Field Notes - P, 1939-1940


Material Information

Field Notes - P, 1939-1940
Series Title:
Tapirape Project Files
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Wagley, Charles
Charles Wagley ( donor )
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Box: 6
Folder: Field Notes - P, 1939-1940


Subjects / Keywords:
Anthropology--United States--History
Galvao, Eduardo Eneas
Gurupa (Para, Brazil)--Photographs
Indians of South America--Brazil
Tapirape Indians
Tapirape Indians--Photographs


General Note:
Folder 1

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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Full Text
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Paniri, wv.hich vord is repc ted in x'-,a.lnarmu song is a herb used by wi of
Kamairaho for medicinal purposes. Soaked leaves in water and bathed comn-,plte
body after rather a long illness.

PANTXE 11-61

When Tap (usually man of some importance) dies, pantxes are frightened. :ros
often see the cause of death in pantxe. Pantxe can cause the death of enemy by
smoking swallowing smoke, and then dreaming of man's death. Thus, bros take
revenge on pantxes they believe to have killed brother. Frequently wnen many
deaths occur at once it becomes obvious that a pantxe is causing them and ht must
be killed. Kamairaho, op and maeuma say that many pantxes have been killed in
such manner. See 11-41. Kamaira killed fa of Kamairaho's wife and Pa.ntxe was
caught in house and begged that he had not caused death. Case 5, shot p-ntxe
with arrows as he slept. When Kamanare died, there was much talk and threats.
Oprunsui, Tanopao, and irimankura (bros) were said to be brabo. Kamairaho said
he was afraid and spent much time with me. All of pantxes wife, esp urukumu's and
kamairaho's wives, were deathly afraid. Op had threatened that if Kamanare <
died, Christian friends would come to kill all Tap pantxes and relat ves. While
Kam was seriously ill, practically certain that he would die, wantanamu went off
to fish for minnows, others said he went because of fear. He had quarreled with
Kamanare before sickness and was accused by Op as culprit. Kamairaho says that
many have died thus.

PANTXY 11-78

Case of Campukwi
Several years ago c had young wife who died during childbirth. Male
infant also died, buried in same grave. He was tremendously sad and says
that Tap only die from Pantxes brabo. After mourning sometime, he announced that
---- was cause of her death, and th&t he was going to brain him.

---was frightened and within a few days, he and family pulled out for
cicutawa. Now, c says when he sees him he will Amigoo poco" and he speak but
not trust him. "Now I have forgotten my longing."

PANTXE 111-22

Kamairaho says that he dreams on level with earth, that he wanders about
village and the he travels to Araguaya to visit Xristao. He says that only
urukumu travels upward in dreams. K says that his canee for dream travel is his
hammock, others spoke of pnatxe's canoe as large spoon "very large so that he
sits here" showing mouth of spoon.

This reluctance to admit dreams of visitiIg irawure, iruca, etc, may oe
through fear of disbelief or thru fear that Tap. will think him strong pantxe.


enters them. Says that panciawi might "run" any day but this year Tap have
little tobacco. At other aldea, he saw one run and when he was small boy op's
fa. "ran" many times.

(This may be other occasion of possession or misunderstanding on n- part
with Kamiaraho or c- Probably with former, c- later checked with K. Yo.
pantxes "run" more and are more violent than ol:aer ones.)

Because of death of Pancei in Cicutawa Panteri says that he will kill Urukumu
who he believes responsible for death. Campukwi says that a Pantxe vishin, to
kill another will smoea and swallow tobacco. Then dream. He will cling (in
dream) a large hill or mt (moro) to see other pantxe or person and there he will
dispatch his ankunatana (headdress, ie word used for all ceremonial headdresses
of arara feather). The ankunatana will hit pantxe (in this case speaking of
Urukumu) behind the head. Then, ankungatana will tie anc-ina of Pantxe and
dispatch an.;..nga to sky in large spoon (Xristao col....) as canoe.

Next day, pantxe will have chills and fever. Soon h, dies. Before he dies
he will sing in midst of gasping:
uwucekapo pe 2 3 weawo we
repeated time and time again. He is now travelling far to east (also, say to
Mariba) where "earth stops and water begins". "There they have a house and smoke
much tobacco." During this time, all T~pirape are iasi-'In for breath for all hi s
ankungatana are near and it is hot in the entire alaea. AnkAngatana of pantxe
are tankowa, trs. as hot (quente) but as opposed to ankom hot 4ith fire.

In evaluating whether Pantxe wo ld kill Urukumu or not, c said that both
were great pantxes but Urukumu had travelled in sky and had visited eeco (stars)
and onca kopia Xawana (stars....) thus, if Urukumu should die from Panteri
sorcery, kopia xawana would send man anca to matto near village (sai. Urukumu)
and would kill Tap. Thus Tap would be afraid to leave village to piss or shit
or dig mandioca. "If Urukumu dies and many onca do not come Urukumu lies, but




df many come, he did travel to see Kopee xawana." And, if Urukumu hears of
plan, he will eat smoke until he dreams strongly going to spot where he can
watch Panteri, or he will dispatch ar kuniatan:i to kill Panteri. (Seems that
first to act is the victor) Says that both may fall ill.

On side of Panteri: he has seen anampaieancunga, which if he dies, will
kill all or many Tapirape by intercourse with either male or female, has very
large penis said Pantiri. Intercourse with men in anus and with women in womb
impregnating both with ancunga child which gro.s in stomach but does not fall,
thus person dies. This ancunga speaks thus:
See text



Kamairaho made ankunitane with great care for Pancei to wear when he danced.
Kamaira was making uampo (rattle) for Pancei (his yo. brother.)


For successful treating of Kancinapio and awacirawa (sis son and ext da)
of Kanairaho (and who are being raised by him.)

Pancei took facol and two strings of beads from Kamairaho.

Urukumu took axe, pocket knife, enameled cup (valued highly) and scissors.

Kamaikwawa (marira) took four strings of beads from Kanariwaoi, husb. of
awacirawa, and three strings from Kamairaho.


Op. says that pantxe can dream steAling shadow, he calls it cihunga and
carrying it away to Kanawana casa. Pantxe can shoot cirune~ with ankmatana
(headdress) and Tapirape dies.

Urukumu has boils, one with several heads. Op. says it is caused by
Karaja "huri". They shoot Tapirape ancunga with small arrows. "Tapirape know"
when they shoot Tapirape with arrow with several points, boil has many heads.
This is cause of Urukumu's boils. This is one man's interpretation of this
particular illness.



Urukumu continually asks if I will take him to Araguaya. He says that he
would live there, never says why, but his bro in law, Oprunxui, explains that
Tap are all sick, fever, boils, catarrha, etc, that they blame evil dreams of
Urukumu, that they will certainly kill him. "Tap are afraid now; Doctor goes
away and Tap will kill Urukumu. Ant P, Kamaira, Tanoapaotxoa are angry."


Fight by Anantxacinga and iroka, some fifty to sixty yrs ago, is -best
known battle between pantxes. These fighting (see Bk II) bring all powers
at command to bear on one another. Iroka was tvw strong for a, who died first
but dying a sealed fate of iroka who died sometime afterwards. All people know
of these two pantxes, know of their battle, has become historic.



Kamaira and Xawapai killed a paca, especially prized by Tapirape. Kamaira
took off a small cut for wife.. Gave rest to xowapai who divided it between
Pancei, and Kanacipa (Pantxes) who had treated his small daughter, who was sick
seemingly in stomach. Tap said it was ewai (worms).

Tap mow say "Kancipa is real Pantxe." He has taken out ewai
This'is his first widely publicized case of extracting object and
ering. Even though he has not "run" from smoking, he will now be
pantxes and may come to "smoke" and extract (suck) in illness.

from Tamioi"
patient recov-
classed among

i.ith camp3k.i 3tory of ikonacowi was rehersed and checked. He agreed
adding that pantxe often calls ancanga ivith whom he h- vijiiteJ or =.:en several
by term for "son" and vice versa. Pancei has visited oreya m-an: tinse nai calls
them "son" and they he "father." Pancei has many ancung; ch-Il srn. "Iricei .as
that he was wandering far in forest (in dream) when he came upon oreyo (See III-66'
One feathered his bowv to shoot Pancei with his one arrow, for they have only one
arrow. Pancei shouted "No! I am Pantxe" and grabbed the bow. He doos not say
what his further relations with oreya were. Then, he has seen them several times
at death of people. They come to carry away the people who have died. He
keeps them from shooting Tapirape.

Pancei dreamed that he went to far away. He saw ancunga peropi awa. "They
are ancunga 6kaite. I saw many pets. They have perequitos, araras, many pets.
I was not afraid of them. They kiew me for a pantxe. I had seen them before.
I saw there a paca. The paca was cold, he was shivering. He was with fever.
Ancunga told me that thus all Tap would have fever, would be cold. I knew that
Tap would all have fever. I told many Tap (beforehand). Nol There was nothing I
could do" (to prevent it).




Oprunxui telling of his father, uriwanca, who was famous pantxe said "he
was thin, did not walk (go hunting), he slept, he smoked much tobacco. He
dreamed much and was thin." ie when he dreamed he travelled and was thin. Says
that a great pantxe is always thin (and preferably tall) often dirty and without
worldly pleasures such as dancing, singing, and sexual relations. Several Tap
pointed out that both Urukumu and Pancei are thin. Possibly swallowing smoke
over long periods of time does give this result.

Death of uriwanca, as he tol- its cause, to his son opranxui, was caused by
kanawana (which op now trans fro Xristao benefit to "papae grande"). Pantxes
visit with Kanawana quickly speaking with him and leaving. If pantxe stays
long, kanawana may rush closing all doors to house trapping n.itxe. That is
what happened to uriwanca. He was sick, he slept much, and was without interest
to live. He was very,, si_* and h_- lied. Hanawana had trapoed his spirit (iunga)
during the dream and h,- could not return. He thus died.

P.'oTTXE II-76


Other pantxe travel to large house and see dead pantxe. Say that have
long hair over all body, white beard and long hair "like Papae Sebastain".
They are always smoking "eating tobacco" and eating ito or uto from a calabashe
at their feet.

Pantxe death:
C says that Pantxes brabo never die from sickness; only when they become
brabo and when Tap kill them do they die.


Pantxe who dies from clubbing by enraged bro or vflatives, does not go
immediately to east where all other pantxe and tori are loie. His head is bashed
in and he is bloody, thus goes to east where there is "home," for of pantxe.
There, he has teeth of tin "itanxoa" (used for metal) and face. His hair
grows and when he is presentable, that is, his hair has grown back and his head
healed. When this is past, he journeys to join others in east were "earth ends."
In west, do not have tobacco to smoke but in east pantxe smoke (eat) all they
want, for there is much.


Iaeumi brought honey to Kamairaho and said"here, brother, eat of this and
dream for me." K. dreamed he went to morro far to north. There he took child
from mutuka (large horse fly). And girl child was born.

cuwuparei brought tacunare to K. to eat asking for child. K. dreamed
and brought child from fish called ipiawa (ipiao Br)

Mancoi brought honey to Urukumu. Urukumu came several days later saying
that he had gone far to kucahona etuma where Thunder lives, he brought back a
child to wife of mancoi. Soon wife was pregnant and female infant was born.

Xamaiuma says Baldus dreamed and brought Doctori from Tori, small son of
about 4 years, decided not to perforate lip for Doctori, he says, is Tori anura
and Tori do not perforate lip.

Kucahonaetuma seems to be name of large mt. to west.


Urukumu said to have dreamed and saw me coming from Sao Paulo. Saw that I
was crying from loss of brother,


On the other side of iriwehe country live many ancunga. There, pantxe
go to see them. "Here only iunwera (souls) of ancunga come; there there are
still ancunga erekaite (alive, comparison made to explain meaning of ekaite,
man walks, goes no further, lies down and dies. Salvador ekaite, Dr. ekaite,
Kamairaho nankaitei (is not)).


Tampiitawa pantxe who died some ten yrs ago, father of Kahciwanio, very

"Ikanancowi dreamed. He walked far to west (pointed). He went toward
uopawa, a lake in a deep matto. He heard dogs barking, he ran there. He saw
manupi anka. They were tearing a bat out of the tree. They invited him to
return with them. They lived on the lake uopawa; they had many periquitos, many
saukaw. Manupianke invited him to have kaui, he refused. M had many pots
before them.. They said it was kaui, it was blood. ikanacowi refused. M
drank of one pot of blood, he immediately vomitted in spurt of blood. They
invited him to take of second pot. He refused. M drank of it and blood left in
spurt thru his anus. (Then) M ask ikanacowi to look down his throat but ikonanc
refused. Then, m took out his entrails throwing them on ground. But he did not
die; "morrio mentira". He had more entrails. Then, manupianka called ikanacowi
"father" (ciropu) and he called them "anura" (son). Ikonaneowi returned."

Ikonancowi had m with him thereafter. People were very much afraid of
him for his ancunga were very dangerous. M came often with him. He dreamed
and visited them often. During kanawana werika, ikanancowi wore urucum down
chest and on his chin as manupianka wear blood. He sang tmanupia pantxe,
manupia pantxe, erori nace, hera pantxe" "come with me, pantxe, manupianka".
When he came thru peoples houses on his curcuit "people did not walk, manupi
came. They held clubs (uripema, kayapo type club) over peop-e. They (would
kill them but ikanacowi kept them from it." No other pantxe has known these
ancunga so well. cont





Kamaira says that Pancei (or Patari) the pantxe from cicutawa has travelled
much, has been to Araguaya many times, has been to place where earth ends, has
seen many and various ancAnga. All these trips are, of course, in dreams.
Tells of one dream by Pancei.

He said that he travelled all one day alone and at night he camped alone
and was frightened for he heard oncas nearby. Then, two more days thru thick
matto where there was no trail, always afraid arriving at house of anacowa, red
arara, at Araguaya. K. said "where Sebastiao Perrera casa is." Then, Pancei
travelled on two more days in eastern direction to house of other anacowa.
(Anacowa daid to be red parrot, one said parrot from which topu, pantxeiuwera,
and awampewa secure their feathers for their ankungatana (headdress)). Then,
Pancei returned and one morning when he awakened from "travelling" he related
it to Kamaira.


Claims several ancunga but he has no connection as did ikonancowi. He
is sick. Told me that he dreamed, going to house of Kanawana (thunder).
There, thunder told him that he would call him thus, he said he would die.


People carry new corn after washed and shucked to Pantxe, mostly to Kamairaho
for tuim to remove danger. He places hands near it, saying weu weu as if blow-
ing smoke over corn. Says if corn is not brought to him it will cause stomach
ache. Bring caititu, deer, pork, and small fish thus, caititu and deer draw
out ancunga, of others only draw out poisonous, say only that will not cause
stomach ache.


Before ikanancowi died he dreamed telling Tap that manupianka were angry,
that he would die, that they were calling him. He died soon after. Manupianka
carried him off.


Urukumu, powerful pantxe, has been very ill. Yet no other pAntxe has
even attempted cure. When ask why p.ntxe did not cure, Tap all said that pantxe
is afraid to cure pantxe who is ill. Urukumu knows kanawana well. It is kanawana
calling urukumu; it might be ancunga calling him, as m'anupi anka called ikonancowi,
thus if pantxe cure he might bring on anger of kanawana or ancunga on to himself.
Thus, dangerous for one pantxe to work with another. Yet, when w' n..raho was
ill, pantxes work. He is not power pantxe, nor familiar of irn"" or dangerous

(Kamairaho informant)

During rains when new corn is ripe probably dec-jan. Pantxe's bodies are
entered by ancunga emiana which K says are 9ncerous. One day one of four
pantxe's begins smoking, after he has smoked many hours, first his legs begin
to twitch and tremble, then his knees, upper legs, thighs, stomach, arms, etc,
for ancunga emiana are entering his body from his feet upward. Then, pantxe (when
ancunga have entered) become dangerous. He runs wildly through village shooting
dogs, araras, chickens, breaking pots, and bashing in sid s of houses. K. says
that he does not know what he is doing. Women and children ani even men are
afraid of him and run out of village. Other pantxe's know what has passed and
catch him by the shoulders and lead him back to his hammock. There, one treats
him by blowing smoke over his body and sucking out dangerous ancunga, with this
out of his body, he relaxes into sleep. When he awakes, he does not remember
what he has done.

Next day another pantxe is attacked thus by ancanga emiana, next I-- a third,
and here a fourth, since these are four pantxes. After all have been attacked
and run their course. The pantxe's dance with feather bonnets anA- nampos (?)

amapapung, trembling as a..CLUigi enters body.

Note: Campukwi says that he has never seen a pantxe run here. That young
pnatxes run. Tnen they are not accustomed to "eating smoke" tuen ancunga emiana


Pancei tells of dreaming travelling to kayapo where he w-s received well.
He says that he appeared there "over great morro" and talked much with Kayapo.
He calls them "son" and many call him "ciropu" father. (Something strange not
life-like about Kayapo in place thus of ancunga, yet Tap say that are not kayapo
souls nor ancunga). For this, say Pancei Kayapo which he knows will not attack
Ta irape. (He extends pantxes control .of d ~gerous supernatural over living
tribe.) He tells that Kayapo have tapir (many) domesticated, that when they
kill a wild one they have dance. That they eat the several species of large
boas (snakes).

Pancei claims father-son relationship with many ancunga. says that thus
they are not dangerous to Tapirape.


ampiawani (testicles) Kamaira Is father. Tamp dreamed that wanai killed
him wnen ne was asleep with club. Then, Kam and Tanapaotxoa fought or quarrelled
with wanai.

wanahi, pantxe very powerful who lived in cicutawa. Then, kamanare killed
wanahi with club as he slept. Tam was a great pantxe dreamed a great deal.
winahi dreamed little. He, however, dreamed that he killed Tamp with rifle,
before he swallowed smoke and coughed up small arayas which he sent to kill
tamp. Then, dreamed that he killed tamp with gun. At long distance from
maukutawa to here entered his side.

urukum(u?) killed wurani (little bird) (both pantxe) with pao, club.

wantanamu killed kancipan, pantxe with arrow.

tauwu killed tampiaoni.

KUCUMANTXE, woman pantxe

Et present, no women are pantxe, but in life of Kmairaho, he has seen four
women pantxe' s, named kucanmukucinga (young woman white), kucanwiri (woman old)
mariampi (who was killed by Caraja in big attack on campo), and Tanimano. Latter
was mother of Kanciwanio. Both she and her husband, Kanaco, were pantxe's.
Kamairaho said that they did not want a kucamantxe "they are dangerous, they
dream more, their dreams are dangerous, they kill many Tapirape." Of the four
he knew, one killed by Caraja and three were killed by Tapirape.

Pancei, (now pantxe in own right) killed kucanmukocinga. Two of his brothers
died through her dreams, he thca;ht.

Kancipa (no dead) killed kucanwiri and Tanimano was killed by ? now dead.

Kamatraho explained that kucamantxes took part in kanawaro werika (thunder
call) and danced circuits of house, and wore ankunitana, as men pantxe's do. No
difference at all in status or place in society. When kuncanmantxe made circuit
of houses calling thunder, she was accompanied by young woman, who sang woman's
part of songs, while kucamantxe sang man's part in song. Kucamantxe took part in
"tasting" of corn, honey. "Ate" more smoke when treating and were considered
even more effective than men in treating.



Says that all four of these women had husbands and children. Mariampi
was very beautiful, he says, and loose. "Tapirape had intercourse with her much.,
No fear he says of intercourse with such women. No signs of any masculinity,
worked as women, did not eat food taboo to women, were not aggressive in sex
any more than usual. Women's place equal in such.

Says that at first all men laughed and didn't believe kicanmukocinga when
she began to smoke in house, she then publicly began in plaza with her novices
and took part in Thundercalling, and she was accepted as Pantxe, but dangerous


Canei killed taowu. Ta went to cicutawa for visit while he was there
younger bro of canei died. Canei followed T to Tampiitawa and waited in forest,
show old man with bow and arrow, then finished him off with club.

Kamaira killed fa. of Kantuowa, first when K was youngster (kononi) his fa.
died, people blamed .... pantxe. Then, later adopted fa. died and K killed
pantxe as he slept with club.

When ask if three present pantxe's of village were not afraid of Tanopao
and irimankori and oprunxui, borthers of deceased Kamanare, Kamairaho explained
that they were afraid "little." He explained that wnen Pantxe had many brothers,
Tap did not dare kill him because brothers would with certainty retaliate. When
pantxe is old and has few or no brothers, then, he is killed quickly. Kam. is
careful to cultivate all possible bros, no matter how far extended, thus, other
pantxe the same.

Pantxe aoa. Late in evening just after the sun went down, Pantxes tasted
of first new corn. Tapirape youths were working on new dance house. First,
Pancei came out of house. Ecgally ask youths to place log right for him to
sit. Then, after interval, wife came bringing great load, some 50-70 ears of
boiled corn. She had cooked this, corn supply by Pancei's younger relatives.

Then, after interval came Urukumu, dressed in red woman's dress aid red
cloth around head. Then Tamaikwawa, then, after interval (he ask me to wait)
Kamairaho came out. Then, Pancewi sat thus:
See drawing

First, Pancei stepped up and broke off few grains and ate, said nothing and
then sat do n to smake. Each pantxe did the same, including myself. Then, after
silence, Pancei called others to come eat. Within ten minutes all had been eaten.

In Aug or Sept Pantxes eat first wild homey, and in March or April they
must eat the first peanuts. If Panceis do not eat first maize, wind and thunder
(topu etc) will be angry and blow over all corn, Kanowano are afraid of Pantxes.

Identification of Jesus Christ with Topu (Kanowana). Thus, after I was
specifically ask to eat with Pantxes, they said that now Christ would not be
angry and blow over maize. "Jesus Christ is angry, Tap are afra-d."





Also, after dance of Pantxe and fight with thunder, Kaui of maize is
brought and they must taste of it first before Tapirape. If not, Kananowana
(thunder) would kill many Tapirape.


Ipanwi and Kancipa "eating smoke"to become pantxes, oprunxui began nightly
but did not dream and has stopped. At night about 9pm two novices with spectators
and Pantxeawi (Pantxe) sat in the praca. Novices began to smoke and swallow
irritant tobacco smoke. Vomiting violently and when k became too ill to hold
pipe pantxe held it for novice. K and later ipanwi fell backwards unconscious,
groaning ill from smoke. Both smoked until rolled on ground moaning and uncon-
scious. Spectators and officiating pantxe sat without emotion except for
laughter and speculated on whether (in unconscious state) the novices saw
ancunga. When novices (both) recovered enough to sit up pipe was placed in
mouth again swallowing until falling again. This continued for about two hours,
until tobacco was exhausted. ipanwi said that he fell back and (dreamed) saw
white smoky forms of ancunga coming toward him but when they came near they
faded. None spoke. He will learn to talk with ancunga, travel in dreams, and
see irauca, etc.

Kamaira said that these novices (called animapetumo "pantxe novo") will
swallow smoke each night for many nights until they dream and travel in dream.
Kamuriwaho said 5 to 6 nights or more. Oprunxui after four nights quit, all
say that he would not have dreamed. Kamuriwaho says that when unconscious from
smoke do not see ancunga but only when retire to ham;mtock to sleep, novice sees
(or fails to see) ancunga in dream.




Ipanwi said that he had not dreamed in several nights after smoking. He
has dreamed, but little, expects to "smoke" until he dreams much and will stop.
One night saw ancunga, only one, it was a woman, did not speak, and he did not
recognize her as Tapirape he had seen.


Kanancipo and Ipawi, still smoking when tovacco is available, seeking
dream. Both say that contact with woman would ruin their dream seeking. I
says wife sleeps here and he sleeps there in other hammock. Kanancipa says he
refrains from intercourse. Yet, Tap say he will not dream now, for he stole
wife of ikorawantori last night. Young pantxe refrains from eating meat of
animals which "walks at night" for example jaboti and monkey, must ostensibly
be on good terms with animals they will see in nocturnal dream travels.


After Kanawanawerika, young men aspiring to become pantxe's who have been
smoking weeks before Kanawanu is called, continue to smoke, to seek dreams.
Finally, they "run" wild. They see ancunga, arise and run from takana. Trddition-
ally, they kill chickens, araras, dogs, break pots.

Ant. Perrara remembers when Kamairaho ran. "He shouted, he got up and ran.
He carried a club in his hadn. He killed two chickens, He broke down side of
a house. He killed a dog. Maeuma grabbed him and he hit maeuma over head with
club. Blood ran from maeuma. Men grabbed Kamairaho and he was treated by Pantxe."

After novice has dreamed and told his dreams, after he has run wild, then
he must treat sick Tapirape. If he is successful after several attempts to
extract "fish" by sucking and vomitting, he is recognized pantxe.


When Pantxe dreams going to morro, or to monro called Tawaiyawa, he is said
to have intercourse with female pigs. "When Tapirape see porkers, they run.
They kill many. These are children of porker (of porker fathers). Many porkers
run, run fast, and Tapirape do not kill them. These are children of Pantxw."

Explains that urukumu knows how to catch porker ancunga, he knows how to
dream and see pork. Pancei, he says, sees fish and not porkers.


Early in morning hours, Pancei began "kanawana werika" thunder calls. First,
he began by smoking until inducing trance-like state and vomitting. Legs began
to tremble and eyes took on glossy stare, closed lids or half closed.

Then he began to sing, punctuated with efforts at vomitting. '."ife sat
behind him taking up countrepuntal chorus.
See text.
During this song Pantxe travels (Pancei said to east) travelling many days.
He climbs large morro, climbing with the aid of his facoe. Arriving there
Pancei saw Kanapeo and Kanawano. He talked calling Kanawana and Kanawana aura
(topu) to come to Tapirape and Tap will many die.

Kanapeo described as pantxe and as fa of Carajao. Went to live on morro
with Kanawana.

By day break Pancei had finished and all were asleep again.


Next day (See IV-91) by noon Urukumu began to sing. Exactly same formula.
Urukumiu trembles more and foames at the mouth. Two hours of song. Pancewi did
not take up song but Domingo (Apawangi) novice, took up song, Domingo became
deathly ill and was forced to sit down and song was broken and hardly recogniz-
able from groans. Then, Kanacipan, then Ant Perr, novices all followed after
two older Pantxes.

In evening just before sundown plaza in front of the takana was swept. Boys
climbed house to see better and logs were places to sit on. Many were waiting.
First came Pancei, In house he started smoking, arrived with half closed eyes
rocking on his feet. Pancei came stood facing north, wife stood fLcinri him
about five yards away. Smoked more and then started his s5ng. Sang about one
hour, then, came Urukumu and wife. Urukumu dressed in remi cloth, had hat of it
and wrapped around waist. During all Kanawana weriks red cloth in great demand.
Following Urukumu came Pancewi and following this came novices. At one time,
there were Atn Perr, Domingo, Kanacipa, and little later but at same Panceparunga.
By night fall singing in front of plaza had ended. No calling of Thrunicr at night.

Tues, early in the morning new doors were east house and paths
between the new doors and each house were well swept. Made the shortest circuit
of the village.
See Drawing
At midmorning Pancei began warming up chezz Pancei", began smoking, weaving,



and singing with wife. Then, he left house swallowing smoke as he walked
between houses. In each house he and wife sang, he always faced in firectior
from which he came and wife facing him. After end of song, he turned facing
direction in which he will go and smokes. Then, leaves house going: to next,
wife follows at reasonable distance without notice. r'oves around village clock-
wise, On second circuit lancei carried two uImpo (rattles) decorated by cutting
kawaneiana, with yellow feathers and with three long tail feathers of red
parrot. Pancei made four circuits of village taking some two to two and a half
hours. Arrived weak and unsteady but not under weather. Note: Urukumu and
Pancei become unsteady and seem in trance but have never been seen under the
weather, stagger and run into posts but never fall. Urukumu then made four
circuits of village. Then Pancewi, a younger Pantxe but not a novice, started
out on his curcuits, after visiting all houses on first circuit and on way to home
base. He suddenly stiffened, shrieked, and fell to the ground. There his body
jerked and twitched much as in tremor morti. He had been struck down by Thunier
and tobacco was too dangerous for him. After pantxes the young novices began,
following them other Tap started, the number of circuits according to what they
could stand.

Apawangi, novice, wore urucu in hair, around calfs of legs he wore cotton
stuck on with a sticky sap. On leaving house apav.w'ngi w,_s reeling. After three


houses he screamed and stiffened out but two youngsters supported him, house
to house, and held pipe for him to swallow more smoke between houses, but midway
he broke away stumbled a few steps letting out blood-freezing screams and fell
twitching and fighting, and crying with large tears. He was picked up by two
men, his body was stiff, placed on shoulders and carried from house to house
completing entire circuit instead of carrying him directly home. His body jerked
but was remarkably stiff enough to lay across shoulders of two men. He was
placed in hammock and brother came to blowing over his body and massaging his
legs and arms. After a bit of coming to, he was placed on his feet and started
out on second circuit aided by youn,;; companions. This time swallowed less smoke
arrived almost to home base and was carried in. Did not come to for another try.

Kanacipa fell and was carried in. All falling came same symptoms, twitching,
shrieking, stiffening of arms and legs, rolling of eyes and at times foaming at
mouth. During whole performance and vomitting violently. Panceparunga, novice,
carried mirror to frighten Thunder's son (Pancewawera) as did several others.
P fell, Ant Perr fell, others wabbled but did not smoke as did novices, some 15
men made the circuits, Some twice, some once (who fell) and some four times. In
late afternoon Pancei made two more circuits.



Notes: Men must not have intercourse during Kanawane werika. Thunder will
be angry and they will be carried away to large morro where large supernatural
mosquitos will partake of their blood.

When Pantxe or novice enters house on circuit all people in house close
eyes. After he begins to sing they open their eyes.

Antonio (anawai) was called by Pancei to accompany him and light his pipe
at intervals. Also, on evening dance in plaza Ant was called to carry benches
to clean plaza, does this with gusto.


Song No. 2 sung for Kanawano werika by Pantxe and others house to house;

See text


Each afternoon for three days (Jan 9, 210J11) led by Pantxes (who made
first trips) Tap made circuit of house calling Thun:ier, with wife and dressed
in every bit of red cloth they could bring together.

Apawangi on second day wore See Drawing of urucu on chest, called
ajakanpewu. Third day like stripes on dress pants, he wore feathers or down of
uriwucingo (urubu rey) down sides of legs, called acemui kueup, and with down
around calfs of legs called ancetemu wuraham.

Third day of circuits no one fell or was struck, began at about 11 am each
cay by Pantxe, then, taken up by others.

Today, (Jan 12) no singing and smoking circuits have been made.


..Antonio screamed much, fell four times and stomped and fought. When moving
back and forth, he stumbled always sideways. Fell when he caught hold of Pancewi,
who all said was dangerous, in fact, several others fell collapsed, when holding
him by arm. Afterwards Antonio said (probably true) that he reTemb-:red nothing.

Kanacipa, ran as hunted animal in circles. He like all others only fell
* when crowd was pressing. Usually two to three.fell at same time. K fell three
times. K bumped into posts and staggered about blind. Also, vomitted more
violently that others.

Kamairai became weak and lapse falling about limp.

Apawangi, blind, crying with tears streaming, later screamed. Dog brushed
his legs, he fell screa-mini and scratci'in* quickly from head tb foot, in hair,
on back, blood curdling screams, It'iing and scratching, said Tap, that when
swallo.'irig smoke thus, if dog touches person fleas in millions jump to body of
person. Thus, during ':*;le ceremony in aft and evening all dogs are tied. Yet
obvious reaction from tobacco for d:g hardly touched man and Kanacipa also fell
with unbearable itch without benefit of dog. Others while moving about
continually scratch.

Pantxes (older) never once fell but at times seemed to run wild, shouting
and running from Thunder. Pancei said he saw Thunder (Kans':~.aij -ura, thunder-


children) It was tall, wore anuro, band of red feathers around head and waist
band of feathers. Had uampo in hand and arco, arrows with which Thunder shoots
Tap is uampo aunya, plant with red flower, or Also, kanawana arrows are
fire, arara feathers, and tobacco with which they shoot Pantxe and other Tap.

Topu are small and large bellied. Pancei uwera are large. Topu shoot
beads at Pantxe. Also, caniwawanka, wind comes, goes to talk with Panceuwera
far in the morro, also, wind is awampewa, also, speaks to Panceuwera (or it
seems one being with dual names). Wind passes thru legs of Pantxe m-nkinr him
fall. Dangerous. Fighting Wind and Thunder, Pantxe grabs anguro (feather hat)
arco, and pulls out lip plug and defeats Thunder but does not take hold of
Thunder's rattle for then Pantxe would die or at least fall.

Note: While fighting Thunder have seen no sleight of hand, no sho ing of
arrows and bows, etc. taken from Thunder. To date all imaginary.


Some eight or nine people were moving back and forth. Tap said they were
"lie smoking" smoked little and were pretending. Those doing so were obvious.
Asking why they did not smoke was told that "I am afraid" by several. Men took
smoke and were afraid. Also, motive seems to be to show lack of fear although
all thrir performance fear is shown.

Two rattlers amoke first a great deal but do not seem tranced until rhythm
and noieebecomes excited. Men stood back of them after a few minutes holding
them erect. Then, later they became so limp that they did not rattle, so they
were let down and treated to bring them back, moved rattles even after seemingly
unconscious. "Kanawano shoots arrows at long arara feathers on rattle and
feathers falling arrows of Kanawano strike rattler. He falls."

First night session ended when suddenly all huddled corner, noise was
terrific and Pantxe touched several men. Five fell and with them fell Pancewi.
Falling hard he struck house post opneing his head in three places. Says he does
not remember it. Pantxes then sat down giving sign that sing was over. Enling
not according to custom.

Second night, huddled all in corner, eight men fell. Pantxes sat, two
small boys then grabbed up uampo (rattles) and ran clockwise thru passage of
houses making circuit of village. Then, Pancei, second Urukumu, and third Pancewi,
rose, made complete circuit of village singing in each house, then, on second

REACTIONS I Third Evening

circuit returned thus by singing stopping in house. Then, all who had fallen
or been struck returned home .ir.girg. Make one complete circuit and return
singing pausing in houses until arrive in house.

Third Evening: Only one rattler. No one fell during whole session. This
time two Kanawana came, one at north and one at south end of house. Thus, ran
to north end called and motioned to come on (always led by Pantxes); ran back to
midhouse turned and motioned facing north end. RPn to South end motioned back
to midhouse turning facing south motioning.

Campukwi said he was afraid to take part. Others said that Pantxes were
"very afraid" for thee were two Panceuawera. All supposed to be afraid.

At end, Pancei instead of going back to midhouse and point and motion to
Kanawana, let out an ha and motioned and pointed directly over head. Both
Urukumu and Pancei then put hands over back of neck as &f K- were directly
overhead. Immediately all except two Pantxes fell, one or two obviously steady
on their feet and not smoking walked off. Hard to tell reality of fhllin-, seemed
very artificial. Women came, each wife propping her husband up against her legs.
Then, calling another man to treat person with tobacco. Tapirape say that "we die,
and tobacco brings us back." Without tobacco Thunder would kill them. One
woman blew tobacco over her bro's son (Kauniwungi) Xawapareumi and Xawaumi fell
at end acting badly as uncouscious, no one touched them but two women kicked they


severely until they arose.

At end Pantxes staggered about then leaning forward began to sing. Boy
ran circuit and Pantxes returned home after circuit of singing.

Note: Men obviously afraid and drunken by smoke but at end falling is more
custom than lack of balance.


At sundown house of Kamaira was cleared, swept, and all objects on floor
removed. Pancei and Urukumu arrived sat in E'ilnouse back ag:al.t back wall.
Spectators at South end of house. Began with two Pantxe lighting pipes smoking
little, stood facing each other. Then, novices came to take pantxes smoke, Pantxes
smoke is more dangerous than their other tobacco. Pancei stood to south and
Urukumu to North. Pancei called first Kanacipa and iJrukamrr called Domingo (apawangi)
Then, Pancei gave Panceparunga and U gave Ant Perrara. Several others (non-
novices) took smoke from pipe of Pancewi, younger Pantxe, and meanwhile all men
who wished to take part were sitting swallowing smoke from their own pipes. In
center of house against house post a banco was places. Ikorawantori hol'irn a
bow in hand and wearing bird down on arms, stood upon this to sing. Behind him
a boy sat beating time to his song with hollow log of Banana brabo. Giving a
boom boom effect to the time of a monotonous sing songy tune. Several young men
stood at side and entered into chorus with ikorawantori.

When Ant Perrara and Panceparunga were well under the effect of tobacco
they were given the two rattles by Pancei. Meanwhile, the oThers were vomitting
and beginning to groan and several (esp. the novices were weaving about on feet).

First the two Pantxes move in crouching pos-tion making high aspirated
grunting sound. heu heu. toward north end of house. This was signal for two
rattlers to move together to north end. Only when arriving did tney shake the
rattles, holding rattles in direction of NEend moving back, Snirinr the rattles


at a spot in NW end of house. They call Thunder and seem to threaten thunder
as tne:y retreat.

Pantxes, (Urukumu and Pancei) move first to north end spot; next trip
?ancewi went and each Pantxe took a novice who had taken his tobacco with him.
Rattles marking time now. Then, each time more men move about to north end.
See Drawing
Then, noise and mass moving to north and return end of house began. Two pantxes
carried facoes with which after things became noisy and terrifically exciting
motioned in manner of "come on" and in threatening manner to Thunder which comes
to the NW end of house. Some men carried red arara feather (dangerous) and
several carried in hand small wax Topu (Kanawana auira). At early hour 20 men
were taking part.

Group led by two Pantxes, with yo.--nger Pantxes nearby, moved continually
from south to north end of house. In north end Pantxes and others motion with
facoes and hand shouting ho ho. Then, run back to other end of house, Pantxes
look here and there as if seinri: Kanawana. Dare thunder to come and then run
away shouting at it. Pancewi broke away from others and ran from north to
south like a hunted animal, ioiging here, Istaring with tranced eyes, several
yo men did the same. Pancei ran back holding hand over back of neck as if some-
thing was about to hit him.


When noise began exciteable and Pantxes shouting loudest two men collapsed.
Screamed, reeled about, fell hard, eyes rolling, body twitching and became
rigid. Yo men held collapsed person who moaned and several of whom foamed
slightly at lips. Tranced person sometimes before twitching and '-'C- mTing
slightly rigid. Tranced dragged to side of house and wife comes standing so
tranced can sit leaning against her. Then, spectator comes I ging; his limbs
and blowing smoke over his body. Usually returns and takes part in wild stagger-
ing about from end to end. Ten men became so tranced actually losing consciousness.


Before % ikanacowi died, he had dreamed seeing Kanawana (as well as
monupianka). Topu, which are said to be taken care of by Thunder. "Kanawana
Topu iana" Topu use iron, or small.tins, as arrows. whilee ikanacowi was ill,
he could not stand to look at any metal object for Topu had shot him full of
their arrows. When people came into house carrying facoe, a piece of a tine, or
an axe, he shouted at them to take it out "uni uni, ankai ankai" no no it
hurts, it hurts. Soon he died.


In muths pedastry appears (see Txankanepera and jaboti and onca, for ex.)
and daily in forseplay jubject is brought up, laughed at, but constantly present.
Tapirape say that it is unknown today. Refuse to recognize such. But canpukuvi
said that two men now dead had pedastric relations in takana, gave names, one was
ikoriwanton (fa. of man now living of that name) and other .... Said the:' would
sleep in takana away from wive and ikoriwanton was agressor. No feminine reactions
he said, of iether. Campukwi says that in time of gdfather or before "caneramunya
okumeo" gdfa tells "that many men practiced pedastry in takana. But says only
adult men. Konomi do not "expirement" with irikwana ao anus eat- but with
small girls only. May be hiding practice known today.


Mankapukwi, now awauai and painted entirely black at intervals and has
hair cut down to I inch with fringe, ears wMre perforated by aerowa (who has
done perforations of infant boys, ie campukwi's son, xawapareumi's son) without
any ceremony, without any noise. No gifts given for she stands in relation of
m's sister, says xamaniuma boy's father. Small stick inserted with wax balls
on ends thus, later to be exchanged for typical Tap plugs.
See drawing

Note: Several men have given up ear plugs allowing perforation to close.
When ask why, they said that "monxowa moncowa, a camarada or Fedricos had told
them that it was ugly, took out their ear plugs, said he "only women wear them."
Typical of impressive Tap and lackadasical manner of custom losing.



Cokokwi was younger brother to iroka, was on Araguaya with iroka and
returned. Kamairaho says that Caraja brought tLIem back. They spoke Xristao
well and Tap learned of X and many X words from them before they had seen
Xristao. Cokokwi lived many years in Concieho (?). He could speak Kayapo
say Tap. Tap say that cokokwi was not Tori capitao while iroka was capitao.
Say that cokokwi worked on motor.


Campukwi, came saying that women all said he was no good and that they did
not want any of him. He was very depressed for two days, said, as usual, that
he was going far off, with me, and that he would stay many years, and people
here would cry. Old note, but new note, since he had homesickness for wife and
child, now he will carry wife and child with him.

Oprunxui, not married and far beyond age for it. Has had several false
starts at marriage. Men say he will get a wife only when "he learns to wilk
far". At least it seems as if women will not have him. Very much the egotist
esp. as to personal appearance. Others give beads for adulterous affairs, his
he will never part with. Say this time, he will "go away for many years" He
says he doesn't want wife here. "All other Tap marry but not me" Came angry said
that D said he was adulteror "kucunemuna" Seems that women can play against mens
vanity by dressing them down. Yo mans act-ons are carefully guarded by what
women think or say. Seems that later, after marriage, they have confidence.
Witness Kamaira, Kamairaho, older men with no nuisance of "women are saying."
Oprunxui's lack of integrity and lack of work now seems correlated with contact
with Brazilians. With one or two exceptions (Kamaira) those apt to be less
interested in roca at presnet are those with most Brazil contact, witness,
Antonio, Campukwi, Oprunxui, as best or worst examples. Oprunxui today in morn-
ing cut foot badly with st-imp. Came unable to walk grunting and moaning. Erutht
hammock to stay all day. At night (said he could not walk and this b'ecd two
meals) he walked with aid of two sticks then, out of sight walked alone.
Excuse to beg, excuse to lie in hammock while others work on dance house and



excuse for attention he wants.

Oprunxui said when women said he was stealing all women and was no good that
he would never return to my house, said it many times, then receiving no response
left, in four hours he was back. Good example of emotional scenes and stress,
which are of so little importance and in such constant use among these people.


Campukwi, returning from trip to campo, took offense when his wife said that
all others were angry with him because he was stealing wives and helping others
to do the same. He was tired, had been ill with fever, and was hungry. Yet he
packed pehura with mancioca, hammock, etc, and went to his garden. First night
he was alone, mad at his wife. Second evening he came t. edge of village shouting
for me to come talk with him but would not enter village. Said he was going to
"live always" in garden. Wife went there that evening taking children. Stayed
there four days. Fifth day returned all smiles and eager to be friendly with
all. Painted with jenipapo and entered dance. Anxious to forget his differences.


Returning from campo, men came coughing and sayin-; they were sick with
colds, ie some 10 15 men anei, campukwi, kamuriwao, etc. Later, none seemed
to cough, and Campukwi explained that during night setting before fire waiting
to arrive, they hatched up id a to act as if they had colds, to frighten and make
wives sad.


See 1-8, VI.
Petura is Tap ancestor. Before him Tap did not have fire and it was night
all the time. Then, Petura went and asked dead. Uriwucinga (urubu rey) had
fire. There were two, itumu and tokumu. They came down to eat of Petura,
eating his eyes, then, gaviso brought eyes and Petura grabbed up fire which
uruvucinga had left and ran.

Then, Petura came to house of urikuriha (owl?) who had kaema (the morning)
tied up in sack. He lay down to sleep in house of urikuriha and when they thought
him asleep he picked up "kaema" and ran bringing to Tap "light". :. urikurihe
do not Xhave kaema, they are abroad only in the night and sleep during day.

Petura went to work for cano (ema). He cut away forest (ankapit) making
roca for them. Cano had umapepa ( ) facoe and machados. Petura worked hard
and made a great roca for them. This roca today is the campo. roca of the ema.
Then, Tepura took umapepa, facoe, and axe and ran stealing them from ema, now
Tap have these and cano do not.

Added note, by maeumi who has talked this myth over with caraja: "Ema were
angry and cried much. They set out running after him. Then, Petura came to
house of uriwo (goose) who had canoe. He ask to be allowed to try canoe and
goose consented. 3Peura leaving goose behind set out on the river stealing
canoe, now uriwo must swim and has no canoe, and Petura escaped cano. He went
far away to where earth ends (where all important Tap ancestors live) and "now
only Pantxes see him".



Petura met jaboti and said:

Petura: ane paaerekaiwa

Jaboti: ee kwi cianwuroncipekwi

Petura: muntae neretuma
where is your home, house?

Jaboti: nuntuwi ciretuma
Do not have my house

Petura: ampiakapu tampane neretuma
I shall make your house

Then, Petura tore off bark of a tree and pushed it on to tne back of jaboti,
and said that "now jaboti will carry his house. Now, jaboti will remain here."
Thus, jaboti does not travel much and Tapirape now collect jaboti plentifully.

CANOKUNGA (cordonisa)
Petura met canokinga c was making nampema (flat club). P. asked what
he was making and on answer Petura went on and said:

wu anciengamuce tawerika tin tin tin
you shall say will call (noise of bird which it now makes.)



Petura met ema (cano). Ema were Miearing large garden. Ema had facol and
axe. Tapirape did not have such. Petura arrived and said:

P: erekapit paa ekawo

C: u akapit wekawo

P: muntae nekuce

C: ka

Petura then made facol and axe out of clay. He then b.g-n to cut many many
trees, faster than the ema could cut with their real facols and axe. Petura then
ask to trade facols and axe with them and they were anxious for they had seen the
marvelous results. Petura then took up real facol and axe and left. Em- set to
work and facol and axe quickly fell to pieces. Ema creid and called for their
articles but P left saying:

wu ekwenghu carauwa tao akawo
that one straw (of may eat

Thus, Tapirape received facols and machados.



Pato at this time had canoe and oar; Tapirape did not .have these. Petura
arrived at river where Pato arrived.

Petura: ane pakwe erecutn ekawo

Pato: ie kancutn wekawo

Petura: muntae neuana uha

Pato: kangha ereha

Petura made fake canoe of clay with paddle. He entered and went fast with
little effort. Pato ask if he would trade and Petura traded says:

erot cewi ci uana k wi
take for you my canoe

Pato then left. After travelling some hours, clay canoe fell apart and left
pato swimming. Now pato swim about in water looking for their canoe. Thus,
Petura brought canoe to Tapirape.





TANTAiiAFlCI (martin pescador)
(not clear)

Tatanwanci killed bro of Petura and ate brother. Then, uroi (xarakura, Br)
came and remade brother with feathers, then, lay bro, in hammock and Petura fanned
him bringing him back to life.

Petura became an ipirarucu (cicoo) and tatanwanci came to kill piraracu.
Tatanwanci had beautiful arrows, Eapirape did not have arrows. Martin pescador
shot all arrows, then, Petura came to land and took out all arrows. Now martin
pescador must fish only with beak, has no arrows. Petura brought arrows to

PETURA a se t J VI-106

Hero, caneamuya (ancestor), Petura finally went away. He went to east
where the earth ends; "there he lives to-ay; he never dies. During beginning of
rains, Petura is kononomi, during heavy rains (jan-march?) he is awanoi, during end
of rains he is awanoho, and during dry season he is marikaiura. Then, he becomes
konomi again, he never dies."

Ant Perera says that when Petura died he was buried and fooled them and
went away. He went to join his m's bro. (itotura) wancina and his sister (inura)
imarai who live in the sky. (these were Tapirape who went away.) Say that when
Petura went away took porkers, chickens, geese, xristao took these from Tap.
gdfa's. Campukwi says that these left with wancina when he left. Says that
wancina left because ancienahu wancinawe, spoke angry to wancina. Says wancina's
sister was sad and she went too.

Ant Perrera says that imarai has no house lives in sky, get very wet when
it rains.

Tapirape say wancina is "Papae Grande" or Jesus Cristos, while they say that
imarai is maria, mary, or maria jose. These they learned from missionary,
figured out for themselves.


Ant Perrara told Petura stories equal with those told by campukwi, except
he says that kucio, kai (macaco) cuate, tamandua, pato, cano, etc, were Tapirape
or were people and were turned into present forms by Petura. Kamairaho says they
were upewo tamuya" pato descendants, etc, seem to be definitely human form and
turned into form by Petura. Of Kacio or Kai, Ant P. says d finitely "they are


Uriwanca explained to op that he had dreamed seeing Petura, the Tap ancestor.
He said that house of Petura was by house of Ti-r.:ana. It was far, where earth
ends. One time he was in house of kanawana and Petura came. Kanawana quickly
shut all doors for Petura was calling pantxe. Petura went away and that time
Kanawana released uriwanca. Petura, he said, calls pantxe. pantxe sits down on
bench or seat and petura nails pantxe to seat (op said with nails, prego) and
pantxe cannot return, thus he dies.

Uriwanca did not have father-son relationship with ancunga, said Op. He
saw ancunga but was frightened. He instead had seen Petura., 'nn.&ni, wancina,
stars called nopia, etc. He considered these more -:o rf-l. Uriwanca fought, Tap
say, with anawu (Tamp) and v.:nrni'1.- rpe (mankut awa) in dreams. His powers were
superior to theris and the died. They saw -i-1n; ancunga, c0 ru:. i and oprunxui

Note: Seems to be a dichotomy between the ancunga spirit supernatural and
the ancestor. Great natural phenemana superrn-tural. Then, third set of iunwera
are Tap spirits.



Petura was Tapirape caneramuya who brought fire. Tapirape were cold, ate
banana brabo, did not have fire. Urubu rey (uriwucinga) had fire.. Petura lay
down; he acted dead. Mogots (akaka) came covered his body as if he were dead.
Then, the urubu came down to eat ahaka. They brought with them fire. Uriwocinga
(called wanikokoci; there were two) brought red fire tataenupirung. Uriwopewo
brought yellow fire and (tatanenucope ?) uriwowampa brought tatanenupiona (black
fire). (These last two are called tantancana.) Also, a small hawk called
kwanopiona (ona is black) came with the urikus. "These were many urukus. They
placed fire down and they ate. When they were bloated from eating, P. icked
up" tataenupirung (red fire) and ran. Wanikikici was sad and flew to a branch
of nearby tree and cried. Wanikokoci shouted to Petura "tokomu io tokumo io
awanei (corn) yet corn eat corn eat ka itomu. here putrid flesh. (They were
asking to be allowed to eat corn but Petura answers "no itomu ione" and left,
taking fire to Tapirape. Now uriwu eats only itomu, putrid flesh, and does not
eat corn.

Then, Tapirape were becoming few. "There was no day. Tapirape were afraid
to hunt. Tapirape were afraid to make gardens. Oncas were eating Tapirape.
There were only 20 (2 hands and 2 feet) houses now. Matxankuwawa (urukuriba is
owl) had kaema the morning. Petura set out to house of matxankuwawa. He travelled
and he "slept many nights on road". Anen he arrived he greet watxankawawa calling
him "friend" ciantuwahawa. He was shown a place to hang his hammock. He pretended
that his feet were sore from travel. He watched w. when he took "morning" out
6f the sack in which he kept it, he watched where the sack was kept. 7,hen w.



asked Petura to come go with him to garden to dig mandioca manso, Petura pretended
sore feet and said "no I will stay here." When m- (owl) had gone, Petura took
the sack with "kaema" and left. Now olw hunts only at night. Then, he would
take "kaema" out of sack and there would be day for Tapirape and at night, he
would put it back in sack where he kept it. First days were very very long and
Petura would keep kaema in sack for long, -ut then he must have grown to regularity.
"Now, Tapirape were many. They had day and they could work and they killed onca."

Then, Petura met with kucio (macaco kuxiu) who is called awauowiri. Pet.
ask him for jenipapo. Kucio broke off jenipapo dropping it to Petura. Then,
Petura said whu "Kucioramoeha" kucio I want to go" and awancwiri ran. Petura
brought jenipapo to Tapirape who had not known it before. Now, youngster awanai
(after tying penis) are blackened over whole body with jenipapo and hair is cut
except for fringe around skull, as kucio. "They are kucio."

Also, says maeumi, Petura secured jenipowa from kai (larger monkey). Thus,
awanaho have longer hair and jenipapo to knees as Kai.

Then, Petura met with tamandura (anta-Tapir) who was working on club (type
umampema which Tapirape attribute rightly to Kayapo)




manupae umampema ere ampa akawa. Petura cieampamae aparamo kan ota

akawo. cienpe umampema u (said Tanandera) ecicokake Petura.

Tamandera said upon being asked why he was making a club that he was making
it to kill Petura. Then, Petura grabbed umampema sticking it into anus of
tamamdua and grabbed stick sticking it &n nose. Thus, long nose and tail of
tamandua. Petura said on leaving:

wa apengu tana tamandua aramo taha, or thus, tamandua will go.

Petura met cuate (cawaci) in matto. Cuate was working on club, he was
making circle around club. He asked cuate why he was rAok ng club (cuate was making
circles around club with fire, burning in circles). Cuate answered that he was
making club to kill Petura. P. said good and walked on. Then, P said:

wu epengu taweraha waiyamo uwura
he shall carry always (the) pole

Thus, now the cuate carries his club as a tail and it has the circles on
pole which club burned in.



Pilon is inoha.
Soft trunk selected names four local soft woods that will work easily.
Outsid smoothed off with facoe, then, hollowed out by careful controlled burning.

Used to pound with uwura, hard wood smoothed with facoe.

Used to pound corn, buruti, etc.

Work with pilon all done by women, men make and give to women, becomes
female property.

See Drawings


Early after rains start mandioca of all varieties is planted.
by men. Earth is hilled up in hill about 8" high and 24"diameter.
shoots in one hill. Plant thus:

Work done only
Plant four

anku, shoot of mandioca, which is planted
ianka, fruit





With the first few rains before the matto becomes wet, the
cut and trees being felled in July and August are burned. This
time or rains will catch them wetting ground so will not burn.

dried brush being
must be done on

Thus, after about 20 days or one moon (approx) of light rains, (est middle
of November) mancioca is planted. After more rain and time to finish mandioca
planting, corn is planted, with l-n stick. Man stands in spot planting rather
haphazardly about, 5 grains to hole.

Later beans (5 beans to hole for fava (lima beanj) Komono ete and for other
varieties a handful of seed).

About this time yams and later potatoes are planted, four eyes to hole.

Last pumpkins.


Just before dawn on Feb 16, wura groups (that is almost all men) arrived
from campo. They arrived evening before at garden of Kanancipa, about 1 km.
from village. They were careful not to shout nor let women know that they had
arrived. While it was still dark, the "cries" (shouts) of wura groups came from
matto. Soon afterward, two pair of masked dancers appeared from matto. They
were ancunga ampukaiya, and anampampam. No songs, masked dancers made circle of
village in front of houses, ancunga ampukaugi (crying or shouting ancunga)
made circuit clockwise, anampampam counter-clockwise, thus:
Masked dancers went one behind other, each had club under arm. Buruti hung down
as skirt and head covered with basket-like cap. At top of head madk, two tufts
of hair from porker tied with fringe of red forest flower, tufts thus:
Both ancunga ampukaiya and anampampam are equal in appearance and dance alike,
shout alike. Around legs masked dancers wore pork hoofs and rattles made sound
of pork herd running.

After ancunga had made one circuit they danced around few men (who had
remained) and women who were singing kao on dance ground. Then, ancunga ampukaiya
entered door of wurancingio of takana; anampampam enter door of anantxa. After
some shouting and both wurancingio and anantxa giving group "cries" masks were
taken off and this was over.

Result of hunt was seventeen porkers. PFins are good for hunting pork for



Tapirape sit in behind hard running them into flooded field or muddy flat
where many may be killed with ease. Tapirape say that 17 porkers were few.

On road each man carried load. Arriving in matto at edge of village, all
was piled in one large heap (three men made off with large pieces to houses but
it was called "thieving") In spite of fact that all had been killed by some
seven men. Panceawi, who had not gone on hunt, came with large "pehura" carried
whole pile, with help of smaller "pehura" and other person, directly to takana.
In takana, banana brabo leaves were spread out and Tanopaotxoa (wura uwa/ of
Anantxa, Kamaira, wurauwa of wurancinuio who should have officiated, remained
behind on campo until late last day and arrived late in morning) divided spoils
into six piles, one for each wura group. Group. piles were placed in their part
of takana, thus:
Small piles for youngsters groups; middle age group large pile, and large
pile for wurancingo and Tanawe in spits of small numbers (so their cipatawera
or part which they would later take to house would be large). Meat of each group
was wrapped in banana leaf and carried to house of one of its members, to wait
the evening feast of wuran groups. During day pork was not eaten in houses,
neither by women or by men.

About four pm all meat was returned to takana. Placed in traditional spot
of each group in takana. Tanopao gave cry calling anantxa; Kamaira called wuran
cingio. When, and not until, all members came did men sit down in circle to eat.



Wives came to door carrying farinha and each man brought pot or basket to carry
away pork to house. Wurancinga finished first. Kamuriwao, cut off piece and
each small boy took pork to mother, or to whomever was taking care of him. As
groups finished eating, they too divided meat to take to houses (part called
cipatawera) and women then could eat. Older two groups took much more than others
to houses.

After feasting, dance ground was swept. Wurancingio lined up facing North,
as usual, and anattxe facing wouth, as usual. Lines up to wrestle (acampuhuk).
Two men of w took up burning fire brand (before brand in takana) rushing burning
center house of anantxa, and then, same was done to center house post on wuran-
cingio Is end of house. Then, wurancingio rushed to anantxa side of Takan3 and
one anantxa grabbed fire breaking it off. Thus accepting invitation to wrestle
two men wrestled. After two matches, moved to dance ground.

At dance ground, men of w. advanced to a- group pointing finger and giving
bird cry of their group. No one accepted their challenge. Then a- returned
challenge, advancing, giving wuran cry, pointing finger at men of other group.
Two men accepted and there were two simultaneous matches. Then, after several
challenges not accepted, wurancingio lighted dry macabe leaves and rushed at
anantxa, this had to be accepted for fire was pushed in very face of anantxa.
With fire, two men take hold of brand and rush sideways at group.



No insulting noticed, only about six men of each group, no obvious competi-
tion seen. No counting of whom fell or counting up of victories. None of younger
group wrestled. Men seemed somewhat frightened and without enthusiasm to wrestle.
#j#i Campukwi and Ant. Perrera of anantxa were not thrown but no bragging, Tap
only said they were strong. Younger groups did not partake.

Wrestle with each man holding hair of other, wrestle by throwing out feet
to trip over, when on-e is thrown to ground, match is over. When both fall first
to arise is victor, if such can be said to exist.

At other hunt, men wrestle with arms over shoulders and neck of other, but
with ancunga ampukaiya, by holding hair, much of which is pulled out. But
Tapirape are not brave and courageous, and do not tkke to wrestling with any

After many matches, two groups move en masse, to center clasping hands, each
giving group cry and wrestling is over. Recement friendship.


POTTERY 111-92

Clay used for pottery (ciangoma) dug by Tapirape, two days and half to
northwest. Households have been practically without pottery, because of dist-
ance to clay deposit and lack of energy to go there. For six months there have
been no new pottery, people borrowing large pots, people complaining "we do not
eat kawi because we do not have cooking pot" etc. Two days ago Alfredo, Antonio,
and ipawangwungi discovered what they describe as a large deposit of cl-y within
days journey at foot of hill ipiramkwano uwuturo, at source of stream called
ipiramkwano. Brought back three loads.

xingoma, clay
Kantnowa, mixed earth from copin (ant) hill (tupukwe, or house of anakungo;
with water in shell of jaboti, until wet mass. Then, mixed ciangama with
tupukwe by needing with hands. Proportions about 3:1. With clay available she
made three large balls, her work was in head and plan, three large balls for
three pots. She is to make three rather small pots. For small pots Kantuowa did
not make hole in ground as she would for large pot.

Began work by forming inside, by making hole in round ball of clay. She
worked first inside, modelling, all the time from s ngle lump of clay. After
rough form is reached, pet is smoothed by using sharp edge of mollusk (clam)
shell. Rub pot lip with round bone and shape with hands. Sides smoothed with
molluek shell, after well formed.

Then, pots are placed in sun, ideally for three days to harden. Then, baked
over open fire, smoke marks are valued. No slip or wash used. After baking
pots are polished with soft stone, Rubbed hard (stone called itakou) with stone
for about hour until takes on high polish.

Mueoi, old woman, did not mix copin sand or earth with clay, used straight
clay, worked by modelling.

Most Tap women know process of pitmaking, yet they make them crudely. In
village, Kantuowa, wife of Kamairaho, and mueri, widow of Capitao Oprumin, are
best known. Only these two make large pot or complicated shape, women bring
them their clay. Great pride and prestige in being good worker in pottery.

POTTERY decorated 11-71

'Decorated pottery, txaakwancian txacawanopukwancian

txaewanopu (kwanciana) incised near lip only with knife. Woman did incising.
Says that men know how to do decorating but on pot in question woman did decorat-
See Drawing

POTTERY undecorated

Clay which is used for pottery is found to north, three days walk to spot
and two days back because farinha runs short and must hurry back for food. Men
go there at two times each year. When maize is about two feet high and again
when there is fresh corn, both during rains when clay is workable.

Pottery work women's job. Mady b.- rolling and building method. First hole
is made in ground and work done inside h6le, then pottery is cooked.
See later notes)

Txaecura, (Drawing) undecorated, lip wider than body, approx 8" high, 8"
wide. Used for cooking.

Txaecurauri. Smaller one of same shape 5" high and 3" wide used for eating.

Txaemewa, undecorated, used for eat-nr. as bowl.

Txaewanantu, used as plate and bowl, also, to cook very small quantities.

Txaecura, cooking pot, used for kaui and meat, standard large pot for
cooking, undecorated.

Txaemamuna, used to roast farinha, undecorated inside brown and black, polish,
probably bron slip when new, as all other pottery.



"Woman does not work if pregnant, headaches much" Thus Campukwi complains
of probable pregnancy of wife. Also, says that he cannot lave intercourse
often "she sleeps much; does not want me". Does not put uruku on head (ancepi
tom, to put urucu on head at birth of child) at announcement .of birth as Tap
once said. C says he is sad because of this. Says of men "some want, another
does not want" this depends on circumstances if they reaet this way.


When menstruation does not arrive man and wife announce pregnancy to
village. Woman covers hair with urucum and paints body with jenipapo (get lines
of body paint) and husb to lesser extent puts jenipapo and urukum.

Husband lies in at delivery. If delivery is hard and blood flows, neither
wife nor husband drink water or kaui.

Case of Campukwi's Wife:
Wife (iparewango) worked up to last minute. Pains started about 36 hours
in advance as load dropped V.'ife lid not cook, strung beads for husband,
roasted occasional mandioca in fire.

Pains started at about 4 pm. Two older sisters came at once to help,
younger brother, wife of Kamairaho, for a few minutes Tanui (no relative) and
older woman (no relative). Later, to relieve ipawani (bro) Kamance came to help.

Woman seated first on tantu shell with bro seated on log behind clasping
her under breasts (under arms slightly supporting). Bro massaging downward
over upper abdomen with hands. Woman helped support herself at first by
grasping cord of hammock overhead. Tiring of this she grasped backward around
neck of brother. Women attendants pushed her legs apart and massaged abdomen