Title: Draft District Water Management Plan
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 Material Information
Title: Draft District Water Management Plan
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Language: English
Publisher: South Florida Water Management District - Public Workshop Review Draft
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Abstract: Jake Varn Collection - Draft District Water Management Plan (JDV Box 70)
General Note: Box 24, Folder 4 ( Water Supply Issues - Linking Water Supply Planning and Land Use Planning ), Item 12
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: WL00004649
Volume ID: VID00001
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Full Text




South Florida Water Management District

3301 Gun Club Road 0 P.O. Box 24680 0 West Palm Beach, FL 33416-4680 (407) 686-8800 FL WATS 1-800-432-2045


GOV 16-10

June 28, 1994 RECE VED
RECEIVED
Mr. Jake Varn 5 1994
Attorney-at-Law
Carlton Fields Law Firm .,;oa Fields Talanassee
215 S. Monroe Street ',- n. v
Tallahassee, FL 32301

Dear Mr. Varn:

At the June 20 meeting of the Regional and State Subcommittees of the Land and Water
Planning Task Force, recommendations to improve linkages between state, regional and
local entities were presented by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), the
water management districts and the regional planning councils. Several subcommittee
members stated that they were uncomfortable requiring that local governments consider
District Water Management Plans (DWMPs) to be "best available information". The
concern was based on the fact that none of the members have seen DWMPs and so
have no idea what a DWMP contains.

Enclosed is a copy of the South Florida Water Management District's Draft District Water
Management Plan for your review. Each of the districts is preparing a similar plan. The
five districts and DEP worked closely over a three year period to develop a common
organization for the report. The group also worked, through sixteen "conventions
committees", to develop consistent approaches to a wide variety of water resource topics.
This effort is summarized in Chapter VI.

I hope you find this District Water Management Plan useful in your consideration of
improving the integration of land and water planning. If you have any questions, please
call me at (407) 687-6330.

Sincerely,



David B. Thatcher, AICP
Director, Comprehensive Planning Division
Planning Department

DT/jc
Enclosures: DWMP

Governing Board:
Valerie Boyd, Chairman William Hammond Eugene K. Pettis Tilford C. Creel, Executive Director
Frank Williamson, Jr., Vice Chairman Betsy Krant Nathaniel P. Reed Thomas K. MacVicar, Deputy Executive Director
Annie Betancourt Allan Milledge Leah G. Schad






DRAFT DISTRICT
WATER
MANAGEMENT
PLAN


South Florida Water Management District
JUNE 8, 1994


PUBLIC WORKSHOP REVIEW DRAFT









DISTRICT
WATER MANAGEMENT
PLAN

South Florida Water Management District


THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED
FOR PUBLIC REVIEW AND COMMENT

JUNE 1994




PLEASE SEND WRITTEN COMMENTS BY AUGUST 5, 1994



PLEASE SEND WRITTEN COMMENTS TO:
Mr. James Carnes
Comprehensive Planning Division
South Florida Water Management District
P.O. Box 24680
West Palm Beach, FL 33416-4680




DRAFT











Workshop Draft DWMP June1994


TABLE OF CONTENTS


List of Tables .......................
List of Figures .......................
List of Plates ........................

INTRODUCTION .....................


. . . . x i


I. DISTRICT OVERVIEW ..............................
A. DISTRICT HISTORY ...........................
1. O rig in . . . . . . . . .
2. Geographic Area .........................
3. Enabling Legislation .......................
B. PHYSICAL SETTING ...........................
1. Physiography/Topography ............. ......
2. Clim ate ...............................
3. Major Biological Communities ................
C. CULTURAL RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS .
1. Population Growth ........................
2. Land Use and Land Cover ...................
3. Major Economic Activities ...................
D. SURFACE WATER RESOURCES ...................
1. Kissimmee-Lake Okeechobee-Everglades System ...
2. Big Cypress Watershed .................. ....
3. Caloosahatchee River Watershed ...............
4. Indian River Lagoon Watershed ................
5. Central and Southern Florida Flood Control System .
E. GROUND WATER RESOURCES ................... .
1. Principal Aquifer Systems ....................
2. Surficial Aquifer System .....................
3. Intermediate Aquifer System ..................
4. Floridan Aquifer System .....................
F. W ATER USE ................................
1. Current Water Use .........................
2. Future W ater Use .........................
3. Sources of W ater ..........................
G. DISTRICT AND OTHER PUBLICLY OWNED LANDS .......


.. 8
. 8
S13
S.16
. .16
S.19
. 20
S.21
. 23
. .26
S.26
S.27
S.31
S.32
S.33
. 33
S.36
S.39
S. 41


_L


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Workshop Draft DWMP June1994


TABLE OF CONTENTS
(Continued)


H. PROGRAM OVERVIEW .........................
1. Water Resource Planning/Monitoring Program .....
2. Implementation Through Regulation Program ......
3. Implementation Through Acquisition, Restoration,
and Public Works Program ..............
4. Implementation Through Outreach Activities ......
5. Implementation Through Operations and Maintenance
of Lands and Works Program ............
6. District Management and Administration Program .
I. PLANNING UNITS .............................
1. Lower East Coast ........................
2. Lower West Coast ........................
3. Upper East Coast .........................
4. Kissimmee Basin .........................


II. WATER MANAGEMENT GOALS .
A. STATUTORY GUIDANCE .
B. MISSION STATEMENT ....
C. VISION 2050 ...........
D. STRATEGIC GOALS ......
E. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT


GOALS


III. WATER MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES
A. WATER SUPPLY ..............
1. Needs and Sources .......
2. Source Protection ........
B. FLOOD PROTECTION ..........
1. Flood Protection Facilities .
2. Floodplains .............
C. WATER QUALITY .............
1. Surface Water ...........
2. Ground Water ...........
D. NATURAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT .
1. Ecosystems Protection .....


2. Minimum Flows and Levels ..............


.....43
..... 43
..... 43

.....44
..... 44

..... 45
..... 45
..... 45
..... 45
..... 50
.... 54
..... 57

..... 61
..... 61
..... 61
..... 62
..... 65
..... 69

..... 73
..... 74
..... 75
..... 91
..... 96
..... 96
.... 105
....111
....112
....137
.... 141
.... 141
.... 175


Table of Contents










Workshop Draft DWMP June1994


TABLE OF CONTENTS
(Continued)


IV. THE INTEGRATED PLAN.............
A. BROWARD COUNTY ...........
1. County Overview .........
2. Water Management Issues and
B. CHARLOTTE COUNTY .........
C. COLLIER COUNTY ............
1. County Overview .........
2. Water Management Issues and
D. DADE COUNTY ..............
1. County Overview .........
2. Water Management Issues and
E. GLADES COUNTY ............
1. County Overview .........
2. Water Management Issues and
F. HENDRY COUNTY ............
1. County Overview .........


Activities




Activities


Activities


Activities


2. Water Management Issues and Activities .
G. HIGHLANDS COUNTY ...................
H. LEE COUNTY .........................
1. County Overview ..................
2. Water Management Issues and Activities .
I. MARTIN COUNTY .....................
1. County Overview ..................
2. Water Management Issues and Activities .
J. MONROE COUNTY .....................
1. County Overview ..................
2. Water Management Issues and Activities .
K. OKEECHOBEE COUNTY ..................
1. County Overview ...................
2. Water Management Issues and Activities .
L. ORANGE COUNTY .....................
M. OSCEOLA COUNTY ....................
1. County Overview ..................
2. Water Management Issues and Activities .


......183
......185
......185
...... 190
......209
......211
......211
...... 215
......231
......231
...... 237
......259
......259
...... 262
......275
......275
...... 277
......293
......295
......295
...... 297
......313
......313
...... 316
......327
......327
...... 332
......347
......347
.. .. 349
......359
......361
......361
...... 363


4


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Workshop Draft DWMP June1994


TABLE OF CONTENTS
(Continued)

N. PALM BEACH COUNTY .................
1. County Overview .................
2. Water Management Issues and Activities
0. POLK COUNTY .......................
P. ST. LUCIE COUNTY ...................
1. County Overview .................
2. Water Management Issues and Activities

V. INTERGOVERNMENTAL COORDINATION .........
A. SOVEREIGN NATIONS .................
B. FEDERAL GOVERNMENT..................
C. STATE GOVERNMENT .................
D. REGIONAL AGENCIES ..................
E. LOCAL GOVERNMENTS ................
F. PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT .................


VI. PROCEDURES FOR PLAN DEVELOPMENT .......
A. DEFINITIONS ........................
B. CONVENTIONS ......................
1. Agricultural Water Use ...........
2. Economic Assessments ..........
3. Floodplain Mapping and Surface Water
4. Ground Water Availability .........
5. Ground Water Basins ............
6. Hydrogeologic Nomenclature .......
7. Management of Surface Water Quality
8. Mapping and GIS Standards .......
9. Population and Per Capita Water Use .
10. Recharge Mapping ..............
11. Recharge Protection .............
12. Reuse Coordination .............


13.
14.
15.
16.
C. PUBLIC


Stormwater Management Levels of
Surface Water Availability ......
Water Use Categories .........
Wellhead Protection ..........
PARTICIPATION .............


Sen


Basins
.= ,. .
. .o .= ,
. .
o ,. .





vice. .


.375
.375
.381
.403
.405
.405
.408

.419
.419
.420
.421
.422
.423
.424

.427
.427
.441
442
.443
.444
.445
.446
.446
.447
.448
.449
.449
.450
.450
.454
.454
.461
.462
.463


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Workshop Draft DWMP June1994


Table of Contents


TABLE OF CONTENTS
(Continued)


D. PARTICIPATION BY OTHER UNITS OF GOVERNMENT ......... 464
E. EVALUATION PROCEDURES ...........................465
1. Annual Report ................................465
2. Evaluation Report .............................466

LIST OF ACRONYMS ................................... 471











District Overview Surface Water Resources


The South Indian River Lagoon segment, under natural conditions, was poorly
drained with many isolated wetlands. The natural drainage divides are poorly
defined. Many of these canals provide connections between basins. The area
is developed for agriculture and urban/residential uses, with a complex system
of drainage canals.

There is an adopted SWIM Plan for Indian River Lagoon which is being
implemented. The plan was prepared jointly by the SFWMD and the St. Johns
River WMD. The plan identifies water and sediment quality as a major issue for
the Indian River Lagoon. Specifically, water quality issues include:

(1) undesirable salinity fluctuations,
(2) increased suspended matter loadings and sedimentation,
(3) increased nutrient loadings,
(4) increased input of toxic substances, and
(5) increased levels of pathogens.


4-1. C-25 CANAL BASIN

The C-25 Canal basin contains a complex system of canals for agricultural
drainage which discharge into the Indian River Lagoon. The basin is located in
northwest St. Lucie, eastern Okeechobee and southern Indian River counties.
Under natural conditions, much of this basin did not discharge into the Indian
River Lagoon. Historically it was part of the Lake Okeechobee watershed, but
the construction of the drainage canals redirected the flow into the Indian River
Lagoon. Stormwater originating in the western portion of this basin can be
discharged into the C-24 Canal basin.

4-2. C-24 CANAL BASIN

The C-24 Canal basin is located in central St. Lucie and east-central Okeechobee
counties. The area is mostly in agricultural use, with many smaller canals
discharging into the C-24 canal.

4-3. C-23 CANAL BASIN

The C-23 Canal basin is located in southwest St. Lucie, eastern Okeechobee,
and northern Martin counties. The area is mostly in agricultural use, with many
smaller canals discharging into the C-23 canal. Under natural conditions, most
of this basin did not discharge into the Indian River Lagoon.


Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994










Workshop Draft DWMP June1994


LIST OF TABLES
(Continued)


Table
No.


Monroe County Population Trends and Projections .......... 327
Monroe County Water Demand Estimates ................ 333
Okeechobee County Population Trends and Projections ....... 347
Okeechobee County Water Demand Estimates ............. 350
Osceola County Population Trends and Projections .......... 361
Osceola County Water Demand Estimates ................ 364
Palm Beach County Population Trends and Projections ........ 377
Palm Beach County Water Demand Estimates .............. 382
St. Lucie County Population Trends and Projections .......... 405
St. Lucie County Water Demand Estimates ............... 408
District Water Management Plan Workshops, 1994 .......... 464
DWMP Performance Effectiveness Indicators .............. 468


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Workshop Draft DWMP June1994


LIST OF FIGURES


Figure
No.


SFWMD Water Management Planning Process .............. xiii
County Boundaries ..... ............................ 3
Florida Water Management Districts ................ .... 4
South Florida Population Growth ....................... 9
1940 Land Use ....................................11
Existing Land Use ................................. 12
Natural Surface Water Systems ......... ....... ....... 17
Central & Southern Florida Flood Control System ............ 24
Ground Water Supply Sources ......................... 28
Water Demand, 1990 & 2010 .........................34
Publicly Owned Lands ...............................42
Program Expenditures ...............................44
Planning Regions ...................................46
Lower East Coast Planning Region Water Resources Map ....... 47
Lower West Coast Planning Region Water Resources Map ...... 51
Upper East Coast Planning Region Water Resources Map ....... 55
Kissimmee Basin Planning Region Water Resources Map ...... 58
V ision 2050 .................................... 63
Major W atersheds ...................................70
Water Supply Problem Areas .......................... 78
Proposed Everglades Stormwater Treatment Areas .......... 133


22 Proposed East Coast Buffer
23 Save Our Rivers (SOR) Lands
24 Outstanding Natural Systems
25 Broward County Water Resoi
26 Collier County Water Resour
27 Outstanding Natural Systems
28 Dade County Water Resourc
29 Glades County Water Resour
30 Outstanding Natural System!
31 Hendry County Water Resou
32 Outstanding Natural System,
33 Lee County Water Resources


. . . . . . . 1 50
. . . . . . 15 8
S......................... 162
urces . . . . . 186
ces .. ... ... .. .. .. .. .. 2 12
Sin Collier County ............. 229
es .............. ......... 232
ces ..................... 260
s in Glades County ............. 253
rces . . . . ... 276
s in Hendry County ............ 290
s ................... .. 296


Table of Contents










Workshop Draft DWMP June1994


LIST OF FIGURES
(Continued)


Figure
No.


34 Outstanding Natural Systems in Lee County ............... 310
35 Martin County Water Resources ............ ......... 314
36 Monroe County Water Resources ...................... 328
37 Monroe County Water Resources Upper Keys ............. 329
38 Monroe County Water Resources Middle Keys ............ 330
39 Monroe County Water Resources Lower Keys ............. 331
40 Okeechobee County Water Resources ................. 348
41 Osceola County Water Resources ...................... 362
42 Palm Beach County Water Resources ................... 376
43 Proposed Everglades Stormwater Treatment Areas ......... 393
44 St. Lucie County Water Resources ................... 406


_


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Workshop Draft DWMP June1994


Table of Contents


LIST OF PLATES

All plates are located in the rear of this volume. In the final DWMP, all plates will be
full color documents.

Plate
No.


Major Biological Communities
South Florida Water Management District Water Resources Map










Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


INTRODUCTION

Water resource issues are a major driving force shaping the future of south
Florida. The ability to deal with the region's extremes of droughts and floods
will continue to be a critical factor in shaping our part of the world.

The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) has been charged with
determining how to resolve the complex water resource questions facing the
region. The agency's success will depend greatly on its ability to look ahead and
plan for the future.

The District Water Management Plan (DWMP) represents SFWMD's first truly
comprehensive examination of the myriad issues of water supply, flood
protection, water quality and natural systems management, in the 16-county
south Florida region. The policies, programs and activities of the agency reflect
the multi-functional nature of water resource management in this unique
environment.

Each of the water management districts has been charged with the preparation
of a DWMP, consistent with the requirements of s. 373.036, .Florida Statutes
(F.S.), and s. 17-40.501, Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.). The
requirements for development of the DWMP were further developed by the
Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP; formerly the Department
of Environmental Regulation, or DER), in conjunction with the water management
districts, through the development of a "Format and Guidelines" document.

The "Format and Guidelines" were developed to ensure that all five plans follow
a consistent format so readers can easily compare the issues and approaches of
the districts on a given issue. Accordingly, the DWMP is organized to reflect the
four areas of responsibility of each of the water management districts water
supply, flood protection, water quality, and natural systems management. The
"Format and Guidelines" may facilitate comparison of the plans of each of the
water management districts, but it may create false impressions regarding the
relationship of activities within different elements, or areas of responsibility, of
a water management district's mission by failing to appropriately reflect the
interrelated nature of these areas of responsibility. In a given project or activity,
any one of the areas of responsibility may be of greatest importance; however,
the impact of the project on each of the areas of responsibility must be
addressed. For example, the solution to a flood protection problem may provide
an opportunity to improve a water supply problem and will most likely involve
water quality issues. While activities are identified in the DWMP under the area
of responsibility within which there is the greatest impact, this should not be


L


Introduction










Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


considered to suggest that the impacts of a project or activity on other areas of
responsibility are not considered.

Given the comprehensive nature of the DWMP, it may be considered as
analogous to a local government comprehensive plan. Like the local
governments' plans, the DWMP is intended to serve as a direction-setting
document. It defines the policy framework within which priorities and directions
for future District planning and implementation activities will be set. The DWMP,
itself, is guided by the policies of the "State Comprehensive Plan", Chapter 187,
F.S.; the "Florida Water Resources Act", Chapter 373, F.S.; the "Air and Water
Pollution Control Act", Chapter 403, F.S.; and "State Water Policy", Chapter 17-
40, F.A.C. These statewide laws and regulations are translated by the District
through its Mission Statement and Vision 2050 into the DWMP. The DWMP,
through its establishment of schedules and policies, provides direction for the
District's Strategic Plan, which is used to direct resources for the agency's other
planning efforts (water supply plans, SWIM plans, and basin plans). The results
of these plans are then used to direct implementation activities. Figure 1
illustrates the relationship of the DWMP to the District's other planning activities.

As important as serving as a direction-setting document for the SFWMD, the
DWMP is a communication tool. As such, it plays a role in Florida's growth
management process. The DWMP should be considered as a source of
information for local governments regarding District activities which provides
direction to local governments seeking technical information regarding water
resource issues of concern within their jurisdiction.

The District Water Management Plan is not intended to be a self-executing
document. The general policy directives described in the DWMP provide the
District's interpretation regarding State Water Policy and indicate the general
approach which the District should take with regard to specific actions. These
policies are not rules of the District, though they should be used to direct the
District's future rule-making efforts and existing rules should be evaluated for
consistency with the policies described in this plan. District rules should then
be considered one of several tools for implementing the DWMP. Other
implementation tools might include additional planning, research, operations and
maintenance, and land acquisition.

An initial draft DWMP was prepared in 1992 and reviewed by staff at SFWMD,
as well as the other districts and DER. The initial draft served as a basis for
obtaining comments from representatives of local governments, regional planning
councils and interested members of the public during 1993. A second draft,
reflecting the comments received on the 1992 initial draft of the DWMP, was


Introduction










Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


Water Management Planning Process


Figure 1


Introduction











Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


Introduction


prepared in the summer of 1993. The second draft was distributed to all
persons who participated in meetings on the first draft, and to other interested
parties. This "Public Workshop Draft" of the DWMP was prepared based upon
the comments received on the two prior drafts. The "final" DWMP will be
developed following a series of public workshops during the summer of 1994.
Consistent with the requirements of s. 17-40.501, F.A.C., the DWMP must be
completed by November 1, 1994.









Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


CHAPTER I
DISTRICT OVERVIEW

PART A. DISTRICT HISTORY

Section 1. Origin

Soon after Florida became a state in 1845, the federal government granted the
State over 20 million acres of wetlands and swamps. During this early
development period, the federal and state governments encouraged the drainage
of wetlands for agriculture and residential uses. The Everglades Drainage District
(EDD) was created to facilitate drainage of the Everglades. By 1927, six major
drainage canals and numerous minor canals had been constructed, along with 47
miles of levees and 16 locks and dams. The construction program of the EDD
ended in 1928 following the hurricane of that year. In 1931, the EDD defaulted
on its bond payments, suffering the effects of the Depression and the collapse
of the Florida land boom of the 1920s.

In 1947, torrential rains flooded central and southern Florida. Two hurricanes
struck the Everglades and Lake Okeechobee after the earlier rains had saturated
the soils, resulting in extensive flood damage. Damages from the floods in Dade
and Broward counties were estimated at $42 million. In its report following the
flooding, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers reported that "as these areas will
inevitably grow and expand even without adequate flood protection, larger
damages may be expected unless preventive measures are taken" (quoted in
Huser, Into the Fifth Decade, The First Forty Years of the South Florida Water
Management District, 1949-1989, 1989).

Less than a year after the floods, the Corps of Engineers recommended and
Congress authorized $208 million for a flood control project, the Central and
Southern Florida Flood Control (C&SF) Project. The C&SF Project was planned
as a complete system of canals, storage areas and water control structures
spanning the area from Lake Okeechobee to both the east and west coasts. In
addition, the C&SF Project was intended to improve recreational and navigational
opportunities. To comply with the requirements that a local sponsor for the
C&SF Project be designated, the Florida Legislature created the Central and
Southern Florida Flood Control District (FCD) in 1949.

When the FCD was created, its primary purpose was drainage and flood control.
Operation and fine-tuning of the "system" was the focus of the FCD for the first
23 years of its existence. In the late-1960s and early 1970s, increasing
environmental awareness led to a recognition that water and related resources


District Overview History











Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


needed protection. The Legislature's passage of the Florida Water Resources
Act of 1972 broadened the District's mission to include water supply, water
quality protection and environmental enhancement, as well as flood protection.


In 1976, the Legislature changed the name of the FCD to the South Florida
Water Management District for consistency with the other water management
districts. The revised name, the South Florida Water Management District, more
accurately reflects the agency's broader mission.


Section 2. Geographic Area

The SFWMD covers approximately 17,000 square miles, including all or part of
16 counties and extending from the southern Orlando area to Key West and from
Fort Myers to Fort Pierce. Figure 2 shows the SFWMD and county boundaries.
With an estimated 1990 population of 5.2 million, the SFWMD is home to one
of every three Floridians.


Section 3. Enabling Legislation

The Florida Legislature passed the Florida Water Resources Act of 1972 (Chapter
373, Florida Statutes). This legislation broadened the authority and
responsibilities of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District and
created four new water management districts in the remainder of the state.'
Figure 3 shows the boundaries of each of the five existing water management
districts in the state.

In addition to creating the additional water management districts, Chapter 373
expanded the responsibilities of the FCD to include control and regulation of
ground and surface waters and their use under the supervision of the Florida
Department of Environmental Regulation (now the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection). More importantly, the legislation established a new
system of water rights in Florida. No longer was water considered a property
right; rather it was held in trust with any use of the water regulated under Part
II of Chapter 373, F.S.


The Florida Water Resources Act of 1972 established six water management districts in the state. The Southwest
Florida Water Management District, like the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District, was already in
existence at the time the act was approved. The sixth district, the Ridge and Lower Gulf Coast Water
Management District was subsequently absorbed into the South Florida and Southwest Florida Water Management
Districts.


District Overview History







Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


COUNTY BOUNDARIES
South Florida Water Management District


ORLUADO


;I1


Miles
0 10 20 30


J ICHA L07


HENDRY


PALM BEACH


WEST
PAlM
BEACH


IBOCA
jRAZIN


BROWARD


~Z\\


COLUER


IIMLL


II


S'I
0I



EY WEST

Figure 2


SFWMD
Planning Department
March 1994


District Overview History







Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


District Overview History


FIVE FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICTS


Northwest Florida
Water Management
District


St. Johns River
Water Management
District


Suwannee River
Water Management
District


Southwest Florida
Water Management
District


South Florida -
Water Management
District


'7~I


Miles
0 20 40 60


SFWMD
Planning Department
March 1994


Figure 3


~i~U ~s~i










Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


The following sections describe the natural resources, human population
characteristics and development trends within the SFWMD. District work
programs and activities also are summarized.



PART B. PHYSICAL SETTING

Section 1. Physiography/Topography

The topography of southern Florida, like that of the state as a whole, is the
result of erosion deposition, and solution-related processes that have sculptured
the land over time. Four of the ten, distinct, physiographic regions of the state
are found within the SFWMD.

The northern portion of the SFWMD, the area within the upper Kissimmee Basin,
represents the Central Lake physiographic region and is typified by sandhills and
lakes. It is sandhill karst terrain with numerous solution basins. Because of the
permeability of the soils in this area, the region provides recharge for the Floridan
aquifer. Surficial materials are dominantly sandy, occasionally with clayey
substrata, and with significant organic deposits.

Moving southward and to the west, in the area defined by the SFWMD as the
Lower West Coast, is the Southwestern Flatwoods physiographic region. This
is a largely low, flat region developed on rocks and sediments. The landscapes
include low plateaus and ridges, flatwoods, prairies, rockland/marl plains, and a
variety of coastal features. Surficial materials are dominantly sand, limestone,
and organic deposits.

The area defined by the District as the Upper East Coast is a generally low, flat
region that originated as barrier islands and lagoons. This is the Eastern
Flatwoods physiographic region. It is characterized by a landscape consisting of
broad expanses of flatwoods with prairies, ridges, and a variety of coastal
features. Surficial materials are primarily sandy with significant areas of peaty
deposits.

The Lower East Coast, as defined by the District, stretches from Lake
Okeechobee to the Florida Keys. This is the Gold Coast-Florida Bay
physiographic region. This uniformly low-lying area is dominated by the
Everglades. Other physiographic features include coastal ridges, mangrove
swamps, and the Florida Keys. Surficial materials are dominantly sand, marl,
organic material, and limestone.


District Overview HistorV











Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


Section 2. Climate

The climate of southern Florida strongly reflects the influence of its geographical
location. The area is closer to the equator than any other portion of the
continental United States. This low latitude, in combination with its proximity
to the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, make the climactic conditions of
this area markedly different from other areas of the country. The climate is
characterized by warm weather, usually ample rainfall, and usually light, though
persistent, winds.

Average annual rainfall is approximately 53 inches. Intense storms, yielding
large volumes of rain are common. Approximately 75%, or 39", of the region's
annual rainfall occurs during the wet season, which usually lasts from May to
October. The wet season is dominated by almost daily showers and
thunderstorms generated by surface heating.

During the dry months, rainfall is more closely related to the passage of cold
fronts and warm fronts. These frontal storms produce significant rainfall but
occur with less frequency than the wet season, summer storms. In addition to
the monthly and seasonal variation of rainfall, year-to-year variability in total
precipitation is an important feature of southern Florida's climate.

The area occasionally experiences extended periods of below average rainfall,
such as occurred in the most recent drought of 1988-91. The area is also
subject to tropical storms and hurricanes which can produce significant amounts
of rain. During such years, total rainfall for the year can total over 80 inches.


Section 3. Major Biological Communities

Eight major biological communities found in the SFWMD are described here.
Their general locations are shown on Plate 1 (Plates are located in the back cover
of the plan).

3-1. CABBAGE PALM HAMMOCKS

Typically, cabbage palm hammocks are relatively small patches of forest
surrounded by other vegetation types. Hammock soils are primarily organic
material. Cabbage palms, like all palms, are fire resistant. They are considered
to be an indicator of areas which have experienced fire in the past. Associated


District Overview Physical Setting










Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


vegetation includes saw grass, wax myrtle, gallberry, and oaks. Typical wildlife
includes raccoons, seed-eating birds, small reptiles.

3-2. HARDWOOD SWAMP FORESTS

Hardwood swamps are found on thin sands and marl in low-lying areas along the
fringes of rivers, sloughs, and lakes. Associated vegetation includes oaks,
cypress, pop ash, black gum, maples, sweetbays, loblolly bays, swamp bays,
and air plants. Typical wildlife in hardwood swamps include bobcats, otters,
wading birds, alligators, small amphibians and reptiles.

3-3. SAND PINE AND XEROPHYTIC OAK

Sand pine and xerophytic oak communities thrive on well-drained, sandy soils
characteristic of relic coastal dunes. These soils have very little water retention
and are generally high recharge areas. Associated vegetation includes scrub oak,
saw palmetto, and sand pine. Wildlife most often associated with this
environment include fox squirrels, pocket gophers, small birds, and small reptiles.

3-4. PINE FLATWOODS AND SAW PALMETTO PRAIRIES

Pine flatwoods are found on sandy soils, poorly drained due to hardpan, but with
some amount of organic matter. These areas are topographically level and were
once shallow seas in the geologic past. Associated vegetation includes slash
pines, saw palmettos, and wax myrtle. Types of wildlife found in these areas
include deer, fox, bobcats, raccoons, possums, armadillos, and small reptiles.

Saw palmetto prairies have essentially the same features as pine flatwoods
except they lack the pine overstory.

3-5. PRAIRIE GRASSLANDS

Prairie grasslands are subject to annual flooding. Soils are generally sandy.
Associated vegetation includes wire cordgrass, saw grass, beakrush, and
needlegrass. Caracara, sandhill cranes, and burrowing owls are usually found
here.

3-6. MANGROVE SWAMPS AND COASTAL MARSHES

Mangrove swamps and coastal marshes contain peat soils, sometimes quite
thick, and the hydrology is tidal in nature. Associated plants include Jamaica
dogwood, gumbo limbo, mahogany, prairie sedges, buttonwood, black


District Overview Physical Setting










Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


mangroves, white mangroves, red mangroves, turtle and manatee grasses.
Typical wildlife includes raccoons, mink, marsh rabbits, and bears.

3-7. FRESHWATER MARSHES

Freshwater marshes are usually found in conjunction with the littoral zones of
lakes. Types of vegetation include willows, cattails, sedges, bulrushes,
pondweed, water lilies, and eelgrass. Many of Florida's wading birds and water
fowl are found within this plant community.

3-8. EVERGLADES/PRAIRIE MARSHES

The Everglades system is a shallow, wide wetland system created by the
saturation of the underlying bedrock by rainfall and, historically, supplemented
with overflows from Lake Okeechobee. The soil is organic peat. The dominant
vegetation is sawgrass. Outside of the Everglades depression, prairie marshes
occur on shallow marl soils that are saturated for two or more months during the
year. The associated vegetation includes white water lilies, bladderwort, sedges,
dahoon holly, red bays, willows, spike rush, beak rush, and arrowroot.
Numerous fish species, deer, wading birds, Everglades kite, wood storks, sandhill
cranes, and alligators inhabit these plant communities.



PART C. CULTURAL RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
PATTERNS

Section 1. Population Growth

According to the 1990 U.S. Census, approximately 5.2 million people live within
the SFWMD, a 33% increase from the 3.9 million of 1980. This population is
projected to increase to approximately 8.0 million people by 2010. South
Florida's population took 60 years to grow from 30,000 in 1890 to 900,000 in
1950. In the last 40 years the population grew to over five million (Figure 4).

The 1990 Census indicates three major centers of population within the District:
the West Palm Beach, Ft. Lauderdale, Miami corridor 4.1 million; the Orlando
area 245,000; and the Ft. Myers to Naples corridor 487,000. The distribution
of this population by county is shown in Table 1 for 1990 and 2010.


District Overview Physical Setting








District Overview Cultural Resources and Development


South Florida Population

Population (millions)
7.0
6.0-
5.0
4.0-
3.0-
2.0
1.0
0.0 M
1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990
Year
Source: US Census

Figure 4

Section 2. Land Use and Land Cover

The evolution of the development of southern Florida is illustrated in
Figures 5 and 6. The area was still in a relatively natural state in 1940
(Figure 5), with Miami and Ft. Lauderdale as the two primary urban areas. The
Kissimmee River basin and Okeechobee County were major cattle raising areas.
Concentrations of agriculture were located along the south rim of Lake
Okeechobee, near Immokalee, west and south of Miami, and in Palm Beach
County.

The current use of land within the District varies widely from agriculture to high-
density multi-family and industrial urban uses. Agricultural and urban uses have
expanded greatly from what they were in 1940. Figure 6 shows the general
land use distribution throughout the District in 1990. A large portion of southern
Florida remains as natural, though much of it disturbed, land. The dominant
natural features are the federally protected Everglades National Park and Big
Cypress National Preserve at the southernmost tip of the peninsula, Lake


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District Overview Cultural Resources and Development


Table 1: County Population in SFWMD
1990 and 2010


County 1990 Population 2010 Population % Change


Broward 1,255,488 1,773,034 46.0%

Charlotte* 500 829 65.8%

Collier 152,099 293,469 92.9%

Dade 1,937,094 2,568,237 32.6%

Glades 7,591 14,800 95.0%

Hendry 25,773 41,610 61.4%

Highlands* 9,150 14,269 55.9%

Lee 335, 113 640,516 91.1%

Martin 100,900 216,303 114.4%

Monroe 78,024 94,337 20.9%

Okeechobee* 28,947 46,315 60.0%

Orange* 127,785 183,164 43.3%

Osceola* 104,514 195,068 86.6%

Palm Beach 863,518 1,597,535 85.0%

Polk* 12,823 19,625 53.0%

St. Lucie 150,171 290,100 93.2%

TOTAL 5,191,480 7,991,221 53.9%

Indicates counties which fall in more than one water management district.
The population shown represents only that portion of population within the
boundaries of the South Florida Water Management District.
SOURCES: University of Florida, Florida Statistical Abstract (1991); SFWMD,
Water Supply Needs and Sources 1990-2010 (1992); Local
Government Comprehensive Plans.


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District Overview Cultural Resources and Development


Past Land Use 1940

South Florida Water Management District


Miles
0 10 20 30


LEGEND

Agriculture

m Lakes & Rivers

Natural

SUrban


SFWMD
Planning Department
March 1994


Figure 5


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District Overview Cultural Resources and Development


Existing Land Use

South Florida Water Management District













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Figure 6


SFWMD
Planning Deparnmen
March 1994


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District Overview Cultural Resources and Development


Okeechobee, and the Water Conservation Areas in the westernmost reaches of
the Lower East Coast counties. Generally, urban development is concentrated
along the Lower East Coast from Palm Beach County to Dade County, in the
central Florida/Orlando area, and on the Lower West Coast from Ft. Myers to
Naples.

Most of the interior area of the District is in agricultural use. This includes:

(1) sugar cane and vegetable farms in the Everglades
Agricultural Area of Palm Beach and Hendry counties;
(2) the Agricultural Reserve Area of Palm Beach County;
(3) the South Dade County agricultural area where vegetable
crops dominate, especially tropical varieties;
(4) citrus groves in every county, but concentrated in St. Lucie
and Martin counties on the east coast and rapidly developing
in Hendry, Highlands, Collier and Glades counties to the
west; and,
(5) cattle and dairy farms in Glades, Highlands and Okeechobee
counties.


Section 3. Major Economic Activities

As would be expected in an area as large and diverse as south Florida, a variety
of economic activities occur within the region. The region includes major
commercial and financial centers, including one which serves an international
market Miami. Among other major economic activities within the area are
tourism and agriculture. Both of these activities have a major impact on the
usage of water.

3-1. TOURISM

Tourism plays a major role in the economy. The Florida Department of
Commerce indicates that five of the ten counties most frequently identified by
tourists arriving in Florida as their ultimate destination are in south Florida -
Orange, Broward, Dade, Palm Beach, and Lee counties.

Attractions within the area include the beaches on both the Atlantic and Gulf
coasts; Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, in Dade and Monroe counties;
the Florida Keys; and the Disney complex of attractions in southwestern Orange
County.


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District Overview Cultural Resources and Development


Tourism in results in significant seasonal variations in population, reflecting the
impact of climate. The major tourist season occurs during the dry winter
months, with tourists visiting the area to avoid harsher climates in other areas.
The degree to which population varies seasonally depends on the area. For
example, in the Lower West Coast seasonal population shifts may be over 30%,
while the Miami area typically experiences only a 10% seasonal variation.

The real significance of a major seasonal variation in population lies in its
relationship to the climatic seasons. In Florida, during the summer months,
population is at its lowest, but outside irrigation demands are at their peak.
During the winter months, the seasonal tourist population is at its peak. Overall,
water demand for urban water systems remains fairly constant. However, the
replenishment of supply is seasonal. The majority of the area's rainfall occurs
during the wet season lasting from May to October. It produces approximately
75% of the region's annual rainfall. In extremely dry years, this can translate to
low water availability during the late winter and spring. In areas where ground
water sources have limited storage capacity, this can lead to the declaration of
water shortages and the associated economic and social hardships.

3-2. AGRICULTURE

Major agricultural commodities within south Florida include sugarcane, citrus,
cattle, vegetables, sod, rice, tropical fruit, and ornamentals. Each of these
commodities tends to be concentrated within different parts of the District, as
indicated below.

3-2.1 Sugarcane

The majority of sugarcane grown in the United States is grown within south
Florida. It is the dominant crop within the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of
eastern Hendry and western Palm Beach counties. It is also important in the
economies of Glades and Martin counties. About 433,000 acres were planted
with sugarcane in 1990. Because of production practices (ratoon and fallow),
this represents only 80% of the total acreage dedicated to sugarcane production
within the region. Within the EAA, rice and sweet corn are frequently grown on
the acreage typically devoted to sugarcane production during the fallow periods.

3-2.2 Citrus

Citrus is grown commercially within each county in the region except Monroe.
While citrus production has historically been concentrated in the central portion
of the state, a series of severe freezes during the 1980s resulted in migration of


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District Overview Cultural Resources and Development


citrus production southward. The three counties in the state with the most
acreage planted in citrus, Polk (a portion), St. Lucie, and Hendry counties, are
within the South Florida Water Management District. The region also accounts
for virtually all of the Florida's lime production (in Dade County). Approximately
330,000 acres within the District were in citrus production in 1990.

3-2.3 Cattle

Cattle production in south Florida is concentrated in the Kissimmee Basin,
especially in Okeechobee, Highlands, and Osceola counties. Both dairy and beef
cattle are raised. In recent years, there have been motivations and incentives
associated with the Lake Okeechobee SWIM planning effort for dairy cattle
ranches in the Kissimmee Basin to sell out or diversify. However, cattle
production continues to be a major factor in the economy of the region. Despite
these pressures, it is believed that cattle production will stabilize at current
levels. (For additional information on the Lake Okeechobee SWIM Plan, refer to
the section on "Responsibilities Water Quality".)

3-2.4 Vegetables

A wide variety of vegetables are grown in south Florida, including both
traditional (bush and pole beans, carrots, celery, cucumbers, eggplant, endive,
escarole, lettuce, peppers, potatoes, radishes, squash, sweet corn, tomatoes,
and watermelons) and latin vegetables (boniato, calabaza, malanga, and yuca).
Different types of vegetables are often grown interchangeably and multicropping
is a normal practice. Counties with large acreage devoted to vegetable
production include Dade, Palm Beach, Collier, Hendry, and Lee counties.
Approximately 169,000 acres within the District were used for vegetable
production in 1990.

3-2.5 Ornamentals

Production of ornamentals in south Florida is concentrated near urban areas in
Dade, Palm Beach, Broward, and Collier counties. Approximately 18,000 acres
are devoted to ornamental nurseries within the region.

3-2.6 Tropical Fruits

Tropical fruits (avocados, mangoes, and papayas) are grown in Dade and Lee
counties. Approximately 17,000 acres in these two counties were in production
in 1990. Though this represents only a small amount of land, production of
tropical fruits is projected to increase slightly over the next twenty years.


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District Overview Surface Water Resources


PART D. SURFACE WATER RESOURCES

The major surface water systems in south Florida include the Kissimmee-Lake
Okeechobee-Everglades System watershed, the Big Cypress watershed, the
Caloosahatchee River watershed, and the Indian River Lagoon watershed. The
natural surface hydrology of south Florida resulted from the interaction of the
region's sub-tropical climate with its topography and geology. The natural
hydrologic system was self-sustaining and dynamic with conditions ranging from
dry periods to prolonged flooding during wet periods. During wet periods, water
tended to accumulate on the predominantly flat, low-lying lands, flowing
overland and via shallow streams into freshwater lakes and the ocean. Surface
ponding persisted for several months, allowing infiltration of surface water into
the underlying aquifers. During dry periods, surface water levels receded, but
water stored in the soil and aquifer provided base flow for the rivers and
wetlands. Occasionally, prolonged droughts caused more complete drying of the
land; wild fires were not uncommon during droughts.

Long periods of flooding and the extremes of droughts and hurricanes made
most of south Florida inhospitable to development. Early development was
generally confined to isolated uplands and the coastal ridge, often the only dry
land available. There was, however, a strong desire to settle the low-lands,
which were very fertile and potentially of great agricultural value. In order to
accommodate development, the natural hydrologic system was modified to meet
the population's heed for drainage for agricultural and urban activities. However,
extensive damage wrought by floods and droughts led to the construction of the
C&SF Project, a regional network of canals, levees, storage areas and water
control structures designed to provide reliable water supply and flood protection
for existing and future development. The region's surface hydrology is now
largely governed by man-made systems super-imposed on the natural hydrology,
such as the Central and southern Florida Flood Control System.


Section 1. Kissimmee-Lake Okeechobee-
Everglades System Watershed

The most prominent hydrologic feature of south Florida is the Kissimmee-Lake
Okeechobee-Everglades system. As illustrated in Figure 7, this system was the
dominant hydrologic feature of south Florida in its natural state.

The Kissimmee River system is comprised of the upper chain of lakes and the
Kissimmee River valley. The chain of lakes at the north end of the system


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District Overview Surface Water Resources


NATURAL SURFACE WATER SYSTEMS

South Florida Water Management Distrit


ORLANDO


Miles

0 10 20 30


PIERCE


PORT


t I
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is
is i


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Figure 7


SFWMD
Planning Department
March 1994


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.. U ~ ..











District Overview Surface Water Resources


provide the headwaters of the Kissimmee River, which eventually discharges into
Lake Okeechobee. This system is a major source of surface water flow into Lake
Okeechobee. Connections between the lakes were modified by channels,
primarily for navigation in the 1800s and later for flood control. Water control
structures were added to reduce excessive lake draw-downs during the dry
season and control the rate of discharge during the wet season. The Kissimmee
River was channelized during the 1960s to improve flood protection to the area.
The 103 mile long, shallow, meandering river was replaced with a 56 mile long,
30 foot deep channel. This resulted in the drainage of 43,000 acres of
floodplain wetlands. The SFWMD is currently engaged in an effort to re-
introduce flows to remnant river oxbows and restore 26,500 acres of wetlands
in the river floodplain; construction of this project is expected to be completed
in 2009. (For additional information on Kissimmee River restoration, refer to the
section on "Responsibilities Natural Systems".)

Lake Okeechobee is the second largest natural freshwater lake completely within
the contiguous United States, occupying approximately 730 square miles. The
lake receives water primarily from rainfall and from the Kissimmee River, Taylor
Creek and Fisheating Creek basins. Historically, during extremely wet periods,
lake levels rose sufficiently to overflow the banks and allow sheet-flow
southward into the Everglades. The lake is mostly surrounded by levees which
were constructed in the 1930s to provide flood protection to adjacent areas.
Water levels are managed according to a regulation schedule for flood protection
and water supply purposes. The Corps of Engineers operates and maintains the
primary water control structures around the lake and is responsible for the
regulation schedule.

The lake's main outflows are the St. Lucie Canal to the east, the Caloosahatchee
River to the west and the Miami, North New River, Hillsboro and West Palm
Beach Canals to the south. The Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie Canals are the
primary outlets for release of flood waters. Discharges through the southern
outlets are usually for water supply deliveries to urban areas of the Lower East
Coast or for agricultural use in the EAA.

In recent years, the lake has exhibited evidence of accelerated eutrophication,
which has been attributed to high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in the lake
water. Dairy farms north of the lake have been identified as the primary source
of phosphorus. The SFWMD adopted its Works of the District rule as a result
of the Lake Okeechobee Surface Water Improvement and Management (SWIM)
Plan. This rule limits the phosphorus loads entering the lake, using a
combination of regulation and Best Management Practices. Studies of
vegetation in the lake's littoral zone indicate a diverse wetland plant community


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District Overview Surface Water Resources


that provides habitat for aquatic birds and other marsh wildlife. Concerns have
been expressed that changes in lake stages have adversely affected the plant
and wildlife community of the littoral zone. The SFWMD, in cooperation with
the Corps is evaluating the existing lake regulation schedule. Details of this
effort may be found in the Surface Water Improvement and Management (SWIM)
Plan Update for Lake Okeechobee (January 14, 1993).

The area south of Lake Okeechobee is flat and low-lying. Under natural
conditions, stormwater accumulated on the surface for long periods, slowly
flowing overland in a southerly and southwesterly direction. Most of the surface
water filtered into the Biscayne aquifer, or returned to the atmosphere through
evapotranspiration. The rest flowed into the estuaries of Florida Bay Biscayne,
and the Ten Thousand Islands. These hydrologic conditions gave rise to a
diverse system of marshes, sloughs, tree islands, cypress forests and mangrove
communities.


Section 2. Big Cypress Watershed

The Big Cypress watershed, the regional hydrologic system in the Lower West
Coast, is essentially made up of natural sloughs, rivers and wetlands. In some
areas, local drainage canals provide limited regional flood protection. The local
drainage canals provide marginal flood protection during wet periods and lead to
over-drainage during dry periods. Development in downstream coastal areas has
reduced many natural flowways and their flood carrying capacities, therefore,
increasing flooding in inland areas. The SFWMD, through its Big Cypress Basin
Board, has adopted many of these canals as works of Big Cypress Basin and has
modified them to reduce over-drainage while maintaining flood protection.

The area is divided into major drainage basins according to their respective
hydrologic characteristics. These basins are the Estero Bay Basin, West Collier
Basin, and East Collier Basin. These basins have extensive wetland systems.

2-1. ESTERO BAY BASIN

The Estero Bay Basin is in the southern portion of Lee County. The basin
includes Hendry Creek, Mullock Creek, Ten Mile Canal, Estero River, and Imperial
River. These waterways, with the exception of Ten Mile Canal, are all tidally
influenced to some degree. Several waterwork projects have been completed,
or are underway, to increase water levels and to protect these resources against
saltwater intrusion. Hendry Creek has a saltwater barrier, while in Ten Mile
Canal, weirs have been raised to increase the water levels within Six Mile


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District Overview Surface Water Resources


Cypress Slough. The Estero River, east of U.S. 41 has slow conveyance and is
considered a good recharge area, as is the Imperial River east of 1-75. The Kehl
Canal is connected to this river and drains the water levels within this basin in
the dry season. The District and Lee County cost-shared the construction of
the weir on the Kehl Canal. This weir serves as a saltwater barrier and increases
water levels in the canal during the dry season.

2-2. WEST COLLIER BASIN

The West Collier Basin extends from State Road 29 westward to the Gulf of
Mexico and northward to the Lee County border, and includes part of Hendry
County. There is an extensive canal system within this basin. This canal
system, operated and managed by the Big Cypress Basin Board, serves primarily
as a drainage network. Since the primary source of water for this system is
rainfall, the canals have little or no flow during the dry season.

The West Collier Basin has extensive wetland systems. These systems include
the Corkscrew Regional Ecosystem Watershed (CREW), Fakahatchee Strand
State Preserve, and the Collier-Seminole State Park. Lake Trafford, in the
northern section of the basin, has a drainage area of approximately 30 square
miles.

2-3. EAST COLLIER BASIN

The East Collier Basin extends from State Road 29 eastward to the Everglades
watershed boundary, and northward approximately three miles into southern
Hendry County. The Okaloacoochee Slough extends from southern Hendry
County into Collier County and eventually becomes part of the Big Cypress
National Preserve, which forms most of this basin. There are no major rivers or
canals in this basin.


Section 3. Caloosahatchee River Watershed

The Caloosahatchee River watershed extends from Lake Okeechobee to San
Carlos Bay. It comprises the northern portion of the Lower West Coast region.
The river is supplied by inflows from Lake Okeechobee and runoff from within
its own basin. The freshwater portion of the river extends eastward from the
Franklin Lock and Dam towards Lake Okeechobee and the cities of La Belle and
Moore Haven. West of S 79, the river mixes freely with estuarine water as it
empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The river is the only major surface water used
for water supply in the Lower West Coast region.


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District Overview Surface Water Resources


3-1. NORTH COASTAL BASIN

The North Coastal Basin is in southeastern Charlotte County and northwestern
Lee County. There are numerous creeks within this basin. The basin drains via
overland flow from the C.M. Webb Wildlife Management Area in Charlotte
County into the Gator Slough watershed within northwestern Lee County. Most
of this basin drains through the Gator Slough Canal into Cape Coral's canal
system.

3-2. TIDAL CALOOSAHATCHEE BASIN

The Tidal Caloosahatchee Basin extends on both sides of the saltwater portion
of the Caloosahatchee Basin, northerly into Charlotte County. Numerous creeks
drain into the Caloosahatchee River in this basin.

3-3. TELEGRAPH SWAMP BASIN

The Telegraph Swamp Basin extends from Charlotte County southward to the
Caloosahatchee River. The major feature of this basin is the Telegraph Cypress
Swamp which drains via sheetflow into Telegraph Creek in Lee County.

3-4. WEST AND EAST CALOOSAHATCHEE BASINS

The West and East Caloosahatchee, C 21, and S 236 Basins extend along the
freshwater portion of the Caloosahatchee River, from the Franklin Lock and Dam
to Lake Okeechobee. The basins include parts of Lee, Collier, Hendry, Glades,
and Charlotte counties. The river is the major surface water resource within
these basins.


Section 4. Indian River Lagoon Watershed

The Indian River Lagoon Watershed is composed of three interconnected
estuarine lagoons, the Mosquito Lagoon, Indian River Lagoon and the Banana
River Lagoon, and their tributary basins. The lagoon system extends about 155
miles through six coastal counties from Ponce de Leon Inlet in Volusia County
southward to Jupiter Inlet in Palm Beach County. For planning purposes, the
watershed has been divided into four geographic segments. The North, North
Central, and South Central segments are within the St. Johns River Water
Management District. The South segment is within the SFWMD.


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District Overview Surface Water Resources


The South Indian River Lagoon segment, under natural conditions, was poorly
drained with many isolated wetlands. The natural drainage divides are poorly
defined. Many of these canals provide connections between basins. The area
is developed for agriculture and urban/residential uses, with a complex system
of drainage canals.

There is an adopted SWIM Plan for Indian River Lagoon which is being
implemented. The plan was prepared jointly by the SFWMD and the St. Johns
River WMD. The plan identifies water and sediment quality as a major issue for
the Indian River Lagoon. Specifically, water quality issues include:

(1) undesirable salinity fluctuations,
(2) increased suspended matter loadings and sedimentation,
(3) increased nutrient loadings,
(4) increased input of toxic substances, and
(5) increased levels of pathogens.


4-1. C-25 CANAL BASIN

The C-25 Canal basin contains a complex system of canals for agricultural
drainage which discharge into the Indian River Lagoon. The basin is located in
northwest St. Lucie, eastern Okeechobee and southern Indian River counties.
Under natural conditions, much of this basin did not discharge into the Indian
River Lagoon. Historically it was part of the Lake Okeechobee watershed, but
the construction of the drainage canals redirected the flow into the Indian River
Lagoon. Stormwater originating in the western portion of this basin can be
discharged into the C-24 Canal basin.

4-2. C-24 CANAL BASIN

The C-24 Canal basin is located in central St. Lucie and east-central Okeechobee
counties. The area is mostly in agricultural use, with many smaller canals
discharging into the C-24 canal.

4-3. C-23 CANAL BASIN

The C-23 Canal basin is located in southwest St. Lucie, eastern Okeechobee,
and northern Martin counties. The area is mostly in agricultural use, with many
smaller canals discharging into the C-23 canal. Under natural conditions, most
of this basin did not discharge into the Indian River Lagoon.


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District Overview Surface Water Resources


4-4. NORTH FORK ST. LUCIE BASIN

The North Fork St. Lucie basin extends from Ft. Pierce Inlet south to the St.
Lucie Inlet. The basin naturally discharged into the Indian River Lagoon, but
agricultural canals have greatly increased drainage. The North St. Lucie Drainage
District is in the northern portion of the basin and serves both agricultural and
urban areas, including the City of Port St. Lucie.

4-5. SOUTH ST. LUCIE RIVER BASIN

The South St. Lucie River basin is the natural drainage for the South St. Lucie
River. The City of Stuart is in the northeastern portion of this basin. There are
several small coastal streams in the basin, including Bessey, Danforth, and
Manatee creeks.

4-6. C-44 CANAL BASIN

The C-44 Canal basin is in central Martin County. The Okeechobee Waterway
(C-44) is a primary outlet for release of waters from Lake Okeechobee to control
lake levels according to flood protection regulatory criteria, and is a major
navigational route between the east and west coasts of Florida. The basin has
many agricultural developments interspersed with areas of natural, poorly drained
wetlands. Drainage from the C-44 Canal basin can flow either east to the
estuary or west to Lake Okeechobee depending on relative water levels within
the basin.


Section 5. Central and Southern Florida
Flood Control System

The Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project (C&SF) was authorized
by the U.S. Congress in 1948. The major purposes of the project were to
provide flood protection and an adequate water supply, to prevent saltwater
intrusion, encourage agricultural and urban development, and to preserve fish
and wildlife. Most of the C&SF Project is in the Lower East Coast (Figure 8),
consisting of three Water Conservation Areas (WCA), about 1400 miles of
canals and levees, 181 major water control structures, over 2,000 minor water
control structures, and 18 major pump stations.


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District Overview Surface Water Resources


C&SF Flood Control System
South Florida Water Management District


ORLANDO


-1


Miles
0 10 20 30


FORT PIERCE


STUART


-1 JUPnER
Is
WEST
IPALU
BEACH


IBOC
jRATON


/


gEY EST


SFWMD
Planning Department
March 1994


Figure 8


LEGEND

Water Conservation Areas

Z Lakes
--- WMD Canals


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k \
\









District Overview Surface Water Resources


5-1. LOWER EAST COAST

Many of south Florida's developed areas were formerly part of the Everglades.
These areas depend on the C&SF system for flood protection. The regional
canals of the system are also used for water supply deliveries to urban wellfields,
the rich croplands of the EAA, the three WCAs, and Everglades National Park.


The canal network immediately south of Lake Okeechobee serves as the water
source for irrigating the EAA. Farms in this area pump water from the canals
into a network of field ditches during the dry season and providing water for
crops; during the wet season this process is reversed with water pumped from
irrigation ditches into the primary canal system.

Levees and canals divide the former Everglades into areas designated for
development and areas set aside for fish and wildlife benefits, natural system
preservation and water storage. The natural areas are further divided into the
three WCAs and Everglades National Park. The WCAs account for about one-
half to the remaining everglades.

The WCAs store excess surface water during wet periods and are the primary
source of water supply to the urban areas of the Lower East Coast during the dry
season. In extremely dry. times, water deliveries from Lake Okeechobee
supplement the WCAs' water supply.

The regional canal system provides flood protection and water supply to
developed areas. Local stormwater management systems collect stormwater
and discharge to the regional canals which discharge to the ocean via estuaries
or to the water conservation areas. Estuaries depend on the freshwater
discharges to maintain the moderate range of salinities characteristic of this
transitional ecosystem; increased drainage for flood protection purposes has
modified the volume and distribution of freshwater flows. In addition, pollutants
from agricultural and urban activities are washed into stormwater and eventually
discharged to receiving waters such as lakes and estuaries; the SFWMD seeks
to identify and address the impacts of stormwater discharges to lakes and
estuaries through its research, regulatory and planning efforts.

The rapid growth of south Florida's population has led to increasing competition
between natural systems, agricultural areas, and urban areas for water supply.
Such conflicts will become increasingly evident as the population continues to
grow. Exacerbating these conflicts, approximately 75% of the year's rainfall
occurs during the wet season (May-October), while demand for municipal water


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District Overview Surface Water Resources


supply does not diminish during the dry season (November-April). The SFWMD
attempts to address these water supply conflicts through its planning, regulation,
and water management efforts.

5-2. LOWER WEST COAST

The C&SF system is concentrated along the southeastern coast of Florida. The
only element of the C&SF system within the Lower West Coast region is the C-
43 Canal (Caloosahatchee River). This canal was designed primarily for
navigation and as a flood control outlet for Lake Okeechobee. However, it also
helps to supplement water supply in the region.

5-3. UPPER EAST COAST

Within the Upper East Coast, the C&SF system is much less extensive than it is
further south, though some elements are within this area. The St. Lucie Canal
(C-44) bisects Martin County providing navigational access between Lake
Okeechobee and the Atlantic Ocean. The C-44 Canal was constructed as the
flood control outlet for Lake Okeechobee. It receives runoff from numerous
secondary systems. The St. Lucie Canal also plays a limited role with regard to
water supply in the region. There is a primary canal system in western,
agricultural St. Lucie County (C-23, C-24, and C-25), as well as an extensively
developed secondary canal systems operated by drainage districts pursuant to
Chapter 298, F.S.

5-4. KISSIMMEE BASIN

The channelized Kissimmee River (C-38) is the major component of the C&SF
system within the Kissimmee Basin. The river was channelized to aid in flood
protection; this modification has caused degradation of the river's ecological
integrity which has led to the Kissimmee River Restoration project. Other
elements of the C&SF system in the Kissimmee Basin include the canals which
link the Kissimmee Chain of Lakes and the canals which provide drainage and
water supply for the Indian Prairie Basin.


PART E. GROUND WATER RESOURCES

Section 1. Principal Aquifer Systems

Virtually all areas within the SFWMD are underlain by aquifers capable of yielding
some quantity of water. Three principal aquifer systems exist in south Florida


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District Overview Ground Water Resources


and are, in order of increasing depth below ground surface: the Surficial, the
Intermediate, and the Floridan Aquifer Systems. Generally, the Surficial and
Intermediate Aquifer Systems are utilized for ground water supply in areas where
the quality of water from the underlying Floridan Aquifer System is poor. This
includes virtually all of the District south of Lake Okeechobee, where the vast
majority of the population lives. Figure 9 depicts the general distribution of the
principal aquifers used for water supply within the SFWMD.

The Surficial Aquifer System contains: (1) the unconfined Biscayne aquifer
located in southeastern Florida (principally Dade, Broward, and southern Palm
Beach counties); (2) the undifferentiated water table aquifers located along the
east coast from St. Lucie County south into Palm Beach County, in parts of
south-central Florida, and in the lower west coast; and (3) the confined lower
Tamiami aquifer located in southwestern Florida. The Intermediate Aquifer
System contains two major confined aquifers, the sandstone and mid-Hawthorn
aquifers of the Hawthorn Group located along the southwestern Florida coast
from Charlotte to Monroe counties. The Floridan Aquifer System underlies all of
south Florida; however, good quality water dominates only that portion of the
system located north of Lake Okeechobee in central Florida. Within this region,
the Floridan System behaves predominantly in a confined manner, and is overlain
by laterally discontinuous undifferentiated surficial deposits which produce small
quantities of water.

Overall, the Biscayne and Floridan aquifers supply approximately 43% and 35%,
respectively, of the total ground water withdrawals within the District. The
remaining 22% is supplied by the various aquifers comprising the Surficial and
Intermediate systems.


Section 2. Surficial Aquifer System

2-1. BISCAYNE AQUIFER

The Biscayne aquifer is the major source of freshwater currently utilized for
public water supply and irrigation within the Lower East Coast (LEC). It has been
designated a sole source aquifer by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) under the provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The Biscayne aquifer
is one of the most productive of the shallow non-artesian aquifers in the United
States and one of the most permeable aquifers in the world, displaying
transmissivities in excess of 7,000,000 gpd/ft. Many wells yield 1,000 gpm or
more with negligible drawdown because of the exceedingly high permeability of
the solution-riddled limestones that compose the aquifer. The aquifer underlies


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District Overview Ground Water Resources


GROUND WATER SUPPLY SOURCES
South Florida Water Management District


ORLANDO


Miles
0 10 20 30


FORT PIERCE


STUART


JUPIJiE

WEST
PALM
BEACH


BOCA
RATON


FORT
LAUDERDALE


MIAAMI


LEGEND %

F Floridan Aquifer System

SSurficial Aqufers
and Intermediate
Biscayne Aquifer

I I Surficial Aquifers-
Undifferentiated




KEY WEST


SFWMD
Planning Department
March 1994


Figure 9


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District Overview Ground Water Resources


an area of approximately 3,200 square miles throughout Dade, Broward, and
southern Palm Beach counties (Figure 9).

The Biscayne aquifer is composed of unconsolidated sand and shell units
interbedded with carbonate rocks. The carbonates, which represent the most
prolific water producing zones, are contained within the Fort Thompson
Formation, the Anastasia Formation, and the Miami Oolite. Within the southern
portion of the LEC beneath the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, where this aquifer reaches
its maximum thickness, potable water exists to depths of 200 feet or more.

Water quality within the Biscayne aquifer meets State Drinking Water Standards
in most areas of the LEC, making the ground water suitable for all urban
demands. Poor water quality exists in some coastal areas where salt water
intrusion has occurred. Areas impacted by saltwater intrusion are relatively small
due to the recharge maintained by high water-levels at the various surface water
structures via the intricate system of canals which exist throughout south
Florida. Although the areas impacted by saltwater intrusion are small in extent,
they include the areas where population is concentrated. Saltwater intrusion has
forced the location of new wellfields further to the west.

Because the Biscayne aquifer is close to the surface and highly permeable, it is
vulnerable to contamination. Rapid urbanization combined with growth of
agricultural areas continue to threaten contamination of the shallow ground
water supplies from a variety of anthropogenic sources. Seasonal heavy rainfall
combined with dilution reduce the magnitude of levels of contamination within
the Biscayne aquifer.

2-2. WATER TABLE AQUIFERS

Relatively shallow water table aquifers serve as the principal water bearing unit
tapped for urban supply within the Upper East Coast (UEC). Aquifer system
productivity is moderately high along the coast, with transmissivities ranging
upwards of 200,000 gpd/ft, decreasing abruptly inland. Well yields typically
range up to 300 gpm. The water table aquifers are also an important source of
irrigation water.

In general, the Surficial Aquifer System in the UEC is composed of interbedded
unconsolidated sand and shell units with carbonate rocks representing the water
producing zones occurring within the unconfined Anastasia and Ft. Thompson
formations.


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Water quality is of relatively low ionic strength and meets State Drinking Water
Standards. However, localized areas of poor water quality do exist. Zones of
increasing mineralization tend to occur locally along the coast, due to saltwater
intrusion, and inland where incomplete flushing of residual seawater, or Floridan
Aquifer System irrigation water, has left high total dissolved solids
concentrations. This limits the majority of withdrawals from public water supply
wellfields which utilize conventional lime softening as the means of treatment in
these areas.

As with all shallow aquifers, the proximity of the aquifer to the surface increases
its susceptibility to contamination from a variety of anthropogenic sources. Lack
of confinement, high recharge, relatively high permeability, and a high water
table, all increase contamination potential. In addition, because of increasing
demands being placed on the system, it is in constant threat of salt water
intrusion along the coast.

The majority of the UEC must submit to withdrawal restrictions at present. Due
to increased demands, most of coastal St. Lucie County and a small portion of
coastal Martin and Palm Beach counties have been designated Reduced
Threshold Areas. Reduced Threshold Areas (areas in which the threshold
separating a General Permit from an individual permit has been lowered from a
maximum limit of 100,000 gpd to 20,000 gpd) are established as a
precautionary measure when demand on the aquifer systems) typically
approaches or exceeds supply capacity.

2-3. LOWER TAMIAMI AQUIFER

The Surficial Aquifer System serves as the primary source of municipal,
industrial, and agricultural water supply throughout the Lower West Coast
(LWC). Generally the aquifer system is moderately to highly productive,
although this varies with depth and location with transmissivities ranging
between 10,000 to 1,000,000 gpd/ft. Public water supply wells display
moderate well yields on the order of 300 gpm. Reduced Threshold Areas (areas
in which the threshold separating a General Permit from an individual permit has
been lowered from a maximum limit of 100,000 gpd to 20,000 gpd) are
established as a precautionary measure when water demand on the aquifer
systems) typically approaches or exceeds supply capacity.

The Surficial Aquifer System encompasses two aquifers within the LWC: the
water table aquifer and the lower Tamiami aquifer. It is believed that the lower
Tamiami begins to function hydrologically as a separate aquifer when it is
overlain by a confining bed of greater than ten feet in thickness; otherwise, as










District Overview Ground Water Resources


evidenced in northern Lee and northwest Hendry counties, it and the water table
aquifer behave as a single hydrologic unit. In general, these aquifers are
composed of interbedded unconsolidated sand and shell units with carbonate
rocks.

Water quality generally meets State Drinking Water Standards, although localized
areas display degraded water quality. Zones of increasing mineralization tend to
occur locally along the coast, due to saltwater intrusion, and inland toward the
Everglades area where incomplete flushing of residual seawater, or Floridan
Aquifer System irrigation water, has left high total dissolved solids
concentrations.

As with all shallow aquifers, the proximity of the aquifer system to the surface
increases its susceptibility to contamination from a variety of anthropogenic, or
man-made, sources. In addition, because of large demands placed on this
system, it has been endangered by salt water intrusion along the coast and is
frequently included in water shortage restrictions.


Section 3. Intermediate Aquifer System

The Intermediate Aquifer System consists of the sandstone aquifer and the mid-
Hawthorn artesian aquifer.. It is composed predominantly of interbedded
clays/silts, sand, sandstones, dolostones and limestones. The sandstone aquifer
is relatively thin and discontinuous when compared to the mid-Hawthorn aquifer,
however, it produces more water, particularly for agriculture in Hendry, eastern
Lee and Northern Collier Counties.

Water quality within the Intermediate Aquifer System varies with depth.
Generally, where present, the sandstone aquifer meets drinking water standards,
while the deeper underlying mid-Hawthorn aquifer typically does not; drinking
water standards for the major ions are frequently exceeded as a result of
increased mineralization. Productivity within these two aquifers is highly
variable. Because of this, they serve as an important source of water for
agricultural irrigation, but are not capable of supporting large-scale agricultural
operations in most areas.

Although the Intermediate Aquifer System is less susceptible to contamination
emanating from the ground-surface (due to the presence of low permeability
confining layers below the Surficial Aquifer System), excessive pumping can
cause upcoming of poorer quality water from deeper zones within the Floridan


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District Overview Ground Water Resources


Aquifer System. Also, improperly constructed and/or corroded wells open to
deeper formations allow for inter-aquifer migration of poor quality water.


Section 4. Floridan Aquifer System

Ground water withdrawals within the Kissimmee Basin occur almost exclusively
from the Floridan Aquifer System. This aquifer system not only serves as a
dominant drinking water source, but also as a major source of water for irrigation
and livestock. The predominantly artesian system is composed of a thick
sequence of carbonate rocks containing the primary producing zones, and
overlain by undifferentiated interbedded units of sand, gravel, shell, sandstone,
and limestones comprising a surficial aquifer of less significance. The principal
water producing zone(s) occur in rocks of the Lake City Limestone, Avon Park
Limestone, the Ocala Group, and the basal units of the Hawthorn Formation.
Productivity of these zones is generally high.

The Floridan aquifer serves as a major source for irrigation water within the UEC.
The Floridan Aquifer System is utilized, on a small scale, as a complementary
source of drinking water for blending with the Surficial Aquifer System supply.
Typically, however, Floridan water must first undergo desalination prior to use.
Unlike in the Kissimmee Basin, within the UEC production occurs exclusively
from the upper aquifer zones comprising the Ocala Group and the Avon Park
Limestone. Transmissivities are typically high, ranging from 100,000 to
500,000 gallons'per day per foot (gpd/ft).

In general, the water quality of the Floridan Aquifer System in the Kissimmee
Basin meets or exceeds State Drinking Water Standards. However, regional
mineralization within the aquifer system gradually increases to the south, due to
the presence of residual seawater, thus decreasing its potable potential outside
the Kissimmee Basin. Throughout most of the Kissimmee Basin, the surficial
aquifer produces good quality water of low mineral content. However, it does
not yield sufficient quantities of water for many applications. Floridan Aquifer
System wells produce greater quantities of water as well as provide a reliable
source of water during periods of drought. Well yields in the Floridan average
about 1,500 gallons per minute (gpm), and range from 1,000 to 10,000 gpm
depending upon the size, depth, and location of the wells.

Within the UEC, the water quality displayed by the Floridan Aquifer System is of
high mineral content and not suited for potable use without undergoing
pretreatment. As a consequence of this, at this time, the primary utilization of
the Floridan system within this region is for irrigation purposes. The majority of


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District Overview Ground Water Resources


the UEC is designated as a Restricted Allocation Area, an area in which
allocation restrictions are applied with regard to the specific sources of water,
for use of the Floridan aquifer.

The Floridan Aquifer System (where confined) is better protected from surficial
contamination due to the presence of the Hawthorn confining layers. This does
not eliminate the potential for contamination from overdraft; excessive pumping
can cause the upcoming of poorer quality water from deeper producing zones.
The Floridan is particularly susceptible to contamination in recharge areas. This
is because in those areas the aquifer system is found to extend to, or near, the
surface exhibiting a thinning or absence of confining layers in combination with
the existence of a downward hydraulic gradient. Similarly, increased
contamination potential exists in karst terrain where sinkholes provide direct
connections to the aquifer allowing contaminants present at the land surface to
infiltrate without being subjected to the attenuation processes that normally
occur within the soil and unsaturated zones.


PART F. WATER USE

Section 1. Current Water Use

The SFWMD is the largest, both in area and population, of the five districts
established by the State. The agency covers a 17,000 square mile region and
is home to over 5 million residents settled throughout 16 counties with 115
municipalities. Approximately 80% of the population is concentrated in the
coastal urban centers of Dade, Broward, Palm Beach, Lee and Collier counties.

Negative impacts to water supplies have become increasingly evident throughout
the region for various reasons. First, demand is not distributed geographically
as uniformly as supply. Water demands tend to be concentrated in certain areas
(e.g., within the urban coastal and interior agricultural areas) and may greatly
exceed the immediate local supply. Second, the input of water to the south
Florida region varies seasonally. The need to withdraw water frequently occurs
during the dry season when water supplies are at their annual low. Third, the
urbanized areas, where most water demand occurs, tend to be extensively
drained or paved. This hinders recharge in those areas where spatial and
temporal overdrafts occur.

These impacts generate water management challenges in the 1990s and beyond.
Accurate quantitative estimates of supply and demand (water use) are of
absolute necessity for the rational management of water resources. These


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estimates are based on several elements which include: water use type, water
use intensity, and water use duration. Together, these elements control the
destiny of the regional water supply and figure prominently in the ultimate
apportionment of the resource.

Figure 10 shows water demands for 1990 and 2010. Preliminary estimates of
water demands for all counties within the District may be found in Water Supply
Needs and Sources, 1990-2010 (July 1992), which contains a comparative
analysis of 1990 and 2010 water demands and resources. More current
projections for Broward, Dade, Monroe, and Palm Beach counties may be found
in the Lower East Coast Regional Water Supply Plan Working Document (March
1993). More current projections for Collier, Hendry, and Lee counties may be
found in the Lower West Coast Water Supply Plan Background Document (June
1993). The water supply plans describe both water resources and demands in
more detail than is currently presented in the SFWMD's Needs and Sources,
1990-2010.

Water Demand, 1990 & 2010
(Millions of Gallons per year)

Demand
2,000,000
Recreation
Self
1,500,000 Agriculture
S Irrigation
m mTO inctCom
1,000,000 Selcomf
Domestic
... ... ... .. II Serf
500,000- Public
Supply
1990 2010
Year
Source: Tables 2 & 3
Figure 10


Table 2 illustrates water demands for 1990. These demands (expressed as
withdrawals) were assessed for all counties within the District's jurisdictional
boundaries. Water demands for those counties with shared jurisdictions were
compiled by incorporating data provided by other water management districts.


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Table 2: Water Demand, 1990
(in Millions of Gallons per Year)


County Public Dom Ind/ Ag Rec Total
Supply Self- Com Irrigation Self-
Supply Self- Self- Supply3
Supply2 Supply
Broward 70,883 1,424 949 5,148 16,863 95,267

Charlotte 5,406 694 0 13,657 1,059 20,816

SFWMD 0 0 0 5,327 0 5,327
only

Collier 13,385 1,679 3,022 54,515 7,474 80,075

Dade 118,625 8,395 18,141 51,434 10,213 206,808

Glades 99 300 0 28,653 24 29,076

Hendry 1,096 730 0 172,318 283 174,427

Highlands 2,447 1,242 1,096 46,880 840 52,505

SFWMD 100 0 0 19,000 0 19,100
only

Lee 15,516 2,821 11,425 22,766 14,843 67,371

Martin 5,000 3,700 600 46,100 4,500 59,900

Monroe 4,088 110 0 0 504 4,702

Okeechobee 800 670 70 20,630 200 22,370

SFWMD 800 600 0 10,600 200 12,200
only

Orange 58,897 1,728 1,728 35,057 4,602 102,012

SFWMD 12,400 400 200 4,200 3,600 20,800
only

Osceola 4,400 1,800 0 29,240 720 36,160

SFWMD 4,400 1,400 0 15,100 600 21,500
only


2 Includes Thermoelectric Power Generation Self-Supply.

3 Includes Golf Course Self-Supplied.


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Table 2 (Continued): Water Demand, 1990
(in Millions of Gallons per Year)


SOURCES: SFWMD,
SFWMD,
SFWMD,


Lower West Coast Water Supply Plan (February 1994);
Water Supply Needs and Sources, 1990-2010 (1992);
Working Document in Support of the Lower East Coast


Regional Water Supply Plan (March 1993 draft); St. John's River
Water Management District..


Section 2. Future Water Use

Population growth within the District is projected to continue. Urban and
irrigated agricultural acreage expansion means increasing competition for access
and control of the area's finite and fragile natural resources. The amount of
water available from regional surface and ground water systems remains
relatively constant, however, consumptive use continues to increase. As a
result, the balance between south Florida's water supply and demand is
threatened.


County Public Dom Ind/ Ag Rec Total
Supply Self- Com Irrigation Self-
Supply Self- Self- Supply
Supply Supply
Palm Beach 60,554 4,891 9,673 250,883 20,603 346,604
Polk 22,620 5,639 24,837 56,150 2,977 112,223
SFWMD 500 200 0 3,400 200 4,300
only

St. Lucie 5,300 4,300 300 79,900 2,600 92,400

TOTAL 389,116 40,123 71,841 913,331 88,305 1,502,716

% of Total 25.9% 2.7% 4.8% 60.8% 5.9%

SFWMD 313,646 30,950 45,406 769,344 82,507 1,241,853
Total only

% SFWMD 25.3% 2.5% 3.6% 62.0% 6.6%
Total


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Table 3 provides projections of future water use within the District in the year
2010. These demands were projected based upon the population projections
contained in adopted local government comprehensive plans and the methods
currently used in the District's water supply plans. Demand within shared
counties was obtained from other water management districts; in counties where
future demand by a particular sector has not been projected by another water
management district, 1990 demands were held constant.

The data in Tables 2 and 3 indicates that agricultural use, both present and
future, is the dominant water demand within the SFWMD representing
approximately 55% of the total demand in 2010. While decreasing in relative
terms from 1990 demands, irrigation of crops will continue to be the largest user
of freshwater in south Florida (Figure 10). Public water supply is projected to
continue as the second largest demand in south Florida, representing
approximately 28% of the total demand in the year 2010. Together, these two
sectors of use combine to account for over 83% of the current and projected
water allocation district-wide. Results also illustrate that as south Florida
continues urban expansion into the year 2010, those uses most closely linked
with potable water (public and domestic supply) will increase 44% above 1990
totals. By the year 2010, total demands throughout the District are estimated
to increase approximately 37%.

In order to properly manage south Florida's water resources and keep pace with
these increasing demands, the SFWMD continues to assess new information and
develop innovative water conservation methods. In many areas, throughout
south Florida, water supply will become inadequate to meet the competing needs
of agriculture, urban uses and the natural system. Because of this, water supply
conservation will continue to be part of the normal method of operation
necessary to reduce demand with water use restrictions being more frequently
used where voluntary conservation has failed to significantly reduce demand.
Future water supply planning will focus on providing a water supply at a cost
that will sustain growth yet reduce economic hardships to the majority of the
population. The costs associated with obtaining water inevitably will increase
as more expensive alternative water sources are utilized. As described in Water
Supply Needs and Sources, 1990 and 2010 (SFWMD, 1992), demand
management/conservation and water supply augmentation techniques must
become the central focus of water supply planning and implementation in order
to minimize the cost of water. These techniques (e.g., wastewater re-use,
desalination, aquifer storage and retrieval, conservation rate structuring,
xeriscape landscaping, leak detection, high efficiency irrigation) are presently
being addressed in water supply plans and other District activities.


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Table 3: Water Demand, 2010
(in Millions of Gallons per Year)


County Public Dom Ind/ Ag Rec Total
Supply Self- Corn Irrigation Self-
Supply Self- Self- Supply
Supply Supply

Broward 118,698 1,497 1,241 3,623 20,486 145,545

Charlotte 9,497 730 0 18,582 1,607 30,416

SFWMD 0 0 0 6,271 0 6,271
only

Collier 26,028 3,048 5,833 79,858 14,754 129,521

Dade 170,090 10,074 24,966 60,606 13,895 279,631

Glades 300 500 0 51,479 24 52,303

Hendry 2,192 1,096 0 251,274 283 254,845

Highlands 3,633 1,962 1,096 65,159 1,242 73,092

SFWMD 200 100 0 31,300 0 31,600
only

Lee 31,583 3,592 21,827 28,845 26,821 112,668

Martin 8,500 6,300 1,000 51,300 7,900 75,000

Monroe 5,877 146 0 0 504 6,527

Okeechobee 1,300 1,070 70 23,750 200 26,390

SFWMD 1,300 1,000 0 14,500 200 17,000
only

Orange 129,412 1,826 1,728 27,450 9,867 170,283

SFWMD 16,400 500 300 2,200 6,200 25,600
only


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Table 3 (Continued): Water Demand, 2010
(in Millions of Gallons per Year)


County Public Dom Ind/ Ag Rec Total
Supply Self- Cor Irrigation Self-
Supply Self- Self- Supply
Supply Supply
Osceola 17,200" 3,100 0 29,951 1,120 51,371

SFWMD 8,200 2,700 0 15,300 1,000 27,200
only

Palm 130,305 9,819 15,914 239,966 30,016 426,020
Beach

Polk 31,919 4,865 45,656 79,957 4,178 166,575

SFWMD 800 300 0 2,900 200 4,200
only

St. Lucie 9,400 7,700 600 95,400 4,600 117,700

TOTAL 695,934 57,325 119,931 1,107,200 137,497 2,117,887


% of 32.8% 2.7/o 5.7% 52.3% 6.5%
Total

SFWMD 529,873 49,102 71,681 932,822 126,883 1,710,361
Total only

% of 31.0% 2.9% 4.2% 54.5% 7.4%
SFWMD
Total

* 9,000 mgy to be used in Brevard County


SOURCES:


SFWMD, Lower West Coast Water Supply Plan (February 1994); SFWMD, Water
Supply Needs and Sources, 1990-2010 (1992); SFWMD, Working Document in
Support of the Lower East Coast Regional Water Supply Plan (March 1993 draft);
St. John's River Water Management District.


Section 3. Sources of Water

Ground water is the major source of freshwater supplies within south Florida.
Of the total freshwater used throughout this region, approximately 60% is


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Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


ground water. Nearly 96% of south Florida's public supplies and 100% of its
dispersed domestic (rural) self-supply come from ground water. In addition,
ground water accounts for approximately 99% of commercial-industrial self-
supplied use and 40% of water for agricultural irrigation.

Although ground water is the primary source of water supply in the District,
surface water plays an important role in maintaining the availability of ground
water supplies, especially in the Lower East Coast. Within this region, which
utilizes the Biscayne aquifer as its water source, ground water is recharged
through the regional canal system. The permeability of the Biscayne aquifer, as
well as its proximity to the surface, facilitates rapid recharge from surface water
sources.

Ground water dependence within south Florida is enhanced by the productivity
of the aquifers underlying the region. The Biscayne and the Floridan aquifers are
considered among the most productive in the world. Public water suppliers in
ten counties within the jurisdictional boundaries of the SFWMD4 rely entirely on
ground water to meet their potable water demands. Collier, Palm Beach, Lee,
Hendry, and Okeechobee counties utilize ground water for 85%, 80%, 75%,
40%, and 5%, respectively, of the total permitted allocations.

The counties within the District generally use shallow ground water supplies to
meet their water demands. An exception to this occurs in the upper Kissimmee
River Basin region where withdrawals typically occur from the Floridan Aquifer
System below 200 feet and many exceed 1000 feet in depth. However, in
many of the coastal counties where ground water is the principal source of
potable water, major ground water withdrawals occur from relatively shallow
depths. With the exclusion of Lee County, all other coastal counties are heavily
dependent on ground water withdrawn above 150 feet. For example, Palm
Beach County pumps approximately 85% of its permitted capacity from less
than 150 feet; Broward, Martin, Collier, and St. Lucie counties pump over 90%
of their permitted capacity from less than 150 feet; and Dade County pumps
100% of its permitted capacity from less than 150 feet. These percentages
emphasize the vulnerability of public water supply wellfields to contamination
from land-based sources and the need for and importance of safeguarding these
wellfields from potential problems.

Another potential source of water supply within south Florida is reclaimed water.
Reclaimed water can be used for irrigation purposes in lieu of higher quality


4 There are no public water supply withdrawals within that portion of Charlotte County that lies within the boundaries
of the SFWMD.


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Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


water. Golf course irrigation, in particular, represents an opportunity to utilize
this alternative water source.


PART G. DISTRICT AND OTHER PUBLICLY OWNED LAND

The South Florida Water Management District is a major landholder in south
Florida (Figure 11). Similar to state and federal agencies, the SFWMD's land-
ownership objectives have changed over time from a holder of land for
development purposes to one that exhibits a stewardship role in the protection
and preservation of its lands. The District's objectives in providing adequate
water supply, surface water management, and environmental protection often
conflict with the needs of urban and agricultural development. One of the key
tools in achieving these objectives is the acquisition and management of land for
these purposes.


Table 4: Summary of Publicly Owned Lands


Type of Public Lands Acres % of Total Public
Lands

Save Our Rivers (SOR) Acquired 163,673 3
Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) 807,860 16
County Parks 11,219 0
State Land 675,241 14
Aquatic Preserves 68,198 1
Federal Lands 2,981,660 61
Native American Tribal Lands 191,584 4
TOTAL 4,899,435


SOURCE: SFWMD, Save Our Rivers Five Year Plan
Comprehensive Plans.


(1994); Local Government


Within the 16-county SFWMD area approximately five million acres are owned
by federal, state (including the SFWMD), and local agencies (Table 4). The total
holdings of these agencies represents approximately 45% of the land area within
the District.


District Overview Water Use










District Overview Publicly Owned Lands


PUBLICLY OWNED LANDS
South Florida Water Management District


ORLANDO


Miles
0 10 20 30


LEGEND

Publcly Owned Lands

Save Our Rivers
Lands (Proposed)
Water


Z wYrr


Figure 11


SFWMD
Planning Deparment
March 1994


~


___


Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


4V
I otj1,


a4/'









District Overview Publicly Owned Lands


While flood control remains a major concern of the SFWMD, land acquisition
purposes have evolved to place greater emphasis on water supply, water quality,
and environmental protection objectives than earlier acquisition efforts for
drainage and flood control. To a great extent, SFWMD management programs
are based on preservation, restoration, and enhancement of natural resources
under a "natural systems" approach to resource management. Figure 11
displays how publicly-owned lands are key tools used to preserve important
water-resource corridors throughout the District. These corridors include major
wetland systems and important rivers and sloughs. Many of these wetlands and
environmentally sensitive upland areas are associated with rivers or natural flow-
ways such as the Kissimmee River, Loxahatchee River (northern Palm Beach
County) and Fisheating Creek (west of Lake Okeechobee). One of the most
important natural resources for the SFWMD is the Everglades "River of Grass."
This nationally significant resource includes Everglades National Park and the
WCAs; this system collectively accounts for about one-third of the geographic
area of the District.


PART H. PROGRAM OVERVIEW

To promote consistency among water management district budgeting and to aid
in the Department of Environmental Protection's (DEP) review of water
management district budgetary information, each water management district has
agreed to categorize expenditures into six program areas. The SFWMD FY 1994
budget totaled 259 million dollars. Figure 12 shows the percentage of the total
budget to be spent for each of the program areas. The following sections
explain each of the program areas.


Section 1. Water Resources Planning/Monitoring Program

This program includes all planning; including Surface Water Improvement and
Management (SWIM), environmental, flood control, water supply, water quality,
and Save Our Rivers/Preservation 2000 (SOR/P2000) planning; research; data
collection, monitoring and management, and scientific lab analyses.


Section 2. Implementation Through Regulation Program

This program includes water use permitting, water well construction permitting,
water well contractor licensing, surface water management permitting (including


Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994










District Overview Program Overview


PROGRAM EXPENDITURES
FY 1994 SFWMD BUDGET


PUBLIC WORKS 44.0%
OUTREACH 3.5%


OPERATIONS 20.4% REGULATION 4.1%

ADMINISTRATION 13.5% PLANNING 14.5%

TOTAL $259 MILLION
Figure 12

environmental resource permitting), permit administration and enforcement, and
any delegated regulatory program through DEP.


Section 3. Implementation Through Acquisition. Restoration, and
Public Works Program

This program involves all those activities in which the District is actively "fixing"
or solving water resources problems. These activities include the development
and construction of all capital projects (including water control, support facilities,
and administrative facilities construction), all land acquisition (including
SOR/P2000), and all "active" phases of restoration of lands or water bodies.


Section 4. Implementation Through Outreach Activities

This program includes all public outreach and education such as water
conservation campaigns, environmental education, intergovernmental
coordination/cooperation, technical assistance, local and regional comprehensive
plan review, cooperative agreements with local governments and legislative
outreach activities.


Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994









District Overview Program Overview


Section 5. Implementation Through Operations and Maintenance
of Lands and Works Program

This program includes all routine operation and maintenance of flood control,
water supply, office facilities, SOR/P2000 lands and other works authorized by
Chapter 373, F.S., including right-of-way permitting and enforcement.


Section 6. District Management and Administrative Program

This program includes all Governing Board support, Executive Office support,
legal support services, centralized computer services, human resources, finance,
audit, budget, program evaluation, management information systems, and
administrative services.


PART I. PLANNING UNITS

The South Florida Water Management District is divided into four regions within
which planning and other activities are focused; Lower East Coast, Lower West
Coast, Upper East Coast and the Kissimmee Basin. These units represent areas
displaying similarities in development patterns, degree of urbanization and
common water management issues and concerns. Figure 13 shows the four
planning units.

Section 1. Lower East Coast

The Lower East Coast includes portions of Broward, Collier, Dade, Hendry,
Monroe, and Palm Beach counties. Water resources within this area are shown
on Figure 14. The 1990 Census reported this region's population as 4,135,394;
it is projected to increase to 6,027,004 by 2010.

1-1. WATER SUPPLY

The primary source of potable water in the Lower East Coast is the Biscayne
aquifer, one of the world's most productive aquifers. Being a surficial aquifer,
it is readily recharged through the canal network of the C&SF Project. This same
factor, however, makes it extremely susceptible to contamination from urban
and agricultural land uses.

Competition for water among the various users urban development, agriculture,
and the environment is extensive. Further complicating this issue, the urban


-t L -i~-


Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994










Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


PLANNING UNITS

South Florida Water Management District


Miles
0 10 20 30


T PERC



STUART


WEST
PALM
BEACH


BOCA
RADON


FORT
LAUIDERMDALE


AUAMf


KEY WEST


Figure 13


SFWMD
Planning Deparment
March 1994


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Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


Lower East Coast Planning Region

Water Resources Map


JUPITER



WEST
PALM
* BEACH


LEGEND k
Generalied Wetland
Systems -
Protected Environmentally -
Sensitive Areas
SProposed Save Our Rivers
(SOR) Lands
S| Proposed Conservation &
Recreation Lands (CARL)
_-- Reduced Threshold Area
Restricted Allocation Area
W- Saltwater Intrusion Problem Areas

Aquatic Preseve Management Area

-- Basins with Drainage Problems

M Planning Region Boundary

SLake Okeechobee SWIM

Biscayne Bay SWIM

V L Wellfields

[Z Canals

__ Major Roads


M BOCA RATON




FORT
SLAUDERDALE




16


MIAMI






I HOMESTEAD


M... 3 "7
Mst


Key West


Miles
Figure 14 o 5 1o 20


SFWMD
Planning Department
April 1994


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Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


population is concentrated along the coast, where the water supply is subject to
saltwater intrusion.

The Lower East Coast does have access to alternative sources of water supply,
though there has been no significant utilization of these alternatives to date.
They include use of the Floridan aquifer and the Atlantic Ocean; water from
either of these sources would require expensive treatment in order to be made
suitable for use, but they do offer the area options to supplement the existing
water supply. Other supply augmentation options include aquifer storage and
recovery, increased surface water storage, increased implementation of reuse
programs, and backpumping stormwater from the coastal urban areas into to the
water conservation areas to increase the amount of water stored for later use.
Alteration of demand patterns, through increased conservation measures, can
also aid in meeting the water supply needs of this region.

Wellfield protection programs are in place and are being implemented by Dade,
Broward and Palm Beach counties.

1-2. FLOOD PROTECTION

The Lower East Coast contains most of the C&SF Project consisting of three
WCAs, levees, canals, and structures. The canals constructed as part of the
C&SF Project provide the regional flood protection system in the urbanized areas
of the region, including eastern Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties. There
have been only a few flooding problems associated with the operation of the
primary canal network over the past fifteen years.

Local flood protection is afforded by canal networks in each of these counties
which are connected to the SFWMD's regional system. These networks are
operated by either local governments, private interests, or by special taxing
districts.

The C&SF system has limited flood protection as designed by the Corps of
Engineers (COE). The system was designed to provide flood protection
commensurate with the projected land uses. As a result, areas with projected
urban land uses were afforded higher levels of flood protection than those
expected to be used for agriculture or projected to remain undeveloped. Most
of the projected urban areas are in the eastern portions of the system sub-basins.
Western sub-basins are very prone to flooding because of low ground surface
elevations relative to the eastern sub-basins and development in these areas
must depend on site storage and local storm water management systems for
their flood protection.


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For example, the C-9 basin in Dade and Broward Counties is divided into eastern
and western subbasins. C-9 in the eastern sub-basin was designed to pass 100
percent of the Standard Project Flood. This provides for essentially unlimited
inflows to C-9 from the eastern sub-basin. Allowable pumped inflow to C-9 in
the western sub-basin is limited to 0.75 inches of runoff per day. When the
C&SF project was designed, it was anticipated that the eastern portions of the
basin would develop in urban uses and the western portions would be used for
agriculture. The land use changes in the western sub-basin have exceeded the
original planning projection and, thus, the system is overloaded, resulting in
some areas exceeding their design level of flood protection.

The ability to increase levels of flood protection for developed areas is limited by
the location of environmentally protected areas, such as Lake Okeechobee, the
Water Conservation Areas, Biscayne Bay, and Everglades National Park.
Increased levels of protection for the developed areas could result in degradation
of these natural areas because of the impacts of contaminated stormwater on
the environment or lower water levels.

1-3. WATER QUALITY

Some of the most significant waters in Florida are in this region, including
Biscayne Bay, Lake Okeechobee, Everglades National Park, Florida Bay, and the
nearshore waters of the Florida Keys. In recognition of the significance of these
resources, SWIM Plans have been completed or are underway for Lake
Okeechobee, Biscayne Bay, and the Everglades. The first two of these Plans
have been completed and are currently being implemented.

The Everglades Forever Act addresses Everglades National Park, Florida Bay, the
Water Conservation Areas, the East Everglades, and the Holey Land and
Rotenberger tracts. This act replaces the Everglades SWIM Plan that the District
had completed, but not implemented due to a challenge in an administrative
hearing.

Future SWIM plans have been proposed for other water bodies within the Lower
East Coast (LEC), including the Florida Keys and Lake Worth.

1-4. NATURAL SYSTEMS

Areas with regionally significant environmental resources within this region
include Everglades and Biscayne National Parks; Lake Okeechobee; the Water
Conservation Areas; Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee, Crocodile, Great White
Heron, Key Deer, and Key West National Wildlife Refuges; Key Largo Coral Reef,


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Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


Looe Key, and Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuaries; Lignumvitae and
Coupon Bight Aquatic Preserves; Jonathan Dickinson and John Pennekamp Coral
Reef State Parks; J.W. Corbett, Holey Land, and Rotenberger Wildlife
Management Areas; West Palm Beach Water Catchment Area; Loxahatchee
Slough; Everglades Buffer Strip; DuPuis Reserve; Southern Glades; the Frog
Pond; Model Lands Basin; Dade Broward Levee; Pal-Mar; and the Strazzulla
tract.

Past actions to promote drainage and provide flood protection to facilitate
development significantly impacted the environment. The historical hydroperiod
of the region was altered by construction and operation of the C&SF Project.
The WCAs and Everglades National Park have been impacted by altered water
levels, changes in the volume, timing and distribution of water flows, and
changes in water quality.

Exotic plant infestation is a particular problem in the region. Exotic plant
species, including Brazilian pepper, melaleuca, and Australian pine, are present
in many areas including along canal banks and on abandoned agricultural sites.


Section 2. Lower West Coast

This region includes all of Lee County, and parts of Broward, Charlotte, Collier,
Dade, Glades, Hendry, Monroe, and Palm Beach Counties. Major water
resources are depicted on Figure 15. The 1990 Census reported this region's
population as 517,963; it is projected to increase to 986,207 by 2010. The
existing population is concentrated in the coastal areas of Lee and Collier
counties. These areas are expected to remain the population centers for the
region.

2-1. WATER SUPPLY

The Lower West Coast (LWC) has been one of the fastest growing regions in the
state; the rapid rate of growth is projected to continue, with a concomitant
increase in water demand. In addition to significant urban population growth,
the Lower West Coast is experiencing notable growth in agricultural activity.
Citrus has begun moving into this area as a result of a series of freezes in central
Florida. This trend will result in increased agricultural water demands.

Areas close to the Caloosahatchee River have access to some surface water for
supply, but the remainder of the region utilizes ground water or whatever surface
water that can be found locally. The ground water system consists of various


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Workshop Lratt uvvMiv June 1 94


Lower West Coast Planning Region

Water Resources Map


FORT V 7 .
MYERS






-CIO
1'*



'.a


LEGEND NAPLES

SGeneralized Wetland
Systems Bay
SProtected Environmentally
Sensitive Areas
E Proposed Save Our Rivers
(SOR) Lands
SProposed Conservation &
Recreation Lands (CARL)
-- Reduced Threshold Area
Restricted Allocation Area
[.- Saltwater Intrusion Problem Areas

Aquatic Preseve Management Area

SBasins with Drainage Problems

N Planning Region Boundary

f Lake Okeechobee SWIM

FV- Wellfields
SCanals

I, |Major Roads


N

Miles

0 5 10 15


Figure 15


SFWMD
Planning Department
April 1994


Uistrict Overview Planning Units










Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


aquifers and layers. Significant yields of ground water occur at depths ranging
from 50 feet to greater than 1000 feet; however, water quality generally
decreases with depth.

The coastal areas of Lee and Collier counties have saltwater intrusion problems.
All of Lee County and the coastal portions of Collier County are Reduced
Threshold Areas.

The major issues influencing water availability in the LWC include:

dependency upon rainfall falling within the planning area,
limited surface water sources,
protection of water resources and associated natural systems, and
pressure on these resources from increasing urban and agricultural
demands.

Competition among users of water is potentially another factor. Increasing urban
and agricultural water demands have the potential to adversely impact the
region's environment and water resources. The District reviewed the problems
of wetland protection, intrusion of seawater into aquifers, and general protection
of aquifers from excessive drawdowns in its Lower West Coast Water Supply
Plan. Additional information regarding the Lower West Coast Water Supply Plan
may be found in the "Water Supply" section of the "Responsibilities" chapter of
this document.

2-2. FLOOD PROTECTION

Southwest Florida is one of the most hurricane vulnerable areas in the country.
Coastal flooding from tropical storms and hurricanes will occur in low-lying
areas, along barrier islands, and around river and bay systems. Hurricane storm
surge inundation modeling indicates that extensive areas of Lee and Collier
counties could be flooded in a major hurricane. These correspond to areas
already developed for urban use and areas anticipated for future urban growth.

The primary waterway serving the area is the Caloosahatchee River, which
traverses Glades, Hendry and Lee counties. Except for localized canal systems,
the only other major waterway is the system of canals in western Collier County
which are part of the Big Cypress Basin. Most of the canals in Hendry and
Glades counties are privately owned within large privately owned tracts of land.

The major constraints on flood control upgrades in this area are environmental
and financial. The basic issue becomes one of the value to the public of


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Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


improved flood control versus the potential for environmental deterioration. As
new designs are developed which provide structural flood control without
adverse environmental effects, the cost of such structural projects will be very
high and may make their implementation prohibitive.

Non-structural measures refer to water management alternatives which guide
human activities into desired paths. This is in contrast to structural measures
which direct stormwater into desired paths. The non-structural approach
promotes stormwater management by utilizing existing hydrologic systems and
preventing human activity that: (1) is incompatible with the available flood
protection, water supply and environmental resources; and (2) will alter the
functioning of the system and thereby reduce its flood protection, water supply
and environmental benefits. This approach is conducive to multi-objective water
resource management. Non-structural measures are most effective for
preventing future flood protection and water resource problems and cannot fully
replace structural solutions to problems being experienced by existing
development. Water resource management goals, in many cases, will be best
achieved through a combination of structural and non-structural measures.

2-3. WATER QUALITY

The operation and maintenance of canal systems, particularly through discharges
to tidal waters, have impacted the water quality and environmental features of
the area.

The District has identified several water bodies within this region as candidates
for SWIM Plans. These include the Big Cypress National Preserve,
Caloosahatchee River, Corkscrew Swamp, Naples Bay, Estero Bay, Pine Island
Sound, Rookery Bay, and Lake Trafford.

2-4. NATURAL SYSTEMS

Regionally significant environmental resources are found within Big Cypress
National Preserve; Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge; Fakahatchee Strand
State Preserve; Cape Romano-Ten Thousand Islands, Rookery Bay, Pine Island
Sound, Matlacha Pass, Charlotte Harbor, and Estero Bay Aquatic Preserves;
Collier-Seminole State Park; Corkscrew Regional Ecosystem Watershed;
Telegraph Swamp; Twelve Mile Slough; Six Mile Cypress; and Lake Okeechobee.

The environmental features in portions of this area have been substantially
altered from the natural conditions by agricultural and urban development. There
are some large environmental systems, such as Big Cypress and Corkscrew


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Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


Regional Ecosystem Watershed, which are relatively intact within the region.
These systems are especially dominant in the southern half of the region. State
land acquisition efforts are bringing more of this area under protection. Large
coastal areas have been protected by the establishment of six State Aquatic
Preserves in the region Cape Romano-Ten Thousand Islands, Rookery Bay, Pine
Island Sound, Matlacha Pass, Charlotte Harbor, and Estero Bay.

The development of citrus groves in the area potentially is a significant influence
on the environment of the area. Planning and research are currently underway
to identify the nature and extent of this development and to evaluate reasonable
options for mitigating adverse changes. Although water quality is a concern, the
changes to the habitat on the sites and the reduction of groundwater levels in
wetlands are considered to be the largest potential impacts.

Infestation by exotic plants, particularly melaleuca, is a significant problem in
portions of this area.


Section 3. Upper East Coast

The Upper East Coast comprises most of St. Lucie and Martin Counties and
eastern Okeechobee County. In terms of population, this is the smallest of the
planning regions of the SFWMD in 1990, with a total population of 251 071; it
is expected to grow to 506,403 residents by the year 2010. Water resource
issues affecting this region are shown on Figure 16.

3-1. WATER SUPPLY

Positive factors which influence water supply development in the Upper East
Coast include the existence of surface water systems capable of water
conveyance and a demonstrated ability to reasonably withstand droughts at
existing levels of water use. Adverse factors include the limitations of surficial
and Floridan aquifers within the region; saltwater intrusion; a lack of surface
water storage; surficial aquifer contamination; and large environmental water
demands.

3-2. FLOOD PROTECTION

There is a regional canal system in western, agricultural St. Lucie County (C-23,
C-24, and C-25), as well as extensively developed secondary canal systems
operated by drainage districts pursuant to Chapter 298, F.S. The SFWMD has
received numerous complaints of flooding from eastern St. Lucie County.


District Overview Planning Units





Upper East Coast Planning Region

Water Resources Map


Indian River Lagoon
SWIM -
I
Indian River


LEGEND

Generalized Wetland
Systems
Protected Environmentally
Sensitive Areas
Proposed Save Our Rivers
(SOR) Lands
D' Reduced Threshold Area
Restricted Allocation Area
Saltwater Intrusion Problem Areas

SAquatic Preseve Management Area


Planning Region Boundary

Indian River Lagoon SWIM

Lake Okeechobee SWIM

Welffields


F/V

, vl


Canals

Major Roads


Figure 16


SFWMD
Planning Department











Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


The C-44 Canal is the only regional canal in Martin County. The St. Lucie Canal
(C-44 Canal) was constructed as the flood control outlet for Lake Okeechobee.
It receives runoff from numerous secondary systems. The C-44 Canal also was
constructed for navigation purposes. It has limited surface water storage
capabilities and there are few organized special taxing districts within the basin.

3-3. WATER QUALITY

Surface water quality problems in the region include accumulated sediments in
the Indian River Lagoon and excessive freshwater discharges into the estuary.

There is an adopted SWIM Plan for Indian River Lagoon which is being
implemented. The plan was prepared jointly by the SFWMD and the St. Johns
River WMD. The plan identifies water and sediment quality as a major issue for
the Indian River Lagoon. Specifically, water quality issues include:

(1) undesirable salinity fluctuations,
(2) increased suspended matter loadings and sedimentation,
(3) increased nutrient loadings,
(4) increased input of toxic substances, and
(5) increased levels of pathogens.

The Surficial Aquifer System (SAS) is the primary source of water for public
water supply in the area due to its high quality throughout much of the area.
There are some localized areas with inferior quality water along the coast where
saltwater intrusion from the ocean has occurred and in central and western
portions of the area. Because the SAS is hydraulically connected to the land
surface, it is susceptible to contamination from man-made sources. The major
sources of SAS contamination are surface contaminant spills; leakage from
underground storage tanks, septic tanks, and landfills; coastal saltwater
intrusion; and mixing with in-situ connate water (highly mineralized ancient
seawater trapped in the aquifer) and with poor quality Floridan aquifer irrigation
water.

The Floridan Aquifer System (FAS) is a deeper confined aquifer which has
artesian pressure throughout most of the Upper East Coast. Generally, water
quality in the FAS degrades with increasing distance and depth from its recharge
areas, the nearest recharge to the area is in Orange, Polk, and Volusia counties.
The FAS is less vulnerable to contamination from man-made sources due to the
thick sequence of confining layers that are present beneath the SAS and because
the FAS has an upward gradient throughout most of the planning area. This


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Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


upward gradient is characteristic of a confined aquifer with artesian pressure.
The FAS is susceptible to water quality degradation from the upcoming of poorer
quality water from lower formations caused by excessive withdrawals.

3-4. NATURAL SYSTEMS

Environmental resources of regional significance within the Upper East Coast
include Lake Okeechobee; Indian River Lagoon; Savannas State Preserve;
Jonathan Dickinson State Park; the St. Lucie River; Pal-Mar; and DuPuis Reserve.


Section 4. Kissimmee Basin

The Kissimmee Basin includes parts of Glades, Highlands, Okeechobee, Orange,
Osceola, and Polk counties. The majority of the region drains to the Kissimmee
River, though some areas drain into Fisheating Creek or the canal system within
Indian Prairie Basin and a few landlocked lakes exist within the region. A few
fringe areas drain to the Southwest or St. Johns River Water Management
Districts. Major water resources within the region are shown on Figure 17.

The population of this region is projected to increase from the 291,349 reported
in the 1990 Census to 469,187 by 2010. Urban growth will continue to be
concentrated in Orange and.northern Osceola counties. The majority of the
region is rural/agricultural in character, which will continue to be the case in the
future.

4-1. WATER SUPPLY

The primary water source is the Floridan aquifer due to the limited capacity in
the shallow aquifers. There is also limited use of lakes for agricultural irrigation.
The Kissimmee Basin region as a whole is the least problematic of the four
SFWMD regions for water supply purposes. While the population is expected to
grow by 60% by 2010, major increases in irrigated acreage are not expected.

The Lake Istokpoga-lndian Prairie basin, located in the southwestern portion of
the region, is a traditionally water short area. Users are primarily agricultural.
Floridian aquifer water quality is variable and intensively used. Because of its
limited contributing area, surface supplies in this basin are limited.

In the northern portion of the region (Orange and Osceola counties), other
potential water supply problems exist. Here, the formation of sinkholes as a


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Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994


Kissimmee Basin Planning Region

Water Resources Map


ORLANDO


I a-


LEGEND
Generalized Wetland

Protected Environmentally
Sensitive Areas
SProposed Save Our Rivers
(SOR) Lands
SProposed Conservation &
Recreation Lands (CARL)
SReduced Threshold Area
Restricted Allocation Area
/ Basins with Drainage Problems

SPlanning Region Boundary
Vj\\ Lake Okeechobee SWIM
AI Welffelds
A/ C4nals
|7/Major Roads I\


Mo -


Miles
0 5 10 15


Li. Od


I L


a I_


SFWMD
Planning Department
April 1994


Figure 17


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result of over withdrawal during drought and ground water contamination from
drain wells are potential issues of concern.

4-2. FLOOD PROTECTION

The Kissimmee River collects water from the surrounding watershed and flows
into Lake Okeechobee. The basin includes the Upper Kissimmee Chain of Lakes
and the Kissimmee River valley. Beginning in the 1880s, channels between the
lakes of the Kissimmee chain were improved for navigation. When the C&SF
Project was authorized in 1948, these channels were further modified for flood
control and navigation purposes. Water control structures were added to provide
flood protection and prevent over drainage of the area. A regulation schedule
was also established for major lakes to provide seasonal fluctuation for flood
control, recreational and environmental benefits.

The C&SF Project in the region consists of the Kissimmee River (C-38) and six
structures in the lower basin, plus 14 canals and eight structures between the
Kissimmee Chain of Lakes, primarily in Osceola County. The Lake Istokpoga-
Indian Prairie water control system, consisting of four canals and eight
structures, is a significant part of the C&SF Project located northwest of Lake
Okeechobee. Additional Project works, such as the levees and water control
structures, exist along the northern shore of Lake Okeechobee.

There have been 31 documented flooding problems in these areas over the last
15 years, though only a few were associated with the performance of the
primary drainage network. Minimal secondary flood control facilities exist other
than those which were constructed by developers and subsequently "deeded"
over to local government for long-term maintenance. In the Lake Istokpoga-
Indian Prairie area, design deficiencies of the major water control structures are
the major flood control issue of concern and are now being addressed.

4-3. WATER QUALITY

Several water bodies within the region have been designated as priorities for
SWIM plans, based on water quality, condition of the wetlands, public use, and
habitat areas that are essential for wildlife. These water bodies include Lake
Okeechobee, the Upper Kissimmee Chain of Lakes (Lakes Tohopekaliga,
Kissimmee, Alligator, Jackson, Rosalie, Cypress, Hatchineha, Pierce, Marian, and
Fish), Lake Weohyakapka, Lake Arbuckle, Lake Butler, and Lake Istokpoga. Of
these, only Lake Okeechobee has an adopted SWIM Plan.


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The Upper Kissimmee Chain of Lakes are the highest priority water bodies within
the District for future SWIM planning. Water quality problems from non-point
source origin are the primary concern within these lakes.

4-4. NATURAL SYSTEMS

There are many regionally significant environmental resources within the
Kissimmee Basin. These include Lake Okeechobee and the Kissimmee River; the
Upper Kissimmee Chain of Lakes, Lake Weohyakapka, Lake Arbuckle, Lake
Butler, and Lake Istokpoga; Three Lakes Wildlife Management Area; the Avon
Park Bombing Range; Walker Ranch (Disney Preserve); the Audubon Sanctuary;
Lake Forest Preserve; Reedy Creek; Fisheating Creek and Nicodemus Slough; and
Marian Creek.

Between 1961 and 1971, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers channelized the
Kissimmee River into a 56-mile canal between Lake Kissimmee and Lake
Okeechobee. Channelization disconnected the river from its floodplain, causing
the loss of many of the environmental values of its original ecosystem; for
example 30,000 acres of wetlands and degraded fish, wading bird, waterfowl,
and other wildlife habitat. In 1992, Congress authorized the restoration of the
river, consistent with the recommendation of the Corps of Engineers as part of
the 1992 Water Resources Development Act. Backfilling of 1,000 feet of the
canal was started in April 1994 to test construction methods and provide
information to aid in the remaining work.

Water level is a key environmental issue affecting the Upper Kissimmee Chain
of Lakes. The lakes suffer long-standing problems of stage stabilization and
overall reduction in stage from historical levels. Although the lakes continue to
support a generally excellent fishery, the range of water fluctuation, which is
critical to the long term health of the littoral zone, affects fish population and
wading birds. The problems associated with level stabilization, however, have
been offset (to some degree) for several of the major lakes by new management
procedures and drawdowns carried out over the past decades.


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CHAPTER II.
WATER MANAGEMENT GOALS

PART A. STATUTORY GUIDANCE

Goals, with regard to state and regional planning, are defined in Chapter 186,
Florida Statutes. This describes a goal as a long-term end toward which
programs and activities are ultimately directed.

Specific water resource goals, as well as policies ("the way in which programs
and activities are conducted to achieve an identified goal", s. 186.003(4), F.S.),
are included in the State Comprehensive Plan, Chapter 187, Florida Statutes.
The principal goal for water resource management in Florida, as established by
the Legislature in s.187.201(8), F.S., is:

Florida shall assure the availability of an adequate supply of water
for all competing uses deemed reasonable and beneficial and shall
maintain the functions of natural systems and the overall present
level of surface and ground water quality. Florida shall improve and
restore the quality of waters not presently meeting water quality
standards.

In addition to the general guidance provided through the State Comprehensive
Plan, the Florida Water Resources Act of 1972 (Chapter 373, Florida Statutes)
and State Water Policy (Chapter 17-40, Florida Administrative Code) provide
guidance to water management districts for the development of water resource
goals, policies, programs, and plans.



PART B. MISSION STATEMENT

The Governing Board of the South Florida Water Management District has
adopted a Mission Statement, or goal, which is the guiding force behind all
SFWMD programs, projects and activities. The Mission Statement has been
incorporated into the District's rules, in Chapter 40E-1, F.A.C. It acknowledges
the complex interrelationship between the four key elements of water
management and that water resources and land use are irrevocably linked. It
reads as follows:

The Mission of the South Florida Water Management District is to
manage water and related resources for the benefit of the public


--~C


Goals Statutory Guidance











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and in keeping with the needs of the region. The key elements of
the Mission are: environmental protection and enhancement, water
supply, flood protection and water quality protection.

The Mission is accomplished through the combined efforts of
planning and research, operations and maintenance, community and
government relations, land management, regulation and
construction. Inherent in the Mission is the responsibility to assist
the Public and Government Officials by protecting water resources
and identifying and recommending options for incorporating water
resource considerations into land use decisions.



PART C. VISION 2050

In mid-1993, District staff initiated development of a District "Vision" for the
year 2050. Through a series of inter-departmental "brainstorming" sessions, it
was determined that a vision should be depicted in map form and accompanied
by a list of the underlying assumptions on which it is based. Figure 18 depicts
the outcome of the District's visioning process or Vision 2050.

The Vision 2050 Statement is as follows:

In the year 2050, the South Florida Ecosystem (Kissimmee River,
Lake Okeechobee, Everglades, Florida Bay) will more closely
resemble its natural state in terms of hydrology, water quality and
environmental values. A system of greenways will interconnect
major natural areas and provide corridors for wildlife. The major
components of the Ecosystem will be protected from development
impacts by a wetland buffer system. Major sources of pollution will
be identified and corrected. Coastal and estuarine water quality will
more closely resemble natural conditions.

South Florida's water supply will be allocated first to meet
environmental water needs and then to other reasonable and
beneficial uses. Water supply sources will be augmented by storing
stormwater runoff, developing non-traditional sources (reclaimed
water, salt water and deeper aquifers) and water conservation
using ultra-efficient technologies and operational techniques.


Goals Mission Statement







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Goals Vision 2050


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Vision 2050 does not necessarily reflect what the District wants the region to
look like. Rather, it represents a view of what south Florida will look like in fifty
years, based upon the District's review of local government comprehensive plans
and staff interpretation of growth trends in south Florida. The underlying
assumptions for Vision 2050 include:

The South Florida Ecosystem will more closely resemble its natural,
pre-development state and will function more naturally, in terms of
hydrology, water quality and environmental values. The system
will function more naturally, in terms of hydrology and
environmental values. The Kissimmee River Restoration and the
Upper Chain of Lakes project (higher lake levels) will be completed.
The Lake Okeechobee water quality improvement work will be
completed. The various projects to improve water flow and quality
to the Everglades will completed. More natural hydroperiods and
flow distribution in the water conservation areas will be
established. Everglades National Park will receive water of
appropriate quality and quantity, delivered at appropriate locations
and timing to ensure restored environmental values. The
distribution and timing of fresh water flows will be improved from
Everglades National Park to Florida Bay.

Population will approximately triple in the District. To
accommodate this growth, urban development will expand beyond
current urban areas. Publicly-owned buffer areas will be
established between urban and natural areas, to protect sensitive
natural features from potential pollutants generated in urban areas.

The urban Lower East Coast will need to rely less on the regional
water management system for future water supplies. This can be
accomplished via a variety of actions: multi-functional regional and
local water storage areas; aquifer storage and recovery; reverse
osmosis treatment of ground or ocean water; wastewater reuse
and other new ultra-efficient water technologies that may be
developed within the next 50 years.

Agriculture will continue to be a major industry in south Florida,
focussing in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) and, the area
around Lake Okeechobee, and the Kissimmee River Basin. Soil
subsidence will reduce the land area available for agriculture in the
EAA. In addition, some portion of the EAA will be devoted to
stormwater treatment areas associated with Everglades restoration.


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Acquisition of environmentally sensitive land will continue to be a
major tool for environmental restoration and preservation and will
be a high priority of the public and the District.

Estuarine and coastal water quality will more closely resemble pre-
development conditions than at present. The development of areas
to store urban stormwater runoff will reduce the flow of runoff and
its accompanying pollutants into the estuaries and coastal waters.
In addition, releases from Lake Okeechobee into the Indian River
Lagoon, Biscayne Bay and Charlotte Harbor will be reduced to
lessen the impacts of large freshwater flows in these important
estuaries.

In the Florida Keys, centralized wastewater systems and/or other
new treatment technologies will eliminate the use of septic tanks,
major contributors to near-shore water quality problems. Actions
in other issue areas, such as dock and marina siting and regulation
and surface water management, will contribute to improved water
quality.

The magnitude of change to move from current conditions to the realization of
Vision 2050 will require the ongoing commitment and participation of all levels
of government local, regional, state, and federal. The water resource
management responsibilities of the District, the State of Florida and the federal
government must be clearly delineated, communicated and accepted by all
involved agencies. In particular, the significance of local governments' land use
decisions in determining the water supply and flood protection needs of south
Florida must be recognized. These decisions also directly impact water quality
and the level of effort (and cost) of restoring the various elements of the
ecosystems. Therefore, the District will continue to cultivate partnerships in the
stewardship of the region's water resources.



PART D. STRATEGIC GOALS

Strategic goals reflect the most important issues, on a District-wide basis, on
which District resources will be dedicated over the coming years. A series of
seven strategic goals have been established by the District. They serve as the
basis for setting schedules and allocating resources utilized in the District Water
Management Plan.


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The strategic goals are:

Determine the feasibility of changes to the Central and
Southern Florida Project to restore the South Florida
ecosystem.

The District will cooperate with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the
federal Interagency Task Force to reexamine the Central and Southern Florida
project to determine the feasibility of structural and operational changes to the
system to restore the South Florida Ecosystem (Kissimmee River/Lake
Okeechobee/Everglades/Florida Bay) while providing for other water related
demands.

Restore the Kissimmee River.

The District and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers will continue the joint project
to restore the environmental integrity of the Kissimmee River and its surrounding
ecosystem.

Protect and enhance Lake Okeechobee.

The District will enhance the water quality of Lake Okeechobee and preserve its
functional values for future generations as a critical link in the South Florida
Ecosystem.

Restore the Everglades and Florida Bay.

The District will take the lead and work cooperatively with other agencies and
groups to develop scientifically sound approaches for managing the quality,
timing, distribution, and volume of water supply to the Everglades and Florida
Bay.

Develop water supply plans.

The District will develop plans for the region's water supply for all "reasonable-
beneficial" uses. It will also work to maintain the functions of the natural
systems as well as an acceptable quality of the surface water and ground water
supplies. This means balancing the water needs of the environment with the
demands of urban and agricultural users.

Protect and enhance estuarine systems.


Goals Strategic Goals










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The District will work cooperatively with other agencies and groups to develop
and implement scientifically sound approaches for protecting and enhancing
south Florida's estuarine systems.

Increase effective and efficient use of organizational
and fiscal resources.

The District will continue its commitment to hire, develop, value and retain an
exceptional workforce; to diversify this workforce; to develop and operate
business processes that are effective and efficient in their support of the water
resource management programs of the agency; to review trends affecting south
Florida's economy; and to examine and pursue new revenue sources.

The strategic goals are not listed in any order of priority. The accomplishment
of each of these goals is critical to the success of the agency in fulfilling its
mission. These goals are used to direct the allocation of work effort in the
remaining sections of the District Water Management Plan. Future strategic
goals will be directed by the DWMP and its schedules.

The strategic goals serve to illustrate the interrelated nature of the four areas of
responsibility water supply, flood protection, water quality, and natural systems
management described in "Responsibilities." For six of the seven strategic
goals, at least one of the areas of responsibility may be considered to have
primary importance; however, each of the areas of responsibility affected by that
goal must be considered as the work effort designed to achieve the goal is
undertaken. Table 5 illustrates the primary area of responsibility addressed by
the strategic goals, while indicating other areas which may be significantly
impacted by accomplishment of the goal.

One strategic goal, increase effective and efficient use of organizational and
fiscal resources, cannot be primarily associated with a single area of
responsibility. This goal addresses each of the areas of responsibility. It
represents the District's recognition that success depends on the individual
creativity, problem solving, initiative, positive morale, and leadership capabilities
of a motivated, professional work force, and on the prudent use of financial
resources.

Accomplishing each of the strategic goals will require a unified effort by the
District's Governing Board and staff, other agencies, interest groups and the
public. Such unified effort can only be achieved when each group understands
the guiding principles which reflect the culture and beliefs of the other
participants. The following guiding principles reflect the core beliefs of the


Goals Strategic Goals












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Table 5: Relationship of Strategic Goals to Areas of Responsibility


Strategic Goal Water Flood Water Natural
Supply Protection Quality Systems
Restudy C&SF Project o o o 0

Restore Kissimmee River o 0 0 0
Protect/Enhance Lake Okeechobee 0 o 0 0
Restore Everglades/Florida Bay o o 0 0

Develop Water Supply Plans 0 o o 0

Protect/Enhance Estuarine Systems o o O

Increase Effective/Efficient Resource 0* *
Use


Key: *
0
o


Primary areas of responsibility addressed.
Secondary areas of responsibility impacted.
Other areas of responsibility impacted.


South Florida Water Management District:

Balance the needs of natural resource systems, water
quality, flood protection, and water supply, all within the
context of a regional ecosystem.

Maintain accountability and prudent use of fiscal resources,
while recognizing the needs of affected stakeholders.

Recognize the value of cooperative relationships with the
public and private sectors, and the need to communicate
decisions to these audiences.

Acknowledge the need for effective communication of
priorities, multi-disciplinary teamwork, and interdepartmental
coordination.


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Acknowledge the role of District employees as key
stakeholders in the future of South Florida.

Recognize the importance of a diversified workforce for the
varied perspectives its members bring in accomplishing
goals.

Descriptions of the manner in which the District will accomplish each of the
strategic goals primarily associated with a single area of responsibility may be
found in the discussions of each of the areas of responsibility on which the
strategic goal is focused in Chapter III, "Responsibilities."



PART E. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT GOALS

Watershed management goals provide the general directions of the District for
developing cohesive strategies to manage water resources within watersheds.
Watershed management goals can encompass any one, or all, of the major areas
of District responsibility. Each of the watershed management goals is related to
at least one of the District's strategic goals.

Watershed management goals have been established for each of the District's
nine major watersheds, which are depicted on Figure 19. These watersheds
represent a combination of the more than 100 drainage basins and subbasins
into which the District can be divided. As illustrated in Figure 19, there is
significant connectivity and overlap among the major watersheds. This reflects
both the historic flows of the Kissimmee-Lake Okeechobee-Everglades system
and the impact of the man-made canal system of the Central and Southern
Florida Flood Control Project on the hydrology of south Florida.

The goals for each of the identified watersheds are reflected in the District's
activities within that watershed. The goals for each watershed, as well as the
strategic goals it helps address, are as follows:

Upper Kissimmee Chain of Lakes Manage the headwaters of the Kissimmee
Basin to provide more natural flow conditions to the river while
maintaining flood protection within the region.


Goals Strategic Goals












MAJOR WATERSHEDS
South Florida Water Management Disrict


m ORANDO


N


Miles
S0 10 20 30

FORT PIERCE
Indian\
SRiver
7obee Lagoon
-^ i ^- swAro


Lower

^ys^ /'J^^^T jL ^


S Big Cypress o IFORT
NAPLES\ LAD


cane

O- I


LEGEND OVERLAPPING WATERSHEDS I "

Indian River Lagoon / Okeechobee

SOkeechobee / Everglades

SCaloosahatch ee Okeechobee -

Mrzro fBiscayne / Everglades -

SFWMD
xEr wsr
Planning Deparment
Figure 19 March 1994


Goals Watershed Management Goals


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Strategic Goals Addressed:
Restore the Kissimmee River.
Determine the feasibility of changes to the Central and
Southern Florida Project to restore the south Florida
ecosystem.

Lake Okeechobee Protect and restore Lake Okeechobee water quality to meet
regional environmental, potable water, and agricultural needs.

Strategic Goals Addressed:
Protect and enhance Lake Okeechobee.
Determine the feasibility of changes to the Central and
Southern Florida Project to restore the south Florida
ecosystem.

Everglades Preserve and protect existing Everglades water resources by
restoring areas defined as degraded, eliminating or mitigating conditions
that may lead to further decline, and developing options for environmental
enhancement.

Strategic Goals Addressed:
Restore the Everglades and Florida Bay.
Determine the feasibility of changes to the Central and
Southern Florida Project to restore the south Florida
ecosystem.

Caloosahatchee River Protect and enhance the estuaries that receive freshwater
regulatory releases from Lake Okeechobee through the Caloosahatchee
River.

Strategic Goal Addressed:
Protect and enhance estuarine systems.

Big Cypress Conserve and protect the natural resources and scenic beauty of
the Big Cypress area.

Strategic Goal Addressed:
Develop water supply plans.

Indian River Lagoon Attain and maintain water and sediment quality to achieve
a healthy, macrophyte-based, estuarine lagoon system which supports
endangered and threatened species, fisheries, and recreation.


Goals Watershed Management Goals











Goals Watershed Management Goals


Strategic Goal Addressed:
Protect and enhance estuarine systems.

Lower East Coast Urban Areas Assure the availability of an adequate supply of
water for all competing uses deemed reasonable and beneficial and
maintain the functions of natural systems and the overall present level of
service for flood protection and ground water quality, and improve and
restore the quality of waters not presently meeting water quality
standards.

Strategic Goal Addressed:
Develop water supply plans.

Biscayne Bay Maintain and improve water quality to protect and restore natural
ecosystems and human uses of Biscayne Bay while protecting the
environmental resources of Biscayne Bay.

Strategic Goal Addressed:
Protect and enhance estuarine systems.

Florida Keys Protect shoreline and marine resources, including mangroves, coral
reef formations, seagrass beds, wetlands, fish and wildlife, and their
habitat; and freshwater wetlands, including wildlife and their habitat; limit
the adverse impacts of development on the quality of water throughout
the Florida Keys; and protect the value, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and
amortized life of major public investments, including the Florida Keys
Aqueduct Authority.

Strategic Goals Addressed:
Restore the Everglades and Florida Bay.
Develop water supply plans.


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CHAPTER III.
WATER MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES

This chapter of the District Water Management Plan provides a comprehensive
description and analysis of District-wide water management concerns. Brief
descriptions of SFWMD programs and major projects serve to illustrate the
multiple functions of the water management process.

There are four primary categories of water management responsibilities. These
categories are derived from both State statute and the adopted SFWMD Mission
Statement. The categories are:

(A) Water Supply;

(B) Flood Protection;

(C) Water Quality; and

(D) Natural Systems Management.

SFWMD programs are described within the area of responsibility which is the
primary function of a given program; however, in both philosophy and practice,
the SFWMD recognizes the multi-functional, multi-disciplinary nature of water
management in south Florida. The four areas of responsibility are highly
interrelated and the complex interactions are carefully considered within each
program and project.

The requirements for development of the DWMP were developed by the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection in conjunction with the water
management districts, through the development of the "Format and Guidelines."
The "Format and Guidelines" were developed to ensure that the plans of all five
water management districts follow a consistent format so readers can easily
compare the issues and approaches of the districts on a given issue.
Accordingly, the DWMP is organized to reflect the four areas of responsibility of
each of the water management districts water supply, flood protection, water
quality, and natural systems management. The "Format and Guidelines" may
facilitate comparison of the plans of each of the water management districts, but
it may create false impressions by failing to appropriately reflect the interrelated
nature of the areas of responsibility. These interrelationships were discussed in
Chapter II "Goals Strategic Goals". In a given project or activity, any one of
the areas of responsibility may be of greatest importance; however, the impact
of the project on each of the areas of responsibility must be addressed. For


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example, the solution to a flood protection problem may provide an opportunity
to improve a water supply problem and will most likely involve water quality
issues. While activities are identified in the DWMP under the area of
responsibility within which there is the greatest impact, this should not be
considered to mean that the impacts of a project or activity on other areas of
responsibility are not being considered.

Each area of responsibility is described following a multi-step methodology,
which includes:

(1) Resource Assessment;

(2) Options Evaluation; and

(3) Water Management Policies; and

(4) Implementation Strategies.

Plate 2 illustrates the geographic distribution of water resources throughout the
South Florida Water Management District.



PART A. WATER SUPPLY

The "Water Supply" portion of the DWMP is comprised of two components:
1) "Needs and Sources" and 2) "Source Protection". The Needs and Sources
section addresses demands for water and the ability of the water resources to
satisfy those demands. The Source Protection section addresses wellhead
protection and aquifer recharge.

Three decades of massive population growth has taken its toll on the state's
natural resources. More than 80 percent of this growth has occurred along the
coastal areas, which face stress from saltwater intrusion into wellfields, loss of
aquifer recharge areas and the disappearance of environmentally sensitive lands.
As its first priority, the District must provide water for the environment, as well
as agricultural and urban demands.

The critical issue facing the District is the need to develop a long term
management plan to address the requirements of healthy, natural systems as
well as the demands of people and industry in south Florida. The State of Florida
has recognized this and required all five water management districts to develop


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water management plans and water supply plans and to determine the minimum
flows and levels of water for the environment.


Section 1. Needs and Sources

The Water Supply Needs and Sources section of the DWMP provides an
assessment of the water demands and availability of resources to satisfy those
demands within the District. Assessment of current and future needs and
sources is a primary charge for the District Water Management Plan, according
to Chapter 17-40, Florida Administrative Code. The SFWMD initiative to
examine long range water supply issues and solutions began in 1987.

The information contained within this section is a summary of the information
developed by the SFWMD in this area. More detailed descriptions may be found
in Water Supply Needs and Sources, 1990-2010 (SFWMD, July 1992), Lower
West Coast Water Supply Plan (SFWMD, February 1994), Working Document
in Support of the Lower East Coast Regional Water Supply Plan (SFWMD, March
1993), Broward County Water Supply Plan, Phase I (SFWMD, October 1991),
and Dade County-Florida Keys Water Supply Background Document (SFWMD,
April 1992).

1-1. RESOURCE ASSESSMENT

1-1.1 Water Use Needs

Water needs represent withdrawals for human use. Current demands for water,
as well as those projected for the year 2010 have been determined.
Environmental demands are not quantified in Needs and Sources, though
environmental concerns and issues are discussed for each county.
Environmental needs for water are being examined in the water supply planning
process.

Table 6 indicates the change in water demand within each of the planning units
of the District. This information indicates that the demand for water is projected
to increase at a slower rate than is the population of the District. The
information in Table 6 is presented in a summary form; more detailed information
regarding the changes in demand by category on a county-by-county basis may
be found in the "Water Use" section of the "District Overview".


Responsibilities Water Supply











Responsibilities Water Supply/Needs and Sources


Table 6: Water Demand by Planning Unit, 1990-2010
(in Millions of Gallons per Year)


Planning 1990 2010 % 1990 2010 % Change
Area Population Population Change Water Water
Demand Demand
Lower 4,135,394 6,027,004 45.7% 723,627 940,266 29.9%
East Coast
Lower 517,963 986,207 90.4% 305,327 462,820 51.6%
West
Coast
Upper East 251,071 506,403 101.7% 123,331 193,190 56.6%
Coast
Kissimmee 287,052 471,607 64.3% 85,357 118,888 39.3%
Basin _

District 5,191,480 7,991,221 53.9% 1,237,642 1,715,164 38.6%
Wide

SOURCES: SFWMD, Lower West Coast Water Supply Plan Background Document
(February 1994); SFWMD, Water Supply Needs and Sources, 1990-2010
(1992); SFWMD, Working Document in Support of the Lower East Coast
Regional Water Supply Plan (March 1993 draft).



1-1.2 Water Supply Sources

Ground water is the major source of freshwater supplies within south Florida.
Of the total freshwater used throughout this region, approximately 60% is
ground water. Nearly 96% of south Florida's public supplies and 100% of its
dispersed domestic (rural) self-supply come from ground water. In addition,
ground water accounts for approximately 99% of commercial-industrial self-
supplied use and 40% of water for agricultural irrigation.

Ground water dependence within the SFWMD is enhanced by the productivity
of the aquifers underlying the region and the surface water recharge provided by
the C&SF Project. The Biscayne and the Floridan aquifers are considered among
the most productive in the world. Public water suppliers in ten counties within
the jurisdictional boundaries of the SFWMD rely entirely on ground water for


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Responsibilities Water Supply/Needs and Sources


their potable water demands. In Collier, Palm Beach, Lee, Hendry, and
Okeechobee counties, ground water accounts for 85%, 80%, 75%, 40%, and
5%, respectively, of the total permitted allocations. In the remaining county in
the District, Charlotte, there are no public water supply withdrawals within the
boundaries of the SFWMD.

Surface water and ground water availability and limitations are described for
each county in Needs and Sources, 1990-2010. Assessments of the availability
of these sources are based on historical information and data gathered for the
development of water supply plans. The "Integrated Plan" section of this
document includes a more detailed discussion on the water supply sources in
each county within the District.

1-1.3 Critical Water Supply Problem Areas

Geographic areas of the District where water resources that are critical, or are
anticipated to become critical over the next twenty years, are required to be
designated as Critical Water Supply Problem Areas5. Within these areas, a
reasonable amount of use of reclaimed water from domestic wastewater
treatment facilities is required by Rule 17-40.401, F.A.C.

Much of south Florida has been designated as a Critical Water Supply Problem
Area. As shown on Figure 20, this designation encompasses all of the Lower
East Coast and the Upper East Coast Planning Areas, as well as the Lower West
Coast, with the exception of Charlotte County. Within the Kissimmee Basin
Planning Area, only those portions of Glades, Martin, and Okeechobee Counties
adjacent to Lake Okeechobee and southern Highlands County have been
designated as Critical Water Supply Problem Areas.

1-2. OPTIONS EVALUATION

The District has begun to develop four regional water supply plans for the Lower
East Coast, the Lower West Coast, the Upper East Coast, and the Kissimmee
River basin. These regional plans, in conjunction with and more specific plans
for Palm Beach County, Broward County, and a combined plan for Dade County
and the Florida Keys, will develop solutions to water supply problems, including
the provision for minimum flows and levels of water for the environment, and
water to meet the demands of the urban and agricultural areas. This will be



Through the Conventions process, the water management districts and DEP recommended that this designation be
changed to Water Resource Caution Areas. For additional information, refer to the "Plan Development Convention"
section.


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Responsibilities Water Supply/Needs and Sources


WATER SUPPLY PROBLEM AREAS
South Florida Water Management District


ORLANDO


Miles
0 10 20 30


FORT









NAMPLES


Es




LEGEND

SCritical Water Supply
Problem Areas
S District Planning Unit Boundaries


rY WEST


Figure 20


SFWMD
Planning Department
March 1994





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Responsibilities Water Supply/Needs and Sources


accomplished by examining alternatives for operations, physical facilities, water
conservation, and consumptive use permitting. The Lower West Coast Water
Supply Plan has been completed and was accepted by the Governing Board in
February, 1994.

For each plan, the District will establish an advisory committee of representatives
from urban, agricultural and environmental interests. These committees provide
opportunities to discuss plan assumptions, technical methods and alternatives
with stakeholders.

The District's consumptive use rule, including the Basis of Review, will serve as
one of the tools to implement the water supply plans. The Basis of Review is
the agency's formal rule governing water use permits. As the District completes
each water supply plan, the agency will modify the Basis of Review to
incorporate key features of the plan.

1-2.1 Lower East Coast Regional Water Supply Plan

The Lower East Coast Water Regional Supply Plan (LECRWSP) encompasses
Palm Beach County, Broward County, Dade County, the Florida Keys, and
eastern portions Hendry and Collier Counties. It addresses the following natural
features: Lake Okeechobee, the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA), the Water
Conservation Areas (WCAs), and Everglades National Park (ENP). Within the
Lower East Coast Regional Water Supply Plan boundaries, several individual
county plans will be developed using the results from the regional modeling
effort. These include plans for Palm Beach County, Broward County, and Dade
County-Florida Keys.

To assure the LECRWSP is developed in a partnership with all water users, the
SFWMD has formed the Lower East Coast Regional Water Supply Plan Advisory
Committee. It consists of over 40 members of local, state and federal agencies,
special interest groups, environmental groups and urban and agricultural
interests. This committee provides input to the planning process.

The LECRWSP is being developed utilizing the State Comprehensive Plan's goal
for water resource management as established in Chapter 187, Florida Statutes
(refer to "Goals Statutory Guidance"). Under this goal, four objectives have
been identified. The purpose of the LECRWSP is to improve the District's ability
to predict the impacts of development and management decisions, to evaluate
water resource management strategies and to implement the chosen strategies
by meeting the identified objectives.


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Responsibilities Water Supply/Needs and Sources


(1) Protect and enhance the environment including federal, state
and locally identified natural resource areas;

(2) Protect and conserve the water resources of south Florida to
ensure their availability for future generations;

(3) Provide for the equitable, orderly, cost effective and
economical development of water supplies to meet south
Florida's agricultural, urban, industrial, and environmental
needs; and,

(4) Improve local and regional resource management through the
integration of regional and local water supply plans and land
use planning.

The Lower East Coast Regional Water Supply Plan Advisory Committee has
stated that Objective 1 will have the highest priority of all the objectives. There
is no implied priority intended by the numbering of the remaining objectives or
the order by which use types are listed within an objective.

Alternatives, which have been defined as complete blueprints for future demand
management, systems operations, and expansion are being developed as part of
the LECRWSP. Recognizing the interrelated nature of water management, all
alternatives will be evaluated based on their ability to satisfy the four objectives.
Each alternative' is considered a collection of the following seven related
components:

(1) Environmental. This component will consist of several
options to address the needs of Everglades National Park
(including Florida Bay and Whitewater Bay), other regional
wetlands (including the WCAs) and estuaries (including
Biscayne Bay and Lake Worth). Other environmental needs
to be addressed include water resource requirements related
to the Lake Okeechobee littoral zone. Meeting the
environmental water needs will be given the highest priority
for water allocation in each alternative.

(2) Regulatory Strategy. This component will consist of criteria
for withdrawal of water from specified sources, and for
setting conditions (quantity and timing) on those
withdrawals. Sources that will be considered include Lake


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Responsibilities Water Supply/Needs and Sources


Okeechobee, the C&SF Project canals, the surficial aquifer,
the Floridan aquifer, and ocean water.

(3) Long-term Conservation. This component will consist of
measures for reducing long-term water demands through
conservation techniques such as water-conserving rate
structures, retrofit of plumbing fixtures, xeriscape landscape
ordinances, efficient irrigation practices, and other measures.

(4) Water Shortage Plan. This component will consist of
strategies for implementing short term reductions in water
use when the potential for regional water shortages
increases due to drought. This includes not only actions
(e.g., limitations on irrigation), but also the means for
determining when they should be implemented.

(5) Physical Facilities. This component will consist of a set of
existing and new water control, water storage, and
treatment facilities. These include all existing structures
(though some alternatives may eliminate selected existing
structures) as well as new structures. Among the new
structures which will be considered are regional ASR
facilities and regional detention facilities.

(6) Operations. This component will consist of guidelines for
operating the facilities. These include not only target levels
for Lake Okeechobee, but also rules for determining what
sources to tap for what uses at what times, and what levels
to maintain in canals, reservoirs, and WCAs.

(7) Water Quality. The water quality component will not vary
substantially among alternatives. Necessary facilities and/or
processes will be included in each alternative to ensure that
all water quality standards and SWIM plan objectives will be
met.

(1) Palm Beach County Water Supply Plan

The Palm Beach County Water Supply Plan will address the same types of issues
as the LECRWSP, only its focus will be specifically on Palm Beach County rather
than on the region as a whole. It will utilize data developed for the LECRWSP.
This data will include the estimated surface and subsurface flows into Palm


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Responsibilities Water Supply/Needs and Sources


Beach County generated by a computer model that simulates the hydrology and
water management of most of southeastern Florida. The plan will also utilize the
results of a ground water computer model of the surficial aquifer in Palm Beach
County that simulates the available water resource. In addition, the water
quantity, environmental, and other related goals of applicable SWIM plans will
be considered.

Additional information regarding the Palm Beach County Water Supply Plan may
be found in the Integrated Plan discussion of Palm Beach County.

(2) Broward County Water Supply Plan

The Broward County Water Supply Plan focuses on water supply issues within
Broward County. It uses data developed for the LECRWSP. It provides data,
assumptions, and alternatives to augment the District's regulatory and planning
programs, and local government comprehensive plans, utility plans, and land use
decisions. Data being used in the development of the Broward County Water
Supply Plan includes estimated surface and subsurface flows into the county
based upon computer model simulations.

The Broward County Water Supply Plan is being developed in phases. Phase I
of the plan was accepted by the SFWMD Governing Board in October, 1991.
This document includes compilation and analysis of water resource data, a
preliminary surface water analysis including historic flows and canal stages,
mapping of wetland areas, and population/demand projections that were based
on State-required local government comprehensive plans.

Phase II of the plan will use a model of the surficial aquifer in Broward County
which simulates the available water resources and impact of pumpages to
develop and evaluate alternative water supply sources. The resulting information
will help identify areas which need to develop alternative water supply sources.

Additional information regarding the Broward County Water Supply Plan may be
found in the Integrated Plan discussion of Broward County.

(3) Dade County-Florida Keys Water Supply Plan

The Dade County-Florida Keys Water Supply Plan is being developed to address
the water resource needs of both Dade County and the Florida Keys area of
Monroe County. The Dade County-Florida Keys Water Supply Plan is utilizing
data developed by the LECRWSP. This data includes the estimated surface and
subsurface flows into Dade County generated by a computer model. In addition,


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Responsibilities Water Supply/Needs and Sources


the water supply planning process will take into consideration the water
quantity, environmental, and other related goals of applicable SWIM plans
(Everglades, Lake Okeechobee, and Biscayne Bay).

Development of the Dade County-Florida Keys Water Supply Plan began in
mid-1991. A draft background document was completed in April 1992. This
document compiled key pieces of data and other information that may be useful
in the development of this plan.

Further information regarding the Dade County-Florida Keys Water Supply Plan
may be found in the Integrated Plan discussion of Dade County.

1-2.2 Lower West Coast Water Supply Plan

The Lower West Coast Water Supply Plan (LWCWSP) was completed and
presented to the District's Governing Board in December of 1993. It was
accepted by the Board in February of 1994.

The Lower West Coast planning area extends across 4,300 square miles in
Southwest Florida. It includes all of Lee County and portions of Charlotte,
Collier, Glades, Hendry, Dade, Monroe, and Palm Beach counties.

The L WCWSP's goal is to ensure an adequate supply of water in the Lower West
Coast for all competing water uses deemed reasonable -beneficial, while
maintaining the functions of natural systems and the overall quality of water
resources.

Total water demand within the planning area is projected to increase by
approximately 54 percent from 307 billion gallons per year in 1990 to 472 billion
gallons per year in 2010. Urban demand is projected to increase by 90 percent
from 72 to 137 billion gallons per year. Agricultural demand is projected to
increase by 43 percent from 235 to 335 billion gallons per year.

The major issues influencing water availability in the LWC include:

dependency upon rainfall falling within the planning area,
limited surface water sources,
protection of water resources and associated natural systems, and
pressure on these resources from increasing urban and agricultural
demands.




83


Workshop Draft DWMP June 1994




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