Field Notes - D, E, F, G, 1939-1940


Material Information

Field Notes - D, E, F, G, 1939-1940
Series Title:
Tapirape Project Files
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Wagley, Charles
Charles Wagley ( donor )
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Box: 5
Folder: Field Notes - D, E, F, G, 1939-1940


Subjects / Keywords:
Anthropology--United States--History
Galvao, Eduardo Eneas
Gurupa (Para, Brazil)--Photographs
Indians of South America--Brazil
Tapirape Indians
Tapirape Indians--Photographs


General Note:
Folder 6

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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Full Text

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DAI!CE OF KAWIO (kauiho) VII-41- 4I

After monikahuya has ended and dry season is to begin, time when there is
new mandioca, peanuts, and dry maize, id tmi for dance of kawiho, what was seen
in first days of stay with Tapirape.

For days before ancanga (masked dancers) come dancing going from one house
to house at far end house, as described Bk I thus:
See drawing
Ancunga experiments (drinks) taking into mouth kawiho, nothing but water mixed
in large pot with two grains of corn. This is s-id to be danger us ani poisonous
to Tap.

Finally, at climax on last day comes large lance. During morning ancunga
dance, during afternoon, Tap men dance kauiho acimonawa, ie men leave single
file go from takana to anantxa a-imawa to wuranc ngio mimawa, there back to
takana wutera. Women dance lined up behind men, behind huasands or sons or
brothers, see Bk I. At night, dance Kawiho pecunawa (kawiho ends )
Two konomis dance with women, do not enter takana, wear anguro or large arara
tail feather bonnet. Boys who wear these are almost favorite sons, net formalized
yet are sons of influencial men, of capitao, in past year, it was ewai, son of
urukumu, and kuncinpio, son of kamairaho. Note kanicinapio was awanai, not
konomi, this year owai will repeat and ,anapio, son of Pancei will take place of K.

Following and during this kao songs are sung. Late at nip,ht, wuran groups
eat, esp. kawi kn takana with wifes of men of one group preparing for men of


other, ie wives of anantxa for men of wurancingio, etc, wee Bk II or III.
Until dawn, Kao, at dawn kaio (kaiho, gariba) comes to drink of kawiho and fight
or catch women. Likewise ancunga called jakakonya, with large penises chase

Then, at dawn each capitao brings out kawiho :Ind expieriimnts but does
not drink of it, men who have killed Tapirape (maranjukanera) must drink of it
whether capitao or not. Tap men, then, may come to house of capitao and drink
of his kawiho, said to drink and vomit (both Tap and especially "killer").
Ending this, capitao throws out rest of kawiho .nd time of kawiho ends. Next
day capitao (enhancing prestige) must or should give out presents, beads, facoes,
palm oil, urucum, cotton, peanuts, to men and women who drank of his ka./iho.
Then, after two days, comes tatauaopao, Drinking of kawiho, called kawiho amunhu(?)


Pawungo died from kachumba (Br) or mumps, also with menstruation. Tapirape
call it ipiram konga (fist bone) as they also call other swellings. All said
that caused by Pautxe, Pautxe causes illness or "natural" illness by dreaming.
There are no natural causes for death. Urukumu is blamed for all these days.
He was frightened of out Pers. (pawungo's borther real) and of Kamaira (son,
extended) and of Tanopaotxoa, especially of latter who has lost two real brothers
and now wife in last eight months. Urukumu did not sleep but sat up carefully,
watching all night. He came with usual reaction "that he wanted to go live with
Tori." Also, wanted to move "When corn is hard" to cicutawa. No violence yet
probable presence of outsider in village prevented it. Also no violence because
"Tapirape are dangerous when capitao (man)dies and dangerous little when woman


Ipawungi died. Seemed to be a very bad and extremely rapid case of
dysentary. Said that he was ill only one or two days before death. Passed blood
and after death or when dying vomitted blood. Tap refused idea of injections that
visitors wanted to give, said that he would not overcome this, it was "an angry
pantxe". V'hen Tap are ill "may take medicine or pantxes may suck out (whatever
causes it) but when pantxe is angry and attacks them, he dies." People akk if
anything unusual had been seen. Kantuwa said she had seen a "toicingi" perrequito
pass over head in night. These may be pantxe. Another had seen iwurancai,
thus, a rpntxe was certainly aborad.

Body was taken to maeuma roca where Tap are encamped temporarily for burial.
Not buried here for water level is still high and burials have taken plaice in
temporary camp.


Haeurma said that night when Domingo was being cried for that Pancei saw
many ancunga who gathered in matto hard by. Pancei saw ancunga of tanopaotxoi
(father of popui); he came and was crying for Domingo. Pantxe goes in dreams
and drives ancunga away protecting Tapirape. Maeuma says with facoe pantxe
drives away ancunga.

Says that uwukwecin or end of crying and leaving of iunwera can take place
in three days more, usually takes place after 8-9 days. But under circumstances
will take place sooner.


See II-47
Case of Antonio's child of about ten months:
Child sick with fever many days. Ant set out to bri.-_ back Wantanamu,
pantxe and wits father, for cure. Before both returned, child
morning. Ant and Want arrived several hours later. Ant, Campukwi (friend and
housemate) and ikorawantori (bro of Ant) danced and mourned all m-.rnir-, and
early afternoon. 7i, wi's sis and mo cried. Other Tap payed little attention.
Child wrapped in new red shirt, face painted, hair urucumed (see face paints).
Before sundown buried in gravy. dug in wantanamu's house (not in house of parents).
Grave topped with poles and covered same day. Mo and fa of child mourned all
that night and at sundown for six days. Ant, then, set off on fishing expedition
and when returned cried no more.

Like all other (none excepted) close relatives at death of relative, Ant
came telling me that his wife would start preparing farinha within a few d.-
and they would move to cicutawa, that. people here were all bad and there was
an evil ahemm) pantxe here. Reaction with sorrow against all people in village
and genuine desire to move or excape. fnus, formerly the various villJ-es of
Tapirape received new recruits, and lost others. Now, and probably formerly,
this desire to leave passes with sorrow. For example, Oprunsui talked of nothing
but leaving with me after kamanare's death, and other bros went as far as to
start wis making farinha (which was used for fLniin trip) to go to cicutawa.
How none will leave.



Two days ago in temporary camp infant child of mutai, small son aged
6-7 mos, died of catarrha. Little change in life of camp. Mother only one who
cried, kaunewungo, father, looked sour but only dug shallow grave in temporary
hut, rapped child in some red cloth, and buried it. After about hour mother
left to go to hammock, while father went to carry mandioca.


August 2, three men (canipu, kamairai, and kamuriwangantu and second's wife
arrived here from cicutawa after only five days walking, a very fast pace.
Arriving about 10 pm, they gave news that Pancei..., a young pantxe there, had
died. Immediately mourning and wailing set in. Kamairaho explained "all Tapirape
were his relatives" Actually, ikorowantori, brother (ciriwura); kantuowa, sister
(kocan); Purankei, fa's sis cancer) Ant Perrera, yo. bro. ext (ciriwura?);
maeuma, elder bro (cicikaiura); kamairaho, mo's bro (cicoturani). Kantowa, maeuma,
ikorowantori cried all that night (see III-35) and some next day. Third day
ikorowantori cried, and fourth day none mourned. Explanation "died many days
ago." Campukwi, who was c rikaiwang, sis son, to deceased, cried little one day
and other remarked "c does not know to cry."


Taipa, one of three old women of village, has been ill with fever and
catarrha. Tap have come several times telling "waiwi Taipa amano" Old woman
dies, each time on questioning them more closely, they explain that "she does
not eat, sleep several nights and she dies." To me, it seems that Tap count
her as dead, for she cannot speak and does not eat. This has been case of
several deaths. Yet may mean she will die, ie, use the general tense.

In this case, some sentimentality came out. Mani, gdson who has lived
with old woman sometime instead of with mother, begged mother warire to let
him go see his gdmo. He was told "she is dead" "she dies" "she will die"
"amano" but he did not believe them. Packed up hammock and spent one night
there, cried pitifully then returned without tears, for she did not speak with


Among the ovcrw'helmrinL mass of
when he eats oocinga Campoo deer).
with pvok or caititu. V.'ill not eat

dietary beliefs, man does not eat peanuts
OOcinga has ancanga. May eat such deer
rapadura when eats pork.



Meat seems to be classified into two g_--nral categories accordin-. to what
it contains., ancunga or eanwaruwa. The latter causes sickness in child,
causes e.-iliptic fits. May be extracted by pantxe while child is yo when child
is older cannot be. (See notes on Antancowi). eanwaruwa live above, htgh above
in clouds. "/

1) Jaca
2) Cuati, taboo to kutatani, kucumubo
5) Pato, taboo to young both sexes, and to mothers nursing
4) macaco, all eat
5) caititu, all eat
6) mutum
7) carinde (carninet) only eaten by adult males
8) arara, only adult males
9) jacami, only adults
"' 10) tokuna, only adults
11) coiaura, all eat pollywogss)
12) jaboti, all eat
15) paranke, males eat, brings "frie", Tankowa or fever
14) ipiramcowa
15) cicu, two fish, all eat
16) manciane (saukaw), only adult men
uLtum and Pato, taboo to :-our- of both sexes; pantxe must remove eanwarwwa
before woman with infant can eat it safely without c, irn: infant to be sick.



paca, all eat
veado de campo, only men eat, taboo to males with babies
veado de matto, konomi and men eat
axalona, adults eat
guariba (has ancunga very old) konomi and men eat
tartauga, all eat
tamandua, all eat, eanwaruwa, says that has kayapo
tamandue pewa, only males, eanwauruwa
tantu, ancungo, all males eat and waiwi male with small baby does not eat.

When man returns from hunt with pork, caititu, cuati (any beast which has
eanwaruwa, he may take it to r...ntxe, who blows smoke over beast, stroking fur
and extracting eanwaruwa thru the ears. Mother of nursing infant likewise may
eat of meat with eanwaruwa and infant will be seized with attacks, described as
epileptic attacks, pantxe then can smoke infant massag n_ and brushing off
eanwaruwa easily.


Benedict said Araguaya region of discarding decorations as grow older,
holds here.
Boys: wear ankle, calf, wrist ornaments if well treated and not orphans
or half so, also long lip plug.

awauai, discards ankle ornaments, seldom wears wrist ornament but may.
Discards long lip plug ofr short true piug. Paints black.

awauaho: Paints wakare, etc, as man. discards no more. High point
of ceremonial decoration is ceremony for tying of his hair.

kutatan: wears ankle, and wrist ornaments. At menstruation discards all
and may paint kwanciana more (see notes)

At ripe age discard all string ornaments ind thus, do not paint more.
Without knee ornaments (calf) Tap will not paint, ie wananiwampe cut off tomabuna
and cut hair because of death of mo sis sister. .efucss to paint or dance until
has hair or knee ornaments. Thus, old men do not have ornaments, and men past
prime same.
Yet discard for men is not great discard, for women difinite paint of discard
at menstruation.


Campukwi told me of his dream. "I was dreaming. I vent far away. I
climbed a morro (mt or hill). At top of hill I saw many f ures. They were
ancunga, they walked alon: morro at very top ana from their heads c me fire like
a feather headdress. I am not a pantxe. I do not dream much. I ran, I was
afraid. I only heard the --ic ri- shouting keu keu. Then, I waked up. They
could have been ancanga awaku anka (see VII-85) I did not know. They would have
killed me."

c has no desire to be pantxe but his recent dreams impress him. Yet will
not force him to be pantxe. They in a manner frighten him.


iraca ipiramcana

moro is araya but ancunga which has many fish

iranwure, (see above) tacaho cana, during dry season, these crear porker.

akmuko, caraja cana, caraja crear or take care of.

Explains, that night before fishing expedition for cimapo or for killing
fish with bww and arrow, Pantxe (usually Pancei is best) dreams. He goes to
spot where they will fish. He ties up jacare, kills piranga, ties up large
snakes, ties and hangs araya up outside water, calls iraca and moro ancunga ao
there will be many fish. Then, it will be safe. "Tapirape do not have Pantxe,
all Tapirape will die."

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Kamairaho ask if I had ever seen a bloody moon. Said Baldus saw one.
"Tapirape were afraid and did not sleep all night. The moon was half, then (ka)
it was black and then it was bloody" (evidently deep red or hazy). Tapirape were
afraid says K. because "when there is a bloody moon, Caraja or Kayapo (Karanjaho)
will kill Tapirape that night. "

Campukwi adds that "moon shits" Tapirape find it near takana on morning
after full moon? -

Many are cooperating on roca, especially true of capitaos who work with
their followers. Many youngsters are working with older men, Youngsters work
little, usually have no wives, no family, of harvest they, therefore, take
little. It is usual for youngsters to be lazy, thus, they work one day and
loaf two.

1) Wantanamu, capitao, h.s large roca in progress and two large ones of
past years still producing. Kurumi and Kamuriwai work with him on roca, both
live in his household. Both have separate and individual rocas of their own.
W gives them some of his harvest in manner of present.

2) Campukwi working large plot (approx. five acres) He plans to leave and
says Kamairaho will plant for him. Also, working very little with them is
Kaunewungi (youngster) Usual, Kam works practically none, with roca done by
followers (This do not understand)

3) Urukumu (capitao) youngsters Kamwiiwaoi and Kanioi (older) work with
urukumu. Kanioi has roca of his own, Both household members, at present,
however, Kamuriwaoi has moved house to take up life with widow of Kamanara, woman
some two years his senior.

4) Awanticatu and ampaoi, both adults, cooperate on plot.




ECOI0.M!ICS 111-29

5) panciawi (yo. pnatxe of about 28 yrs) and Tapiri both of Kamairaho's
house. Tapiri is youngster and has worked only two days in month of roca work.

6) canei and khmuriuao, c married to mother of K's wife, both adult and of
same household.

7) Ant Perrera and ampiwaai

8) Kamuriwantu and Kancinapio (yo) Yo has worked only 2 or 3 days.

41 others work individually. Campukwi although he is in cooperation with
others says "two people cutting poles (ankapit) are lazy, they talk."


Species of mandioca planted by Tapirape:
.!ame -i -.* Use

waikura macaxera
or mandioca
waikurete (manso)


-Planted at cicutawa, here not used to grt extent

----Maeuma brought here from cicutawa.
little in Tampiitawa.

Now have

-Stopped planting this ;recies because farinha
still contained venom and made one sick.
Said to contain grt quantity of tupuanca

kani (tapioca)but "braba".
kaui -.------Have not planted at this villabe site, not common
farinha or popular variety. Have seed at old
roast village site. Campukwi plants to plant
manso brown
white roast Cicutawa does not have these two varieties, since
kaui brought here late by Xristao.



Each year in late Sept or Oct Tapirape move almost in entirety to river to
hunt tartauga and hunt eggs. They remain there as long as yams and farinha
last (starve with meat and no farinha) sometimes a month, or three weeks.

Campukwi explained that Tap asked pantxe Urukumu if tartauga were plentiful.
He dreamed and answered that there were many in spot on rio (deep and wide)
called inanta iiwa wanciepe. Tap made farinha, all prepared to leave for this
spot. Urukumu dreamed going there tied the mouth of large snake with long fish
and frightening all jacare away from peel, thus, safe for Tap who arrived, swam
after tartauga without fear of jacare, snake, or peranha. Not certain whether
this clearance of danger takes place every year. This year, c says Tap will
wait until Panteri arrives from cicutawa, late Sept, tnen, move to River.
Kamairaho said that all would return from fish expedition (and carrying bags)
then, return to village, wait cicutawa people, prepare farinna in large quantity,
go to lagao de tukunaree and build houses. Men could go in - to river and
women remain behind at lake. Said he and all Tap would stay 2 moons, village
would be empty. Remain at tukunari to hunt and fish and :, retar-iiL!. for




In Nov and Dec small streams full of pollywogs. Collected, boiled, and
eaten by women. Called coiaura.


Blanket brought from araguaya by Campukwi )now is owned by Pantxei, given
for curing a sore foot.

Ipawi traded beads for blanket with Urukumu, Oprunxui brought blanket from
Araguaya and traded to Urukumu for chickens.

Small beads traded by Oprunkui for chickens which he ate.

Campukwi's knife traded for club, he gave me his for beads.


Late Oct, Nov, Dec time of Piki (pikei). Tapirape collect especially on
campo, says that matto does not have piki, collected, opened on spot, and eaten
boiled. Thus, these months good for encampment on campo. Buruti also collected
during these months and in Nov on campo honey can be collected. Banana Brabo
is cooked. Kaui (paakaa) made by cooking beans taken from pod of banana brabe,
making a massa of beans, then, cooked with honey and water. Result excellent.
Also, oil (for hair and body) is taken from coco.(?) de (macaba) Dried lakes
nearby still good for fish, hunting on campo is good (killed 6 caititio, 2
cuata, parrots, and jacare in last week.) These months are best for campo for
collecting and after gardens are planted. Many do not even go back to look at
gardens, one said that other had said that corn was high.


Fishing, July first. Ant P and W4,cancei and wi, tanopao and wi,
panciawa and wi, Ant and three youngsters, set out for Tapirape River to hunt
fish with B and A. Each family split off. Each man has favorite spot on river
and house or shelter, several stuck together. Finding no fish and much water
(Tap usually wait for drying river in July and August. This year river dried
late.), returned to campo hunting. There, killed pork, result from one pack
of pork seven killed. Few fish. Returned after seven days with hunger "because
farinha had given out" carrying pork and fish. At same time, three families had
gone to smaller river to hunt mutum and smal- fish with farinha sieve.


More clearly:
Women plant and own all beans favaa, etc) cotton, peanuts.

Man clears, burns, and prepares field. Man plants mandioca, banana, corn,
and yams and potatoes. Both men and women both plant pumpkin.

Slmost all food belongs to women, since men give over results of roca to
women when enters house.



July to August Men are busy clearing brush for new gardens. Vork. done
in most years to great extent by "common work" or apatxir' This year done
exclusively in private enterprise. Amount of work impossible to measure for
work done laxly, not in successive days nor for one full day, le men may work
full day in roca or may go only in late evening working 2-3 hurs. May work two
days and take other pursuit for a week.

Time for fishing (see notes
uropema or poisoned with cimapo.
water and fish- tukunare, surubi,

on that date) small fish are panned with
Small fish call canicinga. River has little
etc, are shot with B & A.

July-August, mandioca manos, some bananas, und kara (latter is becoming
too large) Special food of season is fish. Must go miles for fish, yet, as
in notes, always fishing.

Oct 1
by pumpkin,
women plant

-Nov 1 Corn planted. Feiiao planted shortly afterwards. Followed
kara, cetuka (batata). When corn is about 1' high, Nov 1st to 15th,
peanuts and cotton, their special plants.

Mandioca is planted in early rains (may be planted during rains aid is from
time t., time but not good). Blant bananas rather early, op. in early Sept.
By at least Nov 15 all work of planting has been done.



August- During August steady hunting and fishing trips. Before time for
planting and during planting village often moves An masse to River Tapirape to
eat tarakaja or tartauga eggs. Tarakaja eggs in August (later part of month)
and by early Sept, turtle eggs. Some years all move down in this time, eating
eggs of both turtle and tarakaja and killing turtles in drying streams. This
year only expeditions of men, late August, men and women spend two weeks.

November- Following planting, open time when no work done on g .rEcns.
Must only wait. All group moves to campo (see notes Dec 10) staying from 4-8
weeks hunting, fishing, collecting piki (very plentiful) macaba nuts, etc.

Oct 15 Dec 15- both cappo and matto, honey can be collected and in
abundance. On campo, each-household had honey in early December. Honey of many
kinds collected and'used.

On campo, macaba nuts and toku nuts (penawa and txawana) are collected to
make fat, used for body and hair.

Dec 15 Feb 15- By mid December all are back in village and by this time
new corn is available steadily until Feb 15. (Corn gives'2-5 mos) in great
abundance. Makes up biggest item in diet from Jan 1- Feb 15.

Men hunt great deal in these times. Wura groups hunt and feast. Caititu
greatest number. Men go to campo. During rains pork are many and easy to kill.


Yet peat is always a luxury to these people. Dec-Feb, jaboti are plentiful
in matto and few days pass without men bringing several into village.

March-April peanuts, and beans and pumpkins begin to be eaten. March,
April, May, mandioca manos, batala, kara, bananas, etc, this is real harvest
season of gardens and steady season of fiesta.

8andioca gives 9-13 mos.
Mancioca manso, 6-7 mos
Beans, fava, 4 ios.

May-June begin fishing, yet still have fava, teijao, mandioca, plentiful
garden products.


Before large battle in which Tapirape were waylaid by Caraja, Tapirape
killed four Caraja. Five came to village and one escaped. Caraja who escaped
called waoka. Four killed were:

1) ianxoro killed by tancowi
2) uwe killed by awanaii

5) komakari killed by wantapokorawa
4) antamaowi killed by maeumi

The ancunga or iunwera are owned or "creado" by descendents of men who
killed Caraja. They say "Karanga iunwera cimawa". Creador or owner of 1) is
ipawangwungi (Domingo); of 2) kanacipa; of 5) ikorapeto; of 4) maeumi (his father
killed Caraja.)

During time of upetawa, Karanja iunwera come to takana. "owners must bring
kani to takana for ancunga to eat. They must prepare boand with feathers, great
headdress for their ancunga, thus:

See collection for ianxoro ancunga.

made of buruti or shirt modernly
of hammock.)

Ant. Perrera says that ikorapeto and kanancipa
are lazy and have not fulfilled their obligations
to their ancunga. Only Domingo and Maeumi make
headdress and dance. (Fig. is headdress, skirt
of cloth material, formerly of close woven cloth



As described by Ant P., maeumi leads his iunwera out of takana to takana-
uwuter, (dance ground) followed by Domingo with ianxoro, his ancunga. Anc.n=sa
follow owner. Owner pauses, then woman comes out speaking tL ancunga, tnen another
woman speaks to other. At each pause f-rst one ancunga "cries" or shouts and
then, the other. Finally "owner" leads ancunga back into takana and men all
eat of kaui, prepared by wife of "owner."

Say that of tribe called by Tapirape kopi, ikorapeto has or is "creador" of
one, of Kayapo, Domingo, ikorapeto or canei are "owners" ie ancestors killed,
says there are others. Cannot remember who has iriweha iunwera. But do not
have masks or bring them out during upetawa as they must have formerly.

eanwurup, epileptic

Late in last evening antancowi fell with epileptic attack near house but
in praca. Young men loitering in place immediately ran to pick her up. Carried
her out of village i.-to brush. While she was still foaming and writhing, several
had intercourse with her. She came to but several held her while others raped
her. Gave names of ten men who raped her. Today she fell again and quickly
taken to brush, saw three men mount her. By that time she had come to and men
had to hold her legs. She was screaming and crying but too weak to fight much.
Said that five had raped her before these three. Even Pancei (capitao) mounted
her. Brother did not say anything, only ask me to take her away with me, and was
sad. No rebuttle to others. Much laughter about rape (called amutxino) but all
men lied about whether they took part. Even three I saw mount her. Said "no
all others ate her, I didn't want. She smelled" but all who said that had taken

Kamairaho said that Tapirape always did this. About month ago, Tanui fell
with her epileptic attack in house. Five men picked her up, put her in hammock
and raped her. Her husband, Ant. Perrara, returned and stopped show. Next day
he beat her and broke off marriage. Now he had taken her back. K. says that since
antancowi has no husband there is no one to. stop men. Also, when woman is "killed
by ancunga" or faints and has no husband, she is raped thus.

For this reason, Tapirape do not want epileptic for wife. She is open to
such "gang shale" when attacks come. cont




When men were rapin- antancowi, men chased small boys away who seemed to
want to take part.

Kamairaho remembers several other women who were eanwurup. Says that one
gave birth to child and it was.buried immediately. Never allow children to live.
One died after attack and rape. Death attributed to attack of epilepsy and not
to mass rape.

Eanwurup caused by eanwuruwa, are beings living above who come down and
attack (or enter?) men and women who are open to such attacks. K. says they are
male and female and are small as if people. Says they are white and cant be
seen for they live among the clouds. Strike in day or night. Says that these
strike when people are very young and through life are open to eanwurup, to
epileptic attacks. Says that small child can be treated with mandiagahawa,
foliage of mandioca, after attacks, and attacks will not reappear. After
individual is about 15 yrs, no remedy can help.





kuca acahut, woman lacerated ie ahit, my laceration neahit, your laceration

This is done by Tapirape during time of "new corn" each year. Year that
woman is "tatooed" depends upon her own will, comes after marriage, usually a
few years after. For example, this year three young women are being "tatooed:
1) Taniwaya (Capitao Pancei's wife) who is childless and about 20 years old,
has been married (and married with intercourse) for many years. 2) iparamei,
the youngest, no older than 15, no children, married many years. 5) mariampawungo
(kamuriwa's wife) (one abortion known) about 18 yrs old.

Woman ideally should not have children before she undergoes operation.
Say that women have been known to have children before. a.acirawa (aged about
16 yrs) planned to have operation but she has been ill with mumps and decided.
against it, that is, kantuowa decided for her. Mariakawio (wife of mariaibi)
became frightened and put off operation. Tampaputunga, at least 50 yrs of age,
said that she would be tatooed but on day before she became frightened as usual
and refused. She has done this each year. No special pressure except th-t she
is considered not as attractive as other women and other wom n laugh at her lack
of courage. Constantly ask her during this time if she will have operation done.
Kamairaho remembers, two w men who went through whole life without being tatooed.
Ideally, young woman is kucunmoku (young woman) and with operation ends that age
status and she becomes Kucan;iwete (middle aged).




On second day Urukumu began work tatooing Tampaputunga, ikoriwantori's
wife. She is oldest woman (about 28-30) not tatooed. After he had cut outlines
on one side (these are cut deeply) she screamed struggled free and ran for the
brush. No effort was mad to bring her back. She stayed there all day, returning
only at night. Husband seemed to show no interest, all heartily laughed at her.
She will now have to wait another year, with face scarred but not tatooed. All
say that, if she did not have husband, all men would have run after her in the
brush and mass raped her, one after another, in same manner as epileptic called
amutxino. Kamairaho remembers five occasions when this mass rape took place
because women ran from tatoo. Once woman's husband told men to go ahead with rape.
Other four cases where women not married "when Tapirape had many women." So
forced to go through at least one year (or if still afraid, through life) with
half finished tatoo and being mass raped. Wipes out woman's prestige, and, if she
secures husband (nowadays she will most certainly have husb) it will be man of low
rank and little soc position. Threat of mass rape stands before all women
undergoing operation for their husbands might consent men might go ahead despite
husband. Men threaten this.


Work done by urukumo. Head held by kucinatu, extended sister. Done in
house of urukumu in front of door. Instruments made of "paca inscissor (inferior)
kanawano unga" called kotungo. Operator sharpens bone point by rubbing it on stone
after cutting bone with knife into fcrm.
Urukumu worked with three
using one until seemed dull then changing
to other. Leaves of kaaona ( )
are soaked in water and used to plaster
on lacerated parts to dye tatoo marks.

Patient lies on floor, head held by
woman over ears. Operator sits on bench.
First with lines of face tatoo are etched in to direct work. Then
outline is cut rather deep and water of kaaona is placed on cuts and rub ed in,
turns black on contact with face. After one side has been etched in, side is
vertical and then horizontal in slices until face is mesh of cuts, thus:
Blood is washed with water mixed with leaves and rubbed in vigorously.
Blood runs in mesh over woman. Instead of quick slashes, must be slow
controlled cuts. Woman (taniwaya) cried but did not fight. Women cry
in anxkai ankai (it hurts, it hurts, or I hurt) (even sound of crying
in pain is culturally determined). During end she moved shoulders to ward off
knife but not violently. Operation took from 9 AM to 4 PM, seven hours. No
respite, urukumu resting only for minutes.


At end woman's face is horridly swollen. She is assisted outside house
and women bring water for her to wash. Kamuriwai came to receive cuts. Urukumu
scrapped arms and legs while woman was washing, as if to show "that men are not
afraid of what woman must suffer." Pancei p-id Kamuriwei string of beads for his
being scraped.

Instead of returning to own house, tanivaya returned to urukumu's house
and lay in hammock there. Husband came treated her face with leaves of cotton
plant. Leaves are washed, dried by cooking them in dry pot, until dry enough to
burn. Leaves stuffed in pipe and lighted, then smoke blown over her face by
blowing through mouth of pipe, smoking leaving the mouth piece of pipe. Smoke
of cotton leaves pain. Woman did not sleep night after, lay in
hammock in urukumus's house. Next morning was given kaui, only this could be
eaten, because of swollen face.

Pancei paid urukumu several strings of beads; taniwaya paid large block
of urucu and will make a hammock later for urukumu. Kucinantu, who held head,
did not ask for payment and was not paid. Kamuriwai paid-one string of beads for
taking scrapes for husband.

Interesting that absolutely no ceremony or songs accompanies tatooing of
women. Taken as work and operation while passing of men from boy to young man to
man etc take place at time of dance (mon kauya).


Men scratched with teeth of caxorro fish inserted into piece of gourd,
but held in place by bead of wax: Scratching of men's legs called acahit as well
as women's.

After operation, cotton leaf smoke blown over face, then leaves of "canna
fistula" (cana) are heated and placed over wound to draw out pain and reduce
swollen face. Also use Paniri ( ) to stop pain. Juice is squeezed from
shoots around the roots and juice placed on face.

Black made from tatanuka rubbed on wound after dwelling goes down each day.
Later, clay pot is heated and applied to wound, over tatoo marks grows a layer of
tatanuku about P" thick when scabs fall,off falls this layer of black.


When Tapirape kill a Pantxe, maracokanera (killer) must eat tanimoka (a
white clay found near small stream) and he must drink a mixture made of tomankura
amapira (calf leg ornament tassel) cut into small pieces and boiled in water.
He then vomits up "blood of pantxe" (cleansing himself). Then each year at time
of Kanio (water and two ears of corn ) marocokanera must drink of that until
vomiting, cleansing himself each year.

When pantxe is killed, all men next day must scratch themselves. Showed on
legs, lower and upper, on arms all over, on chest and back, "until blood flows
much." Then, all men pass jenipapa over whole body and urucu in hair, thus cleans-
ing all. (Seems to be blamed on whole group.)


Only two men know how to do operation, urukumu and kamaira, at present.
Formerly there were several and several operations might go on in village in one
day. For each young woman being operated a female friend or relative holds her
head. Both operator and head holder (ankumuk, to hold head) are generally paid.
Ideally yo. woman spins cotton and weaves a hammock to give her operator for work.
Her husband gives operator beads, a facol, a bunch of arrows (showed ten fingers)
etc. Then, after operation of woman, one man must stand by woman and operator
scrapes his arms and legs, causing blood to flow freely. Ideally, husband should
stand for his wife but husband not caring to pays another man to stand and be
scraped at time of wife's operation. Payment usually arrows, axe, facol, or beads.


ancirekakantu, male or female favorite child
acimano, pretty or beautiful (ie wura acimani) used to describe child who
is acirekokantu.

Kamairaho and campukwi explained that sons or daughters of capitao is
acirekakantu. *'.hen boy is kononomi, he is a. He does not carry wood, he does
not carry water, he is not dirty, he does not work, he does not bake food (which
all konomi do). His mother takes him to brush to deficate. He is painted with
kwanci iana. He is clean. He has wrist ornaments. Only cirekakantu have
ankle ornaments (ie gemals girls or male cirekakantu.)" Kamairaho said that
formerly each village had only two real ac. This is backed up by ceremonies,
for at kao wete which I witnessed, there were only two konomis dancing with
anguro or red arara headdress. K says that these are acirekahantu, they were
kancinapio and iwai. This year there will be wanapio and iwai. At monikahuya
in day, when yo man wears headdress to tie hair, there are two headdresses worn
by two boys. These headdresses are of wurancinga and wanakura made by elder
brother groups of each moiety.

When these favored children became adult, th. -- became capitaos said Kam.
When ac tied hair hc became capitao and father retired (yet capitao is new
artificial term).

Kamairaho was such a favored child. He says that when he was ac, there was,
one ac called Kameniona who died before time (about time) of tyiu-: his hair. He


was slightly older than K. Says K that ac drink of kauiho, in some manner as
alder people of same status. Tanopao, calls older people who have been ac are
called this in later years.

During kauiho says Tanopao palm oil or pork grease is placed on back, and
ancunga awawanema, anurai (morcegq) and amn'Liakii:ei come make circles around ac,
then wipe oil of back and oil their heads and arms. Tanopao says there are two,
one wurancinga and one wanakura. They stand in center of dance ground while
ancunga makes cirles around them. These two are boys.

Formerly says K only people who had been such drank of kauiho. Said that a
man who had been ac always made a son such if "he was worthwhile and not ruim".
If more than one son or children, there was only one acirekakantu in family.
Often women were such. Seems that woman or female did not take such an important
place in ceremony. She wore elaborate decorations and was favored for work.
Kamairaho says she wore string ornaments down back and she wore necklace of
monkey (kuxio) teeth. She was decorated with kwanciana. Says that both"wore
much urucu on hair".

Kamairaho remembers one female acirekakantu who seems to have been famous.
"She did not go far to deficate. Her mother went with h-r. She did not go
after water; she sta.-ed in house and mother br-apht water to her." She was a
great capitao." She was called mariamn.:..riingo, the present was called after her
for she is descendent and was intended to be ac but her fa died not able tL cent




continue process.

K remembers another woman who was amcirekakantu, Tamparawi, she was carried
off by Caraja in attack. Sister to Kantuowa (wife of wantawamu who died) was
amc; yet Kantuowa is not. They are sisters but of different fathers. Father
of elder sister was amci---

Describing system Kamairaho said that woman did not work at all. .hi made
hamrocks and string ornaments. Work she could do sitt:i- still. "Sht- did not
walk. She did not cook. She married (both T and Marampawunga were) but her
mother cooked for her husband.'" When she had first chila, she dropped her ease
and began to cook and work. Kamalraho "'Sn could make her child amcirekakantu
now." Speaking of formerly, for both sexes, K said that mothers br' uht
water to them to bathe in gourds. "They did not walk to water to bathe." Of
males, he said that even at the age of Kancinapio, a mother would walk with son
amcir to matto to deficate but they "would not go far."

K explained that boy did not hunt, nor make -arJen nor carry firewood.
"He did not walk" he stayed in house. After boy had tyed hair, several years
afterwards even often he was married. He cut off ankle ornaments and then took
part in hunt and might make garden. Before this "Tap rou git him mandioca,
pork, caititu, kara, he ate much. His father was capital."

During time he spent time in purely sedentary pursuits "He made many arriw,



he made upe, uro, uropema, etc." He learned how to make all dance masks, in
short he became expert in manual and sedentary technics of culture. Kamairaho
was such, said that he had been married for two years before he cut off ankle

According to Kamairaho, right could be inherited from either mother or
father. Says that women liked to have daughter for amcirekakantu, although
usually made oldest child of family if great difference for possibly (he
explained) by the time second child was born first was already amci, and only
one to family.

Explained that there should be one kononomi ancirekakantio for wurancinga
and one for wanakura, that there should be two thus for each aldea, yet thus,
among adults there would be several in each aldea. Explained that many amcire
did not make their children amcire because they were lazy "mother of amcire
worked very hard.y father of amc worked very hard." Says th :t because of this
there are no true amcire today. Several are called such, ie Kancinapio was,
iwai, and wanapio, only wanapio have the ankle ornaments which are sign.of
position. Says that wananpi will probably cut them off for Pancei does not
care. No Tap care. Ampitaya, his adopted da, drank of kauiho and is sometimes
called such but as K explains she works. Of people alive muerai, very old woman,
mother of cuwuparei, was true amcir. She did not follow up to any of her
children, did begin with a son but he died young before tying hair. K, of men,
was nearest to ideallor extreme. (Note, he carried his sedentary habits clear



thru, for he has been of great status. Did hunt but it seems he never made
habit of clearing his own roca. He has always used communally cleared fields.)
Of all present men called capitao, he says that none were. Tanopao says that he
was amcire, but Tap say that he did not wear ahkle ornaments. Of Pancei, K says
he became pantxe and while awaciwete became capitao. Same of Urukumu. Kamaira
became capitao in middle age too says K (evidentally because of his strength
and intelligence).

K explains that Tap have many "capitao aura" as he seems tc prefer to call
amcirekakantu. He evidentally dislikes idea and likes to treat it as sons and
das of capitao or man of status.

Evident that man who was not such could make his son amcirikukantu. Urukumu
with his status gained thru pantxe (and Pancei or Patari) have made their sons
amci as it occurs today. (See other notes). They are better painted,coeaner,
are better and more carefully fed and take ceremonial parts of amcirekakantu.
Kamairaho says Tap are ruim, they have no amcirekakantu.

Note: When word is used today, people immediately go back to use capitao,
konomi capitao, etc, in its stead.

Above could be done formerly says Kamairaho. He returned to idea of bathing
and said young man sat and mother brought water to him for bath "it was much work
for mother", cont



As it exists today, enough to make a great difference between children.
Note in first books, ampetaya pushing over other children. TAn pio has never
been seen in such situations but takes place as leader, iwai is better protected,
plays less with others, has miniature cekuha (fish trap) etc etc and spEn1~s
time with mo and fa.



Almost all Tap women are down with fever, as well as many men; husbands go
about saying they are hungry because women can-ot work. Say that they do "not
know/how" to cook nor make farinha. Great laughter when anee spent morning
making farinha. C said "I am capitao, cook, make farinha, I don't know how"
but several went to beg farinha of anei when he had finished.

Campukwi and imanwungo went to look for honey, returned with same late in
afternoon. Pancai was to use this to clear village of fever. Honey was mixed
with water in gourd. P went from house to house takinri- honey in mouth and spray-
ing it over house. In house where there was fever he s.r-ei honey mixture over
sick person and rubbed body as if to clean it of foreign substance. Spr,-ed
inside of house sides of all houses (feast for roaches) and takana.



When girl has first menstruation, she must wait until ends. Them, she is
painted completely black (as awaaoi) with jenipapo (ancimanion). After this
wears off, she rubs hair thickly with urucum and her body is painted in stripes
(ancimanitururu) as surubi fish. After second menstruation, she paints wkkare
with jenipapo and again rubs hair with urukumu. After this she is painted
kwanciana for many times. Now she does not wear leg ornaments any more.

After Birth of child she ends painting kwanciana and paints only in manner
of kururu. Drawing


About time Kamairaho was to tie hair, a group from Santa Maria on Araguaya
arrived at Tapirape. By then iroka and cokikwi who knew Tori had died and
Tap already knowing ? and a few words of language were deathly afraid. They
were brought by Valedaron says Kamairaho who had previously visited Tapirape,
seems that beofre that Tapirape men had occasionally travelled on Araguaya,
also had not been many generations since Tapirape had lived there.

First group consisted of Alfredo, Curaro, penambe, and Valedaron. Stayed
only a few days in aldea.

Second group was maldacaru group. Tniez: found anikana, a Tap man and
amokancani, a woman on Argguaya and br-a-i-it them back to village. Also, used
them as guides. Brought woman overland in hammock. She had either broken leg
or had bad infection. (These facts checked by man in Goyaz, ask there about
date, for me, date about 1900 to 1905)

Alfredo took out several Tapirape: inanio male, ancanika faie, Kamaira
male, amokancani female, and anikana male. These five were so frightened, all
ran away. Ancanika before leaving stole rifle belonging to Kuraro but lost
rifle on long trip. Rifle fell in water when he crossed Araguaya. Xristao ran
after and caught woman and one other either inanio (or anikona). Later Maldacamu
who had connection with Ser Prob dos Indios returned them and used them as
guides. Kamairaho says "Malducaru was angry with Alfredo".




Third group to come says K were Padres and were brought
Kamairaho gives name of Padres as manoka and Padre Buinika.
Sebastiao came. Date which Seb gives on rlacaerd in port is
these before .

by Valedaron.
Says later Padre
1914. All of



July 15-18 men of seven families dug mandioca, soaked it, and women were
busy pounding farinha of mandioca and of maize. In each household one or two
women were busy with mortar. From plans seems as if few Tapirape will remain
behind, men, women, and children will walk to Ipirankwanho (small stream to
north, about 4 hrs. walk). There, ipen hunt mutun, jacu driven to water by
dry weather and kill fish (fish about 6ins to 12 ins long) with facalo.

July 20 21 eight families, men, women, and children, left for ijirankwanho,
others plan to leave for stream one day farther to northwest (1- walk) within a
day or two. Some say that all Tapirape are going because of numerous mosquitos
at present. Only those who are behind with work on reca remain behind.

July 25 eight men and wives went to stream called ipirnkancinra with
children left for larger stream. Urukumu stayed behind because of miscarriage
of wife. From 23d until 26th village contained only three families and several
young men, silent and empty. Campukwi and Ant. went and remained two days with
ipirankawaho group.

July 27 Kam. returned with fair catch, complained that all .were lazy and
killed few fish. Fish about 4 ins long and trieria (P.) about 10" to 14" long.

Second group arrived empty handed but with duta kill on road. .o fish they
said because of rains, complained that wantanamu who dreamed that fisz ini was
good there had "lie dreams."


June 7- oprunxui, maeuma, r .n..i (Ant Perr) koirawatori, and two others
left to fish for small fish (largest about 6" long). Distance to fii!:.; stream
one long days walk. Str-am now dr ing. Group arrived back in vill .: with smoked
fish in load after five days.

June 15- camp-ikwi, ikorowantori, irii, --- ka canapio (youngster) all told
there were nine left this morning for fishing, for okane.

Fish for these by di: ing drying streams with banana brabo leaves, rl.ina
temporary net with leaves.



Women fish for minnows slowly, only ten or twelve, catchi1in a small
fresh-water crab similar to salt water species, but with practically no meat.
Shell, pinchers, et al are eaten.

wiom:cn fish for minnows by masticating corn, spittin. it into a land conch
(caramoucha or ara-uay Bussino) as bait. Minnow enters conch while woman waits.
Minnow about 2" long. Woman then takes out conch which minnow cannot leave
because of voltas of conch. bhile b'thing th.-: while :" time collecting
hardly enough minnows to feed one person. One c.iKht three minnows and four

Tinow .s are wrapped in banana brabo and baked, or boiled. Grabs
over coals or boiled. Minnows are mashed into a paste. Pepper :,:fr.
At this time (April) Tap are eating minnows each day caught in traps.

are baked
, into paste.

In last two weeks nine men have set traps, and equal number are ,.:- rkr.,:


cekaha. See Drawing.
Made with bark or strips of bacaba, hoops in mouth made of soft pliable
pole. Three hoops, tied to bacaba staves with embira. Use placed in small
running stream, many of them each man may make two or three if energetic at
time. Go to gather catch each day. Fish of varied kinds of small 6" piaa
in Brazilian and Peixe de Sabon, and mandi, etc, iu, Terms are local Brazilian.

Cekuha is ancunga, campukwi says that it is ancunga aampakaiya (spirit
aompu makes? cried) This spirit calls to the fish, calling them to enter thus
kampekwa kampekwa ereke una.

To the cikuha, the electric eel (puranke T. or treme treme) is dangerous.
When one enters, the cikuha becomes ill and w-ll not call fish. Thus next day
no fish will be found in trap. Knowing fish Tap immeeaiately remove it from the
water. "Jacare is not dangerous, he is small, he remains there and dies. T
eat him."

If a woman eats of fish caught in such trap while she is menstruating, no
more fish will come. "cikuha (ancunga) is sidk. Likewise, if man eats pumpkin
(ahulbura) (kuriwa) while his trap is in the water.

Trap is not lost. Cure is to leave trap for three or four days. Then,
rub small leave planted called amumaya over entire trap, first breaking it in
hands. Then, rub entire trap gently with urucum prepared I.-th palm oil. Then,



tobacco smoke can be blown over trap in same manner as
Leaving it a few days the ancvronea is cured (is healed,
people who heal from illness). Then, little by little

in treating people.
ankuerham, word used for
trap will again call fish.

A man m:kirn such a trap must make it outside of house, if t.-ere be a small
infant boy present (showed child of 8 mos and one of 2 yrs as old enough to see,
says very small, ie to two months) If infant sees tr;-p it will die for spirit
of child will enter trap and will die. Says that first son of campukwi died
od such, was careless allcoinr son even to touch trap as he worked.

Ant Perr says that he (and all Tap) say incantation (which ancunga cries)
(before spit in water) when place trap in water.. Incantation kampe kwa, kampe
kwa, ereke uaa.


(Rough version)

"Many rains ago" it rained until water began to cover earth. One Tapirape
and wife, however, sat on small tree, only a twig. It began to grow until they
were well above the water. All other Tapirape died. But one Tap and wife were
safe in crotch of tree, became buruti. After they had been there soet-i'me,
this Tap began to shoot ipirambuku (bicudo), cimukwure, and snakes. They shot
them with small leaves of buruti stalks, as they shot one fish or one snake,
water diminished a little. Finally, earth appeared.

Then, Tap. and wife built small house and house grew in size as they h d

After flood, Caraja came from union of snakes, thus, caraja are snakes.

Xristao are Ta irape, of children of one Tair-a:E., one man left going east.
He left wife pregnant. Child was male and went to see father with ol'er bro
who knew fa. There, father gave choice, ones to k bow and arrow while other
took rifle, one takin, rifle became Xristao whnle the other returned here and
is Tapirape. Father went north, either to become Tosi, also, or to mythical
house of Sun.


Xawapareumi returned angry from campo, had great words with wife and one
day later beat her. Reason: on day he left all his farinha was wetted by rain.
Okame came saying the campukwi had had intercourse with wife, if wife has
intercourse, farinha will get wet. On hearing this he gave out all of his farinha
to men to eat that day for it one eats farinha day after and if wife had had
intercourse that night one will have horrid lurge stomach.

Tapirape advise me not to eat corn and mandioca manoso on day after Ta ir .oe
have brought it from roca for "all Tap have intercourse much" and they will most
certainly do so after giving me food, thus, food will be worthless and give me
a large paunch. This is reason given for xamaniuma's paunch. "Man brings much
mandioca, he gives it to others. He wants to have intercourse with wife."

When women are making farinha, should not have intercourse, wnen hu-banrds
are on trips should not have contact, will wet or ruin husbands farinha.


In late Sept Tapirape were hit with cold or catarraha. Campukwi came back
from Furo de Pedra with flu. He says that Tap did not die from flu but six
died. Wife of Ant Perr, Wantanamu and wife, irimankoro, manoi (fr cicictawa)
and infants. Campukwi was accused of carrying flu. He was angry and cut down
main pole of takana, which fell.

The susceptibility of these people to flu is appauling, with any steady
contact they would entirely disappear.


Men always come with beans, yamS, etc but their wives carry them here.
They always tal:e sc.1t as exchange present because the woman wants to eat salt.
Several have asked for tobacco but after talking with wives they take salt.
Seems that food once received at house is property of w men.


`,EE glossary in Book II.


Old women waiwi may partake of food prohibited to women and allowed for men.
Animal Can eat
jacu ovo M and F
jacami ovo M and F
chicken ovo M and F
wuraicinga ovo M
ema ovo M
mutum ovo M -and F
tartauga all
jaboti all

tacaho -(pork)

veado d campo
veado de mato

F and

M and M boys



M and M boys
it It ni

F and M
M and M
M and M

and M chn


Body moved about hour after death from small house where pawungo died to
larger house of ipawangi. Reason all grave space was filled in small house.

Sister (Tahui) quickly collected farinha, gourds, string, etc, owned by
woman and burned them. Two clay pots broken; one large one saved to place under
head. Bro (Ant Perr) and sister contributed red cloth to cover body and husband
new hammock made by woman was used to bury her.

Crying (singing of men and wailing of women) went on from midday, time of
death, through night. At interval until next day in late aft. when woman was
buried, then over grave until late on second nite. Next day no mourning in

During crying women gather around hammock/ and body squatting and holding
on to hammock, men dance in circle around hammock.

wanaicoampe, ant Perra, both brothers shaved off hair. Ant P cut off short
w cut off all. Daughter cut off all hair, and sister cut off all hair.

Funeral and general sorrow slighjt woman, most f high status. Dance and
trip to bring awana, ancunga from campo postponed indefinitely.




In distant past, a pantxe saw one night inside of a large house rman animals
(list of those present on other page). Kururu had died and face was painted,
all others were grouped around mourning, in manner of Tapirape funeral. Pantxe
entered, tried to reassure them, but all thbk fright leaving at once. Leaving
kururu alone, pantxe returned.

UTJ' p.L rP :,',F 7;J RE

Died June 26 about 11 am. At about 4 am,' household members h..- n to shout
and cry. By daylight, men relatives arrived and began dance (usually
holding two beats with one "right" foot). Th-re were only two brothers at this
time. News went about village that he was dead, as it did once before. Yet at
about 10 am he actually died. Immediately afterwards, mother and bro asserted
that he was dead by feeling for heartbeat and feeling- for head, the hammock was
moved about 2 feet :12 .v.s in room, and mother (ext) and three bros .began to
shout and cry louder than ever. I'ife lay in hami.ock, as she has all during the
mourning, alongside body. She took little part in the loud mourning, joining in
only now and then. Friends, sis son, bros (ext), and in-laws began to arrive.
At noon some eight men were ..cinr and l: -- _-:. (One said amnonkia, to sing, "no"
--this is "crying".) Tanopao (nerikaiura) -*--*n to prepare body for burial.

Preparation of body
Hair was matted with urucuwn fornIn.-: veritable mat of urukum as a headdress.
Feet, ankels legs to shin painted with urucum. '-?ce painted with jeni -. a.
Adult male and female burial face paint called icoropai. Child male taowanampe.
See 11-65.

Then bird down spread over chest, stomach and upper legs. Body lay on back
in hammock. Their red shirts (two mens) and woman's red dress were thrown over
body. These to be buried with body. (Explains fate of such clothes, see accult.
notebook). Oprunxui, half bro, cut off only part of hair, leaving it bobbed. He



explained that young men did not cut off.

At sundown dancing increased and directly under spot where K's hammock had
hung in house grave was dug. (53 palm-- deep and length of body). Then, T enpan
(bro) iriman curwa (bro), wife, and mother cut off hair, down to stub. Night
relatives danced. (Si son cut all hair, but others criticized him severely.
This is example of his c:-tLism and preening. Actually he shows little real
sorrow in sense of taking much r' rt in mourning.) Bro's son, sis husb, bros and
friends (crmpuk~::i and two others were only friends). '.'om-n mostly sat or lay in
hammocks singin- women bhckgrorni to but a few danced at intervals. At
midnite or zlil.tly after, dancing ended and people at this time were 1-'in. in
hammocks and .inir.l and crying. All were doubly tired and none could dance.
All men danced at night with facoes in hand, and one or two :ith mirrors.

June 29- At dawn (actually before) dancing and crying began again. Ampi's
husb (m husb not fa) began to prrepir.i- grave. Three cross bars were cut and
stuck into sides, one at each end and one in mi -l-. By nor'.r., '. in hammock
was hung between two end and cross bars, body well covered with red shirts and
dresses and enveloped in hammock. Hammock hanging several inches off of bottom
of grave thus: See dra"*ing.

Then, women sat on edge of grave cryin.r and motir.nin toward bo" to come
back and trying to reach bod". Younger brother b-e'-.n to put in burial furniture.
All personal property was buried with K, including five faces, three mirrors,
(broken first). hoe, shirts, and material (some belonging to relatives), three



pair of scissors, pocket knife, two small knives. Beads were broken from string
after some negotiation amo-ng relatives and scattered over body. Some four feet
feet of beads were buried in such manner. Expliin-d that these were beads other
Xristian had brought and that mine were not buried. Did not see any of beads I
brought buried and some beads remained in receptical.

Before this bow and arrow, lance, and feather work (including bonnet in mT
collection) were burned in fire, leaving n6t :_i of personal possessions in sight.
Burned feather work because it is dnro- r*:4s. All arara feathers are 6 :.Crous
and draw ancunga.

Mothers's husb continued (rather placidly) to complete grave. Bro had to
hurry to put in last pair of scissors. Lonr poles were lain across cross bars
putting top on grave. Over bars and top three mats were spread prevwnti:-' dirt
from filtering into grave. Remained in this states for several hours, in late
afternoon, women began to cry louder and dancing intensified mourning ; kept up all
afternoon) and women relatives began to pour I-.nlfuls of dirt into grave. Only
women filled in grave, finished pile of dirt was some 2- feet high.

At sunset only relatives danced out of house sinrinr and cr.-ing movin-- into
takana where they danced, then out of northwest door into -ancini: ground, hck
thru takana to house. At nite mourn inr continued, Very little next day. Women
mourned loud when they poured water over grave making dirt settle. At sunset


relatives again danced thru takana to -iancinc ground and back to house. Tanopao
still cried but mostly in his own house. Little dancing by other relatives.

Second day after burial, mother (ampi) came visiting cried a minute then
laughed with others and played. Third i'n an occasional spubts of personal (not
singing mourning). Village back to normal. Except sunset, when mourning
continues a few minutes.

Says K- became ancunga after one day of death, ie after burial. Possibly
relatives dance to takana ancunga there, this is one informants vague




'W, -,7


t AiSl


See Bk II.
Locations of roca are spoken of by using the name of small stream by which
they are located. Gardens far from water are not good, thus all gardens are
near small stream ie stream that flows in rains but is dry in dry season.
Gardens are spoken of as
kacakuriwa, as kauwunopia,
ka okuu, etc.
This year no common labor
or apatxiro. But as shown or
spot work, thus. Group works
making garden called kateuya
(ka, garden; teuya, )
For example, one one year old
to NE of village. Large plot
is cleared for "common fields" or kateuya. Work is done in "common labor" in
clearing of small brush, of cutting large fields. Not sure how many days apatxiro
on common fields. One man counted out ten days work on field to NE. Work done
by wura groups (see description of apatxino). When work is done, field is not
truly common field, it is divided private plots. Stakes are driven waist high, or
more commonly, logs are lain across path that always goes through kateuya, thus:
Men owning private plots in kateuya plant them in
individual work. Wives plant their husbands part in
peanuts and cotton. Results of private plots of common
fields belong to individual. Yet, each year not all
men can have part of kateuya.



Besides work done in apatxiro, men work in individually, or with helper.
(See Bk III for combinations 193a) on private field. Ideally of private fields
Tapirape clear of brush and trees the gardens of capitaos in apatxiro. Say they
would clear fields of Kamairaho first, then Urukumu, Pancei, Kanaira, Tanopao,
Maeumi, Wantikanta, Campukwi. But not of such "commoners" as ipawangwungi,
Alfredo, mancoi, etc. These men, however, do own planting.

This year no apatxiro. Kamairaho, capitao, did not clear garden but shared
in roca of yo. relative who did heavy work of clearing. Urukumu, with yo. relative,
did actual work of clearing. Wantanamu (dead) work hard on clearing of own field.

Year before, Tapirape cleared field for Kamairaho. Awantikantu (capitao)
worked and cleared himself large field. After kateuya was cleared he took no
part of kateuya.


This year between plots of Wantanamu and campukwi, the latter left four
post cut about shoulder high to mark boundaries between two fields.




March 10-30 harvesting of corn (ie dried corn). ain, men did not have
sufficient corn left to bother with harvest. Green corn of campukwi, for example
was eaten by him and all Tap, other gardens were almost played waste to by
tapirs and deer 'veado de mato). Those who had sufficient corn built hurried
frame house covered with banana brabo, corn was tied in long strings by husks
and hung form center rafter, house in garden. Corn will thus be sought when
needed. With present circumstances of many roaches and wetted village, many
used garden houses as shelters moving there for time.

March 20, approx. Tap began to harvest yams (kara) were small, like new
potatoes, and new mandioca manso.


Domingo says that Tap ate much of his maize. Did not steal but ask him
first. Iparawaho (and Campukwi) his sister, tapaputungo, (sister) iparamai
(from cicutawa) bro, tamanikwawa (from cicutawa) father's bro but extended, and
Pancei, itotura from cicutawa. Explains that "I am not miserable" "No one
eats mandioca or millo from garden of Kancipa. He is miserable. He said no
to his sister" who asked if she might have mandioca from garden. Thus, in easy
manner is Tap economics. Witness only for one case of Antonio, no garden, no
work, but eats regularly.


Kamanare died. Bananal and gardens used by actual brothers ikomantori and

Wantanamu died. Gardens used by txawa pikanta and Pancei, first sister's
son and second "extended father". Pancei takes use of roca because he has just
moved Eere from cicwtawa and is without roca.

No great importance placed upon inheritance since property is insignificant.
Only roca and roca newly planted last only one year. Mancioca is e .sy, any one
can by asking dig mandioca from any relative's garden. No stress or econ strain
that might cause any disruptions over gardens, ie contrast to Guatemala is exact
other pole.


Campukwi collected new corn (heavy load) from field of ankitawera (bro in
law) ipawangwungi. Told him first.

Kamairaho collected new corn (small load) from field of Ant Perrera without
asking. AP is K's extended son or "son" macaco. Antonio (anawai) and pance-
parunga were along but neither collected corn in field.

When man has travelled very far and has been gone for many days, sometimes
months, his wife, sisters, and his brothers may mourn him in same manner as if
he were dead. At sunset they may cry for him from homesickness (ianjunka hope)

On arrival of man, he enters house going immediately to sit in hammock.
Relatives come near ask "ecutipu" (have you arrived?); he answers "e e" (yes,
yes). Then, he may be embraced, but slightly. Then, he and wife and brothers
should cry. People sit near hammock where he sits and cry for some half hour.

When Kamaira arrived from visit to Ara-uay:a, his wife, her mother, anci
Kamairai came to cry with him, but very little. Kamairaho, T'nui, Ant P
embraced me and began to cy but did not continue.

Kamairaho says with pride, that when he returned from his one trip to
Araguaya, many people cried. He sayd Urukumu cried (his extended brother) then
enumerated others, point of pride for number and status of those crying during
greeting. As described by Kamairaho, a full hour or so of crying. I have
never seen. Short crying and then laughing and conversation today, Kamairaho
complains that Tap do "not know how" as they did when he was a youth.




In grief, anger, or anxiety, Tapirape are like same Tapirape children with
temper tantrums. In mourning ceremonial wailing and singing is interrupted by
screaming and shouting frustratedly. Anger is direct accompaniment of grief.
People cut off hair in hurried grief-anger spell, and reveal wished later that
they had not been so hasty. Reactions anger, pout (want to go off along),
want to go away far (escape) and people will be sorry, destroy good property.
This seems to correlate with spoiling of children. Whatever child demands he is
given and later he must give up to older people, run their errands, etc.