is one of the prolific cor-ns. You no Live the :thort stas...

T,?e::ican June co~n. Thc.t is : v;r iot; tVhat is too i to

plant lete in the 'year; you ,-,a -,lnt Clt;l' rye h-as been tn:,:en off,

and get a p-ood crop of for-ge. It is .-rat.r ba..- ; affected

worras. It imjal-es a splcmaicI su-port for velvet he-ns. By plent-

int it be'Jicen the velvet be-i,'s ou -et a 0 Lr'onC, support for the

velv-et beans cnd it -grows c.pidly.

Sor3hum. The vor'i do not bother .-'t." ie do find a

.worm here cnd there but not eor.ou-h to 7- o.n; at- c: -t cion to. Th.-t

saime field produced onlu- a bushel to thc acre the .yc::r bef re.. Tlhcre

we vehav 8-/4 tons of org'hum,~ -l, *'. .ue to the crop 0of velvet beans

that was on the ficld.; it v':- not .l e to a bet c.-:or season, the pre-

tious seas-on v-/c.s just as .od .o thu t i-one.

Tcoointhe ima-:es a splendlid oun- ciop of fe'' o "e. It

rivals or e:.ceeds the Japanese cane in the pro'i.uction of C.L te" 1

to the acre, but if we were to -p.nt it out on th': ;. e lo.d with

the Japanese cane w:'e v.ol;l& not got -anyting li1:e -Ji yiold of p-

anese n. We ve ao a vo-Ery rich, .ell , picce of

Snd, c.nd vbhore you those conditions, the land. is worth

much more for other c-orns. 40 tons is not abnorma-l :or Toouinthe

on first classE land. It vroduces ' I .i-pEns ar..od in

Florid.a,-the onl;-, Stc..-.e in the .-ULion in :.hiih ,. can rircn cocd.

of Teoairithe. It for-ms a little lhui.: ,,niL roECeIlcs corn a little

bit. It runs right olonShg .'ith co0m in the .nol -sis. It iot:es. a

good silL..o crop.

lHctal racs. ThO:t ,cave us 2t- tonl for the second cutting;

380Z pounds fort tiho fi- t c-i -Lt i-g.

Guinea ra'..- running wild in an .'l.Tc.ndolonie orange orcl:ird.

You will no-iice It'r..T 1:ite st:..,; there, a ,cr.n a,.out 6 feet tall,

and the greas :'.''ing to his shoulder. It is not often that it

g'rovws .dild, but on the iTTral River it is .an exceed inly good l-sture

without inte;.ing it for --c.a.tuire at Cpll. Soi.e was "rc."'- on the

first year.

..t T.he1e i t!he Para grCs. Did you --et o.n c0 opportunity t

sec that last fall? You notice the long ratoons; than y-ou notice

the hay ratoons also. It iuns along' the -round for a &i;it':.-.e ond

throws up a hay ratoon. It is done rath:-r I.i.icly, The r-toons

that -run alone: he ro- d are r:'.ti'.: r.'sitat to .'' out. They

can be 1:oe.t lying' on the frounl for si:-; to tLclve wcl:s andl if t'ihey

are then planted out they will :o. The hey cannot

planted out very succeu-:, _ully, not c-evn with a air de,--ree of suLc-

cess. In Teas -he-, plant out this ,rem' for hay. It lool:E lilhe

it voul.d lh difficult t o r.n,-o ay ..' it. But .ou i nov. if there is

&a ood decl of miioney in things of- i.-:t Lind, people will finid Out

hovL to Jo it. The Te:ans hi..v. C :. a.-Le C._ Cr t ..o_:. of ..y out of he

Para sraas an,: c planting it out lar-el- f.r .ain_. h,_ Clone

andr not for p E-l.urling. The-'re is one thing a- out rara raas. It

has to be handled diffi:.rcnt from n oth: rasc n:v of. *YouI

.hand.le it very much lilh-e 7- o Ecrtlluda. If you ..1e.1 u to .:.e a fine

Bermud.a law-n, just try to cut it ort. If yon t it, it dies :,i.t.

This P..ra grass, if you ]:ccp the cattle off of it *:ncd irmly let it

alonr soon iuns itself tut. On the ,tht c,,r u-ioni, if 0-ou turn the

11. .._ ...

battlee in on it, or itun lit iuner as if -o1:- .:o re oin.0. o .Till1 it

out, in a fevi ;oee:s 'you ill fi-., tho.e r-,toons running over Lhe

field lil:e wildfire d in -a. few v..ees :,-oE will :vc .-'. .:od crop

of hai. If -ou cut it doTo the l:i. tLor -;.rt of ":y or :?.Tly part of

June you will find& a loti of c.y; ofLcn it riun up to two or i.'e t.on

for tlhe i cu'i.-iiig. The s-co-nd cultti' is .!;:110-, dC the third

still ml-er. Then, .hen f--ll comes, before Iost is eop.ected,

put your brh::inj plow in Cr. in, so as to cover over th,. rLtcons.

If .-ou !o a nice jo'., and _f- all ite ratoonc covr--.'d, then in s-hinii

a g.ood crcOrop vill io proclucc for early grazing. It is a tropical Cro"s

and 0 t,-:cr. The :.ic is true of Guinea r':.L'.S. It is very tenc!er and

:;:e have to treat it a..ccor.inrly.

Vclvet ,c-is.

Be_. ar-vcdc---and it ,rces a crop. One thing about

chand.ling bo -n r-.ccd. .A a rule it -s. up rati. strE--j ling. Some

of it ,O.i-'-es up -iing c .rl. '., :.. .ou.:i g Th: i .o of ....; some more

,:-2,ih ,'; U p .. ..


H.ay-Malring ---Coo ueas anmi Orab-grass mire,.

.A silage cutter--that you. have seen to frc.uerntly.


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