Title: Water Resources Position Paper Draft Initiatives, Report of Technical Meeting on Water, July 18-19, 1996
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 Material Information
Title: Water Resources Position Paper Draft Initiatives, Report of Technical Meeting on Water, July 18-19, 1996
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: General Secretariat, Organization of American States, Washington, DC
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Abstract: Jake Varn Collection - Water Resources Position Paper Draft Initiatives, Report of Technical Meeting on Water, July 18-19, 1996 (JDV Box 39)
General Note: Box 29, Folder 6 ( Water Supply Coalition - 1996-1997 ), Item 7
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Full Text
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ORGANIZATION DE LOS ESIADOS AMERICANOS
ORGANIZACAO DOS ESTADOS AMERICANOS
ORGANISATION DES ETATS AMERICAINS
ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES


17th Street and Constitution Avenue., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20006


July3i 1996

Dear Mr. Hubbell,

I would like to express my deep appreciation to you for your willingness to give us several
days of your time last week to participate in the Organization of American States Technical
Meeting on Water. Your contributions and enthusiasm helped make the meeting both successful
and enjoyable. I believe that we have made a significant contribution to the discussions that will
take place on water resources in preparation for the Hemispheric Summit on Sustainable
Development.

Enclosed is the revised "Water Resources Position Paper" for your information. This
version incorporates the suggestions and changes made during the Technical Meeting.

I understand that several of you plan to submit "issue statements" to the Second Inter-
American Dialogue on Water Management (IDWM) to be held in Buenos Aires in September
1996. I would encourage you to do so and, if possible, attend the meeting. Instructions for
preparing issue statements were part of the material on the IDWM passed out near the end of our
meeting on Friday. Please contact David Moody or Christine DeVaux if you have questions about
the report or issue statements.

Again, thank you for your participation in this important step in drafting a water action
plan for the Americas.

Sincerely yours,


k P. Rodgers
Director
Unit of Sustainable Development
and Environment
Peter Hubbell
Executive Director
Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD)
2379 Broad Street
Brookville, FL 34609-6899
Fax: (352) 754-6874




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WATER RESOURCES POSITION PAPER
DRAFT INITIATIVES






REPORT
OF
TECHNICAL MEETING
ON WATER



July 18-19, 1996














General Secretariat
Organization of American States
Washington, DC


I2002




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WATER RESOURCES POSITION PAPER
DRAFT INITIATIVES


Background

Chapter 18 of Agenda 21 and the Rio Declaration from the United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED, Rio de Janeiro, 1992) called for the
formulation of plans for the suitable and rational utilization, protection, conservation, and
management of water resources based on community needs and priorities within the framework of
national socio-economic development policy and the protection of water resources from depletion,
pollution, and degradation. Since UNCED, countries of the Americas have reiterated the importance
that they assign to water management issues. The Plan of Action of the Summit of the Americas
(Miami, 1994) called for partnerships to be established throughout the Americas to enhance the
establishment of democracy and free trade, to eliminate poverty and discrimination, and to guarantee
sustainable development and the conservation of our natural environment for future generations.
The Plan of Action also called for strengthening and building technical and institutional capacity to
address pollution prevention, waste and sanitation issues, water quality, drinking water, and urban
environmental issues (Partnership for Pollution Prevention).

The Inter-American Dialogue on Water Management (Miami, 1993) called for the
establishment of the Inter-American Water Resources Network (IWRN) to share information and
technology, provide partnerships, and promote training opportunities. The Programme for Action
for Small Islands (Barbados, 1994) and subsequent meetings, such as the Summit of the Americas
Environmental Meeting (San Juan, 1995), the Pan American Conference on Health and Environment
in Sustainable Human Development (Washington, DC, 1995), the Conference on Water Resources
Assessment and Management in Latin America and the Caribbean (San Jose, 1996), and the Second
Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II. Istanbul, 1996), all have emphasized the need to
facilitate integrated water resources management, information exchange, technological cooperation,
capacity building, and public participation in decision making within the context of the national
planning process.

Introduction

Despite extensive efforts by countries in the Americas to improve the use and
management of water resources, water demands continue to rise, contamination degrades water
quality, and natural hazards, such as floods and droughts, disrupt human activities and cause
extensive human suffering and economic losses. Given that the annually renewable supply of
freshwater is relatively fixed, experts warn that the impending water crisis will be the major
environmental problem of the next decade, particularly in regions where the population is still
rapidly growing. Population growth, limited water management capacity, fragmented organizational
structures, and a need to improve water planning, management, and conservation are among the


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factors contributing to growing water problems in the Americas. Particularly important are problems
of accommodating demands for drinking water and sanitary services in urban areas and the potential
competition between economic sectors and regions that share the same water resources. As noted
at UNCED, concerted actions are needed to promote the principle of integrated water resources
management and to reverse the present trends of excessive consumption, pollution, and increasing
threats from natural hazards, such as floods and droughts.

Actions

The Governments of the Americas in order to maintain and build on the commitments
to sustainable water resources management and in the context of the above statements and
agreements propose the following plan of action:

1. Strengthen Water Resources Polices and Institutional Structures.

2. improve Integrated Water Demand Management through Economic and Regulatory
Mechanisms.

3. Strengthen the Capacity of Nations to Develop and Manage Water Resources in the
Context of Sustainable Development.

4. Establish Mechanisms to Address Transboundary Water Resources Issues.




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1. Strengthen Water Resources Policies and Institutional Structures

Background. Few issues have a greater impact on society and on the life of the planet
than the management of water resources. Throughout the Americas, water demands continue to
increase with population growth and socio-economic development. Chronic problems of water
quality and quantity, human health, natural disasters, and degradation of ecosystems have
underscored the importance of water to public health, the quality of human life, the economy, and
the environment. Difficulty in making progress to solve these problems has led to recognition of the
need to adopt an integrated approach to the management of water resources.

Chapters 18 and 19 of Agenda 21 (UNCED, 1992) emphasize the need to take a
comprehensive approach to water resources management based on the perception of water as an
integral part of the ecosystem, including coastal zones, a natural resource, and a social and economic
good. Water use information needs to be integrated into the planning process and decisions need to
be made at all appropriate levels with public consultation and the involvement of users in the
planning and implementation of water projects. The World Bank, in its water resources management
policy, recently (1993) urged countries to adopt a comprehensive approach to water resources
management, while highlighting the inter-sectoral aspects of water use. The Bank noted that public
participation in formulating and designing water projects has helped to incorporate local knowledge
and conditions into the plans resulting in better designs and lower costs. The International
Conference on Water and the Environment (Dublin, 1992) stressed that river basins are usually the
most appropriate geographic unit for planning and managing water resources and that the integrated
management of river basins provides opportunities to safeguard aquatic ecosystems and make their
benefits available to society on a sustainable basis. The Program of Action for Small Island States
(Barbados, 1994) called for the strengthening of national capabilities to effectively manage limited
water resources. The Summit of the Americas Environmental Meeting (San Juan, 1995) emphasized
the need to develop strategies for providing reliable water supplies and sanitary services to rapidly
growing peri-urban areas. The Conference on Water Resources Assessment and Management in
Latin America and the Caribbean (San Jose, 1996) emphasized the need for developing countries to
undertake integrated water resources management Finally, the Second United Nations conference
on Human Settlements (Habitat II, Istanbul, 1996) further promoted integrated water use planning
for mobilizing the sustainable supply of water for communities.

Integrated water resources management includes a number of operating principals:
integration of water sources (mainly ground and surface water sources); linkage of social and
economic development and land and water uses within the context of watersheds, groundwater
basins, and estuaries; decentralization of government services to local authorities, private enterprises,
and communities; stakeholder participation in decision making and involvement in project planning
and implementation; integration of sectorial water demands; integration of water resources planning
and management into the framework of the national planning process; consideration of the needs of
aquatic ecosystems for water; recognition of water as an social, ecological, and economic good;
management of water demands; contingency planning to mitigate the social and economic effects




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of natural disasters; encouragement of soil and water conservation; and prevention and reduction
of pollutant discharges. This approach to water resources management takes into account the
interdependence among economic sectors and aquatic ecosystems. Implementation of these
principles is facilitated by water data and information, coordination of data and programs, the
establishment of appropriate authorities, such as financially independent river basin authorities, and
public participation.

Initiatives

Strengthen and Coordinate Water Policies

* Promote sustainable water resources management practices to accommodate the growing water
demands of human activities, rural and urban areas, agriculture, and industry and to safeguard
human health and environment.

* Establish a high-level coordinating mechanism at the national level to assist in formulating and
coordinating a national water policy that recognizes the social, economic, and environmental
value of water and the need for sustainable management of water resources with the participation
of communities and the private sector.

* Review, update, and strengthen national water policies in order to better guide strategic national
water resources assessments and plans that reflect the unique needs and characteristics of the
country and describe how water resources and demands are going to be managed.

* Review existing legislation and policies for the regulation of surface and ground water use, water
assessments, and legal and institutional structures and implement improvements as needed.

* Implement integrated water resources management programs with emphasis on sustainable
development, including the use of appropriate technologies, and pollution prevention. This
would include mechanisms for coordinating water resources projects and activities in order to
avoid duplication.

Implement appropriate aspects of the principles of integrated water resources management
depending upon the needs and institutional capacity of the country, including establishment of
river basin authorities where appropriate.

Develop an innovative sustainable water resources management project as a part of their water
resources management program to share with other nations.

Request the Organization of American States (OAS) to organize, with the cooperation of
subregional intergovernmental bodies, conferences and workshops on integrated water resources
and ecosystem management for regional planning and information exchange for the purpose of
promoting sustainable water uses in the Americas. Financial assistance should come from





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multinational institutions, such as Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), the Global
Environment Facility (GEF), the World Bank, and the United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP).

-* Strgenthen Water Data and Information Programs to Support Integrated Water Resources
Management

Conduct national water resources assessments with multinational assistance where required.

Examine institutional arrangements for funding water research, data collection, and training
programs in order to improve institutional capacity and to provide the necessary data for
integrated water resources management and decision making.

Establish programs for the systematic monitoring of the quantity, quality, and use of surface
water and ground water with highest priorities given to areas with the greatest water demands,
intensive development, or greatest risk to public health.

Utilize the data from water monitoring programs to improve national data bases, and to make
more informed management decisions.


2007





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2. Improve Integrated Water Demand Management Through Economic and Regulatory
Mechanisms

Background. Demand management is an integral part of any comprehensive water
management program to ensure an adequate and sustainable water supply. To fully realize
successful demand management, both economic and legal mechanisms must be utilized.

Currently, throughout the Americas, water is an undervalued commodity. This condition has
led to wasteful use of the resource because there is little incentive to conserve water in any of the
major use sectors. About 70% of total water use for human activities, and 90% of irretrievable water
losses are due to irrigated agriculture (UNEP, The World Environment, 1972-1992). Thus
improving the efficiency of systems must be a priority concern for the region.

Inadequate recovery of the cost of water also causes problems with the operation and
maintenance of water systems, lack of funding for aggressive demand management projects and does
not allow for comprehensive water resources management and sustainable water supplies. Market
pricing of water is necessary but not sufficient to ensure efficient allocation and improved services.
The cost to society as a whole has to be taken into account. What is also required is an
accompanying set of incentives that encourage accountability for and transference of some of the
functions to the private sector.

On the other hand, effective regulatory systems, as well as consistent and aggressive
adjudication and enforcement of all water use rights, are necessary. Legislation and effective
regulatory systems are also prerequisites.

Chapter 18 of Agenda 21 (UNCED, 1992), called for the role of water as a social, economic,
and life-sustaining good to be recognized "in demand management mechanisms and implemented
through water conservation, reuse, resource assessment, and financial instruments." The
International Conference on Water and the Environment (Dublin, 1992), and the Summit of the
Americas Environmental Meeting (San Juan, 1995) also called for actions that recognize the
economic value of water. They called for programs of watershed protection, pollution prevention,
water conservation and reuse, water demand management, and water allocation based on economic
incentives based on the recognition of water as an economic good and the appropriate pricing of
water for water users.

Initiatives

Take Full Advantage of Economic Mechanisms

Apply the "user-pay" and "polluter-pay"principles by establishing incentives for users who
exceed quantity and quality standards for discharges or return flows. Levies should be
established which reflect water resources scarcity and receiving water body vulnerability in
order to induce rational water allocation, efficient water use, and pollution control. The


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appropriate agencies should receive adequate funding to finance water use management actions
and watershed conservation programs
Establish market water pricing based on full cost recovery which allows for the provision of
better water quality services and encourages water conservation and efficiency of use.

Incorporate in domestic water pricing rate structures a "lifeline" or low rate for basic human
needs and an economic rate for water use in excess of "lifeline" levels

Encourage the formation of water rights markets in basins where all available water has been
adjudicated provided that no third party, non-consumptive user, or the environment are
negatively affected.

Implement the principle and practice of using water utility revenues to fund watershed protection
and biodiversity conservation, including the establishment of appropriate funding mechanisms.

Fully incorporate techniques of risk assessment and impact evaluation as well as cost benefit
analysis in developing water resource plans and projects.

Improve Legal Mechanisms to Provide a Framework for Integrated Water Demand
Management

Improve and enforce legislation to achieve integral water resources management at the national,
watershed and local levels, taking into account quantity and quality of both surface and ground
water, as well as protection of ecosystems.

Acknowledge the convenience of adjudicating legal rights only to effective and beneficial use
of water, recognizing that instream water use for fish and wildlife is a beneficial use.

Provide the adequate legal framework to promote stakeholders participation in water demand
management and pollution prevention.

Establish Programs to Increase Efficiency in Water Use

In water supply utilities, carry on programs of adequate metering and billing, pricing schedules,
leak detection and repair, elimination of illegal connections, and installation of water saving
devices with the cooperation of the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the
International Water Supply and Sanitation Council (IWSSC).

In agriculture, implement programs to encourage efficient water use at the farm level, alleviate
waterlogging and salinity through proper drainage; undertake programs of water quality
management, small-scale supply, scarce water resources management, and reuse of municipal
waste water in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
(FAO).




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*In industry, introduce water-saving and cleaner technologies and recycle water with the
cooperation of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the United Nations
Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)





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3. Strengthen the Capacity of Nations to Develop and Manage Water Resources in the Context
of Sustainable Development

Background. Capacity of nations to develop and manage water resources depends on the
recognition of the critical importance of water resources to society, the economy, and the
environment by all levels of government. It requires an informed public, the existence of a well
trained cadre of water resource management professionals and technicians, efficient mechanisms for
the coordination of water policies and programs, and the open exchange of information and
experiences among water resource managers. Information exchanges about water problems, the
solutions to problems, and the identification of gaps in available information and knowledge leads
to more effective use of available funds for water resource research, training, development, and
management. A common appreciation of the needs of the inhabitants of river basins by international
financial agencies, national governments, nongovernmental organizations and the private sector will
lead to coordinated, collaborative, multiagency approaches to address the most critical resource
problems.

The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Symposium on Capacity Building in the
Water Sector (Delft, 1991) stated that:

"Experience shows that institutional weaknesses and malfunctions are a major cause of
ineffective and unsustainable water services. This requires urgent attention to building capacity
at all levels. Pressures for improved local delivery of water services suggests that development
of institutional capacity be more demand-responsive. Also, the need to better manage overall
water resources coherently and facilitate allocation of water among all users suggests an
expansion of national, integrated planning. The critical, new institutional challenge is to become
much better in developing policies, rules, organizations, and management skills to address both
needs simultaneously without constraining the major aims of each."

Chapter 18 of Agenda 21 (UNCED, Rio de Janeiro, 1992) addressed the importance of
sharing management experiences in implementing integrated water resources development and
management. In particular, water resources assessments will benefit from strengthening existing
systems for technology transfer. The Summit of the Americas (Miami, 1994) called for mechanisms
to facilitate environmental information exchange, technical cooperation, and capacity building. The
Summit of the Americas Environmental Meeting (San Juan, 1995) called for maximum utilization
of the Inter-American Water Resources Network for these purposes as did the Conference on Water
Resources Assessment and Management in Latin American and the Caribbean (San Josd, 1996).

Rapid developments in computer and communications technologies have created new
opportunities to use the Internet and the World Wide Web as the basis for electronic communications
and the transfer and exchange of information. The Inter-American Water Resources Network
(IWRN) is one of a number of networks that has adopted the Internet as the basis for
communications and information distribution. The IWRN, supported by OAS, is a network of
networks whose purpose is to facilitate horizontal cooperation in the Western Hemisphere.


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Initiatives

Develop Programs to Build Capacity and Educate Decision Makers, Professionals, and the
Public About Water Issues

Training of decision makers and professionals and the participation of an informed public are
critical to the successful implementation of integrated water resources management.

* Support the development and use of modular educational materials which describe the
importance of water resources to society and the environment, public health issues, general
water issues, and specific actions that individuals can take to protect water resources from
depletion and pollution. Training modules should be targeted for primary and secondary school
students, up to and including decision makes and the general public, with special attention to the
needs of women and indigenous peoples for information. Hemispheric materials should be
prepared with support from the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), UNEP,
IDB, and the World Bank using existing and hemispheric material and local expertise and made
available to national educational systems.

* Request IDB, World Bank, GEF, and other multilateral organizations to support the development
and use of training programs for technicians and operators of facilities and operations that can
affect water resources and the environment to raise their awareness of the possible impacts of
their actions unless proper procedures are followed.

* Implement capacity building programs that include: creating an enabling environment with
appropriate policy and legal frameworks; promoting institutional development, including
community participation; and fostering human resources development and strengthening
managerial systems with the support of intergovernmental organizations, such as UNDP, UNEP,
and OAS.

* Request that organizations, such as UNEP and OAS, promote the full utilization of existing
regional training centers, programs, and institutions to provide both centralized and on-site
training of water resource managers from the public and private sectors in the Americas.

* Promote horizontal technical aid strategies for the transfer of experience and appropriate
technologies for water collection and treatment, distribution, and protection among countries
of the region.

* Request IDB, World Bank, and other multilateral organizations require that information about
project plans, project social and environmental impacts, and project costs be made available to
the general public in a timely fashion as part of a public information program. This program
should be part of each project and project funds should be dedicated to the training of nationals.


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Promote Networks for Information Exchange

The open exchange of information and experiences on integrated water resources management is
essential to building the capacity of nations to manage their water resources.

Use existing networks to share information and experiences on water resources management at
the national, regional, and hemispheric levels, such as the UNEP Earth Information System
INFOTERRA), the Inter-American Water Resources Network (IWRN), and the network for
Research and Environmental Management of the Plata River Basin (RIGA). When participating
in these networks, governments should encourage the establishment of World Wide Web sites
in their major water management agencies and information centers for the purpose of
electronically publishing water information, policies, environmental impact statements, plans,
project descriptions, and other information of interest to the public and the water resources
community.

Request the support of multilateral organizations, such as IDB, World Bank, and GEF which are
involved in water resources management to support the translation of key documents and
relevant information into the multiple languages of the region.

Promote the establishment of technical and socioeconomic information systems related to water
resources within each country which can be easily accessed by the public.

Participate in and support the Inter-American Dialogue on Water Management as a mechanism
for the discussion of case studies of the successes and failures of water resources management,
as a means to exchange experiences with new technologies and approaches to management, and
to serve as a forum for water strategies, policies, and programs in the Western Hemisphere.


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4. Establishment of Mechanisms to Address Transboundary Water Resources Issues

Background. Transboundary water resources issues (surface, ground-water, and related
ecosystems) wil play an increasingly critical role in sustainable development as the economic
integration of the Americas proceeds. Over 50 major river basins in the Hemisphere and many
aquifers are shared by at least two nations. Water resoues have been the main motivation for
several wars in the past, and may catalyze other conflicts in the near future. Mechanisms are needed
to prevent disputes, foster cooperation in the sustainable management of the resources of river
basins, and to resolve transboundary water resources issues. In this connection, cooperation between
riparian States will be desirable in conformity with existing agreements. There is also a need for
additional riparian States to formulate water resources strategies, prepare water resources
assessments, formulate action plans, and harmonize those strategies and action programs with the
national policies and programs of the countries involved, in order to maximize the benefits and
achieve sustainable development goals.

Principle 2 of the Rio Declaration (UNCED, 1992) affirms that "States have, in accordance
with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to
exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental policies, and the
responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the
environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction." Chapter 18 of
Agenda 21 (UNCED, Rio de Janeiro, 1992) addressed the need for an integrated approach to
planning and management of natural resources with a particular focus on international river basins.
It also called upon governments to cooperate in the assessment of transboundary water resources.
The International Conference on Water and the Environment (Dublin, 1992) noted that the essential
functions of existing international river basin organizations are to reconcile and harmonize the
interests of the riparian countries, monitor water quantity and quality, develop concerted action
programs, exchange information, and enforce agreements. The IX Meeting of the Ministers of
Environment of Latin American and the Caribbean (1995) approved a program for 1996-97 which
included the execution of international river basin management plans for the Lake Titicaca and San
Juan River Basins, already under development by UNEP and OAS, and for other subregions in
collaboration with the OAS and national or sub-regional institutions. Finally, the Conference on
Water Resources Assessment and Management in Latin America and the Caribbean (San Jose, 1996)
recommended that countries consider initial coordination for water resources assessment of
transboundary basins and the joint planning and operation of monitoring networks for collecting
basic water data as first steps towards drafting international agreements for the protection of
resources and the development of border areas.

Currently, there are several examples in the Americas of transboundary cooperation. These
include the Madre de Dios (Brazil and Peru), Madeira-Mamore (Bolivia and Brazil) San Miguel-
Putumayo basins (Colombia and Ecuador) of the Amazon Region, the Plata (Argentina, Brazil,
Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay), Lake Titicaca (Bolivia and Peru), the Rio Grande (U.S. and
Mexico), Great Lakes (U.S. and Canada), and the San Juan River basins (Costa Rica and Nicaragua).
The approaches and experiences gained in these areas should be applied to other transboundary

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basins in the Americas, thereby incorporating tested sustainable development strategies.

Assessment of Transboundary Water Resources Issues and Estalishment of Institutioal
Mechanisms

SUndertake an assessment of transboundary water resources issues in the Americas, identifying
the main problems and opportunities and organize a series of international meetings to share
experiences and derive lessons learned from existing institutional arrangements in the
hemisphere and elsewhere. These activities should be implemented with the support of
international institutions, such as UNEP and OAS, with the active participation of the interested
countries and should be completed by the end of 1998.

For priority transboundary areas identified in the assessment study, riparian states should
formulate water resources strategies, prepare water resources action programs and consider,
where appropriate, the harmonization of those strategies and action programs, including
establishment of appropriate management mechanisms such as international treaties, appropriate
water resources authorities, commissions, or other institutional arrangements. The Global
Environment Facility (GEF), International Financing Institutions (IF's) and the participating
countries should be encouraged to fund the appropriate components of these activities.


























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ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES
TECHNICAL MEETING ON WATER

Padilha Vidal Conference Room
Organization of American States
1889 F. St., N.W.
Washington, D.C. USA

MEETING AGENDA


Thursday, July 18, 1996

8:30 a.m. 9:00 a.m.

9:00 a.m. 9:15 a.m.

9:15 a.m. 9:30 a.m..




9:30 a.m. 10:00 a.m.



10:00 a.m. 10:45 a.m.

10:45 a.m. 12:45 p.m.

12:45 p.m. 1:00 p.m.

1:00 p.m. 2:00 p.m.

2:00 p.m. 5:30 p.m.













5:30 p.m.


Registration

Welcoming Remarks and Introductions

Preparations for the Presidential Summit on Sustainable
Development, Santa Cruz, Bolivia Kirk P. Rodgers
Shaping water policies in the Western Hemisphere for the next decade -
Opportunities to contribute to the water agenda for the Summit.

Objectives of the Technical Meeting on Water Kirk P. Rodgers and
Newton V. Cordeiro
Discussion of the products to be developed during the meeting.

Break

Plenary Discussions of Water Issues and Priorities

Summary of Plenary Discussions

Lunch

Workgroups -- Participants will break into 4 workgroups of about 5
people each to discuss politically and financially viable action proposals
by which governments can address major water management challenges.
The workgroup topics include:

1. National Water Policies and Institutional Structures

2. Economic Policy Issues

3. Information Exchange and Capacity Building

4. Transboundary Issues

Adjourn




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Friday, July 19, 1996

9:00 am. 9:45 a.m.


9:45 a.m. 1:00 p.m.

1:00 p.m. 2:00 p.m.

2:00 p.m. 2:45 p.m.

2:45 p.m. 3:30 p.m.


3:30 p.m. 4:00 p.m.

4:00 p.m. 5:30 p.m.


5:30 p.m.


Workgroups Reports and Discussions Brief review of the previous
day's discussions and a summary of conclusions.

Workgroups Continued discussions of issues and action proposals.

Lunch

Workgroups Reports and Discussion

Water Position Statement Group will review the issues and action
proposals and establish priorities for the initiatives.

Break

Meeting Summary and Next Steps Discussion of recommendations
and initiatives and next steps.

Adjourn




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TECHNICAL MEETING ON WATER
Organization of American States
Washington, DC

July 18-19, 1996

List of Participants


Danilo Anton
Program Officer
International Development Research Center
(IDRC)
Plaza Cagancha 1335, 90 Piso
Montevideo, Uruguay
Tel.: (598-2) 92-2032
Fax: (598-2) 92-0223
E-Mail: danton@idrc.ca

Leonard Berry
Director
Center for Environmental Studies(CES)
Florida Atlantic University
777 Glades Road
Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA
Tel: (561) 367-2635
Fax: (561) 367-2985
E-Mail: berry@acc.fau.edu

Dan Biller
Environment Division in Latin America
LATEE)
The World Bank
1818 H Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20433
Tel: (202) 473-7568
Fax: (202) 676-9373
E-Mail: dbiller@worldbank.org

Christopher Corbin
Environmental Engineer
Ministry of Planning
Government of Sta Lucia
Government Building


Castries, Sta. Lucia
Tel: (809) 451-8746Fax: (809) 452-2506
E-Mail: est_mpde@candw.lc

Carlos Cineo
Program Coordinator, Environmental
Quality
Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
525 23rd Street, NW
Washington, DC 20037-8462 USA
Tel: (202) 861-3311
Fax: (202) 861-8462
E-Mail:cuneocar@paho.org

Alfred Duda
Team Leader Operations
GEF Secretariat
1818 H Street N.W., G-6035
Washington, DC 20433 USA
Tel: (202) 473-1077
Fax: (202) 522-3240]
E-Mail: aduda@worldbank.org

Peter Hubbell
Executive Director
Southwest Florida Water Management
District (SWFWMD)
2379 Broad Street
Brookville, FL 34609-6899
Tel: (352) 796-7211
Fax: (352) 754-6874
E-Mail:

Hictor Gardufo Velasco
Subdirector General de Administraci6n


o018




Q019


07/26/96 FRI 10:36 FAX


de Agua
Comisi6n Nacional del Agua (CNA)
Insurgentes Sur 2140, Piso 2
Colonia Ermita
01070 M6xico, DF, M6xico
Tel.: (52-5) 661-0680
Fax: (52-5) 661-3590

Robert L. Herbst
Washington Representative
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
One Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Suite 300
Washington, DC 20444 USA
Tel: (202) 898-2999
Fax: (202) 898-2998
E-Mail:

Tim Kasten
Special Assistant to the Assistant
Administrator
Office of Water
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA).
- 401 M Street, S.W., 4101
Washington, DC 20460 USA
Tel: (202) 260-5994
Fax: (202) 260-5711
E-Mail: kasten.tim@epamail.epa.gov

Carlos L6pez-Ocafia
Senior Economist
Environment Protection Division
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
1300 New York Ave., N.W. Stop W500
Washington, DC 20577 USA
Tel.: (202) 623-1847
Fax: (202) 623-1786
E-mail: carlosl@iadb.org

Pablo Marbec
Asesor del Presidente
INCYTH
Casilla de Correo N". 46, Aeropuerto de


Ezeiza
1802 Buenos Aires, Argentina
Tel- (54-1) 480-9162
Fax: (54-1) 480-0094
E-Mail: dialogo2@overnet.com.ar

Haroldo Mattos de Lemos
Secretirio de Coordenaao dos Assuntos de
Meio Ambiente
Minist6rio do Meio Ambiente, dos Recursos
hidricos e da Amaz6nia Legal (MMA)
Esplanada dos Ministdrios Bloco B 8
Andar
Brasilia, DF 70068-900 Brasil
Tel: (55-61) 322-0539/(55-21) 537-4279
Fax: (55-61) 226-8050
E-Mail: haroldoml@mma.gov.br

Mantha Mehallis
Director, Institutional Research and
Planning
Florida Atlantic University
777 Glades Road
Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991
Tel: (561) 367-2665
Fax: (561) 367-2985
E-Mail: mehallis@acc.fau.edu

Maureen O'Neill
Office of Water
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA)
401 M Street, S.W., 4101
Washington, DC 20460 USA
Tel: (202) 260-5681
Fax: (202) 260-5711
E-Mail: oneill.maureen@epamail.epa.gov

Alberto J. Palombo
Vice President
MTP Group, Inc.
12798 Forest Hill Boulevard, Suite 102
West Palm Beach, FL 33414 USA




a020


07/26/96 FRI 10:36 FAX


Tel: (561) 795-0678
Fax: (561) 795-0230
E-mail: apalombo@eminet

Bill Rhoads
Economist
The Nature Conservancy
1815 N. Lynn Street
Arlington, VA 22209
Tel: (703) 841-4536
Fax: (703) 841-7400
E-Mail:wrhoads@tnc.org

Eladio Zarate Hernandez
Secretario Ejecutivo
Comiti Regional de Recursos Hidriulicos
(CRRH)
Del Bar/Restaurant Siboneyes
500 Norte, 50 Este y 25 Norte
Rorhmoser Bulevar-Pavas
Apdo. Postal 21-2300
San Jose, Costa Rica
Tel: (506) 231-5791
Fax: (506) 296-0047
E-Mail: crrhcr@sol.racsa.co.cr

OAS Technical Secretariat

Kirk P. Rodgers
Director
Organization of American States (OAS)
Unit of Sustainable Development and
Environment (USDE)
1889 F St., N.W., Rm. 340-I
Washington, DC 20006 USA
Tel: (202) 458-6484
Fax: (202) 458-3560
E-Mail: regional_development@oas.org

Nelson da Franca Ribeiro dos Anjos
Senior Water Resources Specialist
Organization of American States (OAS)
Unit of Sustainable Development and


Environment (USDE)
1889 F St., N.W., Rm. 340-C
Washington, DC 20006 USA
Tel: (202) 458-3454
Fax: (202) 458-3560
E-Mail: regional_development@oas.org

Christine DeVaux
Technical Consultant
Organization of American States (OAS)
Unit of Sustainable Development and
Environment (USDE)
1889 F St, N.W., Rm. 340-B
Washington, DC 20006 USA
Tel: (202) 458-3745
Fax: (202) 458-3560
E-Mail: devauxchristine@oas.org

Newton V. Cordeiro
Chief, Geographic Area South America
Organization of American States (OAS)
Unit of Sustainable Development and
Environment (USDE)
1889 F. St., N.W., Suite 340-A
Washington, DC 20006 USA
Tel: (202) 458-3556
Fax: (202) 458-3560
E-Mail: cordeironewton@oas.org

David W. Moody
Water Resources Consultant
Organization of American States (OAS)
Unit of Sustainable Development and
Environment (USDE)
1889 F St., N.W., Rm. 340-A
Washington, DC 20006 USA
Tel: (202) 458-3571
Fax: (202) 458-3560
E-Mail: dwmoody@aol.com

Roberto Casafias
Principal Specialist
Organization of American States (OAS)




Z1021


07./26/96 FRI 10:37 FAX



Inter-American Council for Integral
Development
1.889 F St, N.W., Rm. 340-K
Washington, DC 20006 USA
Tel: (202) 458-3013
Fax: (202) 458-3560
E-Mail: casanas_roberto@oas.org








































19









ORGANIZATION DE LOS ESTADOS AMERICANOS
ORGANIZA(AO DOS ESTADOS AMERICANOS
ORGANISATION DES ETATS AMERICAINS
^ ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES


17th Street and Constitution Avenue., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20006


Dear Mr. Hubble:


On behalf of the organizers of the Second Inter-American Dialogue on Water Management,
we would like to thank you for your contributions to this important event which took place in
Buenos Aires on September 1-6, 1996. The Statement of Buenos Aires and the recommendations
drafted by meeting participants will now be submitted for consideration in the preparations for the
Summit on Sustainable Development to take place in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia in
December, 1996.

We would also like to take this opportunity to welcome you to the Inter-American Water
Resources Network (IWRN). One of the important results of the Second Inter-American Dialogue
on Water Management was the strong declaration of support for the IWRN and the encouragement
of the Organization of American States to fund the project entitled "Exchange of Water Resources
Information and Technology in the Americas". One of the primary objectives of the IWRN is to
bring water resources professionals together to discuss integrated water resources management for
sustainable development in the Americas and to share management experiences and technologies.
To facilitate information exchange, we have added your name to our mailing list so that you will
receive IWRN information on a regular basis. We also encourage you to contribute descriptions
of water issues and current water activities to the list server, Dialog-Agua-L, which was created
to assist IWRN members in sharing water information, technology and expertise via the Internet.
Information and requests may be submitted to Dialog-Agua-L in English, French, Spanish, and


Peter Hubble
Southwest Florida Water Management District
2379 Broad Street
Brooksville FL 34609-6899 USA








Portuguese. We also invite you to visit the IWRN web site at http://www.oas.org/L/iwm.htm.
If you have not filled out the Water-Related Information Needs Survey enclosed in your Dialogue
II registration folder, please do so now and return it to the Center for Environmental Studies at
the Florida Atlantic University.

Finally, we have enclosed a brief survey evaluating the Second Inter-American Dialogue
on Water Management. Your evaluation would be a great help in planning the Third Inter-
American Dialogue on Water Management to be held in Central America in 1999. The completed
meeting evaluation should be returned to the IWRN Technical Secretariat. Suggestions, comments
and news of your organization's water activities for our newsletter are also welcome.

Again, we look forward to your participation in the Inter-American Water Resources
Network. If you have any questions about the IWRN, please do not hesitate to contact us at (202)
458-3556 or by fax at (202) 458-3560.

Thank you very much.



Sincerely you



Kirk P. Rodgers J
Director
Unit of Sustainable Development
and Environment










DECLARATION OF BUENOS AIRES

SECOND INTERAMERICAN DIALOGUE ON WATER MANAGEMENT


Growing water demands, driven by population growth and the need to increase food
production through irrigated agriculture, increasing degradation of water quality due to
untreated sanitary waste discharges and industrial effluents, and increasing threats from
natural hazards, such as floods and droughts, hinder efforts to attain sustainable development,
restore the healthy functioning of ecosystems, alleviate poverty, and increase the quality of life
of the peoples of the Hemisphere.

Given that the annually renewable supply of freshwater is relatively fixed, experts are
warning that the impending water crisis will be the major environmental problem of the next
decade, particularly in regions where the population is rapidly growing. In addition to
population growth, limited water management capacity, fragmented organizational structures,
and inadequate water planning, management, and conservation also contribute to growing
water problems in the Americas. Other major concerns are the unique water resource
management challenges associated with sustainable development of the Small Island States.
As noted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de
Janeiro,1992), intensified actions are needed to implement the principles of integrated water
resources management.

The solutions to many of these water problems are known. Beginning with the Mar de
Plata meeting in 1977, intergovernmental conferences and technical meetings have proposed
a range of initiatives and actions. The United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development produced the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21; the first Inter-American Dialogue
on Water Management (Miami, 1993) established the Inter-American Water Resources
Network (IWRN); the Summit of the Americas (Miami, 1994) produced a Plan of Action that
included the Partnership for Pollution Prevention; and the Conference on Water Resources
Assessment and Management in Latin America and the Caribbean (San Jose, 1996) produced
the San Jose Declaration and a Plan of Action. In the past 4 years alone, more than 8 major
international meetings have discussed water issues of interest to the Americas.

Commitments by governments, international financial institutions, and other international
organizations, as well as the public and private sectors, are urgently needed to develop and
implement coordinated action plans that address water issues. To advance these
commitments, a new vision and a greater degree of cooperation and technical and political
partnerships are essential.

To this end, the Secretary of Natural Resources and the Human Environment of the
Republic of Argentina hosted the Second Inter-American Dialogue on Water Management in
Buenos Aires on September 1-6, 1996 with the support of the National Institute of Water
Science and Technology (INCyTH) and the Organization of American States (OAS). Co-
organizers of the Second Dialogue included the United Nations Department of Development
Support and Management Services (UN-DDSMS) and the Water Environment Federation
(WEF). The theme of the Dialogue was "Integrated Water Resources Management for
Sustainable Development in the Americas". Its objective was to arrive at a common
understanding of the needed actions and to propose a limited number of specific initiatives.
The Dialogue brought together 260 water experts representing government agencies,











intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, academia, research centers,
and the private sector from 26 countries of the Americas. Participants included 22 official
government representatives who form part of the Inter-American Water Resources Network.

Major conclusions and recommendations of the Second Inter-American Dialogue on
Water Management include the following:

1. The Dialogue vigorously supports the full implementation of the Inter-American Water
Resources Network as soon as possible and encourages the Organization of America
States to fund the project proposal, entitled Exchange of Water Resources Information
and Technology in the Americas," which was recently submitted to the Inter-American
Council for Integral Development for 1997. The Dialogue endorses the new vision for the
OAS and its role in facilitating partnerships to promote and implement sustainable
development in the Americas.

2. The Dialogue encourages the establishment of regional and subregional water
information networks, and increased cooperation in transboundary river basins and urges
International Financial Institutions to support these regional development efforts.

3. Having reviewed the technical background document on water resources prepared as a
contribution to the Hemispheric Summit on Sustainable Development, specifically the
report of the Technical Meeting on Water held in Washington, D.C. on July 18-19, 1996,
the Dialogue endorses the following priority areas:

a. Strengthen Water Resources Management through Improved Policies and Information.
b. Establish Mechanisms to Address Transboundary Water Resources Issues.
c. Strengthen the Capacity of Nations to Develop and Manage Water Resources in the
Context of Sustainable Development.
d. Improve Integrated Water Demand Management through Economic and Regulatory
Mechanisms.

4. In view of the importance and usefulness of a continuing hemispheric dialogue on water
issues, the Dialogue encourages the organization of regional meetings to facilitate the
formation of further partnerships and accepts the proposal of the Central American
participants to hold theThird Inter-American Dialogue in Central America in 1999.

5. The participants suggest that the conclusions of the Dialogue be reviewed at the next
meeting of the Ministers of Environment of Latin America and the Caribbean, which will
be held in Buenos Aires on November 11-12, 1996. To that end, they request that
United Nations Environmental Programme's Office for Latin America and the Caribbean
should distribute to the appropriate authorities the conclusions of the Dialogue prior to
this meeting to facilitate its analysis.


Buenos Aires, September 6, 1996










On the basis of the work carried out by the commissions in the city of
Buenos Aires from 1 to 6 September 1996, the Second Interamerican
Dialogue on Water Management recommends the following:

* INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES AND BASIN MANAGEMENT

1. Integrated Management of Water Resources and River Basins.

To establish, whenever necessary, high-level coordination mechanisms, in
accordance with national protocols, to formulate, review or update water resources
policies, laws, and technical standards. The following should be taken into account:
the social, environmental, and economic value of water; the need for sustainable
development of water resources; the protection of freshwater ecosystems; the
conservation of bio-diversity and the need to achieve the active participation of the
community and of the private sector.
To implement integrated water resources management actions, using the river basin
as a planning unit whenever possible. These actions should include surface- and
ground-water assessments, the preparation of strategic plans, the use of appropriate
technologies, protection against natural disasters, pollution prevention, water
demand management, and the establishment of regional or river basin authorities.

2. Transboundary Water Resources.

To undertake an assessment of transboundary water resources issues in the
Americas, identifying the principal opportunities to improve water management.
To organize a series of international meetings to share experiences and knowledge
based on existing agreements and plans in the hemisphere and other regions.
To create national commissions on the basins and sub-basins of international rivers
that will serve as effective mechanisms to facilitate cooperation and the exchange of
information and experiences.

3. Capacity of Countries to Develop and Manage Water Resources.

To strengthen the institutional capacity of countries by bringing together all sectors
of society, governmental agencies, research centers and universities, users'
associations and communities.
To develop a new cadre of professionals with an integrated vision of water resources
planning and management who, in addition to their specific training, will broaden
their post-graduate level knowledge of social, environmental, economic and legal
issues in order to acquire the appropriate training to implement integrated
management.
To take into account the cultural traditions of the populations involved and apply
appropriate communication methodologies in the formulation and execution of
projects.










To prepare a joint program between the Interamerican Dialogue on Water
Management and the system of organizations of the Basel Convention. To this end,
it is recommended to carry out a census of institutions and experts in the field of
hazardous wastes, to develop related training programs and to undertake a survey
of users interested in the transfer of knowledge and technology.
To publish, through the Interamerican Water Resources Network, professional
training opportunities in water resources throughout the American Continent together
with a directory containing a detailed description of these activities.

4. Information Systems to Collect, Use, and Exchange Information and Experiences
on Water Resources.

To establish programs for the systematic monitoring of surface- and ground-water
quantity, quality, and use, granting higher priority to those areas where there exist
larger water demands, where development is intensive, or where the safety of public
health is at stake. This information should be incorporated into national "databases"
in order to support better water management decision-making.
To use existing networks to share information and experiences on water resources
management at a national, regional and hemispheric level, such as the United
Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) Land Information System and the Inter-
American Water Resources Network (IWRN), created by the first Inter-American
Dialogue on Water Management, to promote the establishment of sub-regional
networks, and to increase the participation of Latin American and Caribbean
countries in the IWRN.
To include, in the sector's investments, a genuine source to defray the costs of water
data collection and storage and to promote regional and international projects for the
exchange of technologies in order to improve data collection systems in all water
related fields.

5. In order to support Nations in the Implementation of these Initiatives,
International Cooperation Agencies, Bilateral Donors, and International Financing
Institutions are requested :

To organize courses, conferences, seminars, and workshops on integrated water
resources management and to facilitate the exchange of information and practical
experiences.
To support interested countries in the implementation of a program of integrated
water resources management.
To grant priority to financing projects on integrated water resources management.










* LEGAL AND ECONOMIC POLICIES AND INVESTMENT STRATEGIES IN WATER
RESOURCES

1. To improve the integrated management of water resources through economic and
regulatory mechanisms.

To endow the legal systems regulating the use and preservation of water resources
with a broad scope, clarity, flexibility, and permanence over the long term. Likewise,
the regulatory system should preferably be formulated in a gradual, harmonious
fashion within the framework provided by the basin, and should be integrated with
regulations from other sectors involved in water resources issues in order to attain
the objectives of development, equity, and sustainability.
To foster user participation and incorporate this participation in laws pertaining to
integrated water resources management and provide for external control agencies to
regulate water utilities.
To establish a minimum amount of water to which each person is entitled,
considering that water is both an economic and a social good. It is the State's
responsibility to establish standards for both quantity and quality.
To consider that the economic valuation of water, in addition to its market price,
should include externalities associated with environmental conservation and the
sustainability of natural resources. Pricing as an allocative mechanism is but one of
a number of measures which can be utilized to promote the efficient water resources
management.

2. To strengthen national capacities to develop and manage water resources within
the context of sustainable development.

To interpret the "polluter pays" principle as follows: "all damages to the environment
will be compensated for and remedied by the polluter, which should not be
interpreted as a right to pollute".
Governments should consider economic incentives to encourage the adoption of
technologies focusing on pollution prevention.

3. To strengthen water policies and institutional structures.

To take advantage of the opportunity afforded by the privatization of public water
supply and wastewater treatment systems to strengthen water resources planning
and management.
To review existing binational and multinational transboundary water management
organizations for consistency with modem, integrated river basin management
principles and to take into account factors that influence their effectiveness.











ATTENDEE EVALUATION FORM
2ND INTER-AMERICAN DIALOGUE ON WATER MANAGEMENT

SEPTEMBER 1-6, 1996/BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA

Please check one answer for each of the following.


1. How would you rate the following aspects of the conference?
Excellent


A. Time of Year (September)
B. Days (Sunday-Friday)
C. Advance Publicity
D. Registration Fees
E. Registration Process/Service
F. Hotel Reservations Process
G. Overall Conference Experience


CD


Good
Q0


a 0
0 0
a 0
0 O

[0 0


Poor



0

0
Ql


2. How important were the following in your decision and/or ability to attend?
Very Somewhat
Important Important Important
A. Plenary Session a 0 0
B. Issue Area Meeting Discussions 0 0 0O
C. Issue Statement Presentations 0 0 0[
D. Freshwater Ecosystems Workshop 0 0 0
E. Exhibits 0 0 0
F. Field Trip to the Parani River Delta 0 0 0
G. Field Trip to INCyTh Facilities 0 0 0
H. Spouse/Guest Program 0 0 01
G. Location (Buenos Aires, Argentina) 30 o0


3. Who paid your expenses related to the following?

A. Plenary Session
B. Issue Statement Presentations
C. Freshwater Ecosystems Workshop
D. Exhibits
E. Spouse/Guest Progr. ..
F. Travel


Employer

0
0
0]




[]


4. How would you rate the following aspects of the program?
Excellent


A. Overall Quality
B. Plenary Session
C. Issue Area Meeting Discussions
D. Issue Statement Presentations
E. Freshwater Ecosystems Workshop
F. Exhibits


[]


University
0

03
0
13
0
0]


Good
[D


D 0
O D
3 0O
0 o
0 a
El E


C) El


Poor


13
0
0
0
0


Don't Know
Q
0
0
a
D
0
O


Not
Important
0

0
0
D

0
0
0
0
-t











Self


13
0
D
0
0
0
Dl
Dl

Dl
Dl


Don't Know
0
0
0
0

0




Other
13
13







0
13








0
D
D

[]


Don't Know
0


13
0


5. For most of the conference, there were three concurrent issue area meetings. How would you describe the number of
concurrent sessions? 0 Too Many 0 About Right 3 Too Few

6. Did you present a issue statement at this conference? 0 Yes 0 No
Ifyes, how important was your presence at the program to your ability to attend the conference?
D Not Important 0 Somewhat Important 0 Important 1 Very Important D Don't Know












7. How would you rate the following events?

A. Opening Session
B. Opening Reception
C. Luncheon
D. Luncheon Speakers
E. Freshwater Ecosystems Workshop
F. Exhibits
F. Field Trip to the Parani River Delta
G. Field Trip to INCyTh Facilities
I. Spouse/Guest Program


Excellent
0

0
0


D


0
0
0
a

0
0


8. What were your objectives in attending this meeting and were they met?


9. How useful were the issue area discussion groups?




10. How useful were the issue statement presentations?


11. Was there enough time for networking?


12. If available at future meetings, would you make use of a spouse/guest program?


13. If you could make one change about this meeting, what would it be?


THANK YOU!


Didn't Attend
0
0


0
0
0
a


14. Do you have any suggestions for the theme and organization of the Third Inter-American Dialogue on Water
Management to be held in 19997







3301 Gun Club Road -
West Palm Beach. Florida 33406 a m
Telephone (407) 687-6105 -
Telelax (407) 687-6010 m Im
-


INTCRRMERICAN
DIRLOGUE ON
WATER MRNRGEMENT


MISSION STATEMENT
BUILDING AN INTERNATIONAL WATER RESOURCE NETWORK

Sustainable development of freshwater systems is moving from extracting
freshwater value from society to fuel economic growth, to adding freshwater value
to development by applying human understanding and knowledge to policy
management and design. "

Mr. Maurice F. Strong, Secretary-General, United Nations Conference
on Environment and Development

Two critical goals of water management are essential to economic strength and social well-being in the Western
Hemisphere:

(a) Assurance of safe and adequate water supplies and sanitation systems for the
health, welfare, and sustainable economic development of all peoples; and

(b) Protection of the natural water and ecological systems of the North
and South American continents.

These cha!lengk.s also must be met in a manner respectful of the diversity of the hemisphere and appreciative of the
unique characteristics, values, and needs of each society. Every international water resource conference in the past
twenty years has confronted these challenges and made recommendations to meet them. Consistent themes have
been the need t6 advance water resource technology, improve the exchange of information, and institute
environmentally sound policies and practices throughout the hemisphere.

To achieve these goals, however, water management agencies and support organizations must improve their capacity
to communicate, cooperate on technology transfer and information exchange, and coordinate water and
environmental policies. To this end, support has grown for the establishment of an International Water Resource
Network that will focus first on water resource issues in the Western Hemisphere.

Planning for an International Water Resource Network is now under way, and will be enhanced by the guidance
of a Policy Council comprising recognized water management experts from throughout the hemisphere. Intrinsic
to the launching of this Network will be the conduct of an international conference of 500 water resource
professionals, called the Interamerican Dialogue on Water Management, to take place in Miami from October
27-30, 1993. Delegates will:

Assess plans and priorities formulated by the Policy Council
Review the results of an international survey of water managers, policy makers,
educators, and related user groups; and
Confirm policies and structures for the effective operation of the Network.

Following a review of priority needs identified by through the Dialogue, the Policy Council will meet again in
January 1994, to oversee the launching of the Network as an independent entity.




Sponsored By: ---. f CWP
^ ^^ \^)^/ \^ .^







16
sustainability. Our very existence depends on our
success. It is essential this transition be initiated
immediately and be managed cooperatively by all the main
actors shaping the future of our world community. Thank
you for your attention. Pensamos con much illusion en
ser su companero para esta causa.









In industry, introduce water-saving and other best
management practices for cleaner technologies and water
recycling.


VI. CLOSING

The work that has come before us of Agenda 21, the San
Jose Declaration, the Dublin Statement, the first
InterAmerican Dialogue and others have truly set the
stage for a worldwide partnership for sustainability. But
much work remains to be done.

The closing years of the twentieth century offer a unique
opportunity for the world community to make the transition
to sustainable living for all. The end of the Cold War, the
worldwide growth of democracy and other political events
have created a window of opportunity for all of us here to
be agents of change.





The American writer and humorist, Mark Twain, once said,
"A battle is only truly great or small according to its
results." I would suggest to you in closing that mankind
faces no greater battle than the struggle to achieve









Improve legal mechanisms to provide a framework for
integrated water demand management. We must
adopt, improve where necessary and enforce legislation to
achieve integral water resources management at the
national, watershed and local levels, taking into account
quantity and quality of both surface and ground water, as
well as protection of ecosystems.

It is also .important to provide the adequate legal
framework to promote stakeholders participation in water
demand management and pollution prevention. Finally,
we must legally recognize that instream water use by fish
and wildlife is a beneficial use.

Establish programs to increase efficiency in water
use. In water supply utilities, this means carrying on
programs of adequate metering and billing, pricing
schedules, leak detection and repair, elimination of illegal
connections and installation of water saving devices (as
well as active promotion to the public of these initiatives).

In agriculture, implement programs to encourage efficient
water use at the farm level, alleviate waterlogging and
salinity through proper drainage, undertake programs of
water quality management, small scale supply, scarce
water resources management and reuse of municipal
waste water.









preserve river basins through reforestation, erosion control
works and improved cropping and settlement methods.

Take full advantage of economic mechanisms through
measures like:

applying "user-pay" and "polluter-pay"
principles by establishing incentives for users
who exceed quantity and quality standards
for discharges or return flows

establishing market water pricing based on
full cost recovery to allow better water quality
services and to encourage water
conservation

incorporate in domestic water pricing rate
structures a "lifeline" rate for basic human
needs, where necessary


implement the principle and practice of using
water utility revenues to fund watershed
protection and biodiversity

recognize and incorporate the water use
"rights" of the environment in all water rights
schemes


L-









imperative, and that it is still feasible to accomplish, just
what is to be done?

The factors noted in this presentation strongly suggest the
need for sound water policy as a basic tool for sustainable
development. Good planning allows the translation of
complex, contentious issues into expressions of a position
or strategy that will be consistently applied by the
appropriate authority. Specific economic and legal
policies will vary by country and water resource concern,
but some common elements were identified earlier this
year by the OAS Technical Committee on Water meeting
in Washington, D.C.

Make environmental management agencies
responsible for planning and administering water use.
Water use for any function must be seen in a holistic way.
This extends to long-term national level planning (and its
extension to regional/local levels) based on an integrated
concept to establish a blueprint for the works needed to
achieve rational utilization of the resource that contributes
to effective land management. In effect, this approach
links land and water planning for the protection of both
resources.

Plan at the watershed or basin level so as to not only
meet water demands, but to guarantee the quality of the
resource. This may take the form of actions necessary to









It has been said that "To do great important tasks, two
things are necessary; a plan and not quite enough time."
While we recognize there are serious problems
confronting the world's water resources and those who
manage them, we must also see opportunity.

There is a growing recognition that all people's fates are
intertwined. The environment, for example, has become a
global resource, a catalyst to commonality, and its
preservation and restoration a global responsibility. We of
the industrialized nations have a particular responsibility to
be part of the solution since it is many of our actions that
have created the present quandary.

Water is wealth that can no longer be taken for granted.
Today, water is a strategic resource and the means to
generate additional wealth in any society. Water in
sufficient quantity and quality is a fundamental building
block of any healthy economy. In the western
hemisphere, we are blessed with 42% of the world's
freshwater supplies, while only 14% of the world's
population lives here. Still, the world's population is
expected to double (from 5 to 10 billion) over the next 25
years.

So if we accept the premise that sustainable development
is not just an option but an economic and environmental









Land use planning in our State (and throughout the
U.S.) is the rightful responsibility of local
governments, but everything that is done on the land
affects water resources in some way. These local
governments are required to do long-range planning
for all basic services, creating an avenue for joint
planning.

The.District's Cooperative Funding program also
serves as an incentive. It requires a local match for
funding we provide to resolve water issues, and all
actions must be consistent with both the District's and
local comprehensive plans.

8) PLAY A CONSENSUS BUILDING ROLE
MAINTAINING FLEXIBILITY AND FOCUSING
ON OUTCOME ORIENTED RESULTS AS IT
RELATES TO WATER RESOURCES.

This is the visionary component of our strategy. It
recognizes that as the limits of water resources are
reached and the focus turns to less regulatory
functions, consensus building for resource
maintenance and enhancement will grow in
importance.


V. SO WHAT CAN BE DONE?









resources has been an especially good way to
demonstrate our stewardship.

6) UTILIZE INCENTIVE BASED MANAGEMENT,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
FOCUSING DISTRICT FINANCIAL
RESOURCES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF
SUSTAINABLE WATER SUPPLIES.

In our case, this represents a powerful attempt to
balance our regulation with incentives to achieve
sustainability. The prime example is our New Water
Sources Initiative (or NWSI), which will result in the
investment of over $100 million over several years, to
be matched by local cooperators in pursuit of
alternative water supplies to ground water. One
example: the Peace River Option that expands use of
a major river in that part of our District where ground
water supplies are highly stressed and have been
capped. Please note that such use of the river is done
within sustainable limits through the establishment of
"minimum flows and levels" on the water use permit.

7) ENGAGE IN COOPERATIVE LONG-TERM
PLANNING WITH ALL APPROPRIATE
PARTIES IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE
SUSTAINABILITY.








water quality and preserve or enchance natural
systems must still be developed.

4) ENCOURAGE COORDINATION AMONG
VARIED ENTITIES AND FACILITATE THE
ADOPTION OF SUSTAINABILITY AS A
POLICY FRAMEWORK BY OTHER PUBLIC
AND PRIVATE ENTITIES.

We all recognize that our ability to manage is only as
good as the political and social will of our constituents
(whether local governments, environmental groups,
private businesses, citizens, etc.). A true partnership
for sustainability must be our ultimate objective.

5) ENCOURAGE DISTRICT OPERATIONAL
PRACTICES WHICH ARE CONSISTENT WITH
SUSTAINABILITY AND UTILIZE DISTRICT
RESOURCES TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABILITY
PRACTICES BY OTHERS.

We must all lead by example, recognizing the role of
government as trendsetter, and investing in our
preferred future. From recycling our office paper to
low volume restroom demonstrations, we can show
the way. In our area, the restoration and
management of public lands acquired to protect water









2) PROMOTE UTILIZATION OF FULL COST
ACCOUNTING AS A POLICY DECISION TOOL.

Water continues to be Florida's, and the world's, most
undervalued resource despite it's nearly priceless
nature. In southwest Florida, only source
development and transmission costs typically are
used in making supply decisions. Other costs include
those not so easily quantified, from aesthetic and
environmental values to the potential costs of litigation
over transfer of resources from one area to another.

This policy can also be interpreted to discourage
subsidizing water supplies for one or more classes of
customers, and to make utilities as self-sufficient as
possible (e.g., to achieve "Enterprise Fund" status).

3) ENCOURAGE A DIVERSITY OF SOLUTIONS
AND EXPERIMENTS, EACH DESIGNED TO FIT
NATURAL SYSTEMS.

Continuing environmental research is imperative, not
just in the area of water supply, but in surface water
management as well. In most of the world,
comprehensive information on ground water stocks,
for example, is unavailable but sorely needed. A
second example: Best Management Practices (or
BMPs) for stormwater management that maintain









among other things includes policies and strategies for
sustainability. Significantly, Plan development
incorporated ample public awareness and involvement.

Sustainability is defined by our Board as "meeting the
needs of the present generation without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs."
Eight key policies guide the actions of staff and the Board
over time:

1) ASSUME THAT THE CONSEQUENCES OF A
FAILURE TO MAINTAIN RESOURCE
SUSTAINABILITY ARE SO SERIOUS THAT IT
IS BETTER TO ERR ON THE SIDE OF
CAUTION.

Opponents will emphasize the inexact or incomplete
nature of available environmental data, e.g., in setting
regulatory ground water levels in the southern half of
our District. The limits sustainability may impose
cannot be assumed, but at some point must be
objectively determined and proven.

This also emphasizes the need for adequate
research, analysis and results (as in the timing and
costs of our WRAP studies) as the basis for a
defensible position on regulation and protection.









consume the resource at double the rate of
replenishment.

Common to these tales of shortage is the near-universal
failure to value water properly in view of its inalterable
scarcity. Population growth and economic expansion will
continue to tempt water-scarce areas to overdraw easily
accessible ground water. But this course is unsustainable
and will ultimately have a negative effect on these nations.
Or as Benjamin Franklin, an early American philosopher
said, we will know the value of water when the well runs
dry.


IV. EMERGING POLICY SOLUTIONS IN FLORIDA

Clearly, the solutions to water resource issues around the
world will vary, and be dependent on the particular
circumstances of each case. But the experience of Florida
in general, and the Southwest Florida Water Management
District in particular, may offer some insights.

The Governing Board of Swiftmud has made long-range
planning for water resources, and the concept of
sustainability, the cornerstone for effective water resource
management. A 20-year District Water Management Plan
is in place, is being coordinated with the comprehensive
plans of the 98 local governments in the District, and








the one with the greatest supply needs to support
a burgeoning population, Egypt has recognized
and begun acting to implement nationwide
demand management. Boutros Ghali, Egypt's
Minister of State for Foreign affairs, has said,
"The next war in our region will be over the
waters of the Nile, not politics."

* .In northern China, 10 percent of the cultivated
area is irrigated by overdrafting ground water, but
the most serious shortages are found in urban
areas. Two-thirds of China's cities are short of
water. China has 21 percent of the world's
population, but only 8 percent of its renewable
freshwater. In Beijing, ground water levels
decline steadily; wells that drew water from a
depth of some 5 meters in the fifties now pump
from around 50 meters on average.

* Falling water tables in Thailand are a direct
consequence of deforestation. As forest
coverage shrank by half since the sixties,
Thailand's vegetation-depleted soil lost much of
its capacity to hold water. Rainfall that once
percolated into aquifers now washes into the
country's rivers and out to sea. Thai industries
get nearly all their water from the ground, and









and/or disputes over who pays for prevention and
correction.

In Water Quality, past agricultural and industrial practices
have contaminated some ground water supplies, but
managing stormwaters that carry human byproducts into
our waterbodies is our biggest present challenge.
Recharge areas for ground water must be protected, and
additional research is needed on the linkage of ground and
surface water resources.

Finally, in Natural Systems, past management of flood
protection was not comprehensively tied to water quality
and environmental impacts. Preserving natural features
so vital to Florida's economy, while we can, dictates
management by watershed and ecosystem, not by
jurisdictional boundaries as done previously.


II. THE INTERNATIONAL DILEMMA

Florida's water issues are not, however, unique or
unusual. All over the world, similar themes are being
sounded. For example:

In Egypt, the Nile River, shared by nine nations
by treaty, is showing qualitative and quantitative
strains. As the last nation on the River's run, but








needs for renewable water resources continue to grow
while the quantity of water available worldwide is fixed.


II. BACKGROUND ON WATER RESOURCES IN
FLORIDA

Florida, like many other parts of the United States, is often
perceived as "water rich". But are we? Let's take a quick
look at some key water issues in southwest Florida, using
the four areas of responsibility of my agency: Water
Supply, Flood Protection, Water Quality Management and
protection of Natural Systems.

In Water Supply, we find ground water (our primary
supply source statewide) being overdrafted in regions of
extensive water use by agriculture and urban populations.
The move to alternative sources (including conservation,
reuse, seawater desalination and enhanced reliance on
surface water) is expensive, but we recognize the costs of
exceeding sustainability are much greater.

In Flood Protection, Florida's most attractive locations
(waterfronts) are also its most vulnerable. Manmade
solutions are costly and must compete with other public
priorities for limited funds. Flood protection responsibilities
are shared among federal, state, regional and local
agencies, sometimes resulting in a lack of coordination








KEYNOTE ADDRESS:
LEGAL AND ECONOMIC POLICIES
FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF
WATER RESOURCES IN THE CONTEXT
OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

SEPTEMBER, 1996

PRESENTED BY:
PETER G. HUBBELL, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT

I. WELCOME AND INTRODUCTION

Buenos dias y bienvenidos on behalf of all the sponsors
(including the Southwest Florida Water Management
District, or Swiftmud) to "II Dialogue", the second Inter-
American Dialogue on Water Management.

I am Pete Hubbell, and as Executive Director of Swiftmud,
let me begin by recognizing the timely nature of the
Conference theme (sustainable development through
integrated water resource management) as it relates to
southwest Florida. Like you, we are interested in the
ongoing development and use of a network of water
experts to facilitate the exchange of information that
results in sustainable human use of water resources.

A wise man once said that the only constant is change, but
I would suggest there is another truth before us: human




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