Field Notes - B, C, 1939-1940


Material Information

Field Notes - B, C, 1939-1940
Series Title:
Tapirape Project Files
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Wagley, Charles
Charles Wagley ( donor )
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Box: 5
Folder: Field Notes - B, C, 1939-1940


Subjects / Keywords:
Anthropology--United States--History
Galvao, Eduardo Eneas
Gurupa (Para, Brazil)--Photographs
Indians of South America--Brazil
Tapirape Indians
Tapirape Indians--Photographs


General Note:
Folder 5

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:

Full Text






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rocha branco--ipirantxanta
maca--komari txanta
rocha--txanta pirunga
banana terra--abepakungamae
banana do porte (regiderra)--txanta txowa


All basket work service of males, work done at oci moments. Some work on
basket for as much as a six week or two motth period, ie Kamairaho has had two
baskets in progress at one time for two months. Frequently men hand work in
progress in takana, going there in midday (when sun is too hot to work) and working
a few minutes. At one time there were six baskets ganging in takana. All
work plaited.

Types of processes:

1) ape over three and under three, twilled. See basket No 5 gives design
2) ipipauma, over two, under two, in diagonal twilled See basket #4 bottom
like almost all over baslets called urocinga
5) iniwu uwa See baskets no. 3a and 3b. Seemingly over two, under two,
what is difference.
4) Uro awampupara, decorated w-th genipapo See basket No. 1, not good item.
Basket finish and top part covered with genipapo, when almost dry rubbed with
banana leaf removing genipapo from raised portions giving decorated effect.
Negative design. Of basket No. 1, lower part is ipipauma.
6) uropema ( for farinha). techiic called urocinga, twilled leaving
space over two, under two. See uropema No. 6.
7) tope, process called ape
8) Basket No. 2. upper part ape, lower hald ipipauma. Bottom ape.
9) anampae, basket with led oval shaped, led fitting completely over the
body. See draljing.





campankanio (Gaviao penaxo Br)

wampani (Gaviao middle size, eats mutum, kucio, jacu

ianwunyamae, small gaviao.

Said that when birds die (as did captive perquito) it is caused by dreams
of hawks who are pantxes.

Also pantxe:

urukuriha, owl of matto

pupupio, curaxon

txawdntaho, k-yapo ianjunk

See story of campankanio and bros. Campankanio who was yo bro and hawk
called canekwera.

Pregnancy result of intercourse. Pantxe has dreamed, bringing Kanawafaura
which (in dream) he stuffs up her womb. Then, later man has intercourse and woman
becomes pregnant. Says that tukunara, araya, jariki (uwu cango, fish wananao
ruromatar) pacu, tacaho, jakami, have children which Pantxe may steal and bring.
Say piranhe have children but pantxe cannot bring them for they are brabo and
bite. Kai have children and when pantxe bring them they are bo-3 growing up to
be adulterors, most such children seem to come, however, from thunder.

In spite of this, children are born without dreams, only thru intercourse.

Paaki was born after Pancei, pantxe, had been given jakami to eat. He
then dreamed that night and brought small g-rl.

When Baldus was here, he as pantxe dreamed and bringing from Thunder a son
to cawamaumi. It was good for son is very light skin (aa) clear while skin

Women wanting children may bring homey to Pantxe for him to eat. He may then
treat her head with smoke, then dream bringing child.

Say that oocingo Campoo deer) have no children. "No they are anc-:i--."

uputona (night) has children, but pantxe does not bring them for they have
dark skins and only go about at night. cont




Girl child treated as boy child after birth, except for immediate lip
piercing. Bathed and rubbed with urucu, etc. Afterbirth was buried outside house,
blood in house covered with dirt.

Mother did not want child f r about an hour, then ask for child and took
child, offered it her breast and smiled. Father showed little interest, looked
once and walked away to converse in takana with other men. Women relatives
cooked kaui for mikantu, only food. In late afternoon, she was walking about,
carrying child.


Said that dogs eat iaopawa, afterbirth, but not Tapirape. Said
Tapirape would die if ate it. Interesting speculation.



Each of the women (there were four) took about 5" of small beads while
Kamiaraho's wife claimed c new facoe given to him day before. Pantxe asked
nothing, usually asks facoe or beads. Kamance asked large beads one necklace.
These reo-Ile mr-y not be refused what they ask but those who ask too much. (as
c said k's wife did) are not considered as friends. C was sad about this rapid
loss of wealth. He had not believed that wi's sis would claim anything.
Tanui who helped about one hour, that is she sat and watched, came to claim
beads -and asked wife who told c what she wanted. C refused .nd tanui left in


Kanawano, only like yo women and pantxe can only bring children to such.
Kanawano would be angry if brought to old woman.

Pregnancy- After woman announces pregnancy must have intercourse for few
days many times "pitunga aampa" then, must have few times. For if child is made
too big (by constant intercourse) mother will die at birth.


0-,-y PAlT11-93




1) String for arco (bow) made from bark algadon brabo tree, and also,
line for hammock. Make embira (for general use) from caximbira tree, and of
mabauba (amauwa) iniuma (hammock cords) made of ampeuwa, jangada

2) Ambauba tree leaves used to smooth off wood works, ie for sand paper in
wood pipes, on arcos, clubs, etc. Also use leaves of smababyba (cowrateLe
sp) for same. Used to smooth spindle whorl and st~kk.

1) Arco made of pati, very hard.

4) Wooden point of arrow made of tukun.


.'hen Urukumu took leave for short stay in his garden (distance 4-6 kilometers)
for four or five days to harvest peanuts, Kantuowa cried, loud ivail lasted about
half hour. When ask her why, she said it was because of lonesomeness for her
brother, Urukumu, ie he is called brother by both she and Kamairaho. This was
done for obvious effect to show man of great position that he would be missed
by wife of capitao of great position. Does not ordinarily take place.

3BU.IAL 11-59

All graves oriented with sides of house thus: See Drawing
with head in northern direction (to left when entering door) or eastern
direction. Pot placed under head.
See drawing.



See Drawings.

44 7. tq rv Z



K says campankanio was killed by cawacio akukonya, ancestors of cawacio
ancestors, these were very large much superior to the present jobiti. Then,
campankaniots son grew larger and larger and went to catch cowacio akukonya, with
success. Then, went with ciripipino (smaller howk) to house to call "all birds"


(Other story, see Bk II)
Two mothers, one climbed tree to hawks nest, other cut entire leaving
brother, brother thought dead, but: when Campankawio came ask who it was and was
told that it was Tapirape. Then, borther married daughter of hawk, and he became
a hawk. Then, his fa-in-law, tamuyaanawera sent son in law to hunt. Son brought
back inamu, fa in law and mo in law ate, brought back fish, in laws ate, brought
back jacu, in laws ate (Good representative of what young man ideally should do)
Finally, he came back and Tapirape saw large hawk. They shot many arrows but
did not hit, he came down and carried off brother which his in laws ate. Later,
many Kayapo, Tori, Caraja were thus carried off by Hawk (See Bk II)

Rough Story

Hawk went to water hunting and saw jaboti stick their necks out:of water;
there were four "wucuk, wucuk, wucuk, wucuk--awawut" Campankanio ran, ran and
caught a jaboti shouting "herokwa, herokwa, herokwa wura acao icope ka uwuwa"
birds come there house
Then, the hawk brought some jaboti eggs, and took them back to taura (his son)
Then, called all birds to house. From eggs, made white, from jaboti blood made
red, from foot of jaboti made yellow, from entrails made black. All the birds
came and took their colors which they have today. "aranamo icemamirung carinet
parrot all red
macopa wakampe imacope, aape imamiona
breast stomach yellow back blue
Carnette took gourdura ani splashed it on his breast (yellow) and entrails on
back making himself blue on the back. Mutum took -} s, and black, and on beak
took a little gourdura. Thus, came antuanai (teteo), anakura (xariema, breast
red) anauno (arara preto), tam.ingo (hawk, etc) All birds. They took the colors
of their choosing.

CAPITAO adoption

Kamaira telling of what makes man of status or capitao listed all those whom
he had adopted and raised. They were seven: campukwi, Domingo, Ant Perr,
Kamairai, iparewao (female), and two other young wmen now dead. He said that
wantanama had adopted many, he was good. Kamairaho had adopted many. "Urukumu
is not good" he says, he has never adopted any children, but K dislikes him as
pantxe, he has excuse of other Tap of his two yo children.

K's wife says she is capitao, for she says she is liberal, she has recently
given Antancowi a hammock and has made one for Antonio (anawani). Kantuowa has
made string ornaments for wanampio, hammock for him, for aerowa she farinha of
peanuts. Liberality is high valued.

In ceremonies, dance headdresses are seldom made by person who uses them.
In Kanawanawerika, Alfredo made headdress to be used by all. For monikahuya,
Kamairaho made angkunitana for Tapiri, gdson. For Domingo, ciantuwahawa. Now
Urukumu is making inimacingo for Kancinapio (as favor for Kamairaho) and K is
working on headdress.

Note: Man calls children he has adopted cirimimawira (male or female)
while children call him by relationship term. Campukwi calls Kamaira ciropu
or by real term ciwurangi.



Says that capitao (meaning wura uwa) is ancungatowa, father to ancunga.
When wrestling has taken place in several EnagE,-Lmints "capitao does and
announces auncewetowa" "enough from your father" to ancunga. Significance
evidentally that it is ancunga, for Tpirape inside takana are ancjj-sL, fighting.
"When capitao goes hunting, he is not there. Capitao wantu announces. She is'
ancungau (mother to ancunga). She cooks kaui, farinha, peanuts, and arn-'Onrla
(ie men inside takana are ancunga) eat much. She is ancungau." Ancunga living
in takana are referred to at times as cirimawa or pets or things that are raised
or petted, ie Br. cirimbato.


Kamairaho explained that formerly a son or adopted son (a favorite son, so
to speak) wore wrist, calf, and the large ankle ornaments. He always walked
well painted and wearing beads. Young capitao did little work, with ankle
ornaments he could do little hunting. Kamairaho wore ankle ornaments until some
time after he tied his hair. The type of favorite child pattern, son of man of
status, developed a man of status or capitao, Yet while man is youth such as
campukwi, who was treated as young capitao in Baising by Kamaira and whose
father was famous capitao, must be active, singing, gives status, personal beauty
highly important, amount of work done in roca and ability in hunt are important
factors, also, may have more important factor for status may show ability as
pantxe. Yet favorite child pattern is important.


Tellwrs, ikoriwantori and campukwi. Note first part clear, last part

Capitawa had two wifes, one named anuntero (awekuwenona) and other kori-
wekero. Capitawa went hunting and was killed by ai.cung'Lho, -One of them dressed
himself in the skin of the capitawa and returned to capitao's house, saying to
the wives "I've returned" Then, he put his facoe (cap. facoe) in beams but woman
said not there (Ancunga did not know the capitao's customary place to leave
facoe). Then, wife said "come, let me pick out your lice" but anci-nga refused
and said "come lets die down" but when he lay down the wife (which wife?) took
his head to pick out his lice and immediately she saw the mouth in the back of
his head, for ancungaho have their mouth with frightening teeth in the back of
their head. Then, both wives being very frightened ran. She ran down thru the
hole made by a tafu and escaped the ancungaho which pursued her. They carried
with them acoro (papagio) which the capitao had tamed. Finally, they met with
manciare (saukaw) and koriwekero conceived a son by him. Then, with the
manciareura (sankaw son) they travelled. The sankaw continually cried for water
and when they were without water the saukaw left. Then, the,', arrived at house of
ancungawe. These were making masks of macaba, when the ancunga had put on the
masks the sisters brought fire and burned the ancanga, they left much fat. Then
the sisters ate fat for three days. Then, koriwekero became an onca. Both then
came to a large tree (ceku ankanuwa) koriwekero spoke cicotura come down and
take us up" whereupon the tree obliged. The sisters sat in the branches and
slept. They, having iranr arara feathers with thm, lecora'be. bIh b}-. pL i ,o-lly



Then, sister awekuwenona set out, ostensibly alone. She came then to hou-se of
awanaho Loboo) and married him and she conceived a child by him, but a -
did not like awahaho for he had many worms, near his anus and penis, he smelled
and when he walked worms (haaka, worms in meat) fell. So a was angry, left,
reaching into her womg snatching out her child saying "here is your son". Throw-
ing it at awanaho, child became taboka (taquari). Then, awekuwenona went on to
house of anakuranunciwi and became his wife. "He is beautiful and has large
house. He has leg ornaments and wrist ornaments, short black hair, he is tall
and he is a man, he is an ancestor."

Meanwhile, Koriwekero had her experiences, she now could only "ancepeancie'
"one talk" and she walked on saying ma ma, panting. Then, tamandua saw much
excrement left by onca and was angry. Tamandua tore out eyes of onca and onca
walked about blind. Then, jawo (bird) made new eyes for onca, now all oncas
have eyes and this was onca ancestor. Koriwekero.

Note, Kamairaho says this story was told him by maranowa, Tap who came with
first Tori, he had travelled away and came back with them.




Pantxes say that ancestor of Caraja is a large snake. Tap call snake imutata,
op said it has barb on lower chin, said circle under eye, stripes around leg (see
figure of body paint is Caraja snake ancestor). This snake probably 'yt:ic'l is
seen by Pantxes years after it emerged.

Op and all checked story of pantxe tying mouth of jacare so Tap may wwim
and wade after fish. (See Bk II) Tie up laraja ancestor or large snake which
lies in wait. Uses small gourd ( ) to hit piranha over teeth. "They
hurt and piranha does not bite Tap."


"xawana ampiak", dog castrate.

Tapirape crush testicles of most male dogs while dogs are pups, each day
squeezing testicles. Also cut off testicles (but not frequent) when young.
Other male dogs are left.

Thus limit number of dogs. Also, first litter (usually dies) but if not
are killed.


1) Wuran Group eat honey. Tested by Pantxes and sunset songs.

2) Takana is built by b'uran groups. Fol-owed by: awau cunga, ireweh=
ancunga trumai, ia.

5) Kanawana werika 10-15 days

4) Campiawa dance of wuran goups. Takes place of a day for m n'- days.

5) Awanai (also, ancunga ampukaiya, anampampam, tampankanci) Tap go to
campo and kill pork, latter ancunga come only if many porkers are killed.
Awanai comes anyway. Also bring buruti to make iracaho.

6) Iracaho (when work finished on mask danced one evening, with this
campiawa ends.

7) Kawaowo at night three nights begins night on which iracaho is danced.

8) Kao after kawaowo, takes place at night until end of rains.

Monikanci at beginning of Kao (called Kaoi) at sunset for 5 (8) nights
monkanci is dance. Following monikauci.



Mon ka huya comes. monkahuya lasts until end of wet season.
Monikahuya danced in day. At sundown have monikao.

Upetawa (caraja iunwera) comes in late rains for one day, and say a.lin
later after end of wet season.

Kawio, at end of wet season, when eecu fall.

Monikahuya during day when young man ties hair.

Maracokanera, capitao makes kawio, experiments, Tap and maracoka nera (killer
of pantxes) drink until vomit. Next day capitao distributes presents. (Kauiho)

At night after ancun-a aparanoju. Next day, ancunga maiuo akawa.

In aft. kaui acimunawa, men dance in line with women behind.

At night kaui pecunawo, dance of youngsters with anguro, and later wuran
groups eat. Women (wives) of anantxa cook for men of iut- *icinii. Wives of
Tanawe for wurancingo. And viceversa. Mothers of wunakura for yc uristers of
wurancinga and vice versa. Also at night have kao (kaowete) Also that night
Guariba attack houses.

Next morning js:1.-' attack women. Ancunga manioakawa. Drink of kawio.

CEREE't.TTI L YEAR AP" -''' I "" .'IL VII-5

Tatanuapao, is few days after end of kao.

Iraca "
Iranwure last whole dry season
Okumoku, etc

upetawa, one day

apatxiro, late dry season with clearing of roca


During rainy season when fresh corn comes in, two pantxes dance, singing,
smoking. They wear feather bonnets and belt. Stop and sit at each house (?).
Kamairaho saw this as the ceremony of Tupinamba, mm in Metraux.


At death of pawungo (see VI-18) campiawa and wura feast were unmier way.
Tapirape were ready to leave for campo to bring buruti for awanai. With death
ceremonies were brought to halt, ana Tapirape say that for reason of grief,
awanai, campiawa, and irancaho and probably much of Kao will not be preformed.
Same thing happened in dry season. Iranca, and group dances enied because of
death of Kamanare. Also, did not apatxiru because of above death. With frequent
deaths (see death rate, this year eight deaths) as in recent years, a complete
ceremonial year is impossible. Numerous deaths have in fact disrupted Tapirape
ceremonial life. Ideally, only a month or two each year is without constant
ceremony, with deaths few ceremonies. Tends to give an apathetic attitude toward
ceremony. Usually works thus, death ends ceremony in progress and only ceremony
is thus begun. Yet, months after death iranca and iranwure were danced for a


(iecientu wahawa, I am capitao) use Portuguese word capitao almost exclusively.
Difficulty in explaining and securing even above, says Karaja use morubixaba
usual Tupi worR for chief. Kamairaho says that his father, grandfather (in male
line) have had names Kamairaho, now K, has no sons but days cirikaiwiana (sis son)
kaneinapio will carry name.

Explained that campukwi "capitao novo" does not act like capitao. He
wrestles, handles others goods, Kam expla-ned tnat he came to visit and acted
with dignity, c lacks dignity. Kam sits uown he explains (but untrue).and

Campukwi, oprenxui, capitao novo, because fa. were capitao. Urukumu,
wowtanamu, and Tanapamtxoa, older capital but K br a--d that all had ancestry of
other villages, his mo fa gdparents etc are all Tamputawa folk, says he.


There are no chiefs who take initiative, that is, who immediately take post
and give orders for rest. Great reluctance on part of head men called capitaos.
Thus, it is very difficult to arirnge any mass or public action. For ex.r.le,
when rains made houses non-liveable, people spread out little by little into
gardens but are gregarious, so when Kamairaho moved as individual, many left
gardens to join him. Then, several went to garden of maeumu, especially zooi
spot to camp, finally, after three houses had been hastily erected there,
people began to move there. Now have all Tap in one spot.

No strict leadership, thus, great tendency to put off anything for some
one else. Dog died near house of --rm-iraho in his absence. If he ksere there,
he would have ordered near relative to remove it, but people complained of smell
yet left dog there to rot. In building of takana, no one leader who gave order
for construction. Tap talked of bA.lding, individuals little b;' little brought
poles. Then Kamairaho told (ancinapio (sis son) okane (son in law) awantikantu
(yo bro) Kamuriwahoi( son in law), Tampirii (husb of girl adopted by K) to work.
They went as group. Then, Kamaira announced th -t wurancingio should work in
very mild way; he is wurauwa. Then, Tanoapao asks Anantxa. Groups worked more
or less, but no effort to share or stimulates, thus, who did not work, thus, some
never worked on takana.

When Kamairaho gave announcement to go after bagage but it was generally
known and was taken lightly. Next morning had to round up carriers all the same.
Ideal of capitao is dignified prestige, seems Afraid to order for fear of refusal
which is set-back.


(Cont from 11-77)

at intervals. After about three hours and no success, attendants called for
rifle shells which c had kept for occasion. These were rubbed in hand with
expectoration and abdomen massaged with expectoration. This is said to hurry
up delivery, but at this time no success. Also, for this use peanut shells(nut
has left the shell).

Bark rope tied around upper abdomen and slowly pushed downward by man h:ldiin.

During All this time (about 5 hrs or more) wife ma-e practically no noise.
Extremely calm, only low moans with labor pains. Two daughters of wife were
nearby. People entered, talked, attendants laughed. Whole scene was casual,
but men stayed back of woman. Attendants do not like men to see vulva. Husband
went to sleep in hammock. Bro (ipawani) tired holding so he changed off with
kamance (no rel).

At 10 pm attendants decided that delivery was tough since as yet no fluid
had left vulva. Kamairaho Ipantxe) began to smoke, blowing smoke over arm and
leg joints and nm sage arm and legs, smoke blown under ears, on abdo-men and
massaged lightly. Then, Urukumu (more powerful pantxe) was called in and treated





About 11 pm, woman tiring, hammock was prepared. Ehiid's hammock was cut
in middle leaving hole for vulva. Bro sat on upright log behind woman supporting
her in hammock. About midnight attendants announced that child would not be
born. Woman became frantic. Lay back in hammock, feet hi :-: than head, and
began to repeat "ma eramuno ma eramuno" "I shall die I shall dIe", saying
this to husband, to bro, to da of 10(?) yrs. Group became solemn and husband,
bro, sis and da began to cry. Pantxe left to sleep and one woman attendant left.
All were certain that she would die. For two hours she repeated in singsong
that she would die, reaching out to hold hand of da and husband.

About 1 am Valentino was allowed to touch her, since she was to die anyway.
Said child was crossways and Valentino worked to straighten it out and made
woman drop feet.

About same time fluid began to flow, mc:-nina continued but at 4 am child
was born alive. Afterbirth buried in hole made in house by husband. Blood
which left before birth carried out by da on banana leaves and now leaf placed
underneath. Child born placed on banana leaf and rubbed with fine washed.
Umbilical cord cut by older sister at about 3" from child and tied close.
Afterbirth fell soon after and mother l-- back in hammock. Next day, woman
walked about village and husband was up and about all day.



CLT rL !9 ~ I Pm TI-89

Actions after birth:

Husband and wife do not drink water, eat only potatoes, farinha, and kaui.
Second day after birth, remaining portion of cord is cut and cured y- burning
herv (?) and rubbing on child. At this time, father rubs urucu on hair after
this husb may drink water. Husb may not work until rough natal skin falls off
of child and he must continue to eat only above mentioned foods.

Mother urucums hair when fluid stops flowing from vulva. Until then she
eats only kaui, farinha, and mandioca. If she drinks water, eats fish, etc,
stomach will swell and she will be ill. At one time she :v eat pumpkin, for
starts blood fl'Lino and fluid will stop soon.

Child is given hon -.' to eat when only a few days old. Honey put on f 'n -r
and shoved in mouth. Also, small portion of paui poured in mouth.

Wife does not pound farinha or do any vork until fluid stops. Husb does
not take water until fluid stops.


If woman eats twin banana or cooks with two pots over one fire, sh., will
have twins. This is catastrophe for wvnmen usually die with twins.




Child is washed of blood few minutes after birth by women helpers. One
holds child and second splashes water on child or woman puts water in mouth
spurting it out over child. Thus later when boy child of cawapareuma was born
(Aug 7). Then, child is rubbed (entire body, face, etc) with weak mixture of
urucumu. "Will make it lose skin hurriedly." Then, child held by woman for
first day until blood flow stops from mother.

Xawapareuma's boy's lip was perforated day after birth by Kantuowa, wife
of Kamairaho. Three perforations all by Capitao's wi'es.

Man does not drink water until blood flow has completely stopped with wife.
If kanii has been made, this must be thrown out at birth an- fresh made somewhat


Kanciwaniho's wife gave birth to girl infant which was immediately buried
with umbilicle cord uncut, buried within five minutes after birth in hole dug
by Kanawaniho in house floor. Wife did not cry but accepted: burial as pre-
arranged. Family already had two female children and wife had said that they
must bury child if girl.

Kampukwi says that always bury the third girl born if family does not have
male child. Also, if there are three successive male births without female
birth, infant is buried. Burial above took place without the semblance of
grief on part of either parent. Fact of burial not hidden but not talked of by
village. C. did not know for three days that child had been destroyed.


Kamairaho spys that woman's first child is usually born dead or premature
(ikoya). Second child lives. But, began to ennumerate heavy toll on women who
die in childbirth. Enumeratei five deaths in last two years.

Taboo on sex until child begins to crawl ace to c. Until then, he must
not eat salt, veado.

If husb or wife break taboos, an arrow will enter woman and thru mild enter
the stomach of infant. C says that Tap have never seen such arrow but pantxe
sees such in dreams.

Can eat, while child is infant, banana do terra, banana anco.

birth and weaning

Man announces birth of child by urucum on hair on day following

.len say that intercourse "is bad" after woman's stomach has bru-in to swell.
Bad for child which will be born prematurely, child will be large and cause
hard birth.

After birth of child, intercourse "is bad" tntil child is weaned. "When
child has teeth, when baby eats much kaui, when baby stops eating at breast, then,
man eats wife much." Beforehand, if one has intercourse with mother, she will
have blood at breast instead of milk. Child taking this will have large stomach,
and may die." Also said, that woman will have constant menstrual flow if have
premature intercourse.

C explained that "it was bad" but that he had infrequent intercourse with
his wife, said other Tap that now all men had intercourse but little, said that
"caneramuya" did not have intercourse at all until weaning.

Kamairaho says that all Tap do have intercourse but it is not good, says
for this many babies die and that many are thin, gives example of campukwi's

Ideal for woman while child is infant and feeding at breast, not to paint
with jenipapo, She should not herself pr u ll,, i y atr..r,. v is, r.,.. .,,
mutani who paints with jenipapo thus many Tap seek intercourse with her and succeed.



Kamairaho, by his three wives in succession, has had no own children.
According to Tap he has several children jointly-in adulterous affairs, since
while woman was pregnant he had intercourse with her. (See other notes).
Thus no ,uiiestion of his (or in society of ) impotency. Reasons given for his
lack of children is that "he fights wiuh pantxes. Pantxe bring children from
kanawana (and other sources). They are not good. They did not bring Kamairaho
a child." His present wife, having child by other husband, announced several
years ago that she want "kamairaho's baby" made present of honey to Pantxes in
hope of pregnancy but no success. One Tap (op) accused Kamairaho of "he does
not want to be hungry" ie he doesn't care to have responsibility and need of
securing food, yet clearly not true for he has adopted some five children and
treated them extraordinarily well. He places fault at Pantxes who have not been
good enough to bring him a child, yetnhe himself is Pantxe

Kamaira is childless. On. chili born to kacinantu died several months after
birth. Ostensibly father was Kamaira. He was said to have been very angry. Not
to me but to Tap he says it is Pantxe (controlling thus Tap births) w.ho deny
him a child and who caused death of infant. Tap say that Kocinantu ate jaboti,
dietary fault, cuz.Ling death of child.



Manturi child whose mo, died a year ago, age 5 yrs, fa and fa's sister
look after child. Always di-y but occasionally, fa's sister cleans child and
paints body with jenipapo. Eats mostly with fa's sister, Kantuowa, wife of
capitao Kamairaho. Follows fa about and is frequently left behind, cries almost
hysterically when thus thwarted and for as much as hour later. All relations
sometimes leave child to make its way back to house.

Ampitayana girl of 9, daughter of Kantuowa, attractive and much attention
paid to her by family, in fact, by whole household of Kamairaho. Was favorite of
missionary, Keagle. Time and time again when other children have food or toy,
she snatches always looking around first to see if anyone is looking. Fights
for attention, in spite of much. Note: All children fight for attention. Parents
seem to pay little attention to them between ages of 5-10, between these ages they
are dirty, practically never painted, and at large in praca.

Punishment parents punish small children by hitting them across back and
on head with down side of closed fist. Small children only mothers. Older
children (10-15) punished by mothers grabbing hold of hair and pounding on
back. Fa's sometimes shoot olaer boys with bee's wax ti.-'E. arrows. Kam shot
(but missed at Kancinapio) said that sons have shot mothers thus, or fas, but
have yet to see.




Kamairaho says that older boy will shoot fa or mo when angry. Then, run to
matto. In the evening he will return to house of mo's sister or fa's bro and will
eat there. After days, will turn to house to eat.


Awacowa, boy of six or seven. Always dirty, runs about little with boys'
gang, does not have small bow and arrow as do the others. Mother punishes him
frequently, (hits him on head with fist and back of neck with side of hand)
He runs and does without food fi returning late to steal food from mother and
to sleep. Punished because he will throw farinha away, strike sisters, who
strike back.


See Bk II.
Awacowa was beaten last night again. Oprunxui told his mother that he was
running about at night, that he refused to bring him water, when returned mother
pulled his hair and beat him over head, whacks could be heard from this distance
and for what seemed ten minutes. Fam. situation, awacowa is son of dead father.
Mother has two more children by awanticantu, young second husband, these children
she has never been seen to punish. Awacowa automatically withdraws or dodges
when anyone puts out hand to him. Treated badly by all older males because of
neglect by parents.

Aiwai, son of Urukumu capitao, and wanampi, son of Pancei (Tampiri) ha ve
wrist, leg ornaments always well urukuped. Only male children (konomi) whom
wear kwanciana body paint, always clean to certain extent; always hair oiled.
Easy seen that they are better treated than other konomis. Ampitanya, da
(about 9 yrs) of Kamairaho, also well painted and taken care of, but not to the
extent of small boys.


Children of three and four call both parents by the name of ampi, mother.
Men walk about with children, carrying them as do women, straddled across hips.
Men respond to name for mother, say that when child is about five years old,
say this high, will learn to say "father."


Gang of children, aged 5-12, and of mixed age made clearing in high grass
by village. There, they play mostly at sundown. Last evening mimicked the
ceremony of "kanawano werika". Boys walked back and forth uttering same grunts
made by men. Wanampio, son of Pancei (pantxe) took part of pantxe. Young
girls stood by and caught boys when they feinted drunkeness and being struck.
Finally older person ask them to stop. Then, made feather headdress of chicken
and hawk feathers and boys danced with girls behind them. Wanampio, as usual a
leader (son of chief) wore headdress, mimicking "typing of hair" of young man.
Girls danced behind men as in monikaiuya.

Another evening boys divided into wurancinga and wurankura groups and danced
wura dance, singing campiana songs. Had fight or ceremonial wrestling between

Wanampio, campoo, ampitanya and several others constructed small house
covering it with banana beato, playhouse abo t five feet high. Girls hung hammocks
inside and made fire. Wanampio said he was "chief" and "father" ampitanya was
his wife. Gave imaginary relationship terms to all other children, complained
that some did not work.

Children constantly playing. Boys never go to work in gardens with father.
Childhood continual play, running in gangs, boys shooting miniature b and a at
small birds. One cont. game of wet season is throwing spears (straws) of high
grass at each other. Do not divide in sides but each runs throwing at each

other, mostly boys but also mixed groups.



Girls use dolls of wax, but mothers knit leg and wrist ornaments for dolls.
Girls make hammocks for dolls with embisa, carry dolls strung across hips.

Boys do not work until at least awanoi or awanao. Kancinapio (who is about
16) will tie hair this year. Only works when sent by Kam. in garden, has no
garden of own. Will make one year after marriage after tied hair. Kauniwungi
never goes to garden, has no garden, works little on garden of relatives when he


Twice mariampai (xawapareumi's wife) has been heard to threaten her small
da. of about three years with burning. 1) Shild refused to come when called.
Mother picked up fire brand and shouted "I will burn you." Child fell in crying
tantrum. 2) Child wanted to be carried, woman wanted child to walk. Threatened
burning, child cried violently. Combined fear and temper tantrums because mo.
wculd not carry her. Father finally picked up child and carried it. Crying stopped
almost immdeiately.

Kamairaho says Tapirape mothers threaten burning but never burn. But,
others say a few have stuck fire brands on back of children.


ing because
own house.
but walks.


son of Pancaparunga, aged 5-4 yrs, fell in tantrum on ground scream-
mother did not carry him when going across praca from house of K. to
Mother picked up child to stop tantrum. Child walks rather hesitantly

Doctor, age 5-4, son of samalumi, fretted and cried until mother gave him
breast. She was sitting and he stood socking on dry breast. Same day son wanted
to accompany parents to brush, obviously parents were going for sexual intercourse.
Father struck boy lightly on head, child followed in spite. Tapirape laughed and
said that he would stand by and watch intercourse, "he will cry."

Muati, mother with infant about 6 mos old, ch-ied new corn well taking it
from her mouth and placing it in mouth of infant. She also takes kawi in her
mouth and with her mouth spits it into mouth of infant. Thus, weaning process
begins gradually.


Several women gathered around two infants, son of panceawi (aged 10 mos) and
da. of irawu (age 1 yr). Much fondling by women, Kocinantu luche', said "Look,
Kanio (boy) will eat (have intercourse) cankantuwungal. She placed him between
legs of small girl and all women lij hed. One ask child laughingly "Where are beads
you will give woman. You are theif (adulterer)" Nother of boy pl.,iel with child's
penis until half erect and said "Look, he wants to have intercourse" Much gaiety
over scene by women.

During these days much carrying of children (infants) of other women.
Kocinantu carries small girl of irawu about much of each day. Antancowi begs to
be allowed to carry son (6 mo) of Campukwi but mother will not let her for fear
of epileptic attack. Amaa (wife of Domingo) carries son of panctparun-a about.

Women hold "tots" by hands before they are able to walk. And ask them to
dance. Tots can move legs in motion of dance but unable to zupr.ort themselves.


Food taboos for children, almost all are phrased "boy (or girl) will not
run fastKayapo will kill them, Caraja will kill them" When Karaja killed and
carried away so many Tap children, say because children were eteciro, ie stayed
put, did not run. Neither boys or girls shul i eat tppicca of mandioca, boys
feet will stick Lo ground ani cannot run; girls chil ren will stick to stomach
and not be born easily, eg with sticky property of Tapioca.

Boys do not eat jaboti, does not run fast nor tantu, nor jacare, ;;ever.l
say that their fathers riid not le tnem eat thus; others touay eat these, men
say for this do not run fast.


Kaunewungi (imanawungo) came saying that he would live with me hence, he is
boy of 15 yrs, says his mother was angry. Reason he said he hai accidentally
pushed over his half sister age 3 yrs, others say that she talks too much, she
annoys k, and he pushed her over in anger. By nightfall K was back eating in


Smaller children are scared to make them "go to sleep, to-make them stop
crying." Tap mother will tell child that urukuha (arakuha, Xristao) crying in
night will come. That if he cries, carajao (Kayapo) will come and carry him
off. That pupupui (passarinho d matto) is ancunga and will come unless he
stops crying.

Campukwi annoyed by crying of maeumi's small daughter, put hammock over
his head and came growling like beast he said he was urutunEo, a beast that
inhabits woods and used only to scare children. "awawai laughs, he knows that
parents lie." Small girl mutaumi (age 5 yrs) rapidly went into husterics, father
laughed mother laughed but tbbk girl in hammock with her.

Another beast called maeo (but no information on it) used to scare children.


Vaka lume (Xrista) takwerere.
These are ancunga, are fire flies of a sort, coming in early rains (amuncewua)
small boys catch many of them carry them about. Boys must catch them. Before
sleeping then konomi must break off their heads to kill them, for if allowed to
live, they will return to fellows and konomi will fall ill. Boys go about
waving a firebrand calling takwerere' takwerere! "vaga lume" are cold and come
to fire. Then, konomi bats them down.

Monikapukwi, several times his mother has hit him over back as he ran for
not bathing, for refusing to bring in firewood, for refusing to take smaller
brother to bathe. Tapirape say that people do not usually punish awauai by
spankings, etc. Father should punish awauaho by scratching his arms and 1.-gs
"acahit"; it will make him strong. Campukwi remembers that when he spoke angrily
to his mother that Kamaira, who raised him, took him to scratch him many times.
Once K asked him to bring him something to eat from fire (younger person never
refuse errand thus to older esp to one who rising him). He refused and was
scratched. "Thus, I am strong and walk far now."

If father hears that yo son yet awauai, has had intercourse in extra-
marital (of course) affair, he must -immediately scratch him on both arms and
legs several times. Son is too young to have intercourse, he will be small and

Campukwi said that boy does (or should) not run from scratching because
father will catch him and scratch him badly for father will be angry. Many
Tap have grown to men weak for they ran to hide when scrat.cin was threatened
or from punishment of father, later mother, after anger was over, came to matto
telling boy to come home. Very little scratching, therefore soft as men.




Amawiro=to adopt
awacirawa, orphan when she was about 6 yrs, she was cared for by m's sister
(Kantouwa) extended, called ampi-mother, and by itotura, or m's bro.

makai, orphan, taken care of by chance Kanaircho and Kamhousw

Kamairaho took care of Kancinapio, sister's son, whose father died and
mother married Kanciwanio. Took care of Kauniwungo, now adult, boo's son, (real
bro) who wal left orphan. All above raised by K. Also, wi's da. ampitanye,
now yo. girl.


--- who is orphan and badly cared for has been n ticed talking in sleep
and has told his dreams to Tap. He dreamed they say seeing Xristao on Tap River;
he saw his mother (iunwera) and talked with her. He began crying in sleep one
night and said that ancunga were after him. He could not, of course, identify
ancunga, say Tap. Yet his status is better for all this, for he is becoming
known as the only konomi with predilection for dreaming. Physically and psycho-
logically badly off and thus, sleeps even in day with nervous twitching. Tap
say without dobut he will be great pantxe (in spite of lack of good faijile line).
Urukumu is said to have been such a yo boy.


In whole time, no physical fights between children. Several times I've
seen children push over of hit another then run, but no fights continued.
Child cries and mother of offender may punish him or her. Tabling of overt
action very young by mothers, great offense in children to fight.

CHILD-.EU infants VII-47

Infant son of campukwi (age 6 mos) is hungry. T.1othir is down badly with
fever. No other women have appeared to nurse child. When ask c why not,
answered that iparegao has no sisters; "I have no sisters" that is, real sisters
or cousins. Says that child would be very sick if nursed woman not mother or
M's sister. Ask wife of pancepAr'ungE why she did not nurse, said nothing but
laughed. Says child would eat kaui, "but we don't have any". Maddening helpless
tone about whole thing. C sits with child lo king sad but doiriL nothing about it.

Panceparunga son, age 2 yrs, now walks fairly well, yet five times I have
seen him delicate just outside door of house. Each time mother only laughed
and going to clean up spot, she says that she will tell child not to do so, and
she says that she will hit boy over back. But, child is good, she says--

CHILDREN masks, wrestling, etc

Few minutes after dance masks and been removed inside takana, boys (4-8 yrs
made rush for masks. Cut them off to their length and thruout whole day, masks
were used by boys who imitated men. Made innumerable circuits of village, to
small stream, changed hands many times. Only glee shown by adults and smiled to
see boys playing. Thus, no secrecy at all about masks, don't see that this is
laxity in culture.

Day after wrestling, boys of about 7-12 yrs gathered in praca on dance
ground and wrestled. First, did not divide into wura groups but when adults
took interest divided into wura groups, wunakura and wurancunga.

Nothing passes in culture which children do not imitate. Girls imitate
women's pot making with common mud. Children saw horses for first time, since
have imitated horses in several ways. Made horse out of grass, by loading
grass on small boy and making head of stick. Then, boys began to carry smaller
ones on back and small girls, even stopping to urinate saying like horse, eying
that they were horses,

Imitated men carrying pork in pehura, etc, etc, etc, etc.



Konomi were allowed to dance all day and no disagreements or complaints
even though they were in the way. wananiwampe, decorated his small boy ciwie
with bird down and arara feathers and small boy danced in tail end of line and
wandered about. "He is only to look beautiful."


There are many songs of nursery and lullaby types as they might be called.
Of lullaby type, all or most are phrase as gdmother singing to gdchild. She
sings to child rocking it in arms in general manner or after child is older
while child is in hammock hard by.

Examples: for Tap see text. Free trs: 1) My gdchild, I wrap your excrement
in a leaf which grows by the village. I carry it away, in a leaf, in a leaf.

See pages 26, 27


Waitie, aged 4 yrs, seen rubbing nose with new baby boy, with young sibling
and saying "younger brother very good." No trouble thus between siblings, yet
waitie was weaned when child was born. Great size of household, great number of
near relatives for giving attention save child.


When stars begin to r.pprear in early eveniir., children point toward sky
rubbing hands together s !incr "kucikuci amomorankanamo avi amo iputiota"
Said to call stars to appear.


Tantrums are frequent, children aged 5-6, when parents refuse request when
something is taken away from them or when child is crossed. Jantrums allowed,
thus, parents will tell child to go home and parents will not move from spot
letting child cry. Often child is given object to quiet him.
ciwie (aged about 5 yrs) took gift of salt to father given by kamairaho,
took a desire for the tin in which salt was carried. When father took tin from
him, he began screaming, fell on the ground and beat earth. Father, then, gave
him the tin in sight of Kamairaho but K. did say anything about giving tin to boy
so father took away tin and bo ran screaming.

Anantuwa, wawepariuma's da. of 3 yrs, stood screaming in plaza because
mother refused food. Mother stood away, conversing, sto ing only to laugh and
ask child if "nose was running into mouth." All laughed.

CHILDREN weaning taboos sex VII-38

Weaning- Kanuriwao says that child which sucks after able to walk, not
weaned, will have large atomack. Eats of mothers blo-d (which causes large
stomach) and not of milk.

Taboos at birth
Neither mo or fa drink water while first blood flows. Next day blood
ceases ro bec -mes little, may drink water. At birth kaui is thrown out and new
is made. When flow stops of after birth blood, urukum is rubbed on head of both
mo and fa. During first days both mo and fa eat only farinha, haiu, pumpkin
and should refuse meat. Later fa under taboos does not eat xirona, veado de
campo, jacu, monkey, anta, etc.

Sex intercourse is bad until child has teeth, and above taboos hold until
child has teeth.


Actually inst. friends. Both male and female have such friend, extra
method of social solidarity or security in spite of evidently extended kinship.
Usually picked from far kin where bro or fa's bro and mo's bro cannot be traced.
Said that boys have such friends? Maybe developed long term but
doubtful??? Man gives presents to "friend" say "Give little to brother give
much to friend". Kamairaho is "friend" with Pancei, capitao from cicutawa and
with younger man ipawangi. Gave him (younger man) axe and beads, Gave Pancei
facoe, axe, beads, gouri..ra, and steadily gives food since Pancei is without
roca here. Young man is valuable friend, he is good hunter and always br-i-.,s
presents of jacu, mutum, etc.

Awantikantu gave long string of beads to "friend" cuwumparai. Tao (maeuma)
and Pancewi are friends, other friend died.

Camlipukwi's friend Kamanare (dead) says he will ask Pancei
Kamairai's, Kamuniwungantu and Kaniwungi, both younger men.
Female, ;,ipitanya and (Kamuriwao's wife) mariampawungo

Give friends result of hunt. Ipawangi frequently cuts firewood for friend
Kamairaho. Women carry kaui to friends.



Men from cicutawa brought news that people there wished to leave joining
Tampiitawa. They came with requests from relatives there for relatives of Tamp.
to come to help carry household goods. They complained that population was
small, it has diminished to two large households, they complained that there were
few children; they complained that there were many ancunga. After eight days
here they have not yet returned, ie men who came will not return at present, to
bring others. Other reasons for moving come out in conversation.

1) Grief at death of Pancei, who was bro (ext) of both Kamaira and Pantari,
the two capitao there. Always desire to leave spot where living with grief.

2) Men said that ceremonies, such as Iraca, and wet season ancunga, and
kaowio had lapsed.

5) Kamairai and two others of cicutawa had seen fires and paths made by
wandering Kayapo (Carajao) (Must be for could be no$ other tribe). Saw spot
where they had camped and cut banana brabo leaves. This was between cicutawa and
here, about 1 day from cicutawa. People there are deathly afraid. "Carajaho
will kill Tapirape and urubu will eat them."

This caused.greatest stir in village. People still remember and "sing/
about the attack of Kayapo on a Tapirape some 38 yrs ago (and people are so
timid). Men sat up late in .praca, worrying about relatives in cicu and some
waving arms telling about rifles of Kayapo and size of Kayapo. Kamairaho



explained that was afraid that Kayapo would see path from cicutawa to Tampii and
come here, so "Tapirape will make new house when rains end." Thus, Kamairaho
plans to move ildea to south and west. (Also, reason for planned move is that
two new houses must be built and circular plan will be better in new aldea.)


Made by women. First thread is spun by spindle revolving in air. Then
thread (inima) is rubbed with urucum. Work is done directly on the arm of man.
Ipawani says that four days are necessary for a pair. Woman working on pair
for me on stick took four days.

Work done with crochet kneedle which the Padres of Conceicao brought.
Ipawani says formerly made of bone. (Monkhy bone was used and on occasion is

Needle called acurawan. See drawing.

Regular knitting or crocheting, pulls thread thru each loop, pushes
needle thru each loop pulling thread back thru loop, works with needle in right
hand looping thread around needle with left. Works building up around and around
like coiling of basket work. Always a loop thus which is pulled down after
thread has been Dulled thru. Crocheting called amacwi-g. When ornament is
finished two coats or urukum are given.

Large part work done off of arm, then slipped over arm and parts 1 and 2
attached, final task is joining two before painting with urucum.




Arrived from trip, Bound all Tap with wr-.ckin. ccugh due to bad colds.
"Cold" brou. ht by Kauiniwungi, Tap say that Tomasinho brought cold. Yet, from
Nov. colds have hung on and seem to return with expedition to campo to hunt
pork. This is third general attack within this year, to date from this attack
none have died, combined w.Lth colds and cough is fever, each day someone comes
down with chills. Result completely demoralized population, At night never
still from coughing.


Kwanciana (Decoration) on Rattles (uampo)

1) ipirampekwan una fish
2) anampai (decoration or scale of fish)
5) kuruwaha (sapo meniho grande)
4) iniwa uwa mi
5) tawuai or tawuao
6) coaweo
7) karanjaciwanka
8) u-',mo,-or, (r.-.ile) kauciana

Campo encampment

Arrived late Wed. Found Tap encamped on campo, between Tukunare and matto,
about 2 leagues from matto. Encampment on Campoo" called "cuntawa" near icunwana
(small Baruti lake on campo) cun, campo so cuntawa, campo place). Each late
dry season move to campo and each year place (or village) called cuntawa. Year
before cuntawa nearer to matto, year before that nearer to fux': -n:-re. This year
came here in late Oct spending about six weeks, say that usually spend more time.
Kamairaho wanted to stay at Lago de Tukuuare, but encampment must be close to
aldea so Tapirape may return for farinha. Carry cargo of farinha and must return
when eaten. When arrived, four men and wives had returned to aldea for lack of
farinha. Families carried to campo almost all household equipment, gourds, pots,
valuables, chickens, parrots all came. Arrangement of houses different from
aldea. There were nine houses.
See Drawing IV-2

House occupants are about the same as aldea. House forms, only roofed
"ger .1?" ....

CURING Mourning 111-55

When news of death of brother was brought to Kontuowa, her mourning became
hysterical in night. Kamairaho blew smoke over her without massage and she
relaxed from her hysterical shouting into sobs and then, into the usual rhythmical
mourning song. Finally, with more smoke she slept. She awakened in night and was
quieted thus again,