Experiment Station and Farmer's Institutes

Material Information

Experiment Station and Farmer's Institutes
Series Title:
Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
Rolfs, Peter Henry
Physical Location:
Articles, Speeches and Other Writings
18. Experiment Station and Farmer's Institutes


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Rolfs, Peter Henry


A history of the Agricultural Experiment Station at the University of Florida

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:

UFDC Membership

Peter Henry Rolfs
University Archives


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The Florida Agricultural Experiment Station was founded

in 1S88, ISinoe -then Congreas has appropriated $15,OO0.00 for itS,%

support, This amount vwas increased to $28,000.00 in 1905. From

t. Lat time the uramount. to be increased by- r2,00.00 a :,-car until

the amo nt shall be i30,O00.00. Broadly speakin,-, '_his amount

of .]moley is riven" to the State of Florida for the incr-eacin,g-, and

disseminating of valuable. information in Agricul ture. While

Congress has made us a present of this handsome sunm, it has how-

e'-er, limited its e::penditure. Nrot one cent of it can be used for

the purchase of land. The amount that may be spent for building

purposes is only sufficient to keep the htildinj.s and fences in

repairs. Expenses for extension work, such as farmers' Institutes

and reading courses cannot be charged to it. From this it will be

seen that -the United States expects Florida to provide suitable

laboratories, farms and farm buildings, and also for the popular-

izing of the investigations carriedOon by the Experiment Station. "

The work of the Station has been somewhat varied

during -,the nineteen years of its existence. Eighty-nine bulletins,

eighteen annual, reports, and si:ty-five press btulletins have been

published; all distributed free onapplication. YTaturally, some:

bulletins have proven more popular than ekers. The bulletin on

tomato disSanes ,hs e-o'~ through two editiois, and 1 o x .o x-

hausted.' The bulletin on pecafi culture bIad liarcily in eX.ceBF of

its supply. -ther -buille ins have been in i .ally strong. dand

In addition to the bulletins prepared and publis' ed by

the Stiff, numerous lectures have been delivered to Far; rs

Institutes and to horticultural societies in the stLAte,

In ca'rryinr out .th- ;:ork of the Station help of

the most valuable kind has been received from farmers and fruit

growers of the state. The most helpful has been along the line of

cooperative experiments. Fields of this kind have been located 'a1

twelve different counties. In this work the expenses are borne by

the former and the Station. In these experiments the Station

gets the full benefits of having the experiment tested by a
** ; : .. '' '. ***. '' ^

'. .. .. : >- ^ .. i :'^ .. .. '- : :

thorough up-to-date farmer or fruit grower, and the cooperator

has the advantage of being th first bun to be benefitten by

the result ts, .

The results of experiments are published in bulletin form,

and are distributed free to all farmers undfruit growers of the

state who; may apply for them.c kAplications Chould- e rent the

Director of the Experiment Station,

S .'


Durling the ensuing two years it is exp-cted to .old

Farmers' Institutes under the auspice" of the University of

Florida. This has been made possible by the last legislature

which made available a small sum of money for this purpose.

Farmers' Institubes were regularly held in nearly every state

and territory, excepting in Florida. This came about by tle leg-

is2L.tu:'e whichh met in 1905, failing to make an appropriation for

this purpose,

The United States government provides a certain amount

of money for carrying on the work of the Experiment Etation, but

none of the Federal money is available for Farmers' Institutes.

It is therefore necessary for the State to make provision for

this work if it is to be carried on.

No educational movement in the United States has had

a more rapid progress, and has attracted more general attention

than the Farmers' Institutes. A number of the southern states have

gone so far as to. charter special trains to carry the speak ars and

exhibits from place to place. On acoa nt of the sparsity of our

.population and th distance between farming communities, such:

trains would probably not bha a payin' investment for us.

The Flo-ida farmers and fruiVfgrowere oan however, hold

local meetings at eccaivenient places to discuss their sucvrcese's

and failures. To compare notes as how' lo cal crc'Fs should be man-:

aged, and what varieties of certain crops are best adapted to

their pr'.lcular vixclnity and their particulL.r soil. Ho.' certain

should be cultivated, and .hat quantities and.,kinds of fertilizers

have riven behst results. Thl successful farmer or fruit grower

rarely has the tine. to prepare a paper or to talk at far-ers'

Institutes. lie, hob.,v6r, owes it toihies con-tumilty and section

to sacrifice his own interest to euch an extent as will Frove

of service tg hiS neighbors, A talk at a FE:rmers' Institute is

no more difficult t'an a talk to your neighbor. ,

.In addition to the valuable a&R l that one acquires by

working the soilaare those that are of mo re fundamental nature

and can be worked out only by such persona6ae have the opportunity

of giving their whole time to a limited and narrow subject, G

For instance, no farmer has the t ti to a.ll the different

kinds of fertilizer to see which will give the best returns for

the money invested. The busy fruit gro;wr has not the time,

nor can he afford the expense Of trying a score or more of in-

sectlicides to F..: vbhich oiie is the nmost pi.ofitDale to use for a

crtain insect pest. This and similar work must 1be delegated to

some one who can D-ive all his time and attention to rucih p,-'oblems.

The Expeaiment Station and University have more than a dozen men

who are specialists in the true sense of the word. Any one of

these men will gladly address farmers' meetings. Arrangcme;nts

for these speeches can be made through P. Ht. Rolfs, Superintend-

ant of Farmers' Institutes.

Ii -


The object of the farmers' institutes is to bring

directly to the farmer the ro ults of the most recent invos

tigations in agricultural lines, especially such investiga-

tions as may be made of Airect an-lication to the narticulr,

line of agriculture ina certain locality. Illustrations

of this kind might be multiplied indefinitely. One or two,

however, will suffice. The fact that much of our ag-ricul-

tural land in Florida is acid in character hacs boon knovwn for
sometime, and the good effects of Canada hardwood ashes and quick
line are pretty well known. ::ne-riments have sho;n, however,
that the use of crushed limestone is more economical and just

as effective. onseuently, this -n is bron.-ht to
the atttc-tion of thle farn orzs i# sections wiore- it is likely

to be of service to them. Jt nbrs also been Jomonstratcd

that certain crops can be more economic ally grown in particu-

lar sections than the ones that are alrc.d:y in useo 8orghun,

for 'illustration, will mauke a larger yield, giving moreo food

elements for cattle, than the ordinary corn crop. ffmanese

cane gives a larger amount of carbohydrates, and at the same

time furnishes a palatable food for stock.

ITew methods are constantly bei~g developed by the a,-

rinultirosts and applied by farmers. Ordinarily farmers are

the most conservative of all classes of people, consequently it

is necessary to bring these new and improved methods directly to
their attention, we have been so long accustomed to using the


old wasteful method of the one mule and scooter plow that the

use of the most improved farm machinery is somot1ing of a revo-

lution in our farm methods. The scarcity of labor and the in-

efficiency of what labor nay be obtained compels the farmnr to

use more machinery and more horse nowor -, the labor available.

In addition tc the above point, there are frequently

questions of a local nature, and difficulties peculiar to some

locality. Those are brought out by local discussion, ;nd

if they can.-ot Ir answ:orod directly, they are referred to the

El:merimcnt uLation -or b 1olutio.,.

rihonovcr a line of wor:-- is tr]:on up, no matter how.

well It w;o rlannod,. if it does not show favorable- results, we

are certain -h.t soeine error has occurred in the pla-rni-ng In

the cace of the farmers' Instituite t h-rc c ro n to "be no chanc

for believing that there vc.s an error In the pla-nriir,

the rccults nany times over justify "the e:-dnenlit Yo.

The -Morn ron is s as old/the -trte of lPlorila itself.

we have been growing corn to a rrczter or Cles extent ever since

before the state became a jart of the Union, yet during all of

this tino the production of large crones oer acre on an avcr, ge

has been very slow indeed. In 1907,4,551,000 bushels of corn

were produced, with an average of 9,6 bushels per acre; in 1908,

6,584,000 bushels, wiath an overage of 10.5; In 1909, 8,37,0000

bushels, with an average of 12,6 bushels por acre, shoring a
steady and rapid increase in production per acre for the years

1907 to 1909. The cause of this increased production can be

_qw W


traced directly to agitation umong the farmers for better

farming. With the nresenr rapid increase in production per

aore, it will be a question of only a short time until corn

wall be the most important crop nroducod in Florida. It now

stands second only to citrus.
The velvet bean mi:ht be taken as another illus-

tration of the rapid progress in f'rming made in Florida. In

'95 the velvet bean as a aarm crop vwas practically in3nown.

In 1909, 25, .00 acres v'oere g:o;-n. This 25,000 acres produced

a half millions Collars w;orki of volvot beans, in addition

to the amo-unt of velvet beans produced, the plants abstracted

from the atnsr-nhere more thi.- half a millions dollars worth

of nitrogen, which is not county in as a part of the bean crop.

It will thds be soon that in the course of fifteen years-the

velvet bean crop has risen from whate it was not even mentioned

by statisticians to holdingssevonth place in importance among

the farm cro-s.

The holding of the farmers' institutes develops in

the locality a spirit of rivel- for better farming, for better
home life, and for better community life. It encourages and

helps local and ttato fairs, thus giving the farmers a chance

to see for themselves what their heighbofgs are doing. ThyI

are thus enabled to get a thorough schooling in what cn be done

in their immediate locality.


The Farmers' iWistitute encourages and aids local

contests among the farmers. This brings in a healthy

spirit of rivalry in the production of various crops, bring-

ing to the front those farmers who are able to raise the

largout crops at theo least orpenciture. Their methods are

made public and used as exCaplee for their neighbors.

The r,-sults of the ..-'ork .whn tu.:on in figures are

oven more encouraging than when tcken in the abstract. Dur-

ing the biennium ending June .0, 1909, ninoty-oix sessions

of Eai ;.rs' Institutes were held, with a total attendance of

10,067, or an average of 104 per session. These figures

were zande up by actual count at eash seosion cnd not by es-

timate. The total nddiroe.cos delivered eore 256. For the

first ialf .f the year 1909-10 fifty-four sessions hnve been

hold, with a total atitndance of CG6. One hundred fifty-

seven _.ad2rcuscs ha;vo been dcliv'rocd.

- Nearly every State in the Union and all the Territories

under the United States government are now conducting Farmers'

Institutes in a regularly organized system. The objedt of the

Farmers' Institute is to bring directly to the cultivator of the
soil the most recent and improved rjothods of crop production and

animal husbandry. The Farm:ers' Institute, as it has developed

in the most advanced States, is actually a movable school of agri-

culture for te-ching just tho'e things that the tillers of the

soil nocas to know. In the older States, horser e the institutes

have boon established for a number of decades, teaching work is

clone as carefully as in any of the better colleges or universit-

ies. The amount of w,'ork that can be done in any of these ]armorse

Institutes will vary with the funds which the State p&yees at

the disposl of the superintendent of the _arnors' Institute.

The work of the' Institute is accomplished by

means of lectures, field illustrrtions,end field demonstrations.

The most cuccesGful lecturers aro those that have been engaged in

the woF3 for a considerable time ond who have first had thorough

experience either as sci-ntific teachers or as practical agri-

Results. The result from systematic vwo2k in I'rrMEers'

Institutes is felt almost immediately in the very general improve-

cent of agricultural conrlitions. In Florida the mEd activities

of the Farmers' Institutes have been co-incident with the greatest

improvement in crop production that the State has ever seen.
Taking corn as an illustration, the crop for 1907 was tie largest

that had been produced up to that tin amounting,to 4,351,000

bushels. During that year 42 sessions of Institutes were held,

I wlth a total attendance of 4,491, with an average corn production

of 9.6 bushels per acre. In 1909, 6,584,000 bushels of corn wore

produced, at the rate of 10.5 bushels per acre. During this

year 8i 54 sessions were held, with a total attendance

of 5,576. During 1909 tde total corn crop amounted to 8,379,000

bushels, with an average production of 12.6 bushels per acre.

During that year nearly 100 Institutes wore held, with a total

attendance of about 10,000 people. The effect of the work done

in 1909 will be manifested by an improvement in the farming con-

ditions for the year 1910. The majority of the Institutes were
held in the corn-producing section of the State. As these lec-

tures woro designed for the betterment of the soil and for the

improvement especially of the corn crop, these Institutes must
have had more or less beneficial effect upon the production of

that year From the foregoing figures it will be seen thatmas

a result of better farming the average production per acre of

corn was increased from 9.6 bushels to 12.6 bushels, or an in-

orcase of 31 per cent. in corn production from the year 1907 to

the year 1909. This ~acp production wad due for the most nart

or entirely to better farming methods. ,Other farm crops have
been improved in a similar way, but the corn crop being the larg-

est of the farm crops it serves best for illustrative purposes.

i'ork Done. In addition to the improvement in the pro-

duction of crops, the Farmers1 Institutes promote improvement
in the conditions of rural life. By,'developfngt of a rural
spirit, a greater interest is taken in the farm home, in the rural

school, and in the rural church, whore the warmers' Institutes

are frequently hold. It brings about a healthy rivalry in the

bushels. During that year 42 sessions of Institutes were held,

vith a totlc attendance of 4,491, and a total attemndcan.e of

"* > ; '* .* .' .

:zdduction of various crops, by bringing the farmers together

'and discussing methods of farm production and comparing various

farm products.

The Fatmers' Institute workers have tpken an active

interest in the county fairs and State fairs, aiding by advice

and in the way of acting as judges, thas promoting a spirit

for producing better crosv and better livestock.

During the biennium" ending June 50, 1909, ninety-six

sessions of Parmers' Institutes nore held, with a total atten-

dance of 10,067, or an avereae of 104 ner session. These fig-

ures wore made up by actual count and not by estimate. The

total addresses delivered were 256. From July 1 to uecembor

51, 1909, fifty-four sessions of Institutes were. hold, with a

total attendance of 3,536. 156 addresses were delivered at

these Institutes,

Lict of Lecturers.

Object. The Agricultural Extperiment station is an

institution founded by congressional act. The object of the

experiment station is to acquire and diffuse us e~ 1 agricul-
tural knowledge. From the enacting clause, it is very

clear that the intention of Congress is to establish with

every agricultural college and university recAiving the bene-

fits of the original land grant act an institution for pure-

ly investigational lines of work. The Florida Experimrnt

Station was founded In 1888 and has continued without inter-
ruption since that time. ijince the funds are received from

a Federal source, it becomes necessary to comply with the re-

quirements of the Federal law, to be able to receive the

benefits of this funds. It should therefore be clearly un-

derstood that the .Epeiriment Station fund is not intended,

directly or indirectly, for teaching purposes, but for the

purpose of acquiring new and important knowledge inregard to

agricultural crops or agricultural soils. In order to ro-

ceive the benefits of the Adams fund, it becomes necessary to
plan the experiments and submit them to the Department ef

Agriculture at washington for approval before any of the

moneys are spent in the investigations.

Publications. The publications of the Experiment

Station are restricted to a report of the work done by members -

of the Experiment Station Staff Bompilations and information
of a general nature are not permiscible under the funds. In the
Florida fW Experiment Station we have three series of publi-


The Experiment Station bulletins, which represent a
more or less complete thesis on some particular line of work

directly connected with agriculture or horticulture of the

State. In this series 102 bulletins have been published.

Those are divided about equally between agriculture and hor-

ticulture. These bulletins must be issued as often as

once in three months, and as many more as may be thought ad-

visable may be issued.

Press Bulletins are issued at short intervals, usu-

ally only a week elapsing between the different numbers. As

the name indicates, these bulletins are prepared' especially for

the newspapers of the State. They announce new and impor-

tant discoveries and give us other information directly con-

nected with the activities of the Experiment station that are

known to be of immediate importance to the agricultural and

horticultural people of the State. One hundred Forty-five

of these have been issued.

Reports to the Governor and to the Department of

Agriculture are required annually. These reports contain

a financial statement of the distribution of the funds of

the year before; also a brief resumd of the work done by the

institution as a whole, and by the various departments in

detail. In addition to these brief reports, brief technical

papers are also published in these annual reports, especially
such technical results as come to hand and are not thought of
sufficient importance to be embodied as a bulletin. Twenty-

two annual reports have been issued.

"3 .. ....* *

Lines of Investigation. The work of the Florida

Experiment utatlon is not sharply divided as to the different

departments. The workers in the Erperimcnt station formulate

what are known as projects. In these projects the work is

carried out to r e ultimate limits of tlh ability of the worker

nnd the resources of the institution. A piece of investiga-

tion, once begun, is continued regardless as to whether its

ramifications take it into one department or another. Eot

infrequently two or more departments are concerned in the

solving of one project. Naturally the lines of Investigation

fall into several departments; as Horticulture, including plant

breeding, plant introduction, propagation, etc.; Animal In-

dustry, including the study of feed crops, the effect of food-

ing certain crops to cattle and hogs, and the growing of feed

and forage crons; Agronomy, including the breeding of,cotton,

corn, and other farm crops; Plant Pathology, including the

study of plant diseases produced by fungi and bacteria; Plant

Physiology, including the study of plants as affected by fer-
terlizer and soil conditions; Chemistry, including the study

of fertilizers and soils, especially as to the effect ot

plants E~ntomology, including the study of insecticides, in-

sects, and their parasites.

Resources. The resources of the Experiment Station

up to the present have been limited to the funds received from

the Federal Government, The Patch fund became available in

1888, from which 165,000 have been received,annually. In


1906 a further appropriation of $5,000 became available from

the Adams fund. This fund increased by p2,000 annually,

until it has now reached ;15,00C0, making a total income to the
Experiment Station of .30,000 for the fiscal year ending June

30, 1911. The Experiment Station has been in the present

location since January 1, 1907. Iinoe that time the labo-

ratories have had to be established in the new location, the

fields for agricultural and horticultural work have had to

be put into proper shape for experimentation, and other ma-

torial has had to be collected.

Laboratory Building. The legislature noeting dur-
ing 1907 apnropriated ,4,000 for the construction of 4BT lab-

oratory building for the E.neriment station. Unfortunately

the funds did not accrue inthe treasury to enable the building

to be constructed during that biennium. This building is
now approaching completion, and when it shall be mst fully

equipped, the E1rperiment Station will for the first time be

completely housed in an adequate laboratory building. This
will accrue immensely to the advantage of the state of Florida,

since it will increase the efficiency of the workers from 25

to 50 per cent, each. The new laboratory building is a

three-story, brick structure, containing about 18,000 feet

of floor space. In this building will be housed all the lab-

oratorieS, offices, and library belonging to this Department

of the University.
Advantages. The advantages of having the Experiment
Station located with the university; cannot be easily estimated.


1906 a further appropriation of q5,000 became available from

the Adams fund. This fund increased by $2,000 annually, until

it has now reached its limit of ;i15.000, making a total annual

income to the Experiment station of 530,000. This money is not

available for the purchase of lands or the erection of buildings.

The Exoerikant Station has beea in the present location since

January 1, 1907. Sinco thnt time the laboratories have had

to be established in the noew location, the fields for agricul-

tural and horticultural vork have had to be put into proper
shape for exoorimentatlon, and other .-teorial has had to be


Laboratory Build(npr. The legislature which met dur-

ing 1907 appropriated $p40,000 for the construction of a lab-

oratory building for the mxneriment s-tation. Unfortunately

the funds did not accrue in the treasury to enable the building

to be constructed during that bionniunm. This buil.'ins is now

approaching completion, and when it shall be6fully equim cd,

the ie3poriment Station will for the first tine be completely

housed in an adequate laboratory builditnp. This will be of

immense advantage to the State of ~lorida, since it will in-

crease the efficiency of the wrorkicrs from 25 to 50 -ner cent.

It is a three-story, brick structure, containing. about 18,000

square feet of floor space, In t'is building will be housed all

the laboratories, offices, and th e library belonging' to this

department of the University.

AdvantaGes. Tho advantages of having the i.xneriment Sta-

tion located with the-University cannot be easily over-ostimated.

The fields and orchards used for experiment work are open to

the inspection of students and visitors. The experiment

fields are very different from a demonstration field, inasmuch

as no attempt is made to produce a maximum crop, or tD do those

this that a farmer osn readily do for himself.

The laboratories of the E-zeriment Station are

planned and conducted for purely investigational work. This

permits the student to observe and study the investigational

laboratdrdss, and those who have special inclinations in the

direction of lines of investigation carried on might haVeO an

opportunity to do some V.,ork in connection with the special.

ists. .

The investigators in the iB: neriment Station at fre-

quent intervals deliver popular and technical lectures either

to the student body as a whole or to special clubs and local

organizations. This gives the students an op-ortunity of

listening to lectures of a more advanced nature in particular

lines of investigation.

Minor positions, such as laboratory assistants in

the Experiment utation,are open from time to time and vwhenever

practicable are given to graduates of the University who mani-

fest some ability in the special line of investigati on. These

laboratory assistants are paid a small salary for half of

their time, and during the other hale of their tine they are
free to take such studies in the University as will be of
material advantage to them for the special line they wish to

Borne of the more important projects as outlined

for the Experdment Station work are an follows:

1. The comparison of the Florida velvet bean with

bran, silage, r-nd other foods for milk production.
2. The oomparisdn of home-grown roughage with the

ordinary commercial roughage for producing milk.

3. Tho determination of the value of Florida grown

feeds for beof production.

4. The determination of the value of Florida grovm

feeds for pork production.

5. The breeding of a thoroughbred long-staple cot-

ton that will meet the requirements of the average narL:et,

6. The breading of legumes for larger crop produc-

tion under Florida conditions, especially the Lyon and vel-

vet beans, nnd cowrpeeas.
7. Corn breeding, rWith a view of getting thorough-

bred varieties that will produce true to type and produce

larger yields.

O. The growing and breeding of citiru hybrids.

9. The citrus orchard, which ultimately should

include all of the earlier and more harder varieties of citrus

fruits. .

10. A vegetable garden in which tests are trade of

various vegetables, and breeding work conducted for the produc-

tion of diseoase-rosistant varieties.

11. Hardy fruit orchard in which occur now and prom-

rising but hitherto untested fruits,.

12, Plant testing plots. In theis project occur

over five hundred numbers of varieties of various kinds of

economic plants that have not heretofore been tested in

Florida. The seeds are obtained from all arts of the
world, aBmlections being male in those regions that are,

similar in climate to P'lorida.

13. The growing of forage crops useful for horses,

cattle and swine.
14., The making of a permanent pasture.

15. Soils and fertilizer studies, Those include

(a) a determination of the effect of certain combinations of

fertilizing materials upon the pineapnle plant as affecting

the chemical composition of the plants and. frits, and physi-

ological effects on the plants; (b) the effect of quantity and

variation of chemicals applied to citrus trees; their effect
upon the composition of the loaves, wood ,/fruit, and the physi-

ological effect on the plants; (c) the effect of these same

chemicals upon the soil to which they are tprnlied; the loss

of the plant-food either through leaching, or as by escaping

of gaseous ammonia.

16. Uitrus diseases. This includes a teohni&3l

study of diasaeas that have hitherto caused a great deal of

loss in the citrus orchard, but have never boon worked up from

a technical standpoint, such as scaly bark, gumning, buck

skinning, stem-end rot, etc.

r t
17. citrus whitefly, This investigation consists

in the study of the two principal whitefly that are pests in

the citrus orchard. A stiidy of the life histories, with a

view of finding out the most vulnerable points at which they

can be attacked, A study of the natural enemies, and a study

of the best artificial means of controlling the pests.

18,' Nutrition and malnutrition studied. This in-

eludes a study of plant foods, especially in their relation

to citrus, and also a study of the disorders that are appar-

ently due to unfavorable soil or fertilizer conditions.


Our E:periment Station

, '~The accompanying illustration -L fr4 a' .h..

shown the front F1iun of our Experiment Station Build-

ing at the Univercity of FloridaC, j.Ls -' me a

The E:xpe'ril-ent Station of Florida is an institution

established for t- i nv ~ t c agri cultural problems

and reporting the results of the investigations to the people

of the State. t ;

The keynote the Federalc t S in the onastirg

or-se, whi4h-4ie ertt as follows: "n r-e&e' to aid in ac-

quiring and diffusing useful and. practical information on

subjects connected with agriculture." From this it will

be seen that all work undertakenn by the Experiment Station

mut be directed toward the increasing of seW knowledge of

a practical and / useful nature in connection with agricul-

ture. ^ P -

Citrus Seminar.

For the first time in the history of the institu-
tion a seminar for the citrus-growers was held last year.

Twenty-cight people interested:in citrus-growing were in

at ondanco on this seminar, which really was a school for

studying the citrus question from a scientific standpoint.

The people in attendance wore given the most recent and most

accurate information that could be had anywhere in connection

with scientific cit rus-growing. The seminar w.'ould be of
little service to y'gE*: in citrus-growing, but to people

who are already veterans in this work, the session was h-ihy

enjoyable, and at the sar.-e time, aiets profitable from the

standpoint of acquiring accurate and useful i .' -


The Staff.

The Ex-oeriment Station staff is umade up of twenty-

one, pverara of whom is AV export in his particular line.

It is not claimed for any of the ise-g that they are ex-

perts in all agricultural lines. This would manifestly

be im-ossible, but ian heir particular lines way of the ien
A-. A
cre among the best informed pesons in the world and can

sneal: ni-t no h L itticn :l F *'*'-- on

Florida Agriculture Varies

In such an extensive State as Florida, the Ea i-

culture mTust necessarily bea. varied.. In ;'lst Florida the

principal crops are corn and short-staple cotton.-* In extreme

southern Florida, tropical fri.-ts, such as the avocado and

mangy, are special crops. ft is, the only police in the

mainland of the united States where tender vceetobles are

grofn for midwinter delivery.

SThe ITew Building.

The legislature for 1907 made it possible to lay

plans for the erection of an Experiment Station building.

The moneys, however, did not accrue in the treasury to~i

t; *1po-oib until 1910. Our E::periment Station' now

comfortably housed in the new building, costing $40,000, nith

an equipment costing $7,500. While this name=k = a large

amount alPg SjIy, it must be rci-eil.,bered t ha fBt times this eis -t1

Sh"s een lost to the State in the past tTenty years
tug AC A 4 1. QUta~c

z n~Cecessar laboratories for carrying on exact work.

For Nm years Florida bore the unenviable reputation of

having the poorest ~CLor carrying on the scientific

work of the ExperimTent Station that oeurred In the Tnited

States, not excepting even Hawaii and Porto Rico. The

present building, however, puts us well U~w A the lead
This ,. a cou.e o. t
aomonp the southern States. This a a source of s gra-
Iication to everyone interested in e E-Irneriment Station work, 4

which means inmb- a half million people living in Florida.

VWat has been done.

Since the organization of the Exn:erirent Station in

1888, the m3sEsiasnm institution Ias had a continuous existence,

the funds being supplied by the Federal government. During D-ur

this time 102 bulletins have been issued. Ov.-r 50 per cent,

of these related to the horticultural subjects of Florida. '

l&& P press iLoeins ihve. been issued. Over one-

half of these have been issued in the last three :-ars. The

press bulletins are designed to bring before the'f@mme s of
^L- .-i-f f.e' Gttja Lv^rll-.t tWtt
the State the results ofArecont i-v-tigetetin ad timely:in-

forrtt-on for the betterment Or ---' ....l-1 n crops.
-l Famrners' Institutes.

The arme rs Institute woil: the of 10orid.a

.Twhile net organically a part of the E:Teriment Station work, is

closely associated with theo Bh:-,imN-, Dteti '..ntf. -&e

sessions of Institutes were held during the -SR1 year ending

June 30, 1910. There wero in attendance on these institutesit a ^

nearly 10,000 people. Up to the present time early every

' w"~


coimunity asking for a F'.rmors' Institute has been ser-ved.

The time is rapidly approachinge yiwee when mo-re of these

insAitutes vrill be dceutanded than the !resent force can supply.

These institutes are entirely free to zvevor con.unmity, andk the

Service renre bd the. speae-s -t. .

t- ,nvly 1 I ", thiy L The f" .lsfor Th Jo FPl- y "

ingthjiose institutes i provided by uthe legislature oJf the










The Florida Agricultural College

Income of Florida Experiment' Station Compared
with Other Southern States

Volume of Publications for 1919

Data on Cooperative Demonstration Work

Story of the Velvet Bean

Hog Feeding Experiments

Hard Pork in the Limelight

Soft Pork

Poultry Feeds, Needs of

Poultry Sorehead

Citrus Grove Fertilization

Story of Citrus Canker

Whitefly Fungus Worth Millions

Story of Scale Insect Fungus

.;Lt.. -- -

i ii
II Ii i



.:. '~"ti~' ~:~LIT.

I -P ~-~~~- r- a -- -r- --slam-

._u;~-,,~.i~u;Ur --aLP&~~~~~e~uZ-l~.Cwuy~.~le~

, .....

. '





'* S

. *

' ;*'

S 4-


This is the most important educational institution in
the state for the farmer. Thru county agent work the latest im-
provements for the farmer are taken to hundreds of farms every
week. (Last year 32,631 received direct instruction). Thru home
demonstration, cooperating with the Woman's College, hundreds of
farm homes are being improved every week, (Last year 8,839 women
were enrolled). There were 326 girls' clubs studying home making
and home problems systematically. The boys' clubs, in which 3,099
were enrolled, studied some definite lines of agriculture system-
atically, Many thousands of farmers received special help from
the hog cholera specialist, the poultry husbandman and the cattle

The Experiment Station in 32 years has worked out some
very difficult and valuable problems. Any one of a dozen is of
untold value to the state. There is only one Florida, We have
greater and more difficult agricultural problems to solve than
any other state. Creole Lassie Sue was the first Florida bred and
raised cow to go on the Register of Merit. The story of the intro-
duction, breeding and development of the velvet bean reads like a
romance. The Florida station discovered a method of ascertaining
how much the feed of hogs increased or decreased the hardness of
pork. In one hog the pork was increased in hardness by nine
degrees in 44 days. The discovery and introduction of fungi and
insects destructive to plant pests is of first value to the citrus

The most important work for the state and the one that
is bringing the largest dividend is the splendid lot of men, 200
being present last year, who are preparing themselves for practical
and scientific agriculture. These men are in demand everywhere.
Graduates from the agricultural college are filling most important
places, both in practical and professional positions.

* -





Florida 1919 $ 14,000.00

Florida 1920 5,000.00

Georgia ... 639.57

Alabama ...... 2,700.00

Mississippi 34,250.00

Louisiana 24,500.00

South Carolina .

North Carolina .. 109,318.00

Virginia .. 38,250.00

West Virginia 45,148.00

Tennessee 33,162.55

Kentucky .. 50,000.00

Arkansas 40,047.35

Texas .. 195,270.40

Oklahoma ... 4,502.31

Maryland .. .. 28,118.76









$ 5,737.92
















$ 19,737.92
















Each of the above states received $30,000 annually from

Federal Government.

S *

S &


'4, V



During the thirty-three years since the establishing

of the Experiment Station we have published 32 annual reports, 155

bulletins and 320 press bulletins. In the number of publications

we are 24 bulletins and 320 press bulletins ahead of the require-

ments of the law.

Last year we published

1 Annual Report 108 pages
4,000 copies total pages

5 Bulletins 260 pages
83,000 copies total pages

40 Press bulletins 80 pages
52,000 copies total pages

Total number of pages printed

Total pages distributed (80%)






f* #



Farmers' Cooperative Demonstration Work.

Visits to farms made by County Agents ...........
Miles traveled by County Agents ..........
Call on agents relative to work .....
Farmers' meetings held .........................................
Total attendance ... .... .... ........................
Official letters written: -......... ---.-----I---
Articles prepared for publication .................
Visits to schools .............
Schools assisted in outlining agricultural course ..
Times visited by specialists from College or
U. S, Department of Agriculture
Demonstrators, cooperators and club members
making exhibits at fairs .-----....._ ----------





Women's Meetings.

Cooperative canning centers ...-.-------.... ----- ... 45
Miles traveled by agents ............................ .... 166,922
Number visits made to schools ..............................------- --- 2,381
Number visits to home demonstrators ......................... 11,963
Number demonstrations given ............---------......---_.... ---. 2,900
Attendance at meetings ................ ..-..........- ------------ 72,840
Attendance at demonstrations -....-.....----- ............. 3---- 7,929
Attendance at other meetings _._... -..-.....- ..---- ....--- ----- 32,670
Number of girls enrolled in home demonstration
work .................... ..---- -............... ...- -. ..- ....----- 4,688
Number of women enrolled by home demonstration
agents _.____._____. ....-- .. ............--- ..-.....-...--------- ---------- 8,839
Number of containers filled ........----------- 1,301,050
Number of pounds dried products --------- 3, 952
Number of miles traveled by State workers ..----......-------- 114,494

k, #

* *

I *


A careful survey of the crops produced by Florida in 1906
showed that an abundance of carbonaceous feed was being produced to
supply the livestock in the State. We were, however, short on the
production of a large amount of protein feed. This deficiency was
supplied by cottonseed meal, which was being shipped in from other
states. It was clear to those in charge of the agricultural work
that cottonseed meal would soon become too high priced and too ex-
pensive for the average farmer to use as a meat and milk producer.
The Director of the Experiment Station made a careful survey of all
of the protein producing plants in the State. There was nothing
that rivaled the alfalfa of the northwest or the clovers of the middle
west. The one plant that held greatest promise was the velvet bean.
At that time Florida was the only state in the South that produced
velvet bean seed and the annual production of velvet beans in Florida
was so low that the U. S. Department of Agriculture did not consider
it worthy of a position among its statistics. The Florida Experiment
Station enlisted the help and cooperation of experimenters thruout
the tropical world, especially in southern Asia and in the Pacific
Islands. Agricultural explorers in the Orient were also induced to
give special attention to the introduction of the velvet bean vari-
eties. As a result of this effort, sixty odd varieties were intro-
duced and grown at the Florida Experiment Station by 1910. In 1909
a single seed of the variety later named the Chinese velvet bean was
secured. This single seed gave Florida her first great start in
velvet bean production. By 1914 over 500 bushels of the Chinese vel-
vet bean had been grown and distributed by the Experiment Station.

In 1907, active steps were taken by the Experiment Station
to hybridize the velvet bean with the view of getting varieties that
would prove better adapted to climate. As a result of this hybridi-
zation, over 300 varieties were produced and grown on the Experiment
Station.. Thru the efforts of Dr. Winters and Mr. Belling, who were
successively employed in this plant breeding work, some of the most
prolific varieties that are now being grown were originated, notably
the Osceola., Alachua and Wakulla.

Florida last year produced $3,125,000 worth of velvet beans.
It will thus be seen that in less than a decade and a half, velvet
bean production has risen from what was considered not worth noticing
by the U. S. Department of Agriculture up to over three million
dollars worth annually in the State of Florida. A very small portion
of the velvet beans find their way into the market as seed, the larg-
est amount of them being used as livestock feed in the field. In
addition to the value of the velvet bean as a beef and dairy pro-
ducer, it has great value as a soil improver. In this respect it
ranks ahead of the clovers and alfalfa.

a *


There is no one in the State of Florida who does not
realize at this time that swine growing is an important branch
of the livestock industry. As late as 1907 there were very few
pure bred hogs in the State, there being only two or three such
herds. It was, however, the beginning.of the swine industry in
the State. One of the first herds in the State was owned by the
Experiment Station. These were used mainly for conducting feed-
ing experiments. The swine industry of the State depends upon
pork production of which the production of purebred animals .for
breeding purposes is an essential part, It was necessary to
conduct extensive and well planned experiments to test out all
of the various Florida grown'feeds. Among the first to be tested
was the velvet bean. The results of the experiments show that
good hard pork could be produced, but not as economically as with
other feeds. Cassava was another feed that had to be worked up
fully and carefully to ascertain its value as a pork producer, *
This likewise proved to be less economical than some other feeds
that could be raised. Dasheens have also been tested out and have
been found to be more profitable for human food than for swine
food. Peanuts have also been run thru the feeding process and
have given good results, tho as a rule the hogs fed on peanuts
alone produce either soft or oily pork, making it somewhat un-
desirable for finishing and packing purposes. Bulletin 141 gives
extensive data on definite lines of feeding. The most notable
advance in hog feeding work has been published in bulletin 157,
which for the first time in the annals of hog feeding shows exact-
ly how much the pork of hogs has been increased in hardness by
certain feeds and how much it has been decreased in hardness by
certain other feeds. This bulletin shows that in one case the
feeding of peanuts for 44 days decreased the melting point of fat
by 9.9 degrees; the feeding of corn, shorts and peanut meal with
skimmed milk, in 44 days raised the melting point of fat by 7.3

*i a S *


That the soft pork problem demands study and solution

requires no argument with the farmers of the South who usi'ally

receive several cents less per pound for their hogs than do farmers

north of the peanut belt. A promise of its solution lies in Profes-

sor Scott's report of soft pork studies in Bulletin 157, Florida

Experiment Station. Certainly there is much to this report, for

Editor Sanders of the Southern Ruralist closed a two and one-half

column article in the July 15th issue of that paper with the


"To Florida people the plan is worthy of especial con-

sideration. If the theory proves sound, the Florida test will be

used not only in every state in America, but in practically every

civilized country on the globe. And its influence goes even fur-

ther than that. Last year there were 1,500,000 hogs raised in

Florida, having a value of $13.00 each, and a total value of

$20,000,000.00. These hogs were all classed as soft and for that

reason approximately 3 cents per pound, or $3.45 each, is docked.

Thus, because of soft pork the value of the hog crop in Florida is

annually reduced more than $5,000,000.00. Besides the glory,

advertising the state pride, should the Florida test prove sound,

the state of Florida can vote $100,000.00 for a thoro investigation

and make an annual return of five thousand per cent by producing

hard pork instead of soft pork."


The soft pork question is one of the big problems that
confronts the hog raisers of the southern states. Much has been
said and written regarding soft pork. At one time no distinction
was made between soft and oily pork, but today the best authorities
make a distinction. There is hardly any question but that peanuts,
soy beans and mast produce oily pork, But the causes of it are not
so well known, The experiment conducted by J. M. Scott of the
Florida Experiment Station has thrown some light on the question.
Samples of fat from live hogs were taken and the melting point

This was a new line of work. Nevertheless, the results
obtained hav, been very satisfactory. The'experiments have given
new information that will be of value to investigators on this
subject. They have determined two important facts:

First, that there is a wide variation in the melting
point of the fat in different hogs when they are'all raised and fed
on the same feeds. For instance, in one lot of hogs of the same *ge,
about 11 months, that had been fed alike, there was a difference of
nine degrees in the melting point of the fat. In another case there
was a difference of seven and four-tenths degrees.

With young pigs nursing their mother there was a much
greater difference in the melting point. In one litter the melting
point of the fat of one pig was 78.8 degrees, and of another 95.9
degrees, or a difference of 17.1 degrees.

Second, that the melting point of the fat can be changed
to a marked degree by the feeds. The feeding of peanuts only for a
period of 44 days lowered the melting point of the fat from 5.5
degrees to 9.9 degrees. Where corn, shorts, peanut meal and skim
milk was fed for 44 days instead of peanuts the melting point was
raised from 1,9 degrees to 7.3 degrees. The feeding of corn, shorts
and cottonseed meal raised the melting point of the fat from 3
degrees to 9 degrees,

For further information in regard to this work write to
Florida Experiment Station, Gainesville, and ask for Station
Bulletin No. 157, "Soft Pork Studies".


The livestock owners of Florida are talking about the

high cost of feeds. The poultry keepers are perhaps as hard hit

as any of them. In the getting of more eggs better feeding has

come into use. Dry mashes, made up of various products that used

to be called "waste products," have done as much as any thing to

increase egg production. Whether these are mixed by the poultry-

man or purc1sed in ready-to-use form, one of the necessary ingre-

dients is alfalfa meal. This is well cured alfalfa hay, ground

fine. It is raised in the Northwest, is fine for animal feeding

and is costing us many, many thousands of dollars every year.

Must we continue to send our hard earned cash out of the State for

alfalfa, or have we just as good substitutes right at hand?

It may be true that our Florida clover, beggarweed, will
take the place of alfalfa in the hen's ration. It is likely that
well cured peanut hay is the equal of alfalfa hay pound for pound.
The facts should be found out, not by a thousand poultrymen, work-
ing alone but by a modern experimental poultry plant at our own
State College of Agriculture. It is too expensive to have our
people use their time and money, working apart, when a single well
organized poultry plant can do it better. There is no question in
other states as to who should work out these problems of the farmer.
Shall we not insist that this be done? Shall we not stand behind
any movement that will help poultry and egg production become more
satisfactory, more pleasant, more profitable? Let us find out if
our own feeds and forage are not the equal of those of the states
far to the north and west of us. Florida's beggarweed may be worth
millions of dollars to us. Let us find out quickly, surely, that
we may,,perhaps, save good money on alfalfa and get increased egg
profits if it proves to more than equal alfalfa.

o 9,


Sorehead is one of the trials of the Florida farmer.
It is a disease in poultry that lengthens the growing period
of the chick, increases the cost of bringing it to maturity,
and in many cases brings disaster to plans of the owner. The
poultryman cannot afford the death losses, cannot afford the
increased cost of rearing these chicks, cannot afford lower
egg yield.

California, probably, has done more in the study of
sorehead vaccine than any other state. Thru its Experiment
Station and its Agricultural College it has been able to supply
a vaccine that is well spoken of by the large poultry keepers
of that State. jIn 1919, up to October, in nine months, at a
nominal cost, it was able to furnish this vaccine for the cure
of sorehead, 600,000 head of poultry being treated.

Florida bids fair to equal California in poultry pro-
duction. One of the obstacles in her path is sorehead. The
poultrymen of the State, the egg circle women, the backyard
chicken owner, are raising the question: why can we not have
the help of the State institutions in solving the problem of
sorehead? They have written to the California authorities about
this illness and its treatment only to be referred back to the
Experiment Station at Gainesville. Some of the livestock owners
have asked that the Station take up this work and that needed
funds be supplied at the coming meeting of the legislature.
Florida ought to lead, not follow, in the working out of this
serious problem of sorehead in poultry.

ob -9






1. In this experiment sulphate of ammonia, acid phosphate, and
high-grade sulphate of potash gave somewhat better results as
measured by increase in growth, than any other mixture.

2. Good results were obtained from the use of nitrate of soda as
a source of ammonia, from steamed bone and floats as sources
of phosphoric acid,-and from the low-grade sulphate, hardwood
ashes and the muriate, as sources of potash.

3. The use of ground limestone and Thomas slag have caused injury,
indicated by frenching.

4. Clean cultivation thruout the year was of considerable benefit
to young trees, but after a few years leads to a loss of soil
organic matter. It is not a desirable practice with trees over
five or six years old.

5. A large proportion of the phosphoric acid applied in the fer-
tilizer is retained in the upper nine inches of soil. Practi-
cally none is leached out.

6. Much of the potash applied in the water-soluble form is retained
by the soil.

7. Nitrogen, both in the organic and the inorganic.form, is lost
in large quantity by leaching as shown by the lysemeter experi-
ments and by the analyses of the grove soils. There was a
slight increase of nitrogen in all plots excepting the clean
culture and the unfertilized ones.


In the fall of 1912, Dr. E. W. Berger, State Nursery

Inspector at that time, reported to the Experiment Station that

there was a serious disease affecting citrus trees in some of the

nurseries in the State. This question was immediately taken up

by the Experiment Station. The Plant Pathologist gave the matter

careful and serious attention. The serious nature of this disease

was not suspected or even remotely understood. Its close resem-

blance to scab, to scaly bark and to Anthracnose, made it diffi-

cult for the layman to diagnose it with certainty and even diffi-

cult for the Plant Pathologist to diagnose it with certainty

before investigations were made. Investigations were started

immediately and it was soon found that the general alarm should

be sounded. As soon as the dangerous nature of the disease was

ascertained, steps were taken to acquaint the citrus growers with

the facts. It was the starting of the campaign for the eradica-

tion of citrus canker. But for the timely warning sent out by

the Experiment Station the disease would have become so widely

distributed that it would have been impossible for any agency to

have eradicated the pest. Even with the timely warning the

disease developed so rapidly and was so virulent that it has been

put under control and possibly eradicated with the greatest of

difficulty. The timely warning made it possible to save the

citrus industry.


This pest has taken a toll of the citrus industry amount-
ing to several million dollars annually. The insect was introduced
from foreign countries on live citrus trees. During the early
stages of its invasion it was impossible for the average citrus
grower to control its ravages. Not only does the pest injure the
trees greatly by sucking the juices from the leaves, but the sooty
mold which follows the attack covers the upper surface of the citrus
leaf and greatly interferes with its proper functioning. In addi-
tion to its injury to the tree, the fruit becomes covered with sooty
mold and requires extra expense in washing. Fruit from the trees
badly affected with whitefly is lacking in sprightly flavor of fruit
grown on the same tree when free from whitefly.

;The first experiments for the control of whitefly were by
means of spraying with contact insecticides. Owing to the fact that
the insects live on the lower side of the leaves, thoro work became
very expensive and often impracticable. Experiments in fumigation
were undertaken on a large scale, but this too was impracticable.
The mature insects may fly or be driven by the winds for a distance
of more than a mile, making reinfection certain. The Entomologists
therefore, turned their attention to more effective methods of con-
trolling this pest by means of natural enemies. After much labor
was expended on the problem, it was established by the Experiment
Station that control of the whitefly by a combination method of the
use of whitefly fiungi and spraying, would prove the most economical.
By applying the methods devised by the Entomologists, the citrus
gr-owers of Florida saved on last year's crop, $3,300,000 above the
TOTAL cost of the whitefly investigations.

a ,


The following table was prepared by Dr. E.. W. Berger,
former Entomologist to the Experiment Station:

Approximate crop, 1919-20 12,000,000 boxes

Average annual loss caused by whitefly
when no control methods were employed,
1/3 of crop 4,000,000 "

Saved by artificial dissemination of
whitefly fungi, 1/6 of crop 2,000,000 "

Saved by use of oil sprays, 1/6 of crop 2,000,000 "

Total saved by control methods, 1/3 of crop 4,000,000 "

4,000,000 boxes at $3.75 (average 1919-20) $15,000,000.

The remedy is not always thoroly applied and in some
cases the application is neglected, the largest and best growers
doing the most effective work. To be on the safe side we will
divide this sum by three, which approximates the saving of
$5,000,000, to last year's crop.

The cost of application of the remedy in round numbers
is 10i per box or about $1,200,000, leaving a net saving to the
growers of the State of $3,800,000.

Total moneys appropriated for Entomological work on the
whitefly problem by the Federal Goverinment, State and Counties in
the last thirty years is less than $250,000. Doubling this amount
to put the figures on the safe side, we have $500,000.

This shows that the net saving to last year's crop alone
will pay for all of the investigational work done on the whitefly
problem in the last thirty years and leave a net balance of


During the 90's the citrus growers of Florida were con-

fr.ontet with a serious menace from the scale insects. In fact, in

the early days the groves around St. Augustine, Mandarin and other

points on the St. 6Jhns River were destroyed by scale insects. Judge

Thomas Douglas of the Florida Supreme Court, writing in his autobiog-

raphy, mentions several groves that were destroyed by these insects.

A fungus known as the Red-headed fungus was found by a

worker of the Experiment Station (P. H. Rolfs) and a bulletin pub-

lished from the Experiment Station in 1895 which gave full details

of the life history of this fungus and its power to control scale

insects. At the present time many hundreds of thousands of dollars

are saved the citrus growers every year by the use of this and other.

fungi that destroy scale insects and citrus growers no longer fear

the destruction of their groves by scale insects.

In ITovember 1913 the Experiment Station published a bulle-

tin on Fungus Diseases of Scale Insects and Whitefly. This, placed

in the hands of the Florida citrus growers enabled them to identify

the fungi and use the best method'for disseminating the material to

destroy scale insects and whitefly.


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