Trip Report, Bangkok: Summary and Recommendations by Mary Elmendorf (32 pages-page 5 missing)


Material Information

Trip Report, Bangkok: Summary and Recommendations by Mary Elmendorf (32 pages-page 5 missing)
Series Title:
Series 3 - Accession 2: Appropriate Technology
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Elmendorf, Mary L. (Mary Lindsay)
Publication Date:

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the submitter.
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Full Text
1.1 Introduction
1. 2 Specific Recommendations
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Workshop D
2. 3 Recommendations for Future Workshops
2.4 Summary
6 7 7
3.1 UNICEF 3. 2 UNDP
12 17
25 27
31 32
% Iffi

1.1 Introduction
After a rest stop in Honolulu where I presented a paper on Thursday, January 13 to about 25 students and faculty members at a Women in Development discussion group at the University of Hawaii, I arrived in Bangkok on Saturday January 15 at 18.30 hrs. We were met by two students from the Centre for Housing and Human Settlement Studies (CHHSS) who arranged for a yehicle to take us to the
Ambassador Hotel which served as headquarters for the International Seminar on Human Waste Management for Low Income Settlements, January 16 22, 1983. Discussions were held with various participants on the proposed UNDP interregional project on Promotion and Support for Women's Participation in the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (IDWSSD) and recommendations for follow-up developed.
The period January 23 through 31 was spent in consultation with various UN governmental and non-governmental agencies to discuss the objectives of the proposed UNDP interregional project mentioned above, and to determine the ways in which they might participate in, and benefit from, the various proposal components. Both the World Bank resident mission and UNDP were advised of my activites, visits made to their offices and this Aide Memoire left. Several meetings were held with UNDP, UNICEF and ESCAP officials. Unfortunately the WHO representative was out of town.
A courtesy call was made at the office of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) where I was given helpful details of various non-governmental organisations.
Interviews were arranged with the Director General of the Community Development Department (CDD), Ministry of Interior, the Director of Non-Formal Education, Ministry of Education, the Population and Community Development Agency (PDA), and the President of the National Council of Women of Thailand (NCWT). See narrative for details of discussions and officials contacted.
Copies of thexdraft propos^d_JjvtexregJ-OJ,ia1 projec_were left with UNDP and UNICEF. There were no specific changes or corrections suggested but the

document was still being circulated. If there are additional comments,, they will be sent directly to Mr M Potashnik at UNDP headquarters in New York.
Titi Memet of UNICEF said the document seemed broad enough to include \ everything related to Women and the Decade. Smith of UNDP wondered if country-specific details could be worked out adequately under the regional approach so that countries are committed to contribute in some way. N
1.2 Specific Recommendations
a) Thailand:
In my brief time in Thailand it was, of course, impossible to make a thorough evaluation of the many on-going projects which might participate in or have relevance to the proposed components of the Project. There seemed, however, to be a consensus among the people I consulted that the projects being supervised by the Community Development Department, Ministry of Interior, were well conceptualised and innovative in approach, (see section 3, UNDP, ESCAP, UNICEF).
I would suggest that tha projects be examined in more detail with the
possibility of their serving as a model for replication and adaptation since----
women are already incorporated into an integrated rural development programme with sanitation, health and nutrition activities interwoven with income generation.
The process of decentralisation is carefully structured with necessary orientation, training and communication materials. Women are given organisational and leadership skills but are carefully re-incorporated into existing village committees and progress is being made at higher levels. Documentation could include:
(i) Filming or video taping of various activities for public information, etc.
(ii) Translating, summarising and printing existing research material.
(iii) Preparation of case studies.

(iv) Developing guidelines for adaptation to other
countries. As Titi Memet observed: "Thailand |
has made great progress and is far ahead of U____........____
many other countries in incorporating women 1 into development projects". --
I would recommend that the possibility of developing parts of components
(ii), (iii) and (iv) be explored further. In our exploratory discussions there
seemed to be interest in having more detailed documentatation and no reservations were expressed about filming, etc.
Since both UNICEF and UNDP are working with this department, which also serves as the official coordinator for the non-governmental agencies and has representations of the National Council of Women of Thailand on its steering committee, this seems a logical programme for full documentation.
I would also recommend that, if funds are available, consideration be given to extending support, under component 1, to two existing demonstration projects which can be further documented during implementation. Recommendations for the projects to be extended to other areas have been made but more funds are needed:
(i) The CIDA/UNICEF-project in Korat, which is designed to involve women in planning, implementing and maintaining water supply and sanitation.
(ii) The ASEAN/Australian project in Ubonracha Thani which is designed to link rural and urban centres with a water and sanitation component as well as income generation.
A further recommendation, if a project with a non-governmental agency is desirable, would be to explore with Dr Meechai of the Population and Development Association, the possibility of documenting and/or support of one of their projects which has water, women and waste components.
I would also recommend consideration of documentation on womens' roles in the urban slum -. Klong Toey in improving sanitation. In spite of the lack of piped water, families have installed and use pour-flush latrines with cesspools in

in the swampy terrain. There is already excellent; case material prepared by Prateep Ungsongtham, as well as photograohs and video tapes. Since this slum is being evacuated, plans are now being prepared for the transfer. The majority of the families want to build their own homes on the nearby designated land. This will mean the installation of appropriate water supply and sanitation. Ms Somsook Bonnyabunicha, the coordinator of the Slum Upgrading Workshop of the Centre for Housing and Human Settlements Studies, a department of the National Housing Authority, could assist.
In summarising, I would suggest that as a part of the documentation of the projects in a country such as Thailand, it would be useful to document the positive linkages between governmental and non-governmental programmes, between rural and urban women and between the professional women and the established women's clubs. Emphasis in all the material should be on process and the excellent training and communication components which have been developed. ""^^
b) Interregional or other countries
I would recommend that the papers prepared in Workshop D by the following people be reviewed, and that the sections on women, community participation, trainin and communication be documented forthwith:
Ms Nomtuse Mbere, Botswana Ms Quratul Ain Bakhteari, Pakistan
Ms K N Vijayanthi, India Mr Bindeshwar Pathak, India
Copies of the above papers are available from Dr Krisno Nimpuno, Institute for Housing Studies-BIE, Weena 700, 3000 AG Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
I would further recommend that the projects covered by the above-mentioned papers by visisted by UNICEF, UNDP/TAG or someone specifically assigned to explore further ways of cooperation.
Additional funding and/or staff should be provided as needed for this from the proposed interregional project.

JANUARY 16 223 1983
2.1 Introduction
Meetings were held on Sunday afternoon with various organisers of the seminar, including Dr Krisno Nimpuno, Seminar Chairman, Vikhram Bhatt, rapporteur for Workshop D, Richard Middleton, World Bank Project Manager, UNDP Interregional TAG project, and others.
The seminar was officially opened Sunday evening with a reception hosted by the Governor of the National Housing Authority, Royal Thai Government.
The seminar followed the planned agenda (Annex 2), with formal presentations on Monday. After I presented my paper "Women as Managers of Human Waste : Training for New Roles and Retraining for Old Roles", on Monday afternoon, there were a number of provocative questions from the floor, and some general discussion of the issues to be followed up in Workshop D.
On Tuesday all the participants visited the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), where field trips to the documentation centre (ENSIC) and the various projects had been arranged, as well as presentations, films and video tapes.
The discussion on re-use of excreta in ponds for fish culture by Dr. Peter Edwards was outstanding, as well as his explanation of the small scale integrated farms where ducks, pigs and fish are raised by a Thai farming family who combine this with irrigated farming of vegetables for sale.
The plenary sessions resumed Wednesday morning. Ms Mbere's paper on the latrine project in Botswana highlighted, with specific examples, many of the points I had raised in my paper about socio-cultural factors and womens1 attitudes and perceptions. After the lunch break, the workshops started and continued through Friday.
On Saturday, descriptions of resources of the various training and documentation centres were presented, followed by summary statements of each workshop by the Chairpersons. Peter Bourne, who had given the keynote address, made a

concluding statement, which was followed by comments and corrections to the workshop summaries.
The closing dinner on Saturday night was hosted by the Netherlands Embassy, ending a full week of activities.
An interesting feature in the Nation Review Newspaper (Sunday January 23) entitled "Alternative Answers to the Calls of Nature" written by Yuli Ismartono (Annex 3) had several quotes from my paper as well as from Ms Mbere's and Mr Pathak's.
2.2 Workshop D
The objectives of Workshop D were tied around two themes: community participation and training or, we decided to call it, communication. A summary of our conclusions is attached (Annex 4), along with a list of the participants (Annex 5).
2. 3 Recommendat'ions for future workshops
a) Instead of having people prepare papers, urge them to bring along an analysis of existing human resources, especially community level workers (CLWs), including the percentage of women. (See Sri Lanka Decade Plan APHA 1980, available from WASH, for such an analysis.)
b) Instead of having 4 workshops divided into planning, implementation, technology and community participation, have each workshop as a 'mixed' group who will try to devise a national plan, using the human resources available there,
in cooperation with the planners, implementors and technologists in their group.
c) Perhaps someone could be invited to discuss their model. (See section 3 on Community Development Department, Ministry of Interior, Royal Thai Government.)
d) Suggested questions:
| How many government ministries have community level workers (CLWs)? for example, Ministry of Health, Ministry of

Agriculture, Ministry of Community Development.
How many other CLWs are active for example, Private Agencies, Womens1 Groups?
How many CLWs from each group? Where? (get organisational chart if possible)
How many are women? at the departmental, supervisory, local levels?
How are CLWs trained? Where? When?
How are CLWs supervised?
Are CLWs paid? If so, how much?
If CLWs are volunteers, are they rewarded in other ways? Training courses?
Have any plans been made to coordinate sectoral programmes?
Is there a sanitation component in any projects?
Could special training components on water supply and sanitation be added?
What about training community level volunteers as trainers of home makers?
Can special training courses and/or communication materials be prepared for this lowest tier?
What relationship has been or can be developed with programmes
in primary health care, agricultural extension, food and nutrition,
oral rehydration?
Have or can special materials or modules be prepared in order to improve uses of water and sanitation?
2.4 Summary
The exchanges of experiences, both positive and negative, between the Africans and Asians were frank and detailed. The approaches were extremely varied, with cultural differences pinpointed especially around attitudes towards public toilets, womens' roles, re-use of excreta, etc.

Another interesting, discussion was focused on cost recovery. The difficulty of collecting use-fees for water and sanitary facilities from new migrants to an existing sites and services settlement in Botswana was brought up for suggested solutions. In many ways this highlighted the question-of any; payment to the government, and was exacerabated by the fact that the community had not been consulted. In fact, a feeling of "community" among these urban migrants was nearly non-existent.
Several participants discussed possibilities for organising group responsibility for fee collection, maintenance of services, etc. It was also pointed out that fees were more often paid to private groups, either non-governmental agencies or businesses.
The Sulabh Shauchalaya experience in India where more than 80% of the men paid for the use of public latrines in spite of the fact that free service was available to the needy, amazed the Africans. The fact that women and children could, and did, make use of these public facilities completely free of charge was
unbelievable to nearly all the participants.. Forms of communication, even such ,_
things as standardised colour of buildings, bold labelling and careful maintenance j of public facilities all seemed key factors. J
Two important features of the Indian experience served as incentives to get widespread acceptancy and community participation in household installations in low cost settlements. These were:
(i) free first cleaning, which served as training to show / them how to clean;
(ii) the 5 year guarantee for latrines installed;
As we noted in the conclusions of our workshop, there is no one method to achieve community participation, but the need for communication through various forms of media, with appropriate messages and with local level personnel is a 4^ basic requirement.
The roles of the community level workers, whether part of a public enterprise or agency, were also noted as important, as was the need to have women

in order to communicate with other women. The women participants in the workshop especially Ms Mbere of Botswana, Ms Ain Bakhteari of Pakistan and Ms Vijayanthi of India brought out the ways they had achieved this in their projects.
community participation. Workshop B went further, and the last paragraph of their summary statement said "The Workshop also stressed that, whatever communication support strategy was adopted, it was essential to involve women in the planning and design of sanitation, since women are the key agents for changing hygiene behaviour in the home. Sector agencies concerned with planning must ensure that their community contacts enable women to participate in the process, and this may require special arrangements, such as the engagement of women staff"
It was interesting that all workshops reported that they had discussed

3.2 UNDP

Ms Titi Memet Tanumidjaja, Regional Director for Eastern Asia and the
Pacific Region.
Dr Jane Bunnag
Ms Laeka Pija-Ajariya, Women in Development Officer January 24, 28, 31
Pricha Chulavachana and Clarence Schubert, both of whom had participated in the Seminar on Human Waste Management, set up appointments at UNICEF, including one with Titi Memet Tanumidjaja.
Memet expressed great interest in the draft of the UNDP Interregional Project "Promotional Support for Women's Participation in the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (IDWSSD)". She had several specific suggestions to make and invited me to return on January 28 to get more details, as well as her full reactions to the draft document. As Memet said, "we have many fragmented examples of women's involvement in improvements in water as caretakers, planners, etc, but we lack adequate documentation of how this has happened". "The first thing we need" she said "is an inventory of all known examples then there should be very detailed case studies."
Memet cited an example of the project in Baluchistan, Pakistan where UNICEF is working in an integrated rural development project centered on water and sanitation. The region is extremely orthodox with womens' traditional roles carefully defined. An anthropologist has been assigned to work on the project which, among other things, is developing techniques and approaches to teach women how to use the new water supply and improve personal and household sanitation. The methodology used and the findings would be useful to the proposed interregional project as part of several components there.
The excellent long-term study in urban Karachi, which Ms Ain Bakhteari

reported on at the Seminar, could also be presented as a documented case study. The work with women and children, after initiating the programme with the traditional male community leaders who originally refused her access to women, is a clear example of the need for time to establish contact with women in their homes and meeting places. Details of the training courses set up to prepare young women as teachers of the girls (and boys sometimes) in their homes would be interesting to analyse, in relation to adding improved, health and sanitation modules. Two case studies, one urban and the other rural, in a single country, both focused on women, could be of great use to planners and project directors. Perhaps an., assessment/evaluation of the projects could be designed for comparative purposes, with guidelines developed for use with similar cultural groups.
The second point Memet made was the importance of income-generating activities not just for groups, but also for individual women. She felt there was a clear relationship between water and the ability to earn money. The ability to buy water in some areas is increased with the availability of cash, but also the value of money and time increases as women are self-employed. They have increased status in the family and more decision-making power related to such things as improved water and sanitation in their homes.
Memet stressed the fact that UNICEF assisted governments in training women for income-generating activities, but not for entering the labour market as wage earners, which was the focus of ILO. Since 1978 UNICEF has made 'seed money' available as loans to groups of women to start small businesses or money-making projects. Most of these loans have been repaid to keep a revolving fund going. Recently, national banks in Thailand have been making regular loans to womens' groups. Training in management, record keeping etc, has been started and illiterate women have requested literacy classes so as to become less dependent on the literate women. Improvements in personal and household sanitation go hand-in-hand with income-generating activities as women try to improve the quality of life for themselves and their families. Linking a new source of income to women's time and energy released by improvements in water supply and sanitation is a positive motivation.
Memet and I discussed two areas of UNICEF that would be relevant to the Project: Project Support Communication (PSC), Development Support Communication (DSC)

and the Women In Development (WID) Projects. Of special interest are the communication and education components that have been developed by PSC in UNICEF. An appointment was set up with Dr Jane Bunnag, who has been responsible for the communication components, on Monday January 31, after her return from Vietnam.
Laeka Pija-Ajariya, the Women In Development officer, is preparing comments and suggestions based on the draft document. She summarised the area-intensive people-based approach, which is now official policy in Thailand. Of special interest is the fact that, as of this year, women can legally be heads of village councils, and five had already been elected. There are organised womens1 committees in every community, and one or two women are on nearly every village-level council. Womens1 opinions and concerns are being increasingly heard and addressed.
Pija-Ajariya also discussed Thailand's new approaches to integrated development in which the health worker, the agricultural development worker, the nutritionist and the teacher (who serves as secretary) work as a committee at the local level. A 'bottom-up' instead of a 'top-down' approach is being developed with community development officers from the Community Development Department, Ministry of Interior, as coordinators, at the provincial and district levels. Special training programmes have been designed to help people carry out integrated programmes which include water supply and sanitation components.
The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has funded a 2 year project in Korat which includes involving women and other community members in programme planning, locating wells, selecting caretakers and securing land rights for property to install 600 wells and pumps. An assessment of this project is now under way.
In the first progress report of this Project (Thailand Rural Water Supply E/ICEF/P/L/783) for the Canadian UNICEF committee (CIDA) and the United States UNICEF committee, it was noted that one of the strategic problems was "to link rural water supply to primary health care in problem malnutrition areas and to provide water in villages where UNICEF is supporting skill-development of women so as to promote their capacity to participate in delivering services to their community". The aim is "to reduce infant mortality rate from 44.8/1000 to

35.8/1000 and the morbidity rate due to water and food borne diseases from 266/1000 to 187/1000 by 1981".
As an initial part of the project, Project Support Communication (PSC) workshops were held for 55 Community Development workers in Surin and Buri Ram provinces. The workshops emphasised the importance of participation of villagers at the planning stage, particularly women, who will be motivated to "select well locations, caretakers, and to decide what their contribution for the installation of wells would be". Also included in the workshops was the preparation of a sociological survey methodology for obtaining base line data to determine needs, attitudes and practices related to water before introducing improvements. The CDs carried out these surveys as technicians were examining geological conditions and evaluating appropriate alternative sources and technologies.
. On January 31, I met with Dr Jane Bunnag at UNICEF to discuss various communication techniques and materials. Not only had various people in UNDP, UNICEF and World Bank headquarters suggested that we get together, but Memet had also recommended that we discuss the project proposal.
Communication stragegies whether called Development Communication Support (DCS) or Project Communication Support (PCS) are being considered on a regional basis. I had already read Dr. Bunnag's excellent analysis of "Communication and Community Participation" presented in draft form in January 1982, which highlighted the interlocking of communication with community participation. As she noted, community participation "should indicate their informed concurrence and involvement in the development process from the earliest stages of project formulation". The word 'informed' implies that residents of a community, both women and men, have been thoroughly informed as to the "technological alternatives, their financial and other costs, their role in design, installation and maintenance of the facilities".
In discussing PCS within UNICEF I found that even though it has been integrated with planning in the field in Pakistan, it has been kept as part of Public Information. In the Asian regional office of UNICEF, Dr Bunnag's responsibilities have been separated from the P.R. office and are related to communication.

Communication both data gathering and information dissemination should be interwoven with project planning and programming in the donor agencies as well as in the field. One of the integrated contributions this project can make is to help integrated women and communication into the planning, implementation and evaluation of projects.
Dr Bunnag agreed to send selected material and background papers on approach and process to me care of the UNDP headquarters office.
We discussed two specific things which she promised to evaluate:
The Community Participation and Water Supply Handbook
An existing video tape of community participation in water supply which is being translated.
She also provided more information on the Japanese Organisation for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) which uses 'deworming' as an entry into environmental sanitation and family planning (Annex 6).
JOICFP has become a contributor to UNICEF and might well have an interest in the proposed interregional project for women since their interest is focused on Maternal/Child health.
After the meeting with Dr. Bunnag I had lunch with Pricha and Laeka who gave me helpful written comments on the proposal and will be sending more material to New York. Pricha felt that funding for replication of either the Korat or Buri Ram projects would be well spent (see Ministry of Interior).

3.2 UNDP
Mr Michael Smith, Deputy Regional Director
Ms Sachiko Natsume, Assistant Regional Representative
January 25 and 27 1982
An appointment was set up with Michael Smith who is charged with IDWSSD activities as well as Women In Development programmes, including the Voluntary Fund. Mr Smith suggested that I also meet Sachiko Natsume, assistant regional representative, who has just taken over the Women in Development. (WID) part of Smith's activities.
After a brief discussion,of IDWSSD activities in general, The Task Force on Women and the background of the draft UNDP interregional project on women, he summarised the situation in Thailand, including the lack of an approved DECADE plan,
Natsume joined us and we continued discussing various project possibilities. As a part of turning over his WID activities to Natsume as well as providing an opportunity for me to meet the government agency most involved at the grassroots level in basic needs programming, Smith offered to set up an appointment with the Community Development Department, Ministry of Interior.
On my return to UNDP, I picked up ...materials from Williams and checked on reactions to the draft proposal with Smith. He may be sending further comments to Mr Potashnik at UNDP headquarters but said that the draft seemed alright to him He questioned how the regional approach would work in specific national settings. Another point brought out was what the country contributions would be and how they could be handled.
Natsume had not finished her comments on the draft but will forward any suggestions to UNDP. She and I went from UNDP to the Ministry of Interior where we had an excellent meeting with Dr Pairat, Deputy Director-General of the Community Development Department (see Ministry of Interior).

Dr Pairat Decharin, Deputy Director-General January 27
An appointment was made by Michael Smith of UNDP for Ms S Natsume and myself to meet with Dr Pairat to discuss the ^four on-going Voluntary Fund Projects and other possibilities within the framework of the draft Project Proposal.
Dr. Pairat, who had attended the Mid-Decade Conference on Women in Copenhagen as an official member of the Thai delegation and who is an applied anthropologist trained at Michigan State, was extremely knowledgeable about problems, possibilities and projects of direct relevance to the proposal. As a government official who has been working on the implementation of the new 'bottom-up' people-based development 5 year plan, Dr. Pairat has been closely related with the previously mentioned CIDA project in Korat which he feels can be replicated in other areas now that a demonstration project has been completed and is being assessed.
Dr. Pairat, with his assistant, Mrs Bubphat, has been working since 1962 on maternal/child development projects in the Department, which started originally with nutrition and home economics, although progress was slow. With UNICEF, ESCAP and UNDP help, the new approach, which emphasises training and organisation of womens' groups as well as adding income-generating projects, has stimulated increased response from women at the village level.
According to Dr. Pairat some recent research has proved that Thai women have much more decision-making power than was thought earlier (unfortunately the-study is available only in Thai). Not only are the women being successful in their group projects, but they are beginning to speak out at community meetings and take their places as committee heads.
Having water and improved sanitation are key parts of this integrated rural development approach which includes training in household management, personal

hygiene, nutrition, food preparation and presentation etc.
Dr. Pairat works with university groups on research and also coordinates voluntary agencies, in cooperation with the National Council of Women of Thailand, which has been designated as the official 'umbrella1 organisation by the Royal Thai Government in lieu of a Women's Bureau.
One of the things which CDD recognises in programming for 'Women in Development' activities is the fact that a process which involves the interdependence of technical services interface at the village level. Hence a woman is seen as a "person who is concerned about the education and health needs of the child, the water and sanitation needs of her home and her community, and other related activities which are a part of her everyday 1 ife". The following diagram shows the intra/inter-relationship of the basic service sectors which concern women in development activities at the village level.
Rural water supply and sanitation
Food and nutrition
Community action for the delivery of basic services
Women and youth in development
Improvement of
Preschool child development nutrition
Source: Community Development Department, Annual Report, ASEAN-WID, July 1982
The key role played by water and sanitation in an integrated development approach at the village level is clear. The interesting thing in this model is

Coordination and Management Committee
PMO Chairman Health, MOE, CDD3 DOAE, BOB Members
IAD Vice-chairman NESDB, DIEC, LAD, UNICEF Secretariat staff
Provincial Office Governor
District Development Committee District Officer
District Officer
Senior Deputy District Officer
Private Sub-Committee Sub-Committee Sub-Committee Sub-Committee Sub-Committee
organi- on Occupation on Security on Education, on Health on Public
sation Development Religion, Culture and Athletics Utility Service

Village Headman

Women Committee
Tambon Council
Private organi-
Agricultural officer
Health officer
Village Committee Development
Women Committee
Private CD ,
organisation officer j i

that at the same time there is a recognition of the need for intersectoral planning at all levels with provisions made for flexibility in order to respond to the needs of the villagers including the women.
Figure 3, on the following page shows this in a schematic way.
One of the innovative approaches is the training of women in Thailand as caretakers, (see UNICEF, NCWT). Another successful demonstration project includes building systematic linkages between provincial urban women and women in rural areas. Urban women are helping to discover markets for rural produce, advising on most profitable products for sale, and assisting in training courses and literacy classes. Dr. Pairat said that care is being taken that the rural women do not become dependent on the urban, but that a feeling of sisterhood and mutual sharing is developed. Along with income-generation, there is organisation of child nutrition stations emphasing both sanitation and nutrition. It is hoped to extend this pilot programme to other areas as soon as funding is available. Some background documents on these programmes were collected and more will be sent directly to UNDP by Ms Natsume who took some copies to Xerox.
One of the aims of the CDD is strengthening cooperation between urban and rural women. Dr. Pairat is obviously very sensitive to the needs and strengths of women as individuals and in groups. He is also aware of the need to integrate women into the total development process.
The importance of decentralisation and of cooperative planning and action among the various organisations both governmental and non-governmental has been demonstrated by the policies and procedures of CDD. The conceptual models developed by CCD and contained in their March 1982 report to the ASEAN Women In Development Project are examples of how the linkages recommended in WHO's framework for DECADE Planning, 1980, can be implemented. (Annex 7)
Water and Sanitation are an integral part of the spoke of basic services needed for development.
The ASEAN Women In Development provided, through Australia, US$ 172,800 to support one urban centre and seven rural centres in Ubonracha Thani for

developing their production and marketing, as well as providing capital for a revolving fund which is handled by CCD. This demonstration project, which started in May 1982, has been successful and the CCD hopes to extend it to other selected parts of Thailand as soon as funding is available.

Dr David Oot Office of Health, Population and Nutrition Ms Lawan Ratanaruang, Women in Development Officer
January 27 1983
During an informal lunch with David Oot, I thanked him for handling and delivering the last WASH-AID documents to the Seminar. We also discussed the Seminar and USAID projects which Thailand has in water and sanitation. Unfortunately the present emphasis on provincial piped systems has very little provision for human dimensions except for agency training. The nutrition and maternal/child health programmes are more relevant to the project document, but no specific suggestions for cooperation were made by David.
In my interview, arranged by David, with Lawan, she give a list of 37 project grants with Private Voluntary Organisations in Thailand since 1978 (Annex 8). Some of these had components which related specifically to the proposed Decade Project.
One of these, Food and Nutrition Development, which started for 3 years in 1976 has been continued until 1985. The grant is made through the Asia Foundation to the Rural Development Centre for Southern Thailand, with cooperation from the Prince of Songkhla University. There are special provisions for training, evaluation and communication in home management of food related to water use and sanitary practices. A grant, through the Asia Foundation to the Council for Social Welfare in Thailand, made in 1980 and still continuing, is earmarked for training for social development to some 350 organisations, many of whom have projects with women, some of which have sanitation components.
A strengthening grant has been made to the National Council of Women in Thailand (NCWT) to help them coordinate more effectively their membership of 107 womens1 organisations, 500,000 regular members and 350 associated members.
As the new USAID director takes over, a survey of past and on-going projects is being made with summaries of their plans and activities. If there is later

interest on the part of USAID in participating in the proposed UNDP ^ r r r- a r r interregional
project, one of the above three projects might be selected for fulli:, ... ^ 1 documentation
or replication within the framework of women's participation in DECA|,^ ac^1-v^i

January 283 1983
Khunying Orawan Techaked, President
On Friday, January 28, I spent a luncheon meeting discussing the programmes of the NCWT with the President and two of her committee heads. NCWT has been designated by the King:
to be the coordinating centre of all the womens1 association and womens' organisations in Thailand for the purpose of the development of human resources, especially women and children.
to disseminate knowledge about desirable activities which would improve the standard of living and strengthen the self-reliance of the Thai people to member organisations in the metropolitan area, in the provinces and in the remote areas.
to seek funding to assist member organisations which are involved in community development.
to extend assistance in gathering data for the preparation of documents and the operation of the member organisations.
We discussed the overall responsibilities and reviewed the seven project committees which have been set up by the Board of Directors, namely:
(ii) (iii)
Women's Advancement Promotion
Religious and Cultural Promotion Vocational Promotion
Consumer Promotion
Educational Promotion
Health Promotion
Improvement of densely populated communities
(in cooperation with the National Housing Authority)
Even though none of these are specifically focused on water supply and sanitation, there is an awareness of the problem on the part of Khunying Orawan.

In fact she furnished me with the attached background documentation on water (Annex 9) which was prepared by the Mid-Decade Conference on Women in Copenhagen. As noted in the document, women "are considered to be the main target group to be responsible for and benefit from the safe water supply service" developed by the Community Development Department (CCD) and the Department of Mineral Resources. 465 women have been trained in 60 villages in 2 provinces as hand-pump caretakers (see UNICEF/CIDA project and CCD). This is the kind of data which the Proposed Interregional Project hopes to document more fully. Whether or not the NCWT would be able to assist in the documentation would have to be explored. As was noted by several people, NCWT has been given increased official responsibility as the 'umbrella' organisation, but lacks professional staff and clear policies or procedures. The NWCT committee head for rural development projects said that she works through the wives of the governors at the provincial level. In the past, they have set up fairs to help sell handicrafts from the provinces and are hoping to develop training programmes. The best way to coordinate these efforts with such projects as the CDD Asian Women Australia project (see CDD/M0I) would have to be explored.
Several comments were made by outsiders that NCWT should be coordinating the work of the various agencies instead of getting into project design and operation. One of the purposes of the USAID grant was to help strengthen the capacity of NCWT to synthesize the many efforts by and for women in Thailand and serve as a pressure group to building awareness and raise consciousness concerning women here.
The NCWT notes in its report on Water Storage Tanks (Thai version) (Annex 10) that in spite of the fact that an easy-to-construct bamboo/cement water tank has been identified as the solution to the water problem in some areas by the Thailand Appropriate Technology Action for Development (ATAD), no women are being trained in this, even though women make up more than 50% of the construction labour force in the nation. The Division of Sanitation in the Ministry of Public Health limits selection of tank-builder trainees to men.
The problem of rural water supply in Thailand is complicated by the fact that rural water supply is split among seven different agencies so that increasing womens' roles in this sector is difficult. According to "Water" .. "A proposal is being considered by the Government to establish a Single Rural Water Supply Agency. This new government agency would incorporate all the existing rural water supply organisations. Its principal responsibility would be to provide access to safe water to all rural inhabitants of Thailand in support of and in collaboration with Primary Health Care.

Daw Aye, Senior Regional Programmer for Womens' Programmes
J C Williams, Agricultural Division, Community Development Advisor
Dr Claudio Sepulueda, Medical Division, WHO
January 25 1983
Daw Aye, Burmese sociologist and specialist in womens1 projects with yearr. of experience in this region, brought me up to date on the projects she had started with the Royal Forestry Department during my 1981 visit here as a part of a rural renewable energy commission.
Women participated in the planning, are of the managers of and, hopefully, the beneficiaries of a fuel-wood tree planting project and an agro-forestry scheme with cashew nut trees inter-cropped.
As of now there is no sanitation component in the project but as the women become more productive, one could develop.
Daw Aye's confidence in the ability of Dr. Pairat (see CCD/MOI) to supervise projects with components in which women are involved in planning and implementation is based on a knowledge of his performance in the past and participation with him at ESCAP workshops.
J C Williams shared several documents with me related to training and community participation, including "Transfer of Knowledge and Skills among Peer Groups A Manual on Methodology" (Annex 11), developed at the ESCAP/FAO data-country project for the Promotion and Training of Rural Women in Income-Raising Group Activities" Bangkok 1979. The philosophy behind this project was that people at the grassroots level in developing countries have a great deal to teach their own people and that they themselves are the best teachers.
This approach corresponds with the findings in the population field where peer support among women was a positive force in acceptance of family planning. Similar approaches among farmers has accelerated transfer of knowledge about new

farming techniques. In Thailand, the Community Development Department is using this process in its training and communication support for women (see CCD/MOI).
Dr Claudio Sepuluedo, Chilean doctor assigned to ESCAP has worked on several WHO programmes and was interested in following up on womens1 roles in relation to water and sanitation if a proposed project is developed.

Mechai Viravaidya January 26, 1983
On Wednesday afternoon, January 26, we visited Mechai at his PDA office to discuss the present activities of this assocation as well as any projects he might suggest in his new role as Governor of the Provincial Water Authority which^ might relate to the proposed project. n ^ Z^-,u.c'' -^J >
During my previous meetings with Mechai in Bangkok, we had discussed the Community Based Appropriate Technology (CBAT ) programme which had relevance to rural renewable energy. Several of the components of CBAT's which we discussed then, such as methane generators and water storage tanks are still on going. Since the grassroots integrated programmes which have been developed are based on incentives related to family planning, there is a definite relationship with women in the broader context, but no women's programme as such, except the family planning activity.
Mechai. gave us a quick up-date of activities, some slides on the water storage tanks and expressed interest in having funds to carry out some of their grassroot activities related to water supply and sanitation. He said he could tailor some women-focused projects if there was a possibility of support.
Another part of our discussion dealt with communication and training ,\ components. Leona d'Agnesof PATH, Indonesia had written to Mechai about my vist' to Bangkok and felt some of the communication materials she had helped to design for PDA during the 2 years she and Tom d'Agnes worked with Mechai might be of interest to us. Unfortunately there was no time to explore these in detail.
However, Mechai did tell us about the US$ 2.5 million USAID grant which : has been given to him and Development Alternatives to evaluate the 'bottom-up' person-oriented development and design of a management plan.
As far as the Provincial Water Works are concerned, there are grants from The World Bank and USAID for piped systems in provincial towns, but there is practically no involvement with users except for fees.

Dr Kasama Varavam (PhD Harvard University, Education & Development) January 27, 1983
Even though there was not time to visit the Ministry, I did have a long discussion with Dr Varavarn. She has collaborated with CDD and UNICEF.
Some of the messages on sanitation and/or health developed through the department might be of interest if a project is developed in Thailand.
Dr Varavarn has been the director of the World Bank project which has just been completed. The Ministry of Education has approved a budget to continue the programme with Thai funds.

Dr Amara Pongsapich (PhD Anthropologist, University of Washington) January 28, 1983
Dr Amara has designed and directed a number of research projects in rural Thailand, including participation in the recent one by META on rural renewable energy. She has done research on changing roles of women and could be useful if a project is developed in Thailand.

Mr Fred Temple3 World Bank Mission, Bangkok January 17 3 23 and 313 1983
A call was made to the Bank on Monday, January 17 to advise them of my activities etc. A second call was made on Monday January 23 to check for messages.
On Monday, January 31 an appointment was made with Mr Fred Temple to review the activities of the last two weeks and summarise conclusions and recommendations included in this aide-memoire, a copy of which will be left in the office, with additional copies sent to the World Bank regional office in Sri Lanka and headquarters in Washington D C, attention Richard Middleton.
Fred Temple commented briefly on World Bank activities in water supply and sanitation. He asked if I had discussed the project with Mechai and what suggestions were made from analysing the roles of women in urban slums with the National Housing Authority. I mentioned my visit to Klong Toey and said we would welcome suggestions of ways to cooperate. Temple had not received a copy of the draft proposal.