INT/83/003 Promotion and Support for Women's Participation
in the International Water Supply and Sanitation
Report on Mission to Honduras
16 23 October 1983
Mary Elmendorf and Anton Kruiderink
I. An Overview
Honduras was chosen as the one country in Latin America that through
the identification of specific pilot activities, which would link the
objectives of the IDWSSD and the Women's Decade, could present an example
of how to achieve meaningful results, caused by the high degree and variety
of organized voluntary groups, particularly women's organizations in the
country. These organizations are present in the rural as well as in the
urban areas, and can assume responsibility for carrying out the pilot
activities foreseen in INT/83/003, in close cooperation with the Government,
and drawing where available on its technical expertise. At the same time,
Honduras' socio-economic profile (Annex I) and a per capital of USt520
characterizes it as one of the poorest countries in Latin America, with
average health indicators that are far below what is expected in Latin
The Government of Honduras in its 1982-1986 National Development Plan
has identified the Health Sector and within this,water and sanitation as
one of its top priorities, and has presented a more detailed sectorial
National Plan that analizes the requirements and projects the steps to
be taken to reach in improved coverage for all by 1990 (Annex II).
This National Plan for the Decade was completed in April 1983 by PAHO/
WHO with assistance from West Germany through GTZ. The total costs of the
DECADE programme amounted to 1 billion two hundred million US$ in order to
raise the coverage for drinking water from % to 90% and sanitation from
% to 79% by 1990. The Plan was discussed, revised and approved by the
Minister of Public Health in August 1983 (Annex III). A working seminar
held by PAHO in June 1983 contained several specific recommendations of
relevance to INT/83/003 to be carried out through a National Action
Committee (CONAPS). Although in reality this has mainly become an
institutional point of reference, with the Ministry of Health and its
related descentralized institutions like SANAA (Servicios Aut6nomos Nacionales
de Agua y Alcantarillada) being the one that carries nearly exclusively the
workload of the activities for water and sanitation. (For the institutional
framework see Annex IV).
Two recommendations from the Workshop can be useful in carrying out
the INT/83/003 projects (see Annex V).
1. After identifying all institutions, national and international,
a subcommittee of Human Resources for the IDWSSD that depends on CONAPS
should be formed to make a diagnosis of all human resources and establishment
of a national programme of training.
2. A special advisory committee of appropriate Low-Cost technology was
also recommended and institutions named to evaluate new water supply and
The government has been rather successful in attracting foreign
resources to enable the execution of water and sanitation plans that are in
general formulated for departmental coverage, with the main areas being
the target of specific plans (a map representing the situation as per 31/12/81
is included as Annex VI). As of now, one of the main bottlenecks is not the
financial requirements but especially the limited absorption capacity to
extend the programme beyond its current time of execution and to maintain
acceptable levels of maintenance of what has been built so far. UNICEF
has a small programme in Honduras which is supervised from the regional
office in Guatemala through a local representative. The newly appointed
Regional Director expressed interest in cooperating with INT/83/003. At
the present time she is evaluating the on-going programme and seeks to
increase the support activities including training and to approve a
communal laundry facility when project designs are finalized. (See attachment 7)
In this context, pilot activities in the context of INT/83/003 are welcome
innovations, even more so because the main emphasis where communal participation
is concerned, has been on the male sector of the population, even in a society
where it is recognized and accepted that women are the main users and responsible
for the water (systems) and sanitation in and around their houses.
In the overall national budget, the health sector occupies %, which
has not changed in recent years. As international financing is nearly
exclusively available for expanding the coverage of water and sanitation
services, the point of institutional capacity referred to above is to be
recalled again, as well as the fact that the health budget is mainly directed
towards paying salaries of personnel employed. Community participation,
in the sense of "barefoot doctors" and health and sanitation volunteers, has
therefore become an appreciated component of the government's approach in
expanding its services. In addition, an increased awareness of the need to
highlight maintenance programmes is now recognized. The government, in
principle, makes no distinction between the voluntary groups or cooperatives
it collaborates with, and the increased activism of organized and/or women-
directed grassroot type of organization are equally welcomed to participate.
However, if this receptive attitude towards women's participation could be
transformed into a well-defined policy to have women participate, using
approaches that better suit their specific roles and requirements, additional
resources can be tapped. It is in this respect that the pilot activities of
INT/83/003 can contribute to show the way.
Women's participation at the national, regional and local level is an
increasing phenomenon, formally accepted and with political support, in
part because of the growing number of women in political, professional and
managerial jobs.* However, there are still many cultural and socio-economic
defined constraints that are more prevalent here than in the higher-income
Latin American countries. Perhaps precisely because of these constraints
there is a growing group of very opinionated, motivated women at the grass-
root communcal level, as well as in political organizations who are assuming
positions of clear leadership and, while having to deal with a "macho-defined"
cultural setting, are increasingly managing to advance overdue "women's rights".
A more modern "Family Charter" that undoes "turn-of-the-century" limitations
of women entitlements (divorce, legal status, etc.) is now in its final
debate in the National Congress and once approved will further the role of
women in all levels of the country's affairs.
Political support, formal and informal, for community participation
exists, but there are differences between the politically motivated
community organizations and the more union-type ones, with the ones
organized for a specific cause (building of a road, installation of a water
system) occupying the middle ground. These three types of organizations
are all, however, at one time or another, actively pursuing local,
developmental activities like for instance infrastructural improvements.
It can also be observed that the government in general has shown objectivity
in working with all three types of organizations, depending on local
In the context of Latin America, Honduras has one of the strongest
organized farmers movements (split along different ideological conceptions
but with an overriding pragmatic union-type approach to obtain such
* For a short summary on the major organizations of women in Honduras
see Attachment 9.
essential components as land, credit and agricultural services as well as
cooperatives and community-type organizations). All these pursue
developmental activities with their members at the community level. In addition,
the many training courses, on different topics, during so many years has
created a group of farmer leaders who consider themselves, and are considered,
at a par with the political leaders at community level, while a number of
them have risen to.national prominence. The recent coming to the foreground
of affiliated but separate women farmers organizations, and women-organized
political groupings, is adding another element to an already special
characterization of Honduras in Central America, and in Latin America at
That the recent as well as current governments have been and are
positively disposed towards incorporating community and voluntary type of
organizations in their development activities is also confirmed through a
number of the projects that the government is executing with United Nations
assistance in Honduras, and that count heavily on grassroot organized
participation as well as on national and non-governmental organizations,
like the Federaci6n de Cooperativas para la Vivienda (FECOVIL).
II. UNDP Projects in Honduras
Projects that the government of Honduras and the UNDP agreed upon, which
are part of the 1982-1986 Country Programme and which are directly relevant
to INT/83/003, are the following:
HON/82/030 Housing (Habitat): Decent rural housing is nearly non-
existent in Honduras and especially in the more tropical zones of the country,
houses are rudimentary shacks of bamboo, driftwood and bits and pieces of
different materials for roofing. With the help of the vocational training
institute, and the active involvement of the farmers unions affiliated with
FEHCOVIL, the latter has initiated a self-help construction programme of
8 x 6msuperficie houses. These come with tiled roofs, cement floors and
adobe walls, plus fuel efficient stove and decent sanitation for a cost
oscillating between US$400-US$650 per house. The target is to have 2,500
houses built by the end of the project, in different zones of the country, with
the expected result of having led the way for decent rural housing in
Honduras, where the process to have them built and complementary educational/
training and income-generating activities will be as important as the physical
obtainment of the house. With 20 groups, each affiliated to a farmers union,
the Programme has initiated the first 250 houses in the South and many of
these have nearly finished their task. Women play in all phases of the
project a role on par with the men. (UNDP contribution: US$1.0 million,
government of the Netherlands: US$1.5 million). (Attachment 8).
HON/82/007 Women Farmers (FAO): The novelty of this project is
that it uses at the local level, farmer leaders (mainly women) who act
as the auxiliary to the regional promoter, who is a government employee
(National Agrarian Institute INA). The project, like the housing
project, is run by a national professional staff, with periodic external
consultancies. It promotes community-level productive activities, generating
income for the organized women farmers groups that are the executors of
the project at the local level. Training is immediately with the specific
small-scale project the women are to execute and the auxiliary promoter
is to immediately advice the service level of the required government
institutions to permit timely assistance. This project will provide an
income-oriented complementarity for the groups of the housing project.
(UNDP contribution: US$1.2 million, WFP within its support for the Women's
Decade will allow a 5% sale of its food contribution to Honduras, with the
amount of $275,000 to be used for agriculture production purposes by the
groups of this project). (Attachment 9).
HON/81/001 Rural Health (WHO): In its community-oriented public health
approach, the government of Honduras for years has been building up and
strenghtening a pyramidal health structure where each village is to have its
local health center (without a doctor or certified nurse, but instead public
health and sanitation volunteers), named CESAR. These centers are to refer
patients to the zonal health centers where a doctor and nurse are permanently
available, and that carry the name CESAMO. Part of the CESARES had been
constructed but were never adequately equipped; others saw their equipment
fall apart due to lack of maintenance. With a financial contribution from
the government of the Netherlands UNDP/WHO were to reequip 200 CESARES and
provide maintenance training (with funds from a USAID health loan to the
government of Honduras). By using locally made furniture (table, desks,
etc.) and by buying in bulk from UNICEF and having the balance placed in
Holland, the project saw its efforts to only consider really required
equipment be rewarded as nearly 900 CESARES are now nearly reequipped. Women
play an essential role as health volunteers, they make up the locally organized
health committees and are the ones who constantly remind the government of
the need to improve its services, (UNDP contribution: US$300,000, government
of the Netherlands $2,900,000). (Attachment 10).
The above identified UNDP-financed projects are complemented by the
UNFPA-financed HON/ / Mother-Child project, the United Nations Voluntary
Women's Fund activities in Honduras (reaching a US$300,000 by the end of
1983), the WFP-supported Basic Grain Production programme involving local
farmers groups, and the "Nutrition" pilot programme in the department Santa
Barbara, where soon the HON/82/030 Housing project is to be operational soon.
(See also Attachment II on UNICEF, WFP activities in Honduras).
III. Other Related Projects
The Central American Bank (BCEI)/IFAD/IDB also has an integrated rural
development programme, where grassroot impact projects have a specific role
to play. Many of their impact-oriented small-scale community type projects
follow the successful lead set by the UNDP/Dutch-financed pilot programme in
1979/1982. The Swiss government is financing an integrated rural development
programme in the South of Honduras adjacent to the zone where the HON/82/030
Housing and the HON/82/001 Peasant Women are active, although it contributes
to this latter zone with financing for wells and hand pumps (with the soon-to
be-initiated maintenance training). The government of West Germany is present
in the south of Honduras with a Food-for-work Programme, which buys locally
produced basic grains which then are distributed in support of community
development type of activities.
According to the original Decade plan developed in February 1981, US$10.5
million was made available for improvements in rural water supply and
sanitation in communities of 2,000 people and under. US$1lmillion was allocated
for preparation and testing of related educational materials with the contract
given to the Academy for Educational Development which had prepared the
excellent communication campaign with the MPH on LITROSOL (see Eight Myths
and other research documents on this. Key researchers, etc. in Attachment 10).
A second contribution of US$10 million was made in August 1983, also for
improvements in water supply and sanitation but the size of the communities
to be served was raised to 5,000.
The minimum size community considered for assistance is 200 unless they
are within 5 km. of a larger area. The majority of systems are gravity flow
with communal standpipes.
The US$20.5 million has been channelled through SANAA. For details see
Summary i vi
I. An Overview 1 5
II. UNDP Projects in Honduras 5 7
HON/82/007 Women Farmers
HON/81/001 Rural Health
III. Other Projects 8- 9
IV. NGOs 9 11
V. Indigenous Voluntary Organizations 11 12
VI. A Pilot Programme 12 24
A. The Rural Component
B. The Urban Component
VII. Research and Training Components 24 26
VIII. Organizational Structure for Pilot Programme 26 29
As a part of this programme, USAID is financing a national scheme
(the Centre for Industrial Development CDI) to introduce low-cost rural
technology, with the objective to produce locally, promoting small rural
industries. Perhaps because of this philosophy to promote a grassroot,
indigenous, small-scale industry, certain weaknesses are overlooked in the
propagated designs of sanitary facilities ("letrina seca") or handpumps, which
have influenced consumer acceptance negatively.
In addition to the above-mentioned government sponsored programmes, which
all rely at the local and regional level on non-governmental organizations like
the farmer unions and the voluntary community organizations combined with the
sectorial responsibilities carrying government institutions and ministries, we
have the national relevant NOGs themselves for developmental activities
directed towards the local level. Among these, the religious ones, particularly
the evangelic denominations have proven very active in supporting their
groups with direct impact local development projects. These NGOs at
times work with other union-organized groups like the farmer unions and
cooperatives, but in general they prove more restrictive in their selection
of target groups than developmental-oriented NGOs like the Save the Children,
Foster Parents and CARE, which have an active presence in Honduras. All
the NGOs with a national presence count with international (NGO) financing,
be it from the USA or from Europe.
For instance, CARE's programme in DECADE-related activities for
fiscal year July 1983 to June 1984 amounts to approximately US$1,250,000.
This is divided into three projects: 55 gravity flow systems with 1,240
bathing/toilet facilities, watershed conservation and management, and
an outreach program combining training in personal hygiene and nutrition.
None of these programs have a specific women's component, but the
gravity flow systems include training in operation and maintenance with
the provision of tools and establishment of a revolving fund. CARE
works on projects with SANAA and the MOH. For fuller description,
see Attachment 1.
Another NGO which has special relevance to INT/83/003 is the
Academy for Education Development (AED). One million dollars has been sub-
contracted to AED from the US$20.5 million AID Water Supply and Sanitation
allocation to prepare the education/training components. AED is focussing
special attention on strengthening the Ministry of Health's division of
health education. (Attachment la).
This is a part of a long-term technical assistance and loan fund over
a five-six year period with the goal being to develop a cadre of professionals
within the MOH capable of "conducting audience research, defining
appropriate health messages in behavioral terms, and executing an integrated
media strategy to maximize the impact of broadcast, print and face-to-
During the first phase, 1980-83, a health education methodology
appropriate to Honduras was designed and tested in the field, focussing on
acute infant diarrhea. Concidental with this project, the USAID mission
is supporting large-scale infrastructural projects in water and sanitation
in selected regions (Attachment 2) with health education personnel being
trained in the same methodology to join the health education division of
the MOH in 1985. Some materials on water use ("El Gotita de Agua")
(Attachment 3) and sanitation (Construcci6n de Letrinas Fosa Simple with
HONDURAS A PROGRAMME PROPOSAL
Honduras is among the poorest countries in Latin America, with a per
capital income of less than t520 in 1981. At the same time it stands out
in the Latin American context because of a very strong indigenous organized
farmers movement and the increasing role of cooperatives in the local
development process. Both movements have sparked women organizations in the
rural and marginal urban sectors, who are starting to link-up with the more
politically attuned and professionally oriented feminist organizations at
the national level that are moving from women rights' topics into developmental
oriented activities.(see attachment 9).
The farmers unions in Honduras are organized along different union
objectives lines and group the landless and small farmers into grassroot
based organization patterns, where local leaders, men and increasingly women,
are gaining leadership experience which explains the increased capacity at the
local level for organization and communal undertakings. In recent years,
women farmers have found their organized identity in women farmers' unions
that are affiliated with the organized farmers unions at large.
The above has provided the organized context for INT/83/003 to identify
three separate project activities (two in the rural areas and one in an urban
marginal area) that although different in their specific activities, share
common traits through which a common programme approach is advisable.
In evaluating possible modes of participation in INT/83/003 several
criteria were used:
Selecting both rural and urban communities;
Finding rural and urban women;
Linking water and sanitation;
Relating where possible income-producing activities;
Coordination with introduction of new technologies (testing, pilot);
Cooperating with a variety of women's organizations at national and
In making an assessment of possible projects which fit into INT/83/003
we first explored possibilities of complementary inputs into the specific
proposals already presented.
Two are on-going UNDP projects:
HON/82/030 Rural Self-Help Housing (see Annex VIII) and HON/82/007 -
Incorporation of Peasant Women in the Production Process (Annex IX).
The first project activity in the rural areas is closely linked with
these. The UNDP/Netherlands-financed rural selfhelp housing project is
executed through FECOVIL and offers an ideal setting to test and demonstrate
low-cost technology approaches that are basically new to Honduras. Women as
members of the farmers cooperatives have been active since the beginning,
but through INT/83/003 there is a possibility of increasing their participation
particularly if a few communities are selected where the other UNDP project,
HON/82/007, is operational. Through FEHMUC, women leaders can be selected to
be trained as caretakers and repairers of the pumps and in developing
instructions on use and care of latrines once they have helped select the
most appropriate models.
Women's involvement in HON/82/030 project covers various roles,particularly
of involving these peasant women in planning, designing and evaluating
improvements in water supply and sanitation. As co-participants in the self-
help housing schemes, the women in the peasant cooperatives have already
contributed to the building of their outstanding new homes. In fact, a smaller
adobe was made which the women could handle more easily. They also have been
trained and are constructing the Lorena fuel-saving stove, and are interested
in learning more about the Honduran Dry Latrine.
The women, as well as the men, are interested in compost from the "Dry
Latrines" to use in their income-producing coops primarily melons and
watermelons. The income from these activities will help make it possible for
these poor families to repay the housing loans which includes their water
and sanitation facilities.
A second facet of the housing project is the provision of water at least
one well for each 10-12 homes. Reports from the Ministry of Natural Resources
indicate that many of the settlements are in areas with very brackish water
and the present wells are not potable and even unsuitable for laundry using
regular soap. The water could be used for water-seal latrines if there were
enough shallow wells near the homes or for laundry with special soap. Women
have to spend from 1-5 hours carrying water and/or going to far-away streams
in the long dry season to do their laundry.
The Ministry of Public Health has two types of manually-operated
drills, one a driven shaft and the other an augur which can be used to
drill wells up to 14 meters in the communities without rocky soil. They
can be operated by men and/or women. The women were enjoying the running
streams to bathe and do laundry in, but the day the Mission visited a HON/82/030
community women especially were well aware of the need for more accessible
and less salty water when the rains stop in November. Several communities
indicated places where they had found "agua dulce", fresh water, and felt
wells might be dug. They were interested in hearing about the manually-
operated drills they might be able to use in their communities.
In summary, this project concerns the introduction of a new type of
pit latrine which would also generate organic compost as fertilizer, the
use of this in quick-growing trees, the introduction of a maintenance
programme for water pumps handled by women, and the collection and use
of drinking water through so far unused catchment techniques. (.See Annex 3).
The second project activity in the rural areas, to be located in the
Northern part of the country, has very much to do with-introducing the
type of technology mentioned above. The project was based on a draft
proposal presented by PAHO/WHO Latriniza and/or Rural Sanitation in
Honduras, based on a project designed by four Honduran women participants
at the PAHO workshop held in Washington in April 1983. Since the project
proposal had been 90% completed, two other communities proposed by the
Union de Mujeres Hondurefias (UMH) were recommended (see Attachment 11).
However, in this case much importance is attached to the fact that this
project is promoted by a more politically-inclined national grouping of
professional women (Uni6n de Mujeres Hondurefias) with strong membership
representation in the ruling political parties who have understood the
importance of linking women activities with developmental objectives.
As such, they have elaborated, together with a grassroot-level rural
women's organization, an infrastructural improvement scheme (latrines,
water and absorbent floors) with the expectation that this will spark
a process for development and at the national level will achieve the
publicity to raise the Government's consciousness to lend even stronger
support for initiatives such as these.
The third project activity is in the urban marginal sector of
Tegucigalpa, where at the level of the "barrios" people are organized in
Improvement Committees. The installment of water, garbage "collection"
and waste disposal and a solution to the insufficient, inadequate latrine
situation are high on the list of each of these Committees. Again in
this case, a project has been identified with the assistance of the other,
longer-established and more sedate Women Organization (Federaci6n de
Mujeres Hondureflas FMH) that has played a leading role since its
creation in 1951 to advance women rights at the national level and which
initiated some years ago a programme of legal council to deprived, poor
women from the urban marginal sector. This has now evolved into more
developmental-oriented approaches, whereby the selected barrio,Villa Los
Laureles, could play a model role for the promotional efforts by the FMH
linked with the organized potential of locally-organized women groups.
Specific activities, the improvement of the water provision, installment
of communal laundry and bathing facilities, latrines and a garbage
collection and disposal scheme. (See Attachment 7).
The three project activities fit into a programme-where WHO with the
Ministry of Health are to provide the technical advice to an execution
modality where the responsibility lies at the local level and where
promotional support and advice on how to handle the dialogue on Government-
i istiiAe nafeiaal NSO5
provided inputs and services^. WHO/Honduras has already acquired experience
in working with NGOs, as has the Ministry of Health, that has even declared
it its policy insofar as locally-oriented programmes are concerned. The
UNDP/Honduras office is also very familiar and attuned to these types of
Total cost programme in first year: $78,000
These resources are to be spent in accordance with the following
Research and recording $ 15,000
This component would involve a local professional who would analyze
the project's situation before and during the execution phase. The same
professional should attend both rural projects, another one could be made
responsible for the urban one.
Material cost $ 48,500
The Mission considers it important that in addition to what is available
to the community from the Ministry of Health (cement for instance) and other
institutions, the project should assume the additional material cost to have
the three projects get started with appropriate technologies. The urban
project may involve substantial construction costs, but will be an important
Training $ 3,000
Certain courses/seminars with the involvement of the local groups will
be required, which will mean per diem of certain staff, and local costs for
Documentation $ 1,500
These are very rough estimates and a final budget should be worked out
later. A documentation and research schedule from which the pilot activities
will derive their meaning and justification can be developed. In this context,
it should also be noted that there will be no pilot activities without
financing by INT/83/003 of the first year costs estimated above, but a
certain amount of resources will also be required to allow for the
documentation and research. To make an estimation now would be premature
because the specific documentation and research requirements have to be
reviewed with the possible candidates after the projects have been finalized.
Only then can a budget be made. The Mission abstained from such a projection
now so as not to raise false expectations but it should be pointed out that
a national professional at least requires US$1,500;a month plus reimbursement
of cost made for travel and field subsistence.
Social Scientists Resident in Honduras
The Mission obtained a few curriculum vitae of local social scientists
while it was in Tegucigalpa (Attachment 10). Once the pilot activities are
approved, the UNDP office in Tegucigalpa together with PAHO should establish
contact with the suggested local professionals.
Non-resident Social Scientists
A list of experts who are non-resident in Honduras, but have specific
knowledge of the sector as well as recent and/or continuing research
activities there was also prepared (Attach.10).Some of these people could
work as short-time counterparts with the Honduran social scientists, as
participants in planning workshops and/or as evaluators.
The importance of close collaboration with Ing. Alejandro Castro,
the PAHO Sanitary Engineer in the Ministry of Health, and Ing. Val de Bauset
AID consultant at the Centro de Desarrollo Industrial (CDI), cannot be
over-emphasized. As far as health education/communication are concerned,
the key people in the MOH in Honduras now are Dr. Oscar Vigano, Field
Director, AED/PRASAR and Prof. Luis Cancalis, OES/PRASAR.
List of Persons Met
See Attachment 12.
accompanying poster) have been developed. The first training module on
environmental sanitation has a strong fecal considerations. Copies of cause
materials are in the project files.
In reviewing this material, the possibility of improving the simple
latrine model illustrated by incorporating some of the findings of the UNDP/
World Bank "Low Cost Sanitation" project such as the black pipe and screen
came to mind. The use of the teaching/communication modules being prepared
by INT/82/002 might also enrich this culturally specific approach.
As for INT/83/003 the materials developed during Phase 1 of AED's project
on decreasing the incidence of childhood diarrhea and related mortality
through the use of ORT were aimed specifically at mothers. The messages were
extensively tested to assure that their contents were comprehensible and
acceptable. With the collaboration of the MOH and the high level of community
participation, a one year pilot project was carried out in several areas
which resulted in a considerable decrease in infant mortality. In fact, the
success of the pilot project led to the incorporation of the materials and the
methodology into the regular health sector, including water and sanitation.
V. Indigeous Voluntary Organizations
Special reference should be made to the indigenous Honduran NGOs that
represent the landless and small farmers interests. These union-organized
organizations, with specific ties to the government (FECORAH to the
land reform process with the landreform Institute INA and ANACH to the
government union-controlled interest), to the Christian Democrat movement
(UNC and UNCAH),plus the farmer unions that have become production cooperatives
with business capital at par with the biggest landowners (like the Empresas
Asociativas Isletas and the one of Guanchias growing and packaging bananas;
the Empresa Asociativa Coopalma, growing and processing African palm oil) are
all part and product of a land reform movement that is now fading somewhat in the
background but continues to maintain a presence unequalled in the other Central
American countries. To this should be added the separate and very active
women farmers unions like the one distantly related to UNC, the FEMUC, and
the one related to ANACH, the ANAMUC.
VI. A Pilot Programme
Honduras' poverty is evenly distributed over the rural and urban areas
with regional differences as compared with the "national average". In this
respect, the south of Honduras is a region of extreme poverty, where an
unreliable climate plays havoc with the agriculture subsistence level of the
marginal rural population, making them nearly permanent "beneficiaries" of
governmental emergency measures. Be it to avert famine because of extensive
droughts in one year, or to help people survive the aftermath of flooding
due to excessive rainfalls in another year. It is in this region that the
government of Honduras and UNDP have concentrated their "direct impact projects"
mentioned before and it is in this region where the mission proposes to piggy-
back the rural component of the proposed INT/83/003 Pilot Programme, using the
HON/82/002 Housing project and for income-generating complementarity, HON/82/007
Peasant Women as the operational vehicles.
In the urban areas, Honduras, in the context of Latin America, is only
recently experiencing the drift of its rural population towards the cities,
caused by the well-documented combination of push factors (rural) and pull
factors (urban) that together result in an uncontrolled growing pattern for
cities like Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula and La Ceiba, where urban services
are already tested beyond capacity and where no alternatives are at the
horizon to be more optimistic about their future. The poverty that characterizes
the urban barrios marginados seems to be more elusive to solving than what
the people experience in the rural areas because the very recentness of the urban
squatter growth has contributed to weaker social and family structures that serve
people as a frame of reference for their actions and expectations. Consequently,
the urban component of the Pilot Programme is not only to provide the women
as the most vulnerable group in this setting an improved level of required
and essential services, but it also seeks to promote an organized structure
that could become an example around which women in other barrios could rally
and see their role in the urban informal environment enhanced.
A. The Rural Component One
The HON/82/030 Housing project has identified in the southern region of
Honduras a total of 25 grassroot-level organized campesino groups, which
are all affiliated to one of the national farmers unions, and which are
committed with FEHCOVIL to construct through self-help methods their 8 x 6 m
adobe, tiled-roof houses, with cement floors, at a cost not more than
US$700 per house. In this carrying out of this commitment, including the
execution of each of the 15 new houses per group, women play an essential
role. They have equally been participating in the two-weeks vocational
training course given by INFOP (the governmental-run Instituto Fomento
Professional) where each group was trained in basic construction techniques.
The participation of the women also caused the introduction of the small-
size adobe to allow women and children to participate in the total construction,
lifting the blocks above their height if needed. The women also are constructing
and putting to good use the fuel-efficiency stove (Estufa Lorena) which are to
be in each house. Women have furthermore contributed to the decisions each
group had to make on the grouping of the houses.
The housing project has now reached the critical stage of providing and
caring for water and sanitation. The mission initiated a
dialogue with the project management (the project is government-executed with
short-term, once a year consultancies by UN/HABITAT) to do away with the
traditional carrying out of these provisions, and to concentrate instead on
available low-cost appropriate technology, giving the main responsibility for
this component to the organized female participation. Consequently, the idea
of having the traditional latrine replaced by the "dry-pit" approach seems now
to become a reality, also because the mission found in its field trip that the
campesinos are very receptive to try this new approach. Combined with the
latrine, and using the nearly permanent source of heat emanating from the
estufa lorena through its ventilation pipe potential might exist to
accelerate the decomposure of the organic material making it in a much
shorter period a source of fertilizer. The mission has asked the local
representatives of WHO'PAHO, USAID, Peace Corps and the authorities involved
in the housing project to review what might be the best design* combining
sanitation considerations with creating a potential source of fertilizer which
could have an important effect on garden plot-type of productive agricultural
projects. As there might exist an initial resistance to use this type of
fertilizer on the garden plots (which could be promoted through the assistance
of the project HON/82/007,Peasant Women providing an excellent vehicle to quickly
amortize the credit commitment for the new house), the mission proposes the
establishment of viveros of quick-growing tree species, to be run by women.
This could prove an essential solution to the unsurmountable problem of the
shortage of firewood in the region. With this indirect approach, the women can
experiment and experience with the production and use of fertilizer; it could in
a further stage also be combined with a garbage disposal pit to increase
fertilizer production. Ultimately the acceptance of this methodology and its
product will have a beneficial effect on the women-attended plots that produce
now the biggest cashflow (melon, watermelon) for the selected groups.
In addition to the chain of sanitation initiatives, the mission has also
been able to agree with the housing project authorities to broaden their
approach to the provision of drinking water (and water in general), giving
* Attachment 5 Appropriate Technologies in Honduras
the women the formal recognition of a responsibility that they carry out
exclusively. Two water-related topics were reviewed, and agreement was
reached to have specific project proposal elaborated on these.
First. The region suffers from a rather high-level of salinization
and finding drinking water is in many cases a touch-and-go effort.
Wherever possible, however, the housing authorities of the project agreed
that the women will be very much present in the discussion on where to look
for water in making a well. Once established, it should be the women who
are responsible for the maintenance and operation of the (hand)pumps.
Consequently each group is to be provided with the basic tools as well as a
course on how to maintain/repair the waterpump. So far, such an approach
has not been tested in Honduras, but informal agreement exists that it could
work well given the many other tasks around the house and in the field where
women are in charge. The INT/83/003 should finance the pilot costs of this
new approach (US$5,000).
The group of peasant women leaders the mission met with at the FEHMUC
workshop in Choluteca were extremely interested in being trained as trainers
for such a project. They offered to make an informal survey of broken pumps
in their respective zones indicating type of pump, problems and the recommended
solutions. A simple questionnaire was designed and findings will be sent back
to UNDP project coordinator.
Second. In the south, drinking water of good quality is scarce, but
the rather salty (brackish) water is more available. Several options could
therefore be explored, all pilot in nature, and for which women could be
assigned as the guardians of the to-be-established systems which they could
control and maintain.
a) The self-help adobe houses have rather gentle sloping and large tiled
roofs. These roofs could be used as a catchment area of the rain which, with
* The tiles are locally made by some of the farming groups.
a system of gutters, could nourish individual or collective water tanks
(subterranean if required).
b) Salt-waterwells, not fit for human consumption, could be established
close to each house with individual and very low-cost pumps to facilitate
the required 3 liters of water to flush the "taza campesina" latrine, a porcelain
water-seal latrine imported from Colombia at a delivered cost of $6.70**.
This latrine has been widely accepted here since it was introduced by USAID in
1980. (Attachment 5). This water could also be utilized in the daily washing
chores, provided that a special soap that could be fabricated locally is
introduced that is not affected by a high salt content. Soap making is being
explored as an income-generating activity by some of the women's groups.
Perhaps it can be "piggy-backed" to a pig raising project by some of the
FEHMUC groups in HON/82/007 in the Cholutec area.
All the above outlined activities, related to the pilot self-help rural
housing project required:
a) The immediate forwarding of technical, low-cost, rural technology
documents as developed by UNDP/INT/81/047, Low-cost Sanitation. Detailed
drawings of the improved versions are needed in Honduras. Molds of new
plastic stool designs would be useful but are not essential for testing and
consideration of local manufacture. Interest was also expressed by officials
in MOH as well as other Agency personnel in having information on the pump
testing, as they seek appropriate models for village level operation and
maintenance. The mission recommended this material to be forwarded soonest
to the PAHO office in Honduras and requests were made through UNDP head-
quarters and with the project managers.
** an improved model with a better bowl is now being made in nearby Costa
Rica. Similar improved models are also manufactured in Brazil and the
b) a solid coordination among the USAID-financed CDI (Centro de Desarrollo
Industrial) executed rural technology project (which seeks to then establish
small-scale industries in the rural areas but has gone beyond its institutional
boundary by promoting sanitary technologies untested so far), the housing
project and PAHO to come to final conclusions as to what technical options
are best and that can be carried out by the women who are already very much
responsible on a day-to-day basis for the involved activities.
c) the design of adequate training programmes (following b), for which
independent financing should be made available. Some of the material developed
by INT/82/002, Information and Training Materials in Low-Cost Water and
Sanitation, might be suitable here. Testing of their usefulness in a cross-
cultural setting could make a positive contribution to both, INT/83/003 and
INT/82/002. Both urban and rural women, such as the FEHMUC leaders, expressed
interest in learning and training.
d) the preparation and/or use of appropriate health education/communication
materials using all media and coordination with MOH, MOE, UNICEF and non-
governmental groups such as AED, CARE and CONSUDE. The special Human Resources
Committee set up by CONAP could be actively involved.
A. The Rural Component Two
In addition to the above outlined areas of possible activities, the Mission
also had the opportunity to review the original request as presented by PAHO/
Washington on the cooperation of INT/83/003 with Honduras. By now 90% of
the originally identified objectives have been accomplished in a traditional
execution pattern, installing the deep pit letrines which the Ministry of
Health so far has been disseminating widely without experimenting with new
letrines, except those financed under a US/AID loan. (PRASAR, with US/AID
$10.5 and the Government of Honduras $10.0 million). However, the Organization
that pushed this proposal, the Uni6n de Mujeres Hondureflas, has been
actively identifying additional projects to be undertaken which are detailed
in Attachment 11 (Uni6n de Mujeres Hondurefas Proyectos para Zonas en
Desarrollo, U.M.H.). The Mission's reasoning to support these proposals
:mainly to do with factors external to the beneficiaries for whom the
projects are requested. First, it is noticeable that the Uni6n the Mujeres
Hondurefias has apparently succeeded in her very short lifespan to attract
political support and membership (a considerable, number of the female
members of the National Congress are members). Secondly, it has as its
declared goal to assist the female marginal sectors of the country's
population, with project activities that have no link with the classical
"doing good" of the past for these type of voluntary organizations.
Consequently, the Mission considers it strategically very important to
support this Uni6n to achieve the goal of a fruitful dialogue and mutual
cooperation among the different female sectors of the country. Also,
because whatever new technology that PAHO/Ministry of Health would propose,
the Uni6n would enthusiastically endorse and execute and gather the political
endorsement for these type of activities, which require this support if
they ever are to be realized beyond the pilot phase.
The Mission recommends therefore to also approve this "Rural Component Two"
of the Pilot Programme. Consequently, through INT/83/003 we would support a
female grasaroot level type of activity in the South, closely united with the
Ministry of Health for its experimental value, and a similar type of
activity but more linked to the political attuned NGO (UMH) located in the
North that might result in an enhanced role of women organizations in the
identification and execution of water and sanitation related activities.
B. The Urban Component
The capital city of Honduras, Tegucigalpa, is located in a rather
narrow valley where the available flat land has been taken long ago for
urbanizations. The poor, therefore, have to master the hillsides without
any infrastructureal amenities and services. In the rainy season, mud-
slides add a factor of severe danger to the squatter areas on the
hillsides. In summer, the problem is no less, as water in Tegucigalpa at
large becomes scarce and the price for a 10 liters container (3 gallons)
will jump from 5-10 cents of a lempira to 35-50 cents for the same amount.
Garbage and excrements in polvorized form become major health hazards.
In Tegucigalpa, of an estimated total population of 450,000 inhabitants,
well over 250,000 live in marginal or sub-standard areas, with a varying
availability of essential services (health services, public transport, etc.).
In nearly all the barrios exist a locally organized grassroot organization,
in general centering around the obtainment of one or more specific infra-
structural improvements, with water always as the number one priority. The
Mission visited a number of the squatter areas. It was qyite obvious that
those located on very steep hillsides will have additional difficulties to
master the gradual improvements in their barrio. The Mission
considered it advisable to first select a small to medium size barrio,
Villa de los Laureles, that counts with 350 families, located on a more
gradual sloped hillside and very much surrounded by other barrios with whom
it shares a specific section of the riverbed favoured by the women for
their daily washing chores. This barrio has also a strong leadership, was
of recent installation (two years ago) and is still very much under the
informal "supervision" of the big leaders of the nearby barrio San Francisco.
The organizational situation of Villa de los Laureles started out with a
"Club Amas de Casa" (Housewife Committee), that organized social events to
collect money to make two water projects feasible. The City of Tegucigalpa
then stepped in and provided the barrio with two water taps, one for the
upper part of the barrio, and one for the lower one. Theiwomen organized
to have every three months another female head-of-household take turn to
control the tab and obtain the 10 cents (of a lempira) fee for 10 liters
water. With this fee, the Government's water charge is paid as well as the
salary of the tab controller (US$100.00 per month for a 10 hours day, in
the morning in the lower part of the barrio, in the afternoon in the
upper partly The women of the barrio decided also to have a more
representative organizational structure and therefore pushed the male
members of the community to assume the representation of the barrio with
the creation of the Patronato, with a few women on the Board, but keeping
the reigns of the. action through the sectorial committees run by them.
Of these Committees, one is related to drinking water (more tabs),
one to the environment (including the idea of organizing garbage collection),
one on education, and one on sanitation. The community of Villa de los
Laureles has itself identified and executed specific small projects, like the
cultivation of flowers in the garden plots adjacent to the houses and to
be sold by the Cementerio. An additional element of interest is the
stone quarry at the barrio's limit, where the men work from time to time to
"hand pick" stones used for infrastructural improvements in the community,
and to sell to outsiders, charging US$1 per car load. In the opinion of the
Federaci6n de Asociaciones Femeninas de Honduras, Tegucigalpa has many more
barrios with the characteristics of Villa de los Laureles, so that
whatever pilot experience here can certainly be transferred elsewhere.
The Federaci6n,that took early on an active interest in Villa de
los Laureles, was created in 1951 as the first nationally recognized
female interest organization, that became a driving force in obtaining
political rights for Women, in having legislation be more favourable to
women's rights. Recently, the Federation has also become increasingly
involved to assist poor women with legal problems who can find no recourse
elsewhere. In this context, the Federation, a political but with recognized
scions of leading families on its Board, has moved towards an activist
position as many of the female grassroot type organizations from the poor
barrios would come for free legal advice when threatened with land evictions
or to put their legal land entitlements in order. Nowadays, the Federation
also coordinates with the "Office for Squatter Settlements" of the
Metropolitan District of Tetucigalpa, mainly in the area of organizing
community support for plans for improvements in the barrios.
The Mission, with the technical participation of PAHO, the positive
attitude of the Metropolitan District Office that has no programmes for
Villa de los Laureles in the next few years because of budgetary constrains,
and the Federation has agreed that an urgan pilot programme with the
organized women of Villa de los Laureles, and through them with the community
at large, is a very promising perspective.
The outline for action is recommended as follows:
1) At the highest point in barrio Villa de los Laureles a water deposit
should be constructed that will nurture the community through a system
based on gravity. Apparently, water is seeDing out of the rocks in that
part of Tegucigalpa and although it seems not of drinkable quality but this
water is to be lead to
2) a system of concentrated public washing places, combined with showers.
This is to be run by women, a small charge could be applied to amortize
the cost of the construction (to be "advanced" by INT/83/003) and for
the use of the showers. With this system, women do not need to expose
themselves to the hazrds of washing and bathing in a contaminated river,
and "commercial" washing could become an income generating side line.
The community itself was already toying with some vague notions in this
direction and reacted very favourably to the idea.
3) The resulting grey-waters of both users' installations can be
directed to a few flush toilets to serve the women who are making use of
the washing and showering facility. Before leading the "aguas negras" into
the river, the construction of a specific tank is called for.
4) The idea of the women for garbage-collection goes very well with
draftboard-ideas worked out for this topic by the Metropolitan District
and by the Sanitary Engineer of PAHO. The idea could be further advanced
by combining this garbage collection proposal (make several collecting
points in the community) with a garbage-pit proposal that in its turn
could be combined with the "letrinas-secas" idea for which each plot does
have space available to in the end by combining the two really have compost
of inorganic nature. This very well ties in with the community's interest
to obtain very high "yields" from their tiny garden plots.
PAHO, with the Ministry of Health, and the Federaci6n for promotional,
supervisory activities, will work-out an integrated pilot scheme for
which costs are estimated US$38,000, not counting the community's contribution
in work and materials (from the stone quarry).
In the context of the urban proposal outlined above, the Mission observes
a) Tapping a local spring for a communal laundrying area with
attached showers and channelling the "grey water" for flushing water-seal
toilets could not only solve a felt need for the women of Barrio Villa de
los Laureles, but at the same time help in serving as a functional model
for other groups who are less well-organized. (See report field visit,
Attempts in the past to introduce communal toilet or laundry systems
in urban areas have failed. By involving the Amas de Casa and Patronato
de Villa Los Laureles in the planning, design, and evaluation of these
basic facilities, there is an opportunity to test our theories of the
important and essential roles that can be played by women and demonstrate
how they can be replicated. The "taza hidriulica", water-seal latrine, has
not been tested using "grey water" so this would be an opportunity to evaluate
such a combination.
According to the PAHO sanitary engineer there have been several unsuccessful
attempts to introduce public laundry facilities into Honduras even though in
Guatemala and Mexico they are widely used. One of the critical health
problems in Tegucigalpa is the use of the rivers as the sewage disposal
system. Most women from the barrios have no alternative to doing their laundry
and bathing in the rivers, nearly always with their children. 56 women who
do laundry in the Pedregal area have formed a cooperative with help from FAFH
and hope, with funds from UNICEF, to get a building with a day-care center
next to it. (Attachment 6).
In Villa Los Laureles the women leaders felt they could work out a plan
so that the 350 families can share the facilities and maintain them.(Attachment 7).
In El Pedregal, the UNICEF project, there was a much less-organized group with
various communities represented. The urban programme could fill real needs
of better health and employment for women.
Analysis of the involved activities could be of great use to planners
and programme directors as the unmet needs of thousands of women in the
marginal urban areas become more acute.
b) A thorough case study of the pump caretaker system worked out in Villa
Los Laureles showing (1) building of pump house, (2) payment for water, and
(3) selection of female heads of household on 3-months rotating basis would
be valuable. The dividing of the community into two service areas with
different hours is also an innovative idea.
VII. Research and Training Components (See Attachment 8)
A specific observation that has not been made in the report so far is the
important role of documentation and research that is to accompany all the steps
in the execution of the pilot programme of INT/83/003. The mission has been
made aware of a reduced but very well-qualified number of Honduran professionals
who combined cover the pilot related activities insofar as social, cultural and
health aspects are concerned, as well as economic aspects of HON/82/007 -
Peasant Women and Income Generating Activities will not be overlooked.
a) The documentation of -omen's involvement in DECADE activities and some
of the projects in Honduras ruild be filmed for adding to existing materials
especially the dissemination =ad acceptance of the water-seal latrine in
rural areas of Latin America -here they were previously unknown. The
designing adaptations made tc a composting dry latrine for the rural housing
project would also be intere-s.iaR to record. The public acceptance of the use
of human excreta for fertili:.r in Latin America is of recent origin. Even
though its use was not uncomncn in the 1970s, discussion of composting and/or
use was not acceptable. The search for an appropriate composting latrine and
development of training mat---.als for its construction and use would add to
DECADE planning. Women's imas and suggestions in the process should be
b) Comparing the apprnuches and results in the self-help housing project
with the more isolated UMH -ral communities in Olanchito (see UMH) will also
be important to document as will be the different motivations, promotion and
supervision between UMH and FAFA.
c) Protocols for these studies should be developed in such a way that
data will be comparable to that being collected in other geographic areas.
Available protocols developed during the Decade such as the questionnaire
attached to the World Bank publication No.5 on the Socio-Cultural Aspects of
Water Supply and Excreta Disposal by Elmendorf and Buckles in the series on
Appropriate Technology in Water Supply and Sanitation, and the TAG, technical
Note No.1, "Methods for Gathering Socio-Cultural Data for Water Supply and
Sanitation" by Mayling Simpson Hebert were left with the UNDP office after a
brief discussion of them with some of the Honduran social scientists.
d) Among the documentation needed for both the rural and urban proposals
are baseline surveys and questionnaires which will include water and sanitation
related uses, behaviours and attitudes.
Specific community leaders in the Barrio Villa Los Laureles were very
interested in obtaining a questionnaire which could be used to get basic
information about water and sanitation problems as well as important general
things, such as people's preference for small income-generating projects.
The mission suggested that it would probably be more useful to design a special
questionnaire for Villa Los Laureles after discussion with a local social
scientist who could helD them make it more useful and could also teach/show
them how to carry it out. The community leaders were enthusiastic about the idea
of such a study particularly if the data was left with them for use in future
As a part of INT/83/003 such a survey, which included detailed interviews,
could provide a case study of women's participation in Villa Los Laureles which
would be a demonstration of what and how women can plan, promote and participate
in the overall development of their communities with improvements in water and
sanitation being important components.
e) Comparative Data. A comparison of methodology approaches and facilities
in the communal laundries and bath/toilet facilities (Annex ) in a multi-
barrio project with a well-organized community would be very helpful to planners
who have been unsuccessful in obtaining acceptance, use and maintenance in the
past. An analysis of women's involvement as planners, managers and users is needed.
(See attachment 9 on Women's Organizations in Honduras).
The research/training/communication components of the rural projects
will be very similar to the urban ones. Tentatively it would seem that time
use before and after improvements in water supply and sanitation, combined with
decision-making as income-producing activities get underway, would be of value.
f) Health/education/communication materials. As INT/83/003 develops
detailed proposals for Honduras, cooperation with AED/PRASAR in designing health
education materials or testing new approaches to involve women more effectively
should be established. In terms of behavioral changes related to personal
hygiene and excreta disposal, the three years, 1980-83, of woman-focused
village level research related to diarrhea prevention and care is an invaluable
resource as are the research team Honduran and expatriate who worked on this
project (Annex ).
VIII.Organization Structure for Pilot Programme
Honduras has an institutional set up for Water Decade related activities,
and within the Government structure there is a positive attitude towards
women in development issues.
The UNDP office in Tegucigalpa has shown itself very sentitive and
professionally attuned to an active role in putting forward and monitoring
direct impact projects and it is positive to note how grassroot type
leadership and farmer unions dirigents feel at ease in the office, know
its officers and consider it as much theirs as the Government does.
Consequently, the Mission feels confident that the UNDP office in Honduras
will perform well insofar as the required backstopping and logistical tasks to
see the pilot programme of INT/83/003 become successful are concerned.
Essential is also the professional commitment and active interest shown
by PAHO/Honduras to associate itself with community oriented activities
(see its role as exetuting agency for the HON/81/001 Rural Health project)
will provide the INT/83/003 with the substantive support it requires and
also with an in-the-country capacity to present the beneficiaries, as well
as the government/institutional authorities with United Nations's
accumulated experience in the field of water and women. PAHO/Honduras has
also an important role to play concerning the recent results of testing
(letrines, handpumps, etc.) of sanitary/water equipment.
The Mission suggests to have PAHO as the executing agency, to
specifically emphasize the backstopping of UNDP and its involvement to have
the INT/83/003 become really coordinated with HON/83/030, Housing, and
HON/82/007, Peasant Women. (PAHO will certainly see to it that wherever
possible its HON/81/001, Rural Health in the South, will be called upon
In the rural component, FEHCOVIL will be lead agency in so far as the
housing related activities are concerned, with the Ministry of Health and
the Centro de Desarrollo Industrial (CDI) as the technical advisory
bodies (depending on what technical solution is agreed upon among FEHCOVIL,
Ministry, CDI and PAHO). Through FEHCOVIL, that executes on behalf of
the Ministry of Planning the housing project, the latter will be involved,
Through their grassroot level organizations, the farmers unions are
keeping a close look on the housing project and they, as well as their
female national organizations like FEMUC and ANAMUC, will certainly
function well as a channel to disseminate positive results. In addition,
one should not underestimate the link pin role that the (politically
attuned, but voluntary organization) Uni6n de Mujeres Hondurefias can
fulfill, especially in becoming the one to convince the Government of
applying nation wide what the Union experiences work well in their project
sites in Olancho. All this INT/83/003 will have promoted, as well as
to the housing project related new technologies that the Union will
certainly be anxious to pick-up and disseminate.
At the urban level, the Federaci6n de Asociaciones de Mujeres
Hondureflas will cooperate with PAHO/Ministry of Health in promotional/
legal activities and because of its high acceptance in the marginal urban
areas will certainly contribute to have the pilot programme become very
No organized structure of committees, etc. is proposed here because
the involved organizations at the working and decision-making level are
very enthused with the possibility of these specific pilot proposals and
each is interested to coordinate well with the others because of a
clearly defined self interest!
It has been discussed with PAHO that more specific worked out
proposals have to be forwarded to New York Soonest. A specific
observation that has not been made in this report so far is the important
role of documentation and research that is to accompany in all its steps
the execution of the pilot programme of INT/83/003. The Mission has been
made aware of a reduced but very well qualified number of Honduran
professionals who, combined, cover the pilot related activities insofar
as social and health aspects are concerned. Furthermore, through the
HON/81/001 Peasant Women Project, economic aspects will not be overlooked.
The Mission has obtained a few curriculum vitae while it was in Tegucigalpa
and once the INT/83/003 pilot activities are approved, the UNDP office
in Tegucigalpa together with PAHO, should establish with the choose
local professionals a documentation and research schedule from which the
pilot activities will derive their meaning and justification. In this
context, it should also be noted that there will be no pilot activities
without financing by INT/83/003 the first-year costs.
The training/health/education components planned or underway by
UNICEF, CARE and CONSUDE, should also be explored further to find ways
of incorporating women more completely into these programmes.(Attachment