A( 1TOULTJUAL IE'IT.. 91T STATION,
A Congressional Act of 1887 provided for the establishment
of an 1Exporiment Station in every ,3tate and Territory in the
Union. This stop led to the oimiltaneous founding of about fifty
Pencrieent stations in the United states, calling for not less than
five hundred trained workers. Under the conditions, it was found
that tho workers were not in; the country but had to be trained.
After about twenty years of work, it was found that a fairly oon-
petent corps of zxperimTent Station nooro0rs A1tb been trained, and
that much effort and noney had be-n lost in hiring inefficient and
untrained mon in the beginning to do the work of specialists.
voe novo havo in the united states a large number of woll
or-ganized J.xporiment stationsns urnd a larger number of scientifically
trained e:.:ports than are found olnevwhOro in the world. These expert
workers have made a profound ohnnro in the agricultural methods and
in,-t agricultural advancenont in the united States. Thosc states
in the Union that had a coirprehensive conception of the hipnerinent
Station 'ere the first to ostablish well organized and properly
constituted stafi's. These states were the first to do efficient
and lasting work for their particular states and naturally those
states have developed much more ranidly than those in which the
corp of experiment station worker. were chosen from among the
people who had no training for their special profession. Florida
was fortunate in having conneotod with her i~-perinont Station one or
more men from the .beginning who wore thoroughly trained, and rho
had tlio oorroot ideal of theo t.porinent station in mind. These men
are the ones who have produced for us results of Mattinr benefit.
The Congrossional Aot,broifly 4Bmi .4,i' V
the -xperiment Station S an institution for the acquiring and diffu-
sion of useful agricultural knowledge. Under theeoo limitations, it
is evident that whatever is done at the n xporiment Station must in
a measure add to tho knowledge already in the posuoBsion of the neonlo.
Line of work and problems that are already well ]nmown and well under-
stood are not subjects for ex.norinentation. Torsely stated, the
xperimieont stationn is an institution for making agricultural investi-
gations. It should not for a moment be confused with an institution
for the demonstration of agricultural process, The work of demon-
stration belongs to another cntoeory of agricultural work. The work
of agduirirn useful agricultural knowledge, however, does not
complete the labors of the experiment Station. When the knowledr-e
has bc.-n acquired, it must be prepared into suitable publications
for distribution,- in order that the inovwledge mary be disseminated
among the agricultural population of the State. For this purpose
the Congressional Act provides that bullotins,not less than four
in number~per annum,asitpg.. att lenst onoo a yeO.r shall be pubt
The Florida f xporiment Station has now published one hundred
and five bulletins, one hundred and sixty-five press bulletins, and
twenty-two annual report. The total number of pieces of literature"
that have been distributed in l.is way amounts to more than a million
oonies, approximately oighty thousand of which have been distri-
buted during the last fi:-oal yoar. Measuring by the number of rages
of agricultural information, it would amount to several millions.
S 'he aims of the .rxperiInmnt station is to bring to the
aid 'of the, agricultural people in the Stato the latest and most
useful agficultnral information. As the bulletins are published
at intervals of about two or threemonths and the pross bulletins
published weekly, it is evident that the advance in agricultural
'information is brought before the people Iorimediately upon its dis-
covery rnd substantiation. Nocossarily, the acquirin; of new
knowleJirre in the agricultural line must be a slow and sornevwhat tedious
process since factor. after having been a-parontly discovered, must
be tested out under varying conditions to assure tho true exporinent
worker that thoro is no mistuko in his nothoda ot, in his lo.ic. This
roeauircs not only the working out of his .lan, but after.''ards a ro-
petition of it under Vuryi:-.p conditions to assure himself and his
oolloaguos that the information he is about to announce is true in-
formation and not misinformation.
--afe < .
LIIENS OF WORK T
lairing a considerable portion of the history of the Florida
Experiment Station, the investigators in the various laboratories
were at the same time professors in the Univorsity and Agrricultural
College. This method, hov.vcr-, proved unsrtisfacoory and the present
Board of Control wisely soparatod the work of investigation from
that of teaching. An investigator when absorbed with problems of in-
vestigation and discovery naturally becomes very much interested and
enthused in the problem under investigation. If this line of in-
vestigation must be broken into at regular intervals and frequently
during the same day for nurposcs quite different from invrstigational
work, it naturally interfered grently with the carrying out of his
lines of investigation, It also fJtrter interforoe greatly with a
teacher who is thoroughly interested in his olas2-room work to aban-
don thioj work at frequent intorv;ls in order th-:t he may oarly on
a certain amount of inveotigationa work that would be required of
him. In addition to thin it is a rare person who possessnD at once
tho neces:-ary qualities for rn~a:ing first-clasm investigations .nd
at the same time is a first-las:: instructor. It is a well-known "'
fact among experiment station workers and among instructors in
agricultural work that the beut- investigators in theoUnited States
are by no moans the beet instructors, and on the other hand our best
instructors in agricultural 31eine havo produced very little investi-
gationtal work. -
The lines of inve:tipaption as produced by the i'lorida
tfnporiment Station are somewhat different from those fsornerly
pursued by institution of this kind. The workers in the r;:-orimont
Station of Florida are novw prstin-g their studies on what is known
ac the project line#-thnt-is, certain lines of investigation which
are nost needed for the agricultural adf&ancement of the ::tate cre
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suggested and formulated. The nan best adapted and available for
this line of work is then cooured. This line of work is carried
out rogardlesc of its ramifications into various departments, the
problem being followed to its logical conclusion. In the old ideal
of the 1xzporiment Station, the investigator was employed to carry
out the work in a deparntental ixnay. whenever his problems anproached
the field of another department, it must necessarily be dropped and the
head of the department in whose field the problem ratified must
take it up or leave it untouched. This worked greatly to the dis-
advantage axLdsiwx rt of advancement in experiment Station work during
-,--- tL.LSUB ELti; the type
the first one or two deaados of the existence of this institution.
To brin-; this out more clearly an illustration may bo
cited. A certain crop, wo will say the lettuoo crop, was found to be
suffering severely from a disease. 'This coming in the province of the
department of-the Plant Pathologist, the :lv'rk was naturally taken up
by him. In the thorough study of his wark, he found that it was im-
praoticoblo to control this discauc by any means already known,
and found that by brooding lot-.uoc for a difforrint shape and for a.
different character, it would bc found rosaiblo to circumvent this
trouble. The study of the diseoso fell. clearly within the limits of
the Plant ratholo.~ist but plant-breeding vwas under the direction of
the horticulturist, and naturally it had to be dropped by the Plant
Pathologist until the Horticulturist could breed a resistant plant.
napturally the Horticulturist would havo to spond much time in booming
acquainted with the conditions surrounding the disem-;e and the typo
1~ plant necessary for producing a resistant strain. Under the pro-
joct plan, the Plant Pathologist takes up tho.breeding of the lettuce
plant and carries it to a successful termination.
PITTEAWPIE PROJECT:-The investigations along this line were inaugurated
nine years ago. A field was secured in the region whoro pine-
anTnlcs are theo prevailing crop, near Jensen, Florida. .T'his ex-
periment was taken up with the viow of determining what the effect
would be of continuous fertilization or the pineapple field_ ith
certain chemicals ordinarily enloyed for this purnooo. OChemical
analyses of the soil were inadn at the boginning; careful data
taIken of the work fromttimf-A--utinm the time of cloerlhn the field
and the setting out of the plants. jurinr' the nine years that
this eoperimont was in progross, ciri different bulletins on this
subject were issued.
The literature on the data obtained gives fte follovwinr~
The following is a brief summlarly of some of the most important
facts brouighlt out by the pineapple investigations that have been
carried on by the Experiment Station during the last ten years
I. A thorough survey has been made of the principal pifeapple:-
soils of the State, including analyses of samples from nearly all
,o.f the pineapple-growing sections.
2. Seventeen varieties of pineapples have been described andl
chemical analyses have been made of 12 varieties.
S. Nlethods of handling and marlktiug the crop have been
4. A fairly complete bibliography of pineapple literature has
;. Extensive fertilizer experiments have been conducted fro n
,.Ihich the following conclusions have been drawn.
laI Fine ground steamed bone and slag phosphate are best
as s-ources of phosphoric acid; cottonseed meal dried blood, and
castor pomace are best as sources of nitrogen; high-grade and low-
grade sulphate of potash are best as sources of potash.
Ib: Nitrate of soda, acid phosphate, and kainit have not
proven satisfactory. ('Ahlile sulphate of, ammonia was not used in
the exper-iment, this material has in general practice been found
unsuited to pineapple culture.)
(ci In case of shedded pinealple- it has been found that it
is profitable to use from 2250 to 3750 pounds per acre annually
Sof a complete fertilizer.
i'd Analyses of a large number of fruits (Red Spanishi
covering a period of four years show that the eating quality oif
the fruit is not affected by the kind of fertilizer used.
ie) The sugar content of the fruit (Red Spanishl i-. slightly
inc leased by the heavier fertilizer applications.
(f'i The large fruits contain a slightly higher percentage of
sugar than the small ones.
i' The analyses.of a large number of pineapple plants show
that they contain sufficient fertilizing materials, nitrogen, phos-
plhoric acid, potash, lime, and magnesia, to make them of consider-
able value as a fertilizer.
ih) 'With an increase of nitrogenous fertilizers there was
found an increase of nitrates in the soil.
1ii Nitrates are most. abundant at the immediate surface.
After a depth of one foot is passed the amount is very small.
i Ji Where the surface of the ground is not protected, the
nitrates are much less abundant than where there is a covering of
plants and decaying leaves.
CIT1:US, PROJEOT:-This project has for its aim L. thorough understanding
of the of eots of certain chemical fertilizers upon citrus trees.
For the purpose of carrying:out this work, a contract lasting for
ten years was entered into between the iJz:porinont Station and the owner
of a grove located neat Tavarres. At the termination of this period
it is quito certain that the information in regard to the effect of
citrus fertilizers .on the plant will be quite as oract as that obtained
from the pineapple.work.
.f.:.l:.:SEASE' PROJECT:-This project inoldes the study of those dis-
c:.scs of citrus which r.re apparently due to some organic agency. As
the projects are taken up with no knowledge as to the cause of the
disceso, it is impossible to rrodict how lonp it will tr.ko to con-
.- ... .
nlete the work. One problon in this citrus disease project was taken -
up in 1907, It required the continuous vork of the Plant Pathologist
for over two years to determine beyond a question of doubt what the
r.goncy was that caused the diocese Inown as Scaly-bark. However, six
months from the timo the positive agency was known beyond t question
of doubt, succossfal remedial measures had boon worked out based upon
the scientific information cotton by through laboratory methods. This
disease had long been known to occur in citrus groves in a particular
section of Florida and for fort;: years the grove owners had attempted
to combat the disease without this scientific knowledge, and as a
result no progress toward the elimination of t.he disease had boon
made. within lest: than three years from the tine of the begi-n inc-
of his work on the this subject, the Plant Pathologist had worked
out practical and profitable remedies for this trouble. without a
thorouf:h scientific kIowledge of the organism which caused the par-
ticular malady of the tree, it w-ould nrobobly have taken twenty assz
or thirty years more to have worked out a remedy for the trouble
that would be at once practicable rnd satisfactory.
''rTEPIJY ProTECT:-Tlhe whitefly of the citrus tree is the most serious
insect post with which the Florida horticulturists and agriculturists
has now' to contend with. For over tvwenty-five years, remodiosof
various kinds have been sng-e:ted and tried. The progress of the pest
has been rapid through some years and slowv through other years in ex-
tending its infections in the grove. A the present time every
county in the State which makes citrus growing a leading crop is more
or lesa infected.
The artificial r.eodies which have been employed for the
last twenty-fivo. years have proven thrmrolvos 1ncsatisfactory and very
expensive. The entomologist, thoreforo, bint his main energies
to ward securing natural remedies for this post. feortunately a
nmubor of diseases caused by fungi have beon diroovcred in the State.
Those romedies when properly p!nlied prove more satisfactory than tho
artificail .remedies. iFrthcr investtistions :arc being ma-ede 1m with
the view of securing prelitcious insects- which may work on the whitefly.
ITUTlrTi'IOTT PM?'OJaT:-This proJoct concoim: itself with the diccovering
of the forces whioh underlie the nrotoction o' the health of -lants*
while it is important to 1mno wlhat -no shall do when our -T1hntn are
dlseased, it is of creator i~poritnco to know what wo shell do to
Ieep the plants from becoming diaor acl. This project has l x its
basis at the very foundation of nl:nt and oror production. The e-foots
and behavior of certain chomicaln in connootion with the =rowth and
development of plants is stud ed. Special at' mention is miven to
those chemicals which are mon-t frequently employed in the fertilizer
formulae, This line of work neoe:;,arily requires a considerable
amount of study nnd work of a chemical nature on the one hand nad
a large large amount -of work o0 a microsoorical nature on the other
hand, the field being somewhat intermedia| t h~Ia-that or the
citrus fortilizor project and the plant dise-se project.
PL.'.TT BPT, I1DTN)I PTPOjCT:-The very r:,pid strid'.es that have been made
in ag-riculture by the systematic plant bre.'-ding has mado this a
veryinviting and profitable fiold'of investigation. Our knowleodgc
is now so woll formulated in plant brooding that the expert can do-
tcndrine within mathematical precision vhnt the rerjlto of a certain
combination of characters v.fll2 be. M1any new and obsuro f-ctore in
plant brecding still need'to be e .lained and understood, This line
of Vworkc uas bogun about throo ye rs aoe, ucing the velvet b;,nn and
lyon behn as parents f -th!fg hbb to begin our v ork in hybridization.
As those tw'o species have nufferod very little diversification from
breeding, they are especially ad?:pted for discoveringg Underlyinj
...^* 'V a o cp e c 'h 11 *
principles. A stri:in, charnrcter has cone out in this work. 'ho pod -
of the Lyon bean as well a: the pod of Velvet bean arpoar to be entirely
devoid of stinging hairs. In the first generation of the hybrid,
stingin, hairs are precont on all of the pods. while this charactor
in itself is of little morimnt, it is very important from the plant
breeder's standpoint, since by discovering the underlying principles
in this sudden arising #A stinging hairs of the progony, it will
enable us to understand variations of other plants that have not
h. rotoforo been clear. The pl..nt-brcaedC1r is dealing with a force
that is more subtle than electricity, les.- tidorstood than wireless
telegraphy, and has possibilities of boing utilized for the pro-
duction of untold wealth. An illustration of this kind may be takon
from the plant-breoding work done by the Ascistant Secretary of Agri-
culture while connected with the P nnesota Agricultural -xpori-
ment Station. During the time that Prof. Hays was at the =_rreri-
ment station he produced a now strain of whont d~i by applying
brooding methods to the old rheats already grown there. The profits
arising from the use of thin now wheat amounted to four million
dollars during a single year in iinrooota. The Velvet bean in Florida
is another proof of how an anrarently unimportant species of plant
may become of r.roitest value to the people \when worked at from a
scientific standpoint. Eightoon years ago whon the ]e-xperiment station
took up the study of the Velvet bean, this ilant was little more than
an arbor or trellis vine, During the subsequent years thorou-h stiudues
^ \ -11- 1-,.
have boon made as to possible Value as food and its value as a
soil renovate and fertilizer, it boin, well k nown that this particular
species of plant is able to convert the nitrogen of the atmosphere
into a combination that is suitable for food for other plants. .Dring
the eichtoen years of oexporimontation the plant has risen from a
practically useless a plant until it now occupies the seventh place
amon$gour agricultural crops. \vith the work of plant breeding that
is now being done by the Experiment Station, it Is quite reasonable
to e:poct J ti this plant to ocr-upy a pluvce second only to corn
.sand cotton in Florida.
AflJI-ATL 1113;BA3TDPDY P7O,.ECT:-The feeding of domestic animals has boon '
\ orperimented upon so long that the methods are now reduced to ro: ct
formulae when the exact f-eod are known. The fcedc produced for
stocl in Florida are almost without exception dif-'orent from those
that occur in other Statoo, being for the most part introductions
from foreign countries and especially from those countries that have
had no well organized iExperiment Stations. Consequently, a large
number of plants that are used for food and forage in Flo-id. ha-ve an
unknown value for this purpose. *t behooves us, thcroforo, to aspoor-
tain what the value of those different forage crops are in the pro-
duction of boof, milk, and pork. A nAumber of expo:rirjentOL have
alrcredy been completed to sho;: the "re t value that this line of work
is in the devolopmont of F,orid:. a .riculturo. It hos been demonstratod
beyond a lqunstion of doubt th.t good becif can be produced as choap in
Florido as ranylhhor; that the fattening period. for the production of
beef is shorter in Plorida than in other States; the daily gain
per thousand pounds of live v'oitght is greater than nay be expected
.by the northern feeder; and the proper comnination of dorn, volvot
beano,in pod, sorghun and Japanee cancer will givo excellent results,
In fe.-ding for mill: the sare combinations can be used, -:
E tP- I7T,3 S'- "ATIO1I ITUILDIT!G
The Logislature of 1907 apnronriated forty thousand dollars
for the erection of an E-perimcnt Station Building. Unfortunately
the revenue of the State aid not nrcmit the carrying out of the will
of the Legales-.turo. Hov'ever, the Legislature of 1909 re-enacted
the lav;s r;ovorning the appropriation for tlho E:xperinient station
Buildingio Dturing the yePr 1910 thio building wac erocted and comn-
pleted. The Exporinont Staff and the ..:.tension Staff now find thom-
selvos comfortably housed in the snlndidly oquipped building. Com-
potent authorities on Ete.:riment "t-ation buildings have pronounced
this one ofthe best adapted to the needs of our world: that oc-urs in the
southern States., We can thorneforn boe justly proud of our State in
.giving to the University one of the best building of 'its kind that
occurs in our "Southlend"a
First Floor: On the first floor of the hiporlment Station Build'
ing occurs the Diroctor's office and laboratory; the officer of the
socrotorr and stenographer; theo ofr-ic of the extension workers, the
office of the gardoner; as we.l as the laboratories of the Cher;ical
-.... --.. ., ..b.. ..n ..'. h,,:. y$iIfe ". "- ,. ... ;-' '.. i
Second Floor: On the ocoond floor oro found the library, a
Very coI.uodious room, -large enoi"-h to moot the needs of the u.oprtmont,
an' an hibits J-oom at the woot endc of the hall* In this nill be
found spncimrans of agricultin-al1 and horticultural products of the
State, -s 111712 as exhihitt of thc ;.or]ic done by the soveral DeI ptr:t.nt
in i)theo :orinont Sta;tion. This f aturo is.of special value to the
visitors to the Univorsity .' nnd to the st"to. It givoc a quick and
cornprohOnsive vioe of the grc.at many ]in-r s o fagricultural product
that we have in the State. On this same floor are located the offices
of the Animal Industralist, the uhllotin !Tailing room and the office
of the As ustrant Bot.nist and oI.Jitor.
Third Ploor: On this floor arc found the offices afdt~baoratory
of the m.ntonologist wherrc the largest amount of his investigErtional
-wor' iz being carri-ed on. Adjoining the intornological Dopartncnt
is found the Dopaertlent of Plant Pathology. In this the Plant Patho-
logiot and his Aua;istant are :aaing rouearchos into tho plant dis-
or-cs that are found in Florida. At the west ond of the hall are
found t'he laboratory and offooe of the Plant Physiologist. Across
from this laboratory is a well equipped and well lighted F1hotogrrphic
Laboratory. This laboratory oi used by all of the workers of the
experiment Station and (/ f- ....-
.-- -e ,1 ..-o *,. .
It is the wrsMFe of the university of Floricla to be of service
to aveoy man, woman and child locntodcil within *4r border By con-
fij-inr its activities entirely to the campus, this i.'onld. be quite
impoo ;ibl- ) ibcnseql-ontly, tt., UJilvt-.! has established an E:-tonsion
Division M mr many people
in the State as possible.
E.XTEIOS 01-n DTVInIO, '-:N
the tropical countries. The Parmors' Institute corpe io composed of
UnI vors :i tyi-dtratn dtn1rmayJpt %jeg bAE n4ttwltr itM6tiltaht0obt8n rti ry-
labteot esir tktisAiq aian ohbahtdtatG Ict O i tM Dt9 oPlkGo#e t1
oaa tStat'Ib ro it tlefef6lO 1.SUi10n itOIo ffVlJ R iia ifl neddB t sdue
8nmpurrt i erbat ttlHtsaidaaooG& ZIonoEmEiGiaP# leaboffn Afbnesa ,the
trtdhcacd0eotablfahreL&abtntb~ntGiWnnaabis ^nagrn i ip ire @ lgna gdrgonl the
/ lan 9pobe SfttaotgSIft &cnirofla$lOivc fvarmors from our northern
]/ A.'ITPIES' IY1TITUT'R," .'-he Extension Division includes,:
first, the department of Farnors', IDntitutes, which busies itself
with the dissemination of usofnl and practical information obtained
through the Experiment Station,,through the U. S. Department of
Agriculture, and froi tho Inrgeo amount of literature received from
all- t cpeoriment Stations of the United states, as well as from all
the trolicel countries. The Farmers' Institute. corps in composed of
University-trained men and skilled agriculturists, who brin' the
latest scientific information to the f1,rriers in all parts of the
State. There is an urp:cent demand for suoh information, a demand due
in particular to Florida's incrrrocinr agricultural growth r,n the
wide desire for reliable :ifornation on agricultural matters on the
part of the now settlers and prospective, f'rmorr from our northern
..nd western States, The popularity of this6 work has been growing
since its beginning, and at the rcpsent tine is groat. During the
fiscal year ending June 30, 198, there v'ero 4.,491 in attendance;
during the second year, there wore 6,576 in attendance; during the
third year, there wero 9,021 in attendance; vnd for the year bogin-
S* ning July-1, 1910, up to Narch 1, thoro have been 10,838 in
,/ attendance on the Institutcs. Thus there has boon a total attendant
during the threo yoars and oirht months, of 29, 926r
The Extension Division, in addition to sending out
meoborf; of its staff to hold Farmers' Institutes, has also printed
some of the lectures delivorod at theso Institutes in the form of
Farmers' Institute Bulletin 3. This publication has proven itself
so popular that the first edition was coplotely exhausted within
less than a month from the time it was received from the press,
though it was supposed by the management of the Institute work that
the edition was large enough to last throughout the entire year.
BOYS' COITN CLUBS.-During the year 1910, Dr. J. F, Kolly,
County Superintendent of Alachua county; invited the .~xtonsion
Division to oo-operate with him in holding Boys' and .irlas Corn
Clubs in the public schools of Alaohna county. This work was
moot successfully carried out under the leadership of Dr. Kelly
and J. 3. Vernon, Dean of the College of Agriculture. The suc-
foess attained with the Boys' Corn l0ubs was so groat that insistent.
/ demand came for a continuation of the work in 1911. This work
i is now so thoroughly established in Alaohua county that thore is
S little likelihood of discontinuing it.
CO?'j"E1)T1TSDEOT 1J COrj-0OTT1 ,St -1 -e correspondence courses in the
Extension Division have been continued under the leadership of
Prof. J. J. Vernon, This course has for its object the training in
agriculture of those who are unable to attend the University in
person. Being carried on by oorrospondence, this has entailed a
great amount of work, but it has been productive of correspondingly
beneficial results to the students.
It is hoped and expected that this Extension Work 1 the
University will be enlarged from year to year until it shall cover
many more lines of work; not confining itself to agriculture, but
taking in other fields, as home-building, shop work, engineering, an
in fact all lines of special activities carried out in the State of
Florida. This ideal cannot be attained in one year or two years,
. ,- .t^r. .. .7. ;. ~, *.*,,', "'.,,.' -^Oia Rl
* .- '* .
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but W1l r1oae,10ong continued and steady growth to reaoh,, Whien
t -s siial o been accomplished, the University g~1I, we hope, be
s. r man woman an n te State of Fo a.
.sel-Ti'^ 3rY Man, WOMan and child in the State of Florida%
yA.'. i:Z ..
GR A1(RI-0LTTJI7AU .AT', I "!''lI'T STATIp ON. :
A "Congressional Act of 1887 provided for the establishment
Sof an Exporiment Station in every 6tate and Territory in the
Union. This.. stepped to the simultaneous founding of about fifty
: -xperiment station- in the United -tatos, calling for not less than
five hundred trained workers,: Under tho conditions, it was found
thtt the workers were not inithe country but had to be trained..
.After about twenty years of work, it was found that a fairly com-
petent corps of F~xrperiment S~tation workers been trained, and
that much effort and money had been lost in hiring inefficient and
untrained men. in the beginning to do the work of specialists.
Svo now have in the United States a large number of well
organized Pxporiment ;stations and a larger number of scientifically.,
trained export. than are found elsewhere in the world. These expert
workers have made a prbf6und change in the agricultural methods and
inrtE agricultural advancement in the United states, those states
in the Union that had a co:nprehensive conception of the IExper-iment
station were the first to establish well organized and properly
constituted staffs. These states were the first to do efficient.
"~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ -., ,:,r ,