Field Notes - M, N, O, 1939-1940


Material Information

Field Notes - M, N, O, 1939-1940
Series Title:
Tapirape Project Files
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Wagley, Charles
Charles Wagley ( donor )
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Box: 5
Folder: Field Notes - M, N, O, 1939-1940


Subjects / Keywords:
Anthropology--United States--History
Galvao, Eduardo Eneas
Gurupa (Para, Brazil)--Photographs
Indians of South America--Brazil
Tapirape Indians
Tapirape Indians--Photographs


General Note:
Folder 9

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:

Full Text


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MAN KANBI Ce reo VI-150

At rundown, men gathered in takana, gave call of anantxa and of wurancingio.
Began to sing monikanci (to sing ci?). Danced out in single file each holding
arrow or decorated bow and arrow and leader (monika uwa, song leader, in this
case xawapikantu) carried decorated lance. Men turned back to takana and
danced side by side moving sideways. Finally line moved in large circle in
dance ground. After songs had been sung some time, women moved up and dqueezed
in under arm of man who was not her husband. 'or.i n did not -in: but danced
alone side man she chose.

Man dances and is open to be chosen by woman, must accept if he is in line,
thus, when marica approached group, kaunewungo, a sport and arragant, moved out
of line. Woman, after dance, brings peanuts to man she has chosen and he in
turn must kill mutum, jaboti, // cartitu, or monkey, giving it to her as present.

Thus, monikanci begins at time of harvest of peanuts. Kamuriwao says that
monikanci is danced every night (or sunset) for some 5-8 rights. ..le monikanci
end "tomorrow monikahuya".


HIM..1OCK- Work done entirely by wcmen. Loom thus: See Drawing

Woman works from bottom up, horizontal strands are single, vertical are
double, with left hand secures vertical strands, with right hand reaches in and
lifts horizontal strands over vertical and with left twists vertical. Women
apin thread, w men harvest and clean cotton. Store thread wrapped on stick.
Women plant and even cultivate cotton.

MARAPA (maratawa) VII-66

Place where pantxe iunwera go after death, village of souls of pantxe.
Iroka and Valedaron told Tap of existence of Maraba, village or city of that
name of Xrista. These men probablyy iroka says K and campukwi) said that there
one must not sleep, if one sleeps will die, also one must not drink water there
for will die. There "Tori have a large snake (vr'-so); they catch snake and
have intercourse with snake." (??)


Kamairaho does not remember mare but he remembers well Tomakwura. Says for
sometime T has wife, but named five men including Pancei (now alive) who had
relations with him. Concerning mare, he is evidentally famous, says that hh
was wife of capitao manika, he knew hov, to make string ornaments and to make
hammocks. Made these better than women. He was capitaowantu, highestposition
for women. He wore beads, he painted with female body decoration. Since time
of mare no berdashe has appeared. Yet Kamairaho's father said that many years
ago there were often berdashe in Tap culture. Within last 50 yrs men who have
been submissive pederasts have not taken on complete berdashe proportions.
Have done man's work and danced and sang as men, at least one had a wife.


Fight between anei, husband, and marica, wife. Anei returned finding
mancoi in hammock with wife. She ran outside house, husband pursued wife and
not other man. When husband caught her she sat down. Fight consisted of anei
simply pulling on her arm to pull her back to house. Wife began to cry and
refused to move. She picked up stick waved it as if to hit him but then,
threw it away. Finally, crying she allowed herself to be taken inside house.
Few times have couples been seen fight or disputing publicly. A crowd gathered
around these two, publicity made wife madder than slight maltreatment. By
afternoon, couple were walking together but wife still anrir. By night, they
were seen with arms about each other.


Tampiiri returned found Kamurowa in hammock in act of intercourse with wife.
Both are young men. K ran, T beat wife at intervals for several hours. She
cried in shouts hearable thruout aldea. T did not pursue K nor did K seem much
embarrassed. T angry at K but all blame put on wife, no attempt by husband to
punish K.

Tap say that now child (for wife is pregnant) will have two fathers and will
call both K and T "father" ciropu. "Some children have five (showed fingers)
fathers" says Campukwi. Sho.-ed that boy, son of ipawai's wife called him
ciropu but said that his two children did not have "macaco fathers".

In spite of numerous cases during months from May to Sept of men beint left
without food by punishing wifes and of wives leaving husband and husb being
forced by angry wife, it seems that men do beat their wives. Tanpuri beat his
wife with side of facoe, Anei pulled maricans hair; kamuriwao beat mariampawungo
when she was caught with Campukwi. Gen husb punished wife, forgets about adulteror.
Tap are said to have killed adulteror's chickens, doc., or parrots, but have
not seen this, would be great anger here where no direct aggression is dared.

Xawapareumi went with large group of men hunting. porker, stayed five days.
First night after he left, campukwi went with mariampio, x wife, out of village
to his garden ana st .ei with her there all night. Very publicly known.
Campukwi's wife, iparewao came crying in the ni-ht saying that she was go.inri
away to stay with her brother. She has two children by campukwi. Next day she
left going to garden where her brother is staying because of high water and to
harvest peanuts, kara, etc. She took, of course, child in arms and ampewi,
girl of 3 yrs.

Campukwi came back from garden brinti_ m.riumpio, of course, 4ith her
small girl. They went to house of Kamaira iana, creador of Campukwi) and stayed
there four days without slightest secrecy. M cooked and they lived as man and

X arrived, there was no noise. He looked for -ife, heard she was with c and
went immediately to house of brother. Did not say anyt'hini to either wife or
c. Next day, c said that mariampio was returning to x because she had sandades,
because her daughter wanted father and because her mother was angr-' and told
her to return. c l'-hhc1, was sad, and s-tid that new he was wifeless. That
evening m returned to x. X began to shout at her, tell her that she w%:s .orthless.
Then he beat her rather severely with his facoe, all Tap were all ears. Some
young ones came running to tell w-ht was h p 1en!in:, most sat in front of house
conversing as if they saw or heard nothing but ,till attending. M ran to
praca and x followed her there beaten, her while she crouched and screamed before





eyes of all.

Campukwi finally walked out asking x to stop his beating. X stood nervously
striking facoe against a temp platform. Two men conversed calmly, lowly, etc,
not one word of anger passed between them. C said that m was homesick, that
she wanted to come back, that he (c) had let h-r go without force, that now X
should be happy to have her and not beat her. M slept that night in h use of
Tanui, two men slept alone. Now c has gone to sleep with her in other house.
All say that now the beating has taken place that she will stay with ca and
he will not go back to wife. C said when he thought that m had gone back to
x that he would not seek out wife, she must come seek him. "She left. She is
angry. I am not." Hard to understand. iparewao (c's former wife) is very ill
and infant son still nursing is suffering for it; yet c's pride will not let
him go seek out son or wife, pretends to be without interest yet has asked each
day. Says c will not be lonesome for son because when mo returns with child, he
will see him every day, eual small da.


The one elligible woman without husband is atancowi. When I ask why, said
she was "eawurum", epileptic. She falls in fits, said to foam at mouth.
Campukwi said that he did not have adulterous contact for "he was afraid" but
others did have contact, named kamariwaoi, tampiiri, kanewungi, Ant perr, and
several others. Upon suggestion that T marry her, c said "no, T is beautiful
and she is ugly" for atancowi has added misfortune of having large fire scars on
legs and arms, caused by falling from hammock while child (latter frequent catas-
trophy, some eight children have such scars) Otherwise, girl is rather handsome,
well shaped, and pleasing face, somewhat filthy and probably somewhat slow
witted, but not too much so far T tastes. When ask of cause for fits, no reason
was advocated. Added that other woman, TqnLli, has such fits, but "never fell,
only rolled in hammock" but Tanui did not fall in fire, Tanui not desirable
(Husb said that wife Tahui did not "presta") too but always has husband.

Above girl, atancowi, was beaten by brother okane, reason she was having
intercourse with young men.


After hunt, husband sits before fire picks off nettles (called earrapixo Br
or kaapanionga, Tap) as he tells of day's hunt to his wife. He burns nettles
over fire; then rubs the ashes into palm of wife's hand. Kamairaho explained:
"Wife will not leave. Man goes off far, wife has "sandades" but does not leave.
Man does not rub on hand :aamong~ and other man will take his wife. Rub in and
she will stay much." Explainc- too that it was method of showing affection,
also said Kamairaho, "Man who does not go to matto, man does not have (bring in,
therefore) caititi, jaboti, mutum, pork, man (the-r.fore) does not have kaamonga
to rub on wife's hands. Wife leaves, other wife leaves. Man has kaamonga, (to
secure) hunts much, has caititi, etc."

Curumparei and wife, tanopao and- wife, etc etc walk around continually
together. The amount of public necking is surprising. Peopr- brinr their
hammocks and man and wife entwine in each others arms. Couples stand with cheeks
together and arms intertwined.

After young man has tied hair during ceremony of monikaiuya, he theoretically
should take a wife, he theoretically should not sleep in takana now eat -in mo's
house. Under modern s-tuation with small population there are no desirable and
adult or late adolescent girls available for him. Thus, also, with young men
without parents because of great no. of deaths, many are at loose ends. Tapirape
have solved problem thus: for example, Kamuriwungantu married small daughter of
Maeumi. She is no more than four years of age. Say that girl's mo. "ancicawerika/
(same as older woman calls husband) or called him. K. moved into house. Maeumi's
wife does cooking and K. thus c ntrioutes from garden and from hunt. He fondles
small girl as he would daughter or even as wife. Yet, in this case, girl does
no work, but yo. man has advantage of mo-in-law who cooks for him. Tapirape are
specific that yo. man would not try any sexual acts.

Kamairaho's adopted da. ampitanya (age 8 yrs) married to Okane, tied hair
three years ago. Ampitanya works helping Kantuowa (mother) crush corn in pilon
and even to cook. Sleeps in hammock with husband. Now Okane is valuable asset
to Kanairaho. He brought caititu some days ago. Today he went to dig mandioca
manso for K. K. without hesitation sends Okane on errands. In return, K. has
given son-in-law presents and support of first chief.

Kamairaho says that man with "kutatai wife. They steal (adulterous) other
Tapirape's wives. Wife is kutantani, husband does not stay. Kutantai has many
husband. Woman has hole or womb; husband stays." To say that such unions are

VI-80 -9



shifting and temporary since no sexual relations. Antonio has made about 6 or 7
such "marriages" this year. Kamairaho says that when he "was a young man" and
when "there were many Tapirape" "kutatai (yo. girl) did not have husbands. They
worked for mothers and fathers. Men (after hair tied) did not want them. (Then)
there were many women" and man had sufficient women available. He remembers that
there were three wives available when he was ready to take wife. Present situation
is make-shift to solve culture problem.


Ikoriwantori has been angry for several days. "iwuterahu" say Tapirape
because he misses brother who died several months ago. Tapirape steared clear of
his path. He did not converse, lay in hammock, at sundown cried. Today, he heard
rumors of infidelity of wife, beat her and manturi, his son who was nearby, he hit
over head with hand. Taking out sadness irritability on excuse of family quarrel.

Kamuriwaoi quarreled with young wife, awacirawa. Cause said to be her
adulterous activities. He pulled her into hammock with him, biting her severely
until she screamed and cried. She fought to get loose but he held her. Next
day she had several marks of teeth on her body. During quarrel (in night) K.
threatened to burn her with brand of fire from cooking fire. Kantuowa, extended
mother and in household, cried during fight, in which wife did not retaliate.
Her adopted father, Kamairaho, only laughed.

Kamairaho asked only curiously if I woul. stop quarrel. He then said that
Keagie had put a stop to several quarrels when husband was beating wife. He
took up club and parted man. Tapirape found this very funny, but never stopped
thus wife beating.

Xawaparemi arrived from garden, about one week ago. Found campukwi in
hammock with wife. Campukwi left hurriedly. Later said he only rose and sat in
another hammock and left with dignity. X. beat wife severely with fists (on
her back) and with side of facol, bit her, no retaliation or even words between
husband and adulteror. Husb knows even now that adulterous affair is in progress.
His only protection (and he does) is to watch wife carefully. He has not been
hunting for days, takes wife when he goes to garden, goes with her to bathe and
for natural functions. Seems like helpless situat-on for husband.





Kamairaho describes situation.
angry and she is not angry; they have
tomorrow, tomorrow, and he bites her,
sleeps with brother. In two to three
goes to speak to her and she returns.

"Husband beats wife and tomorrow he is not
intercourse. Husband beats her much,
he burns her. Then, she leaves house and
days, husband misses her and is sad. He
They have intercourse." (Trs free from

Yet situation for woman can become unbearable. Her relatives (fa and Mo
and sisters) may protect her and husband can be asked to leave. Why women take
beatings in own house, full of own relatives, I am at loss. Yet without shadow
of doubt it is customary to beat wife and actually done. But when marriage
breaks up, man usually leaves household.



Camplkwi fought with wife. She is not sought by yo. men being ugly and
older. He is constant adulteror so it was her quarrel. He laughed and only
pushed her off. Finally she grabbed held of his testicles and (hand on sack)
squeezed. Took all energy and he fell in hammock. C. said that wives fighting
back sometimes take hold of testicles and "husband's beating stops"(naturally).
Women also grab hold of men by hair (husbands also grab women by hair) and pull,
but this "does not stop beating".

1) Tanopanxoa fought with younger wife, accusing her rightly of slipping
off to meet Kamuriwaoi. Yesterday he became angry and hit her with flat side of
facoa. She cried and stopped cooking, Tanopao went to huse of mo, Puranku, to
eat and sleep. Yo. wife siad she was finished with him, she remained in house.
(household of Kamairaho) and Kamuriwaoi came to sleep with her there. People
said she had new husband; tanopao has no wife.

2) Xawapareuma came complaining that he was hungry and begged food because
wife was mad. Evidentally, angry because he had hit her because she was mis-
treating child. Explained that he had no one to cook for him. Sisters (ext and
real) and bros were all away on fishing party. He slept in takana that night
not returning to his house; slept in hammock of child (tery uncomfortable)
borrowed from campukwi's wife.

5) See III-5. Campukwi hungry and without hammock during quarrel. P.- red
food here and from Kamairaho who is "older Bro" (extended). Slept on bench
here and in borrowed child's hammock.

4) Diff- wananowampe's wife left him, that is, left house. Thr terore, he
could sleep, had pots an., food, yet he was hungry, could not cook.

Hunger of men is real. Refuse to cook for fear of ridicule in eyes of women.
(Yo. man washing pot walked thru matto to stream and hid pot from matto to house).




For fear women see him, but "men will cook on campo. women cannot see them."
Man does not go hungry, if he has sister, mor, or bros for he may always eat at
their fires or house. Almost invariably on marriage break, temporary or perman-
ent, man leaves house taking only few personal possessions leaving woman intact
with baskets, pottery, rede, etc (most is her work anyway).


Right of husbands and sole right is to pluck out pubic hairs of wife.
This done in secret and considered sexual play. 7uuch 1 .uhter because aampoi
was seen plucking pubic hairs of Tanui, niether are married, but have been.

Men say that they practice sodomy on wives, that all women like it. 'en
say "Tap do not want men but all want women both womb and anus."

Yet myths and very important in horseplay and kidding are joke about sodomy
between men.

Kanoniwungo broke off marriage with wife by whom he had two children -
broken marriage after much trouble and many quarrels. Two days later he was
asked by mariampa to become her husband. She had husband, Tampiiri, but soon
dispatched him. He took wife of K., direct exchange.

As usual, on marriage Kanohiwungo spent best part of first day carrying
and cutting fire wood for his wife's mo's bro (or wi's fa, etc), Kamairaho in
this case. Next day he was sent to repair roof of house into which he moved and
on same day he dug and carried large load of mandioca for Kantuowa, his acting
mo-in-law. Made gifts of arrows to K and made gift of gourds to Kantuowi. Seems
that actual marriage exchange was engineered by Kantuowa as almost all things are
engineered in this household ie she was at base of exchange of husband which
awacirawa made. Kamuriwadi, a younger and more pliable and active fellow, for
Tanopao who was not easy to exploit s-nce he was wuran group capitao.

Kamairho, in lack of daughters, has adopted daughters'of extended sisters
it seems. Now married are awacikawa and mariampa, both are sister's children.
Thus, he has strengthened his power economically.and social (more supporters)
with sons-in-law. Ideal is a household full of strong sons-in-law, yet with
infanticide of three successive female children it is few who could get more than
two "real" da's with sons-in-law. Thus it is man with prestige or "capitoa"
who has household of sisters day's, bro's da's, and wife's siblings' da's, etc,
and husbands, who has strong household. Son-in-law must continually bring fire
food, must cont. make presents, but ideal is not kept, of course.




Atancowi taken by x. Two brothers cane and xawapareumi arr-.ged marriage.
A waited until x came into bro's house and then invited him to sit in hammock
with her. She was first to speak. At night x went to sleep in house. His
anketawera (bro in law) clained each two strings of beads, icanr.'n .era (mo-
in-law) claimed red cloth given him. Explained that he must give results of
hunt to bro in law. Wife ask for beads, 3 strings, and next day ask for mandioca.
Wife's mo's bro also came to claim from husband. Note, when husb is youth,
his father is open to such claims.

Later, bro in law relax claims but always should give gifts to them.

New husband moving into house is asked immediately to repair roof, to put
effort into house.


See VII-55
Campukwi took wife of Xa':.%pareuma. Tap say he (x) cried at night from lone-
someness for his younger wife. After about three weeks he saw that he was without
a wife. Several days ago he took iparewaho, campukwi's ex-wife, whom he left, and
a much less attractive woman. An exchange of wives, not looked upon with distaste
but a purely personal matter. Laughed at but not criticized. Tap, about all
such affairs, leave it as personal affairs and not as immoral offense or public


Says by way of example that txawkanepera's son married daughter of
mondiutawera, son of ampirampe married da. of txankancpera. They lived with fa-
in-laws. Said all people of household were then of one tatauapao group.

Ideally, household is of one matrilineal line, ie capital (?) and wife,
her daughters, and wife's sisters since man come to live in house of wife. Thus,
as it happens, all women of household theoretically could be of one tatauapao
group, but seems definite that no marriage prohibitions as to tatauapao group,
so men could be of sane group or of different groups.

Kamairaho says that of tamuya,
Txarkanapera was bro to awaiku
Kawano was bro to Kawanoi
pananiwana was bro to tawaopera
karajatuwera was bro to awaxku
mondiutewera had no brother.

Says "ancestor" mondiutera brought mandioca to Tapirape.




With great amount of adultery, with constant temporary marital quarrels,
marriage is extremely stable. Adultery is definite open pattern, anger of husb
is slight. For example, Tampiiri arrived from hunt and heard that panceparunga
had been having his wife. there was no quarrel between two men nor did Tampiiri
do more than speak angrily with mariampio, his wife. Adultery limited more or
less to younger group, is definite factor in stabilizing marriage. Marriage
is stable, for example:

1) ikorapeto has had only one wife, has two children by her, marriage of
at least 12-15 yrs durance. He is about 55 yrs old.

2) kamuriwao (25-25) and maririampnawun go (19) only marriage for both. For
time campukwi was having adulterous affair with wife, marital quarrels, no
breakup. Also, Kamuriwai and others have had her.

3) campukwi (27-29) has had two wives. First wife died young when he was
young. Married ipariwao and has had.two children. Marriage of at least 5 yrs
durance. C is great adulterer of village, few yo women he has not has; yet
wife becomes angry and ends by receiving him. Ipariwao has had only two husbs.
First died.

4) Xamaniuma, three children, oldest son about 12, only marriage for either,
marriage of at least 15 yrs durance, no adultery now, but Tap tell of it in past.




5) Kamairaho. Juana died. Then married kantuowa (Kantuowa hus now second
husband, now does not take part in adultery, but with first husb did).

6) Awantilcantu, one wife died leaving small child. Married mariapaturo,
whose husb died leaving her with one child, one dhilo of tilis marriage, of at
least five yrs durance. No adultery known.

7) Urukumu, one of oldest men, 55-60. Has lost two wives, now has two
children by third. Last marriage at least 7 yrs durance. No adultery.:'ever broken.

8) Canei, has lost two wives thru death. Quarrelled and broke after 1 yr
with Taniwaiya, present wife of Pancei; now married to Purankei, marriage of at
least four years old. Present wife lau.hc at c adulteries.

9) Tanopaotxoa. Three wives have died. fought with awacirawa, very
young girl, and left her. Fought with Tmrnpeputunm .recently and left.

10) ikoriwantori, three wives have died, says he has nuver broken thru
quarrel, has left present loose s1 oLus, Tan.r'pputuni: several times for 1-35 .s
but returns.

11) Kanciwanio, married widow, wvuputungo, and this has been only marriage;
at least nine years durance.





12) Mancoi, two died, wife of long (5-10) durance.

13) Pancei- two wives died; three broke with for other younger or more
desirable wives. Taniwaiya, present yo wife, fights much.

14) Kancipa- lost three by death. Broke with mariampao.
young almost adolescent. Broke w-th Tarp-iutung-.

rok with

WOMEN adolescent sex

First husband was Kamanare, yo man of very high status; when h. died
she passed rapidly from one hand to other. Stayed with Kamuriwungantu for two
months, with kancipa, with canipu, with tonopao, ana finally for three months
she has seemed to settle with ikoriwantori.

Now adolescent, breasts are well developed but as yet has not menstruated
Men say that she is not virgin. Has been sought by several men. Her elder
bro Kanciwanio has been anxious to arrange marriage for her. Thus, Kamuriwungantu
moved into house with her, in house of Kanciwanio, stayed only three days.
Said that "wife is no good. I want her. She runs away." Then, Kaui-i'w,-o
moved in and she steadily refused him. He beat her but she did not have inter-
course with him. Following him, Okane tried her but v.ith no success. Tapirape
say that "she does not want a husband now; later when she has appetite she will
call one." Muei goes about with family of older brother. Is not s.uLiht by
men now for they know that she does not want man now. Muei and --- other
adolescent girl go about continually together. Age mates, inseparable companions.
Very wary and do not wander out of village clearing.




Men at present without wives:
1) Oprunxui, lazy, egotist, finds wumen dirty, he says, ref -es to do work
which he must for wife and bro in law, ru-ned by treatment by Xristao.

2) Ampaoi, married for a while to Tanui. Lazy. Tap find him ugly. Also
considered dumb.

5) Antonio, laziest man in town but as lazy man he attacnes himself to a
man of prestige (usually a relative) is sent about on errands and is -vithout
wife or without prestige but he always has food; none deny him (when he asks)
food from their gardens and (ex) now wife of Pancei calls him to eat tith them.

4) Kamuriwungantu, now without wife has had several ventures of short
term. (big stomach and lazy, no wife)

5) Okane, married to small girl, da of Kamairaho.


Women are all working making farinha, Kamaira ask antancowi (see epileptico
VI-42) to help wife with farinha. She had moved in and was living in his house-
hoid. K. is "extended brother" to antancowi. When she would not help, he called
marira and told him that Tapirape could take her to brush. Marira took her to
matto, the, told others. She hid. Ant Perrera and Kamuriwao found her, took her
by hand pulling and leading her far back into matto. -.'iade screen of banana
brabo, one by one men went behind screen and had intercourse. Ant- remarkably
passive; low cey, did not try to run, did not fight. She pushed some and had to
part her legs with force. Between men she did not rise but lay on her back.
Some men had her twice. Some 10-15 men had her.

Kamairaho siad that formerly when there were more unmarried women, Tapirape
"mass raped" many. Brother, or father, or m's bro can give permission as means
of punishment. Two former cases:

1) Manya, now wife of Panceparunga. This happened about four ye ,rs ago.
She ran from tatooing. She had no husband so Tairape ran after her to matto
for amutxino.

2) Mariampa, now wife of was wife of Kancinapio. She did not
work and she continually refused intercourse with him. Kanacipa became angry and
told Kamairaho, her m's bro, that did not want her. Kamairaho told Tapirape to
take her away. Two times this was done. K. says she learned to work.


If EDT C, :E P U RHS10


Use copi (copii) wrap in banana leave and heat then rub burn. Also,
chew jenipapo and put on burn.


Children eat new corn off the cog but adults must break off the kernels to
eat new corn.

Men squat to urinate, saying so that women will not see them, but habit,
for even on campo squat. Never have seen head of penis, great modesty point.
Women seen urinating in immediate front of h use, never go far. To excrete go
far, both sexes, usually husband goes with wife for safe keeping.


During day it is monikahuya, at sundown it is monikao. Tapirape sing and
dance monikao similarly to monikanci. Women are said to sing and not danced
under men's arms. Women chose man and he must kill pork for her. She need not
return gift for monikao.

Men complained bitterly that few women came, some seven or eight able bodied
men were not claimed, "kucunwera ankantaum" "women are miserable." ie they
did not want to give peanuts. Men complain that "women were lazy" for kawaowo.
Thus, kawaowo was ended after one night. Thus, men say that they will not dance
monikanci only one day and it will end.

At dawn as Kao for the night came to close, maeumi (wuranuwa of anantxa)
announced in sing song that he would sing, that wuran would sing monikahuya
that day.

About 11 am maeumi and campukwi began to sing xawanamu, left takana by
anantxa door, danced on dancing ground in circle, step slow run. Maeumi led
singing, response by campukwi, later three men idsued from wurancingio door and
danced behind them in single file thus:
See Drawing
Danced for about hour; few joined for men where still bein,; decorated with
jenipapo and urucum by others.

Rested for about two hours then sang again, this time song was:
1) monikanci (son of xawanamu)
2) monika upa all of these sime dance
3) monikapura

In all men join group from door of their wuaan group. St-..nd dancing in
door and when circle goes by takes place in line. For example, Ad&al position
is wura wwa in front; followed by wurancingo, by tanawe, by Lur incir..:io, by
anantxa, by wurancinga, by wurakura and man takes place in line according to
wuran group. Dur-nr sessions 3) and 4) many men took part 25-30 men all feet
and calfs painted with urucum, bodies r'ainted in various methods, acimomion,
wakare, etc. Wuran uv:a carrie docoratel bow :an1 one .a..o. in ri ]. "k1




in left one arrow.
broke up with bird
cries were cried.

Other men, carried nothing .onikapura ended and all men
cries of wuran groups and all men went into takana and waran
Then at sundown Monikao.

*. ." .JI7YA


Men of anantxa came out of anantxa door; men of other moiety out of wurancingio
door. Each man carried an arrow by point raised in hand. '.7urancirio faced
anantxa on dance ground, dancing back and forth. Then, wiles of anantxa came
up and selected man of wurancingio and w wives selected man of anantxa and they
danced under arm. Two women could select one man as several did, and man is
flattered. Unlike monkanci on evening before woman must not give present on
next day, but when man kills pork, he must make present of same to wife of man
of other moiety who has selected him. Thus, dance has its economic implications.
At dark broke up.

Mo and bro were only ones mourning on July first. On second they left in
party to fish and were gone six days. On return, as usual, at sundown they set
to mourning. On july 14, either cried at sunset, but again fifteenth, elder
bro (Tanopao) set to mourning for about ten minutes.


Cekanbu (ancestor) went travelling far to large water. There he shot with
b and a an araya, cut spike on trail and then had intercourse with araya.
cekautu then travelled and after he left araya had children, sons of cekantu. Kxx
Then a great flood came, waist high, and his araya children came asking all Tap
who had traveled there "where is our father" cekantu came forward, joined hands
with araya and danced. Then, araya children carried him off with them, far
away, where earth ends. Araya children called cawewuranaura.


left. "Water carried anuntero away. She became ipiramwira (bota). She is
idera (yo sis) to kuriwekero (ikupuura) who became anonca"

Says that it was anuntero who saw iriwehe anc n,&. See Bk V.


According to ikoriwantori,"
In time of Karajantuwera, when there were no other Tapirape (ie Tap before
modern Tap) apuwenonu came to Tapirape. He came in night from sky to- visit.
He entered houses awakening a woman called anantero. Telling her that he would
stay. He would be her husband. By anuntero, he had a son, imanawungo. From
anuntero, evidentally taught by apuwenonu (or she has devinite supernatural
capabilities) Tap women (Karajuntuwera) learned to work with cotton and learned
to plant cotton. ((konomihera, boys name, of imanawungo, is .akhlio))
Apuwenonu stayed many years with Karajun.. They ate only banana brabo and shoots
of a tree called canauwa at this time. Apuwenonu knew hoyw to plant all garden
products, ie mandioca, corn, peanuts, banana, kara, etc. Apuwenonu called all
large birds to help him plant. Jahuru, -uribo rey, urubu, mawari, mancirare (T)
wuraone (T) pato de matto, galso branca, all worked hard and planted large
gardens. (When apuwenonu brought corn, wvakuri~would not eat it but broke the
ear throwing it on ground. Canauwa was tasty, millo was bad. Then, pato, etc
(see birds) carried millo off planting it in gardens they made. When there was
much millo from gard n of birds, Karajuntuwera began to eat millo.)

When apuwenonu became old, he left karajuntuwera climbed back into sky.and
became star. It is probably capella, or more probably aldebaran. At night when
he is in sky as he left old, but each day he is young (awauao) again.
He carried with him his son, who became star (Vega or possibly
Australis). Note: nice point that these are son of Capella or Aldebaran, for
when Vega sets in night, these two stars rise few hours later.) Anuntero also


mayao adult
txankaneo "
inantxa "
kanaema "

- male iranwui (snake)
Female campo
" (yam)

tantei Child female
ciroci "
kai "
tantu male
ewai i "

(worm that ate peanuts)



Campukwi related with help of kamuriwao and awanticantu. Related in Tap
and broken Portuguese. Name of "ciramunya" involved unknown to them, spoken of
only as ciramunya. Exact trans, gdfa, but ancestor better trans. Thus:

Ancestor's wife left to travel and ancestor, after she was gone, ltft to
find her. First night (or day) he came to spot where there was a very large
snake (mayaho). mayao caught him and wounded him in his coild, but ancestors
itotura (makawu-gavai) came and rescued him. Next day ancestor travelled on
until saw a large frog (kururu). The frog was the size of a man. Then, Kururu
said: .....

Next ancestor travelled another day and came to water where he saw a small
jucare. He spoke to the 6acare thus: awanamu ekao cirereha cipe, and the
small jacare went away saying "erowehawo ciropu, I will bring father" Then the
large jacare (txanekanio) came and said to ciramuya (Kam says it is txankanepera)
"ecun ume- tanawerahane, come here sit, I am going to carry you". Then, ancestor
sat on the back of Jacare and they went away. Ancestor came to place where there
was large mauwari (large bird). Mauwari swallowed ancestor and when jacare
came to ask about "ancestor" mauwari said that he was not here. Mauwari ate
many fish and when mauwari put his head down "ancestor escaped." Ancestor washed
and went on. Ancestor came to spot where there was wild honey (or bees) tantei
and ate much. Then, came to spot where there was much kara (or kanaema). He
carried some away and ate much. Then, to spot where there was much "inanja
or inantxa" filled his pehwra and carried much away, eating much. Then, came to



spot where there was tantu and tantu had peanuts (mundawi) but ancestor did not
eat for the peanuts were full of worms. Then, next he came to spot where there
were many ciaoci (dove) and the doves, too had peanuts. The doves were working
hard (probably removing worms) and ancestor ate and carried away many peanuts.
Then, ancestor (according to c etc ) still looking for wife came to spot where
there was a monkey kai. Asking the monkey the raod to monkey's house, this
monkey showed him many roads. Said "This trail, this trail, this trail, "etc.
Then, ancestor went on meeting a second monkey who showed him the correct road.
The second monkey then killed the first, for first money was no good. Arriving
there ancestor first saw houses, and there (campukwi) he found his wife.

Kamairaho variations

Txankanepera left on trip. Met snake mayao and was saved by makawu (ganiao).
Makawu came making noise frightening; snake which loosened coild. Story the
same, but txankanepera brought peanut, kara, inantxa, etc to Tap. for first time.
When txankanepera saw kururu sun was very hot. He sat between two very large
frogs and in their shadow.

Campukwi explained that now Tap used names taken from ciramuya travels thus:




Kamaira ask about flood story, said that no Tap survived, when ask where
present Tap came from he told story.

There were one periquito (toicungi) and one mutum, both were women. These
are Tap cicanyya (gd mo). Then, there was a jacu; Tap gdfa ciramuya. Jacu had
intercourse with both women, thus came Tapirape.

Those coming from periquito "periquito mencko" have black glossy hair,
considered beautiful, while those called "mutum" mencho have dirty hair, curly.
Yet, no connection with men's moieties, etc.

Fl I

w V P 10 1 Al

:5, 4

", is I

32, j Memo

11 W

Asy W as 7 r"r

,Wqk, -Sn", ANA '47'

xS Th
. . . . . .


Father, anatxa. Son is wurankura until
sheath stage then father is tanawe.

wurancingio-after tied hair


Tanopaotxoa- f wurancingo(a?)
anatxa-hair tied

Antonio- wurankura


1 become tanawe

f anatxa

f tanawe

wuranc inga-boy
wurancingio-tied hair

he ties up hair, pass thru penis


f anatxa
will become tanawe

Boys: wurankura

Young men with tied hair:

Ant Perr f wurancingo
will become wuranc'nrgo

anatxa-tie hair



People have names in quantity according to their status, both inherited and
acquired. Kamairaho informant. Men inherit names of gdfas he says and women
of gdmos, female line. Geneologies show that women (ie kantuowa inherited m's
sis name) that is, names run in male and female lines. For example, if there
is one son, he will inherit many names of family lines, three or four sons divide
names, During life, too man gaining in prestige may gain name, then hands on to
son gaining name for family. Also, brother may take name of brother who dies,
example Tanopaotxoa, became Kamanare, after death of Kamanare. Uses this name,
sentimental gesture.

Men have sets of names:
1) Konomihera, Kam had five
2) awauai (yo, yo man) had added two
takes on penis cover
3) awanao (yo man)
4) awaciwete (middle age) three
5) moves from amunakura to anantxa, takes new name or adult name.
6) Becomes Tan-..e, new name but retained middle age name.
Note: At death of Father Kamairaho took Kamairaho, when Kancinapio takes
over Anantxa becomes Kamairaho. (;from m's bro, since K had no male heirs and no
male bro's son.
7) became .'urancinro after Tanawe as do capitaos and took two more names
8) marikaiura oldsterr) takes new name.
This is not regular but steps 1, 2, 35, 4, 5, 5, 8, are normal.



NAMES 11-54

Children are given names by fathers and fa bro. Eor example, campukwi's
girl baby was named the same day, Kamairaho (cirikaiuri parallel cousin f b s)
suggested kucaawa and cumpukwi suggested ampewi. Child named kucaawa.

Boys then change names when penis sheath is taken on. Say Tap give next
name, but also, Kamairaho gave name to him. Girls change names when menstruation
begins. Kam and Tap give new name.


Kamaira called Campukwi "kutatanowa" (or father of small girl) said that one
miiht be called konomiowa father of boy, and women called equal. This was used
by Kamaira for several days in preference to several names of c and relation
terms, he is ciranura to Kamaira.

*mL-n are called konomiu, mother of boy, and kutatanu, mother of girl.

C was called kutatanowa in spite of fact that he has very small s on, thus,
Tap explain that he was actually konomiowa.


Came from cicutawa:
kocuwa, female, husband died, married to Taonopaotyoa (calls himself
Kamanare, the name of a bro who died in summer.)

canipu (awani) came and married ancoi, girl of about 11 yrs old of Tampiitawa.
canipu is about 45 and has married son, yet, he has new girl wife. These two
relax entangled in hammock. Ancoi has not the -lightest fear of older husband
but sleeps with arms about him. She cooks and carries water. She is on point of

Kamairai, yo bro of Kamaira, wife called marampui.

Kamaira, capitao and speaks good Brazilian, wife called kocinantu

Pantari, head chief of 6 and pantxe, wife called Taniwurayo

Camaniuma,male, kanijanmuri, wife, son cal-ed monikapuku

tamawana, fale

Many insist that have changed names but none insist like Tanopao, he refuses
to answer and always corrects this name. Has taken name of dead bro who is dead
some 4 mos now, "Kamanare" Tanopao mourned greatly the death of this bro.



Important names are those taken directly after boy passes from awauaho to
awaciwete, or when he f/ "ties his hair". There is no giving or settling of
names onto young man, although Kamairaho says that he will give that name to
Kancinapio (a great boast and great favor)> and that he will use "mukwura"
another important name in his hist. (Names have no importance for function
as among Apinage)

Usually names are taken of dead male relatives, usually on tne patrilineal
line, but on strongest side. Kamaira took name of his mo's bro who had been
killed by Caraja. He was given this name by his m others father, then alive, who
was a man of great status, capitawa. Campukwi's name came from his fa's bro
(then dead it was given to him or said that he should use that name by Kamaira.
Antonio took name anawani from dead father's brother. All Tap knew he should take
that name. Antonio was an orphan. Kamairaho took name from father, ie from
his adopter, father's extended brother. Kamance took name from brother fa'ss bro
son) who died. He took name Panceparun=, from his father who died before he
became awaciweke.

Tanopaotxoa took name from fa's bro. His yo bro took name kamanare from
fa's bro, when he died Tanopao, took on name of Kamanare. Their father was
oprunxui was taken by fa's bro's son. When he died, irt was taken by youngest
son of oprunxui, now called oprunxui.



Male calls him maeuma
Female kanciwani
Thus, each man is called a different name by all men and by all women.

Boy called kamacawai (macauba). Children have descriptive names, seemingly
male ani female.

Tamparawa female, his ife was called kocaicinga (white woman) when she
was a little girl, after menstruation she became tamparawa. Women do not have
dual names as men (adult).

male pancepui
female oprunxui
boy called wanciei

People find boys names very funny and each person has great shame in his
own. Boys names are used when one wishes to insult one calling by that name.
Great laughter when I ask anyone their boyhood name. Maenmi quickly left house
without answering; Tanopaotxoa became rather angry. Most people ask me to ask
others their own boyhood name. Names are simple, thus:

Tantu tatu

mankai manga

aneuna your tooth are-you-ipirune-dent

jankui jacu

waitie name of iriwehe

ciwie "

makawai tree

mucampu fish called in Araguay Cadcudo

toripuku white man large

NAMES konomi bera



1) Kutantai (girl)
2) kocumuko (after menstruation)
5) kucuncawete middle age
4) waiwi (old woman)

1) 3 names
2) 2 names
3) 3 names
4) 1 name

Thus, Kamairaho has 14 names, others have only four to eight.

People never mention konomi and Kutantai names
funny and will not tell them, names are descriptive
toripuku (white Brazilian large)
kororo io (sapo eats)
waiwi (girl) old woman

afterwards, find them



According to Campukwi novice takes it upon himself to become pantxe ie he
did not speak of mentor, Kamairaho siad that novice went first and arranged
with mentor pantxe.

Kam novice sits next to mentor "eating tobacco" novice and mentor smoke
all day vomitting as in cure. In nignt novice continues to neat tobacco" sleep-
ing very little. Novice is exhausted, during this time diet is limited, eats
pork, caititu, cuate, mutum (one species) jacu (large species), anakoni, yam,
chicken, farinha, pimento (peanuts??), other food forbidden. K says during
time sexual intercourse forbidden. Sometimes length of period extends over two
moons. K's period was more than one moon. Finally, during periods of sleep
voice begins to dream, first, in dream wanders about village, and then dream
travel is on level with earth. Later, he goes with mentor to cure and extracts
foreign substance from sick. Later, as he gains power in dreams, he may visit
ancunga, the suns house, etc. "Young pantxe dreams weak."

Both Kamairaho and Wantanamu were novices to Pantxe called taowu, now
dead some eight years (date approximate). He was cirikaiura (older bro) to
Kam. For knowledge, Kam paid or gave as present, facoe and more than five strings
of beads. Later, he gave taowu result of hunt for a few weeks, mutum and part
of porco, etc.

Kamairaho says that mentor retires form pantxe when novice becomes estab-
lished, yet taowu taught two novices and wis later killed by canei (ipuni).




Campukwi says novice falls in trance from smoking and lack of sleep and
jhen dreams.

Campukwi when asked why he did niot become a pantxe said that he was afraid.
"Tap. kill many pantxes." For this reason he says none of the young men of this
village care to become pantxe's. There is only one young man in village (pantxiawi)
he came here from cicutawa where campukwi says there are four young pantxes.
When it was said that Tampiitawa would be without pantxe at death of three old
ones, c said that one or two of these would come here.

Qm 14
jw- too 4sy
A y'S
4, '4, 1'- `4
Yk j Cox

xlquopfljfuj % 4. VIA
4t 0


wA, A'
p *k T; Aso,"' A f

NW= 41"NAS

I W-4

ovs, -In

'Vat fop


Advise Tap of attack of Kayapo. Men are afraid when urukurihao ( )
cries. Also, urutao ( ) kayapo will come. Also, "bloody moon."
See other notes.

Onca treed by dog and killed with s me five arrows and club.
made tne kill, called for help and many left.for spot.


ipawangi, okane, and %wanamancio killed onca.
ipawangi got back with ribs (ipuna). Wanarnarcio got leg as did. okane as
well as foreleg.

Kanacipa, head- ciricnaura (cunado) of inpaiani
tamrljngkurav'ani (cirikaiuri cousin(?) of ipwani) got foreleg.
ipicura (ciriwura ipawani) got tail
ampaoi, part of back

Others who arrived late ::ere givcn parts of skin ;ith fat and. meat attached
and internals .ere rapidly divided amount them. Not one small piece of onca
was ltft undivided. Dogs were given only bloo.i ,n l very small p-rty of entrails.
Straw was stuck up nostrils of rine .og so h, ',ulJ sneeze while &nmellinp onca
blood, thus he would henceforth know once and hunt such. Each man carrie:- his
part back to village since division was m-,de on spot of kill.




There was a father and mother and their son, mukwuri. One day the fa set
out on a trip and later mother wanted to follow. So she asked mucwuri the direc-
tion father went. Mucwuri lied and went with her in different direction. The
mother asked several times "where is father." But after several times she was
bitten by forigon (large venamous ant) and no longer talked. Then that night
mucwuri copulated with his mother and she conceived two infants, one mucwuri
(Tapirape) and the other Tori (Xristao). Mucwuri returned and the woman went
on, one night she came to a spot in the forest where she saw many ancungaaiuma,
these ancunga have no eyes and are white, they dance as blind do, hitting trees
and stumps. They have large pot always full of boiling water. Then, ancungha
aiuma ask the mother to dance with them and as she did she fell into the pot of
boiling water and died. She was eaten then by the ancunga.

Before she died the two twins popped out and were born. Then, the ancunga
sent them out to kill inamo (forest fowl) or jacu. They made a large circle
and came upon some very large jacu. They were ready to kill the jacu, wuen the
jacu said "Wait, do not kill, the ancunga aiuma killed your mother" Then, the
jacu told them to leave the ancunga dance and kill them. Mucwuri and Tori returned
and when they ask the ancunga to dance and when they did the ancunga fell into the
pot and were killed.

Before they died, Tori and Mukwuri each pulled off a leg from an ancunga
and carried it away with them. They then set out to find their father-whose
direction the jaca told them. Direction taken shown to NE. As they travelled the



earth became hot, so Tori cut off wood from trees tying it to his feet as shoes.
And, as they traveled he used the ancunga foot (leg) as a rifle (firearm).
(Soon mucwuri, Tapirape ciramuya (ancestor) became tired and returned. Tori
went on never returning-)??

Other version, both mucwuri and Tomatociori were Xristao tamuya. One
travelled far toward north and another toward SE. Thus, these are two different
Tori or Xristao, both have ancunga legs used for firearms. They have iron
(itaxoa) because they dug into a hill with their hands extracting itanxoa.
Tapirape have bow and arrow, for one day they Tap. were offered bow and arrow
which they took and killed game, while Tavi accepted firearm.
Tomatociri left to travel far to northeast where earth ends and water begins.
His son mukwura copulated with T's wife, his own mother, who was already pregnant.
Wife went travelling to reach husband. Mukwura left, direction to SE where he
now has his house.

Wife met in forest ancunga aiuma, who ask her to dance pushing her into
large boiling pot and eating her. But before she died the two twins were born,
called Tomatociri, son of Tomatociri, and mukwuraura, son of mukwura. Twins
stayed with ancunga. They grew larger and larger. Ancunga sent them hunting
each day to kill inamo (azalona). One day while hunting inamo, they were sent
by the anc nga aiume, they came upon some Jacu, very large Jacu as tall as men.



Two twins are mucwuri and tomatociri, both left and never returned. One
says "horse" carried off tomatociri. Emphasized that 'the brothers cried much
for mother whom ancunga ate. The fathers name was evidentally cna.pul:u-.,cra.
Said that tomatociri was konomi pantxe.


Tomatociri was ready to shoot with bow and arrow when jacu spoke said "Wait
don't shoot. Put your arrows aside and come near." The twins did so. Then,
Jacu explained how their mother had been eaten and killed by the way by the
ancunga. The twins were angry and sad and cried. (Emphasized that they cried
and were very angry). They gathered wood and asked anc~na to dance. Since the
ancunga were blind they pushed them inside the boiling pot killing them. Then,
the twins clubbed to death the moninkaca (jaguertirica) which the ancunga has as
pets. Then, the twins set out on the long journey to see TomAtociri. (Incident-
ally, tokaiura older bro is Tomatociri and takawura yo. bro is mukwuraura
and they are referred often as such.)

Arriving there tokaiura saw a bow and arrow very beautifully feathered and
strung, both liked it, but tokaiura (being elder bro) took it and shot a bohoreno
(cow) (probably cow for my benefit) the cow was wounded and ran far before dying.
Then, tawura yo. bro. took up a rifle, not so beautiful and shot nearby-anta
(tapir, tampiira) which did not run but died on the spot. Then, tokaiura demanded
the rifle but tawura (yo bro mukwuraura) refused and Tomatociri said no they
should each keep what they had. Tomatociri II returned to Tapirape,thus Tap
have bow and arrow and mukwuraura went south to visit his father, mukwura, where
he stayed with Tori.

Above is Kamairaho version. Twins were very beautiful. Tomatociri had
white skin and Was nude, m,.T.0vuraura had ipion skin (blue or black) and was



Tanipuku- Age 8. Has gone about with his head clipped short for whole
year. Not because of mourning. "Orphans must cut off hair. They have no one
to pick out lice. They have no palm oil. They have no one to comb it." This,
however, spends upon who takes care of them. For example, caiya (age 11) who is
taken care of by his older brother, Kamuri:,ai,is well taken care of. Wears
his hair long. Most others do, but are without exception dirty, and ill kept.

Uwuraimipera=world below the earth.

"Tapirape do no see it, Pantxe's do not see it (in dreams) only gdfathers
told us of it". It is inhabited by Tapirape who live as they do here, having
children, dogs, chickens, but leading an ideal life. They do not die and "see
many (as hairs on head) rains." Lack mosquitos, sickness and plagues of this
place. But of course lack beads, facols, and machados for they do not need to
plant rocas, but no one knows where, what, and how they eat. No after life, only
ideal life.

In sky live other Tapirape but these were Tapirape from the earth who went
there. Only a few always speak of wancina, there they have large gardens and
much fumo for pantxe's see them in dreaming.

Pantxe iunwera live in house near maraba (maraba is Tupi name) called
maratawa by Tapirape. If not killed with pao go there, but if torn up by pao go
west to uwuto wa (winds house), where earth ends to west. Wind always blows west
and Nwest say Tapirape and there in west is its house.