Field Notes - H, I, J, 1939-1940


Material Information

Field Notes - H, I, J, 1939-1940
Series Title:
Tapirape Project Files
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Wagley, Charles
Charles Wagley ( donor )
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Box: 5
Folder: Field Notes - H, I, J, 1939-1940


Subjects / Keywords:
Anthropology--United States--History
Galvao, Eduardo Eneas
Gurupa (Para, Brazil)--Photographs
Indians of South America--Brazil
Tapirape Indians
Tapirape Indians--Photographs


General Note:
Folder 7

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:

Full Text

.40 ... -1. 'z .

KL_- TL zv


wi. L '~

r' 47 .
ok z

Ce r'o h- ieA

aceakunctancin, to tie up hair

Initiate wears headdress of arara feathers with buruti base. Arara feathers
around arms anrd lega, and feather down on body. Face painted with jenipapo in
manner of drea at funeral according to description. Initiate wears stone lip
plug. Comes after harvest of maize, probably in Jan to '.Irch.


After many days of monikahuya (see VII-5) day is fixed to tie hair of
novice. Early on morning of day, his father, or mis bro, f'= bro who sponsors
him, takes material for decoration to men's house. He wears over trunk and over
hair "down" of white vulture (wura hawa) or pato, stripe over forearm. Legs
are painted to salvs with urukum. Must have new cpampu. Bird down over upper
arm. Above urukum on calf of leg. Line of down down chest to leg and back to
leg. Tied to cipampu (wrist o nament) are str-ng ornaments about 3'long. Tied
around head string colored with urukum, hanging down back much string, face,
forners of eyes with urukum, fine of jenipapo un-ier mouth and over mouth.
SEE Masterpiece of Art p. 45

Ornaments are worn by novice thru whole afternoon of monikahuya, he emerges
last from takana, cnces in tail end of circle of line which is led by wuranuwa
(capitao of wurangroup) at night he dances kao and sings, Next day, he is man,
takes off ornaments. Kamairaho says that when kancinapio ties hair this year
that wanapio will dance with headdress, not necessary but strengthens wanapio*s
status and makes dance more beautiful.

When Tap have more that one young man to tie hair, one dances at Lime, trien,
wait four or five dis and second dance ornamented to end. When finished
monikahuya ends. This is evident high point, if not hi -Vh.t, one of nigh points
of life, campukwi said he had already gone thru this and l-.u-1i: and said "now I
can die. I shall never again be beautiful." That is all big decorations are for
boys, youngsters, and high point of decoration is tying of hair. "Then, one
married, and then on(- works har-. One has children; one is old" laughing.



According to M.anuel Bererha, old Caraja at Furo de Pedra, old Caraja now
dead said that Tap (one band) dame from north. They lived not on '..:,cuaya but
in matto back from .r-aguaya. One settlement was said to have been in matto
back (on west bank) from Lago Grande, 10 leagues below Furo de Pedra. Tap
moved from north where th-;e had fought with Kayapo and with Karaja of Xambioa.
Caraja tell 6f story of these Tap. Three Kayapo came meeting Tapirape who were
fishing with ci.m~po. Tap killed two K~.L'o but one escaped. He came back to
village near Lago Grande bri: :in.' warriors of Kayapo, killed many Tap, Tap then
moved wouth back of what is now Furo do Pedra. Caraja s-id that oldsters knew
where site of Old Tap aldea is but do not know. now. Say it is near Pe de Serra.
About this time Tapirppe went across Araguaya to stay a while. Says a short
time with Javahe (Karaja call the icundo, Tap call the iriweho) Says stayed
one rainy season or about one year. Foa. ht with Javahe and came fl. 1-i., back
and went inside say Karaja. Tap say that kept up contact for several years.
This last within the memory of an old Caraja now dead not within memory of
Behura, contact with iriwehe within memory of mother of Kocinantu who remembers
Javahe coming to village. This wandering group of Tap is undoubtedly those of
Tampiitawa for Kamairaho explains that it was toese who came from ,[*-:. .-uaya to
make village near Porto Velho on Rio Tapirape, who then moved into present
Tap territory from there and found// village of monkutawa alr',. established
and forcing them to move farther back north. Fror situation of Tap (from
culture) and from information given by Tap and by Caraja clear that at least one
group of Tap came from North. Possibly in two streams, one group along araguaya,
and others SW on far side of serras which are border Ara e -, back some 5-10 leagues.



Graves from last gight are within 1 kilometer NW on path from Sao Domingo.
Numbers of dead over 20 as shown by graves.

Tapirape tell that Caraja hid in matto nearby and came out in tremendous
numbers after two Caraja had traded them out of their arrows. These facts
checked by both Tap and Caraja.

Tap tell of one Kanciwanio who excaped from Caraja. He ran across campo
far to north making a circle returning to hide, watched Caraja dance and sing
far into night after battle. Each two danced in pairs sn.i; hiece hiece hiece.
This was remembered by K who incorporated what he saw into a song of iraca.
This was checked by Behura who was there. He was about 20 yrs old and is now
above 60.

HOUSE 11-24

See Diagram.

'.ancoi and oprunxui brought small poles for sides and roof, ipawani and
cur.m carried large poles, cross beams.

Each of these roofed the ;u- rter indicated. ITo. each uses quarter which
he roofed.





In household, small girl of some eight years old was pounding mandioca
into farinha while older women were lying in hammocks. In one household there
are five fires each cooking. Each couple and children have separate fire and
eat separately.
See Drawing

marikantu, small girl of about 8 or 9 yrs, far from adolescence, cooks for
oprunxui and is his wife. He says that as yet he hasnt had intercourse with
her. She pounds farinha, cooks, carries water, "works hard".

maracoa, also about same, da of amoa, wife of ipawani, fa of girl died,
works for ipawani and cooks some for antonio.


On breakup of marriage says c woman would keep baskets (work done by men but
given directly to women); clay pots, work done by women,and all cooking utensils.
Man would take largest hammock, providing family had two. Woman makes hammock
but gives rede a man. Of only one hammock, woman keeps it.

String, property of women, cotton planted, picked and spun by women. Pea-
nuts planted and harvested by women, thus property. .Other food, property of
man while in garden, harvested and brought home becomes property of women,
example, man owns garden with mandioca, harvests mandioca, soakes it and gives
it to wife who makes farinha, becomes hours, if marriage breaks with food on
hand, food in house is that of wife. Bananas, doubtful, seem to be husbands,
although man leaves harvested bananas when he leaves. Uruku given to women.

Man owns- bow and arrow, feathers, club, facoe, axe, etc and takes them
away with him.

House ownership, said to belong to men but on breakup of marriage man
leaves, because household group is matrilocal. Head, wi's fa fa'ss bro, etc)
or elder relative of wife. Probably house ownership lies in head.



Kamairaho explained clearly house belongs to women. \'.hcn ampityana is a
year ot two older, Kantuowa, wife and mother, will go and speak to young
man or young man's fa, and he (yo man) will come to live in mo in law household.
Thus, K will gain a son in law. He will, he says, in turn lose Kancinapio.
Formerly, household was made of sisters and husb. Still maneri and other old
woman are still ostensibly heads or owners of households, at least female
relatives surround them. Under present disrupted house conditions with matri-
locality broken up, Kamairaho's sister's son which he takes care of will probably
bring wife to strengthen house of K.


Kamairai killed cartitu.
Panceparunga. Took #entrails
they were companions on hunt.
(m's bro) to Kananai, and has

Gave head to Ant. Perrara and foreleg to
and back for himself. Two above men given for
Back halves both given to Pancei, he is itotura
treated his wife during illness.



(See Bk IV Dec 24 p. 41)
Hunting in forest, it suddenly began to rain while sun was shining. Kamairaho
immediately announced that Tapirape had killed wild pork. After Tapirape kill
pork, Kanawana is angry and it rains while sun is shining. It may thunder and
lightening, as it did on December 28 when they had killed pork.

U' ITITG 11-6
Iawa (Domingo) Une has been on several one day hunts. Res ults:
1) Idn ry, 2 jacu 2) 2 cuati, 2 jacu 5) wife made farinha for three days,
then ipawani and wife left, one day travel to West to hunt wild pig. ipawani
owns dog which hunts pig, cuate, monkey, caititu (peccary). Dog valuable and
envyed by others. Ipawani talks incessantly about hunting and hunts more than
all others.


Report came about noon that wild pork had been seen, almost all ye ung men
in village set out on the run. Late in aft several came limping back tired.
Others came back loaded, they had killed 12 porkers, ipawai killed 2, kancinapio
(very young) 2, mancoi killed 2, kamuriwai 1, Ran for some four hours after
herd to hills to SE about 3 leagues then thick underbrush. Porkers killed one
dog and charged group. Those here who returned were given entrails and head,
Urukumu and Pancei received halves, Kamairaho took all of Kancionapio (sis son)
who he is presenting to society.


Today (March 13) some ten younger men, Tanopao, Ant p, xawparreumi,
Tapiri, etc went to foot of morro called T..*.'i- ..i to hunt porker. Carried
farinha for four or five *v.'s.


With heavy rains wild pork are still numerous. This month, Kancinapio and
Okane killed two and one porkers. Kamaira killed one. Domingo. (ips ungi)
and alfredo killed two and one, Canei killed three, Tampiri one, Tanopao two,
Kamairai.killed one, each separate expedition, yet most people are sick and
hunting is comparatively rare.



Man killed caititu, division to following relatives:

1) cikaiu.ra, older bro
2) ciwvura, yo bro
3) citotura, m bro
4) ciramuia, gd fa
5) canua, gd mo
6) cirikaiwiana, si son (her meniha)

Dont know exact proportions. All seem to occu-''y tn,- s ime horuie.


Houses in temporary village, alike village houses but more hastily built
and smaller, no order seen since no takana. Households of village built house
in semi-permanent camp village together, sometimes iciicli:ig such a/ person
as Kanciwanio whose household is only two families in that of much larger group
temporarily. Semi-permanent camp on near campo used two years, then, compo
fire destroyed all houses, will be rebuilt.

In temporary camps for hunting or fi:-i.!g, used for few nightsE (but people
return to same spot year after year because of water supply and accustomed
spot) each family may construct only a shelter of banana brabo, or may only tie
hammock between trees. Camp breaks up into groups. Irius, Kamairaho camped
with family, Kamuriwaoi kakcinagio anA wife and Ant (without wife) other
group separated by about 15 yards of young men without wives (campukwi, oprinxui,
kauniwungi, okame (younger)) other group Kanciwanio, At Perr, and wives, etc,
etc. Temporary shelter.

See drawing

On Feb 8, Kamaira announced before "Kao" singing that women should make
farinha pounded it on next day. He spoke from inside takana. Next day all
houses were busy, all women were working pounding farinha from early morning until
late evening, on Feb 9.

On Feb 10 about milday Kamaira announced from takana that Tapirape should
leave. He left with group of 10 about 2pm. From then, until dark men were
leaving. About 4 pm heavy rain fell and after rain group of youths and yo. men
campukwi, irawu, kamuriwai, and kauiewungi returned, to leave next morning
early. They took advantage of one night in village to steal wives of men already

All men left except ikoriwantori, Panceui, tamanikwawa, kamairaho, Per.
ampaoi, who were able. Urukumu unable because of boils, oprunxui with infected
foot. ampaoi and ikoriwantori did not have woman to make farinha for them.
Others stayed for protection of women (possibly?)

Women complained that they had only small hammocks. "All men took large
hammocks." They made group expeditions to gardens (8-15 together) to bring maize
to eat. Women of Pancei house, where there were no men and only three women,
moved to sleep in Domingo's house. Xawapareumis wife slept in Kamairaho's house,
taking her mother. oAumen talked of nothing but return of men. Adultery easy for
men who stayed and women came in masses to my house very forward and tilkinu of
intercourse continually. These on Feb 11 and 12.





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Yet material on yo men after turning man is in ding r of ueupu falling more
than other times, and treats for tough or tight anus, makes pedastry of youths


i, he cao, to eat awa, man
According to c there have been several men who were recessive pederasts.
Four of them lived in the time of Kamairaho, ie imukunmutuwunga, tamakwuri,
ancanika, and janianko. Position was that recessive squatted holding ankles and
man squatted behind him. Campukwi swears that there are no such men today, that
he has never seen such. Also, says that no Tap has pederasty relations with
youths. He was told that these men "did not have holes until they were awaciwete'
acanika had relations with one man (although others were macaco) ikoriwantori
(present ik's fa). They had relations in takana until ikoriwantori's wife was
nagry. Of janianko, he was very popular, "when wuran groups went hunting,
they took janianko. He killed porkers and at night all men had relations with
him." Of these men, all of them had men's names; they were lazy yet they followed
men's work "like Antonio" who is lazy, etc. Says that none of them had wives
"because all women knew that they had holes" and did not want them.

Campukwi has heard of one man maria whose name was name of woman. He began
to be recessive pedastor. He soon took on w's name. He married and took on
woman's work. He made farinha, cooked, etc. Did not wear men's decorations. He
was valued by his husband because he was not sick, did not have menstruation,
and worked very hard. He sang with women in kao, he smin w's part in kanawana
werika. He died according to cam.ukvji from pregnancy. He conceived and his
stomach began to swell but he had no wcmg for child to be born, and he died

with child in stomach.



Last night when Kam wife was so sick, he called in another pantxe and Kam
could be heard crying, rather loudly, for some two hours. Each night before
this he has himself performed cure for her. Last night she was tioufht especially
ill. Cried again two successive nights.

Op says that woman has large boil because she was dreaming of eating, fish.
He was away and would soon return br L.ine fish to household.


Looked down upon Tapirape. He had no wife so he came to Tap. Brought
maize, yam, peanuts, banana, all garden products. Before him Tap ate only
banana braba and ---. imanawungo was young at night and had intercourse
with Tap wife; in the day he became "old" stayed many moons and there was a son
from his marriage. Another star, ampowenonu is his father.

With great extension of kinship terms, incest cannot be completely tied
up with terms. May have been that once incest was tied up with kinship. In
jist campukwi said no he had not had intercourse with mariampio because she was
or with mariampawungo because she was cikucanmemura (sister child).
Yet he had intercourse with both. Both are distant. Say that do not marry
"sister", sister's da, etc, but campukui and later antonio said that sister (or
any relatives that were distant, showed hands close, "do not marry, do not have
intercourse". Showed hands far apart, said "marry and have intercourse." At
present seems no preferred marriage.

Oprunxui "Tapirape say sister child marry no, only work for them to
eat. Other "sister's child" marry. He meant distant. Explains that he would
not marry da. of aerowa (sister).

Says awanticantu kucaneuma (sister distant) "Tapirape have intercourse
("kucan euma Tampirape acao, kucan (sister or cousin) nacaoi." Sho..ed actual
sister and cousins called sister as forbidden.

Men's wives are also relatives in these degrees: example:
1) Kamairaho's wife is cikucanmemura (sis. da)
2) Campukwi's wife is kucaneuma (sister), cirinara (yo bro) to wife
5) Maeuma's wife is kucaneuma or ciranura
4) Pancei's wife is caneancura
5) Xawapareumi's wife is kucan




6) awantikantu's wife is kucan or cirinura
7) Kamuriwaoi's wife is cirenura (or kucan is yo. bro to wife)
8) Kamaira's wife (kocinantu) is cirimianiro (gd da); he is ciramuya (gd fa)
to her. Also, he says she is cirinura to him.
Campukwi's wife was wife of Oprunxui (now dead) campukwi's "olaer brother".
When oprunxui died, campukwi (yo bro) took his wife.
9) Panceparunga's wife is cirinura (sister)
10) kanciwanio's wife is cirinura (sister)
11) cwwuparei 's wife is kiucanmemura (sist. da)
12) ipawawungi (Domingo) wife is icanuya (gd mo) and cirinuralsister)


Small infant, male, of mikantu and xawapikantu died, late evening of Feb 11.
Mother cried for about two hours, Kantauwa cried very little. None of the eight
men in village went ot house. Grave (very shallow) was dug by women and infant
buried without any preparation except for smearing urucu on head. Two hours after
death it was buried. ikoriwantori said that Tapirape were angry with mother.
"Tapirape will not cry." angry because child had so many fathers, because there
were so many fathers, the child died. Tamanikwawa was called to treat. He gave
up said child would die "many fathers" child was less than month old. Day
after no crying by mother and not referred to by Tapirape.


On campo(cuntawa) mariampuno gave birth to child. Unknown to me in aldea.
Campukwi says that it was premature, "had a big head and little, little body."
It was very ugly. Kamuriwao immediately dug a grave and buried child. Obvious
infanticide. Mother was seen walking same day and nothing has been said about
birth in village gossip. Campukwi says that child was ugly and died because am
(fa) worked hard in campo house carrying buruti and macaba and banana brabo.
Mother wore uruku in hair until blood flow stopped.

Xawapareumi's small infant son died because X ate deer and worked hard.
Others say X son had three fa's, Kamuriwaoi and Kaunewungi, youngsters who had
intercourse with mother during her pregnancy. These two could kill child by
working hard and by eating taboo.

Campukwi says these above are ... That seems to mean suspectible, for their
reactions are dangerous for infant. Campukwi says that he is "nmn...."; illus-
trates by showing that he ate rapadura, deer, banana (red) (all taboo) while son
was small and it did not die, thus, not suspectible. Awanticawtu, not suspectible,
for worked hard all during pregnancy of wife and child was born healthy and alive.

C said that ampewi, his da, had two fathers, said that kamuriwaoi was other
father, ie intercourse with wife during pregnancy, said this in front of K who
only laughed and was not offended and campukwi did not say it angrily, matter of


Jan 23 Kamuriwai's wife, mitango, gave birth to male child. K. rubbed
uruku in his hair announcing birth but child was buried. All say it was born
alive but buried. Reason given is that "child had many (showed fingers of both
hands) fathers." That is, mother had had intercourse with many men during her
pregnancy. Thus, Tapirape get out of tough situation for child must recognize
all having intercourse during mother's pregnancy as "father" too many.


Antonio and Awanticantu explained clearly laws of infanticide. Ideal
Tapirape family is two daughters and one son. Daughters bring sons-in-law and
service and economic help. Three successive children of one sex not allowed
to live, thus, no three daughters, no three son families. All children over
third living are buried immediately, as form of infanticide. Children deformed
are killed- infants with more than two or three known fathers ie any man having
intercourse with woman after conception is father.' Reason for limitation of
family as given by awantikanty is "many children eat little and father works much."
This explanation hard to take in territory so rich in game, and so easy to

Child with many fathers called toteui, distinguished from pitunga with one
or two fathers. Burying called "toteuiantum" or pitungr antum (ie antum, to
plant) more than two fathers is toteu.


Xamaniuma's wife, already with boy, girl, and boy (three children) went
outside village then she felt labor pains coming on. Quickly and easily gave
birth to boy. Im'nmediately she left child where it fell and return=. to house.
Women gath-red, hut no one touched child, child very fine large boy, finally,
after father had said that it must be buried, women (and myself) talked him into
keeping chili. Cord was cut with piece of taquari, child smeared with urucum over
wnoie bo.y. Bathed first. After much discussion it was given to mother who
accepted it. Tap culture says that fourth child should be buried. Able mother
gives birth to these to be buried in brush, if possible.



Xamaniuma explained when I returned that son (infant) whom he had decided
to keep and not to bury had died. Said that he had eaten "xirona" inamo, Tap.
(taboo to fathers) and infant had died. Kamuriwao said privately that "no,
xamaniuma does not want many children. He has three." Says that wife did not
want to nurse child, and it was obvious that x did not want to weather the taboos.


Definitely clarified reasons for infanticide. Both ip-r.un-i and oprunxui
explained that father did not want thin children, did not want children to be
hungry. Three children eat well, four and rnn-- will be hungry. Father must
hunt; must have large garden.

Op explained that mother wanted infant boy but wamaniuma did not, said that
children would be hungry. Influenced without d ubt (and oprunxui agrees) by
sexual taboos and good taboo during? nursing. Says that mother cried, for
instead of leavinr- child in matto it was given to her and kept several days.
Op says that mo does not allow Xamaniuma to sleep with her. Sleep in different
hammocks, she is angry and says she will not become pregnant (apuraha) -Ain
only to bury (antum, to plant) the child.

MOKUITOWA $ other fathers (two fathers)

"Many fathers are not good. One eats maize, one eats "veado de campo",
child dies soon. Mother lies, woman is afraid, but child dies and all Tapirape

About two fathers woman will tell husband. Little embarrassment, and
husband not angry enough to bury child.

Example: Both Kamuriwai told me he had two fathers. Kanairaho is "acao cirapu"
(intercourse my father). Kamairaho recognized it easily. Young man calls
Kanairaho "ciropu" as he did his mother's husband.

Child born today to txawampikantu and wife, mikantu. When asked she said
there were "mokuitowa". Tapirape all say she lied that there were "mamput towa"
three fathers. Child was not buried. Tapirape say that txawampikantu is
"towete" (father good or mo's husb), kanio is towura (or acaoiropu, adulter fa.)
and Kamuriwaoi (is towuran) (intercourse father). Mikantu recognizes last
towuran (word probably comes from ciriwurani, father's brother.)

Kamaira says "father angry, he grabs child, he buries child. Mother cries
much for she wants child but father is angry."

Example: Kamairaho says that he has several children by other women hot his
wife, calls them "ciranura, son" Antonio Perrara and Kamuriwa among them.
Father of such sons may "ekwenguraampa", that one I made.


See VI-25

Kamuriwai said that he was angry very much and did not want child, it was
toteu. He was not tery angry, for he laughingly told me the names of many of
the "fathers" of child awanticantu, tampiiri, kamiwuwaoi, parceparunga,
campukwi, and xawapareumi.



Formerly lip plug was article of great economic value. A man of great
status had one or vice versa. Kamaira gave value as there or four araras. In
many cases, at death of man it was only this article of value which passed thru
any true inheritance. Gardens already planted are used by near relatives (not
by wife); arrows, etc go to grave or are burned. Araras have been known to have
been killed but most often pass in same rule as formerly pas ed lip plug, which
were stable objects lasting several generations. Line according to all for
these was, man to yo bro; then back to son of man but often to own son (ie of
yo bro) or often to sisters son. Man makes gift while ill or when old.

Kamairaho has single lip plug. Inherited it from
to campukwi. Campukwi expects lip plug to come to him
Kamairaho will give it to his sisters son, Kancinapio,
Kamairaho, adopted and extremely well treated by him.

his olier brother, father
yet Tap believe that
for he is favorite to


For one moon before initiation, youngster does not eat veado de dampo,
normatero, onca, ankuci, anawano, all animals whose "hair is weak." After
tying hair he may eat veado after about "one moon". For about three months
after tying hair he cannot eat mutum, jacu, caititu, porker. May eat jacari he
says "because anus is tough." Caititu, porker, if he eats these ueupu (larger
intestine) will fall. If he eats veado (deer) or above animals, before tying his
hair, will fall out.

Jacare has tough anus. Thus, ueupu (intestine) will not fall of young man
who eats jacare. Young man after tying hair may cut out irikwanapepira (showed
how cut out around anus) burning it over fire. Then, water is thrown on fire
and he sits or squats over it allowing smoke to come up over him. Thus, his
intestines will not fall. Says that boys (konomi and awaaai) have d-in-er of.
intestine (piles) falling if eat for example jacu. For about three months after
tying hair boy has .danger. Says that in time of gdfa (ancient time) many young
men's intestines fell. ueupau (intestine falls) and died. He remembers one
konomi (okane) who had a bad disentary and ueupu began to fall. Women.stuffed
intestine back in. Probably hemorroidas (hemorrage) or piles. Probable that
ueupua is piles, for he says older men sometimes have, women have ueupua after

Young man does or should not have intercourse before and for three moons
U after tying hair, result will be a bad headache.





After first menstruation woman does not have intercourse until urukum
which she has placed on hair to indicate first menstruation. Does not eat jacu
for one moon, azulone does not eat for ten months. Caititu and porker are not
eaten by young woman of first menst. for about 5 moons, for danger of ueupua
piles fall or intestines fall. After childbirth, blood flow stops and eat
pork and caititu.

IRACA Cerem- 111-7 o-

Speaks of iraca "pequena" and iraca "grande." Says iraca small, which
comes in June July is fish (bicuda). Pantxe saw many houses of these, have
wives, Larger iraca is caraja (iracao) and comes during rains when corn is tall
and giving green ears. Pantxe saw only one house of iracao and has wife.
Iracao is dangerous says if woman sees this whe will be very sick, bat will not

When rains end and Kao ends, t en aLciunFwe'.uya come to inhabit takana.
1) iraca bienda fish
2) jankui jacu
3) iranware, called "father of quexado" fatherr irawure, children
quexado" iana?
4) cawewura araya
5) akumoko
6) moro
When this dance is held on large scale, all of cnese are repres-atec by
masked dancers, that is by a pair of masked dancers. Each has its set of songs,
of all Tranca is by far the most important. This year y'un- men are m kin-
only iraca and irawure masks, intended to make Jancui but feathers gave out.
Has been several years since danced all six ancmngwewuya.

Iranwure represents no know animal, etc. Pantxe in dreams travel far to

IRACA 111 -9

north beyond mountain range. There lies water hole and inside of this line
Iranware. Kamairaho says that iranwure is iana to quexado.

Iraca lives far inland from araguaya. Says that irokan, former famous
pantxe, saw iraca there in territory of txupiawa, tribe tc east of caraja
(probably mythical). Iraca live in water and pantxe in dream see them.

See texts pp. 10-12

IRACA ce- III-52- F

After talking of bringing buruti for iraca mask for days, after workkinri a
few days and not touching them for days, two (a pair) Araca masks were finally
complete. This year no iranwure, no jaucui, etc, unless these ace made later.
Reason for laxity given by all is that "Tapirape have great laziness." Dance
sometimes begins in early July or late June, but setback (and almost finished)
by death of Kamanare. Without that death dance probably would have taken place
as usual.

Finally on Aug 5 oprunxui, ikorwantori, and pance parunga 'rouuht buruti
for iraca skirts. Evening arara feathers (long tail feathers) were lent by
Kamairaho (see photo). Incidentally, he removed them before retiring at night
for fear of theft or breakage.

At sundown masks were taken to matto to east (Everyone had seen and handled
them including women and children) and with cries and singing they entered dance
plaza, stopping at edge of plaza in line singing announcement that iraca had
arrived. Then, danced, bobbing headpiece of feathers, with rustle of buruti,
stamping out the rhythm of their song, keeping abreast, knees flying to side and
occasionally turning face to face seemingly to bow to each other. Danced first
to front of takana, then, to house of Kamairaho. There, women of household,
small girls, and others encircled masked dancers and danced throwing knees up in
front leaning backwards (like person running in place leaning as far backwards
as possible) and working arm (called ancumene) masked dancers remained in spot
only a few minutes and moved on, to house of urukumu, cuwupareuma, wantanamu, and

IRACA- 111-54 Z

back to plaza in front of takana. Spectators lined each house waiting for iraca
to arrive. Each stop women (all yo. girls) surrounded them dancing to time of
their song. Later made regular stop at house of maeuma, circle thus, takana,
kamairaho, maeuma, takana, urukumu, spot between, cuwupareuma, wantanamu, and
takana, each place stopped little.

Men dancing changed every half hour or so, one pair sang some fifteen songs,
made about eight trips or stops. First pair to enter were and Pancepar-
unga, 2-maeuma and kamuriwai; 5- xawapareuma and ?; 4- canipu and kamairai (pair
from cicutawa; 4- Tampiiri and pauceparunga; 6- oprunxui and kanioi, etc etc.
Men rested by fire and smoked, dance continued with few breaks during whole
nighL, stopping or resting only when sun was well up in sky. Ilen repeated and
rested. By midnight only about three pairs were left to carry on.

During early evening maeuma sat near fire and sang xawanamii until about
10 pm, did not sing seriously bit announced that wife was preparing kami and so
sang announcement song "hicce xawanamii nakaema, etc" said would sing tomorrow
beginning in afternoon and singing all night. Evidently, during such ceremonies
as iraca, xawanamii may be sung at same time by those who know and are devotees.

Note: Iraca will be danced until rains fall. Maeuma said "Iraca eats fish"
thus masked dancers are fed while in dress fish, thus iraca comes during time
July and August when Tapirape can kill fish. Also, jancui, when jacu are plentiful,


iranwura when pork is easy to kill. "'.hen rains fall (according to maeuma),
Iraca is given a cutia of honey to eat and then iraca leaves knowing that
time is up.

7-omen are getting out beads, people are painting bodies, bathing for afternoon
dance of Aug 6, second day of dance.

IRACAHO Cer VI-78-79

Today, in late evening Iracaho began. Men borrowed two rattlers (uampo)
taking them as silently as possible to dance ground immediately to East of takana.
Criticized two young men for letting the rattles make noise. "No, no, the women
will hear, the women will know." but women all knew that iracaho would arrive.

Kamaira was called. Stood facing group of youths and boys und sang short
song of few sentences, actually he was announcing coming trip to campo, asking
wives to prepare farinha, acting in position as wura group chief, wura antauwa
of wurancingio. He announced:

oipe ampa areope tanawe rantu wurancingio nantu anantxa nantu ,
farina make you wifes wife wife
wurancingxa nuntu wurancingo nantu
wives wives

tanamae cene pekuwura un con penopene
tacaho (pork) there campo buruti sprouts

When he finished his announcement, all youths standing near repeated his
words clapping hands in time as words were chanted. Kamaira did not sing nor announce
but chanted beats thus (see text). Finished with repeating announcement, all shouted
shrilly for several minutes. Then panceparunga and Kamuriwai entered takana and


sang Iracaho, not dancing but standing in spot beating time, each at intervals
(one singer beat, then other/, then first). Song was not like Tapirape music
but sounded like Caraja. Sang only twice and left.

IRACO SONGS (cont) 111 III-15

There men liked it and here they liked it and that year song it with masks
and dnace.

Thus, man walking on trip or to ana from his roca experiments with//, musical forms. When changed song seems good man sings it to companions at
night in takana. If they like it, it takes, thus, campukwi says iraca has
talked, thru him. Changes are never profound, rewording, reshifting of words,
and sometimes different accent on music cihanrigln time s ightly.


After awanai has eaten and gone, say awanai stays four days. Irancaho
comes. During summer dry season, iranca comes for stay. Tapirape say that
wet season irancaho (iranca grande) say same type of mask but much larger and
higher headdress. Songs are same and have added. Said to come only for one day,
two dancers as for summer iranca. Dance same as summer (dry season) but irancaho
carry uampo in hand.

Following irancaho. Tapirape say that Kao comes, where men and women dance.
Women dance in pairs with hands clasped, while men dance arms over shoulder of
each other in pairs. After days of Kao, comes Kaowete, or big night of Kao.
Seems that Kao is long season, dance seems to be repeated many times.

IRIWANCUNGA Cer1Ok 111 -40

(comes to takana during rains with ia, awawacunga, etc. Iriwancunga is said
to be tremetreme or electric eel, purake-Tap.)

Origin of Songs, Campukwi Informant

A sister was angry with her brother in aldea of iriwehe, people to east of
Araguaya, (called icixo by Caraja). She walked far and lay down to sleep near a
small stream. Late at night she heard singing and i-ncing in the stream. Looking
in she saw an eel and samll fish (?) singing. She gurried back for her brother
who came heard the songs and learned them. Then, the woman caught (with an irup-
ema) the feel and samll fish, so dancing and singing are not heard now. Iriwehe
thus ..earned the songs which the Tapirape got from them.

"Iriwancunga is sad and cries" because cureni killed his son. Triwancunga
retaliated killing with som of Cureni. One said topaco (old Tap who lived long
ago killed iri--Lncnga son, with help of awawanema, also Tap (??)

Iriwancunga lives in hole where he has house near axaguaya. Pantxe's
visit him there- (is Kari fish)


Kamairai and Ant Perrera sang and danced Iriwancunga the entire night. Ir
said to come for two nights, one now, w.nen. Tapirape do not have takana, and for
one night after new takana has been built in late Dec of January. Dien gathered
in usual spot, few men. First pair sang ia, trumai, and awacunga, then iriwancunga.
Pair sang in grunting monosyllables walking throwing knees out to side up and
down in step as sang. Thus while iriwancunga was danc-ng early in the evening
two novice pantxes (ipamwi and kancipa) smoked again and other men talked. At
about 10 to 11 pm, only one or two men were sitting mearby, all others, except
dancers, left to sleep. At sunup the two dancers stopped singing, frequent rests
during night.

See drawing, and see story of woman discovering iriwancunga songs.


Says women are afraid and do not stay to witness songs and dance. Yet it
was a woman in myth who first learned iriwandunga songs from puranke, electric
eel. Also says women are afraid of awacunga. Says Iriwe (thus iriwe, ancunga)
saw Kari (fish living in hole which Karaja pull out, make noise kuxkux) and
treme treme.

moro, karl "kascudo"

iniumuku, kari grande


People living on small river to east of Araguaya (says not Javahe but call
Javahe by same word as Xribtao). Formerly T,piruce had roca there and houses,
then, iriwe began to fight with Tapirape and they came here. These people
know iraca, iranwure, moro, irawancunga, awawacunga, iriwe know jankuanaka,
"muete" wetepe. This is home of all ancanga. Belief that all songs ancunga
were learned there and from Caraja. Says no joint village but in same country.


In time of gdfa of K Tapirape visited and lived in village of Irewe. Said
villages were mixed, said that Irewe became brabe and Carja were brabo so Tap
all moved to present territory. Mother of K had seen irewe casa. In old aldea
spot where K was boy two irewe women died while visiting. Husbands left for
eastern country.

All present iracan dances learned there (ankumoko, part of iraca series).


Means shadow or spirit of living person. According to Kamairaho there are
theee iunga.

Cangu anu, reflection of moon

Kwana iunga, sun

upe iunga, water


2A -C .*

Kai (monkey) carried cawaci (jabott) high in tree to eat cotanuwa. Monkey
went away leaving jaboti to eat. Then, onca came and jaboti threw jatoba down
down to him. Then, onca said jump and I'll catch you. Jabott jumped but
onca missed. Jaboti landed upon onca's nose, knocking him out. (Died only a
little). Jaboti laughed and went on. He then same "cinakawa, cinakawa, cinakawa,
cinakawa auncete xawana ciam" Onca heard this and ran after jaboti, caught him
and ask whit it was he samg. Jaboti was afraid and quick witted so he sang
"cinakawa, cinakawa, cinakawa, cinakawa, ce ce ce ce "

Onca baffled let him go and jaboti popped into a tatu hole sing the real
(above) song. Onca was irritated and jumped but jaboti was safe. Then, onca
went to pick ripe jenipapa and ask jaboti to come eat with him but quick witted
jaboti refused to come out of hole. Likewise, jaboti refused uwacin ( )-
but when onca went away to get other enticements, jaboti came out to eat.
Jaboti then went into hole singing to irritate again. But jaboti thought onca
gone and came out, onca caught jaboti.

Onca than tried to copulate with jaboti in the anus but onca has large
penis and jaboti made his anus tight. Then, onca jabbed with penis but would not
enter and onca fell. Whereupon jaboti with. small penis, easily copulated with
onca in oncas large anus. Onca was furious and killed jaboti and ate him.

Note, Other Version: Onca was not successful in copulation. Jaboti said




"Let me try, see my penis is small". Jaboti penis snows small but on erection
is much larger than onca penis. Onca agreed, first jaboti went easy inserted
only a little. Then, thrust all home and onca howled, but jaboti succeeded.
Then, onca angry broke jaboti shell and ate jaboti. Fini.


Dangerous. Live on campo and matto. Pantxe dreams and sees them. If
layman sees one he will die. Ankomae (man) is man, is ancunga, does not have
hands or legs but stumps which are sharpened. With these kills pork, onca,
veado. Pantxe sees them roasting meat in large quantities. Jankuanaka live on
Araguaya, now has brother on T: irape campo, not on near campo or matto but


Kamairaho has dislike and jealousy of Kamaira, basis probably lies in
Kantuowa, Kamairaho's wife, for she dislikes Kamaira because he killed her father,
a Pantxe, after death of his father. Kantuowa continual busy body knowing all
and rushing to tell Kamairaho of what she continually sees as neglect or bad
treatment. She has turned women against kocinantu, kamaira's wife, bros and two
friends wives of Kamairaho thus take Kantouwa's part.

Note: Kantuowa's personality is that of most dislikeable gossipin~ woman
Sof w. c.- and one with ambitious and grasping tendencies. Sends Tap to beg
after ascertaining what is best to beg for, knows what each Tap receives as
gifts, and who brings mandi3oca and who has maize.

Thus, women of Kamairaho group insult Kocinantu and only when Kamaira is
away for day hunting, for, of all Tap men, he never remains in village on good
day but hunts. Yesterday, Kocinantu caught one insulter and pulled her hair,
cried after fight through whole day.

Former social relations between these two men of high status ie Kamairaho,
Superior Chief, and Kamaira, wurancingio chief and feared and .natural leader,
with araras, and thus, with status, with many relatives, are on ceremonious
plane. If thrown together will converse, politely, but if one is in house or
sitting on plaza, other will not approach. Kamairaho, if ask about article
made by Kamaira, says he doesn't know if it is well made and privately says he will
make a "good one" "this is ugly". Kamaira very retiring and modest in spite of



well formed large aggressive appearance. Always sits on edge of group and never
is center of any group conversation. Yet, is sought out and respected, any
young man jumps to his orders or requests. With this personality he never
complains nor shows constant jealousy that Kamairaho shows.

Among young men striving for status, jealousy is noticeable in some. Oprunxui
jealous of campukwi and kamuriwao of both but less marked degree. Yet none of this
is the steady everlasting rivalry that has grown in mind of Kamairaho for Kamaira.

Solidarity of all Tap only comes noticeable at tines. If one cannot exchange
with outsider for something, they are anxious to arrange for exchange iith another,
so article will remain in village. Always arrange for relative if possible
thus doing favor. Yet when say four deer are given to Tap chief may make off
with a half leaving others without. He may give some to others, "friend" and
supporting kin, but will not divide for all. Man cut off large cut for wifes
bro and later found himself left out. Others were left out altogether.