Title: Water, Plants and Concrete - An Identification of Significant Regional Resources and Facilities
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00004681/00001
 Material Information
Title: Water, Plants and Concrete - An Identification of Significant Regional Resources and Facilities
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: East Central Florida Regional Planning Council
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Abstract: Jake Varn Collection - Water, Plants and Concrete - An Identification of Significant Regional Resources and Facilities (JDV Box 76)
General Note: Box 27, Folder 1 ( East Central and Central Florida Regional Planning Council - December 1995 (Draft) - 1995-1997 ), Item 3
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: WL00004681
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text












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Water, Pants andConcffe
AN IDENTIFICATION OF
SIGNIFICANT REGIONAL RESOURCES


AND FACILITIES


East Cetral Florda Re(al'f Planni/ng Co0n4/1


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PUBLISHED BY
THE EAST CENTRAL FLORIDA REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL
DECEMBER I 995 (DRAFT)


Plan ts andConcrete


Altae/


AN IDENTIFICATION OF
SIGNIFICANT REGIONAL RESOURCES
AND FACILITIES








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Special thanks to the South Florida Water Management District for their assistance in printing the maps.











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PREFACE............................................................................................... 1
NATURAL RESOURCES OF REGIONAL SIGNIFICANCE.................. 2
INTRODUCTION .......................... ...................................... 2
THE LIST OF NATURAL RESOURCES......................................................... 4
SURFACE WATER RESOURCES ................................. ........................ 5
GROUNDWATER RESOURCES ................................ .......................... 10
HABITAT...................................... .............. .......................... 12
PUBLIC LANDS AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AREAS ............................. 15
ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN ............................ ...... ........................ 15
COASTAL BASIN LANDS......................... ... ........................ 22
OKLAWAHA RIVER BASIN........................................................... 25
G REEN SW AMP BASIN .................................. ........................ .... 25
KISSIMMEE RIVER BASIN................................... ............... 26
FUNCTION.............................. ...... .. ...............................28
PROTECTION STATUS..................................... ........................ ... 28
EFFECTS ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS ................................... 28
SIGNIFICANT REGIONAL RESOURCES AND FACILITIES............ 29
INTRODUCTION ................................. ............................. ........................ 29
MELBOURNE/TITUSVILLE/PALM BAY METROPOLITAN AREA ....................... 29
DAYTONA BEACH METROPOLITAN AREA ......................... .......................... 36
ORLANDO METROPOLITAN AREA................................... ........................... 40
TECHNICAL APPENDIX ............................................................ 47
I. PERSPECTIVE ON REGIONAL SIGNIFICANCE ............................................ 47
PERSPECTIVE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.......................................47
PERSPECTIVE 2: FEDERAL/STATE AGENT ................................................ 48
PERSPECTIVE 3: REGIONAL LOCAL AGENT.................................................... 48
PERSPECTIVE 4: INTERGOVERNMENTAL BROKER ......................................48
PERSPECTIVE 5: FACILITATION .........................................................49
II. REGIONAL PLAN MAP DATA SOURCES.......................................................50
REFERENCES..................................................................................... 51
NATURAL RESOURCES OF REGIONAL SIGNIFICANCE MAPS ... 52








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Hhe title of this publication, Water, Plants and Concrete, refers to the
physical elements defining and influencing development in east
central Florida. Rule 27E-5, F.A.C. requires that regional planning
councils identify those elements that are of significance to the region as
part of their strategic planning efforts. What constitutes "regional
significance" has been the subject of numerous discussions, the
substance of which can be found in this publication.
As shown in the graphic at right, significant has many meanings. In
the Regional Planning Council's Strategic Plan, however, the operative
definition is influential. Facilities and resources have been designated as
being of regional significance due to their capacity to influence the
extent and form of development.
The reasons for this are twofold. First, the Strategic Plan proposes to
increase the ability of the region to respond to regional growth issues by
fostering a shared sense or identity. The identification of resources and
facilities that have the potential to effect all the communities in the
region helps with this effort. Second, the designation of resources and
facilities influences regional development patterns provides base
information for local governments to use in their Evaluation and
Appraisal Reports (EAR).
This publication is the third in a series related to the future growth
and development in east central Florida. The first of these publications,
At This Point in Time, is a physical, economic and social profile of the
region. This publication describes national and state trends that will
effect east central Florida, and then offers descriptions of the region's
three metropolitan areas, Daytona Beach, Melbourne/ Titusville /Palm
Bay and Orlando.


The second publication, What the Future Holds, is an extrapolation
of current trends 30 years into the future. This publication was based on
conclusions from a series of roundtable discussions in the region on land
use, transportation, housing and natural resources. Participants in these
discussions concluded that growth in the region's metropolitan areas
would continue to take much the same form as is currently seen --
predominantly low density, single use development. The participants
also concluded that a regional process for coordination is needed in the
region.
These publications are all part of the Strategic Planning series. This
series will culminate in the fourth document, the Strategic Regional Plan
entitled Taking the Next Step. This plan will outline a process for
achieving the regional coordination needed to integrate the region's
numerous planning programs.


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INTRODUCTION

E hen taking a cursory glance at an aerial photograph of the
region, one might conclude that there are no boundaries to
development. Last year in this region, 23,098 housing units, 2,464,200
square feet of office space, 3,236,800 square feet of retail space and
1,787,600 square feet of industrial space were added to the built
environment, dotting the landscape in a seemingly random fashion. A
closer look, however, reveals that the region's development pattern is
shaped by its natural resources and by the other resources and major
facilities that serve the region's needs. These region-shaping resources
and facilities are the subject of this document.
Historically, development has always been influenced by natural
resources. Natural resources act as both an attractor of and an
impediment to urban development. For centuries new villages and
towns were located near major water supplies, and in present times
development follows the roadways.
But while proximity to natural resources has become less crucial to
survival, other aspects of these resources continued to influence
development patterns. Natural resources throughout the region have
been placed under some form of protection to ensure their continued
function and benefit to the region.
The Governor's Office has defined "Natural Resources of Regional
Significance" in Administrative Rule 27E-5, F.A.C. to read:
"Natural Resources of Regional Significance" means a natural
resource or system of interrelated natural resources, that due to its
function, size, rarity or endangerment, retains or provides benefit of


regional significance to the natural or human environment, regardless of
ownership."
The meaning of the phrase "retains or provides benefit of regional
significance ..." has been the subject of numerous meetings and
workshops with area planners and environmental resource staff. It
became clear during these discussions that the phrase meant different
things to different people. This difference evolves primarily from a given
agency's or organization's mission as it relates to natural resources. As
part of the effort to define this phrase, five viewpoints or perspectives
were developed. Each represented a way of viewing "significant" and
reflected general approaches suggested to the RPC by the state, regional
and local agencies involved in assisting with the identification. Each of
these perspectives is explained in detail in the Technical Appendix.
The perspective selected (Number 5 Facilitation) is drawn from the
philosophical basis from which the Strategic Regional Plan is being
developed. The Plan's intent is to devise strategies that can help
agencies and organizations forge new relationships, and from these
relationships to jointly begin to identify and understand how the
metropolitan areas within the region will grow and what alternative
development futures are available to them. A natural resource that
"retains or provides benefit of regional significance..." is one that helps
define what those futures could be.
The following criteria have been developed to aid in the
identification of these significant resources. These criteria include:

* Identified by a state, regional or local environmental agency as
possessing value as a natural resource.

* Having attained a level of protection that their natural functions are
likely to remain intact.









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* Being of such a size or concern that they will help shape regional list and maps are also likely to change. Rule 27E-5, F.A.C. encourages
development patterns by influencing the extent and form of future amendments to the maps as "new areas are identified or new data
development, becomes available."

Application of these criteria resulted in the identification and
mapping of large areas of open space which, due to acquisition or
regulation, will help form the region's urban development pattern. Their
significance lies not so much in being important counterpoints to the
future urbanization of the region (refer to What the Future Holds), but in
their ability to redirect growth. By suppressing growth in certain areas
(i.e., floodplains of the St. Johns River) they cause growth to occur
elsewhere in the region.
An important point should be kept in mind concerning the
designation of resources as regionally significant. As noted in the
criteria, regional significance is not synonymous with ecological
importance. While a resource must have some ecological value to have
been considered, it would be incorrect to claim that simply because a
resource is identified as regionally significant, it has greater ecological
value than a non-regionally significant resource. There is no basis,
scientific or otherwise, to suggest that natural resources can be separated
out in this manner. What can be concluded from this designation is the
degree of value placed upon resources by the public. In comparing
resources of similar size, the resources identified as regionally significant
would appear to be more valuable because steps have been taken to
protect them. That the same steps have not been taken for other
resources would suggest that the public does not consider them as
valuable. Providing protection, either through regulation -- or, more
importantly, acquisition -- is perhaps the only real indication that the
public does consider a resource important.
The list and maps of identified resources will be used as baseline
information for future metropolitan-level planning efforts. They are not
intended to be, nor should they be, used as regulatory tools or the basis
for developing these tools. As circumstances and conditions change, the


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THE LIST OF NATURAL RESOURCES


In the table below is a list of natural resources of regional
significance in east central Florida, which have been identified and
mapped. The list includes surface water resources, groundwater
resources, habitat, and public lands and resource management areas in
the region. A description of each resource follows, including location of
the resource, its functions and effect of regional development patterns,
and its protection status.


Surface Water St. Johns Kiver system Kiver Lhannel
Resources Indian River Lagoon System Major Tributaries/Canals
Halifax River System Lakes
Kissimmee River System 1st and 2nd Magnitude Springs
Withlacoochee River System Contiguous Wetlands
Groundwater Floridan Aquifer Water Use Caution Areas
Resources
Habitat Listed Species Habitat Land cover polygons containing
concentrations of listed species

Public Lands and Areas acquired or managed for National Designated Areas
Resource the purpose of protecting their State Public Areas
Management natural values and functions Substate Public Areas
Areas Local Public Areas
Private Areas Acquired for
Environmental Protection


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SURFACE WATER RESOURCES

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Description: The St. Johns River is the longest river in Florida,
traveling 300 miles from Indian River County at the headwaters to the
Atlantic Ocean at Jacksonville. The river drains 9,415 square miles of
land.
Location: In east central Florida, the St. Johns River is fed by
numerous creeks, springs and swamps. The springs, creeks and lakes in
the St. Johns basin are the potentiometric low of the Floridan Aquifer.
Some of the better-known springs include Silver Springs in Marion
County, Alexander Springs in Lake County and Blue Spring in Volusia
County. Major tributaries in east central Florida Region include the
Econlockhatchee, Wekiva and Oklawaha rivers. The Econlockhatchee
River system is primarily a black water river originating from cypress
swamps in south Orange and north Osceola counties. The Wekiva River
is spring fed, with the Rock Springs Run as its major tributary. Both
Wekiva and Rock Springs Run originate in northwest Orange County.
The Oklawaha system headwaters extend south to Lake Apopka and
travel north through the Harris Chain of Lakes near Leesburg. The Silver
River is the largest spring-fed tributary of the Oklawaha River.
Sections of the St. Johns River and some of its tributaries have been
designated as Outstanding Florida Waters (OFW). The Lake Woodruff
National Wildlife Refuge, Blue Spring, Tosohatchee State Reserve and
Econlockhatchee River are all OFWs. The entire Wekiva System
including Rock Springs Run is designated as an OFW, and the lower
Wekiva is designated as a Florida Wild River, with the upstream
segments designated as scenic. There are two SWIM water body
projects in east central Florida -- Lake Apopka and the Upper Oklawaha
River Basin.


Function: The St. Johns River system influences the region both
ecologically and economically, providing a variety of functions to the
natural world as well as the urban environment. The St. Johns River
system with its many tributaries supports the following activities:

* Greenway corridors provide areas for wildlife habitat and
movement;
* Flood storage of upland stormwater for both natural systems and
human related needs;
* Main area of discharge for the Floridan Aquifer --springs;
* Navigation for barge and pleasure boat traffic;
* Agriculture and silviculture;
* Electric power generation;
* Sport fishing;
* Commercial Fishing -- blue crab in the Lake George area
* Hunting;
* Swimming, canoeing and kayaking, particularly in the many springs
and spring fed runs found along the way;
* Drinking water -- Lake Washington.

Protection Status: The bulwark of regulatory protection of the St.
Johns River is the Clean Water Act, Section 404 dredge and fill
permitting system. Florida supplemented the Clean Water Act with the
Water Resources Restoration and Preservation Act and the Warren S.
Henderson Act to further protect the natural functions of wetlands and
rivers. These acts combine to limit development in the floodplains and
wetlands, especially riverine wetlands. Special legislation for the
Wekiva basin, the Wekiva River Protection Act, also limits the type and
intensity of development within the Wekiva basin.
Effects On Regional Development Patterns: The St. Johns River's
influence on development patterns is as old as human habitation in the
state. Historically, the St. Johns River and its tributaries helped guide










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and shape development in east central Florida through the establishment
of ports (such as Port of Sanford) and landings. Today, the St. Johns
River influences regional development patterns by acting as a barrier to
development. Aside from the obvious physical barriers, state and federal
ownership of surrounding lands, and regulatory programs effecting land
development in the wetlands, also influence
development proximate to the river. Because
of the wetland regulations and the lands under
public ownership, the protected corridor is
beginning to form a large riparian greenway
along the St. Johns River. This corridor could
be described as a greenbelt between *
urbanizing Brevard and Orange counties,
between Seminole and Volusia, and between
Volusia and Lake counties.

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Description: The Kissimmee River
watershed covers 3,054 square miles of land
from south Orlando to Lake Okeechobee. The
Kissimmee River and its tributaries are part of
the complex surface water system which eventually becomes the
Everglades. The swamps and creeks in south Orange County are, in
essence, the headwaters to the Everglades. The natural channel of the
river once ran for 99 miles from Lake Kissimmee to Lake Okeechobee,
until in the late 1960s early 1970s when the Army Corps of Engineers
transformed the river into the 56-mile long C-38 canal. The canal is 300
feet wide with a maintained channel depth of 30 feet.
Location: The Kissimmee River system drains southern Orange
County and most of Osceola County. Major population centers located


in the Kissimmee River watershed are St. Cloud, Kissimmee and
Orlando. Major tributaries of the Kissimmee River in the east central
Florida region are Boggy, Reedy and Shingle creeks. Boggy Creek
originates near the Orlando International Airport, Shingle Creek
originates near the west side of downtown Orlando, and Reedy Creek
originates near Walt Disney World. The
Butler Chain of Lakes, which drains into
the Reedy Creek system, is designated as
an OFW. Major surface water features of
the Kissimmee River system in Osceola
County include Lake Kissimmee, Lake
Tohopekaliga, East Lake Tohopekaliga,
Lake Hatchineha and Alligator Lake.
Function: Historically the Kissimmee
River has provided Florida ranchers and
farmers with fertile lands for raising cattle
and growing citrus, vegetables and other
crops. The Kissimmee River system has
been modified for flood control and
agricultural benefits. It has been altered to
the point where it is often referred to as a
56-mile long canal. Although much of the
natural habitat values have been lost, the
Kissimmee River drains thousands of acres of land and is the largest
tributary to the Everglades system. Other important functions associated
with the Kissimmee River system include:


Wildlife greenway corridor to the Everglades
Hunting and recreational sport fishing
Agriculture operations
Surface water flood storage








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* Navigation recreational boating
* Habitat
* Hiking and camping open space

It is now realized that the hydrological modifications to the
Kissimmee have had ecological ramifications on Lake Okeechobee, the
Everglades and the Kissimmee River itself. There are ongoing efforts to
restore portions of the upper Kissimmee River back to its original
meandering course. This restoration involves recreating the natural
drainage patterns of the surrounding lands while re-establishing the fresh
water marshes and wetlands along the river.
Protection Status: Over 95,000 acres in the Kissimmee River system
have been purchased and over 65,000 acres are slated to be purchased
by either the water management district, DEP or local land acquisition
programs. Restoration efforts, like the multi-million dollar effort for the
Kissimmee by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and other agencies,
indicate a recognition of the benefits of an intact functioning surface
water systems for both wildlife and people.
Like the St. Johns River system, the regulation protecting the
Kissimmee River is the Clean Water Act, Section 404 dredge and fill
permitting system. Florida supplemented the Clean Water Act with the
Water Resources Restoration and Preservation Act and the Warren S.
Henderson Act to further protect the natural functions of wetlands and
rivers.
Effects On Regional Development Patterns: The Kissimmee River
and its associated tributaries and wetlands have diverted residential,
commercial, and industrial development from the immediate floodplain.
The area of the Kissimmee basin headwaters, especially Shingle Creek, is
dominated by urban development. Agriculture and ranching are the
predominate land uses throughout the remainder of the Kissimmee
basin. Historically, the Kissimmee River valley has been dominated by
agricultural uses. The Kissimmee River and its tributaries drain a flat
landscape pocketed with cypress domes, marshes and pine flatwood


savannas. Various public and private land acquisition projects in the
Kissimmee watershed have removed land from the marketplace, thus
redirecting growth elsewhere in the watershed. In the future, the
Kissimmee River along with Reedy and Boggy creeks may become urban
defining open space or greenway corridors.




Description: The Withlacoochee River is a black water river
originating within the Green Swamp in central Florida. The
Withlacoochee receives a great deal of fresh water from the Floridan
Aquifer through various spring groups along the river's course. The 157
mile long Withlacoochee River drains over 2,000 square miles. The
Withlacoochee River is characterized by expansive cypress and bayhead
swamps intermixed with pine flatwoods and sandhill communities. A
large spring group, Rainbow Springs, forms the Blue Run, draining into
the river. Major lakes associated with the Withlacoochee include Tsala-
Apopka Lake, Lake Panasoffkee and the impounded Lake Rousseau
along the old Cross Florida Barge Canal, now the Cross Florida
Greenway. The river travels through the Withlacoochee State Forest.
Location: The Withlacoochee River and the Green Swamp are
located in Lake, Sumter, Polk and Citrus counties. The Withlacoochee
riverine and lake system is designated as Outstanding Florida Waters.
Only a portion of the Withlacoochee River and Green Swamp drain the
east central Florida region, in southern Lake County where the
Withlacoochee begins.
Function: The Withlacoochee River is inextricably tied to the Green
Swamp, from which it originates. The Green Swamp area sets atop the
Floridan Aquifer, where limestone outcrops occur relatively close to the
surface. This area of the state, particularly within the swamp, is an area
of potentiometric high where the Floridan Aquifer receives a large
amount of recharge because of the karstic nature of the limestone


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bedrock. Other functions of the Withlacoochee River and the Green
Swamp include the following:

* Habitat
* Linear riverine greenway corridor
* Sport fishing
* Recreational boating
* Aquifer recharge
* Open space
* Hunting
* Lime rock mining
* Agriculture

Protection Status: The Green Swamp is formally designated as an
Area of Critical State Concern by the Governor. The Governor and
cabinet have land use planning oversight in this portion of the Green
Swamp. Other existing regulatory programs effecting the Withlacoochee
River include the Clean Water Act, Section 404 dredge and fill
permitting process, the Water Resources Restoration and Preservation
Act and the Warren S. Henderson Act. The Withlacoochee is
surrounded by agriculture and urban development that is less intense
than that surrounding the Kissimmee and St. Johns. Silviculture,
ranching and lime rock mining do occur in the watershed. A significant
amount of surrounding wetlands and floodplain have been purchased.
Over 11,500 acres in the Green Swamp system have been purchased,
and over 65,000 acres are scheduled to be purchased by either the
water management district, DEP, or local land acquisition programs.
Effects On Regional Development Patterns: The Withlacoochee
River and the Green Swamp are closely linked ecologically and
hydrologically. The Green Swamp's protection status as an Area of
Critical State Concern will influence what happens along the headwaters


of the Withlacoochee River and its tributaries. The southwestern portion
of Lake County will probably remain rural in nature over the next 10 to
15 years. The Orlando Metropolitan Area is slowly moving toward Polk
and southwest Lake counties along the Interstate 4 corridor. The Green
Swamp and the Withlacoochee River will likely divert growth from the
immediate area and act as a urban defining open space/greenway area.
Much of the Green Swamp area is under some form of water
management district, FDEP and/or Florida Division of Forestry
ownership, which will further influence metro Orlando development
patterns.

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Description: The Indian River Lagoon is 155 miles long, spanning
from Ponce de Leon Inlet in Volusia County to Jupiter Inlet in Palm
Beach County. The lagoon covers 2,280 square miles and comprises
nearly one third of Florida's east coast. The Indian River Lagoon is
actually a shallow estuary, bound by a series of sandy barrier islands on
the east and the mainland on the west. It comprises the Mosquito
Lagoon, the northern Indian River Lagoon, the Banana River, and the
southern Indian River Lagoon. There are several manmade and natural
inlets along the lagoon, but there are only two in the east central Florida
region, Ponce de Leon and Sebastian. Port Canaveral and the Haulover
Canal offers a third ocean access point to the lagoon.
Location: The Halifax River and Indian River Lagoon are connected
through a man-made cut between the Mosquito Lagoon and the northern
portion of the Indian River Lagoon in the Turnbull Basin. The cut is
maintained as part of Florida's Intracoastal Waterway. The entire system
stretches from southern Flagler County to Palm Beach County The main
tributaries emptying into the lagoon/river in the east central Florida
region are the Tomoka River, Spruce Creek, and Sebastian Creek. The
Indian River Lagoon is designated as Outstanding Florida Waters and is


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also an Aquatic Preserve. The St. Johns River Water Management District
has a SWIM program underway in the Indian River Lagoon.
Function: The Indian River lagoon is only slightly tidal, with much
of the internal water circulation derived from the wind. The lagoon is
North America's most biologically diverse estuary with over 4,300
different species of plants and animals. The Atlantic salt marsh snake is
endemic to the lagoon, green and loggerhead sea turtle nest and forage
in the area and the West Indian manatee seeks the lagoon's warm
shallow waters for calving and feeding. There are over 92,000 acres of
coastal mangrove, wetland and seagrass habitat associated with the
lagoon. These wetlands, seagrass beds, and mangroves have supported
a large commercial and sport fishery in Volusia and Brevard counties.
Portions of the Indian River Lagoon are used for shellfish harvesting of
scallops and oysters. Other important functions the lagoon provides for
man and wildlife include the following:


* Wildlife habitat manatees and sea turtles
* Recreational boating
* Navigation and shipping Intracoastal Waterway
* Commercial fishing
* Fish nursery
* Sport fishing
* Cooling water for electric power generation


Effects On Regional Development Patterns: These surface water
features will continue to attract development and redevelopment in both
the Daytona Beach and Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay metropolitan
areas. The Indian River Lagoon and the Halifax River make up a
significant portion of Brevard and Volusia counties' developable and
redevelopable waterfront real estate. Some cities, such as Port Orange
and New Smyrna Beach, have jurisdictional boundaries on both sides of
the river/lagoon. Because the federal coastal zone management policies
limit expenditures on new bridges, the lagoon system will continue to
act as physical barrier between the mainland and the barrier islands.
Infrastructure, hurricane evacuation times and services will be
constrained and impacted as growth on the barrier islands continues.
Other factors shaping Daytona Beach and Melbourne/Titusville/
Palm Bay metropolitan development patterns include the amount of
public lands associated with the Kennedy Space Center, as well as other
lands owned by the water management district and FDEP along the
Indian River Lagoon and Halifax River shores. These lands will divert
development from certain areas of the lagoon system to other areas.


Protection Status: Approximately 143,000 acres in the Indian River
System has been purchased and approximately 25,500 acres are
scheduled to be purchased by either the water management district,
DEP, or local land acquisition programs.
The primary regulatory programs affecting land use in the lagoon
and the river system are the federal Clean Water Act, Section 404, and
the state's Henderson Wetlands Protection Act.










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GROUNDWATER RESOURCES




Description: The Floridan Aquifer is one of the world's largest
aquifers. It is highly permeable and, as a result of Florida's relatively
high amount of rainfall, it yields a large a quantity of water. In south
Florida and portions of coastal east central Florida, the Floridan Aquifer
is relatively confined and receives little surface freshwater recharge.
Over the past 15 years, chloride concentrations have risen in parts of the
Floridan Aquifer along the coasts, rendering it unsuitable for potable
water.
The Floridan Aquifer is suspected to be hundreds of feet thick in
some areas. Its closest and most direct link to the surface is at the
springs, which are the major discharge points. More importantly, the
Floridan Aquifer is almost continually replenished by rainfall across the
state. The areas where water percolates through sandy soils and
infiltrates into the aquifer are often referred to as aquifer recharge areas,
and are typically the main "input" interface between the aquifer and
surface of the land. Other input conduits include sinkholes and
limestone solution channels. Recharge occurs virtually everywhere
across the landscape. Many of the highest recharge are as are located
along the sandy north-south ridges throughout peninsular Florida. These
areas of high and dry land often are the most sought after lands for
development.
Location: The Floridan Aquifer extends from southern Florida
northward to coastal South Carolina. The areas mapped have been
identified as Water Resource Caution Areas by the St. Johns River Water
Management District in their Water Supply Needs and Sources
Assessment.


Function: The Floridan Aquifer is an integral part of the ecological
health of east central Florida's springs and rivers. As mentioned earlier,
the St. Johns System is one of the Floridan's largest area of discharge.
Therefore, one of its greatest functions is providing freshwater springs
with water. Springs are a vital part of the ecological system that makes
up the St. Johns, Kissimmee and Green Swamp areas. From the
standpoints of both ecology and recreation, springs alone provide
countless benefits to wildlife and people alike.
The Floridan Aquifer also provides the region, and indeed most of
Florida, with drinking water. According to the St. Johns River and South
Florida water management districts, the six counties in the east central
Florida region use over 605 million gallons of groundwater per day for
residential, agricultural, commercial and industrial uses. Approximately
90 percent of the water used for consumption and agricultural purposes
in the region is groundwater and is withdrawn from the Floridan Aquifer.
Other known aquifer functions include preventing sinkhole formation
and reducing surface flooding by providing stormwater storage during
rainfall events.
Protection Status: The Floridan Aquifer has various types of
protection mechanisms in place including consumptive use permits,
groundwater quality protection ordinances and permits, and water
conservation measures such as water restrictions on residential outdoor
water use. These protection mechanisms were put in place to reduce
impacts to the aquifer by monitoring the mining of the resources and
preventing groundwater contamination.
Currently, the St. Johns River Water Management District has
designated through their Needs and Sources Assessment that Seminole,
Orange, Volusia and most of Lake County are water resource caution
areas. This relates to the expected impacts to natural systems if
pumpage of the groundwater occurs as projected over the next twenty
years. Water management districts have the authority to enforce a wide
array of rules and regulations if conditions begin to impact surface water


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a, .n r .A..












systems and associated wildlife. The district has set up minimum flow
rules and criteria for various spring groups, such as the Wekiwa, for use
in monitoring impacts to the system. Should the reduction of flow or
other impacts occur to natural systems, the District has the ability to stop
issuing consumptive use permits and enforce stricter water use
restrictions.
Effects On Regional Development Patterns: It would seem obvious
that water supply will influence development intensity. However,
several major metropolitan areas in the United States such as Phoenix,
Los Angeles and New York continue to experience major growth without
a nearby source of potable water. Potable water will always be
available, piped in from outside the region or made by desalinization
plants on the Atlantic or Gulf of Mexico, although at a cost much higher
than today's.
The more likely effect of water on growth is its potential to impact
the region's springs, rivers, wetlands, lakes and pine flatwoods. Should
the aquifer's fresh water become salty or be significantly reduced, it will
alter the ecology of these natural resources. Alteration of natural
resources will in turn likely alter the level of protection afforded to them.
The potential consequences for this maybe to increase and open up
areas for development where in the past it was precluded.


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loca t/4


Identification of regionally significant habitat for the east central
Florida region was accomplished using the best available land use and
land cover strategic habitat conservation area data from the St. Johns
River Water Management District, and S1, S2 and S3 endangered and
threatened animal species data from the Florida Natural Areas Inventory.
Further technical information on the actual methods used to map the
data is located in the technical appendix. The resultant map is based on
land use, land cover and endangered and threatened animal species.
Endangered and threatened animal species were used as indicators of
the existing protection status. Plant species were not used because
plants are not "protected" as are animals in terms of development,
relocation and mitigation.
The regionally significant map represents only those areas with some
level of protection currently afforded to them. Because the map is based
on land use and land cover, urban areas are not included. The areas
that typically remained after the data were combined in the Geographic
Information System (GIS) were riverine-based corridors associated with
the St. Johns River, Kissimmee River or the Green Swamp area. There are
few isolated areas found on the maps. These areas have the potential to
influence regional/metropolitan development patterns.
The maps are intended to be used for planning purposes only and
provide a base level of information for the planning and visioning
process as outlined in Taking the Next Step. The maps are grounded in
a consensus building process that allows and facilitates identification of
other areas in the future. Descriptions and locations will be discussed for
each corridor rather than by land cover type or species location. The
function, protection and effect on regional development patterns will be
discussed for all habitat areas following area descriptions.


For ease of explanation, the region has been subdivided into sectors.
These sectors do not have specific boundaries, but generally describe a
large, easily recognized part of the region.
West Lake County: The land cover consists mainly of agricultural
lands intermixed with wetlands and hardwood forest. There are a few
pockets of turkey oak sandhill and scrub supporting the Florida scrub jay
and gopher tortoises. Lake Harris' western wetlands, bayhead swamp
areas, provide habitat for the southern bald eagle and the eastern indigo
snake.
Upper St. Johns River To State Road 50: The land cover of the
upper St. Johns Marsh consist of wetlands intermixed with pine
flatwoods, cypress domes, and hardwood swamps and forest. The sand
pine scrub can be found on islands east of Interstate 95. This area
supports a wide variety of species including the Florida scrub jay,
southern bald eagle, red-cockaded woodpecker, gopher tortoises,
crested caracara, Sherman's fox squirrel, blackcrowned night heron,
yellowcrowned night heron, tricolor heron, snowy egret, wood stork,
white ibis, gopher frog, Florida mouse, and the Florida sandhill crane.
State Road 50 To Lake Jesup: The land cover in this portion of the
St. Johns system is comprised of marsh wetlands, agriculture lands, pine
flatwoods and silviculture in the northern sections of the area. This
section supports a wide variety of species such as the black rail, Florida
scrub jay, Sherman's fox squirrel, striped newt, gopher tortoise, southern
bald eagle, red-cockaded woodpecker, and eastern indigo snake.
Lake Jesup To Lake George: This section of the St. Johns River
system has many springs and tributaries emptying into the main channel.
The Econlockhatchee River, Wekiva River, Blue Spring Run, and
Alexander Spring Run are some of the major tributaries located along
this stretch of the St. Johns. Land cover ranges from wetlands and pine


HABITAT









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flatwoods to sand pine scrub. The Wekiwa Geo Park, Lake Woodruff
National Wildlife Refuge and Ocala National Forest are located along
the western bank of the St. Johns. In the Ocala and Wekiwa, areas there
are extensive uplands of turkey oak sandhill and sand pine scrub. This
section of the St. Johns also supports extensive bottomland hardwood
forest, agriculture lands and silviculture in Lake and Volusia counties.
The wetlands in the middle of Volusia are a part of this system as well.
The diverse landscape provides habitat for a wide variety of species.
Species located in this region include the Florida black bear, southern
bald eagle, Florida scrub jay, Sherman's fox squirrel, short tailed snake,
eastern indigo snake, limpkin, Florida scrub lizard, Florida mouse,
gopher tortoise, red cockaded woodpecker, wood stork, Florida sandhill
crane, little blue heron, white ibis, southeastern American kestrel,
Florida pine snake, black rail and snowy egret.
Halifax River And Indian River Lagoon: The Tomoka River empties
into the northern Halifax River in Volusia, where there are bottomland
hardwood forest, wetlands, salt marshes, and pine flatwoods. Much of
the central Halifax River is urban, with mangroves and saltmarsh
returning at Spruce Creek. Spruce Creek is surrounded by bottomland
hardwoods and pine flatwoods. South of Spruce Creek, the Halifax
River transitions into the Mosquito Lagoon. The Mosquito Lagoon is
surrounded by mangroves, hardwood forest and wetlands.
The Mosquito Lagoon is connected to the northern Indian River
Lagoon via the Intracoastal Waterway cut in the Turnbull Basin. The
land cover in the Turnbull Basin is comprised of wetlands, mangroves,
hardwood forest, urban areas and agriculture. From Titusville south to
Melbourne the Indian River Lagoon is fairly urbanized, with sections of
mangroves and marsh wetlands. Uplands adjacent to the lagoon include
pine flatwoods, maritime hammocks and sand pine scrub.
The Halifax River and Indian River Lagoon support a variety of
species. Endangered, threatened and species of special concern found
along the east central Florida coast include the Atlantic saltmarsh snake,
wood stork, Florida scrub jay, gopher tortoise, gopher frog, West Indian


manatee, Florida sandhill crane, Florida pine snake, glossy ibis, white
ibis, blackcrowned night heron, tricolor heron, snowy egret, southern
bald eagle and red-cockaded woodpecker. Many of these species are
located in the Meritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.
Kissimmee River System: Land cover in the upper Kissimmee is
urban, pine flatwoods, long leaf pine savannas, bottomland hardwoods,
cypress domes and wetlands. Some sand pine scrub and turkey oak
sandhill exist in the northwest portion of the watershed. South of St.
Cloud and Kissimmee, land cover is agriculture, range lands with long
leaf pine savannas, cypress domes, wetlands and hardwood forest.
The endangered, threatened, and species of special concern found
in the Kissimmee watershed include the crested caracara, southern bald
eagle, Sherman's fox squirrel, Florida grasshopper sparrow, sand skinks,
gopher tortoise, red-cockaded woodpecker, Florida mouse, eastern
indigo snake, gopher frog, gopher tortoise, tricolor heron and the snail
kite.

FiwatfeH

Areas identified and mapped as Habitat of Regional Significance
provide habitat for the species listed above. These areas are intact
native plant communities and are, for the most part, undeveloped.
Upland habitat, such as sand pine scrub and turkey oak sandhill, are
situated on soils that allow for high amounts of aquifer recharge.




Protection of habitat is directly tied to those animals which call it
home. Both federal and state Endangered Species laws provide for
habitat protection of listed species. It is likely that these areas with
concentrations of listed species will be managed through land use
controls rather than site design requirements. For example, red-










~:fra~;rt2l~dX'eRaw'ced. aWd~a,/Aiks


cockaded woodpeckers require old growth long-leaf pine forest for
nesting and gopher tortoises along with the animals inhabiting their
burrows also can use long-leaf pine forest as habitat. Site design
modifications in cases like the red-cocked woodpecker do not go far
enough to protect the habitat requirements of the bird. Secondary laws
such as the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) can provide
additional protection through the scrutiny of federal projects occurring
in these habitat areas. East central Florida has over one million acres of
habitat (on public and private lands) that has and will continue to
influence metropolitan development patterns.

E- t OnV PafreoiOr DrPattf&rnsf

Out of all the natural resources of regional significance, habitat
might be the one natural attribute of a piece of land that is the most
likely to change in the future. Habitat is afforded protection via public
ownership or various species protection laws, which change.
Landscapes supporting good habitat are often not developed or modified
and are often in rural areas of the region. Therefore, habitat on private
land is protected so long as the market-driven development potential
remains low for that land. Areas where there are endangered species on
private lands may be protected and deflect high intensity development
and attract lower intensity development.
Listed species habitat has the potential to influence regional
development patterns by fostering rural/farmland preservation efforts,
reduction in the amount of development in particular area and
deflecting large DRI type projects such as large shopping malls away to
another part of the metropolitan area. Habitat on public lands will most
likely remain. It is not the habitat that is shaping regional development
patterns; rather, it is the public land ownership shaping regional
development patterns by removing land from the development market.










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PUBLIC LANDS AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
AREAS

Public Lands and Resource Management Areas, particularly the
larger tracts, are important urban-defining open spaces for each of the
region's metropolitan areas. Much of these Public Lands and Resource
Management Areas are located along river corridors in east central
Florida. Following are descriptions of the size, location, management
agency and public access for these areas. The areas are numbered as
they appear on the corresponding map at the end of this document. The
information is presented by river basin.


ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN


/-1 Tkw,6- F er mCobCWt/a"F4
Size: 52,000 acres
Location: Extends from the Indian River County line
along Fellsmere grade, north to U.S. 192, west
of Melbourne. Lakes Sawgrass and Hell'n
Blazes in Brevard County are within this area
Main Function: In a cooperative effort with the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers (COE), for the provision of
flood control and environmental protection
Public Access: Hiking, seasonal hunting, fishing, primitive
camping, boating, canoeing and bird watching
Contact: St. Johns River Water Management District
(SJRWMD) Land Management Division


S L S AND R C MANAGEMENT -REAS


Three Forks Conservation Area
River Lakes Conservation Area
Canaveral Marshes Area
Tosohatchee State Reserve
Scrub Jay Refugia
Enchanted Forest
St. Johns National Wildlife Refuge
Seminole Ranch Conservation Area
Econ-St. Johns River Ecosystem
Tosohatchee State Wildlife Mgmt Area
South Lake Harney Conservation Area
Seminole Ranch State Wildlife Mgmt
Area
Holopaw State Forest
Hal Scott Regional Preserve and Park
Lake Jesup Conservation Area
Kratzert Conservation Area
Rock Springs Run State Reserve
Wekiva Springs State Park
Wekiva River Buffers
Wekiva Buffers Conservation Area
Rock Springs Run State Wildlife Mgmt
Area
BMK Ranch
Seminole Springs/ Woods
Wekiva Ocala Connector
Lower Wekiva State Preserve
St. Johns River / Ocala Wekiva
Connector
Blue Spring State Park
Hontoon Island State Park
Lake Griffin State Recreation Area
Emarlda Marsh Conservation Area
Lake Wales Ridge Ecosystems
Lake Louisa State Park
Green Swamp
Richloam State Wildlife Mgmt Area


DeLeon Springs State Recreation Area
Lake Woodruff National Wilderness
Area
Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge
Longleaf Pine Ecosystems/DeLand Ridge
Alexander Springs Creek National
Wilderness Area
Billies Bay National Wilderness Area
Ocala State Wildlife Mgmt Area
Ocala National Forest
Lake George
Lake George Conservation Area
Haw Creek Conservation Area
Tiger Bay State Wildlife Mgmt Area
Bulow Creek State Park
Tomoka River State Park
New Smyrna Sugar Mill Ruins
Spruce Creek
North Indian River Turnbull Basin
Miami Corporation Wildlife Mgmt Area
Turnbull Hammock Conservation Area
Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge
Canaveral National Seashore
Maritime Hammock Initiative
Archie Carr Sea Turtle Refuge
Scrub Jay Refugia
Sebastian Creek
Lake Apopka Restoration Area
Lake Harris Conservation Area
Withlacoochee State Forest
Bull Creek Conservation Area
Bull Creek State Wildlife Mgmt Area
Osceola Pine Savannas
Three Lakes State Wildlife Mgmt Areas
Kico State Wildlife Mgmt Area


f5













4-2 f l~aZ4 Co6s0ibM6re a
Size: 18,000 acres
Location: Extends from U.S. 192 to S.R. 520, in Brevard
and Osceola Counties. It includes those lands
in St. Johns River Water Management District
(SJRWMD) ownership along the floodplain of
the St. Johns River.
Main Function: To maintain pure water supply and
environmental protection
Public Access: Seasonal hunting, fishing, primitive camping,
boating and bird watching
Contact: SJRWMD Land Management Division

4-3 Ca /#a,',4r ?tr Cogeralt/,rO A"a4
Size: 9,495 acres
Location: In Brevard County, between S.R. 520 and S.R.


Main Function:


Public Access:

Contact:


Restoration of St. Johns River flood plain, water
storage area, and as a natural water regulator
(flood control)
Seasonal hunting, fishing, hiking, canoeing,
boating and bird watching
SJRWMD Land Management Division


4-4 fosAok a ,4 SLtae ef wew


Size:
Location:


34,500 acres
East of Orlando on Taylor Creek Road in
Christmas off S.R. 50


Public Access: Camping, fishing, bicycling, horseback riding,
hiking, and nature trail
Contact: Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, Division of State Lands


Size: 1,670 acres acquired, 8,009 acres pending
Location: In Brevard County, consisting of five sites; two
near Titusville, one near Rockledge and two
near Malabar on the landward side of the
Indian River
Main Function: Acquisition and management of these core
areas are imperative for the viability and long
term survival of the Florida scrub jay -
ecological buffers to the scrub cores
Public Access: (Limited) Natural resource education, nature
appreciation, limited picnicking
Contact: Brevard County's Environmentally Endangered
Lands Program

4-6 oAkitdFoest
Size: 237 acres acquired, 177 acres pending
Location: In northern Brevard County approximately one
mile south of Titusville
Main Function: Protection of several subtropical plant species
and recharge to Floridan Aquifer
Public Access: Picnicking, hiking, nature appreciation,
education
Contact: Brevard County


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A-7 St. Johks'ina4 i e ,fR
Size: 6,200 acres
Location: Northwestern Brevard County just west of the
Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge
Public Access: Not open to the public
Contact: U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service

4-8 f Semir 4 k4a CoxrMVaetn A4ea


Size:
Location:


Main Function:

Public Access:



Contact:


28,745 acres
At the convergence of Orange, Brevard,
Volusia, and Seminole counties, between S.R.
46 and S.R. 50 east of Orlando
First acquisition funded by Save Our Rivers
(SOR), program to protect water resources
Seasonal hunting, fishing, horseback riding,
primitive camping, hiking, canoeing, boating,
bicycling, bird watching, picnicking and nature
study
SJRWMD Land Management Division


A-9 WEcomioCatete-S. ToArns A EasysteS
Size: 5,833 acres acquired, 21,819 acres pending
Location: In southeastern Seminole and northeastern
Orange counties near the convergence of
Volusia and Brevard counties adjacent to the
Seminole Ranch Wildlife Management Area
Main Function: To restore, maintain, and protect in perpetuity
all native ecosystems; to integrate compatible
human use; to insure long-term viability of
populations and species considered rare; and to
add to wildlife movement corridor


Public Access: Picnicking, camping hiking, nature
appreciation, natural resource education,
archeological interpretation, hunting, bicycling,
and horseback riding
Contact: Florida Department of Agriculture, Division of
Forestry

A4-O 7Toraoate Sfate& M 11f /G/ anap er
Size: 34,500 acres
Location: Eastern Orange County co-managed with the
Tosohatchee State Reserve under the state park
services
Public Access: Bicycling, horseback riding, hiking, nature
exploration, fishing, and camping
Contact: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission

4-11 Sfoth dc" a&reMy Cong~eSatn 444a
Size: 1,628 acres
Location: In Volusia County north of S.R. 46, east of Lake
Harney about one mile east of the crossing of
the St. Johns River
Main Function: Undisturbed wetlands which protect water
quality in the St. Johns River; provide habitat;
support of salt-tolerant plant communities
Public Access: Fishing, hiking, canoeing, boating and bird
watching
Contact: SJRWMD Land Management Division

A-12 S&44,11ie SA0 at4 MAf&,3~ #aneaontwa
Size: 6,000 acres
Location: Northeastern Orange County









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Public Access: Camping, hiking, canoeing
Contact: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission

4-13 //oaiwSftae foiwt
Size: 58 acres
Location: North central Osceola County
Public Access: None
Contact: Florida Department of Agriculture, Division of
Forestry

A-1 //4M/S ttR neaI/Pr anPar-
Size: 4,651 acres
Location: In east Orange County, southeast of Orlando
Main Function: Acquired as part of mitigation for the Beltway
construction for a regional preserve
Public Access: Hiking, fishing, picnicking, bird watching and
primitive camping
Contact: Orange County Parks and Recreation
Department


4-15 la44e ueJm CemtKf,4Pa


control connecting southern part of
Econlockhatchee basin to Tosohatchee State
Preserve. Protect several important
archaeological sites
Public Access: Hiking, canoeing, fishing, bird watching
picnicking, nature study, primitive camping
and horseback riding
Contact: Florida Department of Agriculture, Division of
Forestry

4-16 /Catret Coso4at ,Mrea


Size:
Location:



Main Function:


Public Access:


Contact:


3,248 acres
In southwestern portion of Volusia County
along the eastern shore of Lake Monroe.
Approximately four miles from Sanford and one
mile south of Osteen
Environmental preservation, flood protection,
protection of water quality and river frontage,
protection of fish and wildlife habitat
Fishing, hiking, bicycling, horseback riding,
primitive camping, picnicking and bird
watching
SJRWMD Land Management Division


Size:
Location:


Main Function:


4,600 acres
Along the Econlockhatchee River in Seminole
County, south of C.R. 426 and north of C.R.
419 approximately five miles east of Oviedo
and north of Chuluota
District, State, Conservation and Recreational
Lands (CARL), and Seminole County
partnership regionally significant blackwater
stream singled out for preservation. Wildlife


4-17 AoIASprifiS A4 r atee wwe
Size: 18,500 acres
Location: In Sorrento off S.R. 46 via S.R. 433
Public Access: Camping, hunting, canoeing, and nature trail
Contact: Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, Division of State Lands, Division of
Recreation and Parks


V. M
z '1









kAlit, Pa4&ts andCeonlrt


4-18 kear aSf'ef r Pao'e/
Size: 6,800 acres
Location: On Wekiwa Springs Road off S.R. 434 or S.R.
436 near Apopka
Public Access: Camping, swimming, picnicking, fishing,
nature trail, canoeing

4-19 Ae & Ba #
Size: 974 acres (pending for acquisition)
Location: In northwestern Seminole County six miles
west of Sanford, with the Wekiva River forming
the western boundary
Main Function: Important part of wildlife movement corridor
between the Ocala National Forest and Rock
Springs Run State Reserve, and to help preserve
the water quality of the Wekiva River
Public Access: Fishing, boating, canoeing, hiking, and
picnicking
Contact: FDEP Division of Recreation and Parks as an
addition to Wekiva River State Park

4-20 Wd/eia & eu CSter 'tn ra4
Size: 2,342 acres
Location: In northwestern Seminole County, six miles
east of Sanford. The Wekiva River forms the
western boundary and the Little Wekiva River
forms the eastern boundary
Main Function: Seasonally flooded wetlands; protection of
natural condition helps preserve water quality;
offset development elsewhere in the county


Public Access: Fishing, hiking, bicycling, canoeing, bird
watching and picnicking
Contact: Wekiwa Springs State Park; Audubon Society


4-21 oclSfrA Stfn &atea LA4 ffayremet4eaw


Size:
Location:
Public Access:


4-22 3B./ A anh
Size:
Location:


Main Function:


Public Access:

Contact:


13,000 acres
Northwestern Orange County
Hunting, fishing, bicycling, horseback riding,
hiking, primitive camping


5,187 acquired, 2,449 pending
In Lake and Orange counties near Orlando
north of Rock Springs Run State Preserve and
south of S.R. 46
Provision of natural habitat for rare and
threatened species and protection of aquatic
resources
Canoeing, swimming, camping, fishing, hiking,
horseback riding, seasonal hunting
FDEP, Division of State Lands


4-23 S o Sfferik/ od
Size: 7,381 acres acquired, 10,727 acres pending
Location: In Lake County approximately 26 miles
northwest of Orlando between S.R. 44 and S.R.
46
Main Function: This project is an important link in securing a
wildlife movement corridor between the Ocala
National Forest and Wekiva Springs State









~:1k~;ad*tR d/P&'aasac u e axdFnafi~i


Preserve. On this land are a diversity of natural
communities
Public Access: Hiking, canoeing, camping, backpacking,
horseback riding, seasonal hunting
Contact: FDA, Division of Forestry

4-24 le -eoafa Conwte6r


Size:
Location:


Main Function:



Public Access:

Contact:


13,636 acres acquired, 49,326 acres pending
In northeastern Lake and western Volusia
counties, approximately 25 miles north of
Orlando
Protect continuity of habitat for the Florida
black bear and allow for wildlife movement
corridor protection between Ocala National
Forest and extensive state conservation lands
Boating, fishing, hiking, camping, horseback
riding, and nature study
FDEP, Division of Recreation and Parks in
conjunction with Hontoon Island and Blue
Spring state parks.


,-25 lowe, ketwa Rw State Pr~ew
Size: 15,500 acres
Location: Nine miles west of Sanford on S.R. 46
Public Access: Nature trail, hunting, and canoeing
Contact: FDEP, Division of Recreation and Parks

A-26 St. jtoh&4s


8,290 acres (pending for acquisition)
In Lake County approximately 30 miles north of
Orlando along the St. Johns River near the


convergence of Orange, Seminole, Volusia and
Lake counties
Main Function: Project protects several natural communities,
water resources that include several miles of
river frontage, and an abundance of wildlife,
including many rare and endangered species
Public Access: Nature appreciation, camping, swimming,
canoeing, boating, hunting, and hiking
Contact: Division of State Lands in conjunction.with the
Lower Wekiva State Preserve

4-27 ae S 't Sa~t Pa
Size: 2,100 acres
Location: In Orange City, two miles west on French
Avenue
Public Access: Camping, picnicking, swimming, fishing,
nature trail and canoeing

A-28 0notoo /srad'Stat Pa-
Size: 1,650 acres
Location: Six miles west of DeLand, off S.R. 44
Public Access: Camping, picnicking, fishing, nature trail and
canoeing

4-29 AD, leoCarcSp fs Sta&e4 ra 4wea
Size: 603 acres
Location: At the corner of Ponce De Leon and Burt Parks
Road in De Leon Springs
Public Access: Picnicking, swimming, fishing, nature trail and
canoeing


Size:
Location:









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A-30 A4oaddrI actinfdrnes ra
Size: 1,066 acres
Location: West central Volusia County, includes
Audubon, Dexter, and St. Francis Islands
Public Access: Not open to the public

4-3J1 Aak 2 11a 44naw 14*ef, t
Size: 19,654 acres
Location: West central Volusia County
Main Function: To attract migratory birds and preserve the
habitat for a variety of wildlife
Public Access: Seasonal hunting, bird watching, hiking, nature
study, canoeing, and fishing
Contact: U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service

A-32 Io1pfeaP, ie 6,os4 terrm PddsCe f Sanra
Size: 10,258 acres acquired, 10,746 acres pending,
only approximately 4,500 acres within Volusia
County
Location: In north central Volusia County near De Leon
Springs where U.S. 17 meets S.R. 40
Main Function: Protection of high quality longleaf pine sandhill
communities; timber management and old
growth protection
Public Access: Hiking, nature appreciation natural resource
education, picnicking, horseback riding,
camping and hunting and other water based
recreational activities
Contact: FDA, Division of Forestry


4/-33 A4ander Sprw Cr"ee /at /~nfai/a fdeer s r4a
Size: 7,700 acres
Location: Within the Ocala National Forest in northeast
Lake County
Public Access: Hunting, hiking, primitive camping
Contact: Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service

A-34 B611As R Alaft/On fdrneS Area
Size: 3,120 acres
Location: Within the Ocala National Forest in northeast
Lake County
Public Access: Hiking, primitive camping
Contact: Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service

A-35 aoda State & /fIe, fanaeonatwre
Size: 380,183 acres total, 86,100 acres within Lake
County
Location: Northeastern Lake County within the Ocala
National Forest
Public Access: Hunting, hiking, horseback riding, canoeing,
camping, and bicycling
Contact: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission

4-36 Oweaa fat/iedaFowt
Size: 380,183 acres total, 86,100 acres in Lake
County
Location: Northeastern Lake County south of Lake
George
Public Access: Hunting, hiking, horseback riding, canoeing,
camping and bicycling
Contact: Seminole Ranger District, U.S. Forest Service










&#ffo/h~irtcpba~teaff~ldaraa'&d~-eitM


4-39 ,aw' Cr-ee Con&ea&wiO, Area


28,606 acres acquired, 11,751 acres pending
In northwestern Volusia County just south of
Lake George and adjacent to the Ocala
National Forest
Well suited for selective timber harvest to
enhance or improve natural regeneration and
the property's diversity and suitability for non-
consumptive uses; protection of Lake George
water quality
Hiking, bicycling, horseback riding, boating,
fishing and swimming
As a State Forest/Wildlife Management Area
under multiple use concepts by the Division of
Forestry and the Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission


A4-38 /aJ& Owr Consve."tnitilre


Size:
Location:


Main Function:


Public Access:


Contact:


15,000 (Another 10,000 in Putnam County)
On the eastern shore of Lake George west of
U.S. 17
Enhancing wetland and upland habitat,
protection of a wildlife movement corridor
along Lake George and the St. Johns River
Seasonal hunting, fishing, bicycling, hiking,
horseback riding, primitive camping, canoeing,
boating, and bird watching
SJRWMD Land Management Division


Size:
Location:

Main Function:
Public Access:

Contact:


4,529 acres (1,000 acres in Flagler County)
At the south end of Crescent Lake in Volusia
County
Protection of wetlands and water quality
Hiking, primitive camping, canoeing, and bird
watching
FDA Division of Forestry, SJRWMD Land
Management Division


,4-37 44dser
Size:
Location:


Main Function:




Public Access:

Contact:


22


A-40o 7 Bay A StPate i'I, fan0arerp 4ea
Size: 6,745 acres
Location: North central Volusia County
Public Access: Camping, hiking, canoeing
Contact: SJRWMD Land Management Division


COASTAL BASIN LANDS

B- B/aor Cred Statep Paad
Size: 3,200 acres
Location: Off Old Dixie Highway at 3351 Old Dixie
Highway, Ormond Beach
Public Access: Nature trail, canoeing, picnicking, fishing









,atei, P4nte a#nCo~wte


8-2 7r0oda Sate4 Par
Size: 4,075 acres
Location: Three miles north of Ormond Beach on North
Beach Street
Public Access: Visitor center, camping, picnicking, nature
trail, fishing and canoeing

8-3 /4Sw &yrna S.t /f,'1i'l4/Sf ASe rtomari5
Size: 15 acres
Location: Southeastern Volusia County off S.R. 44 in New
Smyrna Beach
Public Access: Picnicking, education, historical site


8-4 Spc&ae CN e
Size:
Location:

Main Function:

Public Access:

Contact:

8-5 1t0-/d#nAn2f
Size:
Location:



Main Function:


1,069 acres acquired, 524 acres pending
In east central Volusia County one mile north
of New Smyrna Beach
Preserve the significant natural communities
and valuable historic resources
Nature trails, education, low intensity
recreational activities
Volusia County


1,167 acquired, 19,000 pending
In Volusia and Brevard counties south of S.R.
442 east of 1-95 and west of U.S. 1, just west of
the John F. Kennedy Space Center and the
Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge
Provides buffering for the Indian River Lagoon
and its watershed. Protects high quality natural
communities including basin swamp, hydric


hammock, upland hardwood forest and
mesic/wet flat woods
Public Access: Nature appreciation, natural resource
education, hiking, bicycling and hunting
Contact: Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission

8-6 / ra/iCo/Poiratio atf wafnamCrea
fdd FarP,4n r StAtl fqW, # edw,4ntamet Ar
Size: 52,180 acres
Location: South central Volusia County and part of
northwestern Brevard County
Public Access: Camping, hunting, hiking
Contact: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission

B-7 Tsa.-//~~anM eCol ffaeata~w ,e
Size: 1,167 acres
Location: In the southeast coastal area of Volusia County
about seven miles south of New Smyrna Beach
on U.S. 1
Main Function: Acquired to provide protection of water
resources and environmental education
Public Access: Hiking, bird watching, bicycling, nature study
and photography
Contact: SJRWMD Land Management Division

8- /qe/W/sa4d//Va a//f Ff e


Size:
Location:


140,000 acres
Just west of Cape Canaveral behind the barrier
island yet east of the Indian River in Brevard
County












Public Access: Nature trail, hiking, canoeing
Contact: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

B-9 CanaviraiA/VanfSeasor


Size:

Location:

Public Access:


Contact:


57,691 acres, 25 miles of beach front, 41,000
NASA owned and National Park managed
In northern Brevard County, north of Cocoa
Beach and east of Titusville
Seashore lands are open to the public for
swimming, fishing, hiking, bicycling, bird
watching and picnicking
National Park Service


Main Function: To consolidate several small public ownerships
and add to them forming over three and one
half miles of contiguous undeveloped Atlantic
coast shoreline. Also important as sea turtle
nesting habitat
Public Access: Nature appreciation, photography, saltwater
fishing
Contact: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service


8-2 a Jayid
Size:
Location:


8-flo oa&rlire / eamr. oRM O/*/fK/at/(


Size:
Location:

Main Function:



Public Access:

Contact:


78 acres acquired, 538 acres pending
In Brevard County, consists of seven sites off
A1A from Cape Canaveral to Floridana Beach
Protection of the few remaining maritime
hammocks in Brevard County and provide
forested "stepping-stone islands" for spring and
fall coastal migrations of tropical bird species
Nature appreciation, education, limited
picnicking
Brevard County and U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service


8-1 Arodh Caril a See
Size: 263 acres acquired, 755 acres pending, 100
acres within Indian River County
Location: In Brevard County between Melbourne Beach
and Wabasso Beach on Florida's Atlantic coast


Main Function:



Public Access:

Contact:


8-13 Sasi Crrttie
Size:


Location:


1,670 acres acquired, 8,009 acres pending
In Brevard County, consisting of five sites; two
near Titusville, one near Rockledge and two
near Malabar on the landward side of the
Indian River
Acquisition and management of these core
areas are imperative for the viability and long
term survival of the Florida scrub jay -
ecological buffers to the scrub cores
(Limited) Natural resource education, nature
appreciation, limited picnicking
Brevard County's Environmentally Endangered
Lands Program


3,447 acres purchased, 1,500 acres in Brevard
County, 12,792 pending, 4,500 in Brevard
County
Eastern Brevard County approximately 11 miles
north of Vero Beach


'y:j,~ciu(/?CywRtfbPgWf4 a0cF1ri f











To protect the West Indian manatee by
providing an upland buffer to the creek and by
limiting development in this area
Fishing, hiking, horseback riding, bicycling,
camping, picnicking and nature study
FDEP, Bureau of Aquatic Preserves


OKLAWAHA RIVER BASIN

C-1 Z44 4fof>1 Aet&-440-e Wi


Size:
Location:


Main Function:

Public Access:

Contact:


6,228 acres
Northwestern shore of Lake Apopka in Lake
County northwest of Orlando
Targeted clean up for the marsh and floodplain
restoration of the Ocklawaha River
Fishing, hiking, boating, bird watching and
environmental education for groups
SJRWMD's Lake Apopka Interagency Program
Manager


C-3 /a4 Stat t 4
Size: 2,100 acres
Location: Two miles north of Leesburg
Public Access: Camping, picnicking, fishing, nature and
canoeing

c-4 me&raEda /ars4 Cormsnt/ad lat,
Size: 6,476 acres, 4,470 acres pending
Location: In Lake County between C.R. 42 and C.R. 44
just north of Lisbon on the east side of Lake


Main Function:



Public Access:


Contact:


Griffin and west of C.R. 52
The district has acquired approximately half of
the project area identified by the state's CARL
acquisition program for restoration. The area
was designated as a national landmark in 1974
Seasonal hunting, fishing, hiking, canoeing,
bicycling, horseback riding, boating and bird
watching
SJRWMD Land Management Division


0-2 Za4 6'ar/,-f CoserVsatbI f,


Size:
Location:


Main Function:


Public Access:
Contact:


GREEN SWAMP BASIN


411 acres
Within the town of Leesburg along the north
shore of Lake Harris adjacent to the Leesburg
airport
Acquired for restoration as part of the Lake
Harris floodplain for water quality
improvement
Fishing, hiking, bird watching and picnicking
SJRWMD Land Management Division


P-f laU /a&k iye Ems/t
Size: 1,020 acres (pending for acquisition)
Location: Contains six sites; five sites are in southeastern
Lake County, one site is in northwestern
Osceola County
Main Function: Targeting the long term preservation of the
rapidly disappearing upland biodiversity of the
Lakes Wales Ridge


Main Function:


Public Access:

Contact:


/rtte, PA&Lt andCf iOnC












Public Access: Nature appreciation, education and nature
trails
Contact: Lake and Osceola counties, U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service

D-2 144 Uai. Sta4 Pa0r


Size:
Location:

Public Access:


9-3 ope"Swami
Size:



Location:


Main Function:






Public Access:

Contact:


2,000 acres
Ten miles south of S.R. 50 off C.R. 561 in
Clermont
Canoeing, picnicking, swimming and fishing


69,000 acres in phase I; 30,000 in Lake
County; 2,773 acres acquired to date;
120,000 acres total pending within Lake
County
In the southwest corner of Lake County
between the Seaboard Coast railroad on the
west, U.S. 27 on the east, and south of S.R. 50
Within an area of Critical State Concern, this
project is a complex mosaic of highly disturbed
upland and wetland parcels. The Green
Swamp is significant as a strategic hydrological
resource in that it is critical to the Floridan
Aquifer, supplying water to Central and South
Florida
Limited public recreational uses such as nature
appreciation, education and hiking
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission


D-4 /aloamor Stat M f, 4 amreCt tea
Size: 55,928 acres, only a small portion of which are
in Lake County
Location: Southwestern Lake County
Public Access: None

0-5 kla4owoa StateA Feowt
Size: Approximately 20,000 acres within Lake
County
Location: Southwestern Lake County
Public Access: None


KISSIMMEE RIVER BASIN

E-/ Ba r/ee K Conseat' AHnea


Size:
Location:

Main Function:
Public Access:


Contact:


23,500 acres
South of U.S. 192 in Osceola County about
eight miles east of Holopaw
Flood control as part of the U.S. Army COE
Seasonal hunting, fishing, hiking, bicycling,
horseback riding, camping, canoeing, and bird
watching
SJRWMD Land Management Division


Sfw0+umtk'4441A~W 4awlFrife--









/Atte, P/ant~ awdCneawt


Contact:


-2 BaredfStatk /i,, FanaamwnC Atra
Size: 22,206 acres
Location: East central Osceola County
Public Access: Hiking, hunting, camping
Contact: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission


Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission


F-3 trOse"a P6e1 SadafnaS
Size: 42,291 acres (pending for acquisition)
Location: Adjacent to Bull Creek Wildlife Management
Area in central Osceola County
Main Function: Conservation and protection of native species
habitat and to conserve, protect, manage or
restore important ecosystems, landscapes, and
forests
Public Access: Hunting, fishing, camping, canoeing, hiking,
and other natural-resource-based recreational
activities
Contact: South Florida Water Management District Land
Management Division

7-4 4/ S Stae WdI ,Fap~,rnt64wea
Size: 55,000 acres
Location: Southwestern Osceola County
Public Access: Camping, hiking, hunting
Contact: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission


Size: 7,426 acres
Location: Southwestern Osceola County
Public Access: Camping, hiking










- ~,i~brt2LbPRC~d af r F~'tipae


FUNCTION

The function of these lands depends upon their type of management.
State parks provide recreation, historic interpretation and ecological
protection and are managed for such activities. Federal lands such as
Canaveral National Seashore, Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge
and the Ocala National Forest are all managed to meet different needs.
The Ocala National Forest alone has several functions such as timber
harvesting, wilderness preservation, hunting access, wildlife
management, recreation, and land conservation. Needless to say, public
lands offer areas of protected open space, use of the resources either
harvesting or recreating, and historic interpretation.

PROTECTION STATUS

Public lands are protected through local, state or federal ownership.
Protection exists as long as the lands remain in public ownership and
they are actively managed for conservation, recreation or historic
preservation purposes.

EFFECTS ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS

The significant regional public lands that are mapped form corridors
of regional open spaces or greenways. As lands are purchased for
conservation by local, regional or state agencies, these lands are
removed from the open real estate market and remain as protected open
space. Significant regional public lands will likely become urban
defining green spaces between each of the three metropolitan areas in
the region. In the future, developable waterfront property will be scarce
and expensive. Lands adjacent to large public lands (regional
greenways) will be the next sought after pieces of real estate behind


waterfront property. Already conserved open spaces and greenway
corridors in the region are attracting low density housing. Many state
parks like Wekiwa Springs, Blue Spring, Tomoka River, that were once
on the urban fringe are becoming increasingly surrounded by low-
density, single-family housing.


'2.









A ,,ttc Pnts a'ndCaonecr


fSgn(ant 2Ref/fnaResorce^s and Faci'it,


INTRODUCTION

W ule 27E-5, F.A.C. requires not only that natural resources of
regional significance be identified, but also that regionally
significant man-made resources and facilities be identified. The rule
provides a definition for these resources and facilities as follows:

"Significant Regional Resource or Facility" means resources or
facilities identified by the council as being of regional
importance and meets one or more of the following criteria:

(a) A resource or facility that due to its uniqueness, function,
benefit, service delivery area, or importance is identified as being
of regional concern.

(b) A resource or facility that requires the participation or
involvement of two or more governmental entities to ensure
proper and efficient management.

(c) A resource or facility that meets either criteria (a) or (b) above
and is defined to be of state or regional concern or importance in
state or federal laws or rules of state or regional agencies adopted
pursuant to Chapter 120, Florida Statutes.

The resources and facilities identified on the following pages meet one
or more of the these criteria. An additional criterion has been added to
help determine their "regional importance" and relates to their ability to
influence regional development patterns.


Just as natural resources have shaped regional development patterns,
man-made transportation facilities, universities, downtown, space ports
and theme parks have also influenced development patterns on a
metropolitan level. In At This Point in Time, a 116 page physical, social
and economic profile of the region, the ECFRPC described metropolitan
development patterns for Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay, Daytona
Beach and Orlando areas. It provides further information on where
large, region-shaping land uses are located in each metropolitan area
and why the land uses are where they are. A continuation of these
development patterns was examined in the publication "What the Future
Holds." It is the future pattern of development hypothesized in this
publication that provides the basis for identifying facilities and resources
of regional significance. The facilities and resources listed here will
influence regional development patterns over the next 20 to 30 years.
Significant regional facilities and resources are listed for each of the
three metropolitan areas. The format is similar to significant regional
natural resources.

MELBOURNE/TITUSVILLE/PALM BAY
METROPOLITAN AREA

Roads
Description: The roadway facilities identified are part of the
transportation system within each metropolitan area. They are the major
roadways in terms of capacity to move people and goods within the
various parts of the metropolitan areas. As such, they form the basic
structure on which the rest of the system relies in order to function
properly.










a:~,~rt~,e~~,ra(e~w-onrd'wcgdalb,~fi;


INTERSTATE 95
A primary expressway, limited-access highway which serves as
the principal connector north-south along the eastern seaboard.
This highway runs from Miami in the south to Jacksonville and
points beyond to the north. The interstate highway serves
through traffic as well as regionally connecting Rockledge,
Melbourne, the beaches, and Patrick Air Force Base.

U.S. 1
A principal arterial highway which extends north-south along
the Atlantic coast through Brevard County. This highway has
served the entire east coast since before the interstate system
was developed. It has served as a major conduit to economic
development.

S.R. Al A
A principal arterial highway which runs north-south
immediately adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. It provides
regional access to the beaches, Indian River County, and to the
mainland via arterial roads such as the Melbourne Causeway
(U.S. 192) and the Bennett Causeway (S.R. 528).

S.R. 3
An arterial highway running north-south west of S.R. A1A and
east of U.S. 1 in Brevard County. It begins approximately seven
miles south of New Smyrna Beach at U.S. 1, through the John F.
Kennedy Space Center (some sections are closed to the public),
Merritt Island, and terminates in Indialantic at U.S. 192.

S.R. 46
An arterial highway running east-west through Seminole,
Volusia, and Brevard counties. This road connects the town of


Mims at U.S. 1 with the city of Sanford in the northern Orlando
metropolitan area.

S.R. 50
An arterial highway which runs east-west through Brevard and
Orange counties. It begins at U.S. 1 in Indian River City just
south of Titusville and extends west, crossing the St. Johns River
into Orange County, and connects with downtown Orlando.

S.R. 401
A connector road which extends north-south in Brevard County.
This highway services points just north of the city of Cape
Canaveral including the John F. Kennedy Space Center, the Port
of Cape Canaveral, and the Florida Solar Energy Center.

S.R. 404
A connector road which runs east-west in Brevard County. This
highway, also known as the Pineda Causeway, connects Patrick
Air Force Base and S.R. A1A with the mainland and U.S. 1 just
north of the city of Satellite Beach.

S.R. 405
An arterial road which runs east-west in northern Brevard
County. Also known as the Kennedy Causeway, it begins at the
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, continues west through the
Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, before bearing
northward through Titusville as the Old Dixie Highway.

S.R. 406
A connector road running east-west in Brevard County. This
highway connects downtown Titusville with 1-95 and is known
locally as Garden Street.












S.R. 407







S.R. 501




S.R. 507






S.R. 50


S.R. 514


A connector highway running primarily northeast-southwest in
Brevard County. This highway connects S.R. 405 near Indian
River City with 1-95 and terminates into the Bee Line
Expressway, which connects into the Orlando Metropolitan
Area.


A connector road which runs north-south in Brevard County.
This road runs through the city of Cocoa between S.R. 528 (Bee
Line Expressway) and S.R. 520.


An arterial road which runs north-south in Brevard County. This
road runs through Melbourne, originating at U.S. 1 in Eau
Gallie, traveling south over 1-95 and terminating at S.R. 512 in
Indian'River County.


A connector road which runs east-west in Melbourne south of
the Melbourne International Airport. This road starts at
Wickham Road, intersects with S.R. 507 and Airport Blvd., and
ends at U.S. 1. This road is known locally as NASA Blvd.


S.R. 513
An arterial road which runs north-south in Brevard County. This
road starts just south of Patrick Air Force Base at S.R. 404 and
ends at S.R. 3 west of Indian Harbour Beach. This road is
known locally as South Patrick Drive and runs through Satellite
Beach and Indian Harbour Beach.


S.R. 518


S.R. 519


S.R. 52(


A connector road which runs east-west in Brevard County. This
road begins at U.S. 1 in Malabar and continues west under 1-95
and connects with residential communities just to the south of
Melbourne.


A connector road which runs east-west in southern Brevard
County. Also known as the Eau Gallie Causeway, this road
connects Indian Harbour Beach and Satellite Beach with Eau
Gallie just north of Melbourne.

9
A connector road which runs north-south between Cocoa and
Rockledge. Known locally as Fiske Blvd., this road starts at S.R.
503, intersects with S.R. 520, and ends at intersection of S.R.
502 and Interstate 95.

0
An arterial road which runs northwest-southeast through Orange
and Brevard counties. This highway connects S.R. 50 near
Bithlo with the city of Cocoa and the beaches across the Merritt
Island Causeway. It serves as a southern diagonal connection
for travelers between Orlando and the beaches.


S.R. 524
A connector highway running east-west in Brevard County. This
road S.R. 528 near the Indian River with S.R. 520 west of Cocoa
and is known locally as Bennett Causeway Road.

S.R. 528
An arterial highway running east-west through Brevard and
Orange counties. Known as the Martin Anderson Bee Line


kltt, P&&T awdConre't


'
31












Expressway, it connects Port Canaveral with the southern
Orlando Metropolitan Area, including the Orlando International
Airport and 1-4 near the Orange-Osceola County border.

U.S. 192
An arterial highway which runs east-west through Brevard and
Osceola counties. This highway begins at S.R. A1A in
Indialantic, heads west through Melbourne, and continues into
Osceola County connecting travelers from the Kissimmee-St.
Cloud area.



Description: The Florida East Coast (FEC) Railway Company
provides freight transport for much of Florida's east coast. In Brevard
County, the FEC lines carry between 10 and 20 million tons of cargo
annually. The FEC line from Jacksonville to Miami runs 442 miles and
makes up 15 percent of Florida's railway system. Major commodities
handled by the FEC are nonmetallic minerals and various commodities
moved in containers and trailers on flat cars.
Location: The FEC lines run through Brevard County parallel to U.S.
1. This line continues north through Volusia County and through Indian
River County. The NASA Rail Line connects with the FEC Line and
serves Kennedy Space Center. The FEC Line also connects with the CSX
system and the Northfolk Southern railway system.


Description: The Melbourne International Airport is a commercial
service airport which is 2,800 acres in size. Out of the six public
airports in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay metropolitan area,
Melbourne International Airport is the only one handling commercial air


traffic. The airport provides medium-haul passenger transport services
with three operational runways. A $24 million renovation of the facility,
including the passenger terminal, parking facilities, and access road,
recently has been completed. Melbourne International Airport is a part
of Foreign Trade Zone 136.
Location: In the city of Melbourne in southern Brevard County, the
airport is located between 1-95 and U.S. 1 and is bounded on the east by
Apollo Road and the west by Wickham Road, the south by NASA
Boulevard and Sarno Road to the north.
Function: Provides the only commercial air service in Brevard
County and serviced 635,000 passengers in 1993. Total number of
passengers in 1994 were 641,140 and the total weight for air freight was
879,022 pounds. They recently opened a new terminal, as well as a
customs office for international passengers. The airport began
construction of a new Federal Inspection Services facility and an air
freight terminal in late 1994.
Effects on Regional Development Patterns: Like other regionally
significant resources, international airports are metropolitan
transportation hubs and function as metropolitan/regional activity
centers. As transportation hubs, airports tend to attract industrial/
warehousing types of development. As regional activity centers,
international airports employ thousands of people either directly or
indirectly through the airlines, FAA personnel, freight companies, car
rental companies, food services, hotels, and other travel related services.
Because of the diverse employment base airports create, the surrounding
development patterns often are as equally diverse, resulting in
commercial and industrial land uses supporting the airport.
Ports
Description: Port Canaveral, the Canaveral Port Authority was
formed in 1953 as a separate body to govern the port and it acts as an
independent local government. The port district has taxing powers and


I.. :
~32









/Pi4e, P 4A4 audCner,


is responsible for the administration, development, and operation of the
seaport and its supporting uplands. The port has the ability to issue
bonds, levy property tax, and publish its own tariffs, building regulations
and land use controls. Given official port-of-entry status in 1961 by the
U.S. Treasury Department, the port has seen the number of foreign
vessels calling at it grow steadily over the years. The port hosts some 85
firms or agencies, all involved in activities related in some way to the
marine environment.
Location: In Brevard County, Port Canaveral is located just north of
the City of Cape Canaveral and can be accessed by land using A1A or
S.R. 401. The Port of Canaveral Port District encompasses a large
surrounding area including the cities of Rockledge, Titusville, Cocoa,
Cocoa Beach, and Cape Canaveral. The port covers 750 acres, with a


45-foot-deep entrance channel and a 41-foot-deep inner reach.
Function: Petroleum, cement, iron, newsprint, building materials,
machinery, citrus products, general cargo, and passengers are among the
freight handled. Tonnage handled in 1987 was 2.5 million tons; by
1993 the port handled 3.4 million tons. The port is also home to fishing
industry activities, with more than 1,000 employees harvesting rock
shrimp, scallops, kingfish, and other types of fish.

Drapie Ceana/
Description: The Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay metropolitan area
is drained by several St. Johns River Water Management District canals.
These canals were originally constructed for flood protection and
agriculture drainage. Canals are considered significant regional facilities
because they have drained the land and made it available for
development. Like roads, canals have facilitated development in rural
areas by influencing land use decisions and fostering public investment
in an otherwise flood prone area. Following is a list of canal facilities.

* C-54 Canal
* Sottile Canal
* C-1 Canal
* Crane Creek Canal
* Faulk Canal
* Rockledge Canal
* Pluckebaum Canal
* Addison Canal
* Fellsmere Canal
* Melbourne Tillman Canal


i d










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Cities in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay Metropolitan Area with
populations over 7,500 include Cocoa, Cocoa Beach, Melbourne, Palm
Bay, Rockledge, Satellite Beach, Cape Canaveral West Melbourne, and
Titusville. These cities serve as economic centers of the metropolitan
area.



Description: Identification of major activity centers will help gain a
better understanding of how different areas of the region function and
how they influence economic growth, daily commuting, and other travel
patterns. Each is expected to continue influencing regional development
in the future. Activity centers can be either mixed use development --
like a downtown-- or a core single use with supporting mixed use
development on the periphery -- like an airport or university.
Function: Activity centers are a concentration of activity in a small
area. They tend to attract other activities to them.
Effects on Regional Development Patterns: Activity centers often
drive the shape of a metropolitan area's development scheme.
Downtowns, office parks, interstate highway industrial parks all
influence what goes on in and around them. An example of this
phenomenon would be downtown Orlando. It has attracted office and
specialty retail development to the urban core, while at the same time
influencing regional housing development patterns as far away as
southwest Volusia County, east Lake County and northern Osceola
County.


/Ct-Vff SP~aa 6eXtes
Description: Located on the barrier island of which Cape Canaveral
is a part, the space center consists of 140,000 acres of land, including
the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and the Canaveral National
Seashore. The space center yielded a $1.31 billion boost to Florida's
economy during the 1995 fiscal year. Ninety-five percent of this total,
or $1.11 billion went to contractors operating on-site, while $12.6
million went to off-site businesses in Brevard County. The space center
employs nearly 15,000 persons.
Location: One of the most recognizable landforms on Florida's east
coast, the Kennedy Space Center is located south of Daytona Beach and
north of Melbourne on Merritt Island in Brevard County. KSC extends
about 34 miles from north to south and measures 10 miles at its widest
point.
Function: As the departure site for our first journey to the moon, and
hundreds of scientific, commercial, and applications spacecraft, and
now as the base for Space Shuttle launch and landing operations, KSC
plays a pivotal role in the nation's space program. The "Space Capital of
the World" has also attracted a commercial launch industry, contributing
$65 million in space-related federal and industrial investments,
increasing the national and international competitiveness as a launch
site and business location. In addition to the work tasks required to
assemble, process and launch the Space Shuttle, a variety of support
functions are necessary to keep this large installation operating. These
include day-to-day supply, transportation, grounds maintenance,
documentation, drafting, and design engineering. Contractors bid
competitively on these functions, and are awarded contracts based on
their bids. Contracts are administered by KSC's NASA civil service work
force.
Wildlife thrives here, alongside the immense steel-and-concrete
structures of the nation's major launch base. KSC is a national wildlife









k/ptte P1tras wear'Cfci'e


refuge, and part of its coastal area is a national seashore by agreement
between NASA and the Department of the Interior. More than 200
species of birds live here year-round, and in the colder months large
flocks of migratory waterfowl arrive from the north and stay for the
winter. Many species of endangered wildlife are native to this area: the
Southern bald eagle, brown pelican, manatee, peregrine falcon, green
sea turtle, and Kemp's Ridley sea turtle.



Description: Activity corridors are similar to activity centers, but
more spread out. Activity corridors are defined as roadway corridors
where regional/metropolitan activities are situated along a road in a
linear fashion rather than in a concentrated activity center. They often
occur along major connector roads or arterials, and most activity
corridors are located in suburban areas.


Description: The Atlantic Coast beaches in Brevard County span
the entire length of the county for approximately 72 miles. The beaches
are located on the eastern shore of the Cape Canaveral and the sandy
barrier islands to the south of the cape.
Function: The beaches play an important role as an economic
resource, attracting an estimated 3 million visitors each year. Visitors
historically have come from the north during the winter season, but
seasonal fluctuations have diminished, making the beaches a year-round
attraction.
Effects on Regional Development Patterns: At this Point in Time
points out that some of Brevard's highest density and intensity
developments occur on the beaches. The spectacular seaside vistas
attract tourist throughout much of the year. The beaches function as
linear activity corridors with A1A being the principal highway where


tourism-related businesses are located. Tourists spend an estimated $2.5
billion each year visiting beaches in Brevard and Volusia counties. This
revenue helps support a bustling local business, including hotel
accommodations, restaurants, recreational boating, fishing, and beach
related sports equipment. Revenue generated from visitor spending also
impacts the residents, as nearly 15 percent of the local population are
employed through tourist related activities.



Description: In Brevard County, public water supply accounts for
the second largest percent of water used, and Cocoa and Melbourne are
the largest suppliers in the county. Brevard County, Titusville, and Palm
Bay Utilities Corporation supply the remainder of the water and are


a'

I35












responsible for providing potable water to the majority of county
residents. Brevard County has been designated as a water resource
caution area by the St. Johns River Water Management District.
Function: Centralized water supply is necessary for supporting
anything but low density agriculture. Just as roads provide access to
rural or developable land, central water service lines open rural areas up
to development by providing a necessary urban service. The boundaries
of these water supply areas help direct where this future growth will
occur.


WasteMat foot /it
Description: Eighteen public wastewater treatment plants in
Brevard County each have the capacity to treat at least one million
gallons per day (mgd). The largest of Brevard's five treatment plants is
the South Beach Regional facility, which processes over nine mgd.
Brevard County accounts for over 34 percent of wastewater treatment in
the area. Melbourne, Palm Bay, and Titusville have two major
wastewater plants each, and there are also two major facilities located at
Patrick Air Force Base. The cities of Cape Canaveral, Cocoa, Cocoa
Beach, Rockledge, and West Melbourne provide their own plants as
well. The remainder of wastewater is treated by septic systems and
drainfields. The majority of wastewater effluent in Brevard County is
disposed of by surface water disposal and reuse. Deep well injections
and rapid infiltration ponds are also used by several of the county
facilities.
Function: Wastewater treatment is a large factor in determining
land use density and intensity. Traditional septic systems do not support
medium to high density residential development under the current HRS
septic tank permitting requirements. Sewer systems, however, do
support higher density and intensity land uses, and as a result rural lands
falling within extended sewer service boundaries have a greater


potential for supporting medium to high density/intensity housing or
commercial development. Regional wastewater facilities influence
metropolitan development by providing urban services to rural areas.

DAYTONA BEACH METROPOLITAN AREA

Roads
Description: As previously mentioned, the roadway facilities
identified are part of the transportation system within each metropolitan
area. They are the major roadways in terms of capacity to move people
and goods within the various parts of the metropolitan areas. The larger
roadways, such as Intestates 4 and 95 also serve as linkages between the
metropolitan areas in the east central Florida region as well as between
other regions in the state.

INTERSTATE 4
A primary expressway which runs northeast to southwest from I-
95 to the northern Seminole County line. A principal corridor
serving the Daytona Beach Metropolitan Statistical Area in
conjunction with 1-95 connecting the Daytona Beach area with
the Orlando area.

INTERSTATE 95
A primary expressway which runs north-south through Volusia
County parallel to the Atlantic Coast. A principal corridor
serving the Daytona Beach Metropolitan Statistical Area in
conjunction with 1-4 connecting Jacksonville and points north
with the Miami-Ft. Lauderdale area. This interstate highway
primarily serves through-traffic and connects persons traveling
from Ormond Beach to New Smyrna Beach through the
Daytona Beach area.


X#'V44 ADItVft 1e"Mat'/ a4WtFta/ifit









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S.R. 40


An arterial highway which runs east-west through Volusia and
Lake counties. This highway connects travelers from Ormond
Beach and northern Volusia County with points west including
the Ocala National Forest and the city of Ocala.

U.S. 17-92
An arterial highway which runs north-south through Volusia
County. This highway travels from DeLand and continues south
to connect the Sanford area and the northern Orlando
metropolitan area.

S.R. 44
An arterial highway which runs east-west through Volusia and
Lake counties. This highway begins in New Smyrna Beach,
heads west through DeLand and continues toward the Eustis-Mt.
Dora area.

S.R. 15A
A connecting highway which runs north-south through Volusia
County. This road, known locally as Spring Garden Avenue,
runs through the west side of DeLand and serves as an alternate
to U.S. 17-92.

S.R. 421
A connecting highway which runs northeast-southwest through
Volusia County. It begins at S.R. A1A and serves as a
connection between Port Orange and South Daytona, under I-
95, and terminates at S.R. 415 near the Spruce Creek Airport.


S.R. 5A





S.R. 11






U.S. 17





U.S. 92


U.S. 1


A connecting road which runs north-south through Volusia
County. It is known locally as Nova Road, and runs parallel to
and west of U.S. 1 through Daytona Beach from the Ormond
Beach Municipal Airport to Harbor Oaks.


An arterial highway which runs north-south from Flagler County
through Volusia County. This highway enters the Daytona
Beach metropolitan area at the north border of Volusia County,
crosses S.R. 40 and enters the north side of DeLand near the
DeLand Municipal Airport.


An arterial highway which runs northwest-southeast from
Putnam County through Volusia County. It enters the region in
northwest Volusia County and continues southeast, crossing S.R.
40 and enters the north side of DeLand with S.R. 11.


An arterial highway which runs northeast-southwest through
Volusia County. This highway begins in Daytona Beach as
Volusia Avenue, past the Daytona International Speedway and
enters the northeast side of DeLand.


An arterial highway which runs north-south through Volusia
County. This highway has served the region as an economic
activity zone since before the interstate system was established.
It runs parallel to the Atlantic coast through Daytona Beach and
New Smyrna Beach on the landward side of the barrier islands.










&~kaffiX'eLra/2&raeipceUr affa'ha//,tk.7


S.R. 400
An arterial highway which travels northeast-southwest through
Volusia County. It runs contiguous with 1-4 from Daytona
Beach towards the Orlando metropolitan area.

S.R. A1A
An arterial highway which runs north-south through Volusia
County. This highway runs parallel to the Atlantic coast on the
barrier islands through Ormond Beach, Daytona Beach, and
New Smyrna Beach.

S.R. 415
An arterial highway which runs north-south through Volusia
County into Seminole County. This highway begins near the
Daytona International Speedway and continues south to
eventually connect with Sanford and the Orlando Metropolitan
Area between 1-95 to the east and 1-4 to the west.

S.R. 472
A connecting highway which runs east-west in Volusia County.
This highway connects 1-4 with U.S. 17-92 between Lake Helen
and Orange City.

S.R. 46
An arterial highway running east-west through Seminole,
Volusia, and Brevard counties. This road connects the town of
Mims at U.S. 1 with the city of Sanford in the northern Orlando
metropolitan area.


Description: There are two rail line companies servicing the
Daytona Beach metropolitan area. The Florida East Coast (FEC) Railway
Company provides freight transport for much of Florida's east coast,
including Volusia County. The CSX Railroad line provides freight and
passenger service to west Volusia County. The CSX Transportation
company has 1,778 route miles -- 59 percent -- of rail lines in Florida.
CSX, a combination of the former Seaboard System and Chessie System,
operates approximately 19,000 route miles in 20 states, the District of
Columbia and parts of Canada. Of the three main lines, the "A" line,
extending from Jacksonville to Tampa, passes through DeLand Sanford,
Orlando, and Kissimmee along its route. Major Florida commodities are
nonmetallic minerals, chemicals and allied products, coal, and various
commodities moved in containers and trailers on flat car (COFC, TOFC).
CSX is a Primary, Class I Rail Line.










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Location: The FEC lines parallel U.S. 1 from Ormond Beach to the
Brevard County line. A freight yard and maintenance facility are located
in New Smyrna Beach just south of S.R. 44. The CSX line parallels U.S.
17 in west Volusia traveling north to south from Jacksonville to DeLand
and Orlando beyond. An Amtrak passenger depot is located in DeLand.
Function: The FEC is east Volusia's only freight carrier, and there is a
possibility that Amtrak may begin to provide passenger service to
Daytona Beach on the FEC lines. The CSX line provides freight and
passenger service to west Volusia County.



Description:: Located on 1,850 acres, the
Daytona Beach International Airport was recently
upgraded from a regional airport and has been
approved to operate as a multi-site foreign trade
zone. The newly renovated 166,000-square-foot
terminal has six gates with capacity for 12. The
main runway has recently been expanded to
10,000 feet to accommodate nonstop transatlantic
flights and other larger and more diversified
aircraft. Scheduled passenger service at Daytona
Beach International Airport has fluctuated
significantly from year to year, yet is projected to
be over 800,000 in 1995.
Location: The airport is located within the city
of Daytona Beach. Specifically, the airport is
bounded on the north by U.S. 92 (Volusia
Avenue.), on the east by Clyde Morris Boulevard.
and on the south by Bellevue Avenue. Adjacent
land uses include the Daytona International
Speedway to the northwest, Embry-Riddle
University to the east, and commercial


development, including the Volusia Mall along U.S. 92 to the northwest.
Function: The airport is classified as a small hub and commercial
service facility with passenger and freight service. Freight service has
increased steadily over the past few years, with 1.3 million tons serviced
in 1986 and over 2.1 million tons projected in 1995.




Description: Cities in the Daytona Beach
metropolitan area with populations over 7,500
include Daytona Beach, DeLand, DeBary,
Edgewater, Holly Hill, New Smyrna Beach,
Ormond Beach, Port Orange, and South Daytona
Beach Shores. These serve as the economic
centers for the area. These centers are located
either along the Atlantic coast, on or near the
barrier islands, or adjacent to Interstate 4
;between Daytona Beach and the Orlando
metropolitan areas.


Description: Volusia County's beaches
stretch for over 50 miles along the Atlantic
S Ocean. The sandy barrier beaches extend
beyond Flagler County south to the Brevard
County line at Canaveral National Seashore.
Effects on Regional Development Patterns:
Volusia County's most dense and intense
development occurs on the barrier islands along
the beaches. The beaches have attracted land
uses supporting seasonal visitors such as
condominiums, hotels, restaurants, and
commercial retail. As mentioned in the


39










--C-- 4Sji rt tIRwk4Met i V" a,/AIk/i ifi


Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay section, the region's beaches draw over
three million visitors, pumping over $2.5 billion annually into the
region's economy.



Description:. Public supply accounts for the second largest amount
of fresh water usage in Volusia County, following power generation. The
city of Daytona Beach is the largest public water supply system in
Volusia County, serving 80,000 people with 12 million gallons a day
(mgd). Other public supply systems include Southern States Utilities-
Deltona, and the cities of Ormond Beach, New Smyrna Beach, DeLand,
Edgewater, and Holly Hill. These six systems provide 24 mgd or 55
percent of the county's public supply.


/asltewater Faci wflt
Description: Although many properties in the Daytona Beach
metropolitan area are served by individual septic tank systems, most
wastewater is treated by centralized systems, Volusia County operates
five wastewater treatment centers, but the largest in the county are in
Daytona Beach; the Bethune Point and Westside Regional facilities
account for over 40 percent of the 54 mgd treated in the county.
DeLand and Ormond Beach each have two separate facilities, and the
cities of Edgewater, Holly Hill, New Smyrna, and Port Orange have their
own water treatment plants. Most of the treated effluent from these
facilities is discharged into the Halifax River.


ORLANDO METROPOLITAN AREA

Roads
Description: As previously mentioned, the roadway facilities
identified are part of the transportation system within each metropolitan
area. In the Orlando metropolitan area, the major road network -- and
development -- is centered around limited access highways such as
Interstate 4, S.R. 408 (East-West Expressway) and S.R. 528 (Bee Line
Expressway).

INTERSTATE 4
A primary expressway which runs northeast to southwest from
the northern Seminole County line to the western Osceola
County line. The principal corridor serving the Orlando
metropolitan area connecting the Sanford area with downtown
Orlando, then heading southwest towards the Walt Disney
properties and points southwest.

Florida's Turnpike
A primary expressway which runs from the northwest to the
southeast. This highway connects travelers from Gainesville
and Tallahassee with the Miami area.

S.R. 408 (East-West Expressway)
A primary expressway which runs east to west. This highway
runs through downtown Orlando and connects persons from the
University of Central Florida area with people from the west side
of Orlando and Florida's Turnpike.










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S.R. 417 (GreeneWay)
A primary expressway which runs north-south. This highway
connects the Sanford area with University Boulevard, S.R. 408,
the S.R. 528 (Bee Line expressway), the Orlando International
Airport and nearly connects up to 1-4 near the Walt Disney
properties. This road serves as a beltway around the downtown
Orlando area to the east.

Western Beltway Corridor
A proposed primary expressway which will run north-south.
This road will extend from the Sanford area to 1-4 near the Walt
Disney properties on the west side of Orlando.

Osceola Parkway
A connector expressway which runs west-east. This limited
access highway connects 1-4 with S.R. 535, U.S. 441 and points
east of Kissimmee.

U.S. 441
A principal arterial highway running from the northwest to the
south. This highway enters the region in northwestern Lake
County, extends through Leesburg, Mt. Dora, Apopka, Orlando,
Kissimmee, and St. Cloud, then parallels Florida's Turnpike and
exits the region at the southeastern portion of Osceola County
near Yeehaw Junction.

U.S. 192
A principal arterial highway which runs east-west. This
highway begins at U.S. 27 west of the Walt Disney properties
and continues east through Kissimmee and St. Cloud, and
continues east toward Melbourne and Indialantic.


U.S. 27


A principal arterial highway which runs north-south. This
highway enters the region in the northwest corner of Lake
County and exits the southeast corner of Lake County west of
the Walt Disney properties.


U.S. 17-92


S.R. 15






S.R. 19


S.R. 33


A principal arterial highway which travels north-south. This
road is a major commercial corridor connecting the Sanford
area in north Seminole County and travels south through
Casselberry, Orlando, and Kissimmee, then exits the region on
the western Osceola County border.


A minor arterial/rural major collector road which runs north-
south. This road goes from the east side of Orlando and
continues south around the east side of the Orlando
International Airport and eventually connects with U.S. 192-441
near St. Cloud.


A minor arterial road which runs north-south. This road
traverses through Lake County from the Ocala National Forest,
continues south through Eustis and Tavares, and terminates in
Groveland.


A minor arterial road which runs north-south. This road begins
in Groveland and continues south, exiting the region on the
southern Lake County border.










as~tj#,~; ra/jRebswpc~w.r ~Ldtka~ e


A minor arterial road which runs east-west within Lake County.
This road originates near the southern portion of the Ocala
National Forest at the Lake County border and continues
westward through Eustis and terminates at U.S. 441 near
Leesburg


A minor arterial road which travels east-west within Lake and
Seminole counties. State Road 46 begins in Mims in northern
Brevard County and travels through the Sanford area, continuing
west until it intersects with U.S. 441 near Mt. Dora.


A principal arterial highway which runs east-west through the
center of Orlando. This highway has long served the
metropolitan area as a major corridor for economic activity as it
connects the area with the space coast in the east, the
downtown activity center of Orlando, and major community
centers to the west.


A minor arterial road which runs northeast-southwest through
the Sanford area. This highway serves to connect the Sanford
area with the Daytona Beach metropolitan area and New
Smyrna Beach as the "back road" alternative to 1-4.


A major collector road which runs northwest-southeast. This
highway serves to connect Oviedo with Bithlo through generally
rural lands in eastern Seminole and Orange counties.


S.R. 44


S.R. 426
A principal arterial/minor arterial road which runs east-west
through Orange and Seminole counties. This highway begins at
Edgewater Drive in the neighborhood of College Park in
Orlando, continues east/northeast through Winter Park, and
finishes being a primary road at S.R. 436. It continues east as a
minor arterial road into Seminole County, turning northeast
through rural lands to eventually meet up with S.R. 46.

S.R. 434
A minor arterial highway which serves as an economic corridor
for both Seminole and Orange counties. This road could be
described like a horseshoe and begins at S.R. 50 on the east side
of Orlando. From this point, it continues north past the
University of Central Florida, through Oviedo, then turns west
through Longwood and Altamonte Springs, turns southward
again through Forest City until it intersects with Edgewater
Drive.

S.R. 435
A principal arterial/minor arterial road which runs south-north
through the west side of Orlando. As Kirkman Road, it is a
principal arterial which runs northward from the intersection
with Sand Lake Road near the Lockheed/Martin properties, past
the International Drive economic center until it intersects with
S.R. 50 in Pine Hills. After jogging west, it continues as a minor
arterial road as Hiawassee Road, jogs west again as Silver Star
Road, continues north as Apopka-Vineland Road, through
Apopka, then travels through a rural area until it intersects with
S.R. 46 in Mt. Plymouth.


S.R. 46





S.R. 50








S.R. 415





S.R. 419













S.R. 436
A principal arterial highway which serves Seminole and Orange
counties as a major corridor of activity. This road extends from
the Bee Line Expressway near the Orlando International Airport
north through Winter Park, then turns west through Altamonte
Springs, until it intersects with U.S. 441 near Apopka.


S.R. 535
An urban collector road which runs north-south through western
Orange County. This road begins near Winter Garden at the
intersection of S.R. 50 and continues south through the Walt
Disney properties and terminates at U.S. 192.


S.R. 545


7
A rural major collector road which runs north-south through
western Orange County and part of Lake
County. This road begins in Sorrento at
S.R. 46 and continues south through rural
farmland around the west side of Apopka,
around the east side of Lake Apopka, and
terminates in Ocoee.

3


A rural collector road which runs north-
south through Osceola County. This road
parallels Florida's Turnpike from St. Cloud
to Kenansville through rural lands.

S.R. 528 (Bee Line Expressway)
A primary expressway highway which
runs east-west through Orange County.
This limited access highway connects
travelers from the
Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay
metropolitan area with a straight road that
terminates at 1-4 near Sea World after
traveling through rural, residential, and
industrial lands.


An arterial road which runs north-south from Orange to Polk
County. Starting at S.R. 438 in the town of Oakland, this road
intersects with S.R. 530 at the Orange/Osceola
County line and with Interstate 4 just west of
Kissimmee, and ends in the community of
Loughman in Polk County at S.R. 54. It is
known locally as Avalon Road.

S.R. 551
An urban collector road which runs north-south
through central Orange County. This road,
known as Goldenrod Avenue begins at S.R.
426 (Aloma Avenue) near the Seminole County
boundary and extends south to S.R. 552
(Conway Road) after crossing S.R. 50 and S.R.
408 (East-West Expressway).



Description: Florida Central Railroad is one of the
oldest short line carriers in Florida, providing services
for freight such as food products and nonmetallic
minerals to Orange, Lake, and Seminole counties. The
66 miles are compromised of a 41-mile track between
Orlando and Umatilla, with branches to Tavares and


S.R. 43:









S.R. 52


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Sorrento, and another line between Winter Garden and Forest City.
Function: The five Florida Central lines were formed from CSX
branches spun off northwest of Orlando, and they connect with the main
CSX lines at the Taft Intermodal Terminal. CSX lines carry both freight
and passengers, with Amtrak providing service at stops in Sanford,
Winter Park, Orlando, and Kissimmee. CSX has one major yard in the
region, the Taft Intermodal Terminal in Orlando. A smaller yard is also
located in Sanford, where Amtrak's Auto-Train originates. The main
function of CSX rail lines in Orlando is to move freight and passengers
south to Miami and Tampa and north to Jacksonville.



Description: The Orlando Sanford Airport is one of the five high
activity general aviation reliever airports in the metropolitan area,
diverting general aviation operations from Orlando International.
Located in Sanford and operated by the Sanford Airport Authority, the
airport handles domestic and international charter flights and general
aviation aircraft. It is situated on over 1,600 acres of land, has three
paved runways, and can accommodate wide body aircraft.
Sanford Airport is located along S.R. 46 and C.R. 427 just south of
Lake Monroe. The facility handles 6 percent of the areas operations,
and more than 12 percent of all aircraft based in the area occupy
hangers or tie-down space there.
Orlando International Airport resides on over 15,000 acres and is
operated by the Greater Orlando Aviation Authority. Twenty-seven
scheduled carriers and thirty charter companies make this airport one of
the busiest in the world, with over 1,000 takeoffs and landings daily.
Location: Located 20 miles south of downtown Orlando, OIA sits at
the intersection of S.R. 436 and the Bee Line Expressway.
Function: The main function of OIA is commercial passenger and
air cargo shipments, which accounts for over 85 percent of its business.


In 1994 over 22 million passengers passed through its gates and over
200,000 tons of freight were processed.



Description: University of Central Florida, founded in 1963, is
Florida's fourth-largest state university with over 25,000 students. More
than $22 million dollars of new construction is planned for the next
three years. Two new buildings, the Center for Research and Education
in Optics and Lasers (CREOL) and student union, are set to open by the
end of 1996. The university has three additional campuses located
throughout the region. There are campuses in Daytona Beach, Cocoa,
and south Orlando. The university supports the 1,000 acre Central
Florida Research Park where businesses and agencies can lease land to
construct research and development facilities.
Location: The University of Central Florida is located in east
Orange County at the Intersection of University Boulevard and S.R. 434.
The mostly undeveloped 1,443-acre campus has 67 permanent
buildings., the Central Florida Research Park is located just south of the
UCF property and connects with campus's internal road system as well
as with S.R. 434.
Effects on Regional Development: Economic expansion does not
take place without an educated work force, so significant regional
resources like universities, are essential to the region's development.
Because UCF was initially located on the Orlando area's outskirts, over
time it has attracted high-density student housing, high technology
corporations such as White Westinghouse, Lockheed/Martin, Central
Florida Research Park, a new Orange County high school and other
student related services. Growth In Oviedo and southeast Seminole
County can be attributed to UCF. The university directly employs over
3,000 people making it a regional economic activity center.


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Description: The Orlando metropolitan area consists of around 1.4
million people within four counties. There are 19 cities that have
populations over 7,500 and qualify as central business districts in Lake,
Seminole, Orange, and Osceola counties. Cities in Lake County include
Lady Lake, Leesburg, Tavares, Eustis, and Mount Dora. These economic
centers are located along S.R. 27 and S.R. 441.
The districts in Seminole County include Altamonte Springs,
Longwood, Casselberry, Oviedo, Winter Springs, and Sanford. These
cities are located along the Interstate 4 corridor and along S.R. 17-92.
The lone exception is Oviedo, which is located near the University of
Central Florida along S.R. 426 and S.R. 434.
Orange County is the largest in the region and contains several cities
which qualify as central business districts. Apopka, Orlando, Ocoee,
Winter Park, Winter Garden, and Maitland are located along Interstate
4 or S.R. 50, with the exception of Apopka, which is off S.R. 441 near
Lake County.
Osceola County, although the largest county in terms of area, is the
smallest in the metropolitan area in terms of population with only two
cities with a population over 7,500. Kissimmee and St. Cloud are
located along S.R. 192 and Florida's Turnpike just south of Orlando.


Description: The primary potable water source for the Orlando
metropolitan area is the Floridan Aquifer, a layer of porous limestone
rock underlying much of the state. Agriculture and public supply are the
largest users of this resource, and as the demand increases it will
become more important that water conservation measures be taken and
water of the lowest acceptable quality be used for non-potable purposes.


77~


Fortunately, most of this region as a high recharge area, where the
aquifer is most easily replaced by rainfall and surface water.
Location: The Orlando metropolitan area is separated into two
districts, the St. Johns River Water Management District and the South
Florida Water Management District. St. Johns River Water Management
District covers Lake, Seminole, and parts of Orange and Osceola
counties, and South Florida Water Management District covers
southwest Orange and west Osceola County.
Because Lake County is predominately rural, the majority of water
used in the county is for agriculture. The cities of Eustis and Leesburg
are the largest users of water for public supply, and they provide their
own water services. Mount Dora, Orange Blossom Gardens, Clermont,
and Tavares also provide water service for their citizens.










--_1,\ 'sAP K n i .d


The Orange County Public Utilities and the Orlando Utilities
Commission are the largest public water supply systems in Orange
County, and account for over 71 percent of the total public water usage
in the county within the St. Johns River Water Management District. The
cities of Apopka, Winter Park, and Maitland also supply their own water
systems. With the exception of Kissimmee, most of the water use in
Osceola County is for agricultural purposes. Both Kissimmee and St.
Cloud provide their own public water supply systems, and Reedy Creek
Improvement District provides service within its boundaries. Two large
private utility companies make up the remainder of the water supply
companies in the county.
Seminole County has several suppliers, the largest being Sanlando
Utilities, which contributes 21 percent of the counties total water supply.
The cities of Altamonte Springs, Longwood, Oviedo, and Lake Mary also
provide water. Unlike the other counties in the Orlando area, Seminole
County provides water to some county residents. Southern States
Utilities also contributes to this unusual mixture of water supply systems.


14/astdeater Fi'it FS
Description: The majority of wastewater in the Orlando
metropolitan area is treated at publicly owned treatment plants. Over
193 million gallons per day (mgd) of county and municipal treatment
capacity were in operation in the metropolitan area, not including small
package treatment plants, at over 39 facilities.
Location: Orange County operates five treatment facilities, the
largest being Sand Lake Regional (Conserv I). Several cities in the
county also operate their own plants, including Apopka, Ocoee, Winter
Park, and Winter Garden. Orlando operates three, including Iron Bridge
and Conserv II, which both provide service to other jurisdictions.


Seminole County has
two treatment facilities, but
most of the waste is treated
by individual cities.
Altamonte Springs,
Casselberry, Sanford, and
Winter Springs (two plants)
all provide wastewater
treatment.
Although Lake County
does not maintain a central
wastewater system, most of
its cities do. There are nine
facilities in the county, and
Leesburg and Eustis are the
largest. Clermont, Lady
Lake, Mount Dora, Tavares,
and Umatilla also have
facilities.
Most of the treatment
facilities in Osceola County
are operated by Kissimmee,
which has five wastewater
treatment plants, the largest being South Bermuda. St. Cloud runs the
only other facility in the county.
Reuse and spray irrigation are the most popular disposal methods in
the four regional counties. For instance, the Eastern Regional
wastewater treatment plant in Orange County sends almost 5 million
gallons of treated wastewater each day to the Curtis Stanton Energy
Center to provide cooling water for the coal-burning facility. Other
treatment plants send treated water to sod and citrus farms for
irrigation.*:*


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I. PERSPECTIVES ON REGIONAL SIGNIFICANCE

The following perspectives were used in developing the definition of
significant regional natural resources for the strategic plan. As
mentioned earlier in the natural resource introduction, perspective five --
facilitation-- was chosen for defining what a significant regional natural
resource is and how it should be used in the planning process as
outlined in Taking Next Step (the strategic regional plan). Although the
first four perspectives are all valid, they do not fit the function or purpose
of the strategic regional planning process. The fifth perspective --
facilitation -- exemplifies the role the of the East Central Florida Regional
Planning Council and the strategic regional planning process.


PERSPECTIVE I ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION



The most ecologically important resources in the region as
determined by the Regional Planning Council.



Decide which natural resources within the region are the "most
important" and adopt policies to safeguard the resources over time.


Adani4,t..
* Potential to help foster coordination in state, regional, and local
government environmental programs.
* Heightened awareness of the value of selected natural resources.
* Assist regulatory and review agencies in understanding the value of
the resources.

Pfaofftata eS:.
* Sets up the Regional Planning Council as an arbiter of what is and is
not important, which perpetuates the perception of the Regional
Planning Council as a regional government. The Regional Planning
Council adopts a strategic plan that is a policy document,
specifically designed to protect those natural resources it has
deemed to be most important in the region.
* The strategic plan becomes directive rather than visionary,
emphasizing a prescriptive approach to addressing natural
resources.
* Since the Strategic Plan lacks statutory authority to provide or
require protection, the Regional Planning Council is unable to
follow through in the implementation of the plan. This reinforces
the idea of the Regional Planning Council as an ineffectual agency.
* Sufficient information and understanding of the workings of natural
systems may not be available to make a determination of what is or
is not environmentally "significant."
* Regional Planning Council does not have the resources or technical
abilities to make a credible determination of the value of one
resource over another.









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PERSPECTIVE 2: FEDERAL/STATE AGENT



Those natural resources identified as important by a federal or state
agency (i.e., if it is of national or state significance, it must be of
regional significance).

RPCe 4
Reinforce the importance of specific natural resources through their
adoption in the Strategic Plan by administrative rule.



* Heightens awareness of the importance of certain natural resources
through their endorsement by the Regional Planning Council.
* Increases the level of coordination in various review functions (e.g.
DRIs) through a consistent list of resources to be protected.



* No value added to the "Regionally Significant" designation. The
Regional Planning Council functions as simply an administrative
arm of the federal or state government.
* Reinforces perception of the Regional Planning Council as primarily
a review and regulatory agency instead of a planning agency. Puts
the Regional Planning Council and strategic plan in the position of
trying to protect particular resources without the authority or
jurisdiction to do so. Perpetuates the perception that the Regional
Planning Council as an ineffectual agency.


PERSPECTIVE 3: REGIONAL LOCAL AGENT


04f /t/ oilfV14* 5f / fo SWb t..
Those natural resources local governments or other regional
agencies have identified as being important.


RPC ,e:
To reinforce the importance of local/regional natural resources.

Adv'ant"a&
Same as above.



* No value added to the regionally significant designation.
* The Regional Planning Council functions as simply a collector of
local information.
* Area-wide consistency is not achieved; consequently the list
becomes meaningless.

PERSPECTIVE 4: INTERGOVERNMENTAL BROKER



Natural Resource requiring involvement of two or more public
entities in its management.


. fYn.


r
48









Ater, P/danl an/Wdorcte


* To broker agreement between/among various governments on how
a regionally significant resource is to be addressed.
* To adopt policies establishing a conflict resolution process that
resolves the long term viability of the natural resources.


146604t"..
* Provides information to local governments as to which natural
resources need a higher level of coordination than may currently
exist.
* Showcases the Regional Planning Council's ability to assist in
natural resource conflict resolution.

P/faan ,fs..
* No particular value added to the regionally significant designation.
* Puts the Regional Planning Council and the Strategic Plan in the
position of reacting to events rather than anticipating and planning
for them.

PERSPECTIVE 5: FACILITATION


eIrftOKr ofe4i Svat4 a l''t;
Those natural features:
* Performing a valuable natural function.
* Having been afforded a level of protection, either through
acquisition or regulation, sufficient to provide a degree of certainty
to their continued functioning as a natural resource.


* Of sufficient size that they will shape regional development patterns
by influencing the direction, location, and intensity of future
development.

2PCRo:
Predict which natural resources will be key factors in shaping the
region's growth and development patterns.



* Provides information that can be incorporated into future state,
regional and local planning efforts, both comprehensive and single-
purpose.
* Alerts people to the environmental constraints within which the
region must work as it grows and develops.
* Allows for development of a fluid process, exclusively concerned
with understanding and portraying opportunities and constraints to
development in the region, rather than making a value judgment on
a resource.

Disad,,iaas:
* Places the Regional Planning Council in a new and different role
that may be difficult to understand and accept.
* Assumes a level of support for regional planning which may not be
present.










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II. REGIONAL PLAN MAP DATA SOURCES
A map series of regionally significant resources was produced using
data available from various agencies. A geographic information system
(GIS) provided a means to overlay these data sets to identify areas of
concern and to generate map series products. A common base map was
used to present the various data layers. The map series includes:

Public Lands Map
Surface Water Map
Significant Habitat Map
Groundwater Map



The public lands map was developed using available data from
several agencies. The various data sources were overlaid and a
common classification scheme was developed. The intent was to
identify lands owned by water management districts, other publicly
owned lands or pending land acquisitions. Other significant areas such
as CARL project lands and areas of critical concern also were identified.
The following agencies provided data to support the public lands map
development:

St. Johns River Water Management District
South Florida River Water Management District
Seminole County
Volusia County
Florida Natural Areas Inventory


SoAde eIate- ffi
The available data used to complete this map consisted of paper
maps showing wetlands and hydrologic features. The significant surface
water features were identified and digitized using GIS technology. A
regional surface water map was generated by merging the individually
digitized data sources. The following agencies provided data to support
the generation of the surface water map:

United States Geological Survey Digital Line Graphs
United States Fish and Wildlife National Wetlands Inventory
Florida Department of Natural Resources Springs of Florida



Key data sets used in developing this map included regional
significant habitat areas and listed species locations. A spatial overlay
process was performed, using GIS technology, to isolate the regional
significant areas that have a listed species location. Agencies that
provided data for the regional habitat data included:

St. Johns River Water Management District
Florida Natural Areas Inventory



Data for this map was compiled in the GIS to produce a regional
groundwater model. Results of the groundwater model were interpreted
by the St. Johns River Water Management District and published in their
Water Supply Needs and Sources Assessment.










A1t4, P41t adIC ,eo&tV


Center for Governmental Responsibility, University of Florida College of
Law. Guide to Local Groundwater Protection in Florida. Volume I The
Decision Making Process. St. Johns River Water Management District
and Southwest Florida Water Management District, Gainesville, Fl:
October 1990.

Cox, James, Randy Kautz, Mauren MacLaughlin, and Terry Gilbert.
Closing the Gaps in Florida's Wildlife Habitat Conservation System.
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee: 1994.

Czerwinski, Michael G., Fred Goodrow, and Gary W. Kohl. Aquifer
Recharge Area Protection Guidebook: A Users Guide for SJRWMD
Aquifer Recharge Map Series Local Government Technical Assistance
Program. St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka : October
1990.

Fernald, Edward A, and Elizabeth D. Purdum. Atlas of Florida.
University Press of Florida, Florida State University, Tallahassee: 1992.

Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of State Lands.
Conservation and Recreation Lands Annual Report. Florida
Department of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee: February, 1993.

Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of State Lands.
Conservation and Recreation Lands Annual Report. Florida
Department of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee. Fl: February,
1995.


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r-


Florida Department of State. Florida Administrative Code Annotated.
1990.

Framm, Rand W. Prime Recharge. Technical Information Planning
Series 87-2. Southwest Florida Water Management District, Brooksville,
Fl: December 1987.

Hand, Joe and Mary Paulic. 1994 Florida Water Quality Assessment
305(b) Main Report. Florida Department of Environmental Protection,
Bureau of Surface Water Management, Tallahassee, FI: June 1994.

Hand, Joe and Mary Paulic. 1994 Florida Water Quality Assessment
305(b) Technical Appendix. Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, Bureau of Surface Water Management, Tallahassee, Fl: June
1994.

Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program. The Preliminary
Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan for the Indian River
Lagoon. Melbourne, Fl.: January 1993.

St. Johns River Water Management District. Recreation Guide to District
Lands. St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, Fl: Spring,
1995.

St. Johns River Water Management District. Water Supply Needs and
Sources Assessment (Technical Publication 594-7). St. Johns River Water
Management District Palatka, Fl.: 1994.

South Florida Water Management District. District Water Management
Plan. South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Fl:
April 1994.







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