Field Notes - K, L, 1939-1940


Material Information

Field Notes - K, L, 1939-1940
Series Title:
Tapirape Project Files
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Wagley, Charles
Charles Wagley ( donor )
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Box: 5
Folder: Field Notes - K, L, 1939-1940


Subjects / Keywords:
Anthropology--United States--History
Galvao, Eduardo Eneas
Gurupa (Para, Brazil)--Photographs
Indians of South America--Brazil
Tapirape Indians
Tapirape Indians--Photographs


General Note:
Folder 8

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:

Full Text

[Lv ey.


11 M..

tki; I..



See Bk I

When guariba come to house to drink kawio, at dance of kauwio, they
attack young women of house and are beaten off by hard blows until they die or
knocked down. Then, women give them kawio to drink (which they spit out).
Tapirape say if guariba gets women, grabs her around waist "blood will flow"
or she will have menstruation, thus dangerous for very young women not yet
menstruating. Say that guariba caught mutai, yo. woman of 25-28, and that day
she menstruated. Thus, symbollically the guariba impersonated by men are cause
of women's menstruation.


Kam is ciramuya (gd fa) of Kamuriwangantu, but extended, canuya of Kamuriwan
was sister of (kucan) of Kamairaho. Thus he can fit himself as ciramuya thus:


When pantxes made circuit of village calling Thunder, ancunga of campankanio
comes to sit upon the back of their necks, not linrerous, but makes them lean
over as if they would fall.


Han 12 in afternoon singing circuits of village began, several men took
part but smoking little. Pancei sang different song ostensibly to bring many
fish, or asking Thunder to bring fish. He sang See text.


Young boys were playing in early evening in plaza, they danced as do
iri'' trInecmg:t, ia, etc, danced in circle as do Tap men after wura groups eat
honey in plaza, Kayapo ~Cngs.

Several youngsters then began to whirl and stumble, as if they had been
smoking and shouting hu hu, as do pantxes in house when they call Thunder.
Kamairaho came out hurriedly when boys began this and shouted for them to stop.
Said that Thunder would be angry, possibly strike down one of the boys or be
vengeful for the Pantxes.

Meaning of word not known but used by Tapirape as verb. Say ane akaona,
are you going to sing kao.

First night of Kao was not said to belong to any wura group. Secondinight
said "Tonite Tanawe akao". In late evening men of Tanawe sweep dance ground and
brought firewood to last the night out. Antonio and cane of Tanawe sang most of
duets and were center of singing. Ideally they should keep singing going all
night but there are so few Tanawe (Tanawe are old and lazy. They will sleep.
Anantxa will sing all night) that anantxa took over singing for them.

Songs, dance, and arrangement for kao is same as for kawaowo except for circu-
lar dancing which introduces kawaowo in early evening. Arrangement of moieties

Second night of kao is >.w-Lr1cui:o.
Third night is anantxa.
Fourth night is wurancingio.
Then, Tanawe again, etc.



KAO __V_ ^ VI-1355

Kao is a season ie ka, garden; o, augmentive. Thus, full (or large g-irens).
Begins with stars called eecu slightly veering to west in east to west orbit
(Oct to first days of May) in thus about Feb. it begins and ends with kawio when
eecu falls in May, when dry season begins. This correspons with harvest of
gardens. By Feb, new corn, by March, peanuts, pumpkins, mandioca manso, beans,
and bananas. "Tapirape have much to eat, they are happy and they n-."


Kao dance of May 20, danced for about twenty days, mostly at night. See
description of last day and ni ht. On last night, early in m-rnri-i (about 2 to
3 am) com-s feast. Eaten principally by men. Women cook all day before, and
dance proceeds eating. Takes place inside takana. See Diagram.

Thus, men are divided and seated in takana for eating. Wives of anatxa and
tanawe and wives of wurancingio and wurar;.cinigo prepare food. Mothers of two
younger goups bring food to them. But, wurancingio eats food prepared by wives
of anatxa, and vice versa. Wurancingo food prepared by wives of tanawe, and
vice versa. Wurankura and wur.ncing:- exchange food. Companion age groups also
move from their eating place to 6ther, thus, anatxa moved to place of wur-n-cinLio
and wurancingio moves back, eating own wives food, etc.


Water covers campo, eecu overhead. One night the takana is burned to the
ground, in the following days, a new structure is set up. The day it is finished
youngerts to become next age grade like in hammocks in new takana. Fathers
bring penis sheath and tie up penis. Mothers bring kaui to them to drink.
Remain in hammock all day and all night. Then, bh.- ns on next day a two day
sing and dance.

Now the takana contains awawacunga. Two dancers who dance most of the
night, sleep in day. When this ends, two dancers will dance ia. Ia does not
come until there is tall corn (?) also, at this time trumai (says live to west).

awawacunga, iriwancunga, ia, trumai, awanai, tantenio, xavwanamu, avao,
kawawo, iracao, all come to dance in takana. Others ancungza kao, xawanamu,
awawo, mararuwunga

awanai, thief, steals corn and burti, steals almost all burti.

Rains end and ancungwewungya come to live in takana (Traca, iran wure,
jankui, tantu, moro). Tains begin kao come to live in takana. Thus two different
sets of dancers.


Dance which comes in about Nov. or Dec. (when corn is about 2 feet high).
Danced and sung at night after sundown and by all men, women, and children.
Says for some 20 days.

KAUI 111-89

Food drink, prob. lit k-ao, to eat, i diminuitive.

Made from varied foods, generally in same manner (see notes Bk II for
thorough description of mandiakawu or kaui made from mand-ako called manri' i a)

1) awancikuru (note suffix u is water) mad*- from "new corn" or awancikura.
Grated with grator, then cooked, very simple.

2) tantanu, made from "banana de terra" and from "jacubina", called
"abaemakumae" and "abaeiumae". Bananas placed in pot whole with water cooked
until very soft. Then, passed thru uropema (sieve) by pressirn- with hands, more
water added and boil for added half hour.

5) awanci umeu, made from old c rn, ie dried corn. Corn is heated dry in pot
over fire, crushed in "pilon", passed thru sieve uropema, water added in proportion.
Water three times amount of corn in apnrox. cooked about 3-4 hours. Allowed to
cool. Then, woman takes spoon gourd, passes all kaui in mouth masticating and
spitting it back into other pot. Pronto to eat.

4) nunowiu, made from peanuts (munowi) and from ..niig kuwa. Mandioca
soaked in water then left several days in hot sun until dry, pasted thru
uropema as do to make farinha, peanuts, shelled, and crushed in "pilon". Water,
peanuts, mandioca placed in pot at once and cooked, 2-5 hours. May or may not

be passed thru mouth as above kaui.




KAUI 111-91

5) tapianka u, made from tapioca dust of farinha, water added and cooked.

6) amunco, made from cotton seed (amunco, cotton; ahunga, seed;
u, water). Cotton seeds soften by cooking in water, crushed in pilon, juice
squeezed out with hands into large pot. Mandioca passed thru sieve into pot with
added water and cooked. be passed thru mouth and spit into other pot to be
palatable, without this process kaui's nos. 3 and 6 are not considered "good."

mandiakawa, make kaui

Campukwi left at dawn to bring mandiakowa from roca. There he cut off ends
with facoe and cleaned it somewhat, cutting off roots.

mandiaga mandiocaa) make farinha.
uwee--grater for mandioca See Drawing

Same morning wife wished mandiakawa in stream. (Also carry water to wash
it.) Does not soak. Wife placed grater across large pot (txaeona) holding
mandiakawa long ways grated it across grater length wise. Juice and small
particles falling into pot. Took nine rather l-r:c mandiakawa to fill pot. Do
not peel mandiakawa. Throw off ends as it nears fin ers.

Vi'hen pot is full, juice is about a third to half of pot. Mandiakawa carries
much water, wife then takes some solid material moving it to another pot leaving
water (juice) in first pot. Then, grates more mandiakawa moving solid to other
pot leaving juice in first as before.

Then grating is finished, juice is squeezed out of material with hand.
Point hand forward, s ueeze material between palms. (Called atuami, s lueezing.)
Solid material is thrown out, cast aside in balls on banana leaf.



At night at end of kauiho "to-morrow we throw out kaui and it ends. Kauiho
is made by kucamoku. It is served to Tap by kucancawete. To ancunga it was
kucanmoku who brought out kaui to them.

Capitao remains in house and capitao wandu (capitao's wife) takes kauiho
to him to drink. For example, Kantuowa takes kaui to UriLkmui to drink. He is
marancukanera, he drinks three (probably three cups? Then, he vomits." Alfredo
(for example) comes to house of Kamairaho (where anantxa kauiho is made and kept)
and asks for kauiho. "He is not capitao, he drinks two" (in amount or number)
Canei drinks three, he is killer" Next day men who drank of kaui are given
presents by capitao. Alfredo may take facoe, canei may take arara. Xamaniuma
may take beads. These capitao distribfites. "Woman capitao gives rede, peanuts,
palm oil, urucu, or string." Kamairaho said no! Domingo (ipawungi) would not
take away present "he is ciantuwahawa." Hio! Kanciwanio would not take present
"he is bro-in-law" No! Urukumu would not, he is capitao "he is brother".

Only men and few women drink kauiho. Capitao only spits it out. Said that
"young capitao puts it in mouth and spits it out. h'..i (urukumu's son) and
wanampio (pancei's son) and ampitaya (Kam da) take "kauiho menter" take it in
mouth and spit it out.



Wurauwa announces that Tapirape should go after buruti in preparation for
kauiho. All men, boys go bringing buruti back, enter village si;: i- l and giving
wura cries. Entering takana after making circle of village, then, wurauwa leads
group into takana, leading ancunga apuranopu into takana. Next day Canoo come.

Note: "Ancunga apuranopu come to takana when Tap bring buruti and before
they have kauiho."

Buruti is hidden in matto near village. Next morning before daylight all
men and boys arise and go to spot in matto. There buruti masks are made.
Kocunmoku begins to make kauiho in anantxa and wurancingio houses. "Kocunmoku
brings water, puts it in large ot. Then, she pounds small amount of corn in
pilon; kauiho is cooked little. Then, women walk up and down behind pot of
kauiho and sing ewa ie hewa ie. Men hear her sing and know that kauiho is ready.
About 9 am, then, men enter aldea as canoo (ema). There is one "father" (ie
large one). It has beads on headdress and large arara penna, it carries a
decorated bow. There are many others. Konomi have small buruti masks and all
men have buruti (masks). Enter village crying hu hu leg by wurauwa who is
principal cano. Group makes circuit of takana several times then on dance
ground. V.uraua wheels and all stop. Then, kocumuku comes from each side house
carrying kauiho and all cano drink of it. After all have drunk, the cano enter
takana and buruti is removed. About midday, then men dance kauiho acimonawa.
Men then w rk on urukuriha are masks for paranke, tacio, pirarara, etc. Follow
two nights of kao, then, all ancunga come to drink of kaui4nVI' have night feast




of kauiho pecunawa and next day guariba come to drink and ends.

Various notes: tzcio (mosquito) dances up to house at end of plaza and
turns and runs. Kocunmoku runs after tacio catching it by buruti brinmin it
back to drink of kauiho.

:-aeuma said "at night Tap are very hungry. Ancunga are very hungry and
ancunga diink of kauiho. Tap are not really with hunger.", Says ancunga aparunopu
come "they eat beiju" This always means that men's wura groups eat of food.
7'omen being food to takana ie at this time beiju.

At kauiho. Ancimunawa (when dance in line as we saw in 'y 199) men dance
in line to -r:ncingio house around kauiho, then to anantxa house and around
kauiho then backntotplane in front of takana.

Campukwi explains drinking of kauiho. Formerly manino (now dead) was
carrier of kauiho. He would leave house at night, he was followed by kocunmoku
carrying kauiho. He goes to house of capitao. He sings:
See text

Note: in/ singing always give (h) aspiration at bginn-;i!:,- of word with
initial vowel.

Says that killer is afraid. He comes to drink. Explained that if killer
did not come tu drink that in time of g'- f "Tap would have killed a killer that
did not drink kauiho". Killer vomits blood of pantxe, it is white. Seeming
over year collects only in killer but dangerous to him and to all Tap.

Then manino goes to house of capitao and calls him to drink kauiho. Capitao
comes and takes kauiho in mouth but spits it out. Then, another Tap may come
and drink of kauiho truly until he vomits, maybe several. It is these people who
drink of kauiho thus (who ) to whom capital must give gifts next : .
Manino offered Kauiho to jawopikawta (who is not real man of importance nor
capitao) j only to drink. Campukwi came and drank of kaui and next day
jawapi gave c three strings of beads. Other year c was offered and several
Tap drank of that offered him. He had been to Araguaya and gave them facoe,
beads and an axe. Women drink of kauiho and gifts are given to women, Kantuowa
says she gave rede, palm oil, and urucu two years ago.





Now Carrpukv.i says that Tapirape "are miserable" ankantauma (stingy) that
do not like to have drinking of kauiho, this year did not have exchr-nne of
kauiho. Yet "killers" drank kauiho, have passed years without drinking.


in, dance step slow catch step almost waltz time. Women --thered
around circle and sang with men. After several hours anantxa line up, facing
south and wurancingio facing north, behind each group gathered their women, thus:
Dance was much faster and snrigs
changed slightly. Danced all
night. At dawn many more
joined and sin-ingr and dancing
became lively. Ended at dawn.

During singing refrain is
carried by two men in duet of
one moiety. Other men of same
moiety take up refrain repeating
it joined by women. Then, two men of other moiety introduce another song with
duet and are accompanied in refrain by other moiety. Men of duet dance ciolently
while singing after passing on duet to other moiety dance easily resting. Specific
songs must be sung by men of moiety A and moiety W. have songs only sn'- by them.

Ideally Kawaowo takes place thus for three nights, people decorate and men
wear feathers tied to hair (town back) (anantxa, carnet tail feathers; wurancingio,
arara wing feathers) and all sing. On fourth ni ht KAO begins. Kao lasts until
end of rains with dancing and sin-inri each night.



KA'/.AOWO VI-121

This year Tapirape performed all these ceremonies with horrid laxity.
Aioanai was not performed at all because of death of woman. Iracaho was sung
several evenings in takana and buruto masks were never made because, said several,
"Tapirape women are lazy and will not make string to make Iracaho or Tantenio."
Also, no one took leadership to begin masks, has been several years since they had
Tantenio or macowa. Did not perform ceremonial tying of corn to rafters "kawi
ecung awa".

One evening singing began in takana, Kamaira said it was Kawaowo s ngi but
"false." It was Ant Perrera and kioriwantori with group of boys singing, the
group grew. Juliao, etc begin to join in. By time, men left takana and danced
in circle there were about ten men. Kamairaho siad it was a "lie" that Tapirape
did not yet have mancaho. No women came to sing wiile men danced in circle, but
by this ti.i-e, Kamaira agreed that Tapirape would not have irancaho or Tinrit.-nio.
Women joined and sion went on all night. Next day Kamairaho was angry because
celebration of Kawaowo was done without .rnin., and so laxily. T:ie, explained that
Tapirape were lazy; that young men did not care any more. That, now they would
go into Kao without three days of Kawaowo as they should. Kamairaho siad that
"fathers dies and sons don't care, they are all lazy." Then, remembered when
Tapirape had ceremonies all the time. "There were many Tapirape."


There are a pair of these, or should be. Tapirape say that Tantenio is
urokuku (large snake, surikoko) and, also call Caraja iunwera, and said to be
ancestor of Karaja. Thus, represents the large snake which Tapirape represent
as ancestor of Caraja. One Tap. said that sukokuku was Caraja tamuya because it
only eats fish, as Karaja do.

'.Tonik Thaya
Later during Kao, for Kao is sung every night for about three months, Feb,
March, and AprilX, and part of May. Monikauya is sing during day.

During this .ins, say Tapirape:
1) xawanamu (ancestor's travels and his being eaten)
2) awaokawawa ) ikorapeto does not know story, says they are ancestors
3) maorawaya

During this day ceremony sing
1) xawanamu
2) mankancu, son of xawanamu
5) mankapura


When awanai has ended, Tapirape go again (usually) to campo after returning
men make mask for Irancoho. At same time tantenio ( a pair) come, also, macowa
(a pair).

Time: after awanai and at same time or after ancunga ampukaiya or ampampam
arrived from campo with pork.

Description, thus: In early morning Iracaho dances. There are two. They
dance in front of each house ana women dance around them as they diL around iranca.
Then, sun here, (about midday) Tantenio comes. There are two. They do not sirg
but cry out. They go around village and women have fear of them. In afternoon
Tantenio go into takana and men (of %.uraiinc rio and .inantxa) come out of takana
in line singing. They go in line from house to house. At each house, they tie
several ears of corn to raftwes. This is called kauiecungawa (Seems to herald time
of old corn. Then, women bring kani and corn (on ears) to door of takana and
wuru groups eat. Until sundown then, Iracaho dances. Next day Iracaho and
Tantenio leave; they stay only one day. (Before this, however, irancaho has been
sung inside takana for a few days, see VI-78) Only make appearance on one day.
Tantenio cries come out of takana but only appears for one day.

After sundown, Kawaowo begins. Men gather in front of anantxa door dancing
for half hour. Song not yet in text. Led by Ant. P. and ikoriwantori. Then,
men came out of takana to takana uwera and danced in circle, anantxa and wurancingio



Kaio (or Gariba) at end of Kao shout to women Ceropu ompia nuro wa,
my fathers testicles will enter you.


Campukwi said that Caranja ona wandered on Chavante side of Eio Tap. 0
Distinguished from Kayapo to north because paint bodies entirely with jenipapo.
Have not been seen in years, father of Wantanamu saw these. Tapirape saw their
fire smoke and then man slip up in night to watch. (Must have been 50-60 yrs
ago) called Kayapo Rrito.


Man who kills called maratxuka nera.

Living today there are:
Kamaira killed Pancewani, fa of Kontuowa, Kanioi, and kancinapio.
Wantanamu (recently died) killed father of io-iwjunjgi, because his brother
a very important capitao died.
Canei killed Domingo's ,dfa and fa of anei.
Xamaniuma, panceawi, urukumu, and Pancei (killed woman pantxe called
Before Fe'-irico came a group of Tori (Domingo says Sao Paulo, Ant Perr,
etc) came and left colds. Many Tap died until Pancei killed tne kucunmantxe
(or woman pantxe) then all stop. d.
Maracukanera, killer of Pantxe. After killing, only he must be scratched
and only he paints completely black "acimomion". Other informant said all.
Then, like other Informant says that each one should drink kawio until vomitting,
he vomits blood of Pantxe he has killed.

9 XPL.
^F~ C A~tD


,^ ^^/1A^--




See VI-12

cecoo, peraraicu


tampankanti, (ancunga anantxa
says "porco crear"
txankane (txankare) jacare

pukao (pombo)

ananua perarara









Above come (in dance mask to drink of

Tanopao says that those ancunga
left blank do not belong to wura, yet
all others (see VI-12) have or belong
to wura.





People to north and est. Tap say they do not know metal tools, laugh and
say that "they cut roca with rocks." Steal in late years from roca of people of
cicutawa. Some years ago, Tap captured woman of Kopi, she lived as wife of Tap
in Mankutawa. Captured her because she alone was in village. She shot all
arrows she could find. Then, Tap men came in and carried her off. ... was in
village of Kopi alone. (All this vague.)

(The boys of village)

Group of boys were playing. They were imitating their elders; they were
calling thunder. They went up and down, behind village saying ho ho ho as do
the men when the wet season begins.

Petura: Pee cipa pekanawana nereha ui
thunder are calling

Konomiwera: u kanawana werika
yes thunder dall

Petura: wu epengu coiaamo tahamace kwampawamo aka
you frog will go

He said that konomiwera would now be frogs (coi anamiwaewa) and now they
live on campo and can be heard calling Thunder ko ko ko, the noise of frogs.


A "-j-


4i, A 2 NNW
440 ma

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15 F.r
I N't


LIP PIFRCIUCG newborn 11-87
Campuk .i's child was male so in early morning it was taken to house of
urukumn, --hose wife pierced lip with crochet needle. String was tied in loop
thru hole. No ceremony whatsoever to this. C said th-at usually he would have
to p-y about 5" to 7" of beads, or facoe for this, but urukumu's wife asked