Title: Water - Scarcity Amidst Plenty
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00004720/00001
 Material Information
Title: Water - Scarcity Amidst Plenty
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: Life Science Library
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Abstract: Jake Varn Collection - Water - Scarcity Amidst Plenty
General Note: Box 28, Folder 13 ( Water - 1966 ), Item 9
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: WL00004720
Volume ID: VID00001
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Full Text



8

Scarcity
amidst
Plenty


THIS ALKALINE DESERT. ONCE THE BED OF A LARGE LAKE. WAS CREATED WHEN THE LOS ANGELES WATER DEPARTMENT DIVERTED CENTRAL CALIFORNIA'S OWENS RIVER IN 1928.


d


'ti. ~4e~be9BYP~I~ r
"i~f~ C~L+I~~







IN THE 15TH CENTURY, the once flourishing civilization of Arizona's Ho-
hokam Indians vanished after the waters of their irrigation canals, fed
by the Salt River, became so heavily salinized that they could no longer
be used. More recently, in the most costly natural disaster in United
States history, a four-year drought in the 1930s forced more than 500,000
Americans to flee the Dust Bowl states. In Brazil in 1954, and again
in 1958, more than one million refugees from the drought-stricken north-
east crowded into Rio de Janeiro and Sdo Paulo, straining the cities'
capacities to the breaking point. In Tokyo in the summer of 1964, 41
dry days so reduced the water supply that tap water was available
only part of every day, and in some sections residents had to line up at
public stations for their daily ration. In Speyside, Scotland, there was
a minor emergency in 1959 when drought dried up the streams that give
Scotch whiskey its distinctive flavor.
Water scarcities have plagued man throughout history and afflict him
more than ever today. The need for water is increasing almost daily, as
population and industry grow. Economic development, more than any
other single factor, increases water use. In the underdeveloped nations,
the per capital water consumption for all purposes-domestic, agricul-
tural and industrial-is about 10 gallons a day. In the United States, it
is about 1,800 gallons-of which about 1,700 are used for agriculture and
industry. The world demand is expected to double before the end of the
20th Century.
Does the world hold enough water to meet these needs? The answer
is unequivocal. It does. When the earth was formed it held more than
nine million billion tons of fresh water. It holds more than nine million
billion tons today. Almost every drop that is used-whether for drinking,
bathing, irrigating a desert or running an industrial plant-is eventually
returned to the hydrologic cycle, draining to the sea, evaporating, and
falling to earth as precipitation once again. Water is not used up. It is
simply taken out of circulation for varying periods of time (with minor
exceptions, such as the insignificant amount that is consumed chem-
ically in some manufacturing processes).
But if the total supply of water is not a concern, its management and
distribution are. People settle, and build factories and cities, where
water is plentiful; then their cities and factories foul the water, convert-
ing sweet streams and lakes into open sewers and cesspools. Where
nature is stingy, much money and ingenuity must be invested to guaran-
tee sufficient water. The Aswan High Dam in Egypt, desalination plants
in Israel and Kuwait, and the 240-mile-long aqueduct that serves Los
Angeles are all efforts to compensate for local inadequacies.
A land that is naturally poor in water can escape total deprivation
only by heroic effort. The newly established North African country of
Mauritania is an extreme case. Mauritania achieved independence in
1960. Most of its 420,000-square-mile area lies within the Sahara. Its
only sizable sources of water are the Senegal River on the southern bor-
der, and the salt water of the Atlantic on its western shore. The capital







city of Nouakchott, with about 15,000 inhabitants, uses water piped in
from a well 40 miles away, and this is available for only four hours a day.
The solution to Mauritania's water problem is still remote. One pilot
desalination plant has been built there, but it will not supply enough
fresh water to meet the nation's needs. Unless money and technical ex-
pertise are poured lavishly into the country, Mauritania seems doomed
to remain a land of nomad herdsmen, wandering the desert from oasis
to oasis in search of water for themselves and their cattle.

Making the desert flower
About 3,000 miles to the northeast lies Israel. Of its 8,000 square
miles, only 1,200 are humid enough for nonirrigated agriculture. Com-
pared to the Ohio River, the Jordan, Israel's main water source, is a
creek. No rain falls during the summer months, and in half the land the
annual precipitation is barely enough to keep the desert cactus alive.
Yet since its establishment in 1948, Israel's population has trebled, and
its industry and agriculture have kept pace with this increase. Pipelines
bring fresh water into 98 per cent of Israel's homes. To date, nearly 90
per cent of the known water resources have been tapped. Millions of
dollars, an advanced technology and strict controls are responsible for
this seeming miracle.
Since 1950, the distribution and use of Israel's water supplies have
been nationalized. Water is rationed to homes, industry and agriculture.
Practically every drop of the sparse rainfall is saved: water tanks dot
the rooftops of Jerusalem, and in the farming areas the runoff ditches
are lined to prevent seepage. One quarter of Israel's electric power is
used to pump up water from underground sources. In addition, two
desalination plants purify water from the Gulf of Aqaba.
The knowledge that salt water can be made fresh is more than 2,000
years old. Sailors on long voyages have sometimes obtained their drink-
ing water by placing pots of ocean water in the sun and trapping the
condensed vapor. This same technique, in far more sophisticated form,
is used in many desalination plants. In the so-called multistage flash-
distillation process, seawater is heated and sprayed into a series of low-
pressure chambers, where some of it vaporizes. As it passes through the
chambers, more and more of the water evaporates, leaving behind more
and more of the salt. At the end of the process, approximately one gal-
lon of fresh water has been produced from every three and a half gallons
of salt water.
Another technique of desalination reverses this procedure, freezing
the water instead of evaporating it. Just as brine separates from steam
when water evaporates, so it separates from ice crystals when water
freezes. In the desalination process developed by the Israeli engineer
Alexander Zarchin, chilled seawater is passed through a low-pressure
chamber, which converts about half of it to ice. When the brine coating
is removed, the ice can be melted into fresh water.
A third technique does not require changing the water either to steam








or to ice. It cannot be used to desalinate seawater. But it is an efficient
and economical way of treating brackish water. The city of Buckeye,
Arizona, receives all of its water from a plant that treats the output of
nearby brackish wells by a process called electrodialysis. This technique
makes use of the fact that when salt dissolves in water it separates into
electrically charged atoms-negatively charged chloride and positively
charged sodium. If salt water is introduced into a tank containing elec-
trodes connected to a power source and surrounded by permeable mem-
branes, the positive sodium will travel through one membrane to the
negative electrode, and the negative chloride through the other mem-
brane to the positive electrode. The water between the two membranes
will therefore be free of salt.
The major problems associated with the desalination of seawater
have less to do with its scientific aspects than with its cost. It takes
considerable power to heat water sufficiently to convert it into steam,
and only somewhat less to freeze it. And the smaller the capacity of the
desalinating plant, the greater the cost of each gallon of fresh water
produced. A U.S. multistage flash-distillation plant that provides water
for the naval base at GuantAnamo, Cuba, delivers 2,100,000 gallons of
fresh water daily at a cost of one dollar per thousand gallons, compared
with a cost of about 20 cents per thousand gallons for water in New York.
Under certain circumstances, the development of very large-scale
plants powered by nuclear energy might make desalination more prac-
tical. Such plants could both purify water and provide electrical power.
A large nuclear plant proposed for Southern California is scheduled to
produce 150 million gallons of fresh water a day at a cost ranging from
22 to 30 cents per thousand gallons. The plant will also provide 1,800,000
kilowatts of electricity for the Los Angeles region.
But desalting the seas cannot provide a permanent solution for the wa-
ter problems of the world. Nor, in much of the world, is a greater supply
essential. The water is already there and available for use-if only so-
ciety could decide how to use it. The future development of an entire
region may hinge on the allotment of its water resources.

Taking water out of Circulation
Industry and agriculture, the two main users of water, have very differ-
ent effects on the available supply. Water used for agricultural irriga-
tion is, to all practical purposes, consumed. Although it is eventually
returned to the hydrologic cycle as rain, it is unlikely to fall back on
the place from which it was taken. In the arid Middle East, this heavy
drain oni the water supply must be accepted if agriculture is to survive.
But a country like the United States, which contains both arid and
humid regions, has much greater freedom of choice. And a choice that
is correct at one period in history may be questionable at another. For
many years, government policy in this country encouraged the develop-
ment of agriculture in the dry Southwest by offering water for irrigation
at very low cost. When the policy was initiated, it was clearly in the na-


ARID
SUBHUMID
HUMID


NORMAL


1915


1934 '
SHIFTS IN CLIMATE, a result of changes
in the hydrologic cycle, can affect large areas
of a continent from year to year. The map
at top shows the normal climatic conditions in
the U.S. over a 40-year period (1900-1939).
The map for 1915 shows normally arid areas
greatly reduced as humid conditions spread
far west of the Mississippi. The bottom map
is for the Dust Bowl year of 1934.


iT












































PURIFYING SEWAGE before disposal is an
essential step in preventing the pollution of
rivers. The treatment process shown here is
used at a factory in Poughkeepsie. New York.
Raw sewage is first put through a comminutor
-a device that pulverizes coarse debris.
It is then mixed with bacteria-rich water in
an aerator. As propeller blades agitate the
mixture, the bacteria transform organic matter
into harmless by-products. Heavy sludge is,
removed in a settling basin, after which the
water is filtered through a mass of sand.
At this point it is a clear liquid, which is
chlorinated (to destroy any remaining bacteria)
in the last tank. The treated sewage, now
pure enough to drink, is finally piped into
a creek that flows next to the factory.


RAW SEWAGE
11"m


COMMINUTOR


11


tional interest. It increased the agricultural yield and helped the South-
west grow. Phoenix, Arizona, which stands near the site of the drought-
vanquished Hohokam civilization, owes its very existence to this policy.
The original town of Phoenix, on the north side of the Salt River, was
nearly wiped out in 1899, after a two-year dry spell. But after President
Theodore Roosevelt pushed the National Reclamation Act through Con-
gress in 1902, federal funds were available to build the Roosevelt Dam.
In addition, Phoenix landowners contributed funds to repay the govern-
ment and build irrigation and power projects. When the dam was com-
pleted, in 1911, the Salt River Valley had a population of about 12,000.
Today three quarters of a million people live in the area, which supplies
the nation with about 2 per cent of its total cotton crop and nearly one
quarter of its lettuce.
But the expense of water now raises serious questions. In 1965, the
United States put approximately 36 per cent of its water to work irri-
gating Western farmlands. According to a study conducted by Nathaniel
Wollman of the University of New Mexico, such water would return five
times more money if it were used for recreation, and 60 to 80 times more
if it were put to industrial use.
Nor is this situation exceptional. Industrial and domestic use of water
always put less strain than agriculture on the supply. Water used for
these purposes can be returned to the system quickly, and to a pre-
determined place. But its chemical composition is altered in the process
of use, and it must be treated before it is used again. If it is dumped,
untreated, into rivers and streams, the waters become polluted.

The menace of pollution
Water pollution inevitably produces economic and esthetic problems,
and may lead to health problems as well. Contaminated water can be a
menace to life. Dysentery and typhoid fever are endemic in many parts
of the underdeveloped world where primitive sanitary facilities permit
sewage to enter drinking-water sources. In the industrialized nations, on
the other hand, the treatment of drinking water is routine and waterborne
diseases have been practically eliminated.
In any case, domestic wastes are present in the water of developed coun-
tries in much smaller volumes than industrial wastes-which may also be
damaging. The complicated chemical compounds that form part of the
wastes of certain advanced industrial processes are not always removed
in water-treatment plants, and their long-term effects, both on stream life
and on human health, are still unknown.
Some rivers contain nothing but used water: their total flow has been
diverted for use and when the water is returned to the channel it is more
or less polluted. According to Ernest P. Segasser of the New Jersey Pub-



CHLOPRINE



PURE WATER


AERATO% I G B .
SETTLING BASIN








lic Health Department, two of his state's important streams can be
described in precisely this way. "There have been periods," he wrote,
"in which the flow in the Rockaway and Whippany Rivers consisted sole-
ly of waste water effluents." This description would apply equally to
many of the smaller rivers in the United States during the low-flow pe-
riods of summer. Even a great river like the Hudson can contain con-
siderable waste: of the used water dumped into it, only about 12 per
cent has been thoroughly treated. Nor is the situation better in other
lands. In Paris, the once sparkling Seine is murky and gray. In earlier
days, a favorite London sport was fishing for salmon in the Thames. The
sport is long since dead. The Thames is so dirty that salmon can no long-
er survive in it.
But all water contains some impurities. Even raindrops pick up dust
and carbon dioxide as they fall. Because water accepts virtually every
substance that comes into contact with it, it traps impurities of all
sorts. And man has been using his rivers and lakes as wastebaskets since
the dawn of history.

Flowing water: a self-purifying substance
Fresh water has a remarkable ability to absorb these wastes, transform
them into useful or innocuous substances, and thus cleanse itself. Some
of this self-purification is entirely mechanical. The motion of the water
stirs up the waste matter, dissolving some of it or breaking the wastes
into particles which either settle to the bottom or are diluted to harm-
lessness by incoming fresh water. In addition, a river or lake also me-
tabolizes wastes, just as a living organism does. The river absorbs oxygen
from the air and from water plants, which release it during the process
of photosynthesis. The dissolved oxygen may act on organic wastes di-
rectly, by oxidation-in effect, "burning" them chemically so that noth-
ing remains except carbon dioxide, water and a little ash. More often
the oxygen operates indirectly, sustaining harmless bacteria that live
in the water and consume sewage and other organic wastes, leaving be-
hind an inoffensive residue that is either swept away, dissolved, or pre-
cipitated to the bottom of the stream.
But any body of water can suffer indigestion. If it is overloaded with
wastes, it will exhaust its dissolved oxygen in dealing with them. At this
point, useful digestion is halted. The river cannot purify any more for-
eign matter until it has taken in more oxygen from the atmosphere. If
additional loads of refuse are poured into it in quick succession, it will
never be able to catch up.
The organic pollution present in a river or lake can be determined by
measuring the rate at which the dissolved oxygen is withdrawn from the
water in the process of digesting wastes. First the polluted sample is


MILES
0


NUMBER OF
COLIFORM B
PER MILLILIT


BACTERIA
ER OF WATER


I"










WAPPINGER 30 50 70
CREEK


SELF-CLEANING rids creeks of pollutants
unless the concentration is too great. One
standard measure of pollution is the coliform
count-the number of coliform bacteria per
milliliter of water. The number of bacteria rises
as pollutant is added, but the bacteria
themselves change harmful organic wastes
to harmless, odorless inorganic compounds.
Measurements made in Wappinger Creek in
New York, shown in the table above, illustrate
this process. Where factory sewage entered
the water, the count rose to 78. Three miles
downstream it stood at 44. Further pollution
raised the count again, but nine miles from the
original source of sewage, the creek had less
than half the initial amount of pollutant.








mixed with water saturated with oxygen; the sample is sealed and kept
for five days at a temperature of 68 F. Then the amount of dissolved
oxygen in the sample is measured. The difference between the amount
originally present and the amount present after five days indicates how
much has been used in the digestive process. This biochemical oxygen
demand, or BOD, is one standard measure of the amount of organic mat-
ter in the water. But it does not measure inorganic pollution. It is
therefore not a measure of the potability of water. Even at a low BOD,
water containing metallic wastes is not safe to drink.
Whenever and wherever a river's oxygen demand presses hard on its
supply, the river is ailing. Excessive demand on the oxygen supply may
result from eutrophication-a word meaning "burdened with nutrients."
Nutrients added to a body of water have the same effect on its plant
life as fertilizer has on a cornfield. The smallest forms of life-plankton,
diatoms and algae-multiply rapidly. This changes the amount of dis-
solved oxygen available and upsets the natural balance of aquatic life.
Fish that thrived at the original oxygen level begin to sicken and die,
their places taken by species that require less oxygen and eat different
foods. This further skews the water's natural biological balance. After
a while, even these fish cannot get enough oxygen, and they smother to
death. If all the dissolved oxygen in the water is consumed, most of its
living organisms perish.
The major causes of eutrophication are nitrates and phosphates from
sewage: some of these chemicals remain in the water even after treat-
ment. If sewage is not treated at all, it is especially rich in nutrients.
Agricultural fertilizers can also contribute to eutrophication: they are
often dissolved in rain and runoff water, and thus flow to rivers and lakes.

The treatment of water wastes
Only recently has the prevention of eutrophication been undertaken
by the development of activated carbon units and special filters which
remove all the nitrates and phosphates from sewage. The first commer-
cial plant in the United States using this process has been installed at
Lake Tahoe, on the California-Nevada border. For treating less severe
sewage problems, however, simple and efficient methods have long been
available. In the activated-sludge method, which is widely used, the wa-
ter is first held in a clarification unit, which permits some of its impuri-
ties to settle. Thereafter, bacteria that feed on sewage solids are added
to the water, and the entire mixture is agitated to increase the amount
of dissolved oxygen and thus speed the digestive process. Finally, the
water is again placed in tanks and kept there until the bacteria have
settled. Although the effluent of a treatment plant is not potable, it is
clear and sparkling. With the addition of chlorine, it becomes fit to drink.
The treatment of industrial wastes, which contain inorganic matter,
is somewhat different. A metal-finishing plant, for example, can remove
dissolved metals from its rinse waters by passing them through special
filters, which exchange the harmful metallic products for harmless gas.









Whether or not waste water is pretreated before it is dumped into a
waterway, it must also be carefully processed in the next stage down-
stream, when it is taken out of the river for a water-supply system. First
the solid wastes must be removed by alum or iron treatment. Then the
water must be run through a series of fine-grained filters and disinfected
with chlorine or some other chemical. Sometimes it must be softened
with lime and soda ash. Thereafter, carbon dioxide must be added to as-
sure its chemical stability. Although this guarantees the water's safety,
it does not guarantee its taste. In another section of his report, Segasser
said of the New Jersey system served by the polluted streams: "There
has never been any question of the potability of the water delivered,
but its palatability is often questioned."

A triumph over pollution
That the water-pollution problem can be solved is evident from a look
at the Ruhr Valley in Germany, where a remarkably effective antipollu-
tion program has operated since 1913. The Ruhr, a relatively small river,
serves a population of eight million people, inhabiting one of the most
heavily industrialized regions in the world. The Ruhr Valley is the home
of steel, chemical and pharmaceutical plants, which produce consider-
able waste water. Yet the river in some parts of the Valley is remark-
ably clear, and is much used by fishermen and swimmers. On a summer
Sunday, as many as 40,000 Ruhr residents may be swimming in Lake
Baldeney, one of the four large artificial lakes created by dams and built
to purify the river's waters.
The Ruhr program is carried out under the direction of a cooperative
society; its members are 250 municipalities and 2,200 industrial compa-
nies interested in preventing river pollution before it can develop. Ev-
ery member pays dues at a rate determined by the degree of pollution
its used water shows: the cleaner the water, the lower the charge. This
sliding scale encourages the members to purify their water before dump-
ing it back into the river. The dues provide the society with money to
finance regional water-purification and development programs. Since
1948, the society has spent some $125 million on purification projects,
building 102 water-treatment plants and carrying out research programs
that have enabled its members to improve their water-decontamination
processes while economizing on overall water use.
The record of the Ruhr Valley demonstrates how efficiently existing
resources can be used. Yet even such frugality will not balance the
world's water accounts. New supplies now untapped-or perhaps now
unknown-must be made available if technological civilization is to con-
tinue its expansion. The study of these sources is one of the major tasks
of the International Hydrological Decade, a project initiated in 1965 by
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
More than 70 nations are cooperating in this 10-year program which, by
investigating a worldwide problem on a worldwide scale, will lay the sci-
entific foundations that will in time enable man to meet his water needs.


FIGURES ARE IN
BILLIONS OF
GALLONS DAILY

e AGRICULTURE

S1980


PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES

1965
1980




; 1980


INDUSTRY




RISING WATER USE in the U.S.
is expected to continue unabated for the
foreseeable future. The table above compares
water use in 1965 with projected figures for
1980. Agriculture will continue as the
major user of water, as irrigation of the dry
Western states is increased. Domestic
requirements will also increase, an ever-greater
share going to the cities. The largest rises
will occur in steam plants producing
electric power, and in other industrial use.


L __ _~;_~_















The Diary

of a Drink


Supplying modern cities with water is often a staggering
task. According to recent figures, about 80 per cent of the
U.S. population lives in towns and cities. The average U.S.
city dweller uses about 150 gallons of water a day-a na-
tional total of 23 billion gallons a day from 19,200 water-
works. This aggregate of municipal waterworks represents
about $50 billion in equipment and construction costs.
Few people stop to think what a varied life water leads
on its way to the tap. Raw sewage, dissolved pollutants
and silt must all be removed. The purification of drinking
water is an ancient practice-a Sanskrit record dating from
2000 B.C. advises treating water by "boiling it and dipping
a piece of hot copper into it seven times." Engineers now
add chlorine to kill bacteria, and alum to precipitate out
silt and other impurities. But new problems keep pace
with advances in technology. Detergents accumulate in
the water table, and in some places tap water now foams
with suds. Faced with ever-increasing consumption and
a multiplicity of complex engineering problems, no city can
be complacent about where its next drink is coming from.






A CHEMICAL CLEANSER
Machines in a water-purification plant at Call, and dysentery. The chemical also reduces un-
Colombia, chlorinate water before it enters the pleasant tastes of dissolved organic compounds.
mains. Chlorination, introduced in the U.S. in The bad taste often attributed to chlorine actual-
1908, kills off bacteria, including those of typhoid ly occurs when not enough chlorine is added.























I-
:'
ins~c-~?r
~(~5~~


''`'


IJI~

















A NEW STYLE FOR STORAGE
Spheroid water tanks, with a total storage ca-
pacity of 750.000 gallons, stand 881/2 feet
high outside Carbondale, Illinois. The spheroid
shape holds more water than an old-fashioned
cylindrical tank that occupies the same space.









Urban Water

in Short Supply


The critical New York City water
shortage in the 1960s dramatically il-
lustrated the difficulties of municipal


had been deemed unnecessary and
closed down). Only strict conserva-
tion kept city taps from going dry.


water management: 18 reservoirs, as Water shortages are increasingly
far distant as 125 miles, were all but common. In 1964, when Denver's
drained by the Northeast's longest soaring population grew too great for
drought. Water from the Hudson Riv- the city's existing reservoirs, engi-
er was too polluted to tap (a purifica- neers had to blast a 23-mile tunnel
tion plant built in an earlier drought under the continental divide and di-


vert a river 40 miles away. As con-
sumption rose in Carbondale, Illinois
(population 40,000), the city had to
build huge water-storage tanks (left)
that could be pumped full each night.
Some cities, however, refused to wait
for a crisis: Portland, Oregon, con-
structed enough reservoirs to sup-
ply 10 times its existing population.


REFILLING A DISTANT RIVER
A modern water system often assumes extraor-
dinary complexity. Denver built this dam on
the Williams Fork river-100 miles from the
city, and on the opposite side of the continen-
tal divide-not to supply water to the city, but
to replenish the Colorado River, which does.


TAP WATER IN RESERVE
Storage ponds in a public park overlooking
Portland, Oregon, are part of the city's extensive
reservoir system (including eight lakes. 51 tanks
and six basins). Getting the water to Portland
is no problem: the city is amply supplied by a
watershed at the base of nearby Mount Hood.








THE LONDON WATERWORKS
Management of London's water includes su.
pervislon of 129 reservoirs. 52 wells. nine in-
takes and 12 flter stations. Installations on
the map are keyed to the symbols below.


LEE RIVER


* WELLS

I PUMPING STATIONS


INTAKE STATIONS


RESERVOIRS


III FILTRATION STATIONS

mis MAIN TUNNEL


THAMES RIVER


MILES


3










A Maze

of Water Mains


Water is supplied to London, Eng-
land (a 576-square-mile city with a
population of eight million), through
a gargantuan underground tangle of
pipes that has been built up over sev-
en centuries. There are 8,850 miles
of pipe under the London streets-
a mileage more than double that of
the streets themselves-delivering
351 million gallons of water a day,
most of it from the River Thames.
The construction of this system be-
gan in 1237, when King Henry III
had lead pipes installed. Wooden and
stone conduits soon expanded serv-
ice. Over the centuries that followed,
a succession of private companies


laid additional pipes beneath the
city, keeping vague records and often
duplicating one another's service.
In 1904, city engineers finally took
charge of the system (only one com-
pany remains in private hands) and
began to unravel the fantastic snarl
of unmapped mains and leaky pipes.
Integrating the old waterworks, the
engineers repaired and replaced miles
of pipe, installed new equipment and
built new reservoirs. Tangles of anti-
quated pipe had to be entirely by-
passed with new mains. The engi-
neers now have the system in hand-
although they are still tracing leaks
to pipes that no one knew existed.


MIXING STATION


III


LONDON HOME


WAY STATIONS FOR CITY WATER
London's water, drawn from the Thames. is
sent through a sequence of processing plants,
shown schematically above from top left to
bottom right. Water from the river first passes
through a coarse strainer that removes bulk
waste. It then flows through a meter house,


where its volume and rate of flow are recorded.
At a pumping station it is forced up into a
holding reservoir. From there it flows down
into an aeration fountain (aeration oxidizes
many impurities). Next it flows through a fine-
mesh microstrainer that filters out mud and


silt, and a sand filter that removes most of the
remaining impurities. Chlorine (which kills mi-
croorganisms) is then added into the main, and
the treated water goes through a mixing sta-
tion. Finally, the water is pumped into a stor-
age reservoir, from which it is piped into homes.


an~
...










MEASURING THE INTAKE
A 10-foot-wide main brings water into Balti-
more's Ashburton plant. A thin pipe connects
a narrow segment of the main (center) to a
measuring device. By checking the rate of flow,
engineers can keep track of the drain on reser-
voirs and adjust dosages of purification chemi-
cals. About 220 million gallons a day (two
thirds of the city's water) are processed here.


CLEANING CLOUDY WATER
A conveyor belt dumps alum, an aluminum
compound, into untreated water. Mud particles
which cloud water stick to the alum and are
settled out, a process known as flocculationn."









FLUSHING OUT A FILTER
In a daily cleansing operation, water is forced
up through one of 20 identical 2.100-square-
foot sand filters in the Baltimore plant. The
slimy residue spills over into troughs that carry
it away to a waste reservoir. When the filter is
in use, water seeps down through 34 inches
of sand, gravel and stones, after which it is
crystal-clear and needs only to be chlorinated.























Making the Water

Fit to Drink

The impurities in a city's water sup-
ply must either be removed by filtra-
tion, precipitated out, or chemically
neutralized. Baltimore's water, proc-
essed in the $13-million Ashburton
plant pictured here, contains only a
moderate amount of suspended ma-
terials-about three parts per one
million parts of water (Kansas City,
in contrast, must purify water with
800 parts per million). But after it is
treated, Baltimore's water contains
less than one part per 10 million-a
trace detectable only by the most
sensitive instruments.
The Ashburton plant's nerve cen-
ter is a laboratory where chemists,
on duty around the clock, test water
piped from every part of the plant.
They can instantly spot a bad filter
or settling tank, and can quickly pre-
scribe antidotes for fluctuations in
impurities. A heavy thunderstorm,
for instance, can cause a sudden in-
crease in silt; adding more alum
makes the silt settle. Typhus bacteria
increase during the summer, and ex-
tra chlorine must be added. During
an average year, the plant removes
more than 30,000 tons of impurities
from the water-enough to clog up
every main and faucet in the city.




BEFORE AND AFTER
A chemist compares the clarity of raw and
treated water, studying the samples against a
black-lined light table. The degree to which
the black lines are obscured is an indication of
how much material is suspended in the water,
and how much alum must be added to remove
it. The sample of treated water has had 99.9
per cent of the impurities removed from it.


















































Giant evaporators form the core of the flash-distillation plant at Freeport, Texas. Freeport, which was once short of water, needs only


Fresh Water

for Freeport


Freeport, Texas, with a population of
11,800, was a city in search of water
when, in 1958, the U.S. government
decided to build an experimental de-
salting plant along the Gulf Coast.
About 30 cities applied for the plant;
Freeport, where even local well wa-
ter was salty, was selected.
At a cost of $1,200,000, the flash-
distillation plant above was erected.
It now provides one million gallons
of fresh water a day, drawn from the
Gulf of Mexico. Flash distillation is a
method by which the water is boiled
off and the salt left behind. It proved


so efficient that the fresh water pro-
duced had too little salt in it-and
people complained that it tasted flat.
The distilled water had to be mixed
with salty water from local wells, so
that some of its taste could be re-
stored. A similar plant is in opera-
tion at Aruba, in the Dutch West In-
dies; its water is run over beds of
broken coral to restore some mineral
content for taste.
Experts predict that within 20
years plants at critical spots will be
producing 500 million gallons a day,
enough to supply the largest cities.


DISTILLING THE SEA
When superheated water enters a chamber at
reduced pressure, the water flashes into steam.
This is the basis of flash distillation, the desalt-
ing process illustrated at right. Seawater first
enters the system (left center) in a pipe which
forms coils as it passes through successive
evaporating chambers. The pipe carries the wa-
ter past a furnace where it is superheated to
250 F. As the water flows into and through
the evaporators, each of the chambers is filled
with steam. New supplies of seawater keep
the coils cool, and the steam condenses on
them and drips into drains that lead to storage
tanks. A briny residue (dark red) is left behind.


-----























































About half of the fresh water that is produced daily in this plant; the remainder is supplied to a big chemical plant located near the city.










































Scientists have thought up dozens of
different schemes for removing the
salt from seawater, although none
has yet proved more efficient than
the distillation method used at Free-
port, Texas.
The 4,083 inhabitants of Symi, an
island near Greece, get all their wa-
ter from one solar-distillation unit
which supplies 4,000 gallons a day.
At Wrightsville Beach, North Caro-
lina (testing ground for the U.S. Of-
fice of Saline Water), a freezing plant
produces 200,000 gallons of desalted
water a day. Two other methods
have shown promise and are being
tested: one, called reverse osmosis,
desalts water by passing it through a
synthetic membrane; another, called
hydration, involves the addition of
propane to salt water. The propane
forms a solid compound with the wa-
ter, which is then freed when the
compound is heated. However, scien-


tists have yet to discover an efficient
membrane for osmosis or to design
an efficient plant for hydration.
Where the water is not excessively
salty, still another method can be
used. In Webster, South Dakota, the
local water was distastefully brack-
ish (almost twice as salty as the gov-
ernment regards as acceptable) but
only a fraction as briny as ocean wa-
ter. Webster installed a plant that de-
salinates its water by a process known
as electrodialysis (above), which is pro-
hibitively expensive except where the
salt problem is not great. The Webster
plant produces about 250,000 gallons
of water a day.
Large-scale desalination may pose
some unexpected problems. Desalt-
ing enough seawater to supply New
York City for a year, for instance,
would produce a briny effluent with
about 60 million tons of salt-more
than is used in the U.S. in two years.


Drinking

Seawater




























;02-
'. .. .. .



gi.















P I










"IN?





















































189









Spot-checking

Polluted Rivers


The pollution of rivers is one of the
major factors now limiting the water
supplies of many U.S. cities. Urban
populations daily produce about 120
gallons of waste per capital, and most
of this sewage is flushed into rivers.
In addition the waters are polluted
with industrial oils, corrosive chemi-
cals, acids, dyes and the like. One of
the newest techniques for studying
this problem is the use of infrared
photography, illustrated here. This
tool has been employed by hydrolo-
gists for only about two years, and
its potential has not been complete-
ly explored. But it is clear that infra-
red film, which reacts to heat rather
than light, can sometimes show up
pollution where ordinary film does
not. In the photograph at top, brown
sewage can be seen polluting a dark-
green river, mixing with the water as
it moves downstream. In the infra-
red photograph at bottom, the same
process shows up as a change from
blue water to white. Where the pol-
lutant has not visibly discolored the
river, infrared photography may give
scientists their first clue to the exist-
ence of a foreign substance in the
water. Making photographic surveys
from the air, scientists can do in an
hour or two what might otherwise
take 10 days. The resultant photo-
graphs do not indicate what is pollut-
ing the water (that requires labora-
tory analysis), but they suggest where
water samples should be collected.








TWO VIEWS OF POLLUTION
Effluent from the circular waste tanks of a fac-
tory enters the center of a river through a brace
of pipes (far right), as seen in both color and
infrared photographs. Since most pollutants re-
duce the oxygen supply of the water, the de-
gree of pollution can be measured by changes
in the river's dissolved oxygen content. Above
the plant, there are about five parts of dissolved
oxygen per million of water. Below the plant,
and for 10 to 20 miles downstream, the dis-
solved oxygen value is reduced nearly to zero.




mi, I






Jk

















VA-A









































7-7



yft,









































I.












The Chemical Content


of U.S. Water


Even after such purification processes as filtration,
settling, aeration and chlorination, most municipal

water supplies still contain some dissolved sub-

stances which may strongly affect the taste, the
color and the general quality of the water. Very few
dissolved substances are beneficial-with the nota-
ble exception of fluoride which, in minute traces,
strengthens children's teeth. The table below,

based on a 1962 study by the U.S. Geological Sur-


vey, compares the chemical content of public water

supplies of three municipalities-New York, St.
Louis and Tucson. The column at far right shows
which of the 100 largest American cities had the
highest amount of each substance in its water sup-

ply. The greatest concentrations of dissolved sub-
stances-as the table shows-often occur in the
Southwest, where infrequent rainfall increases the

percentages of dissolved minerals in groundwater.


L X
.2
o A W "-- ..
,,,,plb* -..I ,


SILICA



IRON



MANGANESE



CALCIUM



MAGNESIUM



SODIUM



POTASSIUM



BICARBONATE



CARBONATE



SULFATE



CHLORIDE



FLUORIDE



NITRATE



CALCIUM CARBONATE


i A'A : L..0N LE A-A N


i1 -L ;i :. ':- *' 'iftf




tAi I i6N' i AE A AN.
: -
M.AAitHL N i


.*-AN.. i. Ni .Tl

: l i> i .. a: A .. :
Mnr i ;..: .:.1LA-"







air g 3" A'



rKM: a**:L uL*Uii a
TA'. TI: Ma A. i A 1.:






rA7 n tii.: A 6SE .1 ;li. :*1
.al, a ita rilas, *.:e

;|a..:TM i iuaMr:L
- a EiCEA TAI J iae*i ..




AC.alPai...j 5 E0.M ar
"NSOt10tIt 401M 011Ct"A. 'N


20



06



0



6.9



1.0



18



5



13



0



90



38



0



9



21


55



.4



0



37



8.9



17



5.1



128



0



48



10



.4



3.2



129


35



0



0



63



10



67



24



242



0



115



16



10



3.6



198


- '- I I *


M u i*- .N AL A




: AaMNir; -: : l --i
A.-L..UENlL





tiM eM T..Nt. ..: ;.MN. aL
























-.L' A '*:i i L t L
...MC ;.-.1M A 7 It. A : EL
If a f ': i ; .:|.:. MN..SAL.:


Mr:it .: L. .a I: MNArj.AL











:,I : C A,,,.

M.,L ai U AN. ,.NC.,,


L THaM NT.. ilAL



A7.:..- iaA M r~t A, AN..i ;"r
MN. A




L.t, r**I Mf it' A.-' I.CE

N j I A j 1 A N C, A C,
I, ~Nt E i IN A I E A


72 AMARILLO
TEXAS


1.3 NEW YORK
CITY


2.6 PITTSBURGH.
PENNSYLVANIA


145 SOUTH BEND.
INDIANA


120 LUBBOCK.
TEXAS


198 LONG BEACH.
CALIFORNIA


30 LUBBOCK.
TEXAS


380 SOUTH BEND.
INDIANA


26 AUSTIN.
TEXAS


572 LUBBOCK.
TEXAS


540 PHOENIX.
ARIZONA


7 LUBBOCK
TEXAS


23 PHOENIX
ARIZONA


738 LUBBOCK.
TEXAS














The Dictionary

of the Hydrologist


A FAULT can discharge juvenile water; an oxbow is
not subject to underflow. This may sound like gib-
berish, but it is in fact a stringing together of com-
mon hydrological terms (though perhaps in a way
no hydrologist would use them). This science, like
most others, has a language all its own. Mixed in
with such technical terms as "piezometric surface"
and "zone of aeration" are other, seemingly familiar
words that take on different meanings to the hy-
drologist. Here is a glossary of water words, most
of which appear in this book.


ANNUAL FLOOD. The highest flow a river normally reaches
during the year. This point is not usually a flood in the or-
dinary meaning, since there is no overflow.
AQUIFER. A layer of rock, sand or gravel through which wa-
ter can pass (see PERMEABILITY).
ARTESIAN. Describes underground water trapped under
pressure between layers of impermeable rock. An artesian
well is one that taps artesian water.
CAPILLARITY. The force that causes water to rise in a con-
stricted space through molecular attraction, often against the
pull of gravity.
CONDENSATION. The transformation of water from a va-
por to a liquid, such as occurs when vapor in the atmosphere
is changed to droplets of rain.

CONE OF DEPRESSION. A conical dimple in the water ta-
ble surrounding a well, caused by pumping. The faster water
is pumped, the deeper and steeper the cone becomes.
CONSUMPTIVE USE. The use of water, especially in irriga-
tion, in such a way that it is converted to vapor and returned
to the atmosphere. Thus it can no longer be directly returned
to the stream or underground source from which it originated.
DESALINATION. The process of removing salt from water.
Most often it is a distillation process, in which salt water is
evaporated, then condensed, leaving the salt as residue.
DISCHARGE. The rate of flow of surface or underground wa-
ter, generally expressed in cubic feet per second. It also refers
to the emptying of a river into a lake or ocean.
DRAINAGE BASIN. The geographical area within which all
surface water tends to flow into a single river or stream via
its tributaries.
EROSION. The wearing down of the earth's surface by water.
EVAPORATION. The transformation of water into a vapor.
This physical change occurs when heat is absorbed by the
liquid, as when boiling water turns to steam.

EVAPOTRANSPIRATION. The process by which water, evap-
orated from the earth and given off by plants and animals, is
returned to the atmosphere as vapor.

FAULT. A break in the earth's crust, causing a slippage and
displacement of layers of the crust. The fault may raise a lay-
er of rock anywhere from a few inches to thousands of feet
higher than the adjoining layers. This affects both the lo-
cation and flow of the underground water, often causing
springs to appear.

FLOODPLAIN. A strip of flat land bordering a stream or river,
consisting of sediment laid down over the centuries by the


I .,















river when it moves laterally within the valley walls and is
subject to overflow during high floods.

GEOMORPHOLOGY. The study of the earth's form and its evo-
lution, both of which owe much to the action of water in riv-
ers and glaciers.
GEYSER. From an Icelandic word meaning roarerr." A natural
fountain of groundwater, forced to the surface by steam at
fairly regular intervals. Geysers occur when water deep in the
earth is converted to steam by hot volcanic rock. Steam pres-
sure then builds up against the water on top of it; this pro-
duces a spectacular eruption, after which the geyser subsides
until steam pressure builds up enough to set it off again.
GROUNDWATER. The term describing all subsurface water.
It can be found as deep as several miles.
HEADWATER. The beginning of a stream or river, its source
or its upstream portion.
HYDROLOGIC CYCLE. The process by which water constantly
circulates from the sea to the atmosphere to the earth, and
back to the sea again.
HYDROLOGY. The scientific study of the water found on the
earth's surface, in its subsurface and in the atmosphere.
HYDROLYSIS. The process by which a compound reacts chem-
ically with water and forms new substances. For example,
ferric chloride, when placed in water, forms some molecules
of both hydrochloric acid and ferric hydroxide.
INFILTRATION. The method by which surface water is soaked
into the ground through tiny openings in the soil.
JUVENILE WATER. Water that has been trapped for ages far
below the earth's surface, so that it cannot take part in the
hydrologic cycle.
LEACHING. The process by which water, seeping through earth
and rocks, dissolves and carries away certain minerals or
compounds, such as the oxides of iron.
OXBOW. A curved lake, created when a bend is abandoned by
a river that has changed its course.
PERMEABILITY. The capacity of a solid to allow the passage of
a liquid. The permeability of dirt or rock is determined by
the number of pores, or openings, their size and shape, and
the number of interconnections between them.
PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE. The theoretical level to which wa-
ter should rise under its own pressure if tapped by a well or
spring; the water level of an artesian well is one point on
such a surface.
POROSITY. The ability of rock and other earth materials to
hold water in open spaces or pores; the percentage of such
open space in relation to total volume.


PRECIPITATION. The discharge of condensed water vapor
by the atmosphere in the form of rain, hail, sleet or snow.

RIFFLE. A rock or gravel bar in a stream over which backed-up
water runs at greater than normal speed during periods of
low flow. Riffles tend to occur at relatively uniform intervals
along most streams.

SALTS. A group of soluble compounds, including sodium chlo-
ride-common table salt-dissolved from earth and rocks by
the water that flows through them (see LEACHING).

SEDIMENT. Tiny particles of dirt and rock carried by water,
which eventually settle to the bottom.

SPRING. An opening in the surface of the earth from which
groundwater flows.
STREAM ORDER. The method by which river systems are
ranked in size and complexity. Streams of the first order in-
clude spring-, rain- or snow-fed brooklets without tributaries;
streams of the second order are fed by those of the first order,
and so on. A great river such as the Mississippi may have a
stream order as high as 10.
TERRACE. A plateau on the side of a valley, representing an
old floodplain no longer reached by the river below.
TRANSPIRATION. The exhalation of water vapor by the leaves
of plants.
TSUNAMI. This Japanese word meaning "storm wave" refers
to a giant ocean wave produced by a seismic disturbance be-
neath the ocean floor. The wave is sometimes mistakenly
called a tidal wave, which actually results from the pull of the
sun and moon.
TURBIDITY. Cloudiness caused by sediment suspended in wa-
ter. Rivers are generally at their most turbid following a rain-
storm, when extraordinary amounts of sediment carried into
the stream by the runoff have not yet settled.
UNDERFLOW. The downstream movement of groundwater
through permeable rock beneath a riverbed.
WATER TABLE. The level to which groundwater rises, or the
surface of the zone of saturation.
WITHDRAWAL USE. The use of surface or underground water
that is later returned to the hydrologic cycle, although not
necessarily to the same place. An example is most water
piped into homes and industrial plants.
ZONE OF AERATION. The layer of the earth, above the water
table, containing air-filled spaces through which water seeps.
ZONE OF SATURATION. The layer beneath the zone of aera-
tion, in which all openings are filled with groundwater. The
water table is the top of the zone of saturation.






195


~Fg~;FA~c~Br*-payl(ICC~' '. ~"prr--









FURTHER READING

General

Bardach, John, Downstream: A
Natural History of the River.
Harper & Row, 1964.
Collis, John Stewart, The Mov-
ing Waters. William Sloane As-
sociates, 1955.
tDavis, Kenneth S., and John Ar-
thur Day, Water, The Mirror
of Science. Doubleday, 1961.
King, Thomson, Water, Miracle
of Nature. Macmillan, 1953.
Leopold, Luna B., and Walter B.
Langbein, A Primer on Water.
U.S. Government Printing Of-
fice, 1960.
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Water, Yearbook of Agriculture.
U.S. Government Printing Of-
fice, 1955.
Earth Sciences

tDury, G. H., The Face of the Earth.
Penguin Books, 1959.
Flint, Richard Foster, Glacial
and Pleistocene Geology. John
Wiley & Sons, 1957.
tKuenen, P. H., Realms of Water.
John Wiley & Sons, 1963.
Leet, L. D., and Sheldon Jud-
son, Physical Geology. Pren-
tice-Hall, 1965.


Leopold, Luna B., M. Gordon
Wolman and John P. Miller,
Fluvial Processes in Geomorphol-
ogy. W. H. Freeman, 1964.
Longwell, Chester R., and Rich-
ard F. Flint, Introduction to
Physical Geology. John Wiley
& Sons, 1962.
McGuinness, C. L., The Role of
Ground Water in the National
Water Situation. Water Supply
Paper 1800, U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1963.
tMeinzer, Oscar E., Hydrology.
McGraw-Hill, 1942.
Strahler, Arthur, The Earth Sci-
ences. Harper & Row, 1963.
Thornbury, William D., Region-
al Geomorphology of the United
States. John Wiley & Sons, 1965.
Wright, H. E. Jr., and Davis G.
Frey, eds., The Quaternary of
the United States. Princeton
University Press, 1965.

History

Boumphrey, Geoffrey, Engines
and How They Work. Franklin
Watts, 1960.
Brittain, Robert, Rivers, Man and
Myths. Doubleday, 1958.
de Camp, L. Sprague, The An-
cientEngineers.Doubleday,1963.


Derry, T. K., and Trevor Wil-
liams, A Short History of Tech-
nology. Oxford University Press,
1961.
Kirby, Richard Shelton, et al.,
Engineering in History. Mc-
Graw-Hill, 1956.

Waters of Life

*Ray, Peter M., The Living Plant.
Holt, Rinehart and Winston,
1963.
*Schmidt-Nielsen, Knut, Animal
Physiology. Prentice-Hall, 1964.
Wald, George, "The Origin of
Life." Scientific American, Au-
gust 1954.
Wolf, A. V., "Body Water." Sci-
entific American, November
1958.

Problems, Uses
and Management

Blake, Nelson M., Water for the
Cities. Syracuse University
Press, 1956.
Davis, Kenneth S., River on the
Rampage. Doubleday, 1953.
Hoyt, William G., and Walter B.
Langbein, Floods. Princeton
University Press, 1955.
Kneese, Allen V., "New Direc-


tions in Water Management."
Bulletin of the Atomic Scien-
tists, May 1965.
Langbein, Walter B., and Wil-
liam G. Hoyt, Water Facts for
the Nation's Future. Ronald
Press, 1959.
Leopold, Luna B., and Thomas
Maddock Jr., The Flood Con-
trol Controversy. Ronald Press,
1954.
MacKichan, K. A., and J. C.
Kammerer, Estimated Use of
Water in the United States, 1960.
Circular No. 456, free, U.S.
Geological Survey.
Nadeau, Remi, The Water Seek-
ers. Doubleday, 1950.
Swenson, H. A., and H. L. Bald-
win, A Primer on Water Quality.
U.S. Government Printing Of-
fice, 1965.
Thorne, Wynne, ed., Land and
Water Use. American Associa-
tion for the Advancement of
Science, 1963.
Wolman, Abel, "The Metabolism
of Cities." Scientific Ameri-
can, September 1965.

*Also available in paperback
edition.
tOnly available in paperback edi-
tion.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The editors of this book are especially indebted to
Charles Robinove, Hydrologist with the U.S. Geological
Survey, St. Louis, and the following other members of
its staff: in Washington, D.C.-Raymond L. Nace, Re-
search Hydrologist; Walter B. Langbein, Research
Hydrologist; Herbert A. Swenson, Research Chemist;
Walton H. Durum, Research Chemist; H. G. Thomas-
son, Engineer; Mae E. Thiesen; George C. Taylor Jr.,
Hydrologist; Frank Forrester, Chief Information Offi-
cer; Elwood Bear, Assistant Information Officer; in

Denver-Gerald M. Richmond, Research Geologist;
in Menlo Park, California-David S. Barnes, Research
Geophysicist, and David M. Hopkins, Geologist; in
Phoenix-Mary Louise Brown; James M. Cahill, Engi-
neer Technician; Eugene P. Patten Jr., Geologist in
Charge, Analogue Model Unit; Geraldine M. Robinson,
Hydraulic Engineer, and H. E. Skibitzke, Mathemati-
cian in Charge; also, at the Geological Survey of Can-
ada, to V. K. Prest, Senior Geologist, and Douglas R.
Grant, Pleistocene Section, Economic Geology Divi-
sion. In addition, the editors wish to thank the follow-
ing persons and institutions: Robert Adams, Director,
and other members of the staff of the Oriental Insti-
tute, University of Chicago; Norman Bray, Instructor
in Chemistry, Hunter College of the City University of
New York; Wallace S. Broecker, Professor of Geochem-
istry, Rhodes W. Fairbridge, Professor of Geology, and
L. Carrington Goodrich, Professor Emeritus of Chinese,
Columbia University; C. W. Brownell, General Super-
intendent, and G. T. Kalman, Production Manager, of


the DeLaval Separator Co., Poughkeepsie, New York;
Mrs. James Burke; Frank Busby, Oceanologist, U.S.
Naval Oceanographic Office, Washington, D.C.; John
Cairns Jr., Curator and Assistant Chairman, Limnol-
ogy Department, Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila-
delphia; Alfred R. Golze, Chief Engineer, California
Water Resources Agency, Sacramento; Tony Gow, Gla-
ciologist, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab-
oratory, Hanover, New Hampshire; Sheldon Judson,
Professor of Geology, Princeton University; Richard M.
Klein, Curator of Plant Physiology, New York Botan-
ical Gardens; Helmut Landsberg, Chief Climatologist,
U.S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D.C.; Garrick M.
Lightowler, Information Officer, The World Bank,
Washington, D.C.; J. W. O'Meara, Information Officer,
Office of Saline Water, Washington, D.C.; Ben Osborn,
Conservationist, Soil Conservation Magazine, U.S. De-
partment of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.; The Peace
Corps, Washington, D.C.; Knut Schmidt-Nielsen, Pro-
fessor of Physiology, Department of Zoology, Duke
University; Alan Schulman, Associate Professor of An-
cient History, Queens College; James Shepherd, Time-
Life News Service, New Delhi, India; Sardar Nirmal J.
Singh, Consul for Press and Cultural Affairs, Consulate
General of India, New York City; William G. Van Dorn,
Senior Engineer, Scripps Institute of Oceanography,
University of California, La Jolla; H.T.V. Smith,
Chairman, Department of Geology, University of Mas-
sachusetts; and Scott Warthin, Professor of Geology,
Vassar College.










INDEX

Numerals in italics indicate a photograph or painting of the subject mentioned.


A

Activated-carbon method of water
treatment, 176
Activated-sludge method of water
treatment, 176
Adhesion, 22, 56. See also Capillarity
Aeolipile, 146-147
Aeration, purification of water by, dia-
gram 174, diagram 183
Aeration, zone of, in soil,.56
Aerial photography, use in hydrology:
pollution checks, 190-191; search for
groundwater, 61
Agassiz, Jean Louis Rodolphe, 76
Agriculture, water needs of, 171, 173-
174, table 177. See also Irrigation
Alaska: Lake Schrader, 52-53; land
bridge to Asia, map 50-51
Algae, 112, 176
Allahabad, map 131, 134
Alum treatment of water, 177,178,
184-185
Amazon River, 81
Amsterdam, below sea level, 160-161
Animals, 103, 106-107, 110; desert, 108,
115, 118; functions of water in, 106-
107; and hydrologic cycle, 39; salt
content of body fluids of, 118; salt
excretion, 118-119; synthesization of
water in, 108, 118; water content of,
115; water-need adaptations, 108,
115,118
Appalachian Mountains: drainage, 92;
ice age effect on, 50-51; rebuilding
of, 86
Appalachian Plateau, 78
Aquatic life, water pollution and, 176
Aquatic plants, 112
Aqueducts, 171; ancient, 12, 124; irri-
gation, 158
Aquifer, 57-58; artesian, 59; effects of
man's use of groundwater on, 59-60
Arab-Israeli water dispute, 121
Archimedes, 145-146
Arizona: groundwater, 55, 66; irriga-
tion 174; Painted Desert, 92-93
Armadillo, 108
Arroyo, 87, 92
Artesian springs, 48, 59, 61
Artesian wells, diagram 57, 58-59, 64,
65; pressure test, 66; replenishment
of, 60
Aruba, Dutch West Indies, desalina-
tion plant, 186
Ashburton water-purification plant,
Baltimore, 184-185
Asian-Alaskan land bridge, map 50-51
Assyrian hydraulic engineering, 122-
128
Aswan High Dam, 154,171
Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, 125
Atlantic Ocean, 36-37; Gulf Stream,
41; storm, Gemini V photograph, 82
Atmosphere: average water content
of, 9, table 38, 39, 47; heat transfer
in, 30, 40-41; latent energy of mois-
ture in, 13-14; rate of turnover of
water in, 39, 42
Atmospheric pump, Newcomen's, 149
Avalanches, 77

B

Babylonia, ancient, 121, 145
Badlands, 87, 100, 101; drainage, 92-93
Baleen whale, salt content of urine of,
118
Baltimore, 165; municipal waterworks
of, 184-185
Barrel cactus, 109
Basalt, erosion of, 91
Bedrock: glacial grooves, 78; imperme-
ability of, 56, 64-65
Benares map 131, 133, 16-137
Bengal, Bay of, map 131, 142
Bethlehem Steel Corporation, 165
Bhakra Dam, India, 155
Biochemical oxygen demand, 176
Birch tree, transpiration of, 104
Black, Joseph, 12
Black Hills, artesian system of, 60
Black Warrior River, Ala., 96-97
Block glide, 77
Blood, human, water content of, 114,
115
Blood circulation, 107, 110, 116; and
capillarity, 15, 22
Blood filtration, in kidney, 116,117,
118,119
Blood plasma, chart 106


BOD (biochemical oxygen demand),
176
Body, human. See Human body
Boiling point, 9, 14, graph 14
Bone, human, water content of, 114
Bonneville, Lake, 52
Boulders, movement by ice, 76, 77, 78
Boulton, Matthew, 150
Brahmaputra River, map 131
Brain, human, water content of, 114
Brazil, droughts, 171
Bread, water content of, 106
Breathing, moisture exhalation, 108,
116
Brindley, James, 125
British Isles: canal building, 125; ef-
fect of Gulf Stream on, 41; during
ice age, 51
Buckeye, Ariz., water supply, 173

C

Cacti, 61,108-109
Calcutta, map 131, 14-14, 165
Cali, Colombia, water-purification
plant, 179
Camel: salt content of urine of, 118;
water needs of, 118
Canada: glacial shaping of landscape,
maps 50-51, 77, 78
Canals, 125-126, 154,162-163; of an-
cient civilizations, 121,122-123,
124-125, map 125; irrigation, 158-
159; locks, 162
Canyons, 75, 86, 87, 95,101
Cape Cod, origin and erosion of, 79
Capillarity, 15, 2-SS, 105, 106
Capillary fringe, groundwater, 56
Carbondale, Ill., water tanks, 180, 181
Cardenas, Garcia L6pez de, 75
Carlsbad, N. Mex., limestone caves, 80
Cascade Mountains, orographic effect
of, 40
Cattail, 102
Cavendish, Henry, 18
Caves, limestone, 63, 64; collapse of,
80; creation of, 55, 75,79-80
Celanese Corporation, 165
Cellophane, osmosis through, 104,105
Cellular respiration, 106
Central Valley, Calif., irrigation, 158-
159
Chamberlain, Mt., 52-53
Chemical composition of water, 9,18
Chemical properties of water, 9, 10-
11, 18-19, 24-25; industrial applica-
tion, 145
Chicken, water content of, 115
China: ancient river-based civiliza-
tion, 121,123-124,126; Grand Canal,
124, map 125; grandfather wells, 58;
irrigation, 158,159
Chlamydomonas, algae, 112
Chlorination of water, diagram 174,
176,177,178,179, diagram 183,185
Cities: ancient, water supply of, 121,
122-123, 124; water consumption,
178; water pollution, 190; water-
works, 178,180-187, diagrams 187-
189
Clay: erosion of, 86, 92-93; low per-
meability of, 56, diagram 59; source
of, 91
Clepsydra, water clock, 146
Cliffs, erosion of, 79, 86, 87, 98,99, 101
Climate: basic factors, 12, 13, 30,
40-41; changes in, and ice ages, 50,
76; changes in, and water supply,
maps 173
Clouds: forming of, 17, 41, 46-47; la-
tent heat of moisture in, 13
Coastline erosion, 75, 78-79, 86-87,
98-101
Cochlea, water screw, 146
Coliform count of water pollution,
table 175
Colorado Plateau, 92-93
Colorado River, 75,97,181; Glen Can-
yon Dam, 153; Hoover Dam, 151-152
Columbine, 113
Comminutor, diagram 175
Computers, use in groundwater re-
search, 61, 68-71
Condensation, release of latent heat
at, 13-14
Conductivity, electrical, 26-27
Cone of depression, around well, 60,
71
Congo River, 81
Connate water, 60
Conservation vs. water-development


projects, 153,167
Consumption of water, daily per capi-
ta figures, 171,178
Continents, origin of, 36-37
Conway, N.H., glacial boulder at,
77
Coolant, uses of water as, 30, 145,
165
Copernicus, Nicolaus, 38
Corn: transpiration of, 104; water con-
tent of kernel, 115
Coronado, Francisco Vazquez de, 75
Cottonwood, 61
Covalent bond, water molecule, 10, 18
Creep, geologic, 75, 76
Ctesibius, 146
Cutin, 112

D

Damodar Development, India, 152
Dams: of ancient civilizations, 122;
construction of, 144, 154, 155; for
flood control, 127,152; Ganga River
system, 132; for hydroelectricity,
151-152,154,156,166-169; for irriga-
tion, 156-157; multipurpose, 144,
152-153,156-157; purposes of, 156,
181; tidal power, 154, 168-169; types
of, 156
Danville, Vt., 55
Darius the Great, 124
Davis, William Morris, 81
Death Valley, 108; annual rainfall in,
40; groundwater, 62; formerly a lake
basin, 52
Debris avalanche, 77
Debris flow, 77
Deltas, 7, 83, 87, 97, 100, 101; Gan-
ga River, map 131, 142
Deluge, primordial, theory of, 36
Density, ice vs. water vs. steam, 11,
14-15, 8-30
Denver, Colo., water management,
181
Depression cone, around well, 60, 71
Desalination 172-173; brine residue,
188; cost of, 173; plants, 171, 172,
173,186-187,188; techniques, 172-
173,186, diagrams 187-189
Desert animals, 108,115,118
Desert plants, 61, 7-73, 108-109
Desert tortoise, 108
Deserts, 170; cause of temperature ex-
tremes, 30; groundwater, 54, 55, 62;
low evaporation rate of, 40
Detergents, water pollution by, 178
Dew: chemical action on rock, 90, 91;
on plant leaves, 111
Diatoms, 176
Diffusion, 104
Dikes 127,154, 160-161; of ancient
civilizations, 122, 123, 126
Dipole character of water molecule,
10-11
Distilled water, nonconductivity of,
26
Distribution of water on earth, 9, 37,
table 38, 171; of precipitation, 40
Donkey, water needs of, 115
Douglas firs, movement of water in,
105
Dowsing, 55
Drainage basin, river, 81, 86-87, 92
Drainage system, badland, 92-93
Drinking water, purification of, dia-
gram 174, 176-177, 178,179,182-185
Drought, 171; Ganga River, 139; in
U.S., maps 173,181
Dust Bowl, 171, map 173

E

Earth, 85; distribution of water on, 9,
37, table 38, 171; early evolution of,
35-36; origin of, 33-34; origin of wa-
ter on, 33-34, 35-36; percentages of
salt and fresh water on, 37, table 38;
total water supply of, 33, table 38,
171
Earth crust, water of hydration in, 36,
60
Earthworm, water content of, 115
Egypt: ancient, 121-122, 124-125, 145,
146; Aswan High Dam, 154, 171
Electric power production, 151-153,
156,166-169,173
Electrical conductivity, 26-27
Electrical polarity of water molecule,
10-11,14


Electrical-resistivity method of search
for groundwater, 61
Electrodialysis, 173, diagram 188
Energy: chemical, in hydrogen-oxygen
reaction, 10, 18; latent heat, in wa-
ter and water vapor, 12-13; position
vs. motion, of water, 82; release in
storms, 13-14, 47; use in hydrologic
cycle, 40-41, 42, 44-45
Ephemeral plants, 109
Equator, evaporation rate at, 39
Erie, Lake, 78
Erie Canal, 125
Erosion by water, 75-84, 85-101; coast-
al, 78-79, 86-87, 98-101; forms of,
75, 84, 86-87, 90-91, 100-101; glacial,
75-78, 86-89, 100-101; by rain and
runoff, 75-76, 80,85,90,92-93; rivers,
74, 75, 80-81, 82-88, 86-87, 94-97,
100-101; underground caverns, 79-80
Erosion control, 152
Euphrates River: ancient civilizations,
121, 122-123; delta, 75
Europe: glacial shaping of landscape
of, 51, 75, 77; inland waterways,
125,163
Eutrophication, 176
Evaporation: annual rate of, 39, 44;
cause of, 40; Halley's calculation of
rate of, 38-39; in hydrologic cycle,
38-39, 41, 4-47; from land ws. ocean,
39; latent heat of, 13, 107; uneven
distribution of, 39-40. See also Per-
spiration; Transpiration
Evapotranspiration, 39
Expansion of water at low tempera-
ture, 9, 11, 14, 28-31
Eye, lubrication by tear-gland excre-
tion, 116

F

Faiyum, Egypt, irrigation of, 122
Finger Lakes, N.Y., origin of, 78
Fish: water content of, 115; and water
pollution, 176
Flash-distillation process, 172,173,
186, diagram 187; plant, 186-187
Flash floods, 126
Flocculation, 184
Flood control, 127,152, 153, 156,160-
161; in ancient civilizations, 122,
124,126
Floodplains, 75, 78-79, 80, 86-87, 96-
97,100-101,126-127; Ganga River,
139; Nile, 121-122
Floods: river, 58, 97 121-122,123
126, diagram 127, i39; tidal, 127,
160-161
Floodwalls, 127
Florida, limestone caves, 80
Flowmeter, uses of, 66-67
Food, water content of, 106,115
Fort Peck, Mont., dam construction,
144
Freeport, Texas, desalination plant,
186-187,188
Freezing: desalination by, 172, 188,
diagram 189; expansion at, 9, 11, 14-
15, 28, 30-31; release of latent heat
at, 12-13; temperature, 9, 11, 14,
graph 14
Fresh water, percentage of total water,
37, table 38
Frog, water content of, 115
Fruit, water content of, 115
Fumaroles, 48, 49

G

Ganga Canal, map 131
Ganga (Ganges) River, 128,129
map 131, 13-141, 142; bridges, 140;
delta, map 1 142; depth of, 140;
flooding, 133,139 fountainhead,
10; irrigation, 135, 139; pollution,
136; rate of descent, 132; rate of
flow, 133; silting, 132, 134, 139, 140,
142; width of, 140
Gangetic Plain, map 131,138-139,
Gangotri Glacier, 128, 180-181
Gemini V, 10, 32
General Electric Company, plant, 166
Geysers, 48, 55
Ghana, Volta River Project, 152
Glacial lakes, map 51,75, 78, 100
Glaciers, 42, maps 50-51, 86-89,100-
101, 180-131; erosive force of, 75-76,
77-78, 86, 88-89; future of remaining,











78; movement of, 76, 77, diagram 88;
as river source, 180; water content
of, 37, table 38
Glen Canyon Dam reservoir, 153
Grand Canal, China, 124, map 125
Grand Canyon, 75,153
Grand Coulee Dam, 167
Grandfather wells, in China, 58
Granite, erosion of, 91
Gravel, permeability of, 56, 65
Gravitational effects on water, 55
Gravity dams, 156
Greasewood, 61
Great Lakes, 51, 125, 126; ports, 163
Great Salt Lake, 52
Greece, ancient, 124, 146
Greenland icecap, 88
Groundwater, 42, 55-62, 63-65; absorp-
tion by plants, 104,11S-113; acces-
sibility of, 55, 61; capillary action,
15, 56; carbonic acidity of, 79; chem-
ical action on rock, 79, 90, 91; con-
tamination of, 72; in deserts, 54, 55;
distribution of, 55, 62; existing
amount, 9, 37, table 38, 48, 55; flow
simulation, by computer, 70-71; flow
tests, 66-67; modern methods of
detection and mapping, 61, 62, 66-
71; movement of, 55-56, 57, 58,
64-65; overdrafts of, 59-60, 64; pres-
sure of, diagram 57, 58-59, 64, 65;
pressure test, 66; regional analysis,
68-71; replenishment by precipita-
tion, 39, 48, 55-56, 57, 64; role in
hydrologic cycle, 39, 41, 48-49; seep-
age into ocean, 41, 64, 65; surface
signs of, 55, 61; trapped connatee,
juvenile), 48, 60; U.S. supply, 62;
zone of aeration, 56; zone of satura-
tion, 56, 64
Groundwater table. See Water table
GuantAnamo Naval Base, desalination
plant, 173
Gulf of Aqaba, desalination plants, 172
Gulf of Mexico, 51, 92, 100; Mississippi
River sediment deposits in, 97, 100
Gulf Stream, 41
Gulls, adaptation to seawater, 118, 119

H
Halley, Edmund, 38-39
Harappan civilization, India, 123
Hardwar, India, map 131
Harvey, William, 38
Havasu, Lake, Colo., 97
Hawaii: 1946 tsunami flood, 127; pre-
cipitation on, 40
Heat, latent, 12-13; of water, 13, 107
Heat capacity, 12; of water, 9, 12-13,
15, 30; industrial uses, 145, 148
Heat transfer, global, 40-41
Henle's loop, 117
Henry Mountains, Utah, erosion of, 85
Heppner, Ore., 1903 flash flood at, 126
Hero of Alexandria, 146-147
Herodotus, quoted, 121
Herring, water content of, 115
Herring gull, 119; salt gland of, 119
Himalayas, map 131; Ganges River,
128, 129-188, 134; monsoon rains,
120; waterfall, 74
Hindenburg, dirigible, explosion of, 18
Hohokam Indians, 171,174
Hooghly River, map 131, 142-14
Hoover Dam, 151-152, 167
Horn, mountain formation, 78
Horse: salt content of urine of, 118;
water needs of, 118
Horton, Robert E., 81
Hot Springs, 59
Hudson River, pollution of, 175,181
Human body: balance of water in, 107,
110; circulation of fluids in, 116,
117 (see also Blood circulation);
daily fluid demand of, 108,109,115;
dehydration symptoms, 107; distri-
bution of fluids in, chart 106; excess
of water in, symptoms, 107; excre-
tion of fluids, 108, 116-117; exhala-
tion, water content of, 108, 116;
functions of water in 106-107, 110,
116; perspiration, 107, 108, 116; salt
content of fluids in, 107-108, 110, 116,
118; salt excretion, 117; sources of
water in, 106, 115; synthesization of
water in, 10, 106, 115; temperature
control in, 106-107, 116; water con-
tent of, 3&, 103, chart 106,114, 115
Hurricanes: floods, 127; moisture con-
tent of, 33
Hwang Ho (Yellow River), map 125;
floods, 126; river-based ancient
civilization, 121, 123-124
Hydration: desalination by, 188; water
of, in earth crust, 36, 60
Hydraulic engineering, 125,127,144,
151-154, 155-19, 176-178,179-189;
ancient China, 58, 121, 14, map
125; ancient Egypt, 122,124-125,
145; ancient Rome, 121,124,-145-


146; Harappan, 123; in Mesopo-
tamia, 122-123,145. See also Canals;
Dams; Desalination; Dikes; Flood
control; Hydroelectric power; Irriga-
tion; Purification plants; Reservoirs;
Waterwheels; Waterworks
Hydroelectric power, 145, 151-153, 154,
156; plants, 152,166-169
Hydrogen, in water molecule, 9,18;
chemical affinity for oxygen, 9-10,
18
Hydrogen bond, intermolecular, 14-
15, 20-21, 22, 28, 28, 30,105
Hydrologic cycle, 33, 38-40, 41, 42,
171; energy used in, 40-41, 42, 44-45;
evaporation, 38-39, 41, 44-47; ice
age as aberration in, 50-51; per-
centage of water engaged in, 42;
precipitation, 37-40, 41, 46-47; role
of atmosphere, 39, 40-41, 42, 47; role
of groundwater, 39, 41, 48-49; role of
lakes, 39, 41, 52-5; role of oceans,
38, 39, 41, 44-45; role of rivers, 37-
38,39,41,43
Hydrologic engine of heat transfer,
40-41
Hypothalamus, 107, 114



Ice, 17; erosive force of, 75-78, 86,
88-89, 90, 91; lighter than water, 9,
11-12, 14, 28-29; low density of, 11, 14-
15, 28-80; melting, and latent heat
absorption, 13; presence in solar
system, 34, 35
Ice ages, 50-51, 76-77, 79
Ice crystals, structure of, 14, 20, 28, 30
Ice sheets, glacial ages, map 50, 75,
76-77
Icecaps, polar regions, 88; water con-
tent of, 37, table 38
Iguazt Falls, 94-95
Illinois, 1965 floods, 126
India: Bhakra Dam, 155; Damodar
Development, 152; Ganga River
system, 128, 19-143; Harappan civ-
ilization, 123; Himalayan rivers, map
131; water dispute with Pakistan,
121
Indiana, limestone caves, 80
Indus River, map 131; ancient civiliza-
tion, 121,123
Industrial uses of water, 9, 145, 148-
153, 154, 164-165, 173, 174; demand
in U.S., 165,171, table 177; for waste
disposal, 165, 174, 176,190-191. See
also Hydroelectric power; Steam-
generated electricity
Infrared photography, pollution
checks by, 190-191
Intermolecular bonding, 14-15, 20-21,
22, 2S, 28, 80,105
International Hydrological Decade,
177
Ionic bond, 11
Iowa, 1965 flood, 126
Iron treatment of water, 177
Irrigation, 152,153,154,156-159,172,
173-174; in ancient civilizations,
122,128, 124,145-146; flow test, 66;
Gangs River system, 135,189
Israel, water management in, 172; de-
salination plants, 171, 172; irriga-
tion, 154, 172; water dispute with
Arabs, 121

J
Jamuna River, map 131,134-155
Jellyfish, water content of, 115
Jerusalem, 172
Jordan River, 172
Jupiter, ice on, 35
Juvenile water, 60

K
Kangaroo rat: adaptation to aridity, 108,
115, 118; salt content of urine of,
118; water content of body, 115
Kansas, water dispute with Nebraska,
68-69, 71
Kansas City, water pollution,
185
Karst topography, 80
Kaskawulsh Glacier, Yukon, 88-89
Kelleys Island, Lake Erie, 78
Kentucky, limestone caves, 80
Kettle lakes, 78
Kidneys, animal, 118,119
Kidneys, human: regulation of, 107;
role and functioning of, 116,117,
118; water content of, 114
Kosi River, Nepal, 180
Kuiper, Gerard P., 34
Kuwait, desalination plant, 171
Kweichow province, China, irriga-
tion, 158


L
Labrador, 41
Lakes, 42, 48, 52-53, 130; amount of
water in, 37, table 38; as exposures
of water table, 56-57, 61; of glacial
origin, map 51, 75, 78, 100; kettle,
78; life cycle of, 52; oxbow, 87, 96-
97, 100, 101; pollution of, 175-176;
role in hydrologic cycle, 39, 41, 52;
saline, table 38, 52, 86-87, 100-101
Land: annual rate of evaporation from,
39; annual rate of precipitation
on, 39; distribution of precipitation
on, 40; geographic variability of
evaporation from, 40
Land plants, 112, 118. See also Plants
Land reclamation projects, 154, 160-
161
Land snails, desert, 108
Landslides, 77
Langbein, Walter B., 82
Latent heat, 12-13; of water, 13, 107
Lava, 94
Laval, Carl Gustaf Patrik de, 150
Leaves: function of, 113; transpiration
from, 103-104, 105,111,113
Leptis Magna, Libya, 121
Levees, 127
Life: dependence on water, 9, 24, 103,
106, 110; origin of, 9,103; in solar
system, 33, 35
Limestone: erosion of, 79, 91, 94; po-
rosity of, 56
Limestone caves. See Caves
Lizards, desert, 108
Lobster, water content of, 115
London: artesian wells, 59; municipal
waterworks of, 182-185; water pollu-
tion, 175
Los Angeles, water supply, 170,171,
173
Los Angeles County, flood control, 127

M
Mackenzie Valley, Canada, 78
Magnesium mining, from seawater,
164-165
Mammals, water needs of, 115
Man. See Human body
Marchantia, liverwort, 112
Marine birds, salt glands of, 118,119
Mariotte, Edmi, 38
Mars, 85; ice on, 34; water vapor in at-
mosphere of, 34
Marsh plants, 112
Matterhorn, 75
Mauritania, water shortage in, 171-172
Mead, Lake, 151
Meat, water content of, 106
Mediterranean Sea, 39
Mekong River basin development, 152-
153
Membranes of living organisms, and
osmosis, 104-105
Memphis, Egypt, ancient hydraulic
works, 122
Menes, Pharaoh, 122
Mercury, 35
Mesa, 100-101
Mesopotamia, ancient, 121,122-123,
145
Mesquite, 61
Metabolism, role of water in, 106-107
Miami, Fla., groundwater, 55
Middle East, agriculture, 173
Mineral springs, 55
Mining, uses of water in, 164-165
Minnesota, 1965 floods, 126
Mississippi River, 81, 92,100,128;
floods, 126; sediment deposited into
Gulf of Mexico by, 97, 100; trade
route, 125
Missouri, 1965 floods, 126
Moeris, Lake, Egypt, 122
Mohenjo-Daro; ancient hydraulic
works at. 123
Molecular bonding: covalent, 10, 18;
ionic, 11
Molecular motion, 14-15, 20, 28, 29, 80,
148
Molecule, water: bonding of atoms in,
10, 18; bonding with other mole-
cules, 14-15, 20-21, 22, 28, 28, 80,
105; composition of, 9, 18; electrical
polarity of, 10-11, 14; shape of, 10;
splitting, experiment, 18-19; struc-
ture of, 9, 10, 11; synthesization of,
9-10,18
Monsoon rains, 120,188,139
Mont Blanc, glacial erosion of, 88
Moon, theory of origin of, 37
Moraines, 78, 86-89, 100
Mountains: building, 86; glacial erosion
of, 78, 86-89, 100-101; landslides, 77;
orographic effect of, 40; water ero-
sion, 84, 85-87, 98-95, 100-101
Multipurpose water-development proj-
ects, 152-153
Multistage flash-distillation process,


172, 173, 186, diagram 187; plant,
186-187
Mumford, Lewis, 148
Muscle, human, water content of, 114
Muscle Shoals, Ala., 152

N
Nahrwan Canal, 123
Nantucket Island, surf erosion on, 79
National Reclamation Act, 174
Navigation control, 152,156
Nebraska, water dispute with Kan-
sas, 68-69, 71
Neolithic Age, 121
Nepal, 128; monsoon rains, 120
Nephrons, 117
Neptune, ice on, 35
Netherlands: flood disaster of 1953,
160; new dike, 160-161
New Delhi, map 131
New England: glacial boulders, 77, 78;
glacial origin of hills, 51; ground-
water, 55; shoreline erosion, 79
New Jersey, water pollution in, 174-
175,176
New Mexico: arroyo drainage, 92;
Carlsbad caves, 80; changes in hy-
drologic cycle of, 52; groundwater,
55
New York City: cost of water in, 173;
water shortage, 181
New York State, origin of Finger
Lakes, 78
New York State Barge Canal, 125
Newcomen, Thomas, 149
Newton, Sir Isaac, 38
Niagara Falls, 8, 94, 156; hydroelectric
plant, 151
Nile River: ancient civilization, 121-
122, 128; ancient canal to Red Sea,
124-125; Aswan High Dam, 154, 171
Nineveh, ancient hydraulic works at,
128
Nitrate pollution, 176
Norman River, Australia, 48
Norse mill, 147
North America, glacial shaping of
landscape of, maps 50-51, 75, 77, 78
North Platte River, flooding, diagram
127
Norway, effects of Gulf Stream on, 41
Nouakchott, Mauritania, 172
Nuclear desalination plants, 173

O
Oasis, 54
Ocean currents, 40, 41
Ocean waves, erosive force of, 75, 78-
79, 86-87, 98-101
Oceans, 44-45; annual rate of evapora-
tion from, 39, 44; annual rate of pre-
cipitation over, 39; change of level
during ice ages, 51; distribution of
precipitation over, 40; geographic
variability of evaporation from, 39-
40; origin of basins of, 36-37; origin
of life in, 9, 103; origin of water in,
36; role in hydrologic cycle, 38, 39,
41; salinity of, 36,110,118; seepage
of groundwater into, 41, 64, 65; water
content of, 37, table 38, 42, 44
Ocotillo, 108
One-celled organisms, 103,112
Origin of water on earth, 33-34, 35-36
Orographic effect on precipitation, 40
Osmosis, 104,105,106; reverse, de-
salination by, 188
Osmotic pressure, 105
Ounianga Kebir, oasis, 54
Overshot waterwheel, 151
Owens River, Calif., 170
Oxbow lakes, 87, 96-97, 100, 101
Oxygen, in water molecule, 9, 18;
chemical affinity for hydrogen, 9-10,
11,18
Ozark National Forest, limestone cave,
68

P
Pacific Coast, rainfall, 40
Pacific Ocean, 36-37
Painted Desert, 92-98
Pakistani-Indian water dispute, 121
Palm tree, 61
Pa Mong, proposed dam at, 152-153
Panama Canal, 154,163
Papin, Denis, 148-149
Paris: artesian wells, 59; water pollu-
tion, 175
Patna, India, map 131,140
Pea weevil, water content of, 115
Penstocks, 151
Perraudin, J. P., 76
Perrault, Pierre, 38
Persian Gulf: evaporation from, 39;
shifting of shoreline, 75











Perspiration, 107,108,116
Phloem, 113
Phoenix, Ariz., irrigation, 174
Phosphate pollution, 176
Photosynthesis, 103, 112
Phreatophytes, 61
Physical properties of water, 9,11-15,
0-28, s8-81; industrial application,
30,145,148, 185
Physical states of water, 16,17
Pineapple, water content of, 115
Pipes, bursting of, after freeze, 11, 30
Pith tissue, 118
Planets: origin of, 34; water on, 33,
34-85
Plankton, 176
Plant sap, tensile strength of, 105
Plants, 103,110, 111-113; absorption of
water by, 55, 56, 112-118; aquatic,
11; of arid regions, 61, 7-73, 108-
109; capillary action in, 15, 22, 105;
food synthesis in, 103, 112, 113;
functions of water in, 103, 106, 113;
and hydrologic cycle, 39, 41; land,
112, 11; movement of water in,
104-106, 113; osmosis in, 104-105;
semiaquatic, 11; transpiration of,
103-104, 105, 110,113; water content
of fruit and seeds, 115
Plateau, erosion of, 86, 87, 9-93, 95,
101
Pleistocene ice epoch, 50, 52, 76-77
Pliny the Elder, quoted, 124
Pluto, 35
Pocket mouse, 108
Pollution. See Water pollution
Portland, Ore., reservoir system,
180-181
Potassium, effect on water, 18
Potomac River, 82
Poughkeepsie, N.Y., sewage-treatment
plant, diagram 174
Precipitation: annual rate of, 39; in
hydrologic cycle, 37-40, 41, 46-47;
on land sr. ocean, 39; orographic
effect on, 40; replenishment of
groundwater by, 39, 48, 55-56, 57,
64;uneven distribution of, 40; in
U.S., average annual, 40
Protoplasm, human, salt content of,
110
Purification plants, diagram 174,
176-177,179,18S-185. See also
Treatment of water

R
Rain: carbon dioxide content of, 79,
175; chemical action on rock, 79, 90;
erosive force of, 75-76, 80, 85, 90,
98-93; in hydrologic cycle, 37-40,
41, 46-47,48; monsoon, 1S0,1 8, 139
Rain forest, evaporation rate of, 40
Rainbow Bridge National Monument,
153
Rance River, France, tidal-power dam,
168-189
Red Sea: ancient canal from Nile to,
124-125; evaporation from, 39;
salinity of, 39-40
Reptiles, salt glands of, 118
Reservoirs, 127,152-153,154,156,
180-181; of ancient civilizations, 122;
uses of, 153
Reverse osmosis, desalination by, 188
Rhine-Rhone Canal, 125
Rhizoids, 11
River-based ancient civilizations,
121-124
River systems, 81-82, 92
Rivers, 37, 48, 80-83; amount of water
held in, 37, table 38, 42; biological
balance of, 175-176; channel-shifting
of, 81, 83, diagram 96, 100-101;
classification of, 81; erosive force of,
74, 75, 80-81, 82-8, 88-87, 94-97,
100-101; as exposures of water table,
56-57, 61; flooding, 58, 97, 121-122,
123, 126, diagram 127, 139; gaining,
64; Ganga, 128 19-141,142; largest,
81; life cycle of, 78-79, 81; losing,
65; meandering of, 78-79, 83, 86-87,
96-97, 100-101; mileage in U.S., 42; num-
ber of, 42; pollution of, 165,174-176,
190-191; position ener of, 82; re-
plenishment by ground water, 55,
7, 64; role in hydrologic cycle, 37-38,
39, 41, s4; seepage into water table,
64, 65; self-purification of, table 175;
sources of, 130; theory of energy-loss
of, 82-83; tributaries, 81-82
Rock: dehydration of, 36; erosion by
water and ice, 74, 75,77-78,79-80,
86, 88, 90-95,99; porous vs. imper-
meable, 56; sedimentary, 90; vol-
canic, 94, 95,99; water of hydration
in,36,60
Rockaway River, N.J., 175.
Rockfall, 77
Rocky Mountains, age of, 100
Rome, ancient, hydraulic engineering


of, 121, 124,145-146,147
Roosevelt, Theodore, 174
Roosevelt Dam, 174
Root systems, 103, 110, 112, 118
Rotterdam, below sea level, 161
Ruhr Valley, antipollution program of,
177
Runoff, 39, 56, 80; erosion by, 85, 93-93
Rye plant, root system of, 112

S
Sacramento River, Shasta Dam,
156-157,159
Sahara Desert: groundwater, 54, 55;
oasis, 54
St. Elias Mountains, Yukon, 88-89
St. Lawrence Seaway, 125-126, 163;
Welland Canal locks, 163
Salinity: of oceans, 36, 110, 118; of Red
Sea, 39-40; of some lakes, cause of,
52
Salt: in animal body fluids, 118; excre-
tion in urine, 117-118; in human body
fluids, 107-108,110,116,117,118;
molecular bond of, and dissolution
in water, 11
Salt bed, 100, 101
Salt cedar trees, 7S-78
Salt crystals, erosive force of, 90, 91
Salt glands, 118; of herring gull, 119
Salt grass, 61
Salt lakes, table 38, 52, 86-87,
100-101
Salt River, 171, 174
Salt water: in brackish zones, 64, 65;
percentage of total water, 37, table
Sand, permeability of, 56, 65
Sandstone, porosity of, 56, diagram 59
San Gabriel River, 127
San Joaquin Valley, sinking of, 66
Saturation, zone of, groundwater, 56,
64
Saturn, ice on, 35
Savery, Thomas, 149
Schrader, Lake, 52-58
Seawater: animal adaptations to, 118,
119; as aqueous solution, 11;
distillation (see Desalination);
magnesium mining from, 184-165;
salinity of, 36, 110, 118
Sedimentary rock, 90
Seeds: adaptation to aridity, 108;
water content of, 115
Segasser, Ernest P., 174
Seovia, Spain, ancient aqueduct at,
Seine, pollution of, 175
Seismic-refraction method of search
for groundwater, 61
Self-purification of water, 175
Semiaquatic plants, 112
Sennacherib, King 123
Sewage: pollution by, 176, 190;
treatment of, diagram 174, 176
Sewers, in ancient civilizations, 123
Shaduf, water-raising device, 145
Shale: erosion of, 85, 9-93, 94;
porosity of, 65
Shasta Dam, 156-157,159
Shenandoah Valley, limestone caves,
80
Shipping, 125-126,162-163; ancient,
124-125; Ganga River system,
140-148
Shoreline erosion, 75, 78-79, 86-87,
98-101
Silicate rock, 36
Silt: permeability of, 56; removal
from drinking water, 178,185-184,
185
Silt bed, 93
Silting, 75, 81, 83,96-97; Ganga River,
132,134,139,140,142
Single-celled organisms, 103, 112
Snow: erosive force of, 88,91; in
hydrologic cycle, 37-40, 52
Snowflakes, structure of, 14
Sodium chloride, 11. See also Salt
Soil: amount of moisture held in, ta-
ble 38; capillary fringe, 56; capillary
movement of water through, 15;
penetration by water, 38, 39, 41,
55-56, 64; porosity of, 56, diagram
59, 65; zone of aeration, 56; zone of
saturation, 56
Solar distillation, 188, diagram 189
Solar system: origin of, 34; water in,
33, 34-5
Solvent power of water, 9,10-11, 24-
25,145
South Dakota, Black Hills artesian
system, 60
Southeast Asia, Mekong River basin
project, 152-153
Speyside, Scotland, 171
Springs, 48, 56, 57, 64; 130; ancient
theories on, 37-38; artesian, 48, 59,
61; desert, 54; mineral, 55; replen-
ishment of, 38, 55; thermal, 59;


types of, 61
Squall line, 46-47
Stability, chemical, of water molecule,
9,10,18
Stack, rock formation, 79
Stalactites, 55, 79-80
Stalagmites, 55, 68, 79-80
Steam: latent heat of, 13; volume in-
crease, 148
Steam engine: invention and develop-
ment of, 146-147, 148-150; recipro-
cating, 148, 151
Steam-generated electricity, 151,152,
167; water consumption for, table
177
Steam pump, Savery's, 149
Steam turbine, 150-151; wheels, 166
Steel production, water as coolant in,
165
Stomata, 103, 118; of desert plants,
108
Storms, SS, 41, 46-47; coastline ero-
sion by, 79, 98
Streams, 80; classification of, 81. See
also Rivers
Subsurface water, existing amount of,
9, 37, table 38. See also Ground-
water
Suez Canal, 168-168
Sulfur mining, use of water in, 164
Sun: origin of, 34; role in hydrologic
cycle, 40-41,42, 44-45
Sunflower seed, water content of,
115
Surface tension of water, 15, 20-1,
22,3
Surface water, existing amount of, 9,
37, table 38
Swamps, 56, 57, 61; plant, 103
Sweat, composition of, 116
Sweat glands, 116
Sycamore, 61
Symi, desalination plant, 188
Synthesization of water, 18; in desert
animals, 108,118; in human body,
10,106,115

T
Tahoe, Lake, sewage-treatment plant,
176
Tallulah, La., groundwater, 55
Tata Works, India, 185
Tear glands, 116
Tennessee, limestone caves, 80
Tennessee River, navigability of,
152
Tennessee Valley Authority, 152, 153;
Wheeler Dam, 166-187
Tensile strength of water, 105
Testing of water, 175-176, 185, 190-
191; coliform count table 175
Thames River, map 182,183; pollution
of, 175
Thermal springs, 59
Thirst 107, 114
Thunderstorms, 46-47; energy of, 13-
14, 47; number of, 47
Tidal-power dam, 154,188-169
Tierra del Fuego Indians, 107
Tigris River: ancient civilizations, 121,
122-123; delta, 75
Tokyo, 1964 drought, 171
Tomato, water content of, 106,115
Tooth enamel, water content of,
115
Towboats, modern, 126
Transpiration of plants, 103-104, 105,
111
Treatment of water, 176-177,178,179,
182-185; activated-carbon method,
176; activated-sludge method, 176;
aeration, diagram 174, diagram 183;
alum treatment, 177, 178,184-185;
chlorination, diagram 174,176,177,
178,179, diagram 183,185; indus-
trial wastes, 176; iron treatment,
177; purification plants, diagram
174,179, 182-185; sewage, diagram
174,176
Trees, movement of water in, 22, 104-
106
Tsunami, 127
Tucson, Ariz., groundwater, 55
Turbines. See Steam turbine; Water
turbines
TVA, 152,153; Wheeler Dam,
166-167

U
UNESCO, 177
United States: average annual pre-
cipitation, 40; canals, 125; climatic
conditions and water supply, maps
173; daily industrial water demand,
165; electric power production, 151,
167; flood losses and flood-control
costs, 127; glacial shaping of land-
scape of, maps 50-51, 77, 78; ground-


water supply, 62; navigable water-
way mileage in, 125; river mileage
in, 42; water consumption, ta-
ble 177, 178; water disputes be-
tween regions, 68-69, 71; water use
for irrigation, 159, 173-174,
table 177
Uranus, ice on, 35
Uremia, 116
Urey, Harold C., 36
Urine, 116; salt content of, 117,
118
U.S. Geological Survey, 66, 82; region-
al groundwater analysis by,
68-71
U.S. Office of Saline Water, 188

V
Valleys: creation of, 75, 78-79, 80, 81,
86-87, 100-101; glacial, 78, 88-89
Vegetables, water content of, 106,
115
Venus, 85; water vapor in cloud layer
of, 34-35
Virginia, limestone caves, 80
Vitruvian wheel, 147
Vitruvius, 146, 147
Volcanic action, freeing of juvenile wa-
ter by, 60
Volcanic rock, 94, 95, 99
Volta River Project, Ghana, 152
Volume changes, ice, water, steam, 9,
11,14-15, 28-31,148

W
Waialeale, Mt., Hawaii, precipitation
on, 40
Wapinger Creek, N.Y., pollution test,
Warm Springs, Ga., 59
Water-borne transportation, 125-126,
140-148, 16-1688; in ancient civiliza-
tions, 122,123, 124-125
Water clocks, 146
Water droplets in atmosphere, 39, 40-
41; latent heat of, 13
Water drops, surface tension of, 15,
20-21
Water mills, 147,148
Water molecule. See Molecule
Water pollution, 72, 171, 174-177, ta-
W, Iagricultural fertilizers, 176;
chemical (inorganic), 174-176,190;
coliform count, table 175; domestic
wastes, 174, 176, 190; Ganga River,
136; health hazards of, 174; indus-
trial wastes, 165,174,176,190-191;
organic, 174, 175, 176, 178; tests,
175-176 185,190-191. See also Treat-
ment of water
Water screw, 145-146
Water-storage tanks, 180, 181
Water supply for human needs, 153,
156, 171-178, 179-191; agricultural
consumption, 171,173-174, table
177; cost, 173; daily per capital con-
sumption figures, 171, 178; domestic
consumption, 165, 174, table 177;
industrial consumption, 165, 171,
174, table 177; shortages, 171-172,
181; in United States, maps 173, ta-
ble 177. See also Treatment of wa-
ter; Water pollution; Waterworks,
municipal
Water table, 56, 57, 64-85; aquifer, 57;
cone of depression, 60, 71; contour,
57-58, 61; contour mapping, 67,68-
71; man's interference with, 59-60,
64; rise and fall of, 57-58; tests, 66-
87
Water turbines, 151-15, 166-168
Water vapor: in atmosphere, 39, 40-41,
44, 46-47; latent heat of, 13-14; pres-
ence in solar system, 34-35
Waterfalls, 8; creation of, 94; ero-
sive force of, 74,82, 83, 86-87,
94-95
Watermelon, water content of, 115
Waterwheels, 145,148
Waterworks, municipal, 178,180-187,
diagrams 187-189; ancient cities,
121,122-123,124
Watt, James, 149-150
Weather, basic factors in, 12, 13, 30,
40-41
Webster, S. Dak., desalination plant,
188
Weizsacker, Carl F. von, 34
Welland Canal, locks, 162
Wells, 55, 56, 57, 65; ancient theories
on, 37-38; artesian, 48, diagram 57,
58-59, 60, 64, 65, 66; cone of depres-
sion around, 60, 71; depth and yield,
55; drilling, 59; replenishment of,
38, 56, 60; tests of pressure and flow,
66-67
Whale: adaptation to seawater, 118;
salt content of urine of, 118


i









Wheeler Dam, 166-167
Whippany River, N.J., 175
William the Conqueror,
148
Williams Fork River, dam on,
181
Willow, 61
Willow Creek, Ore., 1903 flash flood
of, 126


Wilson Dam, 152
Winds: role in evaporation, 39, 40-41;
role in precipitation, 40-41
Wisconsin, 1965 floods, 126
Wollman, Nathaniel, 174
Wrightsville Beach, N.C., desalina-
tion plant, 188
Wyoming, Black Hills artesian
system, 60


Xerophytes, 61
Xylem, 118


Yangtze River, map 125, 159


Yellow River. See Hwang Ho
Yellowstone Plateau, 95
Yugoslavian Karst region,


z
Z
Zarchin, Alexander, 172


PICTURE CREDITS
Credits for pictures from left to right are separated by commas, top to bottom by dashes.

Cover: John Severson.

CHAPTER 1: 8-Marta Huth. 10-Drawings by Joseph Del Gaudio. 14-Drawing
by Joseph Del Gaudio. 17 through 31-Photos by Ken Kay, drawings by George
V. Kelvin.
CHAPTER 2: 32-NASA. 35-Drawing by John Condon. 38-Courtesy Dr. Ray-
mond L. Nace. 41-Drawing by John Condon. 43-David Moore from Black Star.
44,45-William Vandivert. 46,47-Otto Hagel-Ansel Adams from Magnum. 48-
John Dominis. 49-Brian Brake from Magnum. 50, 51-Drawings by Matt Greene.
52, 53-Fritz Goro.
CHAPTER 3: 54-Emil Schulthess, Conzett & Huber, from Black Star. 56, 57-
Drawings by John Condon. 59-Drawings by Joseph Del Gaudio. 61-Drawings
by Nicholas Fasciano. 63-A. Y. Owen. 64, 65-Drawings by Joseph Lombardero.
66-U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division-Joe Munroe. 67, 68, 69-
Ken Kay. 70-Joe Munroe-drawings by Lowell Hess. 71-Drawing by Lowell
Hess, Ken Kay. 72-Ken Kay-U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division.
73-Ken Kay.
CHAPTER 4: 74-James Burke. 76-Drawing by Donald and Ann Crews. 77, 78,
79-Drawings by Nicholas Fasciano. 81, 83-Drawings by Nicholas Fasciano cour-
tesy Dr. Luna B. Leopold. 85-Ken Kay. 86, 87-Drawing by Ken Fagg. 88, 89-
Drawings by Donald and Ann Crews, Dr. Austin Post. 90-Official U.S. Navy
Photograph. 91-Steven C. Wilson from Meridian (4)-Alicia Hills Moore, A. Y.
Owen. 92, 93-Drawing by Donald and Ann Crews, Steven C. Wilson from Meri-
dian-N. R. Farbman. 94, 95-Drawing by Donald and Ann Crews, Frank Scher-
schel, John P. Porter. 96, 97-William A. Garnett, U.S. Geological Survey, Water
Resources Division, drawings by Donald and Ann Crews. 98, 99-Drawings by
Donald and Ann Crews, Steven C. Wilson from Meridian, John Dominis. 100, 101
-Drawing by Ken Fagg.


CHAPTER 5: 102-Steven C. Wilson from Meridian. 105-Drawing by Nicholas
Fasciano. 106-Figure by Leslie Martin, chart by James Alexander. 111-Ansel
Adams from Magnum. 112 through 119-Drawings by Leslie Martin.
CHAPTER : 120-PierreStreitfrom BlackStar. 123-Drawing by Nicholas Fasciano.
124-Culver Pictures, Inc. 125-Drawing by James Alexander. 127-Drawings by
James Alexander. 129-Vidyavrata from Frances L. Orkin. 130, 131-Photos by
James Burke, drawings by Otto van Eersel. 132-Marilyn Silverstone from Mag-
num. 133-James Burke-Leonard Wolfe. 134,135-James Burke. 136, 137-Leon-
ard Wolfe, Maitland A. Edey. 138-Raghubir Singh from Nancy Palmer Photo
Agency. 139-Howard Sochurek. 140, 141-E. Newby-Sunil Janah, Raghubir
Singh from Nancy Palmer Photo Agency. 142, 143-E. Boubat-Rialitis.
CHAPTER7:144-MargaretBourke-White.146-The Bettmann Archive. 148-Draw-
ingbyDonaldandAnnCrews.151-Drawingby Donald and Ann Crews. 152-Draw-
ing by George V. Kelvin. 155-Howard Sochurek. 156, 157-Andreas Feininger.
158, 159-Eastfoto, Dmitri Kessel. 160, 161-Foto KLM Aerocarto N.V., except
center: Aero-Camera, Luchthaven-Rotterdam. 162,163-Albert Fenn, John Domi-
nis. 164, 165-J. R. Eyerman-Ralph Crane, Howard Sochurek. 166, 167-Left:
Charles Krutch-Ted Russell; right: Gordon Coster. 168, 169-Ben Martin.
CHAPTER 8: 170-Otto Hagel. 173-James Alexander. 174, 175-Drawings by
George V. Kelvin. 177-Drawing by Nicholas Fasciano. 179-Frank Scherschel.
180,181-Chicago Bridge and Iron Company, City of Portland Water Bureau, Den-
ver Board of Water Commissioners. 182, 183-Drawings by Otto van Eersel. 184,
185-Gordon Tenney. 186, 187-Ray Manley Photograph courtesy Stearns-Roger
Corporation, drawing by Nicholas Fasciano. 188, 189-Drawings by Nicholas Fas-
ciano. 190,191-U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division.
193-Graph by James Alexander. Back cover: Drawings by Nicholas Fasciano.


STONEHENGE
BOOK

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