"INT/83/003 Promotion and Support for Women's Participation in the International Water Supply and Sanitation Decade" - R...


Material Information

"INT/83/003 Promotion and Support for Women's Participation in the International Water Supply and Sanitation Decade" - Report on Mission to Honduras, 16-23 October 1983 (37 pages)
Series Title:
Series 3 - Accession 2: Appropriate Technology
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Elmendorf, Mary L. (Mary Lindsay)
Publication Date:

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID:

Full Text


INT/83/003 Promotion and Support for Women's Participation
in the International Water Supply and Sanitation

Report on Mission to Honduras

16 23 October 1983

Mary Elmendorf and Anton Kruiderink


I. An Overview

Honduras was chosen as the one country in Latin America that through

the identification of specific pilot activities, which would link the

objectives of the IDWSSD and the Women's Decade, could present an example

of how to achieve meaningful results, caused by the high degree and variety

of organized voluntary groups, particularly women's organizations in the

country. These organizations are present in the rural as well as in the

urban areas, and can assume responsibility for carrying out the pilot

activities foreseen in INT/83/003, in close cooperation with the Government,

and drawing where available on its technical expertise. At the same time,

Honduras' socio-economic profile (Annex I) and a per capital of USt520

characterizes it as one of the poorest countries in Latin America, with

average health indicators that are far below what is expected in Latin


The Government of Honduras in its 1982-1986 National Development Plan

has identified the Health Sector and within this,water and sanitation as

one of its top priorities, and has presented a more detailed sectorial

National Plan that analizes the requirements and projects the steps to

be taken to reach in improved coverage for all by 1990 (Annex II).

This National Plan for the Decade was completed in April 1983 by PAHO/

WHO with assistance from West Germany through GTZ. The total costs of the

DECADE programme amounted to 1 billion two hundred million US$ in order to

raise the coverage for drinking water from % to 90% and sanitation from

% to 79% by 1990. The Plan was discussed, revised and approved by the

Minister of Public Health in August 1983 (Annex III). A working seminar

held by PAHO in June 1983 contained several specific recommendations of


relevance to INT/83/003 to be carried out through a National Action

Committee (CONAPS). Although in reality this has mainly become an

institutional point of reference, with the Ministry of Health and its

related descentralized institutions like SANAA (Servicios Aut6nomos Nacionales

de Agua y Alcantarillada) being the one that carries nearly exclusively the

workload of the activities for water and sanitation. (For the institutional

framework see Annex IV).

Two recommendations from the Workshop can be useful in carrying out

the INT/83/003 projects (see Annex V).

1. After identifying all institutions, national and international,

a subcommittee of Human Resources for the IDWSSD that depends on CONAPS

should be formed to make a diagnosis of all human resources and establishment

of a national programme of training.

2. A special advisory committee of appropriate Low-Cost technology was

also recommended and institutions named to evaluate new water supply and

sanitation innovations.

The government has been rather successful in attracting foreign

resources to enable the execution of water and sanitation plans that are in

general formulated for departmental coverage, with the main areas being

the target of specific plans (a map representing the situation as per 31/12/81

is included as Annex VI). As of now, one of the main bottlenecks is not the

financial requirements but especially the limited absorption capacity to

extend the programme beyond its current time of execution and to maintain

acceptable levels of maintenance of what has been built so far. UNICEF

has a small programme in Honduras which is supervised from the regional

office in Guatemala through a local representative. The newly appointed



Regional Director expressed interest in cooperating with INT/83/003. At

the present time she is evaluating the on-going programme and seeks to

increase the support activities including training and to approve a

communal laundry facility when project designs are finalized. (See attachment 7)

In this context, pilot activities in the context of INT/83/003 are welcome

innovations, even more so because the main emphasis where communal participation

is concerned, has been on the male sector of the population, even in a society

where it is recognized and accepted that women are the main users and responsible

for the water (systems) and sanitation in and around their houses.

In the overall national budget, the health sector occupies %, which

has not changed in recent years. As international financing is nearly

exclusively available for expanding the coverage of water and sanitation

services, the point of institutional capacity referred to above is to be

recalled again, as well as the fact that the health budget is mainly directed

towards paying salaries of personnel employed. Community participation,

in the sense of "barefoot doctors" and health and sanitation volunteers, has

therefore become an appreciated component of the government's approach in

expanding its services. In addition, an increased awareness of the need to

highlight maintenance programmes is now recognized. The government, in

principle, makes no distinction between the voluntary groups or cooperatives

it collaborates with, and the increased activism of organized and/or women-

directed grassroot type of organization are equally welcomed to participate.

However, if this receptive attitude towards women's participation could be

transformed into a well-defined policy to have women participate, using

approaches that better suit their specific roles and requirements, additional

resources can be tapped. It is in this respect that the pilot activities of

INT/83/003 can contribute to show the way.


Women's participation at the national, regional and local level is an

increasing phenomenon, formally accepted and with political support, in

part because of the growing number of women in political, professional and

managerial jobs.* However, there are still many cultural and socio-economic

defined constraints that are more prevalent here than in the higher-income

Latin American countries. Perhaps precisely because of these constraints

there is a growing group of very opinionated, motivated women at the grass-

root communcal level, as well as in political organizations who are assuming

positions of clear leadership and, while having to deal with a "macho-defined"

cultural setting, are increasingly managing to advance overdue "women's rights".

A more modern "Family Charter" that undoes "turn-of-the-century" limitations

of women entitlements (divorce, legal status, etc.) is now in its final

debate in the National Congress and once approved will further the role of

women in all levels of the country's affairs.

Political support, formal and informal, for community participation

exists, but there are differences between the politically motivated

community organizations and the more union-type ones, with the ones

organized for a specific cause (building of a road, installation of a water

system) occupying the middle ground. These three types of organizations

are all, however, at one time or another, actively pursuing local,

developmental activities like for instance infrastructural improvements.

It can also be observed that the government in general has shown objectivity

in working with all three types of organizations, depending on local


In the context of Latin America, Honduras has one of the strongest

organized farmers movements (split along different ideological conceptions

but with an overriding pragmatic union-type approach to obtain such

* For a short summary on the major organizations of women in Honduras
see Attachment 9.
/ ..

essential components as land, credit and agricultural services as well as

cooperatives and community-type organizations). All these pursue

developmental activities with their members at the community level. In addition,

the many training courses, on different topics, during so many years has

created a group of farmer leaders who consider themselves, and are considered,

at a par with the political leaders at community level, while a number of

them have risen to.national prominence. The recent coming to the foreground

of affiliated but separate women farmers organizations, and women-organized

political groupings, is adding another element to an already special

characterization of Honduras in Central America, and in Latin America at


That the recent as well as current governments have been and are

positively disposed towards incorporating community and voluntary type of

organizations in their development activities is also confirmed through a

number of the projects that the government is executing with United Nations

assistance in Honduras, and that count heavily on grassroot organized

participation as well as on national and non-governmental organizations,

like the Federaci6n de Cooperativas para la Vivienda (FECOVIL).

II. UNDP Projects in Honduras

Projects that the government of Honduras and the UNDP agreed upon, which

are part of the 1982-1986 Country Programme and which are directly relevant

to INT/83/003, are the following:

HON/82/030 Housing (Habitat): Decent rural housing is nearly non-

existent in Honduras and especially in the more tropical zones of the country,

houses are rudimentary shacks of bamboo, driftwood and bits and pieces of

different materials for roofing. With the help of the vocational training

institute, and the active involvement of the farmers unions affiliated with

FEHCOVIL, the latter has initiated a self-help construction programme of



8 x 6msuperficie houses. These come with tiled roofs, cement floors and

adobe walls, plus fuel efficient stove and decent sanitation for a cost

oscillating between US$400-US$650 per house. The target is to have 2,500

houses built by the end of the project, in different zones of the country, with

the expected result of having led the way for decent rural housing in

Honduras, where the process to have them built and complementary educational/

training and income-generating activities will be as important as the physical

obtainment of the house. With 20 groups, each affiliated to a farmers union,

the Programme has initiated the first 250 houses in the South and many of

these have nearly finished their task. Women play in all phases of the

project a role on par with the men. (UNDP contribution: US$1.0 million,

government of the Netherlands: US$1.5 million). (Attachment 8).

HON/82/007 Women Farmers (FAO): The novelty of this project is

that it uses at the local level, farmer leaders (mainly women) who act

as the auxiliary to the regional promoter, who is a government employee

(National Agrarian Institute INA). The project, like the housing

project, is run by a national professional staff, with periodic external

consultancies. It promotes community-level productive activities, generating

income for the organized women farmers groups that are the executors of

the project at the local level. Training is immediately with the specific

small-scale project the women are to execute and the auxiliary promoter

is to immediately advice the service level of the required government

institutions to permit timely assistance. This project will provide an

income-oriented complementarity for the groups of the housing project.

(UNDP contribution: US$1.2 million, WFP within its support for the Women's

Decade will allow a 5% sale of its food contribution to Honduras, with the

amount of $275,000 to be used for agriculture production purposes by the

groups of this project). (Attachment 9).



HON/81/001 Rural Health (WHO): In its community-oriented public health

approach, the government of Honduras for years has been building up and

strenghtening a pyramidal health structure where each village is to have its

local health center (without a doctor or certified nurse, but instead public

health and sanitation volunteers), named CESAR. These centers are to refer

patients to the zonal health centers where a doctor and nurse are permanently

available, and that carry the name CESAMO. Part of the CESARES had been

constructed but were never adequately equipped; others saw their equipment

fall apart due to lack of maintenance. With a financial contribution from

the government of the Netherlands UNDP/WHO were to reequip 200 CESARES and

provide maintenance training (with funds from a USAID health loan to the

government of Honduras). By using locally made furniture (table, desks,

etc.) and by buying in bulk from UNICEF and having the balance placed in

Holland, the project saw its efforts to only consider really required

equipment be rewarded as nearly 900 CESARES are now nearly reequipped. Women

play an essential role as health volunteers, they make up the locally organized

health committees and are the ones who constantly remind the government of

the need to improve its services, (UNDP contribution: US$300,000, government

of the Netherlands $2,900,000). (Attachment 10).

The above identified UNDP-financed projects are complemented by the

UNFPA-financed HON/ / Mother-Child project, the United Nations Voluntary

Women's Fund activities in Honduras (reaching a US$300,000 by the end of

1983), the WFP-supported Basic Grain Production programme involving local

farmers groups, and the "Nutrition" pilot programme in the department Santa

Barbara, where soon the HON/82/030 Housing project is to be operational soon.

(See also Attachment II on UNICEF, WFP activities in Honduras).


III. Other Related Projects

The Central American Bank (BCEI)/IFAD/IDB also has an integrated rural

development programme, where grassroot impact projects have a specific role

to play. Many of their impact-oriented small-scale community type projects

follow the successful lead set by the UNDP/Dutch-financed pilot programme in

1979/1982. The Swiss government is financing an integrated rural development

programme in the South of Honduras adjacent to the zone where the HON/82/030

Housing and the HON/82/001 Peasant Women are active, although it contributes

to this latter zone with financing for wells and hand pumps (with the soon-to

be-initiated maintenance training). The government of West Germany is present

in the south of Honduras with a Food-for-work Programme, which buys locally

produced basic grains which then are distributed in support of community

development type of activities.


According to the original Decade plan developed in February 1981, US$10.5

million was made available for improvements in rural water supply and

sanitation in communities of 2,000 people and under. US$1lmillion was allocated

for preparation and testing of related educational materials with the contract

given to the Academy for Educational Development which had prepared the

excellent communication campaign with the MPH on LITROSOL (see Eight Myths

and other research documents on this. Key researchers, etc. in Attachment 10).

A second contribution of US$10 million was made in August 1983, also for

improvements in water supply and sanitation but the size of the communities

to be served was raised to 5,000.

The minimum size community considered for assistance is 200 unless they

are within 5 km. of a larger area. The majority of systems are gravity flow

with communal standpipes.

The US$20.5 million has been channelled through SANAA. For details see

attachment .



Summary i vi

I. An Overview 1 5

II. UNDP Projects in Honduras 5 7

HON/82/030 Housing
HON/82/007 Women Farmers
HON/81/001 Rural Health

III. Other Projects 8- 9

IV. NGOs 9 11

V. Indigenous Voluntary Organizations 11 12

VI. A Pilot Programme 12 24

A. The Rural Component
B. The Urban Component

VII. Research and Training Components 24 26

VIII. Organizational Structure for Pilot Programme 26 29


As a part of this programme, USAID is financing a national scheme

(the Centre for Industrial Development CDI) to introduce low-cost rural

technology, with the objective to produce locally, promoting small rural

industries. Perhaps because of this philosophy to promote a grassroot,

indigenous, small-scale industry, certain weaknesses are overlooked in the

propagated designs of sanitary facilities ("letrina seca") or handpumps, which

have influenced consumer acceptance negatively.


In addition to the above-mentioned government sponsored programmes, which

all rely at the local and regional level on non-governmental organizations like

the farmer unions and the voluntary community organizations combined with the

sectorial responsibilities carrying government institutions and ministries, we

have the national relevant NOGs themselves for developmental activities

directed towards the local level. Among these, the religious ones, particularly

the evangelic denominations have proven very active in supporting their

groups with direct impact local development projects. These NGOs at

times work with other union-organized groups like the farmer unions and

cooperatives, but in general they prove more restrictive in their selection

of target groups than developmental-oriented NGOs like the Save the Children,

Foster Parents and CARE, which have an active presence in Honduras. All

the NGOs with a national presence count with international (NGO) financing,

be it from the USA or from Europe.


For instance, CARE's programme in DECADE-related activities for

fiscal year July 1983 to June 1984 amounts to approximately US$1,250,000.

This is divided into three projects: 55 gravity flow systems with 1,240



bathing/toilet facilities, watershed conservation and management, and

an outreach program combining training in personal hygiene and nutrition.

None of these programs have a specific women's component, but the

gravity flow systems include training in operation and maintenance with

the provision of tools and establishment of a revolving fund. CARE

works on projects with SANAA and the MOH. For fuller description,

see Attachment 1.

Another NGO which has special relevance to INT/83/003 is the

Academy for Education Development (AED). One million dollars has been sub-

contracted to AED from the US$20.5 million AID Water Supply and Sanitation

allocation to prepare the education/training components. AED is focussing

special attention on strengthening the Ministry of Health's division of

health education. (Attachment la).

This is a part of a long-term technical assistance and loan fund over

a five-six year period with the goal being to develop a cadre of professionals

within the MOH capable of "conducting audience research, defining

appropriate health messages in behavioral terms, and executing an integrated

media strategy to maximize the impact of broadcast, print and face-to-

face channels."

During the first phase, 1980-83, a health education methodology

appropriate to Honduras was designed and tested in the field, focussing on

acute infant diarrhea. Concidental with this project, the USAID mission

is supporting large-scale infrastructural projects in water and sanitation

in selected regions (Attachment 2) with health education personnel being

trained in the same methodology to join the health education division of

the MOH in 1985. Some materials on water use ("El Gotita de Agua")

(Attachment 3) and sanitation (Construcci6n de Letrinas Fosa Simple with




Honduras is among the poorest countries in Latin America, with a per
capital income of less than t520 in 1981. At the same time it stands out
in the Latin American context because of a very strong indigenous organized
farmers movement and the increasing role of cooperatives in the local
development process. Both movements have sparked women organizations in the
rural and marginal urban sectors, who are starting to link-up with the more
politically attuned and professionally oriented feminist organizations at
the national level that are moving from women rights' topics into developmental
oriented activities.(see attachment 9).
The farmers unions in Honduras are organized along different union
objectives lines and group the landless and small farmers into grassroot
based organization patterns, where local leaders, men and increasingly women,
are gaining leadership experience which explains the increased capacity at the
local level for organization and communal undertakings. In recent years,
women farmers have found their organized identity in women farmers' unions
that are affiliated with the organized farmers unions at large.
The above has provided the organized context for INT/83/003 to identify
three separate project activities (two in the rural areas and one in an urban
marginal area) that although different in their specific activities, share
common traits through which a common programme approach is advisable.
In evaluating possible modes of participation in INT/83/003 several
criteria were used:
Selecting both rural and urban communities;
Finding rural and urban women;
Linking water and sanitation;
Relating where possible income-producing activities;
Coordination with introduction of new technologies (testing, pilot);
Cooperating with a variety of women's organizations at national and
local levels.


In making an assessment of possible projects which fit into INT/83/003
we first explored possibilities of complementary inputs into the specific
proposals already presented.

Two are on-going UNDP projects:
HON/82/030 Rural Self-Help Housing (see Annex VIII) and HON/82/007 -
Incorporation of Peasant Women in the Production Process (Annex IX).
The first project activity in the rural areas is closely linked with
these. The UNDP/Netherlands-financed rural selfhelp housing project is
executed through FECOVIL and offers an ideal setting to test and demonstrate
low-cost technology approaches that are basically new to Honduras. Women as
members of the farmers cooperatives have been active since the beginning,
but through INT/83/003 there is a possibility of increasing their participation
particularly if a few communities are selected where the other UNDP project,
HON/82/007, is operational. Through FEHMUC, women leaders can be selected to
be trained as caretakers and repairers of the pumps and in developing
instructions on use and care of latrines once they have helped select the
most appropriate models.
Women's involvement in HON/82/030 project covers various roles,particularly
of involving these peasant women in planning, designing and evaluating
improvements in water supply and sanitation. As co-participants in the self-
help housing schemes, the women in the peasant cooperatives have already
contributed to the building of their outstanding new homes. In fact, a smaller
adobe was made which the women could handle more easily. They also have been
trained and are constructing the Lorena fuel-saving stove, and are interested
in learning more about the Honduran Dry Latrine.
The women, as well as the men, are interested in compost from the "Dry
Latrines" to use in their income-producing coops primarily melons and
watermelons. The income from these activities will help make it possible for
these poor families to repay the housing loans which includes their water
and sanitation facilities.
A second facet of the housing project is the provision of water at least
one well for each 10-12 homes. Reports from the Ministry of Natural Resources
indicate that many of the settlements are in areas with very brackish water



and the present wells are not potable and even unsuitable for laundry using
regular soap. The water could be used for water-seal latrines if there were
enough shallow wells near the homes or for laundry with special soap. Women
have to spend from 1-5 hours carrying water and/or going to far-away streams
in the long dry season to do their laundry.

The Ministry of Public Health has two types of manually-operated
drills, one a driven shaft and the other an augur which can be used to
drill wells up to 14 meters in the communities without rocky soil. They
can be operated by men and/or women. The women were enjoying the running
streams to bathe and do laundry in, but the day the Mission visited a HON/82/030
community women especially were well aware of the need for more accessible
and less salty water when the rains stop in November. Several communities
indicated places where they had found "agua dulce", fresh water, and felt
wells might be dug. They were interested in hearing about the manually-
operated drills they might be able to use in their communities.
In summary, this project concerns the introduction of a new type of
pit latrine which would also generate organic compost as fertilizer, the
use of this in quick-growing trees, the introduction of a maintenance
programme for water pumps handled by women, and the collection and use
of drinking water through so far unused catchment techniques. (.See Annex 3).
The second project activity in the rural areas, to be located in the
Northern part of the country, has very much to do with-introducing the
type of technology mentioned above. The project was based on a draft
proposal presented by PAHO/WHO Latriniza and/or Rural Sanitation in
Honduras, based on a project designed by four Honduran women participants
at the PAHO workshop held in Washington in April 1983. Since the project
proposal had been 90% completed, two other communities proposed by the
Union de Mujeres Hondurefias (UMH) were recommended (see Attachment 11).
However, in this case much importance is attached to the fact that this
project is promoted by a more politically-inclined national grouping of
professional women (Uni6n de Mujeres Hondurefias) with strong membership
representation in the ruling political parties who have understood the
importance of linking women activities with developmental objectives.


As such, they have elaborated, together with a grassroot-level rural
women's organization, an infrastructural improvement scheme (latrines,
water and absorbent floors) with the expectation that this will spark
a process for development and at the national level will achieve the
publicity to raise the Government's consciousness to lend even stronger
support for initiatives such as these.

The third project activity is in the urban marginal sector of
Tegucigalpa, where at the level of the "barrios" people are organized in
Improvement Committees. The installment of water, garbage "collection"
and waste disposal and a solution to the insufficient, inadequate latrine
situation are high on the list of each of these Committees. Again in
this case, a project has been identified with the assistance of the other,
longer-established and more sedate Women Organization (Federaci6n de
Mujeres Hondureflas FMH) that has played a leading role since its
creation in 1951 to advance women rights at the national level and which
initiated some years ago a programme of legal council to deprived, poor
women from the urban marginal sector. This has now evolved into more
developmental-oriented approaches, whereby the selected barrio,Villa Los
Laureles, could play a model role for the promotional efforts by the FMH
linked with the organized potential of locally-organized women groups.
Specific activities, the improvement of the water provision, installment
of communal laundry and bathing facilities, latrines and a garbage
collection and disposal scheme. (See Attachment 7).
The three project activities fit into a programme-where WHO with the
Ministry of Health are to provide the technical advice to an execution
modality where the responsibility lies at the local level and where
promotional support and advice on how to handle the dialogue on Government-
i istiiAe nafeiaal NSO5
provided inputs and services^. WHO/Honduras has already acquired experience
in working with NGOs, as has the Ministry of Health, that has even declared
it its policy insofar as locally-oriented programmes are concerned. The
UNDP/Honduras office is also very familiar and attuned to these types of

Total cost programme in first year: $78,000

These resources are to be spent in accordance with the following

broad categorization:


Research and recording $ 15,000

This component would involve a local professional who would analyze

the project's situation before and during the execution phase. The same

professional should attend both rural projects, another one could be made

responsible for the urban one.

Material cost $ 48,500

The Mission considers it important that in addition to what is available

to the community from the Ministry of Health (cement for instance) and other

institutions, the project should assume the additional material cost to have

the three projects get started with appropriate technologies. The urban

project may involve substantial construction costs, but will be an important


Training $ 3,000

Certain courses/seminars with the involvement of the local groups will

be required, which will mean per diem of certain staff, and local costs for

the participants.

Documentation $ 1,500

These are very rough estimates and a final budget should be worked out

later. A documentation and research schedule from which the pilot activities

will derive their meaning and justification can be developed. In this context,

it should also be noted that there will be no pilot activities without

financing by INT/83/003 of the first year costs estimated above, but a

certain amount of resources will also be required to allow for the

documentation and research. To make an estimation now would be premature

because the specific documentation and research requirements have to be

reviewed with the possible candidates after the projects have been finalized.



Only then can a budget be made. The Mission abstained from such a projection

now so as not to raise false expectations but it should be pointed out that

a national professional at least requires US$1,500;a month plus reimbursement

of cost made for travel and field subsistence.

Human Resources

Social Scientists Resident in Honduras

The Mission obtained a few curriculum vitae of local social scientists

while it was in Tegucigalpa (Attachment 10). Once the pilot activities are

approved, the UNDP office in Tegucigalpa together with PAHO should establish

contact with the suggested local professionals.

Non-resident Social Scientists

A list of experts who are non-resident in Honduras, but have specific

knowledge of the sector as well as recent and/or continuing research

activities there was also prepared (Attach.10).Some of these people could

work as short-time counterparts with the Honduran social scientists, as

participants in planning workshops and/or as evaluators.

Technical Expertise

The importance of close collaboration with Ing. Alejandro Castro,

the PAHO Sanitary Engineer in the Ministry of Health, and Ing. Val de Bauset

AID consultant at the Centro de Desarrollo Industrial (CDI), cannot be

over-emphasized. As far as health education/communication are concerned,

the key people in the MOH in Honduras now are Dr. Oscar Vigano, Field

Director, AED/PRASAR and Prof. Luis Cancalis, OES/PRASAR.

List of Persons Met

See Attachment 12.

accompanying poster) have been developed. The first training module on

environmental sanitation has a strong fecal considerations. Copies of cause

materials are in the project files.

In reviewing this material, the possibility of improving the simple

latrine model illustrated by incorporating some of the findings of the UNDP/

World Bank "Low Cost Sanitation" project such as the black pipe and screen

came to mind. The use of the teaching/communication modules being prepared

by INT/82/002 might also enrich this culturally specific approach.

As for INT/83/003 the materials developed during Phase 1 of AED's project

on decreasing the incidence of childhood diarrhea and related mortality

through the use of ORT were aimed specifically at mothers. The messages were

extensively tested to assure that their contents were comprehensible and

acceptable. With the collaboration of the MOH and the high level of community

participation, a one year pilot project was carried out in several areas

which resulted in a considerable decrease in infant mortality. In fact, the

success of the pilot project led to the incorporation of the materials and the

methodology into the regular health sector, including water and sanitation.

V. Indigeous Voluntary Organizations

Special reference should be made to the indigenous Honduran NGOs that

represent the landless and small farmers interests. These union-organized

organizations, with specific ties to the government (FECORAH to the

land reform process with the landreform Institute INA and ANACH to the

government union-controlled interest), to the Christian Democrat movement

(UNC and UNCAH),plus the farmer unions that have become production cooperatives

with business capital at par with the biggest landowners (like the Empresas

Asociativas Isletas and the one of Guanchias growing and packaging bananas;

the Empresa Asociativa Coopalma, growing and processing African palm oil) are

all part and product of a land reform movement that is now fading somewhat in the

background but continues to maintain a presence unequalled in the other Central



American countries. To this should be added the separate and very active

women farmers unions like the one distantly related to UNC, the FEMUC, and

the one related to ANACH, the ANAMUC.

VI. A Pilot Programme

Honduras' poverty is evenly distributed over the rural and urban areas

with regional differences as compared with the "national average". In this

respect, the south of Honduras is a region of extreme poverty, where an

unreliable climate plays havoc with the agriculture subsistence level of the

marginal rural population, making them nearly permanent "beneficiaries" of

governmental emergency measures. Be it to avert famine because of extensive

droughts in one year, or to help people survive the aftermath of flooding

due to excessive rainfalls in another year. It is in this region that the

government of Honduras and UNDP have concentrated their "direct impact projects"

mentioned before and it is in this region where the mission proposes to piggy-

back the rural component of the proposed INT/83/003 Pilot Programme, using the

HON/82/002 Housing project and for income-generating complementarity, HON/82/007

Peasant Women as the operational vehicles.

In the urban areas, Honduras, in the context of Latin America, is only

recently experiencing the drift of its rural population towards the cities,

caused by the well-documented combination of push factors (rural) and pull

factors (urban) that together result in an uncontrolled growing pattern for

cities like Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula and La Ceiba, where urban services

are already tested beyond capacity and where no alternatives are at the

horizon to be more optimistic about their future. The poverty that characterizes

the urban barrios marginados seems to be more elusive to solving than what

the people experience in the rural areas because the very recentness of the urban

squatter growth has contributed to weaker social and family structures that serve

people as a frame of reference for their actions and expectations. Consequently,



the urban component of the Pilot Programme is not only to provide the women

as the most vulnerable group in this setting an improved level of required

and essential services, but it also seeks to promote an organized structure

that could become an example around which women in other barrios could rally

and see their role in the urban informal environment enhanced.

A. The Rural Component One

The HON/82/030 Housing project has identified in the southern region of

Honduras a total of 25 grassroot-level organized campesino groups, which

are all affiliated to one of the national farmers unions, and which are

committed with FEHCOVIL to construct through self-help methods their 8 x 6 m

adobe, tiled-roof houses, with cement floors, at a cost not more than

US$700 per house. In this carrying out of this commitment, including the

execution of each of the 15 new houses per group, women play an essential

role. They have equally been participating in the two-weeks vocational

training course given by INFOP (the governmental-run Instituto Fomento

Professional) where each group was trained in basic construction techniques.

The participation of the women also caused the introduction of the small-

size adobe to allow women and children to participate in the total construction,

lifting the blocks above their height if needed. The women also are constructing

and putting to good use the fuel-efficiency stove (Estufa Lorena) which are to

be in each house. Women have furthermore contributed to the decisions each

group had to make on the grouping of the houses.

The housing project has now reached the critical stage of providing and

caring for water and sanitation. The mission initiated a

dialogue with the project management (the project is government-executed with

short-term, once a year consultancies by UN/HABITAT) to do away with the

traditional carrying out of these provisions, and to concentrate instead on



available low-cost appropriate technology, giving the main responsibility for

this component to the organized female participation. Consequently, the idea

of having the traditional latrine replaced by the "dry-pit" approach seems now

to become a reality, also because the mission found in its field trip that the

campesinos are very receptive to try this new approach. Combined with the

latrine, and using the nearly permanent source of heat emanating from the

estufa lorena through its ventilation pipe potential might exist to

accelerate the decomposure of the organic material making it in a much

shorter period a source of fertilizer. The mission has asked the local

representatives of WHO'PAHO, USAID, Peace Corps and the authorities involved

in the housing project to review what might be the best design* combining

sanitation considerations with creating a potential source of fertilizer which

could have an important effect on garden plot-type of productive agricultural

projects. As there might exist an initial resistance to use this type of

fertilizer on the garden plots (which could be promoted through the assistance

of the project HON/82/007,Peasant Women providing an excellent vehicle to quickly

amortize the credit commitment for the new house), the mission proposes the

establishment of viveros of quick-growing tree species, to be run by women.

This could prove an essential solution to the unsurmountable problem of the

shortage of firewood in the region. With this indirect approach, the women can

experiment and experience with the production and use of fertilizer; it could in

a further stage also be combined with a garbage disposal pit to increase

fertilizer production. Ultimately the acceptance of this methodology and its

product will have a beneficial effect on the women-attended plots that produce

now the biggest cashflow (melon, watermelon) for the selected groups.

In addition to the chain of sanitation initiatives, the mission has also

been able to agree with the housing project authorities to broaden their

approach to the provision of drinking water (and water in general), giving

* Attachment 5 Appropriate Technologies in Honduras


the women the formal recognition of a responsibility that they carry out

exclusively. Two water-related topics were reviewed, and agreement was

reached to have specific project proposal elaborated on these.

First. The region suffers from a rather high-level of salinization

and finding drinking water is in many cases a touch-and-go effort.

Wherever possible, however, the housing authorities of the project agreed

that the women will be very much present in the discussion on where to look

for water in making a well. Once established, it should be the women who

are responsible for the maintenance and operation of the (hand)pumps.

Consequently each group is to be provided with the basic tools as well as a

course on how to maintain/repair the waterpump. So far, such an approach

has not been tested in Honduras, but informal agreement exists that it could

work well given the many other tasks around the house and in the field where

women are in charge. The INT/83/003 should finance the pilot costs of this

new approach (US$5,000).

The group of peasant women leaders the mission met with at the FEHMUC

workshop in Choluteca were extremely interested in being trained as trainers

for such a project. They offered to make an informal survey of broken pumps

in their respective zones indicating type of pump, problems and the recommended

solutions. A simple questionnaire was designed and findings will be sent back

to UNDP project coordinator.

Second. In the south, drinking water of good quality is scarce, but

the rather salty (brackish) water is more available. Several options could

therefore be explored, all pilot in nature, and for which women could be

assigned as the guardians of the to-be-established systems which they could

control and maintain.

a) The self-help adobe houses have rather gentle sloping and large tiled

roofs. These roofs could be used as a catchment area of the rain which, with

* The tiles are locally made by some of the farming groups.


a system of gutters, could nourish individual or collective water tanks

(subterranean if required).

b) Salt-waterwells, not fit for human consumption, could be established

close to each house with individual and very low-cost pumps to facilitate

the required 3 liters of water to flush the "taza campesina" latrine, a porcelain

water-seal latrine imported from Colombia at a delivered cost of $6.70**.

This latrine has been widely accepted here since it was introduced by USAID in

1980. (Attachment 5). This water could also be utilized in the daily washing

chores, provided that a special soap that could be fabricated locally is

introduced that is not affected by a high salt content. Soap making is being

explored as an income-generating activity by some of the women's groups.

Perhaps it can be "piggy-backed" to a pig raising project by some of the

FEHMUC groups in HON/82/007 in the Cholutec area.

All the above outlined activities, related to the pilot self-help rural

housing project required:

a) The immediate forwarding of technical, low-cost, rural technology

documents as developed by UNDP/INT/81/047, Low-cost Sanitation. Detailed

drawings of the improved versions are needed in Honduras. Molds of new

plastic stool designs would be useful but are not essential for testing and

consideration of local manufacture. Interest was also expressed by officials

in MOH as well as other Agency personnel in having information on the pump

testing, as they seek appropriate models for village level operation and

maintenance. The mission recommended this material to be forwarded soonest

to the PAHO office in Honduras and requests were made through UNDP head-

quarters and with the project managers.

** an improved model with a better bowl is now being made in nearby Costa
Rica. Similar improved models are also manufactured in Brazil and the
Dominican Republic.



b) a solid coordination among the USAID-financed CDI (Centro de Desarrollo

Industrial) executed rural technology project (which seeks to then establish

small-scale industries in the rural areas but has gone beyond its institutional

boundary by promoting sanitary technologies untested so far), the housing

project and PAHO to come to final conclusions as to what technical options

are best and that can be carried out by the women who are already very much

responsible on a day-to-day basis for the involved activities.

c) the design of adequate training programmes (following b), for which

independent financing should be made available. Some of the material developed

by INT/82/002, Information and Training Materials in Low-Cost Water and

Sanitation, might be suitable here. Testing of their usefulness in a cross-

cultural setting could make a positive contribution to both, INT/83/003 and

INT/82/002. Both urban and rural women, such as the FEHMUC leaders, expressed

interest in learning and training.

d) the preparation and/or use of appropriate health education/communication

materials using all media and coordination with MOH, MOE, UNICEF and non-

governmental groups such as AED, CARE and CONSUDE. The special Human Resources

Committee set up by CONAP could be actively involved.

A. The Rural Component Two

In addition to the above outlined areas of possible activities, the Mission

also had the opportunity to review the original request as presented by PAHO/

Washington on the cooperation of INT/83/003 with Honduras. By now 90% of

the originally identified objectives have been accomplished in a traditional

execution pattern, installing the deep pit letrines which the Ministry of

Health so far has been disseminating widely without experimenting with new

letrines, except those financed under a US/AID loan. (PRASAR, with US/AID

$10.5 and the Government of Honduras $10.0 million). However, the Organization



that pushed this proposal, the Uni6n de Mujeres Hondureflas, has been

actively identifying additional projects to be undertaken which are detailed

in Attachment 11 (Uni6n de Mujeres Hondurefas Proyectos para Zonas en

Desarrollo, U.M.H.). The Mission's reasoning to support these proposals

:mainly to do with factors external to the beneficiaries for whom the

projects are requested. First, it is noticeable that the Uni6n the Mujeres

Hondurefias has apparently succeeded in her very short lifespan to attract

political support and membership (a considerable, number of the female

members of the National Congress are members). Secondly, it has as its

declared goal to assist the female marginal sectors of the country's

population, with project activities that have no link with the classical

"doing good" of the past for these type of voluntary organizations.

Consequently, the Mission considers it strategically very important to

support this Uni6n to achieve the goal of a fruitful dialogue and mutual

cooperation among the different female sectors of the country. Also,

because whatever new technology that PAHO/Ministry of Health would propose,

the Uni6n would enthusiastically endorse and execute and gather the political

endorsement for these type of activities, which require this support if

they ever are to be realized beyond the pilot phase.

The Mission recommends therefore to also approve this "Rural Component Two"

of the Pilot Programme. Consequently, through INT/83/003 we would support a

female grasaroot level type of activity in the South, closely united with the

Ministry of Health for its experimental value, and a similar type of

activity but more linked to the political attuned NGO (UMH) located in the

North that might result in an enhanced role of women organizations in the

identification and execution of water and sanitation related activities.



B. The Urban Component

The capital city of Honduras, Tegucigalpa, is located in a rather

narrow valley where the available flat land has been taken long ago for

urbanizations. The poor, therefore, have to master the hillsides without

any infrastructureal amenities and services. In the rainy season, mud-

slides add a factor of severe danger to the squatter areas on the

hillsides. In summer, the problem is no less, as water in Tegucigalpa at

large becomes scarce and the price for a 10 liters container (3 gallons)

will jump from 5-10 cents of a lempira to 35-50 cents for the same amount.

Garbage and excrements in polvorized form become major health hazards.

In Tegucigalpa, of an estimated total population of 450,000 inhabitants,

well over 250,000 live in marginal or sub-standard areas, with a varying

availability of essential services (health services, public transport, etc.).

In nearly all the barrios exist a locally organized grassroot organization,

in general centering around the obtainment of one or more specific infra-

structural improvements, with water always as the number one priority. The

Mission visited a number of the squatter areas. It was qyite obvious that

those located on very steep hillsides will have additional difficulties to

master the gradual improvements in their barrio. The Mission

considered it advisable to first select a small to medium size barrio,

Villa de los Laureles, that counts with 350 families, located on a more

gradual sloped hillside and very much surrounded by other barrios with whom

it shares a specific section of the riverbed favoured by the women for

their daily washing chores. This barrio has also a strong leadership, was

of recent installation (two years ago) and is still very much under the

informal "supervision" of the big leaders of the nearby barrio San Francisco.



The organizational situation of Villa de los Laureles started out with a

"Club Amas de Casa" (Housewife Committee), that organized social events to

collect money to make two water projects feasible. The City of Tegucigalpa

then stepped in and provided the barrio with two water taps, one for the

upper part of the barrio, and one for the lower one. Theiwomen organized

to have every three months another female head-of-household take turn to

control the tab and obtain the 10 cents (of a lempira) fee for 10 liters

water. With this fee, the Government's water charge is paid as well as the

salary of the tab controller (US$100.00 per month for a 10 hours day, in

the morning in the lower part of the barrio, in the afternoon in the

upper partly The women of the barrio decided also to have a more

representative organizational structure and therefore pushed the male

members of the community to assume the representation of the barrio with

the creation of the Patronato, with a few women on the Board, but keeping

the reigns of the. action through the sectorial committees run by them.

Of these Committees, one is related to drinking water (more tabs),

one to the environment (including the idea of organizing garbage collection),

one on education, and one on sanitation. The community of Villa de los

Laureles has itself identified and executed specific small projects, like the

cultivation of flowers in the garden plots adjacent to the houses and to

be sold by the Cementerio. An additional element of interest is the

stone quarry at the barrio's limit, where the men work from time to time to

"hand pick" stones used for infrastructural improvements in the community,

and to sell to outsiders, charging US$1 per car load. In the opinion of the

Federaci6n de Asociaciones Femeninas de Honduras, Tegucigalpa has many more

barrios with the characteristics of Villa de los Laureles, so that

whatever pilot experience here can certainly be transferred elsewhere.



The Federaci6n,that took early on an active interest in Villa de

los Laureles, was created in 1951 as the first nationally recognized

female interest organization, that became a driving force in obtaining

political rights for Women, in having legislation be more favourable to

women's rights. Recently, the Federation has also become increasingly

involved to assist poor women with legal problems who can find no recourse

elsewhere. In this context, the Federation, a political but with recognized

scions of leading families on its Board, has moved towards an activist

position as many of the female grassroot type organizations from the poor

barrios would come for free legal advice when threatened with land evictions

or to put their legal land entitlements in order. Nowadays, the Federation

also coordinates with the "Office for Squatter Settlements" of the

Metropolitan District of Tetucigalpa, mainly in the area of organizing

community support for plans for improvements in the barrios.

The Mission, with the technical participation of PAHO, the positive

attitude of the Metropolitan District Office that has no programmes for

Villa de los Laureles in the next few years because of budgetary constrains,

and the Federation has agreed that an urgan pilot programme with the

organized women of Villa de los Laureles, and through them with the community

at large, is a very promising perspective.

The outline for action is recommended as follows:

1) At the highest point in barrio Villa de los Laureles a water deposit

should be constructed that will nurture the community through a system

based on gravity. Apparently, water is seeDing out of the rocks in that

part of Tegucigalpa and although it seems not of drinkable quality but this

water is to be lead to

2) a system of concentrated public washing places, combined with showers.



This is to be run by women, a small charge could be applied to amortize

the cost of the construction (to be "advanced" by INT/83/003) and for

the use of the showers. With this system, women do not need to expose

themselves to the hazrds of washing and bathing in a contaminated river,

and "commercial" washing could become an income generating side line.

The community itself was already toying with some vague notions in this

direction and reacted very favourably to the idea.

3) The resulting grey-waters of both users' installations can be

directed to a few flush toilets to serve the women who are making use of

the washing and showering facility. Before leading the "aguas negras" into

the river, the construction of a specific tank is called for.

4) The idea of the women for garbage-collection goes very well with

draftboard-ideas worked out for this topic by the Metropolitan District

and by the Sanitary Engineer of PAHO. The idea could be further advanced

by combining this garbage collection proposal (make several collecting

points in the community) with a garbage-pit proposal that in its turn

could be combined with the "letrinas-secas" idea for which each plot does

have space available to in the end by combining the two really have compost

of inorganic nature. This very well ties in with the community's interest

to obtain very high "yields" from their tiny garden plots.

PAHO, with the Ministry of Health, and the Federaci6n for promotional,

supervisory activities, will work-out an integrated pilot scheme for

which costs are estimated US$38,000, not counting the community's contribution

in work and materials (from the stone quarry).

In the context of the urban proposal outlined above, the Mission observes

a) Tapping a local spring for a communal laundrying area with

attached showers and channelling the "grey water" for flushing water-seal



toilets could not only solve a felt need for the women of Barrio Villa de

los Laureles, but at the same time help in serving as a functional model

for other groups who are less well-organized. (See report field visit,

Attachment 7).

Attempts in the past to introduce communal toilet or laundry systems

in urban areas have failed. By involving the Amas de Casa and Patronato

de Villa Los Laureles in the planning, design, and evaluation of these

basic facilities, there is an opportunity to test our theories of the

important and essential roles that can be played by women and demonstrate

how they can be replicated. The "taza hidriulica", water-seal latrine, has

not been tested using "grey water" so this would be an opportunity to evaluate

such a combination.

According to the PAHO sanitary engineer there have been several unsuccessful

attempts to introduce public laundry facilities into Honduras even though in

Guatemala and Mexico they are widely used. One of the critical health

problems in Tegucigalpa is the use of the rivers as the sewage disposal

system. Most women from the barrios have no alternative to doing their laundry

and bathing in the rivers, nearly always with their children. 56 women who

do laundry in the Pedregal area have formed a cooperative with help from FAFH

and hope, with funds from UNICEF, to get a building with a day-care center

next to it. (Attachment 6).

In Villa Los Laureles the women leaders felt they could work out a plan

so that the 350 families can share the facilities and maintain them.(Attachment 7).

In El Pedregal, the UNICEF project, there was a much less-organized group with

various communities represented. The urban programme could fill real needs

of better health and employment for women.

Analysis of the involved activities could be of great use to planners

and programme directors as the unmet needs of thousands of women in the

marginal urban areas become more acute.


b) A thorough case study of the pump caretaker system worked out in Villa

Los Laureles showing (1) building of pump house, (2) payment for water, and

(3) selection of female heads of household on 3-months rotating basis would

be valuable. The dividing of the community into two service areas with

different hours is also an innovative idea.

VII. Research and Training Components (See Attachment 8)

A specific observation that has not been made in the report so far is the

important role of documentation and research that is to accompany all the steps

in the execution of the pilot programme of INT/83/003. The mission has been

made aware of a reduced but very well-qualified number of Honduran professionals

who combined cover the pilot related activities insofar as social, cultural and

health aspects are concerned, as well as economic aspects of HON/82/007 -

Peasant Women and Income Generating Activities will not be overlooked.

a) The documentation of -omen's involvement in DECADE activities and some

of the projects in Honduras ruild be filmed for adding to existing materials

especially the dissemination =ad acceptance of the water-seal latrine in

rural areas of Latin America -here they were previously unknown. The

designing adaptations made tc a composting dry latrine for the rural housing

project would also be intere-s.iaR to record. The public acceptance of the use

of human excreta for fertili:.r in Latin America is of recent origin. Even

though its use was not uncomncn in the 1970s, discussion of composting and/or

use was not acceptable. The search for an appropriate composting latrine and

development of training mat---.als for its construction and use would add to

DECADE planning. Women's imas and suggestions in the process should be


b) Comparing the apprnuches and results in the self-help housing project

with the more isolated UMH -ral communities in Olanchito (see UMH) will also


be important to document as will be the different motivations, promotion and

supervision between UMH and FAFA.

c) Protocols for these studies should be developed in such a way that

data will be comparable to that being collected in other geographic areas.

Available protocols developed during the Decade such as the questionnaire

attached to the World Bank publication No.5 on the Socio-Cultural Aspects of

Water Supply and Excreta Disposal by Elmendorf and Buckles in the series on

Appropriate Technology in Water Supply and Sanitation, and the TAG, technical

Note No.1, "Methods for Gathering Socio-Cultural Data for Water Supply and

Sanitation" by Mayling Simpson Hebert were left with the UNDP office after a

brief discussion of them with some of the Honduran social scientists.

d) Among the documentation needed for both the rural and urban proposals

are baseline surveys and questionnaires which will include water and sanitation

related uses, behaviours and attitudes.

Specific community leaders in the Barrio Villa Los Laureles were very

interested in obtaining a questionnaire which could be used to get basic

information about water and sanitation problems as well as important general

things, such as people's preference for small income-generating projects.

The mission suggested that it would probably be more useful to design a special

questionnaire for Villa Los Laureles after discussion with a local social

scientist who could helD them make it more useful and could also teach/show

them how to carry it out. The community leaders were enthusiastic about the idea

of such a study particularly if the data was left with them for use in future


As a part of INT/83/003 such a survey, which included detailed interviews,

could provide a case study of women's participation in Villa Los Laureles which

would be a demonstration of what and how women can plan, promote and participate


in the overall development of their communities with improvements in water and

sanitation being important components.

e) Comparative Data. A comparison of methodology approaches and facilities

in the communal laundries and bath/toilet facilities (Annex ) in a multi-

barrio project with a well-organized community would be very helpful to planners

who have been unsuccessful in obtaining acceptance, use and maintenance in the

past. An analysis of women's involvement as planners, managers and users is needed.

(See attachment 9 on Women's Organizations in Honduras).

The research/training/communication components of the rural projects

will be very similar to the urban ones. Tentatively it would seem that time

use before and after improvements in water supply and sanitation, combined with

decision-making as income-producing activities get underway, would be of value.

f) Health/education/communication materials. As INT/83/003 develops

detailed proposals for Honduras, cooperation with AED/PRASAR in designing health

education materials or testing new approaches to involve women more effectively

should be established. In terms of behavioral changes related to personal

hygiene and excreta disposal, the three years, 1980-83, of woman-focused

village level research related to diarrhea prevention and care is an invaluable

resource as are the research team Honduran and expatriate who worked on this

project (Annex ).

VIII.Organization Structure for Pilot Programme

Honduras has an institutional set up for Water Decade related activities,

and within the Government structure there is a positive attitude towards

women in development issues.

The UNDP office in Tegucigalpa has shown itself very sentitive and

professionally attuned to an active role in putting forward and monitoring


direct impact projects and it is positive to note how grassroot type

leadership and farmer unions dirigents feel at ease in the office, know

its officers and consider it as much theirs as the Government does.

Consequently, the Mission feels confident that the UNDP office in Honduras

will perform well insofar as the required backstopping and logistical tasks to

see the pilot programme of INT/83/003 become successful are concerned.

Essential is also the professional commitment and active interest shown

by PAHO/Honduras to associate itself with community oriented activities

(see its role as exetuting agency for the HON/81/001 Rural Health project)

will provide the INT/83/003 with the substantive support it requires and

also with an in-the-country capacity to present the beneficiaries, as well

as the government/institutional authorities with United Nations's

accumulated experience in the field of water and women. PAHO/Honduras has

also an important role to play concerning the recent results of testing

(letrines, handpumps, etc.) of sanitary/water equipment.

The Mission suggests to have PAHO as the executing agency, to

specifically emphasize the backstopping of UNDP and its involvement to have

the INT/83/003 become really coordinated with HON/83/030, Housing, and

HON/82/007, Peasant Women. (PAHO will certainly see to it that wherever

possible its HON/81/001, Rural Health in the South, will be called upon

when needed).

In the rural component, FEHCOVIL will be lead agency in so far as the

housing related activities are concerned, with the Ministry of Health and

the Centro de Desarrollo Industrial (CDI) as the technical advisory

bodies (depending on what technical solution is agreed upon among FEHCOVIL,

Ministry, CDI and PAHO). Through FEHCOVIL, that executes on behalf of

the Ministry of Planning the housing project, the latter will be involved,


Through their grassroot level organizations, the farmers unions are

keeping a close look on the housing project and they, as well as their

female national organizations like FEMUC and ANAMUC, will certainly

function well as a channel to disseminate positive results. In addition,

one should not underestimate the link pin role that the (politically

attuned, but voluntary organization) Uni6n de Mujeres Hondurefias can

fulfill, especially in becoming the one to convince the Government of

applying nation wide what the Union experiences work well in their project

sites in Olancho. All this INT/83/003 will have promoted, as well as

to the housing project related new technologies that the Union will

certainly be anxious to pick-up and disseminate.

At the urban level, the Federaci6n de Asociaciones de Mujeres

Hondureflas will cooperate with PAHO/Ministry of Health in promotional/

legal activities and because of its high acceptance in the marginal urban

areas will certainly contribute to have the pilot programme become very

much known.

No organized structure of committees, etc. is proposed here because

the involved organizations at the working and decision-making level are

very enthused with the possibility of these specific pilot proposals and

each is interested to coordinate well with the others because of a

clearly defined self interest!

It has been discussed with PAHO that more specific worked out

proposals have to be forwarded to New York Soonest. A specific

observation that has not been made in this report so far is the important

role of documentation and research that is to accompany in all its steps

the execution of the pilot programme of INT/83/003. The Mission has been

/.. .


made aware of a reduced but very well qualified number of Honduran

professionals who, combined, cover the pilot related activities insofar

as social and health aspects are concerned. Furthermore, through the

HON/81/001 Peasant Women Project, economic aspects will not be overlooked.

The Mission has obtained a few curriculum vitae while it was in Tegucigalpa

and once the INT/83/003 pilot activities are approved, the UNDP office

in Tegucigalpa together with PAHO, should establish with the choose

local professionals a documentation and research schedule from which the

pilot activities will derive their meaning and justification. In this

context, it should also be noted that there will be no pilot activities

without financing by INT/83/003 the first-year costs.

The training/health/education components planned or underway by

UNICEF, CARE and CONSUDE, should also be explored further to find ways

of incorporating women more completely into these programmes.(Attachment