Field Notes - A, 1939-1940


Material Information

Field Notes - A, 1939-1940
Series Title:
Tapirape Project Files
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Wagley, Charles
Charles Wagley ( donor )
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Box: 5
Folder: Field Notes - A, 1939-1940


Subjects / Keywords:
Anthropology--United States--History
Galvao, Eduardo Eneas
Gurupa (Para, Brazil)--Photographs
Indians of South America--Brazil
Tapirape Indians
Tapirape Indians--Photographs


General Note:
Folder 4

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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Full Text

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Antonio Gomes brought a large species of pumpkin (abulbura). For several
seasons all Tap planted these then lost seed. Lost seed of watermellon, three
times. Lost seed or shoots of richer species of cane. Lost seed of a yam and
potato, first brought by Valedaron and second by Ant Gomez. One species of yam
has stuck, brought by Valedaron. One species of mandioca stuck, bought by
Caraja (cimonio).. Chickens brought many times, Valedaron, Jao, Frederico,
Padus, Ant Gomez, but have few chickens. Tap have not borrowed in spite of
great enthusiasm they show for a new pepper, for a new domestic animal, beg for
another pair of pigs, for cats, for water mellon, etc. But enthusiasm lapses
and they kill or lose seed.


hens (a pair).
but they never


remembers when he was young that Valedaron brouh-t two guinea
They were given to a capitao whose name K does not remember
multiplied, eggs were not caught, finally were eaten.

In .aldea at ipiramkwahop, some 35 years ago a pair of domesticated pigs
were brought by Xristao whose name Kamairaho does not remember. Fell into hands
of capitao, one each, but pigs miltiplied and K remembers that there were many
many Tap had pigs. One year he says Tap were sick and without hunt, all were
killed and consumed. Later K says, Pareci (a Xristao) br-ugh.t two male pips
(seems nutty) and were given one to his father and one to kureri (capitao and
father of mariampawungo) Became very fat he says. Later camarada of Frederico
brought two males and female, Says female died, and Kamaira took one male and he
took other, both killed for food. Sabino, camarada of Fredrico, s.;. that they
were a pair.

Valedaron brought a pair of
but Tap remembered and told him.
domestic animals they died, Did

cats, these were not remembered by Kamairaho
"They killed many rats" but like all other
not stick.



Stone lip plugs formerly made by Tapirape of white milky quartz. Kamairaho
nor Kamaira do not remember having seen one made. Kamairaho living whole life
here in south does not remember having seen stone of type of which it is made.
Kamaira has seen large blocks of this stone in or near cicutawa in large morros
of mts near there. Says it only exists to north. Tapirape have long forgotten
technic. Both Kamairaho and Kamaira tell me that Caraja brought or traded most
of the ones owned by Tap. They remember with sadness that stone lip l:i went
for one facoe; several strings of beads. Also, say that in r:- t grief at
death of great men, stone lip plugs were thrown into grave. (Stone found in
north, is another indication of movement of Tap from there) Now, Tap have
only one and that is broken, no chance of securing another. I:'-' wonder how
they will be able to "tie hair" of young men when it is gone.


Campukwi has been partaking of several wives during tne pregnancy afd
confinement of his wife. He continually has had intercourse with rnaripanwinguna,
wife of Kamuriwaho. Kam has learned of it but did not become very angry.
Then, C has at intervals slept with upawani's wife, epaw... is bro of c's wife.
Seems usual thing for husband with pregnant wife to sieep about. C's wife in
front of him told me that he had slept with tanui, taking it as a joke. Then,
oprunxui told ipawani that c was scaling his wife (c's comment on Op. "he is
a woman, men do not talk" op. reason for telling jealosy over c's success with
xrestiano) Thus, c's wife became angry shou'tirig at him that he dwd not sleep
with her. (Now, sex taboos until new child crawls) when he came to house to
eat, she hid farinha from him and had begun breaking his strings of beads.
c brought beads for me to keep for him and said he would sleep in my house for
night. But about 11 o'clock wife came to look on, to see where he was, and c,
who said he was angry with wife, left saying he would hunt a new wife, ended up
in hammock with wife. He was in a spot for he does not own hammock, wife owns
double hammock.


Wanoniwampe's wife walked out on him because he was sleeping about. Wan
came late in evening hunger crying, said he was lonesome for wife, that she
had taken to sleeping with his younger bro. He whined that he now had no wife,
no bro, no mo, no fa, and only one child (wife left child with him) then as usual
said that he was going, away, far away, to Araguaya wnen mail (Tornwaino) arrived
ie leave with Tomaskinko.


Kamuriwaoi arrived from campo and Tap told him that wife had slept with
Oprunxui. Op said to have given her kara (yams). K struck at her, she ran,
he threw stone at her, t>:en, he returned to house and hour later they were
together, and in evening Kamairaho said they had intercourse.


Need not write "adultery is general accepted pattern" campukwi said con-
cerning his affairs. "I do not know how to talk to Taipaciri" explaining that he
has never been able to arrange intercourse with her. "I know how to talk to
mariampawungo, mariampa, amaae, awacirawa" (listed 4 more) explaining that he had
had them or affairs with them at one t me or another. Ask about more than 20
women, he told who had had adulterous affair with them or who was having.

Women who do not have adulterous affairs are wives of men of high prestige,
ie Pantxe's, capitaos, Kantuowa, wife of Kamairaho, now is above adultery. She
reacts queenly to position as "superior" capitao's wife. c. and others say that
when her first husband was alive that she was had in adultery. "Now all are
afraid and she is afraid. She only wants K." Before married to Pancei, canei
took virginity of taniwaya and had long adulterous affair. Of aerowa, wife of
Urukuna, campukwi explained that now no Tapirape even approached her. Kamonare
(see notes Bk II of death) was having adulterous affair with aerow and he died.
Urukunu dreamed "angrily" killing him.


Op. lent beads to Kamuriwaoi (bro ext) fo wear for day.
beads to marican for her favors, s ..ys Op. K. says it is lie.
threatening but did nothing. K. walked with older bro H
July 17.

K. gave string of
Op. angry and
bro.). This was

July 18- Op. left to hunt wild pig with ipawoni and c;i-impare, without
doing anything. He threatened and then said when Padre Sebastico comes he will
leave Tapirape, none are good. Usual reaction when angry.



When ask about.kocinantu, campukwi said "Kamaira is elder brother. I do
not know about his wife. A brother does, not see what bro's wife does. Bro
does not hear what Tap say. Tap do not talk to bro about a bro's wife." or
about what bro is doing. Statements highly backed by reactions of all Tap.
Hearing a loud family quarrel, Tapirape who are bro'ss, sisters, bros-in-law"
(all relatives on own generation level) complain complete ignorance of cause.
People of higher generations (ie fa, fa-in-law etc) will explain. Yet general
featithat they will be labelled as gossips. Alone will talk (if not close bro)
in group all are ignorant. Kauniwungi said he wad bro to K. and could not talk
as did campukwi. Yet, of Kamairaho also elder bro but not as close (Kamair9
adopted and raised campukwi) they told of old affairs and of wife's old affairs.
Kocinantu, wife of Capitao Kanaira, is by general consensus faithful.


Panceparunga, who has fought with his wife because she refused to make
farina allowing him to arrive from hunt hungry, called mutai aside as]-'in;: her to
go into brush with-him fon1li-n.: her and "nI.cking". Mutai (in my hearing)
refused saying that she "had new farinha" that "when farinha was eaten, she would
meet" with him. Thus, as in other notes, when Tap have farinha, haui, or hooked
food to keep for several days, prevents intercourse. But rule is broken often.
Campukwi breaks it often, say he will soon have paunch. Xawaniuma's paunch is
due to this. Also, criticism of women who make farinha far in advance to guard.
For example, aerowa always has farinha in two "large sacks. Tap say that urukumu
is old and does not care to have intercourse often; that he breaks convention and
that he is "pauinch:.-" from eating "his own semen". 2Ble works for little
or no stored food in house. Corn (dried) is stored in house without a .!i r,
but if farinha is made of corn, it cannot be stored without part, r._, of semen.
Yet mandioca manso in house collects semen. Mandioca in water to soften does
not collect semen. Thus, little storage of food and work of woman is done
little by little in very small quantities.


Kamairaho and maeuma explained that when pantxe died, he travelled far
pointing toward sky to large house. There he finds Ch:istians, sees Jesus
Christ, Papae Grande, and many,' other people. There they have cotton, facoes,
maize, kaui, mandioca, many arara feathers, etc, peanuts, pork, mutum. One
said pantxe was buried with food to make trip there. Also, pantxe is buried with
nipe in his mouth full of tobacco. Great mourning; for pantxe. roubtf l ', ett-er
-.rn f eathr .::ork of pantxe, one said bury it with body.

Ordinar:. Tap- does not go to large house (name of large house?). In one
day becomes ancunga and goes to ancunga house. (See other notes).


Awancikantui, age about 28, asked oprunxui, aged about 20, to bring him
gourd from other side of house. Op. rather embarrassed took pgouri from wall
handed it to mani, aged 15, and asked him to carry it across room. Rather stiff
example of commonplace. Promised mankapukwi, aged 14, that he would eat part of
jacu he helped kill. Fa. camaniuma came with him and when plate was made,
fa took spoon from him and ate major part of plate. Maka did not protest, young
never do. Always sending and a.skirLn young r to fetch or bring. Whenever youngster
(konomi) is given food or carried food, he surrenders any part older man asks.

Rapadura given waitie small son of Pancewe, father cal-ed him took major
part and let him eat only small piece while father ate rest.

Waitie came eating mandioca, kauniwungi (age about 13) called him and took
without protest of w half of it. Then, oprunxui took part of what was left.

F.C b Y% eWAi4-
r'- GP.I VIi-101

Various tubers rJlnted by Tap, by men and harvested by men. Harvest in
April to June.

1) karapi-,a or kara ona. Not sweet, below skin color is ri'- t purple.
Size that of orange and larger.
2) imamae. Appearance is same as above, meat below skin is white.
3) marirakarakwera. Very large and ill snapped. Some are ab, ut lift in
diameter. Meat is course. Say that Xr-stao brought them.
4) maikara pirmang. Very l'n., shape of rmadioca, but meat is -urple.
.5) iampukumae. Lonr and narrow. but meat is white.
6) cituka. Batata doce.
7) toritituka. Batata that valedaron brought and another that mora torii

1) Fava, komunu ete
2) komunu wurandinga
3) komunu apepuku
4) iwura
5) ipepu c :.,;,.r:.e

A!TCIHiJY.LT GITnICIN /,tir 7r ia- IX-49 -S?
Monikhuyra was danced to tie hair of kancinapio.

Decorations: Day before monikahuya, kancinapio was painted with jc-.irr-po
and kamairaho worked on ankungitanaho, and other decorations. Body painted
black from slightly above wrist ornaments to shoulders, whole trunk to calf
ornaments, Face painted thus: with line under mouth and above mouth joined
with cross hatch lines, circle under eyes, very small. Dash at end of eyes to
make them elongated appearance.

On morning of dance K went early to takana. Urukumu (brother of Kamairaho)
cut his hair. Hair was gathered in knot, and over forehead it was parted back-
wards. Then urukumu wound the long hair in back with the awawa, a long ccrd "
in diameter, red, with tassels, at least five yards of it. Sticks a piece of
bamboo as base on either side of knot of hair.

Then, Kaonioi (brother to Kancinapio) came to put on bird down. Bird down
stuck on with rosin. On front part of head in front part amply smeared with
pork fat, and birddown placed on to that (wuranhawa, bird down). Over forehead
placed halo of red arara feathers, another with arara feathers sticking out in
front. Both of these made and placed on him by Kanioi, his elder bother.

1) ananampiwla, flat of red arara feathers.
2) anamoro, with beak


Then, Kamairaho finished decorating him, placed tomankure mapira etc.
Cirimikwanho (or labret de pedra). In ears were ear plugs of arara feathers,
around neck he wore long strings of beads with hanging at the end.
These Kamairaho says were brought here by Karaja. Finally at end of decoration,
monikahuya was danced as before. 1) xawanamu 2) mankanoi 5) monikapura
4) monikaupa 5) monikao. Initiate danced at end of line of men, all men who
entered dance danced in front of him. Behind him danced wanampio (son of Pancei
and amicirikakanta) who wore large arara feather headdress, ceremonial ear plugs,
ear pendants. His body was decorated with bird down and was painted kwancinan
and behind wanampi danced other knnomi, all Tap painted but varied. K's arms
bound in long strings, inima ona, yellow and red arara feathers on arms.

During decoration, Kancinapio took on very serious face, no signs of happi-
ness whole day on his part. Others said "when he wears the large headdress he
will cry." Large headdress weighs about 5 pounds, cotton strain. about 1 pound,
wooden block about pound, all supported by hair. Initiate wears this whole
day, during monikahuya, rests in takana (he is isolated to takana for 24 hrs only)
where food in form of kaui is brought to him and wears headdress whole night
during kao. During later part of day he is dragging and at night he danced
without any energy, more or less vwalkrinp up and down. Wanampio, the amcirikakauto,
did not last out the day.

When Kao began, men began to sing after Kamaira and Tanopao (wura uwa of
wurancingio and anantxa had made sounds of Tampanbanci ancunga wearing rattles


on feet). Men gathered in takana at door of wurancingio. Kancinapio took his
place outside door facing men and back of him stood the women. Then men moved
outside wurancingio facing anantxa as usual. Initiated walked up and down
belonging to neither group. Kamairaho explained that when initiate is wanakura
(as is Kancinapio) wuran io gives kao, when initiate is wurancinga, anantx
gives kao at night and gather at door of anantxa when initiate is wurancin&a.


When Kancinapio first left takana, his sister (Kautuowa, also woman who
raised him) and his mother wuputungo began chanting crying "mother is sad"
says Kamairaho, because "her younger boy is now a man."

ties hair, when he leaves house to marry. When da has first menstruation mother
cries and when she marries (ie when husb arrives in house) and when first child
is born.

During night of kao, kancinapio continued to dance in s ame step as for
monikao. He did not join either moiety, in early morning hours, when pass
became faster, kao anauna u (kao fast) akao amaowe kao slowly. Then wanampi
returned to dance with Kancinapio and all Tap join:i until dawn.

Initiate removes all decoration next morning except stone lip plut and ear
plugs made thus of arara feathers. See Drawing.
These are worn by initiate for several days afterwards. Tapirape say that
afterwards, he must bathe to grow.


Son of xawanamu, when father was caught by wancahira, and eaten, he was
tied on arms, legs, calfs, ankels, and was placed with very heavy headdress. He
was made to dance all day by wancahire "tied very hard". At end of day, mankanci
was still strong, he ran from plaza into forest pursued by wancahire. He came
to large hollow log, there he removed all and headdress and disappeared.
There they found ankle, leg, wrist, upper arm, all bindings and large headdress.
Now, Tap tie awauaho but not as hard as mankanci was tied when he ( who was awauoho)
escaped from wancahiri.

Thus, in sense awauaho is loaded down with decorations and his drnc-ini: all
day and all night is in way of endurance test. c predicted that Kancinapio
would cry, in reality it is endurance for sun, and weight of headdress, etc,
is real endurance, Yet idea of combining endurance with highest point of
decoration is new one.

There were two brothers of the same name ancopeteri. Also, there was a
sister of same name. Two brothers left going to house of awaiyoni (kwana, the
sun) and married the daughters, thus becoming son in law (tuanawera) to Sun.
Ancepetori brought macaba, fumo (tobacco) uuka, and firewood to Tap. A could
not have intercourse with wife because she had piranga in her womb and they
would bite off penis. So he bathed her womb with "cimapo" and killed the fish.
Then, Kai came and had intercourse with her. It was safe. So A then took her
as wife. (Who made a monkey out of who??)

A as a young man (both of them) were scratched on legs (as yo men are today)
and both fainted away.

Ancopeteri went in to place where there were many rocks. There he saw many
muture (muture are miana (deer)), jabaru, cano, gaviao, etc. There ancopeteri
sang and danced, he seemed to carry a snake as a club. Muture did not have
heads, then. He threw stick made heads or beaks of said animals and antlers
of deer, etc. Ancopeteri then called the Sun and Sun came down and drew them iF
away, one in one direction another in another direction. V



Tapirape dies and ancunga (or spirit) leaves (iuwera) while body (ete)
is placed in hole. (see funeral). During the mourning ancunga sits on edge
of hole (grave) crying with ohe mourners but then leaves joining other Iic.n.a
of Tapirape. Ancunga have houses living as people, ie ancunga awura at
abandoned aldea sites.

Child's ancunga continues to grow, reaching adult proportions during ancunga

Ancunga die after life (of unknown lengths) becoming animals. Thus, specific
animals are ancunga.

Kururu, frog or toad, is ancunga of capitao.

Pukoi (dove) are pen, and their ancanga is small, informant showed &eight
of about 21 feet.

Janeni (small jacu), men and small ancunga, equal to puloi.

kampimu, males and small ancunga

Tariici (rabbit) male and very small

ciroci (pombo) male and small.




ANOUNGA 111-21

miana, (deer, matero) is female ancunga and amicanp is very large.
Informant pointed to height of about five feet.

topiya (R) in connection with miana.

kanawaho (paca) female and very large, paca have many cuitia (calabashe

All of these animals cry (mourn) every night, informant gave mourning song
showing the manner in which they cry.

Thus, if man (or woman) eats one of above animals while he has an infant
child, the child will die. Ancunga will pick up child, hold it next to breast,
and carry it off.

Ancunga anuawa; has protruding eyes which are large and luminous and long
thin pointed chin. Kills by placing hand over mouth and patting mouth of victim
grasping victim behind nick. Victim tries to speak but only gargles and cannot
speak, uttering only la la. Victim dies during night after encounter or next

Person before dying usually names pantxe who killed him, or tells that ancunga
killed him, but with anuawa he cannot talk, thus know that anuawa. For example,
Kamanare before death named Urukumu as his killer by corun (?)

Oreaya, long hair winding in mass, have bow and one arrow, with this one
kill. Pantxeawi has seen.

Ancunga ampukaiya = gritar, this lives far to east at end of earth (uwii
amitie) have pao (club) Aith which they kill Tap.

Oreaya, when Taipa died oreaya came, sang and talked with by Pantxeacoi.

Others of these live in nearby matto.





Dog was sick howling and running in circles. Said that aric..:,ga had
caught him. Tap were not afraid but could not see it.

ANCUNGA C< e 7 IV-65

Iriweheancunga (puranke, eel) father of cureni and awamampana (awawampana)
first is older bro second is or was younger. Cureni's wife, kuriweka. Cureni
killed all Tapirape of a far village, but not here. (Tap anpuwaw)living far.
Then, cureni came here and Tap konomi killed him and he was buried in takana.
Then, wife went away far to fish with urupema, and on eturn women killed her
buried her in takana. Then, fa was angry and came to takana to see grave, then
he (danced and ) cried and Top konomi died. Then, yo. brother came and was
killed. Tap cut off his head zUxafijhix carried head thru village and buried
in takana. Iriwe ancunga was extremely angry and came again to takana crying
and very "brabo". NOTE again and again identity of brabo (angry aid dangerous)
and tristesse is shown. Now, Fa comes back to takana.


During night of mourning, many ancunga came to aldea and especially to house
where body lay. Came to carry off woman's junwera. This is dangerous situation
for Tapirape, men carry facols and mirrors for protection.

Kantuowa went to see body and to mourn. She fainted from sight and heat
inside house. She was immediately rushed off and Pantxe (pancei) came quickly
to blow smoke over her. Same happened to Tahui. Ancunga were dangerous and
angry and strike (thus) down women. Seldom strike down men but frequently do so
for women and children during mourning and funeral.


Mantiro, wife of curumparei, went with other woman to stream to drink just
after dark. She saw ancunga bathing in stream. She screamed and fell, said that
ancunga had struck her. Evidentally, fainted. Pancei was called to treat.
Instead of treating as usual, h- smoked until vomitting, and stood up and began
to grunt, hui, hui, etc, and show a large mirror, to drive ancunga away. Took
place for about an hour. Ipawangi then began to rub out ancunga, blowing smoke
over woman, and "tira" ancunga. Pantxe driving away angunga called Pantxe
apatxian. Pantxe drives ancunga away. All men hurreidly went to secure facol
with which they can at least defend themselves &f ancunga and mirrors which
frighten ancunga away.


With awanai and entering at same time came anapampana and ancunga ampukaiya
(shouting spirits, lit. trs.) These are one pair each. Have auruti slightly
different from awanai, latter have tuft of porker hair in hat, if porkers are


Anampampam and ancunga ampukaiya

Men are preparing to go to campo to hunt pork. When campo is flooded, there
are many herds and because of flooded places easy to kill. 7,hile on campo, men
bring ancunga back with bhem. First they bring back awanai, later they return with
anampampam and ancunga ampukaiya. If kill many porkers, two masked figures of
each of the above are brought. If few are killed, tnen only pair of anampampam
come. As for awanai, bring these two ancunga men arrive sleeping near village
in matto. Dogs are tied so as not to arrive warning women (ideally all men go
leaving only oldsters.) Before sunrise next day four masked figures arrive shouting
and dancing in praca and men behind with lines of packed "pehuras" of porker.
Above ancunga dance only one day. Meat is taken to women and other part is
cooked by wura groups in takana.

Anei walking in roca with wife saw ancunga, according to account of wife,
marican... "he screamed and ran. He fell crying. and could not talk." Marican
gathered him up by arms and strung him over shoulders carrying him back to village,
over two kilometers. According to anei, he saw ancunga but only "little". It
was white, his eyes had fallen out, he had little flesh. He had urucu in hair.
It was mucui, ie mucui was young man who died some six or seven years ago in
village near ipiramkwani. Kamairaho was called to extract ancunga. After
treating anei (see description of Pance treats wife of Alfredo). KCrnairaho
who had swallowed much smoke, slept dreamed of ancunga seeing it and agreed with
anei, or possibly it was K who first suggested that it was mucuo. "I saw ancunga
walking back of village by cukuwura (stream). It was mucio iunwera. He walked
around village. He carried cuati on shoulder. He was white. He went off when
he saw me. He went out that path (path to SE). He went back to ancunga house."

Anei did not die. "Anei ancunga apiron" that is, either the
only brushed him going over his body or ancunga enter his body. Tapirape explain
meaning of apiron by rubbing hands over body. K. showed how ancunga attacked
anei. He pointed to head and then showed down the body. Then, later the pantxe
must rid body and immediately environ of ancunga. Antonio and others said that
ancunga does not enter body. "Anei saw ancunga". Seems that apiron is substantive,
"anei had apiron over all body." Kamairaho showed how he wiped it off and treated
him with smoke. Says apiron is white, may be dust or essence that ancunga exudes.





If ancunga had caught or embraced ane& he would have died, but ancunga
apiron and man only loses consciousness. Night after (last night) Tapirape were
frightened and did not leave margins of fires.

Actually anei had been suffering from malaria and fainted. Saw him today
and he was suffering with heavy fever.

"Ancunga does not have flesh" said Antonio. "Ancunga has bones only;
ancunga leaves flesh in grave. It is white."

INTCUUGA ef V- on !IX-12

Ancunga akaice, are ancunga maso or tame n In notes wrote that they
were braba. Kamairaho said that jacui, iriweheanctnga, ia, moro, etc etc are
akaice. These are ancunga cr ado by Tapirape. They can become iuirutcrjhu, (e'"
says K, if a pantxe speaks to tnem, but are, so to speak, kept in control by



Correlation between moiety and age groups, seeming to belong thus:


At Kaowio (or Kao)

anatxa iancunga
anatxa i'-nc-Lnga
wurancingio ianc.anga
wurancingio iancanga

anatxa iancunga


Tamopaotxoa Iriwangcunga

For names see text.

These ancunga come to live in takana during rains after new takiana has been
built. Note: Kamanare, deceased, knew most of these songs. All these men are
of middle age group. Men of 30-40 with wives and children, have passed all stages
of age grades except aldsters. They may form a society. Tanopan siad he was a
manikanuga (manikato sing) see text names. While these sing wet season nc.n!ca,
younger men some yet without wives sing iraca, etc (ancunga wewunga).


Anuricinga, (moth) has many ancunga.

When Tap dies, he is buried and in one day -neuncu leaves. At other aldea
where Tap lived some two years ago many died, thus, n-n- ancunga, thus, Tap
moved. But, when Tap go there to cut banana, th-; bring i.-cat here with them,
but ancunga do not stay because do not have house here. House is "banana brabo."

Deer, paca, jacu, mutum, etc carry many aicum. thus sickness cause.a by
eating these. Morisoca and anurlci'i. carry many ancunga. Ancunga are white and
eyes are eaten by copin (worms), I-r, head. Travel about mostly at night and
inhabit matto nearby, thus, Tap afraid to leave aldeu At ni.:ht. During rains
they are cold (very cold) because they are without fire, during dry season they
are hot. (Ciancim, small insect, carries ancanga.) Thus, during wet season,
ancunga are more dangerous because cold and there is more sickness. -irror
frightens ancunga. Pantxe working on Kamanare is attempting to drive out ancunga.
Seems that Inrcunga are spirits of the dead (therefore man's shadow is spirit)
also as if there are such spirits in animals and enter body when eating.

Ipawani says that maeuma, campukwi, Ant Perr, and ikorawantori are 7hlrinning
to move to other aldea because man' Tap have died here and they are of
the numerous ancunga.



Bichu which comes at night, walks at night. If Tap sees, he will die.
Large, white, very ugly. Does have teeth, mouth, or tongue. Pantxe sees it
in dreams. Also, at night large snakes, maya, make noise wa. Urukumu dreamed
of ancunga house, large and ugly.


Jan 9 Takana was officially finished but not
large uncovered hole. Typical of the leisure way
Takana coincided with Pantxes Thunder calling and
come to inhabit the dance house.


actually finished leaving a
of these people. Finishing of
wnen Tial:-n is finished ancunga

Ancunga aiwo (larger) and ancunga aiwi come. Says these live in takana
and are friendly to Tap. Have arara feathered faces, have strings around ankles
with arara feathers attached. These say oprunxui were 4olen by Kayapo who came
waited until all Tap men were out of village (See story of visiting Kayapo)
They grabbed ancungaiwo and ran. Tap ran after Kayapo, killed all of them, and
returned ancungaiwo to village and takana. Ancunga were thiA, badly treated,
and hungry. They eat, but not visibly, corn and farinha, and Tap crear these.

IA: On first night after official finishing of Takana, two men sing the
whole night, and same two say ancunga called Ia comes. Two dance in long pranc-
ing steps and then back thus. See Drawing.

Second night awawacunga is sung.
Third night Trumai.
Fourth night iriweancunga (see story of Iriwehe)

Early of first night danced ancungawio before beginning of Ia. (Valentino
said dance was like dance of bird called iuma, but Tap declined connection)


On the first evening, too, three men come from
just after dark. They come baking shrill cries and
women. These represent the three ancestors curini,
the latter is an old woman and comes crying'shrilly
story for explanation of these). They are supposed
None of these ancunga have masks.

Also, the four nightly ancunga dances are hard]
to themselves. All go to houses to sleep. Even in
sleep leaving men to dance. Center of all attention

outside the vill-gc, come
are supposed to be unseen by
awawapana, and kuriweka,
as would old woman. .ee
now to live in takana.

y witnessed. Leave two men
the dance house boys go to
is the Pantxe dances.




Ancunga ampukaiya, amampampam, and a third ancunga, called tampankanci.
Tapirape say that these ancunga "crear" or take care of, or have porker. Their
house is large moro called "Towaiyawa". When these ancunga come to campo, porker
come following. Pantxe dreams goies to house of porker in moro and catches
ancunga ampukaiya or anampampam, or third, taking it or all to campo. He relates
this to Tapirape telling them where to look for porker, on campo or near moro
in matto, etc. These ancunga are called tacaho cana, ie porker adopted father,
(cana, father or parent of adopted child)

Note: In midday tanipankanei was sung in takana by two men, last about
hour. Consisted of ho tampankanei repeated again and again. Tapirape say that
Tam do not have masks, is noise that comes out of takana for benefit of women.


Ancungo are very large and very hairy over body. Latter is ugly to Tap
who pluck off all body hair, pubic, arm pits at times, eye lasheS, and brows.

Ancungo has curly or frizzy hair, like hair of marica, say campukwi, marica's
hair is but wavy, would be idea of woman in w. c. Considered ugly by Tap. Any
curly or frizzy hair is so. Hair -f negoos Val and Sal considered ugly. Ideal
is straight hair oil until shiny. Ancunga are frightening .-nd imposing by being
larger. Ugly for body hair and curly (frizzy hair) which stands on end.




Drew picture of feathers lying flat against head and tied to hair which is
tied back of neck. Says that Urukumu has two arara whose feathers he plucks. In
house they are small but at night in dreams very long, showed about 4' long, also,
pantxe pulls out feathers of mutum and of these two his dangerous ankungatana are
made. When pantxe kills another ankungatana hits victim behind head. Thus,
helpless and unconscious, then it either ties him from behind neck down back
through crotch and back up chest squeezing or around head, inder his chin (latter
sick pantxe cannot open mouth to talk). Pantxe then awakens sick and soon dies.
In former tying feathers made holes tying him inside boay.

Comia (g urd whistles) made by older men. Then, given to awauai of each
group. There is one for wanakura, one for wurancinga. Used for dance. Vilhen
men arrive at spot near village where they will eat. The two youngsters blow
their gourd trumpets notifying the w-men who then come with food for wuran groups
to eat. Men then enter village dancing in pairs, ideally should be one wurancingio
and one anantxa, etc. Pause several times on dance ground and in line of pairs
proceed across village. I was shown that men enter (on last apatxiro) on
path in northern half dancing to dance ground. Singing as they dance. Then,
in pairs they moved in front of Kamairaho's house. One pair shouts huh and run
wurancinga against wanakuva, wurancingio against anattxa, run thru length of aldea
to house of Alfredo. Baldus writes that no real competition and Kamairaho says
that no laughing at loser and no applauding or gain for winner. L-au-.:hel at
idea of value of winner. Said first tu arrive was duro; had scratched much
when he was young. Later Capitao announces apatxiro for following day.

Now instead of gourd trumpet Tap have been using horn of cow made into
trumpet, brought back from Araguaya when he went with Fredrico, now have no
gourd trumpets, discarded for cattle horn.




June 15-Sept: Iraca, moro, iranwure, etc.
August: apatxire
October: New Honey, Pantxe's taste and wura eat
November: Campo
Dec Jan: Takana finished
1) a" v.ancunga 3) trumai
2) ia 4) ahcunga
Ancunga eawo and eawi
Pantxe festa, Kanawano werike
February: campiawa, wura feasts and dances, go to campo after pork
awanai, irancaho, tantenio, mancowa
ancunga ampakaiya
March-April: kawaowo, monikauya, kao, upetawa
May: kauwio
1Tay-June: Tatauapo


Son of i, ni'ungo. Satr which appears in early vc(r:ir..= falling about 10pm.
First magnituie. Possibly capella or more probably aldeharan, brightest star
in early horizon in March April, said to be companion of moon, sets April 5
about 9 pm.

Imanvungo, bringer of g-rd.n products and who stay as man among Tap.
See notes. Probably Vega, in March appears in morning hours, is very .r :.t,
could be Australis.

AWANAI C e m t VI-55 !

After and following "Kananawano werika", campiawa ceremony comes with wura
group hunts and feasts and ceremonial fights, and dances and songs. Campiawa
goes on for many days, is seasonal until time of manikauya. During campiawa,
ancunga awanai (actual trs. is lobo or quara) comes to village. All men go to
campo to hunt pork. If hunt is successful, wuran groups eat pork in takana
followed by campiawa. When men return from campo, they bring buruti, stopping on
road masks are made with buruti skirts. They dress outside of village, enter
single f-le shuffling grunting ho ho, and growling. Each man carries club under
arm. (Return later to brush for any pack they ..:' carry). Single file make
circuit of village and finally stopping in front of takana weaving from side to
side. Then, all awanai enter takana. During day at intervals awanai comes out
of takana, but mostly out of takana comes only the sounds and growls of awanai.

Campukwi says that for three days awanai does not eat. Then awanai (men
dressed in buruti) leave takana going to roca stealing corn and peanuts, and
mandioca mano. "All Tapirape are awanai, all Tapirape are macacos." Traditionally
awanai are supposed only to steal corn, they come during time of new corn.

When awanai return from roca with results of theft. Carry corn over
shoulder balanced on pole. They shuffle grunting from house to house. Pause at
each house door and howl, make circuit of village thru taking "haul" to takana
where all eat. Yo. boys eat a great deal for always bring much too much, th'-- say.


ARRO,.' TYPES 111-97


Capitao does not take part in awanai. Say "capitaowera are awanai fathers"
Thus, awanai does not stop before houses occupied by capitao. "Do not stop at
house of Kamairaho, of Kamaira, of Urukumu, of Pancei. Stop before house of
Ant Perrera, of xawapareumi, of Kanciwanio, of ipawangwungi and alfredo" ie where
capitao does not live.

AWANAI Ce e r 'i VI-77

Year before (1938-59), men went to campo via 2tawere" (old aldea), in
direction of SE to hunt pork and brought back awanai. Said that masks were made
on campo. At spot about two kilometers (1) there is a cleared spot where "awanai
danced, awanai sang." There men dressed in masks danced before entering the

K. said "awanai dance one day, tomorrow they steal, tomorrow they steal,
many days they steal. It ends."


C says that by then boy is young man aid is part-.kin.r in extra-marital
affairs and father does nothing about it. Very little punished, yet boy does
about what his father or guardian asks for he is dependent on him for food, for
sponsorship to arrange feathers, decorations, etc for his initiation, for wife
after. Kancinapio certainly conforms, yeU Tap say ne is lazy and has not helped
or made large garden for or with Kamairaho.