The Governing Board of the Southwest Florida Water Management District adopted the "New Water
Sources Initiative" as part of its Fiscal Year 1994 Budget. The purpose of this dedicated fund is to
enhance financial assistance opportunities for "alternative" water source projects such as
conservation, reclaimed water and stormwater reuse, surface water, and desalination. The
Governing Board has allocated $10 million per year as a funding source for eligible New Water
Sources Initiative (NWSI) projects. Basin Boards receiving benefits from the projects selected have
matched the $10 million per year beginning in their Fiscal Year 1995 Budget. NWSI projects
generally receive 25 percent of their funding from the Governing Board, 25 percent from the
appropriate Basin Board(s), and the remaining 50 percent from the local cooperator(s).
Project proposals are submitted to the District each year for NWSI funding consideration. To be
eligible for NWSI funding, a project must have regional water resource benefits. In 1994, 46
projects with costs totaling $250 million were submitted. Twelve "cornerstone" projects were
selected based on recommendations by District staff, Advisory Committees (Public Supply,
Industrial, Agricultural, and Green Industry), and geographically-based "action groups" made up
of members from all water use sectors. Four additional projects were selected for NWSI funding
in 1995. When fully implemented, the 16 projects may provide up to 150 million gallons per day
of water to meet current and future water needs. The 16 projects will also reduce ground-water
withdrawals, rehydrate stressed lakes and wetlands, increase ground-water recharge, enhance
wildlife habitat, and improve flood control.
The 1995 New Water Sources Initiative Annual Report was developed to provide a framework for
future NWSI project selection. The report summarizes the availability of alternative water sources,
reviews issues regarding project development, and provides recommendations for future NWSI
projects. The report also summarizes the scope and status of currently funded projects.
Available Alternative Water Sources
Available quantities of alternative water sources have been estimated for conservation, reclaimed
water, surface water, and seawater desalination (Table 1). The potential for brackish-water
desalination and stormwater reuse were not evaluated due to limited data. It is estimated that more
than 200 million gallons per day (mgd) of alternative water sources, conservation not included, are
available District-wide. The majority of the available alternative water sources are located in the
west-central and southern areas of the District.
The alternative source offering the largest potential is seawater desalination. In the west-central
portion of the District, an almost unlimited amount of water could be developed. Two issues
confronting seawater desalination have been the high costs of water production and concerns
regarding disposal of the brine waste product. Research has demonstrated that through dilution, it
is possible to safely return concentrated brine to the Gulf of Mexico. While cost estimates for
seawater desalination are about $4.00 per thousand gallons, costs will be lower for large-scale
facilities or if desalinated seawater is blended with traditional ground and surface water sources.
Southwest Florida Water Management District v
1995 NWSI Annual Report
Conservation projects usually do not meet the NWSI criteria of providing regional water resource
benefits and, instead, are funded at the local level under the Cooperative Funding Program.
However, since conservation is often considered to be an alternative water source, the potential
water savings from conservation programs have been estimated for this report. Conservation offers
the potential to reduce withdrawals by as much as 170 mgd, depending on the types of programs
implemented and the commitment by the local cooperators. In urbanized areas, conservation can
be achieved through programs such as public education, plumbing retrofit, and low volume toilet
rebates. In agricultural areas, up to 31 mgd of water savings can be achieved through programs
designed to improve irrigation efficiency. Although few conservation programs have been proposed
at the regional scale, the potential exists for conservation programs to result in large water savings.
Estimated Available Alternative Water Sources in the Southwest Florida Water
Note: water conservation projects are generally meugible ior IN wI munomg since mese
projects provide local rather than regional water resource benefits.
The northern area includes Citrus, Hernando, Lake, Levy, Marion, and Sumter counties.
2 The west-central area includes all ofHillsborough, Pasco, and Pinellas counties.
3 The east-central area includes Polk, Highlands, and Hardee counties.
4 The southern area includes Manatee, Sarasota, Charlotte, and De Soto counties.
5 The safe yield of the Hillsborough River is under evaluation.
Status of Currently Funded NWSI Projects as of December 1995
Fifteen out of the sixteen NWSI projects are currently being implemented. (The sixteenth project,
the Lake Jackson/Josephine Watershed project, was canceled.) Feasibility studies for several of
these projects will determine the potential for the future development of certain alternative water
sources. For example, the Manatee Reclaimed Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project will evaluate
the use of aquifer storage and recovery for reclaimed water. The Section 21 and Pasco Rainbow
Southwest Florida Water Management District vi
Estimated Quantity Available (mgd)
Source Type Northern' West- East- Southern4 TOTAL
- Public Supply 0.3 6.5 1.8 45.5 0.5 12.6 0.5 13.2 3.1 77.8
-Agriculture 1.5 5.9 13.7 10.0 31.1
- Industrial 1.2-3.7 11.5-34.2 6.3-19.0 1.9-7.5 20.9-64.4
Reclaimed Water 0.0 53.5 3.8 17.3 74.6
Surface Water 50.0 0.0 93.5 143.5
Seawater Desalination unlimited unlimited N/A unlimited unlimited
TOTAL >61.7 > 139.1 49.1 > 141.5 > 391.4
1995 NWSI Annual Report
projects will evaluate the potential for using reclaimed water for wetland and wellfield
augmentation/rehydration. The status of currently funded NWSI projects is summarized in Table 2.
Recommendations for Future NWSI Projects
Recommendations regarding future NWSI projects are presented below. Recommendations are
based on the potential availability of alternative water sources, issues regarding project development,
and the status of currently funded projects.
The quantities of water associated with the NWSI projects currently identified for funding by the
District represent a significant percentage of the available alternative sources of reclaimed water and
surface water in the targeted areas of Northern Tampa Bay Water Use Caution Area (NTBWUCA)
and the Southern Water Use Caution Area (SWUCA). These projects, along with previous and
ongoing Cooperative Funding projects, have accounted for the majority of the available reclaimed
and surface water resources in these areas. The following is a brief discussion of potential future
alternative water source projects that can meet the criteria under the NWSI program:
Seawater desalination appears to offer the largest potential as an alternative water source. The
District should continue to promote and support through funding the promotion and ultimate
development of seawater desalination facilities.
Surface water sources, while limited, are still available in the Southern Water Use Caution Area.
Shell Creek and both the Myakka and Alafia Rivers have potential to be developed as alternative
water sources to offset existing ground-water withdrawals. For each of these systems, off-stream
storage options in the form of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) or mine pits should be evaluated.
These sources may provide a low cost alternative water source for agriculture since they can be
supplied with minimal treatment (removal of solids) or be blended with reclaimed water to extend
the reuse service capacity.
The potential exists to develop additional reclaimed water sources for several large utilities. An
example of one such utility is the City of Clearwater which had approximately 15 mgd of available
reclaimed water in 1994. Additional studies are needed to determine feasible alternatives for storage
or use of reclaimed water under wet weather conditions. Additional wet-weather alternatives would
enable cities such St. Petersburg, which has an aggressive reuse program but large quantities of
available wet-weather flows, to maximize their reuse efficiency.
The feasibility of expanding stormwater reuse should be investigated as an alternative water source.
It may be possible to blend stormwater with reclaimed water at a minimal treatment cost or to
develop large-scale stormwater facilities to provide water for selected uses.
Southwest Florida Water Management District vii
1995 NWSI Annual Report
1995 NWSI Annual Report January 1996
Table 2. Status of Funded NWSI Projects
Project Local Cooperator(s) Project Provided Status
Agricultural Water none $375,000 TBD Six evaluations were
Use Efficiency completed by September
Central Hillsborough Hillsborough County $7,000,000 4.0 Consultant hired. Design will
Reuse be complete by July 1996.
Central Sarasota Atlantic Utilities $4,263,440 2.8 Design will begin in 1996.
Reuse Central County Utilities
Lake Highlands County The project was determined
Jackson/Josephine to be infeasible and has been
Manatee Agricultural Manatee County $14,024,724 16.3 Project is being designed.
Reuse Supply* Permitting for Frog Creek
(MARS) facility is underway.
Manatee County Manatee County $800,000 up to 3.6 ASR well is drilled. Testing
Reuse ASR of well will begin in 1996.
Northwest Hillsborough County $11,100,000 13.2 Contract is being negotiated.
Reuse (Phase 1)
Pasco Rainbow Pasco County $50,000,000 up to 30 Literature review of risk
assessment studies finalized
12/95. Decision by
funding expected 1/96.
Peace Creek Canal Polk County $75,000 TBD Watershed model complete.
Alternative sources of water
to be investigated by
Peace River Option* PR/MRWSA $43,981,193 6.0 PR/MRWSA has let bids for
WTP and ASR expansion
and transmission main.
Design/permitting to begin in
Plant City Reuse City of Plant City $7,705,000 4.0 Project is being designed.
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1995 NWSI Annual Report
1995 NWSI Annual Report
Table 2. Status of Funded NWSI Projects (continued)
Total Project Water
Project Local Cooperator(s) Cost Provided Status
Punta Gorda/Shell Creek City ofPunta Gorda $700,000 4.0 Contract between District
ASR ) and Punta Gorda being
Section 21 Wellfield City of St. Petersburg $841,000 up to 4 Scope and budget being
Rehydration Pilot* WCRWSA revised to include a public
health and safety risk
Tampa/Northwest WCRWSA $3,400,000 12 Contract is being
Tampa Northwest ASR City of Tampa $700,000 up to 10 Construction of ASR well
and monitoring wells is
complete. Testing will
begin during 1996.
Tampa Water Resource City of Tampa $100,337,500 up to 50 Consultant hired. Work
Recovery* scope being finalized
(1/96) to include costs
associated with delivery
TOTAL $245,302,857 up to 160
* Indicates project has received federal funding.
PR/MRWSA = Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority
WTP = Water treatment plant
ASR = Aquifer storage and recovery
WCRWSA = West Coast Regional Water Supply Authority.
TBD = To Be Determined
Southwest Florida Water Management District