Title: Tell Your Lawmakers: Growth Management Works for Florida!
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00004516/00001
 Material Information
Title: Tell Your Lawmakers: Growth Management Works for Florida!
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: Foresight - Winter 1994
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Abstract: Jake Varn Collection - Tell Your Lawmakers: Growth Management Works for Florida! (JDV Box 91)
General Note: Box 23, Folder 1 ( Miscellaneous Water Papers, Studies, Reports, Newsletters, Booklets, Annual Reports, etc. - 1973 -1992 ), Item 19
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: WL00004516
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text

Ns. Jacob 0. Varn
Carlton, Fields, Uard et al
PO 8ox 190


Tallahassee, FL


m




Printed on
Recycled Paper
Winter 1994


S32302-0190 Non-Profit Org.
POSTAGE PAID
Permit No. 282
Tallahassee, Florida




1000 FRIENDS OF FLORresiDA htVOL
1000 FRIENDS OF FLORIDA g VOL 7 NO 1


Tell Your Lawmakers: Growth

Management Works for Florida!


A new legislative session dawns,
and with it, threats from
special interests who seek to dis-
mantle the quality of life ensured by
Florida's forward-thinking va
growth management
policies.
Growth management
is working in Florida.
Through comprehensive
planning, citizens are
deciding how their com-
munities ought to evolve,
where new parks and
roads should be, what
kind of businesses they
want to attract, and where
new development is
appropriate. Local gov-
ernments are making sure The legisla
the infrastructure is in environme
marketable


place to handle new residential and
business growth.
We are on the right track,
charting a future that goes beyond
Wm- ,- a


ture will explore proposals to protect
ntal areas and prevent urban sprawl with a
development rights program.


Why Conservatives Should

Like Growth Management


In December, Georgia Institute of
Technology City Planning Professor
Dr. Arthur C. Nelson, AICP, gave an
intriguing presentation at the Orange
County Growth Management Sym-
posium. We asked him to elaborate
on his ideas for Foresight readers.

F lorida's growth management
policies aim to:
Achieve taxpayer equity.
Protect future options.
Improve governmental efficiency.


Expand economic development.
In effect, these are conservative
policy objectives. Let's explore why.

Taxpayer Equity
Growth management policies
aim to prevent overbuilding and
subsidized lifestyles that create
inequitable burdens among taxpay-
ers.
Overbuilding A prime example
of how overbuilding creates inequi-
ties among taxpayers is the savings
(see Growth page 8)


clogged roads, empty strip malls,
and antiquated water and sewer
systems.
During the 1993 session, legisla-
tors approved the first-ever changes
to Florida's 1985 Growth Manage-
ment Act when they passed a piece
of legislation with an unwieldy name
- the recommendations of the Third
Environmental Land Management
Study Committee. The package,
more commonly known as ELMS III,
gives citizens more leverage in
shaping growth management
strategies for their towns, their
counties, and their state. It recog-
nizes that no true community vision
can remain static it must be
revisited, challenged and refined. To
that end, the ELMS III bill spurs
(see Lawmakers page 10)


INSIDE...


2
Affordable Housing

4
The Snyder Decision

5
Eco-Friendly Design

12
Around The State


4EID

,a^ito 0 r9
Fields -Taf1a
C 3aton0 rn









Sn isihtooooo.......... .

1000 Friends of Florida board member Jack
Wilson is president of The Wilson Company, a Tampa-
based, full service real estate development and
management company. His real estate development
career spans 20 years. Jack has many community
involvements. He served as co-chairman of Governor
Chiles' Partners for a Better Florida; chaired Governor
Graham's Growth Management Advisory Committee
and was a member of Governor Martinez's Commission on the Future of
Florida's Environment. He is married to the former Carolyn Mehearg and
they have four children and two grandchildren.
We asked him to talk about the financial challenges involved in building
affordable housing.


Using Florida's

"Guarantee Fund" to Build

Affordable Housing byJack Wilson


C creative leveraging and a
partnership effort is critical to
the success of large scale affordable
housing development."
Virtually no new affordable
housing has been built in
Hillsborough County over the last
decade. By affordable, I mean
housing that low-income families live
in without spending more than 30%
of their income on rent and utilities.



Foresight

Foresight is published quarterly by
1000 FRIENDS OF FLORIDA
P.O. Box 5948
Tallahassee, Florida 32314-5948
(904) 222-6277
Executive Director......... James F. Murley
Planning Director ........ Patricia S. McKay
Legal Director ............... Richard Grosso
Florida Greenways Program
Director ............... Dr. Mark A. Benedict
Affordable Housing
Director ...................... Jaimie A. Ross
Greenways Planner............. Kent Wimmer
Executive Assistant........ Janice D. Dughi
Development Assistant .... Kathleen Morris
Bookkeeper ............... Nancey Boatwright
Administrative Assistant..... Lynn Wardlow
Greenways Assistant ............Dee Ovenden
Receptionist .................. Kira Markiewicz
Editor ........................... Julie Hauserman


The reason for this lack of
affordable housing development is
not lack of need: Hillsborough
County, like the rest of Florida, has
a desperate need for more affordable
housing. The difficulty has been the


small, disappearing and mostly
nonexistent margin between cost of
development and anticipated cash
flow from a project. In other words,
when land and construction costs
are high, and rents are low, the


project becomes economically
infeasible. Creative leveraging of
funds and accessing programs such
as the Low Income Housing Tax
Credit (LIHTC) program contribute
to profitability.
The Low Income Housing Tax
Credit (LIHTC) program is one of the
most effective ways to make a large-
scale development work. But pro-
grams such as the Tax Credit
program have long-term rent restric-
tions based on the average income
in the area where they are located.
In an area like Hillsborough County,
where the average income is fairly
low (approximately $34,000 per
year) and the costs of land and
development are fairly high, the Tax
Credit program alone is not enough
to make the development economi-
cally feasible.
Fortunately, for our latest under-
taking, Waterford at Cypress Lake,
the state of Florida now has the
Affordable Housing Guarantee
Program (see accompanying story,
pg. 3). This is a new program
designed specifically for the purpose
of providing the funds needed when


other sources of funding, whether
private lending and/or other govern-
ment programs, are not enough to
make a project doable. This pro-
gram has just recently become a
reality and we are the first develop-


"When our colleagues heard that we needed to work
with a state agency to get this deal assembled before
December 31st (giving us only a couple of months) they
thought it could never be done. But working with the
Florida Housing Finance Agency is like working with the
private sector; we worked as a team with a common goal
of producing affordable housing."
Deborah Koehler,
Chief Financial Officer at the Wilson Company

According to the Florida Housing Finance Agency,
The Wilson Company won approval under the Guarantee
Program even though this undertaking represents the
company's first venture into multi-family affordable hous-
ing development because of its great track record as both
a developer and manager of commercial properties.




















The Wilson Company's "Waterford at Cypress Lake."


ers to use it. Under the state guar-
antee program, the state will provide
a guarantee to our institutional
lender, First Union, for one-half of
50% of the $11 million First Union
Mortgage. Waterford at Cypress
Lake will be a 450-unit multi-family
development. It will be geared
toward families, with most units
having two and three bedrooms and
amenities such as pools, volleyball
courts, playgrounds, and picnic
areas. Most importantly, 100% of
the units will be affordable to families
earning no more than 60% of me-
dian, or approximately $20,400
annually.
Waterford at Cypress Lake was a
bit of a challenge to design, but well
worth it. The 450 units will be split
into two separate structures with an
existing 236-unit market-rate devel-
opment sandwiched in between. We
expect the Waterford at Cypress
Lake unit to be of equal or greater
aesthetic appeal than the market-
rate units. We are proud to be
creating a development that will
provide a significant number of
homes for people who need afford-
able housing while fostering an
economically integrated community.
The project could not be done
without a successful partnership
effort between our development
team, our private lending institution,
First Union, Hillsborough County,
and the State Housing Finance
Agency. It is indeed economically
feasible for developers to construct
affordable housing in today's mar-
ket, but it does require marshalling
all available resources. A critical
new resource for the state of Florida
is the Guarantee Fund.


A Primer on the Affordable

Housing Guarantee Program
by Jaimie A. Ross. Affordable Housing Director


Jn the 1992 Fall edition of
F,:.resighl. we reported on the
passage of Florida's landmark
housing legislation known as the
William E. Sadowski Affordable
Housing Act This Act was signed
into law on July 7. 1992 It was the
culmination of many ears' efforts
and a coalition of bipartisan inter-
ests. including home builders.
realtors, the Department of Commu.
nity Affairs. the Florida Housing
Finance Agency. local governments.
and low -income housing advocates.
brought together b\ 1000 Friends of
Florida
The Sadowski Act is most well
known for the SHIP (State Housing
Initiatives Partnershipi Program
The SHIP program is the portion of
the Sadow ski Act that prove ides a
dedicated revenue source of income
for local governments to fund their
housing strategies. The funding for
SHIP comes from an increase in the
state documentary stamp tax. the
transfer tax that is paid at the time
real estate is sold in Florida
But the Sadowski Act created
another ver\ important and innova-
tiLe program: The Affordable
Housing Guarantee Program The
Affordable Housing Guarantee
Program wll allow developers in
Florida to build affordable housing.
which could not otherwise be built.
This is because the Affordable
Housing Guarantee Program will
insure the gap between how much
money lenders are willing to loan to


developers and
how much money
developers
actually need to
build. The program is administered
by the Florida Housing Finance
Agency, and involved the sale of
S75 million in revenue bonds to
create a fund for credit enhance-
ment
Florida is one of only two states
in the nation that has a guarantee
program for multi-family housing.
The purpose of the program is
to-
stimulate create priate sector
lending activities to increase the
supply and lower the cost of
financing or refinancing eligible
housing:
create security mechanisms to
allow lenders to sell affordable
housing loans in the secondary
market: and
encourage affordable housing
lending activities that would not
have taken place or that serve
persons who would not have
been served but for the creation
of this program
The initial efforts of the program
focus on the critical areas of
construction gap equity and perma-
nent financing. In the near future.
mortgage insurance offered will
include coverage for one to four
family dwelling units for the full
range of needs, construction
financing, permanent financing.
rehabilitation and refinancing.









Snyder Decision a Victory for

Growth Management
by Richard Grosso, 1000 Friends of Florida Legal Director


he Florida Supreme Court, in
Snyder v. Brevard County, (Fla.
Oct. 7, 1993), established new rules
for the judicial review of local gov-
ernment zoning decisions in the era
of comprehensive planning. In its
most important land use decision in
years, the court answered a number
of questions about how local govern-
ments should make such decisions
and how courts should review them.
While the court's opinion answered
these questions, it also raised several
issues which will
require further
resolution. On On balan
balance, the court of scrutiny
raised the level of
scrutiny which rezoning
courts will give to consistent
rezoning deci-
sions, and re- compreh
quired greater
consistency between rezonings and
comprehensive plans. However, the
court also upheld the discretion of
local governments to act within the
range of options established within
their comprehensive plan, and
rejected the claim that landowners
are entitled to the highest use
potentially allowed by the plan.
These rulings are discussed in more
detail below.
Snyder recognizes that, because
local governments are required to
adopt comprehensive plans as the
paramount land use authority which
is then to be implemented by a
zoning code, most zoning and other
development order decisions imple-
ment previously determined policy
decisions (those made in the com-
prehensive plan). They are thus
quasi-judicial, or at least no longer
purely legislative, in nature.
In short, when deciding whether
or not to grant a rezoning, a local
government is not working with a
clean policy slate but is legally
required to act consistently with the
policies previously articulated in the
comprehensive plan. Relative to


rezonings, this is a great departure
from the traditional view that such
decisions are purely legislative. But
the court limited its analysis to
small, site-specific rezonings, ruling
that large-scale, jurisdiction-wide
rezonings still involve policy-making
on a general scale and not the
application of law to a specific set of
facts. Since all rezonings must be
consistent with adopted plans, the
distinction is not immediately obvi-
ous; it seems to be one of scale and


ce, the court raised the le
y which courts will give
decisions, and required g
cy between rezonings an
ensive plans.

not one of concept. Moreover, the
opinion gives no real guidance as to
the dividing line between individual,
quasi-judicial rezonings, and large-
scale rezonings, which would con-
tinue to be viewed as legislative
decisions. Florida's appellate courts
will now take a stab at formulating
some guidelines for such decisions.
The most immediate and certain
ramification of characterizing
rezonings as quasi-judicial is the
stricter scrutiny with which courts
will review such decisions when they
are challenged. Snyder ruled that
quasi-judicial decisions of local
governments should be reviewed by
courts using a "strict scrutiny"
standard, not the "fairly debatable"
standard historically employed to
review local legislative decisions.
They will now require that rezonings
be affirmatively based on the facts
before the local government and
consistent with all relevant portions
of the comprehensive plan including
all text and the Future Land Use
Map, which sets maximum densities.
A court will no longer accept, at
face value, after-the-fact rationaliza-


tions about
local govern-
ment deci-
sions which
are being
challenged. Courts will require that
the basis for the decision be evident
in the record. This approach,
suggested by 1000 Friends in its
arguments to the court, greatly
increases the integrity of compre-
hensive plans and the consistency
requirement.
By characteriz-
ing rezonings as
'vel quasi-judicial, the
to Snyder decision has
raised a number of
greater interesting proce-
d dural issues, only
some of which the
court answered.
Ex parte commu-
nications are generally not allowed in
quasi-judicial proceedings, and a
1991 Florida appellate court case
held that communications between
one party to a pending development
proposal and an elected official who
will be voting on the proposal can
invalidate the subsequent decision.
If such discussions occurred, a court
will rule that the outcome was
prejudiced unless the parties to the
discussion can prove otherwise.
The second major issue resolved
by the court concerns the burden of
proof in rezoning cases. The court
reversed an appellate court ruling
that, once a developer shows that his
or her rezoning request is consistent
with the comprehensive plan, the
burden shifts to the local govern-
ment to show "by a clear and
convincing evidence that a speci-
fically stated public necessity
requires a specified, more restrictive
use." The Supreme Court overruled
the requirement for clear and
convincing evidence and placed the
burden of proof on the challenging
party to demonstrate that, if the local
(see Snyder page 6)








Sarasota House a Model for

Eco-Friendly Design byJulieHauseran


Using renewable resources and non-toxic materials, the home's designers hope
to change the way we build in Florida.

he tile on the porch is made of educating people," said Mike lightly on the land. A coalition of
from recycled car wind- Holsinger, cooperative extension builders, business people and
shields. The hot water is heated director for Sarasota County. environmentalists brought the
by the sun, and a pair of 2,500- "Our feeling is that there's no idea to fruition.
gallon cisterns collect raindrops better way to educate people The house is actually quite
to wash clothes and irrigate the than to have them experience luxurious, and is valued at about
native plants in the yard. The something first hand, in three $125,000. Its creators are al-
windows and sliding doors are dimensions." ready designing a second house,
locally manufactured, and the The 2,400-square-foot house a contemporary model worth
landscaping is planned to reduce (1,600 square feet heated and $250,000 to $300,000.
impacts to nearby water bodies. cooled and 800 square feet of Monthly operating costs of the
Welcome to the Florida House Florida House, said Holsinger,
Learning Center, a Sarasota should be about 50 percent less
dwelling where the eco-friendly f [f than those in a traditional house.
future is now. The landscaoina scheme is


3


The tin-roofed house sits on the
campus of the Sarasota County
Technical Institute. If all goes
well, it will be permanently
opened to the public this month
to serve as a model for environ-
mentally sound building tech-
niques.
The Florida House project is a
cooperative effort between the
Sarasota County Extension
Service, the nonprofit Florida
House Foundation, Inc., Florida
Power & Light Co., the Sarasota
Bay National Estuaries Program,
the Sarasota County School
Board, the Sarasota County
Technical Institute, and the
Southwest Florida Water Man-
agement District.
"The idea is to find a new way


porches and lanais) is a show-
case for the latest environmental
technology. Dozens of companies
donated materials such as non-
toxic carpeting, radiation-free
smoke detectors, energy efficient
appliances and lighting, and
landscaping timbers made from
recycled plastic and sawdust.
"We tried to use recycled
materials as much as we could,
and we want to help create a
market demand for some of these
materials," Holsinger said. "We
think we're looking at the next
great growth industry renewable
energy and recycled products."
The project began in 1990,
when the county was experienc-
ing water shortages and looking
for innovative ways to live more


a model for the Florida Yard
program, which aims to improve
the health of the state's water-
ways by cutting homeowners'
heavy reliance on fertilizers and
water for landscaping.
The house will serve as
offices for the Florida House
Foundation, and will become a
meeting center for groups and
individuals who are interested in
learning more about environ-
ment-friendly design.
To learn more about the
Florida House, contact Mike
Holsinger, cooperative extension
director for Sarasota County, at
(813) 951-4240, or write: The
Florida House Foundation, Inc.,
P.O. Box 21583, Sarasota, FL.
34276.










Open House...

It was standing room only at a fall party we held to break in our new office on Tallahassee's Park Avenue.


(Snyder from page 4)
government authorized something
other than what was requested, the
authorized use is either inconsistent
with the comprehensive plan or is
confiscatory.
In reaching this decision,
Snyder emphasized the statutory
definition of "consistent" and re-
jected any presumption that a
landowner is entitled to the most
intensive use potentially allowed on
the face of a comprehensive plan.
The statute contemplates that any
zoning decision which provides for a
level of development that is within
the range of densities allowed by the
plan would be consistent with that
plan. The court correctly viewed
Future Land Use Elements in
comprehensive plans as establish-
ing a future ceiling on density, not a
license to approach that ceiling
immediately. Thus, a landowner is
not presumptively entitled to the


maximum density or intensity
established in the plan. The local
government is not required to
approve any proposal which is
consistent with that density or
intensity standard.
A developer cannot win a lawsuit
simply by showing that what he or
she wanted would have been consis-
tent with the plan. As long as what
the local government did authorize is
consistent with the plan, the local
government's decision will be
upheld.
This ruling appropriately allows
a local government to determine
when during the planning time-
frame, and under what conditions,
the various uses, densities and
intensities established in the plan will
be authorized.
The Snyder decision strikes the
correct balance between a local
government's need to have reason-


able discretion in implementing its
comprehensive plan and a
landowner's access to meaningful
judicial review of the denial of a
rezoning. The court did not deter-
mine the specific procedures which
must be instituted at the local level
to ensure procedural fairness in
rezoning cases. Neither did it
determine who would have the
burden of proof when a third party
challenges the approval of a rezon-
ing, although the court's analysis
may suggest that the challenger
would bear the burden in those cases
as well.
With Snyder, Florida's judiciary
has caught up to the evolution in
land use law that began when
Florida adopted the Growth Manage-
ment Act. The questions which
remain unanswered, however,
ensure that the evolution is still
ongoing.










Board News...


We're pleased to welcome two
new members to the 1000 Friends of
Florida Board of Directors. They are C.
Allen Watts of Daytona Beach and Lester
A. Simon of Miami.
Simon is senior vice
president of Pryor,
McClendon, Counts & Co.,
Inc., Investment Bankers.
Simon sits on the South
Florida Regional Planning
Council and chairs that
agency's affordable housing
advisory committee. He
served on Gov. Lawton Chiles'
Growth Management Advisory Lester.
Committee. He is a member of
Dade County's Partners for Progress, and
the Suncoast, Miami-Dade, Greater
Orlando and Dunbar chambers of
commerce. He is also a member of Lee
County's Hispanic Chamber of Com-
merce. He sits on the board for Victory
Over Drugs in Orlando, and is a former
member of the Fort Myers chapter of the
NAACP.
Watts is an attorney
concentrating on land use,
administrative law and local
government matters. He is a
partner in Cobb Cole & Bell,
where he chairs the Environ-
mental and Land Use
Department. Serving as
special counsel to cities and
counties throughout Florida,
Watts has helped form
consensus for problems as C. All
varied as wetlands and
habitat conservation, solid waste man-
agement, transportation funding and
utility financing. He served as chairman


A


of the legal advisers to the Volusia
Charter Review Commission, as general
counsel to the Flagler Charter Commis-
sion, and sat on the committee which
drafted the Volusia
Concurrency Management
System.
Watts assisted 1000
Friends of Florida's legal
director Richard Grosso on
the Friend of the Court brief
that 1000 Friends submitted
to the Florida Supreme Court
in the landmark land use
case, Snyder vs. Brevard
SSimon County.
% Board member
Arsenio Milian has again been elected
president of the Citizens for a Better
South Florida Executive Committee.
W Board member Victoria
Tschinkel is chairing the Land Use and
Water Planning Task Force. The task
force, which grew out of last year's
ELMS legislation, is looking at the
relationship between water management
and land use planning, to
make sure that communities
are considering water supply
and management when they
make land use decisions.
Tschinkel was also
tapped to sit on the advisory
board of ECO, Inc., a group
which publishes a new
environmental magazine
that's tailored for business
Watts readers.
)b Board member
Lenore McCullagh is serving as vice
chair of the St. Johns River Water
Management District governing board.


Staff News...

We're happy to welcome the
youngest Friend of Florida, Allison Rose
Wimmer, born on December 28. Allison
is the daughter of Robin and Kent
Wimmer. Kent is our Greenways planner.
Congratulations!
We'd also like to welcome the
following new members of our staff in
Tallahassee:
% Lynn Wardlow joins us as
administrative assistant to the legal
director, planning director, and afford-
able housing director. Lynn is an
experienced legal secretary who came to
us from the Department of Environmen-
tal Protection's Office of the General
Counsel.
Dee Ovenden is the new admin-
istrative assistant in the Greenways
program. Dee is a native Floridian. She
came to us from Bradenton, where she
was an environmental specialist with a
consulting firm.
'b Kira Markiewicz, our new
receptionist, is taking a break from her
college studies. She was a freshman at
Wesleyan University in Connecticut, with
a double major in environmental science
and economics. She is from
Schenectady, New York.
% Our legal interns this semester
are Georgiana Ponder and Rebecca
Cunningham. Both are third-year
students at the Florida State University
law school. Georgiana is from
Apalachicola, and Rebecca is from
Tallahassee.

In Other Staff News:
1 1000 Friends of Florida Execu-
tive Director James Murley has been
named to a second term as chairman of
the Tallahassee-Leon County Planning
Commission.
Executive Assistant Jan Dughi
has been appointed to the Keep Talla-
hassee-Leon County Beautiful Board of
Directors.
1000 Friends of Florida Afford-
able Housing Director Jaimie Ross has
been elected to a second term as board
president of the Florida Low Income
Housing Coalition. She's also been
elected to a first term as board vice
president of the Tallahassee Housing
Foundation.
1 Planning intern Chandra Carpen-
ter is expanding her focus to include
issues in affordable housing. Until her
April graduation from Florida State
University, Chandra will volunteer with
our affordable housing director, Jaimie
Ross.


Corporate Gifts Help

1000 Friends
1000 Friends of Florida received two important corporate gifts
from WMX Technologies. Inc,. .
The first gift. of StO0QQ fIrom W sflorida subsidiary, Waste
Management ofNlorIh .- rica- eI~ le us to begin cross-state
greenways activities tiLth Georgit Pa. The second donation
-also $10,000- willprovkle s OU>r our work here at 1000
Friends. Thegift came rof ecorr'orae eSn h ropy program at WMX
Technologies, Inc


en









(Growth from page 1)
and loan bailout financed by the
Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC).
By 1993, U.S. taxpayers had shelled
out more than $80 billion to bail out
failed S&Ls. According to the
Congressional Budget Office, a
principal cause of the bailout is
overbuilding, because banks lent too


much money for build-


ings that weren't needed.
A principle purpose of
growth management is RTC
to prevent overbuilding.
Table 1 demon-
strates that growth
management states
incurred far fewer S&L M State
losses than non-growth Non-
management states. GM States
During the 1980s, the
ten growth management
states collectively grew by 11.5
million people while the remaining
36 states that grew during the 1980s
added 11 million. Despite more
growth, growth management states
accounted for only $18.9 billion in
bailout costs while the remaining 36
states accounted for $61.4 billion.
The bailout costs average $1,642
per new resident in growth manage-
ment states but $5,582 per new
resident in non-growth management
states.
Every resident in a growth
management state pays $3,020 in
bailout costs to cover S&L failures in
non-growth management states. In
effect, growth management states
subsidize non-growth
management states.
Subsidized
Lifestyles Many
suburban residents
enjoy a subsidized
lifestyle in the follow-
ing respects:
Researchers for
the U.S. Depart-
ment of Trans-
portation and
the National
Academy of
Sciences
conclude that
the real cost of
gasoline is $3 Growth mane
per gallon, but


pump prices are considerably
less than this. These subsidies
are about $300 billion annu-
ally, or roughly the size of the
annual federal budget deficit.
* Low-density lifestyles are
subsidized by high-density
lifestyles. Consider Table 2,
which reports recent research


Costs


Table 1.
by Growth Management


$18.9 11,511,000

$61.4 11,006,000



conducted by Georgia Tech on
the fiscal benefits and costs of
different residential densities.
* The combination of mortgage
interest deductions, inefficient
gasoline pricing, and inefficient
public service pricing means
that central city taxpayers
subsidize suburban and
exurban taxpayers, and subur-
ban taxpayers subsidize
exurban taxpayers.
* Coastal and flood insurance
programs are actuarially
unsound resulting in federal
taxpayer subsidies to the few,
often affluent, who choose to
live in harm's way.


igement policies protect against overbuilding


Protect Future Options
In many situations, it is not
possible to "price" certain economic
assets because there is no "market"
for them. As a general proposition,
growth management aims to:
Prevent loss of agricultural
land since agriculture is the
nation's largest exporter
of goods and because
such land contributes to
air cleansing, flood
Status control, groundwater
Recharge, and water
S purification.
9 Prevent the loss of
$1,642 endangered or threat-
ened species and habi-
$5,582 tats that may result in
ecological imbalances
and medical or scientific
opportunities yet to be discov-
ered.
Prevent the premature devel-
opment of particularly well-
endowed locations. This
means not allowing low-
intensity development of sites
that in the longer term are
better for higher-intensity
development.

Improve Governmental
Efficiency
Florida's growth management
policies aim to affect governmental
efficiency in these ways:
Design efficient public facilities
and services that minimize
taxpayers' cost.
Prevent the dupli-
cation of public
facilities and ser-
vices.
Prevent the prolif-
eration of small-
scale utility systems
that not only under-
mine efficient re-
gional development
patterns but make
governance more
complex and govern-
ment response to
system failure less
certain.
Focus new devel-
opment into areas




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